Antiemetic and Myeloprotective Effects of Rhus verniciflua Stoke in a Cisplatin-Induced Rat Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyo-Seon Kim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Rhus verniciflua Stoke has been commonly used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal (GI dysfunction diseases. In order to investigate pharmacological properties of Rhus verniciflua Stoke water extract (RVX on cisplatin-induced amnesia, RVX (0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg was orally administrated for five consecutive days after a single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (6 mg/kg to SD rat. Cisplatin injection significantly increased the kaolin intake (emesis but reduced the normal diet intake (anorexia whereas the RVX treatment significantly improved these abnormal diet behaviors at both the acute and delayed phase. The serotonin concentration and the related gene expressions (5-HT3 receptors and SERT in small intestine tissue were abnormally altered by cisplatin injection, which were significantly attenuated by the RVX treatment. Histological findings of gastrointestinal tracts, as well as the proteins level of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, revealed the beneficial effect of RVX on cisplatin-induced gastrointestinal inflammation. In addition, RVX significantly improved cisplatin-induced myelosuppression, as evidenced by the observation of leukopenia and by histological examinations in bone marrow. Our findings collectively indicated Rhus verniciflua Stoke improved the resistance of rats to chemotherapy-related adverse effects in the gastrointestinal track and bone marrow.
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Woncheol Choi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Active anticancer molecules have been searched from natural products; many drugs were developed from either natural products or their derivatives following the conventional pharmaceutical paradigm of drug discovery. However, the advances in the knowledge of cancer biology have led to personalized medicine using molecular-targeted agents which create new paradigm. Clinical benefit is dependent on individual biomarker and overall survival is prolonged through cytostatic rather than cytotoxic effects to cancer cell. Therefore, a different approach is needed from the single lead compound screening model based on cytotoxicity. In our experience, the Rhus verniciflua stoke (RVS extract traditionally used for cancer treatment is beneficial to some advanced cancer patients though it is herbal extract not single compound, and low cytotoxic in vitro. The standardized RVS extract's action mechanisms as well as clinical outcomes are reviewed here. We hope that these preliminary results would stimulate different investigation in natural products from conventional chemicals.
Lee, Jun-Hyeong; Kim, Mikyung; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Hong, Cheol Yi; Na, Chun-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Moo-Yeol
2015-01-01
Rhus verniciflua stokes (RVS) is known to promote blood circulation by preventing blood stasis, although the active ingredients and the underlying mechanism are unclear. Platelets are the primary cells that regulate circulation and contribute to the development of diverse cardiovascular diseases by aggregation and thrombosis. The study assessed the antiplatelet activity of RVS and sought to identify the active constituents. Pretreatment of washed platelets with RVS heartwood extract blunted the aggregatory response of platelets to collagen. In the subfractions, fisetin, butein, and sulfuretin were identified as effective inhibitors of platelet aggregation by collagen, thrombin, and adenosine-5'-diphosphate. Antiplatelet activities of all three compounds were concentration dependent, and fisetin had longer in vitro duration of action compared with butein or sulfuretin. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by collagen was prevented by fisetin, whereas butein and sulfuretin failed to inhibit ERK and p38 activation was not affected by any of the compounds. Rats orally administered 100 mg/(kg·day(-1)) fisetin for 7 days were resistant to arterial thrombosis, although total extract of RVS heartwood exhibited little effect at a dose of 1000 mg/(kg·day(-1)). RVS heartwood may have cardiovascular protective activity by inhibiting platelet aggregation. The active constituents are fisetin, butein, and sulfuretin, and fisetin is orally effective against thrombosis.
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Hyunsik Jung
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. Potential interactions between herbal extracts and the cytochrome P450 (CYP system lead to serious adverse events or decreased drug efficacy. Rhus verniciflua stoke (RVS and its constituents have been reported to have various pharmacological properties. We evaluated the inhibitory potential of RVS and its constituents on the major CYP isoforms. Methods. The effects of allergen removed RVS (aRVS standardized extract and major components, fustin and fisetin isolated from aRVS, were evaluated on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 isoenzyme activity by a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. Results. The aRVS extract showed relative potent inhibitory effects on the CYP2C9 (IC50, <0.001 μg/mL, CYP2C19 (IC50, 9.68 μg/mL, and CYP1A2 (IC50, 10.0 μg/mL. However, it showed weak inhibition on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Fustin showed moderate inhibitory effects on the CYP2C19 (IC50, 64.3 μg/mL and weak inhibition of the other CYP isoforms similar to aRVS. Fisetin showed potent inhibitory effects on CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2. Fisetin showed moderate inhibition of CYP2D6 and weak inhibition of CYP3A4. Conclusions. These results indicate that aRVS, a clinically available herbal medicine, could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally coadministered with drugs metabolized by CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2.
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Tan Jenny
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Butein (3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalone, a plant polyphenol, is a major biologically active component of the stems of Rhus verniciflua Stokes. It has long been used as a food additive in Korea and as an herbal medicine throughout Asia. Recently, butein has been shown to suppress the functions of fibroblasts. Because fibroblasts are believed to play an important role in promoting the growth of breast cancer cells, we investigated the ability of butein to inhibit the clonogenic growth of small numbers of breast cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts in vitro. Methods We first measured the clonogenic growth of small numbers of the UACC-812 human breast cancer cell line co-cultured on monolayers of serum-activated, human fibroblasts in the presence of butein (2 μg/mL or various other modulators of fibroblast function (troglitazone-1 μg/mL; GW9662-1 μM; meloxican-1 μM; and 3,4 dehydroproline-10 μg/mL. In a subsequent experiment, we measured the dose-response effect on the clonogenic growth of UACC-812 breast cancer cells by pre-incubating the fibroblasts with varying concentrations of butein (10 μg/ml-1.25 μg/mL. Finally, we measured the clonogenic growth of primary breast cancer cells obtained from 5 clinical specimens with normal fibroblasts and with fibroblasts that had been pre-treated with a fixed dose of butein (2.5 μg/mL. Results Of the five modulators of fibroblast function that we tested, butein was by far the most potent inhibitor of clonogenic growth of UACC-812 breast cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. Pre-treatment of fibroblasts with concentrations of butein as low as 2.5 μg/mL nearly abolished subsequent clonogenic growth of UACC-812 breast cancer cells co-cultured with the fibroblasts. A similar dose of butein had no effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured in the absence of fibroblasts. Significantly, clonogenic growth of the primary breast cancer cells was also
Im, Won Kyun; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kwang Soo; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kim, Young Dong; Kim, Kyeong-Hee; Park, Sang-Jae; Hong, Seokmann; Jeon, Sung Ho
2016-02-01
Although it has been previously reported that Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) possesses in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, the precise in vivo mechanisms of RVS extracts and a main active component called fisetin have not been well elucidated. In this study, using newly developed protocols, we prepared urushiol-free but fisetin-enriched RVS extracts and investigated their effects on the vascular immune system. We found that the water-soluble fractions of detoxified RVS with the flavonoid fisetin can inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, RVS can reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX2 gene expression levels, which are responsible for NO and PGE2 production, respectively, in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Because inflammation is linked to the activation of the coagulation system, we hypothesized that RVS and its active component fisetin possess anticoagulatory activities. As expected, we found that both RVS and fisetin could inhibit the coagulation of human peripheral blood cells. Moreover, in vivo RVS treatment could return the retarded blood flow elicited by a high-fat diet (HFD) back to the normal level in mice. In addition, RVS treatment has significantly reduced body weight gained by HFD in mice. Taken together, the fisetin-rich RVS extracts have potential antiplatelet and antiobesity activities and could be used as a functional food ingredient to improve blood circulation.
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Hong Xia Chen
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Solvent extracts of Rhus verniciflua Stokes wood were made using decompressing inner ebullition, and a Box-Behnken design was used to optimize extraction conditions to produce an extract that inhibited tyrosinase activity. The chemical compositions and inhibition rates were determined in extracts made with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and an aqueous fractionation. The ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenolic content and inhibition rates. The main flavonoids in this fraction were 0.531% fisetin, 7.582% fustin, 0.848% sulfuretin, and 0.272% butein. The effects of the extract on the monophenolase and diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase were studied using the Lineweaver-Burk equation to determine the effect of the extract on inhibition of tyrosinase activity. The results showed that the extract inhibited both the monophenolase and diphenolase activity of the enzyme. The IC50 of the ethyl acetate extract was 308 μg/mL, with the lag period of the enzyme being obviously lengthened; it was estimated to be 2.45 min in the absence of the inhibitor and extended to 9.63 min in the presence of 500 μg/mL of extract. The ethyl acetate extract acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The KI was less than the KIS, which demonstrates that the [ESI] is less stable than [EI], suggesting that the extract could easily combine with free enzyme in the enzyme catalysis system, thus affecting enzyme catalysis on the substrate.
Det illegale stofmarked i Århus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindholst, Christian; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Kaa, Elisabet
2008-01-01
Det illegale stofmarked i Århus er en beskrivelse af udbuddet og aktørerne på stofmarkedet i Danmarks næststørste by. Undersøgelsen bygger på materiale beslaglagt af Østjyllands Politi i årene 2002 og 2003 som efterfølgende er undersøgt på Retskemisk Afdeling i Århus. Der fokuseres primært på d...
Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol, VLDL-c and ... of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low ... birds had higher feed conversion ratio compared with birds in the other treatments.
Phytoconstituents and biological activities of essential Oil from Rhus ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The present study determined the major phytoconstituents, the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of Rhus lancea essential oil against eight bacterial and four fungal species. The yield was 0.18% and the major phytoconstituents found were µ-pinene, benzene and d-3-carene. The oil exhibited remarkable ...
In vivo Evaluation Of Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Rhus semialata Fruit ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The results indicated that the methanol extract of the fruits of R. semialata possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal effect and substantiated the use of this herbal remedy as a non-specific treatment for diarrhoea in folk medicine. Keywords: Atropin sulphate, Castor oil, Diarrhoea, Diphenoxylate, Rhus semialata. African Journal ...
Phytochemical investigation of Rhus tripartita and its activity against ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
compounds from Rhus tripartita stem cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and acetylcholinesterase. (AChE); also, to evaluate their ... avoid toxic effects on cellular physiological functions. ... (from electric eel), eserine hemisulfate salt, .... Total antioxidant activity. This capacity of the tested materials was measured using an.
van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.
2017-12-01
During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Ki Park
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV has traditionally been used as a food supplement and a traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea. Recent studies suggest that RV has potent antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of RV from mice sensitized with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB and activated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that RV reduced ear swelling and hyperplasia of ear tissue as well as an increase in vascular permeability, which are characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD with evident histomorphological changes in epidermis and dermis. Decreased numbers of infiltrated mast cells were seen in RV extract treated group, using toluidine blue staining. RV extract significantly regulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS at the translational level in activated macrophages. Furthermore, RV extract and its active compound, fisetin, attenuated the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6 mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Anti-ACD effect of RV extract may be due to the suppression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines which might be mediated via the NFκB signaling pathways. Collectively, RV extract has potential for alleviating ACD-like symptoms induced by DNFB in the mouse.
Allergen-Removed Rhus verniciflua Extract Induces Ovarian Cancer Cell Death via JNK Activation.
Kang, Se-Hui; Hwang, In-Hu; Son, Eunju; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Choi, Jong-Soon; Park, Soo-Jung; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Lee, Kyung-Bok; Lee, Zee-Won; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Jang, Ik-Soon
2016-01-01
Nuclear factor-[Formula: see text]B (NF-[Formula: see text]B)/Rel transcription factors are best known for their central roles in promoting cell survival in cancer. NF-[Formula: see text]B antagonizes tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text]-induced apoptosis through a process involving attenuation of the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, the role of JNK activation in apoptosis induced by negative regulation of NF-[Formula: see text]B is not completely understood. We found that allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes (aRVS) extract-mediated NF-[Formula: see text]B inhibition induces apoptosis in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells via the serial activation of caspases and SKOV-3 cells are most specifically suppressed by aRVS. Here, we show that in addition to activating caspases, aRVS extract negatively modulates the TNF-[Formula: see text]-mediated I[Formula: see text]B/NF-[Formula: see text]B pathway to promote JNK activation, which results in apoptosis. When the cytokine TNF-[Formula: see text] binds to the TNF receptor, I[Formula: see text]B dissociates from NF-[Formula: see text]B. As a result, the active NF-[Formula: see text]B translocates to the nucleus. aRVS extract (0.5[Formula: see text]mg/ml) clearly prevented NF-[Formula: see text]B from mobilizing to the nucleus, resulting in the upregulation of JNK phosphorylation. This subsequently increased Bax activation, leading to marked aRVS-induced apoptosis, whereas the JNK inhibitor SP600125 in aRVS extract treated SKOV-3 cells strongly inhibited Bax. Bax subfamily proteins induced apoptosis through caspase-3. Thus, these results indicate that aRVS extract contains components that inhibit NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling to upregulate JNK activation in ovarian cancer cells and support the potential of aRVS as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.
Park, S D; Lee, S W; Chun, J H; Cha, S H
2000-05-01
In Korea, Rhus has been used as a folk medicine to cure gastrointestinal diseases and as a health food. We review the clinicopathological and laboratory findings in patients with systemic contact dermatitis caused by intake of Rhus. We reviewed medical records and histopathological sections from 31 patients during a 10-year period. The male/female ratio was 1.4: 1 and the average age was 43.8 years (range 22-70). Ten patients (32%) had a known history of allergy to lacquer. Rhus was ingested to treat gastrointestinal problems including indigestion and gastritis (45%), and as a health food (39%), in cooked meat, in herbal medicine, or taken by inhalation. The patients developed skin lesions such as a maculopapular eruption (65%), erythema multiforme (EM, 32%), erythroderma (19%), pustules, purpura, weals and blisters. Erythroderma was very frequent in patients with a known history of allergy to lacquer, but maculopapular and EM-type eruptions were more frequently observed in those without a history of allergy. All patients experienced generalized or localized pruritus. Other symptoms included gastrointestinal problems (32%), fever (26%), chills and headache; many developed leucocytosis (70%) with neutrophilia (88%), while some showed toxic effects on liver and kidney. Fifty-nine per cent of patients observed cutaneous or general symptoms within a day after ingestion of Rhus. There was no difference in the time lag for symptoms to develop between patients allergic and not allergic to Rhus. All patients responded well to treatment with systemic steroids and antihistamines. Common histopathological findings were vascular dilatation, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltration, and extravasation of red blood cells in the upper dermis. Rhus lacquer should not be ingested in view of its highly allergic and toxic effects.
Koren, B.
2013-01-01
De Navier-Stokes-vergelijkingen behoren tot de meest gebruikte vergelijkingen voor de berekening van gas- en vloeistofstromingen. Op de Vakantiecursus 2013 van het Platform Wiskunde Nederland vertelt Barry Koren over de Navier-Stokes-vergelijkingen, over stromingsleer en over openstaande
Parameterization of surface irradiance and primary production in Århus Bay, SW Kattegat, Baltic Sea
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Sørensen, Helene Munk
2009-01-01
. The study is based on a one year long time-series of PAR, CTD-casts (n = 45), and primary production measurements (n = 24) from Århus Bay (56°09′ N; 10°20′ E), south west Kattegat. Results showed a high and positive correlation between observed and calculated primary production in the bay, as based...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.
1993-01-01
The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point
Evaluating the Antimicrobial Activity of Methonolic Extract of Rhus Succedanea Leaf Gall
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Savitri Shrestha
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The worldwide increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the undesirable side effects associated with constant use of synthetic drugs has prompted the search for novel antimicrobial agents, particularly those manufactured from plants. This study is designed to ascertain the antibacterial potential of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts on the growth of gram-positive and gram–negative bacteria. Methods: The methanolic and hexane extract of different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 μg/ml were prepared and their antibacterial efficacy was tested against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method and the size of inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. Results: The methanol and hexane extracts differed significantly in their antimicrobial activity with methanol extract showing a potent inhibitory activity in the range of 16±2 to 23±1, which was almost equal to the values of ciprofloxacin (25±3, used as a standard. Further, the methanol extract was mostly potent and effective in inhibiting the growth of gram-negative bacteria, namely, E. coli, when compared to gram –positive bacteria stains, which are responsible for antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical screening showed positive results for the presence of steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, and carbohydrates. Conclusion: The potent antibacterial activity of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts indicates its useful therapeutic application against bacterial infection. Furthermore, this study indicates that the extract might be exploited as natural drug for the treatment of infectious diseases and could be useful in understanding the relations between traditional cures and current medications.
Lai, Jixiang; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Donghui; Fang, Fang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wu, Tao
2014-01-01
For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influen...
Homogenization of Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allaire, G.
1990-04-01
This thesis is devoted to homogenization of Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations with a Dirichlet boundary condition in a domain containing many tiny obstacles. Tipycally those obstacles are distributed at the modes of a periodic lattice with same small period in each axe's direction, and their size is always asymptotically smaller than the lattice's step. With the help of the energy method, and thanks to a suitable pressure's extension, we prove the convergence of the homogenization process when the lattice's step tends to zero (and thus the number of obstacles tends to infinity). For a so-called critical size of the obstacles, the homogenized problem turns out to be a Brinkman's law (i.e. Stokes or Navier-Stokes equation plus a linear zero-order term for the velocity in the momentum equation). For obstacles which have a size smaller than the critical one, the limit problem reduces to the initial Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations, while for larger sizes the homogenized problem a Darcy's law. Furthermore, those results have been extended to the case of obstacles included in a hyperplane, and we establish a simple model of fluid flows through grids, which is based on a special form of Brinkman's law [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayder, M.E.
1988-01-01
A new scientific supercomputer, known as the Navier-Stokes Computer (NSC), has been designed. The NSC is a multi-purpose machine, and for applications in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), this supercomputer is expected to yield a computational speed far exceeding that of the present-day super computers. This computer has a few very powerful processors (known as nodes) connected by an internodal network. There are three versions of the NSC nodes: micro-, mini- and full-node. The micro-node was developed to prove, to demonstrate and to refine the key architectural features of the NSC. Architectures of the two recent versions of the NSC nodes are presented, with the main focus on the full-node. At a clock speed of 20 MHz, the mini- and the full-node have peak computational speeds of 200 and 640 MFLOPS, respectively. The full-node is the final version for the NSC nodes and an NSC is expected to have 128 full-nodes. To test the suitability of different algorithms on the NSC architecture, an NSC simulator was developed. Some of the existing computational fluid dynamics codes were placed on this simulator to determine important and relevant issues relating to the efficient use of the NSC architecture
Intrinsic character of Stokes matrices
Gagnon, Jean-François; Rousseau, Christiane
2017-02-01
Two germs of linear analytic differential systems x k + 1Y‧ = A (x) Y with a non-resonant irregular singularity are analytically equivalent if and only if they have the same eigenvalues and equivalent collections of Stokes matrices. The Stokes matrices are the transition matrices between sectors on which the system is analytically equivalent to its formal normal form. Each sector contains exactly one separating ray for each pair of eigenvalues. A rotation in S allows supposing that R+ lies in the intersection of two sectors. Reordering of the coordinates of Y allows ordering the real parts of the eigenvalues, thus yielding triangular Stokes matrices. However, the choice of the rotation in x is not canonical. In this paper we establish how the collection of Stokes matrices depends on this rotation, and hence on a chosen order of the projection of the eigenvalues on a line through the origin.
Antibacterial Activity of Rhus javanica against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong-Ouk You
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the leaves of Rhus javanica (R. javanica were extracted with ethanol, and we investigated the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of R. javanica against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Control groups were treated with media containing 0.1% DMSO. The ethanol extract of R. javanica inhibited the growth of MRSA at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/mL and inhibited acid production at concentrations higher than 0.1 mg/mL (P<0.05. MRSA biofilm formation was determined by scanning electron microscopy and safranin staining. The ethanol extract of R. javanica inhibited the formation of MRSA biofilms at concentrations higher than 0.05 mg/mL. In confocal laser scanning microscopy, high concentration (0.4–1.6 mg/mL of R. javanica extract showed bactericidal effect in a dose-dependent manner. In real-time PCR analysis, R. javanica extract showed the inhibition of the genetic expression of virulence factors such as mecA, sea, agrA, and sarA in MRSA. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the strong presence of phenolics. These results suggest that R. javanica may be a useful medicinal plant for inhibiting MRSA, which may be related to the presence of phenolics in the R. javanica extract.
Flavonoids with DNA strand-scission activity from Rhus javanica var. roxburghiana.
Lin, Chun-Nan; Chen, Hui-Ling; Yen, Ming-Hong
2008-01-01
The flavonoids isolated from the stems of Rhus javanica var. roxburghiana, taxifolin (1), fisetin (2), fustin (3), 3,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (4) and 3,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone (5) caused breakage of supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of Cu(II). Cu(I) was shown to be an essential intermediate by using the Cu(I)-specific sequestering reagent neocuproine. The Cu(II)-mediated DNA scissions induced by 1, 2, 3 and 5 were inhibited by the addition of catalase and exhibited DNA strand break by the addition of KI and superoxide dimutase (SOD), while in the Cu(II)-mediated DNA scissions induced by 4 was inhibited by the addition of KI, SOD, and catalase. It is concluded that 1, 2, 3, and 5 can induce H2O2 and superoxide anion, while 4 can induce OH* and H2O2 and subsequent oxidative damage of DNA in the presence of Cu(II).
Mirian, M; Behrooeian, M; Ghanadian, M; Dana, N; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, H
2015-01-01
Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels, play an important role in some diseases such as cancer and its metastasis. Using angiogenesis inhibitors, therefore, is one of the ways for cancer treatment and prevention of metastasis. Medicinal plants have been shown to play a major role in the treatment of a variety of cancers. In this direction, cytotoxic and angiogenic effects of oleo gum resin extracts of Rhus coriaria, Pistacia vera and Pistacia khinjuk from Anacardiaceae family were studied. For IC50 values, cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts were evaluated at different concentrations (1, 10, 20, 40, 80,100 μg/ml) against human umbilical vein endothelial normal cell (HUVEC) and Y79 cell lines using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vitro tube formation on matrigel base was used to evaluate angiogenic effects in the presence of increasing concentrations (50, 100, 250 μg/ml) of the extracts. Vascular endothelium growth factor was used as angiogenesis stimulator. Gas chromatography results showed that α-pinene and β-pinene were the major essential oils constituents of all plant extracts. According to the MTT assay results, the R. coriaria resin extract was more cytotoxic than those of P. vera and P. khinjuk extracts (IC50, 9.1 ± 1.6 vs 9.8 ± 2.1 and 12.0 ± 1.9, respectively; P<0.05). Cytotoxic effects of all extracts against Y79 cell line was significantly higher than those of HUVEC used as a normal cell line (P<0.05). Tube formation assay also showed that extract of R. coriaria resin inhibited angiogenesis more significantly than other tested extracts (P<0.05). It could be concluded that R. coriaria resin extract possess cytotoxic effect and antiangiogenesis against cancer cells and as an anticancer natural product has a good potential for future studies.
Unsteady Stokes equations: Some complete general solutions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
homogeneous unsteady Stokes equations are examined. A necessary and sufficient condition for a divergence-free vector to represent the velocity field of a possible unsteady Stokes flow in the absence of body forces is derived. Keywords. Complete ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tae-Ho Kim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.
Zi-xiang Yang; Xiao-ming Chen; Nathan P. Havill; Ying Feng; Hang. Chen
2010-01-01
Rhus gall aphids (Fordinae : Melaphidini) have a disjunct distribution in East Asia and North America and have specific host plant relationships. Some of them are of economic importance and all species form sealed galls which show great variation in shape, size, structure, and galling-site. We present a phylogeny incorporating ten species and four...
Tabassum, Saira; Ahmed, Madiha; Mirza, Bushra; Naeem, Muhammad; Zia, Muhammad; Shanwari, Zabta Khan; Khan, Gul Majid
2017-03-09
The role of plants for discovery of therapeutic potential accentuates the need to know their biological attributes. The present study aims to comprehend the biological attributes of Rhus punjabensis, an unexplored traditional medicinal plant. Leaf and stem extracts of R. punjabensis prepared in 11 different organic solvents are evaluated for multimode antioxidant potential, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined through colorimetric assays, HPLC-DAD analysis was carried out for quantification of various polyphenols in extracts. Brine shrimp lethality, SRB and MTT assays were used to elucidate plant's cytotoxic and antileishmanial potentials. Disc diffusion assay was used to elucidate the protein kinase inhibitory, antibacterial and antifungal spectrum. Ethanol + ethyl acetate yielded maximum extract recovery from leaf (6.11 ± 1.09% w/w), total phenolic content (80.5 ± 2.18 μg GAE/mg extract) and reducing power potential (165.4 ± 2.29 μg AAE/mg extract). Maximum flavonoid content (30.50 ± 1.11 μg QE/mg extract) and highest DPPH based free radical scavenging activity (IC 50 11.4 ± 2.07) was exhibited by the methanol + chloroform leaf extract. The methanol extract showed maximum total antioxidant capacity (74.5 ± 2.25 μg AAE/mg DW), protein kinase inhibitory (12.5 ± 1.10 bald phenotype at 100 μg/disc) and antifungal (MIC = 25 μg/disc against Aspergillus flavus) potential. Reverse phase HPLC-DAD based quantification reveals presence of gallic acid, apigenin, rutin and catechin in various extracts. Brine shrimp lethality assay demonstrated most extracts as highly cytotoxic (LC 50 < 50 μg/mL) whereas chloroform extract of leaf demonstrated maximuminhibition against human leukemia cell line (IC 50 7.80 ± 0.01 μg/mL). A significant activity against leishmanial promastigotes was demonstrated by n-hexane leaf extract (IC 50 = 15.78 ± 0.15 μg/mL). A better antibacterial
Lee, Jinsoo; Chae, Jean; Lee, Sookyung; Kim, Kyungsuk; Eo, Wankyu; Kim, Sehyun; Choi, Woncheol; Cheon, Seong Ha
2013-01-01
Chemotherapy improves the survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but tumor progression is often inevitable. Strategies are needed to improve the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy. Over recent years, there has been increasing interest in the role of maintenance therapy after first-line chemotherapy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract (aRVS) as maintenance therapy in patients with non-progressive disease following first-line chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of 33 patients with advanced NSCLC, who started treatment with aRVS in a state of tumor regression or stable disease after completion of four or six cycles of induction chemotherapy at the Integrative Cancer Center, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong from June 2006 to April 2012. The primary objective of this study was progression-free survival (PFS) of aRVS as maintenance therapy. Secondary objectives included assessments of disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and the safety of aRVS treatment. The median PFS was 5.2 months with a 6- and 12-month PFS rate of 40.6% and 12.9%, respectively. The DCR was 93.9% and the median OS was 34.8 months. The overall survival rates at 12, 24, and 36 months were 84.2%, 76.7% and 49.9%, respectively. We observed no hematologic toxicity, nephrotoxicity, or hepatotoxicity during aRVS treatment. In conclusion, maintenance therapy with aRVS for patients with advanced NSCLC is well-tolerated and offers encouraging improved PFS and OS compared with historical controls. Our data provide further evidence that aRVS may be used beyond disease progression in this clinical setting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Moshtaghi
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of etbhanolic extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L. was investigated quantitatively and qualitatively on Escherichia coli. The results of well diffusion test showed that extracts of Sumac in concentration of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5% and 5% could inhibited E. coli. In this study it was shown that MIC of the alcoholic extract of Sumac against E. coli was 6.25 mg/ml and its MBC against this bacterium was 50 mg/ml. The results from evaluation of the antibacterial effects of the Sumac revealed that at 4 and 15 °C, the growth of E. coli in test tubes containing meat extracts has increased Throughout the 48 h of incubation period. Results showed that the growth of this bacteria in different concentration of Sumac extract as decreased in the both tested temperatures in comparison to time zero (p
Biosynthesis of gallic and ellagic acids with 14C-labeled compounds in Acer and Rhus leaves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikura, Nariyuki; Hayashida, Shunzo; Tazaki, Kiyoshi
1984-01-01
The biosynthetic pathway for gallic and ellagic acids in young, mature and autumn leaves of Acer buergerianum and Rhus succedanea was examined by tracer experiments, and also by isotope competition, with D-shikimic acid- 14 C, L-phenylalanine-U- 14 C, L-phenyllactic acid-U- 14 C, gallic acid-G- 14 C and their unlabeled compounds. In young leaves of both plants, the incorporation rate of labeled shikimic acid into gallic acid was significantly higher than that of labeled phenylalanine, whereas in the mature and autumn leaves the latter was a good precursor rather than the former for the gallic acid biosynthesis. Therefore, two pathways for gallic acid formation, through β-oxidation of phenylpropanoid and through dehydrogenation of shikimic acid, could be operating in Acer and Rhus leaves, and the preferential pathway is altered by leaf age. In both plants, the incorporation rate of labeled phenyllactic acid during a 24 hr metabolic period was almost the same as that of labeled phenylalanine. The incorporation of D-shikimic acid-G- 14 C, L-phenylalanine-U- 14 C and L-phenyllactic acid-U- 14 C into ellagic acid was very similar to the case of the radioactive gallic acid formation. Furthermore, regardless of the presence of unlabeled shikimic acid and/or phenylalanine, incorporation of the radioactivity of labeled gallic acid into ellagic acid occurred at a very high rate, suggesting the reciprocal radical reaction of gallic acid for the ellagic acid formation. The incorporation of labeled compounds into ellagitannins was also examined and their biosynthesis discussed further. (author)
On the Coupling of Incompressible Stokes or Navier–Stokes and Darcy Flows Through Porous Media
Girault, V.; Kanschat, G.; Riviè re, B.
2012-01-01
In this chapter, we present the theoretical analysis of coupled incompressible Navier-Stokes (or Stokes) flows and Darcy flows with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition. We discuss alternative interface and porous media models. We review
Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water
Breivik, Øyvind; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond
2014-09-01
A deep-water approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile is explored as an alternative to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profile investigated relies on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profile gives a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The alternative profile comes at no added numerical cost compared to the monochromatic profile.
New Stokes' line in WKB theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Nevins, W.M.; Roberts, K.V.
1982-01-01
The WKB theory for differential equations of arbitrary order or integral equations in one dimension is investigated. The rules previously stated for the construction of Stokes' lines for Nth-order differential equations, N> or =3, or integral equations are found to be incomplete because these rules lead to asymptotic forms of the solutions that depend on path. This paradox is resolved by the demonstration that new Stokes' lines can arise when previously defined Stokes' lines cross. A new formulation of the WKB problem is given to justify the new Stokes' lines. With the new Stokes' lines, the asymptotic forms can be shown to be independent of path. In addition, the WKB eigenvalue problem is formulated, and the global dispersion relation is shown to be a functional of loop integrals of the action
Stochastic 2-D Navier-Stokes Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menaldi, J.L.; Sritharan, S.S.
2002-01-01
In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of strong solutions for the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation in bounded and unbounded domains. These solutions are stochastic analogs of the classical Lions-Prodi solutions to the deterministic Navier-Stokes equation. Local monotonicity of the nonlinearity is exploited to obtain the solutions in a given probability space and this significantly improves the earlier techniques for obtaining strong solutions, which depended on pathwise solutions to the Navier-Stokes martingale problem where the probability space is also obtained as a part of the solution
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Saba Khalilpour
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria extract in vivo. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 for DPPH, ABTS and β–carotene were 6.79 ± 0.009 µg/mL, 10.94 ± 0.09 µg/mL, and 6.25 ± 0.06 µg/mL, respectively. Retinal ischemia was induced by optic nerve crush injury in albino Balb/c mice. The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of R. coriaria (ERC and linoleic acid (LA on ocular ischemia was monitored using Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT. Following optic nerve crush injury, the mice treated with 400 mg/kg of ERC and LA exhibited an 84.87% and 86.71% reduction of fluorescent signal (cathepsin activity respectively. The results of this study provide strong scientific evidence for the neuroprotective activity of the ERC, identifying LA as one of the main components responsible for the effect. ERC may be useful and worthy of further development for its adjunctive utilization in the treatment of optic neuropathy.
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Fadia Najjar
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Background and Purpose Oxidative stress is involved in normal and pathological functioning of skeletal muscle. Protection of myoblasts from oxidative stress may improve muscle contraction and delay aging. Here we studied the effect of R. coriaria sumac fruit extract on human myoblasts and zebrafish embryos in conditions of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Study Design and Methods Crude ethanolic 70% extract (CE and its fractions was obtained from sumac fruits. The composition of sumac ethyl acetate EtOAc fraction was studied by 1H NMR. The viability of human myoblasts treated with CE and the EtOAc fraction was determined by trypan blue exclusion test. Oxidative stress, cell cycle and adhesion were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Results The EtOAc fraction (IC50 2.57 µg/mL had the highest antioxidant activity and exhibited the best protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It also restored cell adhesion. This effect was mediated by superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase. Pre-treatment of zebrafish embryos with low concentrations of the EtOAc fraction protected them from hydrogen peroxide-induced death in vivo. 1H NMR analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid in this fraction. Conclusion Rhus coriaria extracts inhibited or slowed down the progress of skeletal muscle atrophy by decreasing oxidative stress via superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase-dependent mechanisms.
Lai, Jixiang; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Donghui; Fang, Fang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wu, Tao
2014-06-27
For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v) ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jixiang Lai
2014-06-01
Full Text Available For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L. fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.
On entanglement of light and Stokes parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Żukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin
2016-01-01
We present a new approach to Stokes parameters, which enables one to see better non-classical properties of bright quantum light, and of undefined overall photon numbers. The crucial difference is as follows. The standard quantum optical Stokes parameters are averages of differences of intensities of light registered at the two exits of polarization analyzers, and one gets their normalized version by dividing them by the average total intensity. The new ones are averages of the registered normalized Stokes parameters, for the duration of the experiment. That is, we redefine each Stokes observable as the difference of photon number operators at the two exits of a polarizing beam splitter multiplied by the inverse of their sum. The vacuum eigenvalue of the operator is defined a zero. We show that with such an approach one can obtain more sensitive entanglement indicators based on polarization measurements. (paper)
On entanglement of light and Stokes parameters
Żukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin
2016-08-01
We present a new approach to Stokes parameters, which enables one to see better non-classical properties of bright quantum light, and of undefined overall photon numbers. The crucial difference is as follows. The standard quantum optical Stokes parameters are averages of differences of intensities of light registered at the two exits of polarization analyzers, and one gets their normalized version by dividing them by the average total intensity. The new ones are averages of the registered normalized Stokes parameters, for the duration of the experiment. That is, we redefine each Stokes observable as the difference of photon number operators at the two exits of a polarizing beam splitter multiplied by the inverse of their sum. The vacuum eigenvalue of the operator is defined a zero. We show that with such an approach one can obtain more sensitive entanglement indicators based on polarization measurements.
Vahid-Dastjerdi, Elahe; Monadi, Elham; Khalighi, Hamid Reza; Torshabi, Maryam
2016-01-01
In our previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effects of Punica granatum L. flower and Rhus coriaria L. fruit water extracts on dental plaque accumulation by several bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), on orthodontic wire by in-vitro assays. In this study, the anti-cariogenic properties of the extracts were evaluated by assessing their effects on expression of glycosyltransferase (gtf) genes, which are responsible for initial biofilm formation by S. mutans. In this study, the effect of herbal extracts on expression of gtfB, C (encoding enzymes that produce water-insoluble glucans) and D (encoding enzymes that produce water-soluble glucans) genes in S. mutans growing in planktonic state was evaluated quantitatively by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of understudied herbal water extracts significantly suppressed gtfB, C and D gene expression by 85.3 ± 7.5%, 33.3 ± 6.4% and 25 ± 14%, respectively for Punica granatum L. extract and 73.4 ± 7.3%, 93.8 ± 2.7% and 59.3 ± 9.8%, respectively for Rhus coriaria L. extract compared to the non-treated control group (P Punica granatum L. extract. These ﬁndings suggest that Punica granatum L. and especially Rhus coriaria L. maybe used as novel, natural antiplaque agents since they inhibit speciﬁc genes associated with bacterial bioﬁlm formation without necessarily affecting the growth of oral bacteria.
On the Coupling of Incompressible Stokes or Navier–Stokes and Darcy Flows Through Porous Media
Girault, V.
2012-11-03
In this chapter, we present the theoretical analysis of coupled incompressible Navier-Stokes (or Stokes) flows and Darcy flows with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition. We discuss alternative interface and porous media models. We review some finite element methods used by several authors in this coupling and present numerical experiments.
Torre, F. la; Kenjeres, S.; Kleijn, C.R.; Moerel, J.L.P.A.
2009-01-01
Both the particle based Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and a compressible Navier-Stokes based continuum method are used to investigate the flow inside micronozzles and to predict the performance of such devices. For the Navier-Stokes approach, both slip and no-slip boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Asima; Ferk, Franziska; Simic, Tatjana [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brantner, Adelheid [Institute of Pharmacognosy, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 4/I, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Dusinska, Maria [Center for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Instituttveien 18, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Kundi, Michael [Institute of Environmental Health, Center for Public Health, Medical Unviversity of Vienna (Austria); Hoelzl, Christine; Nersesyan, Armen [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Knasmueller, Siegfried [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at
2009-02-10
Sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) is widely used as a spice. The aim of this study was the investigation of its DNA-protective effects in humans and animals. Prevention of the formation of strand breaks and oxidized DNA bases as well as the protection against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- and ({+-})-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydro-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-induced DNA-damage were monitored in human lymphocytes in a placebo controlled trial (N = 8/group) with ethanolic extract of sumach (3.0 g/day, 3 days) in single cell gel electrophoresis assays. Furthermore, DNA-protective effects of sumach were monitored in different inner organs of rats under identical conditions. No alteration of DNA-migration was detectable in human lymphocytes under standard conditions, but a decrease of the tail-lengths due to formation of oxidized purines and pyrimidines (52% and 36%) was found with lesion-specific enzymes. Also damage caused by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and BPDE was significantly reduced by 30% and 69%, respectively. The later effect may be due to induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST). After the intervention, the overall GST (CDNB) activity in plasma was increased by 40%, GST-{alpha} by 52% and GST-{pi} by 26% (ELISA). The antioxidant effects of extract are probably due to scavenging which was observed in in vitro experiments, which also indicated that gallic acid is the active principle of sumach. The animal experiments showed that sumach also causes protection in inner organs. Supplementation of the drinking water (0.02 g/kg per animal) decreased the formation of oxidized DNA bases in colon, liver, lung and lymphocytes; also after {gamma}-irradiation pronounced effects were seen.
Structuring Stokes correlation functions using vector-vortex beam
Kumar, Vijay; Anwar, Ali; Singh, R. P.
2018-01-01
Higher order statistical correlations of the optical vector speckle field, formed due to scattering of a vector-vortex beam, are explored. Here, we report on the experimental construction of the Stokes parameters covariance matrix, consisting of all possible spatial Stokes parameters correlation functions. We also propose and experimentally realize a new Stokes correlation functions called Stokes field auto correlation functions. It is observed that the Stokes correlation functions of the vector-vortex beam will be reflected in the respective Stokes correlation functions of the corresponding vector speckle field. The major advantage of proposing Stokes correlation functions is that the Stokes correlation function can be easily tuned by manipulating the polarization of vector-vortex beam used to generate vector speckle field and to get the phase information directly from the intensity measurements. Moreover, this approach leads to a complete experimental Stokes characterization of a broad range of random fields.
The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
2005-01-01
Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we prove that the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...... of the vector field in a tubular shell around the given surface. The intuitive appeal of the divergence theorem is thus applied to bootstrap a corresponding intuition for Stokes' theorem. The two stated classical theorems are (like the fundamental theorem of calculus) nothing but shadows of the general version...... to above. Our proof that Stokes' theorem follows from Gauss' divergence theorem goes via a well known and often used exercise, which simply relates the concepts of divergence and curl on the local differential level. The rest of the paper uses only integration in $1$, $2$, and $3$ variables together...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batcho, P.F.; Karniadakis, G.E.
1994-01-01
The present study focuses on the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general, non-separable domains, and employs a Galerkin projection of divergence-free vector functions as a trail basis. This basis is obtained from the solution of a generalized constrained Stokes eigen-problem in the domain of interest. Faster convergence can be achieved by constructing a singular Stokes eigen-problem in which the Stokes operator is modified to include a variable coefficient which vanishes at the domain boundaries. The convergence properties of such functions are advantageous in a least squares sense and are shown to produce significantly better approximations to the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in post-critical states where unsteadiness characterizes the flowfield. Solutions for the eigen-systems are efficiently accomplished using a combined Lanczos-Uzawa algorithm and spectral element discretizations. Results are presented for different simulations using these global spectral trial basis on non-separable and multiply-connected domains. It is confirmed that faster convergence is obtained using the singular eigen-expansions in approximating stationary Navier-Stokes solutions in general domains. It is also shown that 100-mode expansions of time-dependent solutions based on the singular Stokes eigenfunctions are sufficient to accurately predict the dynamics of flows in such domains, including Hopf bifurcations, intermittency, and details of flow structures
Measurement of the Stokes parameters of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, H.G.; Gabrielse, G.; Livingston, A.E.
1977-01-01
We describe a measuring system for determing the state of polarization of a beam of light in terms of its Stokes parameters. The technique which can be fully automated incorporates a monochromator and single photon counting detection and can thus be applied over a large wavelength range for very weak optical signals. Fourier transformation of the data by an on-line minicomputer allows immediate calculation of the Stokes parameters. We discuss special applications to light emitted from excited atomic systems with and without cylindrical symmetry
The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited
Markvorsen, Steen
2008-01-01
Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations--essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics--we show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in R[superscript 3] follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification of the vector field in a tubular shell around the…
Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auzel, F.
1976-01-01
Experimental demonstration of multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes excitation of rare-earth ions (R 3+ ) in different hosts, that is, in a weak-coupling ion-lattice interaction case, is obtained. An exponential behavior of excitation probabilities with respect to energy difference between excitation and electronic line is found just as for multiphonon-assisted nonradiative decay and energy transfer. Exponential parameters α/sub As/ and α/sub S/ for anti-Stokes and Stokes excitation are measured and linked to the Miyakawa-Dexter α parameter for decay, leading to estimates for Pekar-Huang-Rhys coupling parameter S 0 of about 0.04, in agreement with values obtained from one-phonon spectra or nonradiative-decay measurements. A semiempirical formula is deduced to obtain α from only one parameter, an effective phonon energy
Observation of anomalous Stokes versus anti-Stokes ratio in MoTe2 atomic layers
Goldstein, Thomas; Chen, Shao-Yu; Xiao, Di; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin; Yan, Jun
We grow hexagonal molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2), a prototypical transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductor, with chemical vapor transport methods and investigate its atomic layers with Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering. We report observation of all six types of zone center optical phonons. Quite remarkably, the anti-Stokes Raman intensity of the low energy layer-breathing mode becomes more intense than the Stokes peak under certain experimental conditions, creating an illusion of 'negative temperature'. This effect is tunable, and can be switched from anti-Stokes enhancement to suppression by varying the excitation wavelength. We interpret this observation to be a result of resonance effects arising from the C excitons in the vicinity of the Brillouin zone center, which are robust even for multiple layers of MoTe2. The intense anti-Stokes Raman scattering provides a cooling channel for the crystal and opens up opportunities for laser cooling of atomically thin TMDC semiconductor devices. Supported by the University of Massachusetts Amherst, the National Science Foundation Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing (CMMI-1025020) and Office of Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation (EFRI-1433496).
Gu, Mingming; Satija, Aman; Lucht, Robert P.
2018-01-01
The effects of moderate levels of chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses on chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CPP fs CARS) were investigated. The frequency chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses was introduced
Localization of small obstacles in Stokes flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caubet, Fabien; Dambrine, Marc
2012-01-01
We want to detect small obstacles immersed in a fluid flowing in a larger bounded domain Ω in the three-dimensional case. We assume that the fluid motion is governed by the steady-state Stokes equations. We make a measurement on a part of the exterior boundary ∂Ω and then take a Kohn–Vogelius approach to locate these obstacles. We use here the notion of the topological derivative in order to determine the number of objects and their rough locations. Thus we first establish an asymptotic expansion of the solution of the Stokes equations in Ω when we add small obstacles inside. Then, we use it to find a topological asymptotic expansion of the considered Kohn–Vogelius functional which gives us the formula of its topological gradient. Finally, we make some numerical simulations exploring the efficiency and the limits of this method. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikura, Nariyuki
1976-01-01
The seasonal changes in the contents of sugar and phenolic compounds in the leaves of Rhus, Euonymus and two Acer species were examined in order to obtain information on the metabolic process inducing the autumn reddening. The incorporation of radioactivity of glucose-(U-14C) into anthocyanin was also examined. As a result of a preliminary test, the compositions of sugar and phenolic compounds were not altered by the drying treatment, therefore dried material was used. Dried leaves (ca. 2 g) were subject to the extraction with 80% methanol (3 ml, 3 hr) under refluxing. The extraction was repeated twice. Combined extracts (ca. 90 ml) were concentrated to ca. 20 ml at 35 deg C under reduced pressure. The concentrate was repeatedly washed with n-hexane and evaporated to remove the n-hexane. The resulting solution was made up to 30 ml with water, and used for the quantitative analysis. The solutions were fractionated in order to estimate total phenol and flavanol contents. Sugars were extracted from dry leaves (ca. 2 g) by boiling 70% ethanol (20 ml) for 3 hours. D-glucose-(U- 14 C)(280 mCi/mM) and phenylalanine-(U- 14 C)(422 mCi/mM) were fed to the leaves. It was found that antho-cyanin (mainly cyanidin 3-monoglucoside) was produced in the autumnal leaves of all plants examined, and that the red pigment was steadily accumulated in their leaves during the autumn. The sugar accumulated in autumnal Rhus leaves may be rapidly consumed by the formation of phenolic compounds. (Iwakiri, K.)
The Absence of Stokes Drift in Waves
Chafin, Clifford
2015-01-01
Stokes drift has been as central to the history of wave theory as it has been distressingly absent from experiment. Neither wave tanks nor experiments in open bodies detect this without nearly canceling "eulerian flows." Acoustic waves have an analogous problem that is particularly problematic in the vorticity production at the edges of beams. Here we demonstrate that the explanation for this arises from subtle end-of-packet and wavetrain gradient effects such as microbreaking events and wave...
Oscillatory Stokes Flow Past a Slip Cylinder
Palaniappan, D.
2013-11-01
Two-dimensional transient slow viscous flow past a circular cylinder with Navier slip boundary conditions is considered in the limit of low-Reynolds number. The oscillatory Stokes flow problem around a cylinder is solved using the stream function method leading to an analytic solution in terms of modified Bessel functions of the second kind. The corresponding steady-state behavior yields the familiar paradoxical result first detected by Stokes. It is noted that the two key parameters, viz., the frequency λ, and the slip coefficient ξ have a significant impact on the flow field in the vicinity of the cylinder contour. In the limit of very low frequency, the flow is dominated by a term containing a well-known biharmonic function found by Stokes that has a singular behavior at infinity. Local streamlines for small times show interesting flow patterns. Attached eddies due to flow separation - observed in the no-slip case - either get detached or pushed away from the cylinder surface as ξ is varied. Computed asymptotic results predict that the flow exhibits inviscid behavior far away from the cylinder in the frequency range 0 < λ << 1 . Although the frequency of oscillations is finite, our exact solutions reveal fairly rapid transitions in the flow domain. Research Enhancement grant, TAMUCC.
K.F Connor
2004-01-01
Shining sumac is an upright, deciduous, clonal shrub or (rarely) small tree from 3 to 6 m tall. Bark ranges in color from light brown to gray to reddish-brown. Shoots and twigs are hairy and reddish in color. Twigs have conspicuous lenticels. The sparsely branched, flat crown is composed of alternate, pinnately compound leaves approximately 15 to 30 cm long, with wings...
Adrian Stokes and the portrait of Melanie Klein.
Sayers, Janet
2015-08-01
This paper focuses on the offer by the art writer Adrian Stokes to commission and pay for a portrait of the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein by the artist William Coldstream. It details some of the precursors of this offer in Stokes's preceding involvement first with Klein and then with Coldstream; her response to this offer; and its outcome and aftermath in Stokes's subsequent writing about Klein and Coldstream. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
The classical version of Stokes' Theorem revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
2008-01-01
Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...... exercise, which simply relates the concepts of divergence and curl on the local differential level. The rest of the paper uses only integration in $1$, $2$, and $3$ variables together with a 'fattening' technique for surfaces and the inverse function theorem....
Rubin, S. G.
1982-01-01
Recent developments with finite-difference techniques are emphasized. The quotation marks reflect the fact that any finite discretization procedure can be included in this category. Many so-called finite element collocation and galerkin methods can be reproduced by appropriate forms of the differential equations and discretization formulas. Many of the difficulties encountered in early Navier-Stokes calculations were inherent not only in the choice of the different equations (accuracy), but also in the method of solution or choice of algorithm (convergence and stability, in the manner in which the dependent variables or discretized equations are related (coupling), in the manner that boundary conditions are applied, in the manner that the coordinate mesh is specified (grid generation), and finally, in recognizing that for many high Reynolds number flows not all contributions to the Navier-Stokes equations are necessarily of equal importance (parabolization, preferred direction, pressure interaction, asymptotic and mathematical character). It is these elements that are reviewed. Several Navier-Stokes and parabolized Navier-Stokes formulations are also presented.
Stokes Space in Direct-Detection Data Transmission Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zibar, Darko
2015-01-01
Stokes-based processing permits complete and phase-insensitive characterization of the field’s SOP, readily unlocking polarization diversity in transmission systems where DD is desired. We present an overview on Stokes notions and most recent achievements in this context.......Stokes-based processing permits complete and phase-insensitive characterization of the field’s SOP, readily unlocking polarization diversity in transmission systems where DD is desired. We present an overview on Stokes notions and most recent achievements in this context....
Continuous anti-Stokes Raman laser operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feitisch, A.; Muller, T.; Welling, H.; Wellegehausen, B.
1988-01-01
The anti-Stokes Raman laser (ASRL) process has proved to be a method that works well for frequency upconversion and for the generation of powerful tunable narrowband (pulsed) laser radiation in the UV and VUV spectral range. This conversion process allows large-frequency shifts in single step, high output energies, and high efficiencies. A basic requirement is population inversion on a two-photon transition, where, in general, the upper level of the transition should be metastable. Up to now the ASRL technique has only been demonstrated for the pulsed regime, where the necessary population inversion was generated by photodissociation or inner shell photoionization. These inversion techniques, however, cannot be transferred to cw operation of an ASRL, and, therefore, other inversion techniques have to be developed. Here a novel approach for the creation of the necessary population inversion is proposed, that uses well-known cw gas lasers as the active material for the conversion process. The basic idea is to use either existing two-photon population inversions in a cw laser material or to generate the necessary population inversion by applying a suitable population transfer process to the material. A natural two-photon inversion situation in a laser material is evident whenever a cascade laser can be operated. Cascade laser-based anti-Stokes schemes are possible in a He-Ne laser discharge, and investigations of these schemes are discussed
Applied analysis of lacquer films based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Lu, Rong; Kamiya, Yukio; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo
2006-09-15
Ancient lacquer film, a Nanban lacquer film, an old lacquer-ware object imported from an Asian country, and the Baroque and Rococo lacquer films were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Compared with the results of the natural lacquer film, it was revealed that the ancient lacquer film and Nanban lacquer film were made from Rhus vernicifera, and the old lacquer-ware imported from an Asian country was made from Melanorrhoea usitata. However, the Baroque and Rococo lacquer films obtained from the Doerner Institute in Munich, Germany were made from natural resins. 3-Pentadecylcatechol (MW=320) (urushiol), 3-heptadecylcatechol (MW=348) (laccol), and 4-heptadecylcatechol (MW=348) (thitsiol) were the main products of the pyrolysis of R. vernicifera, Rhus succedanea, and M. usitata.
Implications of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory for plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, David
1977-01-01
A brief discussion of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory is given with particular reference to the two dimensional case. The MHD turbulence is introduced with possible applications of techniques developed in Navier-Stokes theory. Turbulence in Vlasov plasma is also discussed from the point of view of the ''direct interaction approximation'' (DIA). (A.K.)
A note on the Stokes operator and its powers
Guermond, Jean-Luc; Salgado, Abner
2010-01-01
The so-called Stokes operator is an important tool in the analysis of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their numerical approximation. The aim of this note is to clarify certain properties of the fractional powers of this operator which are sometimes misused. © 2010 Korean Society for Computational and Applied Mathematics.
Coupling nonlinear Stokes and Darcy flow using mortar finite elements
Ervin, Vincent J.; Jenkins, Eleanor W.; Sun, Shuyu
2011-01-01
We study a system composed of a nonlinear Stokes flow in one subdomain coupled with a nonlinear porous medium flow in another subdomain. Special attention is paid to the mathematical consequence of the shear-dependent fluid viscosity for the Stokes
A note on the Stokes operator and its powers
Guermond, Jean-Luc
2010-04-28
The so-called Stokes operator is an important tool in the analysis of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their numerical approximation. The aim of this note is to clarify certain properties of the fractional powers of this operator which are sometimes misused. © 2010 Korean Society for Computational and Applied Mathematics.
Analyticity estimates for the Navier-Stokes equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herbst, I.; Skibsted, Erik
We study spatial analyticity properties of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation and obtain new growth rate estimates for the analyticity radius. We also study stability properties of strong global solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation with data in and prove a stability result...
Tip loss correction for actuator / Navier Stokes computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2004-01-01
The new tip loss correction, initially developed for ID BEM computations [1], is now extended to 2D Actuator Disc / Navier-Stokes (AD/NS) computations and 3D Actuator Line / Navier-Stokes (AL/NS) computations. As shown in the paper, the tip loss correction is an important and necessary step...
Statistics in a Trilinear Interacting Stokes-Antistokes Boson System
Tänzler, W.; Schütte, F.-J.
The statistics of a system of four boson modes is treated with simultaneous Stokes-Antistokes interaction taking place. The time evolution is calculated in full quantum manner but in short time approximation. Mean photon numbers and correlations of second order are calculated. Antibunching can be found in the laser mode and in the system of Stokes and Antistokes mode.Translated AbstractStatistik in einem trilinear wechselwirkenden Stokes-Antistokes-BosonensystemDie Statistik eines Systems von vier Bosonenmoden mit gleichzeitiger Stokes-Antistokes-Wechselwirkung wird bei vollquantenphysikalischer Beschreibung in Kurzzeitnäherung untersucht. Mittlere Photonenzahlen und Korrelationen zweiter Ordnung werden berechnet. Dabei wird Antibunching sowohl in der Lasermode allein als auch im System aus Stokes- und Antistokesmode gefunden.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...
Stokes shift spectroscopy for breast cancer diagnosis
Jeyasingh, Ebenezar; Prakashrao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan
2010-02-01
The objective of this study is to assess the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (SSS) for normal and different pathological breast tissues such as fibroadenoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The SS spectra is measured by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological breast tissues were observed. The SS spectra of normal and different pathological breast tissues shows the distinct peaks around 300, 350, 450, 500 and 600 nm may be attributed to tryptophan, collagen, NADH, flavin and porphyrin respectively. Using SSS technique one can obtain all the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological breast tissues are verified by different ratio parameters.
Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2013-01-01
in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for small wavevector and frequencies as expected. For example, in the hydrodynamic regime......The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present...... and for molecular fluids with small moment of inertia like chlorine, the theory predicts that the longitudinal and transverse intrinsic angular velocity correlation functions are almost identical, which is also seen in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, the theory fails at large wavevector and frequencies...
Modified Einstein and Navier–Stokes Equations
Bulyzhenkov, I. É.
2018-05-01
The appearance of inertial rest mass-energy is associated with the kinematic slowing-down of time and with the vortex state of the elementary massive space with zero integral of its kinetic and potential energies. An analog of the Einstein equation is found for moving densities of a non-empty metric space in the concept of the Einstein-Infeld material field. The vector consequences of this tensor equation for a metric medium of overlapping elementary carriers of continuous mass-energies allow us to modify the Navier-Stokes equation under inertial motion of the matter of the nonlocal field in the nonrelativistic limit. The nonlocality of massenergy generates kinematic accelerations of feedback to Newtonian acceleration, which impedes asymptotic divergence of energy fluxes. Stabilization of inertial media by dynamic Bernoulli pressure corresponds to nonlocal self-organization of Einstein-Infeld non-empty space and invalidates Newtonian localization of masses in empty space.
Modified Einstein and Navier-Stokes Equations
Bulyzhenkov, I. É.
2018-05-01
The appearance of inertial rest mass-energy is associated with the kinematic slowing-down of time and with the vortex state of the elementary massive space with zero integral of its kinetic and potential energies. An analog of the Einstein equation is found for moving densities of a non-empty metric space in the concept of the Einstein-Infeld material field. The vector consequences of this tensor equation for a metric medium of overlapping elementary carriers of continuous mass-energies allow us to modify the Navier-Stokes equation under inertial motion of the matter of the nonlocal field in the nonrelativistic limit. The nonlocality of massenergy generates kinematic accelerations of feedback to Newtonian acceleration, which impedes asymptotic divergence of energy fluxes. Stabilization of inertial media by dynamic Bernoulli pressure corresponds to nonlocal self-organization of Einstein-Infeld non-empty space and invalidates Newtonian localization of masses in empty space.
Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat
2010-01-01
Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information.
Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles and their use in Ocean Modelling
Breivik, Oyvind; Bidlot, Jea-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Mogensen, Kristian
2016-04-01
Deep-water approximations to the Stokes drift velocity profile are explored as alternatives to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profiles investigated rely on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons against parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profiles give a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. Of the two Stokes drift profiles explored here, the profile based on the Phillips spectrum is by far the best. In particular, the shear near the surface is almost identical to that influenced by the f-5 tail of spectral wave models. The NEMO general circulation ocean model was recently extended to incorporate the Stokes-Coriolis force along with two other wave-related effects. The ECWMF coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean ensemble forecast system now includes these wave effects in the ocean model component (NEMO).
Origins of Stokes shift in PbS nanocrystals
Voznyy, Oleksandr
2017-10-27
Stokes shift, an energy difference between the excitonic absorption and emission, is a property of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) typically ascribed to splitting between dark and bright excitons. In some materials, e.g., PbS, CuInS2, CdHgTe, a Stokes shift of up to 200 meV is observed, substantially larger than the estimates of dark-bright state splitting or vibronic relaxations. The shift origin remains highly debated, as contradictory signatures of both surface and bulk character were reported for the Stokes-shifted electronic state. Here we show that the energy transfer among CQDs in a polydispersed ensemble in solution suffices to explain the excess Stokes shift. This energy transfer is primarily due to CQD aggregation, and can be substantially eliminated by extreme dilution, higher-viscosity solvent, or better-dispersed colloids. Our findings highlight that ensemble polydispersity remains the primary source of the Stokes shift in CQDs in solution, propagating into the Stokes shift in films and the open-circuit voltage deficit in CQD solar cells. Improved synthetic control can bring notable advancements in CQD photovoltaics, and the Stokes shift continues to provide a sensitive and significant metric to monitor ensemble size distribution.
On a theorem of Cattabriga related to Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgescu, V.
1978-01-01
We study the ''generalized Stokes boundary value problem'', which is a (generalization of a) linearized version of Navier-Stokes equations and we show the existence and unicity of the weak solution. It is known that these results can be used to prove the existence of weak (local) solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. However, we are mainly interested in the method of proving it will be seen how easy the result follows from some general theorems about differential forms on a Riemannian manifold. (author)
3D Topology optimization of Stokes flow problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Dammann, Bernd
of energy efficient devices for 2D Stokes flow. Creeping flow problems are described by the Stokes equations which model very viscous fluids at macro scales or ordinary fluids at very small scales. The latter gives the motivation for topology optimization problems based on the Stokes equations being a model......The present talk is concerned with the application of topology optimization to creeping flow problems in 3D. This research is driven by the fact that topology optimization has proven very successful as a tool in academic and industrial design problems. Success stories are reported from such diverse...
Chaos Synchronization in Navier-Stokes Turbulence
Lalescu, Cristian; Meneveau, Charles; Eyink, Gregory
2013-03-01
Chaos synchronization (CS) has been studied for some time now (Pecora & Carroll 1990), for systems with only a few degrees of freedom as well as for systems described by partial differential equations (Boccaletti et al 2002). CS in general is said to be present in coupled dynamical systems when a specific property of each system has the same time evolution for all, even though the evolution itself is chaotic. The Navier-Stokes (NS) equations describe the velocity for a wide range of fluids, and their solutions are usually called turbulent if fluctuation amplitudes decrease as a power of their wavenumber. There have been some studies of CS for continuous systems (Kocarev et al 1997), but CS for NS turbulence seems not to have been investigated so far. We focus on the synchronization of the small scales of a turbulent flow for which the time history of large scales is prescribed. Our DNS results show that high-wavenumbers in turbulence are fully slaved to modes with wavenumbers up to a critical fraction of the Kolmogorov dissipation wavenumber. The motivation for our work is to study deeply sub-Kolmogorov scales in fully developed turbulence (Schumacher 2007), which we found to be recoverable even at very high Reynolds number from simulations with moderate resolutions. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation's CDI-II program, project CMMI-0941530
Multispectral Stokes polarimetry for dermatoscopic imaging
Castillejos, Y.; Martínez-Ponce, Geminiano; Mora-Nuñez, Azael; Castro-Sanchez, R.
2015-12-01
Most of skin pathologies, including melanoma and basal/squamous cell carcinoma, are related to alterations in external and internal order. Usually, physicians rely on their empirical expertise to diagnose these ills normally assisted with dermatoscopes. When there exists skin cancer suspicion, a cytology or biopsy is made, but both laboratory tests imply an invasive procedure. In this regard, a number of non-invasive optical techniques have been proposed recently to improve the diagnostic certainty and assist in the early detection of cutaneous cancer. Herein, skin optical properties are derived with a multispectral polarimetric dermatoscope using three different illumination wavelength intervals centered at 470, 530 and 635nm. The optical device consist of two polarizing elements, a quarter-wave plate and a linear polarizer, rotating at a different angular velocity and a CCD array as the photoreceiver. The modulated signal provided by a single pixel in the acquired image sequence is analyzed with the aim of computing the Stokes parameters. Changes in polarization state of selected wavelengths provide information about the presence of skin pigments such as melanin and hemoglobin species as well as collagen structure, among other components. These skin attributes determine the local physiology or pathology. From the results, it is concluded that optical polarimetry will provide additional elements to dermatologists in their diagnostic task.
Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows.
Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric
2014-03-01
Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers.
Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric
2014-01-01
Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers. (paper)
Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue
Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.
2010-02-01
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.
Hydrodynamic potentials for the micropolar Navier-Stokes problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martynenko, M.D.; Dimian, M.
1995-01-01
An integral representation of linear and angular velocities and pressure for the description of linear stationary flows of micropolar viscous liquid media is obtained, and on its basis hydrodynamic potentials for the micropolar Navier-Stokes problem are introduced
Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi
2017-01-01
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy
Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner
2010-01-01
We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....
Navier-Stokes Computations of Sabot Discard Using Chimera Scheme
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ferry, E
1997-01-01
.... Numerical flow field computations have been made for various orientations and locations of sabots using an unsteady, zonal Navier-Stokes code and the Chimera composite grid discretization technique at M = 4.0 and alpha = 0...
Leading curriculum change: Reflections on how Abakhwezeli stoked ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Delport, Aletta (Prof) (Summerstrand Campus South)
2016-11-24
Nov 24, 2016 ... School for Initial Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University ... 'Abakhwezeli', in stoking the fires of curriculum change in the Nelson Mandela ...... NY: Continuum International Publishing.
Navier-Stokes equations an introduction with applications
Łukaszewicz, Grzegorz
2016-01-01
This volume is devoted to the study of the Navier–Stokes equations, providing a comprehensive reference for a range of applications: from students to engineers and mathematicians involved in research on fluid mechanics, dynamical systems, and mathematical modeling. Equipped with only a basic knowledge of calculus, functional analysis, and partial differential equations, the reader is introduced to the concept and applications of the Navier–Stokes equations through a series of fully self-contained chapters. Including lively illustrations that complement and elucidate the text, and a collection of exercises at the end of each chapter, this book is an indispensable, accessible, classroom-tested tool for teaching and understanding the Navier–Stokes equations. Incompressible Navier–Stokes equations describe the dynamic motion (flow) of incompressible fluid, the unknowns being the velocity and pressure as functions of location (space) and time variables. A solution to these equations predicts the behavior o...
Wavefront sensing with all-digital Stokes measurements
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2014-09-25
Full Text Available to wavefront sensing [8] based on Stokes polarimetry which makes use of the amplitude and phase relationship between orthogonal states of polarization. With our approach a field of interest is generated by encoding an appropriate hologram on a spatial light... modulator (SLM). Since SLMs are diffraction-inefficient, we can exploit the amplitude relationship between the orthogonal polarization states allowing the execution of Stokes polarimetry of the co-linear superposition of the reference beam and the beam...
Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Theory and practice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gjesdal, T.
1996-12-31
This paper contains notes from a seminar presented at the Dept. of Mathematics in the University of Bergen, Norway, Oct. 1996. It first introduces the theory of existence and uniqueness of solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and defines a well-posed initial-boundary value problem. It then discusses different methods for solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations in velocity-pressure formulation. The emphasis is on pressure correction methods. 19 refs.
Quasineutral limit for the quantum Navier-Stokes-Poisson equation
Li, Min; Pu, Xueke; Wang, Shu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the quasineutral limit and asymptotic behaviors for the quantum Navier-Stokes-Possion equation. We apply a formal expansion according to Debye length and derive the neutral incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. To establish this limit mathematically rigorously, we derive uniform (in Debye length) estimates for the remainders, for well-prepared initial data. It is demonstrated that the quantum effect do play important roles in the estimates and the norm introduced depe...
Abedi Gaballu, Fereydoon; Abedi Gaballu, Yousef; Moazenzade Khyavy, Omid; Mardomi, Alireza; Ghahremanzadeh, Kazem; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Mamandy, Himan
2015-08-01
Several therapeutic effects such as antioxidant and blood glucose-lowering activities have been reported for Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae) (PH) seeds, Rhus coriaria L (Anacardiaceae) (RC) fruits, and Urtica dioica L (Urticaceae) (UD) leaves. This study investigates the effects of a triplex mixture (1:1:1) of these medicinal plants on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats. Aqueous extracts of PH, RC and UD were administered as either monotherapy or in combination at a final dose of 200 mg/kg to alloxan-induced diabetic rats by daily gavage. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, liver function-related enzymes, lipid profile, and creatinine were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Tissues from the liver and kidney stained with hematoxylin/eosin were histologically examined. The results obtained from the exposure groups were compared to either healthy or diabetic control groups. Compared with the diabetic control rats, all aqueous extracts (ED50 = 11.5 ± 2.57 mg/ml) led to significant decreases in the levels of ALP (1.39-2.23-fold, p < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.79-3.26-fold, p < 0.05), and blood glucose (1.27-4.16-fold, p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of TG was decreased only by treatment with UD and triplex mixture (1.25- and 1.20-fold, respectively, p < 0.05). Among the studied parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), LDL-C, TG, and creatinine recovered to healthy control levels after 4 weeks of treatment with the extract mixture. This study showed that PH, RC, and UD extracts, especially their combination, had significant antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and liver and renal damage recovering effects.
Gu, Mingming
2018-01-08
The effects of moderate levels of chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses on chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CPP fs CARS) were investigated. The frequency chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses was introduced by placing SF11 glass disks with thicknesses of 10 mm or 20 mm in the optical path for these beams. The magnitude of the chirp in the probe beam was much greater and was induced by placing a 30-cm rod of SF10 glass in the beam path. The temperature measurements were performed in hydrogen/air non-premixed flames stabilized on a Hencken burner at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0. We performed measurements with no disks in pump and Stokes beam paths, and then with disks of 10 mm and 20 mm placed in both beam paths. The spectrum of the nonresonant background four-wave mixing signal narrowed considerably with increasing pump and Stokes chirp, while the resonant CARS signal was relatively unaffected. Consequently, the interference of the nonresonant background with the resonant CARS signal in the frequency-spread dephasing region of the spectrum was minimized. The increased rate of decay of the resonant CARS signal with increasing temperature was thus readily apparent. We have started to analyze the CPP fs CARS thermometry data and initial results indicate improved accuracy and precision are obtained due to moderate chirp in the pump and Stokes laser pulses.
Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G
2017-12-01
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p <0.05) in supplemented diet( sumac seed and ginger root powder). Fatty acid content in yolk; saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and rate of n6/n3 were not significant (p <0.05). However, dietary supplementation with sumac and ginger powder reduced and yolk/blood cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p < 0.05) in treatment groups. Moreover, LDL positively decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggested that feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Incompressible limit of compressible Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bessaih, H.
1994-01-01
In this paper we study the system which describes the motion of compressible viscous fluid in a bounded domain Ω of R 3 . When we introduce a parameter λ, that is the inverse of the Mach number, we prove, under small initial data and external force (for barotropic flows), that the solution of Navier-Stokes equations is the incompressible limit of the solution of compressible Navier-Stokes equations, as the Mach number becomes small. For this, we show the existence of a solution verifying estimates independent of λ. Compactness argument allow us to pass to the limit on λ in the nonlinear terms. (author). 17 refs
Optimal control of compressible Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, K.; Ravindran, S.S.
1994-01-01
Optimal control for the viscous incompressible flows, which are governed by incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, has been the subject of extensive study in recent years, see, e.g., [AT], [GHS], [IR], and [S]. In this paper we consider the optimal control of compressible isentropic Navier-Stokes equations. We develop the weak variational formulation and discuss the existence and necessary optimality condition characterizing the optimal control. A numerical method based on the mixed-finite element method is also discussed to compute the control and numerical results are presented
Topology Optimization of Large Scale Stokes Flow Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aage, Niels; Poulsen, Thomas Harpsøe; Gersborg-Hansen, Allan
2008-01-01
This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs.......This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs....
Observation of correlated anti-Stokes emissions by multiwave mixing in sodium vapor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motomura, Koji; Tsukamoto, Mayumi; Wakiyama, Akira; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mitsunaga, Masaharu
2005-01-01
We study experimentally nonlinear optical processes in which Stokes and anti-Stokes fields build up under strong, resonant, counterpropagating pump laser excitation in atomic sodium vapor. We find that, at some pump frequency, two off-axis anti-Stokes emissions propagating along reflection-symmetric directions are strongly temporally correlated, with a correlation time of 0.5 μs and a correlation range of 1 mrad. It is shown by the numerical analysis based on six-wave mixing process involving pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes waves in the forward and the backward directions that such correlated anti-Stokes emissions are possible when the medium is opaque for the Stokes field and transparent for the anti-Stokes field. Possibilities of quantum correlation for entangled photon generation using this system are discussed
The Navier-Stokes Equations Theory and Numerical Methods
Masuda, Kyûya; Rautmann, Reimund; Solonnikov, Vsevolod
1990-01-01
These proceedings contain original (refereed) research articles by specialists from many countries, on a wide variety of aspects of Navier-Stokes equations. Additionally, 2 survey articles intended for a general readership are included: one surveys the present state of the subject via open problems, and the other deals with the interplay between theory and numerical analysis.
Mixed isogeometric finite cell methods for the stokes problem
Hoang, T.; Verhoosel, C.V.; Auricchio, F.; van Brummelen, E.H.; Reali, A.
2017-01-01
We study the application of the Isogeometric Finite Cell Method (IGA-FCM) to mixed formulations in the context of the Stokes problem. We investigate the performance of the IGA-FCM when utilizing some isogeometric mixed finite elements, namely: Taylor-Hood, Sub-grid, Raviart-Thomas, and Nédélec
Assessing the Polarization of a Quantum Field from Stokes Fluctuations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klimov, A. B.; Björk, G.; Söderholm, J.
2010-01-01
We propose an operational degree of polarization in terms of the variance of the Stokes vector minimized over all the directions of the Poincaré sphere. We examine the properties of this second-order definition and carry out its experimental determination. Quantum states with the same standard...
Synthesis and inversion of Stokes spectral profiles. Thesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, G.A.
1990-01-01
Observations of Stokes spectral profiles enable the magnetic fields on the Sun's surface to be determined. Inversion is the process whereby the profiles are reduced to magnetic field vectors. One of the most robust, accurate and rapid methods available for inversion uses the least-squares fitting of analytical Stokes profiles. As this technique is suitable for the automated reduction of large sets of data, it has been adopted for use with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter, presently under development. The limitations of inversion by analytical profile fitting have not been firmly established. Confident analysis of magnet field vectors depends upon the precise interpretation of reduced data. In this work, a framework is introduced which allows such an assessment to be made. The magnetofluid-static sunspot models presented here provide a self-consistent range of physical conditions similar to those in sunspots. Inversion can then be carried out on Stokes profiles synthesized from these known realistic conditions. The capabilities of an inversion technique can be evaluated by comparison between the models and the deduced values
Spatial Fourier modes controlling Navier-Stokes flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treve, Y.M.
1982-01-01
As shown by Foias and Prodi in the limit of infinite times the solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations depend only on a finite number of modes, a number for which rigorous estimates can be obtained. A survey of these results is given together with further developments, notably in connection with the numerical approximation to the exact solutions. (Auth.)
Symmetric approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobel'kov, G M
2002-01-01
A new method for the symmetric approximation of the non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations by a Cauchy-Kovalevskaya-type system is proposed. Properties of the modified problem are studied. In particular, the convergence as ε→0 of the solutions of the modified problem to the solutions of the original problem on an infinite interval is established
Development Of A Navier-Stokes Computer Code
Yoon, Seokkwan; Kwak, Dochan
1993-01-01
Report discusses aspects of development of CENS3D computer code, solving three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations of compressible, viscous, unsteady flow. Implements implicit finite-difference or finite-volume numerical-integration scheme, called "lower-upper symmetric-Gauss-Seidel" (LU-SGS), offering potential for very low computer time per iteration and for fast convergence.
Cavitation Modeling in Euler and Navier-Stokes Codes
Deshpande, Manish; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.
1993-01-01
Many previous researchers have modeled sheet cavitation by means of a constant pressure solution in the cavity region coupled with a velocity potential formulation for the outer flow. The present paper discusses the issues involved in extending these cavitation models to Euler or Navier-Stokes codes. The approach taken is to start from a velocity potential model to ensure our results are compatible with those of previous researchers and available experimental data, and then to implement this model in both Euler and Navier-Stokes codes. The model is then augmented in the Navier-Stokes code by the inclusion of the energy equation which allows the effect of subcooling in the vicinity of the cavity interface to be modeled to take into account the experimentally observed reduction in cavity pressures that occurs in cryogenic fluids such as liquid hydrogen. Although our goal is to assess the practicality of implementing these cavitation models in existing three-dimensional, turbomachinery codes, the emphasis in the present paper will center on two-dimensional computations, most specifically isolated airfoils and cascades. Comparisons between velocity potential, Euler and Navier-Stokes implementations indicate they all produce consistent predictions. Comparisons with experimental results also indicate that the predictions are qualitatively correct and give a reasonable first estimate of sheet cavitation effects in both cryogenic and non-cryogenic fluids. The impact on CPU time and the code modifications required suggests that these models are appropriate for incorporation in current generation turbomachinery codes.
Unstructured Navier-Stokes Analysis of Full TCA Configuration
Frink, Neal T.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.
1999-01-01
This paper presents an Unstructured Navier-Stokes Analysis of Full TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) Configuration. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) Milestone and approach; 3) Overview of the unstructured-grid system; 4) Results on full TCA W/B/N/D/E configuration; 5) Concluding remarks; and 6) Future directions.
Inversions of High-Cadence SOLIS-VSM Stokes Observations
Fischer, C.E.; Keller, C.U.; Snik, F.
2008-01-01
We have processed full-Stokes observations made with the SOLIS-VSM using Fe I 630.15 and Fe I 630.25 nm. The data have high spectral and temporal resolution, moderate spatial resolution, and large polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy. We use the code LILIA, an LTE inversion code written by
Sigma-convergence of stationary Navier-Stokes type equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Nguetseng
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In the framework of homogenization theory, the Sigma-convergence method is carried out on stationary Navier-Stokes type equations on a fixed domain. Our main tools are the two-scale convergence concept and the so-called homogenization algebras.
Efficient SDM-MIMO Stokes-space equalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caballero, F. J.Vaquero; Zanaty, A.; Pittala, F.
2016-01-01
We propose a novel frequency-domain 6x6 MIMO Stokes-space equalizer and compare its performance to a 6x6 MIMO LMS architecture. This method is suited to overcome DSP complexity and laser linewidth issues in SDM transmission systems....
On analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.
2001-04-01
An analytical method for solving the dissipative, nonlinear and non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Velocity and pressure is expanded in power series of cartesian coordinates and time. The method is applied to 2-D incompressible gravitational flow in a bounded, rectangular domain
Inertial algorithms for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations
Hou, Yanren; Mattheij, R.M.M.
2003-01-01
Several kind of new numerical schemes for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations based on the virtue of Inertial Manifold and Approximate Inertial Manifold, which we call them inertial algorithms in this paper, together with their error estimations are presented. All these algorithms are constructed
Solutions of Navier-Stokes Equation with Coriolis Force
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunggeun Lee
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the Navier-Stokes equation in the presence of Coriolis force in this article. First, the vortex equation with the Coriolis effect is discussed. It turns out that the vorticity can be generated due to a rotation coming from the Coriolis effect, Ω. In both steady state and two-dimensional flow, the vorticity vector ω gets shifted by the amount of -2Ω. Second, we consider the specific expression of the velocity vector of the Navier-Stokes equation in two dimensions. For the two-dimensional potential flow v→=∇→ϕ, the equation satisfied by ϕ is independent of Ω. The remaining Navier-Stokes equation reduces to the nonlinear partial differential equations with respect to the velocity and the corresponding exact solution is obtained. Finally, the steady convective diffusion equation is considered for the concentration c and can be solved with the help of Navier-Stokes equation for two-dimensional potential flow. The convective diffusion equation can be solved in three dimensions with a simple choice of c.
Discretizations in isogeometric analysis of Navier-Stokes flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Nørtoft; Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Gravesen, Jens
2011-01-01
This paper deals with isogeometric analysis of 2-dimensional, steady state, incompressible Navier-Stokes flow subjected to Dirichlet boundary conditions. We present a detailed description of the numerical method used to solve the boundary value problem. Numerical inf-sup stability tests...
Eulerian derivations of non-inertial Navier-Stokes equations
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Combrinck, MA
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an Eulerian derivation of the non-inertial Navier-Stokes equations as an alternative to the Lagrangian fluid parcel approach. This work expands on the work of Kageyama and Hyodo [1] who derived the incompressible momentum equation...
Navier-Stokes Calculations of Helicopter Fuselage Flowfield and Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
M, Costes; Filippone, Antonino; N, Kroll
1999-01-01
This paper describes the theoretically basedactivities conducted during the first year of theBrite/Euram Helifuse Porgramme. These activitiesmainly consisted of the numerical prediction ofhelicopter fuselage flowfields with existing Navier-Stokes solvers on a number of pre-selectedcases, taken out...
Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation: preliminary results
Louie, Daniel C.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmilla; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey; Lee, Tim K.
2018-02-01
This paper reports on the design of a prototype in-vivo Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation, and preliminary results from skin phantom and clinical trials of this device. The probe releases a single millisecond-long pulse from a laser diode with either linear or circular polarization. It then captures the resulting backscattered far-field polarization speckle and calculates the Stokes parameters. This probe was designed with three novel innovations in mind. First, the Stokes vector is captured quickly, using low-cost components without the use of moving parts. Second, a compact collimated laser diode was used as the light source. Third, the device and detector geometry were designed to produce and capture a uniform speckle field. In the first clinical trial of this device, measurements were taken from a variety of skin lesions, both cancerous and benign. The Stokes vector was measured and used to calculate the degree of polarization (DOP), the azimuth angle, and the ellipticity angle of the polarization ellipse for two input light polarizations. Among other findings, the DOP for circular polarized input light was consistently lower than the DOP for linear polarized input light. These findings indicate the potential for a fast and low-cost in-vivo skin cancer screening tool, and encourages the continuing development of this probe's techniques.
Getting in Shape : Swimming with Stokes and Surfing with Brinkman
Bet, B.P.
2018-01-01
In this dissertation, we investigate the effect of shape on the motion of microscopic particles that perform a swimming motion or ‘surf’, driven by an external flow, through microscopic channels. These motions take place in a fluid, and fluid motion is in general described by the Navier-Stokes
Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains
Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.
In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the
Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains
Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.
2009-01-01
In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the
Stirring by blinking rotlets in a bounded Stokes flow
Woude, van der D.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Meleshko, V.V.
2004-01-01
A blinking rotlet model is used for the analysis of stirring in a Stokes flow in a rectangular domain. After the two-dimensional biharmonic equation is solved analytically, the associated velocity field of a pair of blinking rotlets positioned symmetrically on the y -axis, is used studying the
Intrinsic coincident full-Stokes polarimeter using stacked organic photovoltaics.
Yang, Ruonan; Sen, Pratik; O'Connor, B T; Kudenov, M W
2017-02-20
An intrinsic coincident full-Stokes polarimeter is demonstrated by using strain-aligned polymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) that can preferentially absorb certain polarized states of incident light. The photovoltaic-based polarimeter is capable of measuring four Stokes parameters by cascading four semitransparent OPVs in series along the same optical axis. This in-line polarimeter concept potentially ensures high temporal and spatial resolution with higher radiometric efficiency as compared to the existing polarimeter architecture. Two wave plates were incorporated into the system to modulate the S3 Stokes parameter so as to reduce the condition number of the measurement matrix and maximize the measured signal-to-noise ratio. Radiometric calibration was carried out to determine the measurement matrix. The polarimeter presented in this paper demonstrated an average RMS error of 0.84% for reconstructed Stokes vectors after normalized to S0. A theoretical analysis of the minimum condition number of the four-cell OPV design showed that for individually optimized OPV cells, a condition number of 2.4 is possible.
Second-degree Stokes coefficients from multi-satellite SLR
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Blossfeld, M.; Mueller, H.; Gerstl, M.; Štefka, Vojtěch; Bouman, J.; Goettl, F.; Horwath, M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 9 (2015), s. 857-871 ISSN 0949-7714 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : multi-satellite SLR * stokes coefficients * equatorial excitation functions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.486, year: 2015
Analysis of regularized Navier-Stokes equations, 2
Ou, Yuh-Roung; Sritharan, S. S.
1989-01-01
A practically important regularization of the Navier-Stokes equations was analyzed. As a continuation of the previous work, the structure of the attractors characterizing the solutins was studied. Local as well as global invariant manifolds were found. Regularity properties of these manifolds are analyzed.
Topology optimization considering design-dependent Stokes flow loads
Picelli, R.; Vicente, W.M.; Pavanello, R.; van Keulen, A.; Li, Qing; Steven, Grant P.; Zhang, Zhongpu
2015-01-01
This article presents an evolutionary topology optimization method for mean compliance minimization of structures under design-dependent viscous fluid flow loads. The structural domain is governed by the elasticity equation and the fluid by the incompressible Stokes flow equations. When the
On Coupled System of Navier-Stokes Equations and Temperature
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr. Anthony Peter
ABSTRACT. This paper deals with the coupled system of Navier-Stokes equations and temperature (Thermohydraulics) in a strip in the class of spatially non-decaying (infinite-energy) solutions belonging to the properly chosen uniformly local Sobolev spaces. The global well-posedness and dissipativity of the Navier- ...
From Petrov-Einstein to Navier-Stokes
Lysov, Vyacheslav
The fluid/gravity correspondence relates solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation to metrics which solve the Einstein equations. We propose propose two possible approaches to establish this correspondence: perturbative expansion for shear modes and large mean curvature expansion for algebraically special metrics. We show by explicit construction that for every solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in p+1 dimensions, there is an associated "dual" solution of the vacuum Einstein equations in p+2 dimensions. The dual geometry has an intrinsically flat time-like boundary segment whose extrinsic curvature is given by the stress tensor of the Navier-Stokes fluid. We consider a "near-horizon" limit in which hypersurface becomes highly accelerated. The near-horizon expansion in gravity is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the hydrodynamic expansion in fluid dynamics, and the Einstein equation reduces to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. It is shown that imposing a Petrov type I condition on the hypersurface geometry reduces the degrees of freedom in the extrinsic curvature to those of a fluid. Moreover, expanding around a limit in which the mean curvature of the embedding diverges, the leading-order Einstein constraint equations on hypersurface are shown to reduce to the non-linear incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for a fluid moving in hypersurface. We extend the fluid/gravity correspondence to include the magnetohydrodynamics/gravity correspondence, which translates solutions of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (describing charged fluids) into geometries that satisfy the Einstein-Maxwell equations. We present an explicit example of this new correspondence in the context of flat Minkowski space. We show that a perturbative deformation of the Rindler wedge satisfies the Einstein-Maxwell equations provided that the parameters appearing in the expansion, which we interpret as fluid fields, satisfy the
The Stokes-Einstein relation at moderate Schmidt number.
Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Xie, Xiaoyi; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Donev, Aleksandar
2013-12-07
The Stokes-Einstein relation for the self-diffusion coefficient of a spherical particle suspended in an incompressible fluid is an asymptotic result in the limit of large Schmidt number, that is, when momentum diffuses much faster than the particle. When the Schmidt number is moderate, which happens in most particle methods for hydrodynamics, deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction are expected. We study these corrections computationally using a recently developed minimally resolved method for coupling particles to an incompressible fluctuating fluid in both two and three dimensions. We find that for moderate Schmidt numbers the diffusion coefficient is reduced relative to the Stokes-Einstein prediction by an amount inversely proportional to the Schmidt number in both two and three dimensions. We find, however, that the Einstein formula is obeyed at all Schmidt numbers, consistent with linear response theory. The mismatch arises because thermal fluctuations affect the drag coefficient for a particle due to the nonlinear nature of the fluid-particle coupling. The numerical data are in good agreement with an approximate self-consistent theory, which can be used to estimate finite-Schmidt number corrections in a variety of methods. Our results indicate that the corrections to the Stokes-Einstein formula come primarily from the fact that the particle itself diffuses together with the momentum. Our study separates effects coming from corrections to no-slip hydrodynamics from those of finite separation of time scales, allowing for a better understanding of widely observed deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction in particle methods such as molecular dynamics.
Freeman, D. Carl; Brown, Michelle L.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Graham, John H.; Emlen, John M.; Krzysik, Anthony J.; Balbach, Harold E.; Kovacic, David A.; Zak, John C.
2004-01-01
We examined net photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, and leaf fluctuating asymmetry on two species (Rhus copallinum and Ipomoea pandurata) as indicators of stress at nine sites across a gradient of soil disturbance at Fort Benning, Georgia. There were three sites for each of three disturbance levels. Physical habitat disturbance was caused by activities associated with infantry training, including mechanized elements (tanks and personnel carriers) and foot soldiers. In addition, we examined the influence of prescribed burns and microhabitat effects (within meter‐square quadrats centered about the plant) on these measures of plant stress. Net photosynthesis declined with increasing disturbance in the absence of burning for both species. However, when sites were burned the previous year, net photosynthesis increased with increasing disturbance. Developmental instability in Rhus, as measured by fluctuating asymmetry, also declined with increasing disturbance in the absence of burning but increased with disturbance if sites were burned the previous year. Developmental instability was much less sensitive to burning in Ipomoea and in general was lowest at intermediate disturbance sites. Microenvironmental and microhabitat effects were weakly correlated with measures of plant stress when all sites were combined. However, higher correlations were obtained within site categories, especially when the recent history of prescribed burning was used as a category. Finally, using all of the combined data in a discriminant function analysis allowed us to correctly predict the disturbance level of more than 80% of the plants. Plant stress is responsive to both large‐scale perturbations, such as burning, and microhabitat parameters. Because of this, it is important to include macro‐ and microhabitat parameters when assessing stress. Similarly, we found a combination of developmental and physiological indicators of stress was superior to using them
Picosecond anti-Stokes generation in a photonic-crystal fiber for interferometric CARS microscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keiding, Søren Rud
2006-01-01
We generate tunable picosecond anti-Stokes pulses by four-wave mixing of two picosecond pump and Stokes pulse trains in a photonic-crystal fiber. The visible, spectrally narrow anti-Stokes pulses with shifts over 150 nm are generated without generating other spectral features. As a demonstration,...
Stoked nondynamos: sustaining field in magnetically non-closed systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byington, B M; Brummell, N H; Stone, J M; Gough, D O
2014-01-01
Much effort has gone into identifying and classifying systems that might be capable of dynamo action, i.e. capable of generating and sustaining magnetic field indefinitely against dissipative effects in a conducting fluid. However, it is difficult, if not almost technically impossible, to derive a method of determining in both an absolutely conclusive and a pragmatic manner whether a system is a dynamo or not in the nonlinear regime. This problem has generally been examined only for closed systems, despite the fact that most realistic situations of interest are not strictly closed. Here we examine the even more complex problem of whether a known nondynamo closed system can be distinguished pragmatically from a true dynamo when a small input of magnetic field to the system is allowed. We call such systems ‘stoked nondynamos’ owing to the ‘stoking’ or augmentation of the magnetic field in the system. It may seem obvious that magnetic energy can be sustained in such systems since there is an external source, but crucial questions remain regarding what level is maintained and whether such nondynamo systems can be distinguished from a true dynamo. In this paper, we perform 3D nonlinear numerical simulations with time-dependent ABC forcing possessing known dynamo properties. We find that magnetic field can indeed be maintained at a significant stationary level when stoking a system that is a nondynamo when not stoked. The maintained state results generally from an eventual rough balance of the rates of input and decay of magnetic field. We find that the relevance of this state is dictated by a parameter κ representing the correlation of the resultant field with the stoking forcing function. The interesting regime is where κ is small but non-zero, as this represents a middle ground between a state where the stoking has no effect on the pre-existing nondynamo properties and a state where the effect of stoking is easily detectable. We find that in this regime, (a
Stokes-vector and Mueller-matrix polarimetry [Invited].
Azzam, R M A
2016-07-01
This paper reviews the current status of instruments for measuring the full 4×1 Stokes vector S, which describes the state of polarization (SOP) of totally or partially polarized light, and the 4×4 Mueller matrix M, which determines how the SOP is transformed as light interacts with a material sample or an optical element or system. The principle of operation of each instrument is briefly explained by using the Stokes-Mueller calculus. The development of fast, automated, imaging, and spectroscopic instruments over the last 50 years has greatly expanded the range of applications of optical polarimetry and ellipsometry in almost every branch of science and technology. Current challenges and future directions of this important branch of optics are also discussed.
Polarization ellipse and Stokes parameters in geometric algebra.
Santos, Adler G; Sugon, Quirino M; McNamara, Daniel J
2012-01-01
In this paper, we use geometric algebra to describe the polarization ellipse and Stokes parameters. We show that a solution to Maxwell's equation is a product of a complex basis vector in Jackson and a linear combination of plane wave functions. We convert both the amplitudes and the wave function arguments from complex scalars to complex vectors. This conversion allows us to separate the electric field vector and the imaginary magnetic field vector, because exponentials of imaginary scalars convert vectors to imaginary vectors and vice versa, while exponentials of imaginary vectors only rotate the vector or imaginary vector they are multiplied to. We convert this expression for polarized light into two other representations: the Cartesian representation and the rotated ellipse representation. We compute the conversion relations among the representation parameters and their corresponding Stokes parameters. And finally, we propose a set of geometric relations between the electric and magnetic fields that satisfy an equation similar to the Poincaré sphere equation.
On Critical Spaces for the Navier-Stokes Equations
Prüss, Jan; Wilke, Mathias
2017-10-01
The abstract theory of critical spaces developed in Prüss and Wilke (J Evol Equ, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00028-017-0382-6), Prüss et al. (Critical spaces for quasilinear parabolic evolution equations and applications, 2017) is applied to the Navier-Stokes equations in bounded domains with Navier boundary conditions as well as no-slip conditions. Our approach unifies, simplifies and extends existing work in the L_p -L_q setting, considerably. As an essential step, it is shown that the strong and weak Stokes operators with Navier conditions admit an H^∞-calculus with H^∞-angle 0, and the real and complex interpolation spaces of these operators are identified.
A Stokes drift approximation based on the Phillips spectrum
Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.
2016-04-01
A new approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile based on the exact solution for the Phillips spectrum is explored. The profile is compared with the monochromatic profile and the recently proposed exponential integral profile. ERA-Interim spectra and spectra from a wave buoy in the central North Sea are used to investigate the behavior of the profile. It is found that the new profile has a much stronger gradient near the surface and lower normalized deviation from the profile computed from the spectra. Based on estimates from two open-ocean locations, an average value has been estimated for a key parameter of the profile. Given this parameter, the profile can be computed from the same two parameters as the monochromatic profile, namely the transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity.
Partial Averaged Navier-Stokes approach for cavitating flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, L; Zhang, Y N
2015-01-01
Partial Averaged Navier Stokes (PANS) is a numerical approach developed for studying practical engineering problems (e.g. cavitating flow inside hydroturbines) with a resonance cost and accuracy. One of the advantages of PANS is that it is suitable for any filter width, leading a bridging method from traditional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to direct numerical simulations by choosing appropriate parameters. Comparing with RANS, the PANS model will inherit many physical nature from parent RANS but further resolve more scales of motion in great details, leading to PANS superior to RANS. As an important step for PANS approach, one need to identify appropriate physical filter-width control parameters e.g. ratios of unresolved-to-total kinetic energy and dissipation. In present paper, recent studies of cavitating flow based on PANS approach are introduced with a focus on the influences of filter-width control parameters on the simulation results
Benzothiadiazole oligoene fatty acids: fluorescent dyes with large Stokes shifts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukas J. Patalag
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Herein, we report on the synthesis and characterization of novel fluorescent fatty acids with large Stokes shifts. Three examples consisting of the same number of carbon atoms and thus of similar chain length are presented differing in their degree of unsaturation. As major fluorogenic contributor at the terminus benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole was used. Respective syntheses based on Wittig reactions followed by iodine-mediated isomerization are presented. The absorption properties are modulated by the number of conjugated C=C double bonds of the oligoene chain ranging from one to three. Large Stokes shifts of about 4900–5700 cm−1 and fluorescence quantum yields of up to 0.44 were observed.
Stokes phenomena in discrete Painlevé I.
Joshi, N; Lustri, C J
2015-05-08
In this study, we consider the asymptotic behaviour of the first discrete Painlevé equation in the limit as the independent variable becomes large. Using an asymptotic series expansion, we identify two types of solutions which are pole-free within some sector of the complex plane containing the positive real axis. Using exponential asymptotic techniques, we determine Stokes phenomena effects present within these solutions, and hence the regions in which the asymptotic series expression is valid. From a careful analysis of the switching behaviour across Stokes lines, we find that the first type of solution is uniquely defined, while the second type contains two free parameters, and that the region of validity may be extended for appropriate choice of these parameters.
Stokes phenomena in discrete Painlevé II.
Joshi, N; Lustri, C J; Luu, S
2017-02-01
We consider the asymptotic behaviour of the second discrete Painlevé equation in the limit as the independent variable becomes large. Using asymptotic power series, we find solutions that are asymptotically pole-free within some region of the complex plane. These asymptotic solutions exhibit Stokes phenomena, which is typically invisible to classical power series methods. We subsequently apply exponential asymptotic techniques to investigate such phenomena, and obtain mathematical descriptions of the rapid switching behaviour associated with Stokes curves. Through this analysis, we determine the regions of the complex plane in which the asymptotic behaviour is described by a power series expression, and find that the behaviour of these asymptotic solutions shares a number of features with the tronquée and tri-tronquée solutions of the second continuous Painlevé equation.
KNOW-BLADE task-4 report: Navier-Stokes aeroelasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Politis, E.S.; Nikolaou, I.G.; Chaviaropoulos, P.K.
2004-01-01
wind turbine blade have been combined with 2D and 3D unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers. The relative disadvantage of the quasi-3D approach (where the elastic solver is coupled with a 2D Navier-Stokes solver) isits inability to model induced flow. The lack of a validation test case did not allow...... the computations for the full blade, 2D computations for the so-called “typical section” have been carried out. The 2D aeroelastic tools resulted in similar aerodynamic damping values. Qualitative agreement was better for the lead-lagmode. The presence of roughness tapes has a small, rather negligible impact...... on aeroelastic stability as depicted by the results of both aeroelastic tools. On the other hand, in conformity to the inability of the adopted computational model to successfullypredict the corresponding test cases under work package 2 of the project, the aeroelastic tools are not capable to predict the correct...
Shape optimization for Stokes problem with threshold slip
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Haslinger, J.; Stebel, Jan; Taoufik, S.
2014-01-01
Roč. 59, č. 6 (2014), s. 631-652 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Stokes problem * friction boundary condition * shape optimization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10492-014-0077-z
Stability result for Navier-Stokes equations with entropy transport
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Michálek, Martin
2015-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 2 (2015), s. 279-285 ISSN 1422-6928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * entropy transport * effective viscous flux Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.023, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00021-015-0205-x
The Navier-Stokes equations on a bounded domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffer, V.
1980-01-01
Suppose U is an open bounded subset of 3-space such that the boundary of U has Lebesgue measure zero. Then for any initial condition with finite kinetic energy we can find a global (i.e. for all time) weak solution u to the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible fluid flow in U such that the curl of u is continuous outside a locally closed set whose 5/3 dimensional Hausdorff measure is finite. (orig.)
Homogenization of the evolutionary Navier-Stokes system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Namlyeyeva, Yuliya; Nečasová, Šárka
2016-01-01
Roč. 149, č. 1 (2016), s. 251-274 ISSN 0025-2611 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00229-015-0778-y
Implicit methods for the Navier-Stokes equations
Yoon, S.; Kwak, D.
1990-01-01
Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using explicit schemes can be obtained at the expense of efficiency. Conventional implicit methods which often achieve fast convergence rates suffer high cost per iteration. A new implicit scheme based on lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel relaxation offers very low cost per iteration as well as fast convergence. High efficiency is achieved by accomplishing the complete vectorizability of the algorithm on oblique planes of sweep in three dimensions.
Parallel computation of Euler and Navier-Stokes flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swisshelm, J.M.; Johnson, G.M.; Kumar, S.P.
1986-01-01
A multigrid technique useful for accelerating the convergence of Euler and Navier-Stokes flow computations has been restructured to improve its performance on both SIMD and MIMD computers. The new algorithm allows both the construction of longer coarse-grid vectors and the multitasking of entire grids. Computational results are presented for the CDC Cyber 205, Cray X-MP, and Denelcor HEP I. 15 references
The planar Dirichlet problem for the Stokes equations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Medková, Dagmar; Varnhorn, W.
2011-01-01
Roč. 34, č. 9 (2011), s. 1097-1109 ISSN 0170-4214 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Stokes system * single- layer potential * double - layer potential Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.743, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.1425/full
A PARALLEL NONOVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR STOKES PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mei-qun Jiang; Pei-liang Dai
2006-01-01
A nonoverlapping domain decomposition iterative procedure is developed and analyzed for generalized Stokes problems and their finite element approximate problems in RN(N=2,3). The method is based on a mixed-type consistency condition with two parameters as a transmission condition together with a derivative-free transmission data updating technique on the artificial interfaces. The method can be applied to a general multi-subdomain decomposition and implemented on parallel machines with local simple communications naturally.
Navier-Stokes-like equations for traffic flow.
Velasco, R M; Marques, W
2005-10-01
The macroscopic traffic flow equations derived from the reduced Paveri-Fontana equation are closed starting with the maximization of the informational entropy. The homogeneous steady state taken as a reference is obtained for a specific model of the desired velocity and a kind of Chapman-Enskog method is developed to calculate the traffic pressure at the Navier-Stokes level. Numerical solution of the macroscopic traffic equations is obtained and its characteristics are analyzed.
Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on the hyperbolic plane.
Khesin, Boris; Misiolek, Gerard
2012-11-06
We show that nonuniqueness of the Leray-Hopf solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation on the hyperbolic plane (2) observed by Chan and Czubak is a consequence of the Hodge decomposition. We show that this phenomenon does not occur on (n) whenever n ≥ 3. We also describe the corresponding general Hamiltonian framework of hydrodynamics on complete Riemannian manifolds, which includes the hyperbolic setting.
Euler and Navier–Stokes equations on the hyperbolic plane
Khesin, Boris; Misiołek, Gerard
2012-01-01
We show that nonuniqueness of the Leray–Hopf solutions of the Navier–Stokes equation on the hyperbolic plane ℍ2 observed by Chan and Czubak is a consequence of the Hodge decomposition. We show that this phenomenon does not occur on ℍn whenever n ≥ 3. We also describe the corresponding general Hamiltonian framework of hydrodynamics on complete Riemannian manifolds, which includes the hyperbolic setting. PMID:23091015
Application of the parallel BDDC preconditioner to the Stokes flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šístek, Jakub; Sousedík, Bedřich; Burda, P.; Mandel, J.; Novotný, J.
2011-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 429-435 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702; GA ČR GA106/08/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : BDDC * domain decomprosition * iterative substructuring * Stokes flow Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793011000053
p-Euler equations and p-Navier-Stokes equations
Li, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo
2018-04-01
We propose in this work new systems of equations which we call p-Euler equations and p-Navier-Stokes equations. p-Euler equations are derived as the Euler-Lagrange equations for the action represented by the Benamou-Brenier characterization of Wasserstein-p distances, with incompressibility constraint. p-Euler equations have similar structures with the usual Euler equations but the 'momentum' is the signed (p - 1)-th power of the velocity. In the 2D case, the p-Euler equations have streamfunction-vorticity formulation, where the vorticity is given by the p-Laplacian of the streamfunction. By adding diffusion presented by γ-Laplacian of the velocity, we obtain what we call p-Navier-Stokes equations. If γ = p, the a priori energy estimates for the velocity and momentum have dual symmetries. Using these energy estimates and a time-shift estimate, we show the global existence of weak solutions for the p-Navier-Stokes equations in Rd for γ = p and p ≥ d ≥ 2 through a compactness criterion.
The Green Monster: Stokes's 1944 Modern Clinical Syphilology.
Jackson, Robert
2010-01-01
There is much information on the life and accomplishments of John Hinchman Stokes (1885-1961), the dermatologist and syphilologist. There is little detailed information on his 1944 classic text on syphilis, Modern Clinical Syphilology. To review and critique this book. A careful review of the book, his life, and the accomplishments that were undertaken in relation to the age in which he lived. The book is indeed a goldmine of information of all aspects of syphilis from pre-World War I (1905) until the late (1944) World War II era. The factors that make it a classic are as follows: (1) the disease had a specific cause; (2) Stokes's 25-year obsession with the disease; (3) there was no effective simple cure for most of the time he was studying it; (4) Stokes was an obsessive, intelligent, well-trained physician; (5) he lived in a well-developed, reasonably stable country; and (6) he was able to see how the disease could be adequately treated with penicillin and compare these events with those in the prepenicillin era.
Coupling nonlinear Stokes and Darcy flow using mortar finite elements
Ervin, Vincent J.
2011-11-01
We study a system composed of a nonlinear Stokes flow in one subdomain coupled with a nonlinear porous medium flow in another subdomain. Special attention is paid to the mathematical consequence of the shear-dependent fluid viscosity for the Stokes flow and the velocity-dependent effective viscosity for the Darcy flow. Motivated by the physical setting, we consider the case where only flow rates are specified on the inflow and outflow boundaries in both subdomains. We recast the coupled Stokes-Darcy system as a reduced matching problem on the interface using a mortar space approach. We prove a number of properties of the nonlinear interface operator associated with the reduced problem, which directly yield the existence, uniqueness and regularity of a variational solution to the system. We further propose and analyze a numerical algorithm based on mortar finite elements for the interface problem and conforming finite elements for the subdomain problems. Optimal a priori error estimates are established for the interface and subdomain problems, and a number of compatibility conditions for the finite element spaces used are discussed. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the algorithm and to compare two treatments of the defective boundary conditions. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of IMACS.
Stokes phenomena and monodromy deformation problem for nonlinear Schrodinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chowdury, A.R.; Naskar, M.
1986-01-01
Following Flaschka and Newell, the inverse problem for Painleve IV is formulated with the help of similarity variables. The Painleve IV arises as the eliminant of the two second-order ordinary differential equations originating from the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Asymptotic expansions are obtained near the singularities at zero and infinity of the complex eigenvalue plane. The corresponding analysis then displays the Stokes phenomena. The monodromy matrices connecting the solution Y /sub j/ in the sector S /sub j/ to that in S /sub j+1/ are fixed in structure by the imposition of certain conditions. It is then shown that a deformation keeping the monodromy data fixed leads to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. While Flaschka and Newell did not make any absolute determination of the Stokes parameters, the present approach yields the values of the Stokes parameters in an explicit way, which in turn can determine the matrix connecting the solutions near zero and infinity. Finally, it is shown that the integral equation originating from the analyticity and asymptotic nature of the problem leads to the similarity solution previously determined by Boiti and Pampinelli
Self-similarity in incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M Levent
2015-12-01
The self-similarity conditions of the 3-dimensional (3D) incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained by utilizing one-parameter Lie group of point scaling transformations. It is found that the scaling exponents of length dimensions in i = 1, 2, 3 coordinates in 3-dimensions are not arbitrary but equal for the self-similarity of 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. It is also shown that the self-similarity in this particular flow process can be achieved in different time and space scales when the viscosity of the fluid is also scaled in addition to other flow variables. In other words, the self-similarity of Navier-Stokes equations is achievable under different fluid environments in the same or different gravity conditions. Self-similarity criteria due to initial and boundary conditions are also presented. Utilizing the proposed self-similarity conditions of the 3D hydrodynamic flow process, the value of a flow variable at a specified time and space can be scaled to a corresponding value in a self-similar domain at the corresponding time and space.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baltog, Ioan; Baibarac, Mihaela; Smaranda, Ion; Lefrant, Serge
2011-01-01
In this paper, we demonstrate that, by continuous single beam excitation, one can generate an abnormal anti-Stokes Raman emission (AASRE) whose properties are similar to a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The effect has been observed in materials which possess intrinsically nonlinear properties (LiNbO 3 and CdS), which have the electric susceptibility of third order different from zero, χ (3) ≠ 0, as well as in materials that become nonlinear under resonant optical excitation. In the latter case, we used poly-3,4-ethylendioxythiophene (PEDOT) in its undoped state deposited electrochemically on Au support. Raman studies corroborated with images of optical microscopy demonstrate that the production of AASRE is conditioned by the existence of a particular morphology of the sample able to ensure efficient transport of the light inside the sample through a multiple light scattering mechanism. In this context, it was found that LiNbO 3 and CdS in powder form as well as the PEDOT films layered on a rough Au substrate are suitable morphological forms. We explain AASRE as resulting from a wave-mixing mechanism of the incident laser light ω l with a Stokes-shifted Raman light ω S produced by a spontaneous Raman light scattering process, both strongly scattered inside the sample. As a CARS process, AASRE is conditioned by the achievement of phase-matching requirements, which makes the difference between the wave vectors of mixing light close to zero, Δk =/2k l - k S - k CARS /∼ 0. In condensed media, the small dispersion of the refractive index makes Δk ∼ 0 so that the formation of a favourable phase-matching geometry may be accomplished even at a crossing angle θ of travelling scattered light ω l and ω S . For tightly focused beams, the requirement of phase matching relaxes; it is no longer sensitive to the Raman shift, so that a wide intense anti-Stokes Raman spectrum is observed at an angle larger than the Stokes Raman spectrum.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure: causes and consequences
Lorenzi-Filho,Geraldo; Genta,Pedro R; Figueiredo,Adelaide C.; Inoue,Daniel
2005-01-01
Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a form of periodic breathing in which central apneas and hypopneas alternate with periods of hyperventilation, producing a waxing and waning pattern of tidal volume. This review focuses on the causes and consequences of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure, in whom the prevalence is strikingly high and ranges from 30% to 50%. Several factors have been implicated in the genesis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, including low cardiac outpu...
Imaging Stars by Performing Full-Stokes Optical Interferometric Polarimetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas M. Elias II
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Optical interferometry and polarimetry have separately provided new insights into stellar astronomy, especially in the fields of fundamental parameters and atmospheric models. We present: scientific justifications for “full-Stokes” optical interferometric polarimetry (OIP; updated instrument requirements; preliminary beam combiner designs; polarimeter design; end-to-end OIP data reduction; and realistic reimaged full-Stokes models of Be stars with a suitable number of telescopes plus noise sources. All of this work represents preliminary research to construct an OIP beam combiner.
Smooth solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pokhozhaev, S I
2014-01-01
We consider smooth solutions of the Cauchy problem for the Navier-Stokes equations on the scale of smooth functions which are periodic with respect to x∈R 3 . We obtain existence theorems for global (with respect to t>0) and local solutions of the Cauchy problem. The statements of these depend on the smoothness and the norm of the initial vector function. Upper bounds for the behaviour of solutions in both classes, which depend on t, are also obtained. Bibliography: 10 titles
Capillary-gravity waves and the Navier-Stokes equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behroozi, F.; Podolefsky, N.
2001-01-01
Water waves are a source of great fascination for undergraduates and thus provide an excellent context for introducing some important topics in fluid dynamics. In this paper we introduce the potential theory for incompressible and inviscid flow and derive the differential equation that governs the behaviour of the velocity potential. Next we obtain the harmonic solutions of the velocity potential by a very general argument. These solutions in turn yield the equations for the velocity and displacement of a water element under the action of a harmonic wave. Finally we obtain the dispersion relation for surface waves by requiring that the harmonic solutions satisfy the Navier-Stokes equation. (author)
Topology optimization of 3D Stokes flow problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Sigmund, Ole; Bendsøe, Martin P.
fluid mechanics. In future practice a muTAS could be used by doctors, engineers etc. as a hand held device with short reaction time that provides on-site analysis of a flowing substance such as blood, polluted water or similar. Borrvall and Petersson [2] paved the road for using the topology...... particular at micro scales since they are easily manufacturable and maintenance free. Here we consider topology optimization of 3D Stokes flow problems which is a reasonable fluid model to use at small scales. The presentation elaborates on effects caused by 3D fluid modelling on the design. Numerical...
Anti-Stokes Luminescence in High Quality Quantum Wells
Vinattieri, A.; Bogani, F.; Miotto, A.; Ceccherini, S.
1997-11-01
We present a detailed investigation of the anti-Stokes (AS) luminescence which originates from exciton recombination when below gap excitation is used, in a set of high quality quantum well structures. We observe strong excitonic resonances in the AS signal as measured from photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra. We demonstrate that neither the electromagnetic coupling between the wells nor the morphological disorder can explain this up-conversion effect. Time-resolved luminescence data after ps excitation and fs correlation spectroscopy results provide clear evidence of the occurrence of a two-step absorption which is assisted by the exciton population resonantly excited by the first photon.
A new plastic scintillator with large Stokes shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Destruel, P.; Taufer, M.
1989-01-01
We have developed a new plastic scintillator with the novel characteristic of highly localized light emission; scintillation and wavelength shifting take place within a few tens of micrometers of the primary ionization. The new scintillator consists of a scintillating polymer base [polyvinyl toluene (PVT) or polystyrene (PS)] doped with a single wavelength shifter, 1-phenyl-3-mesityl-2-pyrazoline (PMP), which has an exceptionally large Stokes shift and therefore a comparatively small self-absorption of its emitted light. In other characteristics (e.g. scintillation efficiency and decay time) the performance of the new scintillator is similar to a good quality commercial plastic scintillator such as NE110. (orig.)
Navier-Stokes equations by the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portella, P.E.
1984-01-01
A computer program to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by using the Finite Element Method is implemented. The solutions variables investigated are stream-function/vorticity in the steady case and velocity/pressure in the steady state and transient cases. For steady state flow the equations are solved simultaneously by the Newton-Raphson method. For the time dependent formulation, a fractional step method is employed to discretize in time and artificial viscosity is used to preclude spurious oscilations in the solution. The element used is the three node triangle. Some numerical examples are presented and comparisons are made with applications already existent. (Author) [pt
Isogeometric analysis of the isothermal Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations
Gomez, Hector
2010-05-01
This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations, a phase-field model for water/water-vapor two-phase flows. We develop a numerical formulation based on isogeometric analysis that permits straightforward treatment of the higher-order partial-differential operator that represents capillarity. We introduce a new refinement methodology that desensitizes the numerical solution to the computational mesh and achieves mesh invariant solutions. Finally, we present several numerical examples in two and three dimensions that illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Steady State Stokes Flow Interpolation for Fluid Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhatacharya, Haimasree; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Bridson, Robert
2012-01-01
— suffer from a common problem. They fail to capture the rotational components of the velocity field, although extrapolation in the normal direction does consider the tangential component. We address this problem by casting the interpolation as a steady state Stokes flow. This type of flow captures......Fluid control methods often require surface velocities interpolated throughout the interior of a shape to use the velocity as a feedback force or as a boundary condition. Prior methods for interpolation in computer graphics — velocity extrapolation in the normal direction and potential flow...
Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamics beyond Navier-Stokes.
Bobylev, A V
2018-04-28
We consider in this paper the problem of derivation and regularization of higher (in Knudsen number) equations of hydrodynamics. The author's approach based on successive changes of hydrodynamic variables is presented in more detail for the Burnett level. The complete theory is briefly discussed for the linearized Boltzmann equation. It is shown that the best results in this case can be obtained by using the 'diagonal' equations of hydrodynamics. Rigorous estimates of accuracy of the Navier-Stokes and Burnett approximations are also presented.This article is part of the theme issue 'Hilbert's sixth problem'. © 2018 The Author(s).
The Stokes Phenomenon, Borel Summation and Mellin-Barnes Regularisation
Kowalenko, Victor
2009-01-01
The Stokes phenomenon refers to the emergence of jump discontinuities in asymptotic expansions at specific rays in the complex plane. This book presents a radical theory for the phenomenon by introducing the concept of regularization. Two methods of regularization, Borel summation and Mellin-Barnes regularization, are used to derive general expressions for the regularized values of asymptotic expansions throughout the complex plane. Though different, both yield identical values, which, where possible, agree with the original functions. Consequently, asymptotics has been elevated to a true disc
The Stokes phenomenon and the Lerch zeta function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. B. Paris
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We examine the exponentially improved asymptotic expansion of the Lerch zeta function $L(\\lambda,a,s=\\sum_{n=0}^\\infty \\exp (2\\pi ni\\lambda/(n+a^s$ for large complex values of $a$, with $\\lambda$ and $s$ regarded as parameters. It is shown that an infinite number of subdominant exponential terms switch on across the Stokes lines $\\arg\\,a=\\pm\\fs\\pi$. In addition, it is found that the transition across the upper and lower imaginary $a$-axes is associated, in general, with unequal scales. Numerical calculations are presented to confirm the theoretical predictions.
Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.
2017-05-23
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.
Newton-like methods for Navier-Stokes solution
Qin, N.; Xu, X.; Richards, B. E.
1992-12-01
The paper reports on Newton-like methods called SFDN-alpha-GMRES and SQN-alpha-GMRES methods that have been devised and proven as powerful schemes for large nonlinear problems typical of viscous compressible Navier-Stokes solutions. They can be applied using a partially converged solution from a conventional explicit or approximate implicit method. Developments have included the efficient parallelization of the schemes on a distributed memory parallel computer. The methods are illustrated using a RISC workstation and a transputer parallel system respectively to solve a hypersonic vortical flow.
Towards an ideal preconditioner for linearized Navier-Stokes problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murphy, M.F. [Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
Discretizing certain linearizations of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations gives rise to nonsymmetric linear systems with indefinite symmetric part. We show that for such systems there exists a block diagonal preconditioner which gives convergence in three GMRES steps, independent of the mesh size and viscosity parameter (Reynolds number). While this {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} preconditioner is too expensive to be used in practice, it provides a useful insight into the problem. We then consider various approximations to the ideal preconditioner, and describe the eigenvalues of the preconditioned systems. Finally, we compare these preconditioners numerically, and present our conclusions.
Statistics of the Navier–Stokes-alpha-beta regularization model for fluid turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinz, Denis F; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Fried, Eliot
2014-01-01
We explore one-point and two-point statistics of the Navier–Stokes-αβ regularization model at moderate Reynolds number (Re ≈ 200) in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The results are compared to the limit cases of the Navier–Stokes-α model and the Navier–Stokes-αβ model without subgrid-scale stress, as well as with high-resolution direct numerical simulation. After reviewing spectra of different energy norms of the Navier–Stokes-αβ model, the Navier–Stokes-α model, and Navier–Stokes-αβ model without subgrid-scale stress, we present probability density functions and normalized probability density functions of the filtered and unfiltered velocity increments along with longitudinal velocity structure functions of the regularization models and direct numerical simulation results. We highlight differences in the statistical properties of the unfiltered and filtered velocity fields entering the governing equations of the Navier–Stokes-α and Navier–Stokes-αβ models and discuss the usability of both velocity fields for realistic flow predictions. The influence of the modified viscous term in the Navier–Stokes-αβ model is studied through comparison to the case where the underlying subgrid-scale stress tensor is neglected. Whereas, the filtered velocity field is found to have physically more viable probability density functions and structure functions for the approximation of direct numerical simulation results, the unfiltered velocity field is found to have flatness factors close to direct numerical simulation results. (paper)
Strong plasma shock structures based on the Navier--Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, K.
1975-01-01
The structure of a plasma collisional shock wave is examined on the basis of the Navier--Stokes equations and simultaneously on the basis of the Fokker--Planck equation. The resultant structures are compared to check the validity of the Navier--Stokes equations applied to the structures of strong shock waves. The Navier--Stokes equations give quite correct structures for weak shock waves. For the strong shock waves, the detailed structures obtained from the Navier--Stokes equations differ from the results of the Fokker--Planck equation, but the shock thicknesses of the two shock waves are in relatively close agreement
Measurement configuration optimization for dynamic metrology using Stokes polarimetry
Liu, Jiamin; Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Zhicheng; Gu, Honggang; Chen, Xiuguo; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Shiyuan
2018-05-01
As dynamic loading experiments such as a shock compression test are usually characterized by short duration, unrepeatability and high costs, high temporal resolution and precise accuracy of the measurements is required. Due to high temporal resolution up to a ten-nanosecond-scale, a Stokes polarimeter with six parallel channels has been developed to capture such instantaneous changes in optical properties in this paper. Since the measurement accuracy heavily depends on the configuration of the probing beam incident angle and the polarizer azimuth angle, it is important to select an optimal combination from the numerous options. In this paper, a systematic error propagation-based measurement configuration optimization method corresponding to the Stokes polarimeter was proposed. The maximal Frobenius norm of the combinatorial matrix of the configuration error propagating matrix and the intrinsic error propagating matrix is introduced to assess the measurement accuracy. The optimal configuration for thickness measurement of a SiO2 thin film deposited on a Si substrate has been achieved by minimizing the merit function. Simulation and experimental results show a good agreement between the optimal measurement configuration achieved experimentally using the polarimeter and the theoretical prediction. In particular, the experimental result shows that the relative error in the thickness measurement can be reduced from 6% to 1% by using the optimal polarizer azimuth angle when the incident angle is 45°. Furthermore, the optimal configuration for the dynamic metrology of a nickel foil under quasi-dynamic loading is investigated using the proposed optimization method.
Reliability enhancement of Navier-Stokes codes through convergence acceleration
Merkle, Charles L.; Dulikravich, George S.
1995-01-01
Methods for enhancing the reliability of Navier-Stokes computer codes through improving convergence characteristics are presented. The improving of these characteristics decreases the likelihood of code unreliability and user interventions in a design environment. The problem referred to as a 'stiffness' in the governing equations for propulsion-related flowfields is investigated, particularly in regard to common sources of equation stiffness that lead to convergence degradation of CFD algorithms. Von Neumann stability theory is employed as a tool to study the convergence difficulties involved. Based on the stability results, improved algorithms are devised to ensure efficient convergence in different situations. A number of test cases are considered to confirm a correlation between stability theory and numerical convergence. The examples of turbulent and reacting flow are presented, and a generalized form of the preconditioning matrix is derived to handle these problems, i.e., the problems involving additional differential equations for describing the transport of turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate and chemical species. Algorithms for unsteady computations are considered. The extension of the preconditioning techniques and algorithms derived for Navier-Stokes computations to three-dimensional flow problems is discussed. New methods to accelerate the convergence of iterative schemes for the numerical integration of systems of partial differential equtions are developed, with a special emphasis on the acceleration of convergence on highly clustered grids.
Navier-Stokes dynamics on a differential one-form
Story, Troy L.
2006-11-01
After transforming the Navier-Stokes dynamic equation into a characteristic differential one-form on an odd-dimensional differentiable manifold, exterior calculus is used to construct a pair of differential equations and tangent vector(vortex vector) characteristic of Hamiltonian geometry. A solution to the Navier-Stokes dynamic equation is then obtained by solving this pair of equations for the position x^k and the conjugate to the position bk as functions of time. The solution bk is shown to be divergence-free by contracting the differential 3-form corresponding to the divergence of the gradient of the velocity with a triple of tangent vectors, implying constraints on two of the tangent vectors for the system. Analysis of the solution bk shows it is bounded since it remains finite as | x^k | ->,, and is physically reasonable since the square of the gradient of the principal function is bounded. By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with the vortex vector, the Lagrangian is obtained.
Modeling Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code
Dudek, Julianne C.
2011-01-01
A source-term model that simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force that would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of incidence of the physical vane. The model behavior was evaluated for subsonic flow in a rectangular duct with a single vane vortex generator, subsonic flow in an S-duct with 22 corotating vortex generators, and supersonic flow in a rectangular duct with a counter-rotating vortex-generator pair. The model was also used to successfully simulate microramps in supersonic flow by treating each microramp as a pair of vanes with opposite angles of incidence. The validation results indicate that the source-term vortex-generator model provides a useful tool for screening vortex-generator configurations and gives comparable results to solutions computed using gridded vanes.
Possible and impossible solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irmay, S.
1998-01-01
Flow of isochoric constant-viscosity fluids obeys continuity and the Navier-Stokes equations. They are difficult to solve being nonlinear with a nonslip boundary condition at solid walls. Berker presented many solutions, but some of them, e.g. irrotational velocity, contradict the repulsion condition. Radial flow, possible between two nonparallel planes, is shown to be impossible in a cone, though an approximate solution exists. Parallel (equidistant) streamlines are possible only if rectilinear, concentric or coaxial circles, or helices of equal inclination on coaxial cylinders. Two-way flows resemble ideal and Stokes flows. The author presents some spatial jets impacting on a fixed or parallelly moving boundary. A general unsteady spatial solution near a plane boundary is expressed as power series of z, distance from the wall, which shows most boundary layer solutions to be valid only up to z 2 terms. Uniform steady-state flow at a constant piezo metric gradient in the x-direction, between nonparallel planes, has a definite solution only up to second-order terms in (y,z), due to undefined boundary condition at ∞. Acceleration averaged over time gives insight into the properties of pseudoturbulent or chaotic (turbulent) flows. Turbulent shear is redefined and Reynolds (turbulent) stresses loose their meaning
Navier–Stokes flow in converging–diverging distensible tubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taha Sochi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We use a method based on the lubrication approximation in conjunction with a residual-based mass-continuity iterative solution scheme to compute the flow rate and pressure field in distensible converging–diverging tubes for Navier–Stokes fluids. We employ an analytical formula derived from a one-dimensional version of the Navier–Stokes equations to describe the underlying flow model that provides the residual function. This formula correlates the flow rate to the boundary pressures in straight cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius. We validate our findings by the convergence toward a final solution with fine discretization as well as by comparison to the Poiseuille-type flow in its convergence toward analytic solutions found earlier in rigid converging–diverging tubes. We also tested the method on limiting special cases of cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius where the numerical solutions converged to the expected analytical solutions. The distensible model has also been endorsed by its convergence toward the rigid Poiseuille-type model with increasing the tube wall stiffness. Lubrication-based one-dimensional finite element method was also used for verification. In this investigation five converging–diverging geometries are used for demonstration, validation and as prototypes for modeling converging–diverging geometries in general.
Boussinesq approximation of the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes equations.
Vorobev, Anatoliy
2010-11-01
We use the Cahn-Hilliard approach to model the slow dissolution dynamics of binary mixtures. An important peculiarity of the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes equations is the necessity to use the full continuity equation even for a binary mixture of two incompressible liquids due to dependence of mixture density on concentration. The quasicompressibility of the governing equations brings a short time-scale (quasiacoustic) process that may not affect the slow dynamics but may significantly complicate the numerical treatment. Using the multiple-scale method we separate the physical processes occurring on different time scales and, ultimately, derive the equations with the filtered-out quasiacoustics. The derived equations represent the Boussinesq approximation of the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes equations. This approximation can be further employed as a universal theoretical model for an analysis of slow thermodynamic and hydrodynamic evolution of the multiphase systems with strongly evolving and diffusing interfacial boundaries, i.e., for the processes involving dissolution/nucleation, evaporation/condensation, solidification/melting, polymerization, etc.
Preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for the Navier-Stokes equations
Ajmani, Kumud; Ng, Wing-Fai; Liou, Meng-Sing
1994-01-01
A preconditioned Krylov subspace method (GMRES) is used to solve the linear systems of equations formed at each time-integration step of the unsteady, two-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are cast in an implicit, upwind finite-volume, flux-split formulation. Several preconditioning techniques are investigated to enhance the efficiency and convergence rate of the implicit solver based on the GMRES algorithm. The superiority of the new solver is established by comparisons with a conventional implicit solver, namely line Gauss-Seidel relaxation (LGSR). Computational test results for low-speed (incompressible flow over a backward-facing step at Mach 0.1), transonic flow (trailing edge flow in a transonic turbine cascade), and hypersonic flow (shock-on-shock interactions on a cylindrical leading edge at Mach 6.0) are presented. For the Mach 0.1 case, overall speedup factors of up to 17 (in terms of time-steps) and 15 (in terms of CPU time on a CRAY-YMP/8) are found in favor of the preconditioned GMRES solver, when compared with the LGSR solver. The corresponding speedup factors for the transonic flow case are 17 and 23, respectively. The hypersonic flow case shows slightly lower speedup factors of 9 and 13, respectively. The study of preconditioners conducted in this research reveals that a new LUSGS-type preconditioner is much more efficient than a conventional incomplete LU-type preconditioner.
Extended depth measurement for a Stokes sample imaging polarimeter
Dixon, Alexander W.; Taberner, Andrew J.; Nash, Martyn P.; Nielsen, Poul M. F.
2018-02-01
A non-destructive imaging technique is required for quantifying the anisotropic and heterogeneous structural arrangement of collagen in soft tissue membranes, such as bovine pericardium, which are used in the construction of bioprosthetic heart valves. Previously, our group developed a Stokes imaging polarimeter that measures the linear birefringence of samples in a transmission arrangement. With this device, linear retardance and optic axis orientation; can be estimated over a sample using simple vector algebra on Stokes vectors in the Poincaré sphere. However, this method is limited to a single path retardation of a half-wave, limiting the thickness of samples that can be imaged. The polarimeter has been extended to allow illumination of narrow bandwidth light of controllable wavelength through achromatic lenses and polarization optics. We can now take advantage of the wavelength dependence of relative retardation to remove ambiguities that arise when samples have a single path retardation of a half-wave to full-wave. This effectively doubles the imaging depth of this method. The method has been validated using films of cellulose of varied thickness, and applied to samples of bovine pericardium.
An efficient iterative method for the generalized Stokes problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sameh, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN (United States); Sarin, V. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper presents an efficient iterative scheme for the generalized Stokes problem, which arises frequently in the simulation of time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flow. The general form of the linear system is where A = {alpha}M + vT is an n x n symmetric positive definite matrix, in which M is the mass matrix, T is the discrete Laplace operator, {alpha} and {nu} are positive constants proportional to the inverses of the time-step {Delta}t and the Reynolds number Re respectively, and B is the discrete gradient operator of size n x k (k < n). Even though the matrix A is symmetric and positive definite, the system is indefinite due to the incompressibility constraint (B{sup T}u = 0). This causes difficulties both for iterative methods and commonly used preconditioners. Moreover, depending on the ratio {alpha}/{nu}, A behaves like the mass matrix M at one extreme and the Laplace operator T at the other, thus complicating the issue of preconditioning.
Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Junghani, Majid Salehizade; Absari, Reza; Khoogar, Mehdi; Ghaedi, Ehsan
2017-10-01
Type 2 diabetes often leads to dislipidemia and abnormal activity of hepatic enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of Rhus coriaria ( R. coriaria ) seed extrac on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice (30-35 g) were randomly separated into seven groups: control, diabetic group, diabetic mice treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, as standard antidiabetic drug) or R. coriaria seed extract in doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control groups received these two doses of extract orally for 28 days. Induction of diabetes was done by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Ultimately, body weight of mice, blood levels of glucose, insulin, hepatic enzymes, leptin, and lipid profile were assayed. After induction of type 2 diabetes, level of glucose, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase increased and level of insulin and high density lipoprotein decreased remarkably. Administration of both doses of extract decreased level of glucose and cholesterol significantly in diabetic mice. LDL level decreased in treated group with dose of 300 mg/kg of the extract. Although usage of the extract improved level of other lipid profiles, insulin and hepatic enzymes, changes weren't significant. This study showed R. coriaria seeds administration has a favorable effect in controlling some blood parameters in type 2 diabetes. Therefore it may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miryam Lucía Guerra-Mazo
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Presenta los resultados de la comparación entre las ecuaciones de Stokes y de Navier-Stokes para la simulación del flujo de agua líquida, a condiciones atmosféricas, a través de una placa orificio concéntrica. A partir de los datos experimentales que fueron tomados en el banco de fluidos, se evaluaron las simulaciones de ambas ecuaciones, usando el software libre Freefem++cs, que se basa en el método de los elementos finitos; las variables evaluadas son velocidad y presión en un intervalo de tiempo. Al analizar los resultados obtenidos con las simulaciones y comparar con los datos experimentales se encontró que las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes representan mejor el sistema que la ecuación de Stokes.
High-order Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman generation in monoisotopic CVD {sup 12}C-diamond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaminskii, Alexander A. [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lux, Oliver; Rhee, Hanjo; Eichler, Hans J. [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Ralchenko, Victor G.; Bolshakov, Andrey P. [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shirakawa, Akira; Yoneda, Hitoki [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan)
2016-06-15
We determined, for the first time, the room temperature phonon energy related to the F{sub 2g} vibration mode (ω{sub SRS(12C)} ∝ 1333.2 cm{sup -1}) in a mono-crystalline single-isotope CVD {sup 12}C-diamond crystal by means of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy. Picosecond one-micron excitation using a Nd{sup 3+}:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}-laser generates a nearly two-octave spanning SRS frequency comb (∝12000 cm{sup -1}) consisting of higher-order Stokes and anti-Stokes components. The spacing of the spectral lines was found to differ by Δω{sub SRS} ∝ 0.9 cm{sup -1} from the comb spacing (ω{sub SRS(natC)} ∝ 1332.3 cm{sup -1}) when pumping a conventional CVD diamond crystal with a natural composition of the two stable carbon isotopes {sup 12}C (98.93%) and {sup 13}C (1.07%). (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
A stable penalty method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations: I. Open boundary conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hesthaven, Jan; Gottlieb, D.
1996-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present asymptotically stable open boundary conditions for the numerical approximation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. The treatment uses the conservation form of the Navier-Stokes equations and utilizes linearization...
Regularity of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations with viewpoint of 2D flow
Bae, Hyeong-Ohk
2018-04-01
The regularity of 2D Navier-Stokes flow is well known. In this article we study the relationship of 3D and 2D flow, and the regularity of the 3D Naiver-Stokes equations with viewpoint of 2D equations. We consider the problem in the Cartesian and in the cylindrical coordinates.
Uzawa smoother in multigrid for the coupleD porous medium and stokes flow system
P. Luo (Peiyao); C. Rodrigo (Carmen); F.J. Gaspar Lorenz (Franscisco); C.W. Oosterlee (Kees)
2017-01-01
textabstractThe multigrid solution of coupled porous media and Stokes flow problems is considered. The Darcy equation as the saturated porous medium model is coupled to the Stokes equations by means of appropriate interface conditions. We focus on an efficient multigrid solution technique for the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andresen, Esben Ravn; Paulsen, Henrik Nørgaard; Birkedal, Victoria
2006-01-01
We demonstrate spectral multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy and microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). The Stokes pulse is generated by spectral conversion of the laser pulse in a PCF. The pump pulse is eit...
Reproductive solutions for the g-Navier-Stokes and g-Kelvin-Voight equations
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Luis Friz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents the existence of reproductive solutions of g-Navier-Stokes and g-Kelvin-Voight equations. In this way, for weak solutions, we reach basically the same result as for classic Navier-Stokes equations.
KNOW-BLADE task-4 report. Navier-Stokes aeroelasticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Politis, E.S.; Nikolaou, I.G.; Chaviaropoulos, P.K.; Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, N.N.; Johansen, J.
2005-01-01
The problem of the aeroelastic stability of wind turbine blades is addressed in this report by advancing the aerodynamic modelling in the beam element type codes from the engineering-type empirical models to unsteady, 2D or 3D, Navier-Stokes solvers. In this project, structural models for the full wind turbine blade have been combined with 2D and 3D unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers. The relative disadvantage of the quasi-3D approach (where the elastic solver is coupled with a 2D Navier-Stokes solver) is its inability to model induced flow. The lack of a validation test case did not allow for quantitative comparisons with experimental data to be carried out; instead the results of the advanced aeroelastic tools are qualitatively cross-compared. All investigated methods predicted qualitatively similar results. They all resulted in positive aerodynamic damping values for the flap mode, in a decrease in damping with the increase of wind speeds and in a minimum value for the damping for wind speed around 15{approx}m/s. The eigenvalue analyses resulted in steeper distributions for this mode. The agreement in aerodynamic damping decrease with the increase of wind speed is also observed in the distributions for the lead-lag mode. In perspective, the uncoupled, linear method results in higher values of aerodynamic damping compared to the 3D aeroelastic tool. The quasi-3D tool results in lower aerodynamic damping values in the higher wind speeds and in lower damping values in the lower wind speed regime. Apart from the computations for the full blade, 2D computations for the so-called 'typical section' have been carried out. The 2D aeroelastic tools resulted in similar aerodynamic damping values. Qualitative agreement was better for the lead-lag mode. The presence of roughness tapes has a small, rather negligible impact on aeroelastic stability as depicted by the results of both aeroelastic tools. On the other hand, in conformity to the inability of the adopted
Investigation of Navier-Stokes Code Verification and Design Optimization
Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar
2004-01-01
With rapid progress made in employing computational techniques for various complex Navier-Stokes fluid flow problems, design optimization problems traditionally based on empirical formulations and experiments are now being addressed with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To be able to carry out an effective CFD-based optimization study, it is essential that the uncertainty and appropriate confidence limits of the CFD solutions be quantified over the chosen design space. The present dissertation investigates the issues related to code verification, surrogate model-based optimization and sensitivity evaluation. For Navier-Stokes (NS) CFD code verification a least square extrapolation (LSE) method is assessed. This method projects numerically computed NS solutions from multiple, coarser base grids onto a freer grid and improves solution accuracy by minimizing the residual of the discretized NS equations over the projected grid. In this dissertation, the finite volume (FV) formulation is focused on. The interplay between the xi concepts and the outcome of LSE, and the effects of solution gradients and singularities, nonlinear physics, and coupling of flow variables on the effectiveness of LSE are investigated. A CFD-based design optimization of a single element liquid rocket injector is conducted with surrogate models developed using response surface methodology (RSM) based on CFD solutions. The computational model consists of the NS equations, finite rate chemistry, and the k-6 turbulence closure. With the aid of these surrogate models, sensitivity and trade-off analyses are carried out for the injector design whose geometry (hydrogen flow angle, hydrogen and oxygen flow areas and oxygen post tip thickness) is optimized to attain desirable goals in performance (combustion length) and life/survivability (the maximum temperatures on the oxidizer post tip and injector face and a combustion chamber wall temperature). A preliminary multi-objective optimization
High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shibata Shuhei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.
Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in Stokes polarimetry.
Li, Xiaobo; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie; Hu, Haofeng
2015-10-19
We consider the typical Stokes polarimetry system, which performs four intensity measurements to estimate a Stokes vector. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator depends on the distribution of the integration time at four intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time by employing Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analysis and real-world experiment, it is shown that the total variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be significantly decreased about 40% in the case discussed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improves the measurement accuracy of the polarimetric system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents two-level iteration penalty finite element methods to approximate the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with friction boundary conditions. The basic idea is to solve the Navier-Stokes type variational inequality problem on a coarse mesh with mesh size H in combining with solving a Stokes, Oseen, or linearized Navier-Stokes type variational inequality problem for Stokes, Oseen, or Newton iteration on a fine mesh with mesh size h. The error estimate obtained in this paper shows that if H, h, and ε can be chosen appropriately, then these two-level iteration penalty methods are of the same convergence orders as the usual one-level iteration penalty method.
Chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement in Stokes flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefevre, A.; Mota, J.P.B.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Saatdjian, E.
2003-01-01
The heat transfer rate from a solid boundary to a highly viscous fluid can be enhanced significantly by a phenomenon which is called chaotic advection or Lagrangian turbulence. Although the flow is laminar and dominated by viscous forces, some fluid particle trajectories are chaotic due either to a suitable boundary displacement protocol or to a change in geometry. As in turbulent flow, the heat transfer rate enhancement between the boundary and the fluid is intimately linked to the mixing of fluid in the system. Chaotic advection in real Stokes flows, i.e. flows governed by viscous forces and that can be constructed experimentally, is reviewed in this paper. An emphasis is made on recent new results on 3-D time-periodic open flows which are particularly important in industry
An upwind algorithm for the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations
Lawrence, S. L.; Tannehill, J. C.; Chaussee, D. S.
1986-01-01
A new upwind algorithm based on Roe's scheme has been developed to solve the two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. This method does not require the addition of user specified smoothing terms for the capture of discontinuities such as shock waves. Thus, the method is easy to use and can be applied without modification to a wide variety of supersonic flowfields. The advantages and disadvantages of this adaptation are discussed in relation to those of the conventional Beam-Warming scheme in terms of accuracy, stability, computer time and storage, and programming effort. The new algorithm has been validated by applying it to three laminar test cases including flat plate boundary-layer flow, hypersonic flow past a 15 deg compression corner, and hypersonic flow into a converging inlet. The computed results compare well with experiment and show a dramatic improvement in the resolution of flowfield details when compared with the results obtained using the conventional Beam-Warming algorithm.
Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids
Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G.; Sengupta, Anupam
2017-05-01
Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.
Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy
Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan
2014-03-01
The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of single nanodiamonds
Pope, Iestyn; Payne, Lukas; Zoriniants, George; Thomas, Evan; Williams, Oliver; Watson, Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola
2014-11-01
Nanoparticles have attracted enormous attention for biomedical applications as optical labels, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents in vivo. In the quest for superior photostability and biocompatibility, nanodiamonds are considered one of the best choices due to their unique structural, chemical, mechanical and optical properties. So far, mainly fluorescent nanodiamonds have been utilized for cell imaging. However, their use is limited by the efficiency and costs in reliably producing fluorescent defect centres with stable optical properties. Here, we show that single non-fluorescing nanodiamonds exhibit strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at the sp3 vibrational resonance of diamond. Using correlative light and electron microscopy, the relationship between CARS signal strength and nanodiamond size is quantified. The calibrated CARS signal in turn enables the analysis of the number and size of nanodiamonds internalized in living cells in situ, which opens the exciting prospect of following complex cellular trafficking pathways quantitatively.
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of single nanodiamonds.
Pope, Iestyn; Payne, Lukas; Zoriniants, George; Thomas, Evan; Williams, Oliver; Watson, Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola
2014-11-01
Nanoparticles have attracted enormous attention for biomedical applications as optical labels, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents in vivo. In the quest for superior photostability and biocompatibility, nanodiamonds are considered one of the best choices due to their unique structural, chemical, mechanical and optical properties. So far, mainly fluorescent nanodiamonds have been utilized for cell imaging. However, their use is limited by the efficiency and costs in reliably producing fluorescent defect centres with stable optical properties. Here, we show that single non-fluorescing nanodiamonds exhibit strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at the sp(3) vibrational resonance of diamond. Using correlative light and electron microscopy, the relationship between CARS signal strength and nanodiamond size is quantified. The calibrated CARS signal in turn enables the analysis of the number and size of nanodiamonds internalized in living cells in situ, which opens the exciting prospect of following complex cellular trafficking pathways quantitatively.
The Navier-Stokes equations an elementary functional analytic approach
Sohr, Hermann
2001-01-01
The primary objective of this monograph is to develop an elementary and self-contained approach to the mathematical theory of a viscous, incompressible fluid in a domain of the Euclidean space, described by the equations of Navier-Stokes. Moreover, the theory is presented for completely general domains, in particular, for arbitrary unbounded, nonsmooth domains. Therefore, restriction was necessary to space dimensions two and three, which are also the most significant from a physical point of view. For mathematical generality, however, the linearized theory is expounded for general dimensions higher than one. Although the functional analytic approach developed here is, in principle, known to specialists, the present book fills a gap in the literature providing a systematic treatment of a subject that has been documented until now only in fragments. The book is mainly directed to students familiar with basic tools in Hilbert and Banach spaces. However, for the readers’ convenience, some fundamental properties...
Relationship between central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes Respiration.
Flinta, Irena; Ponikowski, Piotr
2016-03-01
Central sleep apnea (CSA) in patients with heart failure (HF) occurs frequently and shows a serious influence on prognosis in this population. The key elements in the pathophysiology of CSA are respiratory instability with chronic hyperventilation, changes of arterial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) and elongated circulation time. The main manifestation of CSA in patients with HF is Cheyne-Stokes Respiration (CSR). The initial treatment is the optimization of HF therapy. However, many other options of the therapeutic management have been studied, particularly those based on positive airway pressure methods. In patients with heart failure we often can observe the overlap of CSA and CSR; we will discuss the differences between these forms of breathing disorders during sleep. We will also discuss when CSA and CSR occur independently of each other and the importance of CSR occurring during the daytime in context of CSA during the nighttime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Navier-Stokes equations on R3 × [0, T
Stenger, Frank; Baumann, Gerd
2016-01-01
In this monograph, leading researchers in the world of numerical analysis, partial differential equations, and hard computational problems study the properties of solutions of the Navier–Stokes partial differential equations on (x, y, z, t) ∈ ℝ3 × [0, T]. Initially converting the PDE to a system of integral equations, the authors then describe spaces A of analytic functions that house solutions of this equation, and show that these spaces of analytic functions are dense in the spaces S of rapidly decreasing and infinitely differentiable functions. This method benefits from the following advantages: The functions of S are nearly always conceptual rather than explicit Initial and boundary conditions of solutions of PDE are usually drawn from the applied sciences, and as such, they are nearly always piece-wise analytic, and in this case, the solutions have the same properties When methods of approximation are applied to functions of A they converge at an exponential rate, whereas methods of approximation ...
Navier-Stokes Dynamics by a Discrete Boltzmann Model
Rubinstein, Robet
2010-01-01
This work investigates the possibility of particle-based algorithms for the Navier-Stokes equations and higher order continuum approximations of the Boltzmann equation; such algorithms would generalize the well-known Pullin scheme for the Euler equations. One such method is proposed in the context of a discrete velocity model of the Boltzmann equation. Preliminary results on shock structure are consistent with the expectation that the shock should be much broader than the near discontinuity predicted by the Pullin scheme, yet narrower than the prediction of the Boltzmann equation. We discuss the extension of this essentially deterministic method to a stochastic particle method that, like DSMC, samples the distribution function rather than resolving it completely.
Perturbation of eigenvalues of preconditioned Navier-Stokes operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elman, H.C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
1996-12-31
We study the sensitivity of algebraic eigenvalue problems associated with matrices arising from linearization and discretization of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, for several choices of preconditioners applied to the system of discrete equations, we derive upper bounds on perturbations of eigenvalues as functions of the viscosity and discretization mesh size. The bounds suggest that the sensitivity of the eigenvalues is at worst linear in the inverse of the viscosity and quadratic in the inverse of the mesh size, and that scaling can be used to decrease the sensitivity in some cases. Experimental results supplement these results and confirm the relatively mild dependence on viscosity. They also indicate a dependence on the mesh size of magnitude smaller than the analysis suggests.
Iterative methods for compressible Navier-Stokes and Euler equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, W.P.; Forsyth, P.A.
1996-12-31
This workshop will focus on methods for solution of compressible Navier-Stokes and Euler equations. In particular, attention will be focused on the interaction between the methods used to solve the non-linear algebraic equations (e.g. full Newton or first order Jacobian) and the resulting large sparse systems. Various types of block and incomplete LU factorization will be discussed, as well as stability issues, and the use of Newton-Krylov methods. These techniques will be demonstrated on a variety of model transonic and supersonic airfoil problems. Applications to industrial CFD problems will also be presented. Experience with the use of C++ for solution of large scale problems will also be discussed. The format for this workshop will be four fifteen minute talks, followed by a roundtable discussion.
Quantification of Stokes Drift as a Mechanism for Surface Oil Advection in the DWH Oil Spill
Clark, M.
2013-12-01
Stokes drift has previously been qualitatively shown to be a factor in ocean surface particle transport, but has never been comprehensively quantified. In addition, most operational ocean particle advection models used during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill do not explicitly account for Stokes drift, instead using a simple parameterization based on wind drift (or ignoring it completely). This research works to quantify Stokes drift via direct calculation, with a focus on shallow water, where Stokes drift is more likely to have a relatively large impact compared to other transport processes such as ocean currents. For this study, WaveWatch III modeled waves in the Gulf of Mexico are used, from which Stokes drift is calculated using the peak wave period and significant wave height outputs. Trajectories are also calculated to examine the role Stokes drift plays in bringing surface particles (and specifically surface oil slicks) onshore. The impact of Stokes drift is compared to transport by currents and traditional estimates of wind drift.
Zuo, Hao-yi; Gao, Jie; Yang, Jing-guo
2007-03-01
A new method to enhance the intensity of the different orders of Stokes lines of SRS by using mixed dye fluorescence is reported. The Stokes lines from the second-order to the fifth-order of CCl4 were enhanced by the fluorescence of mixed R6G and RB solutions in different proportions of 20:2, 20:13 and 20:40 (R6g:Rb), respectively. It is considered that the Stokes lines from the second-order to the fifth-order are near the fluorescence peaks of the three mixed solutions, and far from the absorption peaks of R6g and Rb, so the enhancement effect dominates the absorption effect; as a result, these stokes lines are enhanced. On the contrary, the first-order stokes line is near the absorption peak of RB and far from the fluorescence peaks of the mixed solutions, which leads to the weakening of this stokes line. It is also reported that the first-order, the second-order and the third-order Stokes lines of benzene were enhanced by the fluorescence of mixed solutions of R6g and DCM with of different proportions. The potential application of this method is forecasted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arakawa, M; Kawahashi, M [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1995-07-25
Acoustic streaming is generated by Reynolds stress in the sense of mean acoustic momentum flux in a sound field. In the case of an acoustic standing wave produced by an air column oscillation in a closed duct, the friction and the Reynolds stress in the resulting Stokes layer are the essentials of acoustic streaming generation in the vicinity of the duct wall. The thickness of the Stokes layer decreases with the oscillatory Reynolds number. The plane wave propagation in the duct is assumed for the case of high Reynolds number except for the thin Stokes layer adjacent to the duct wall. The velocity profiles of the streaming are estimated theoretically from the steady component of the second-order term of a perturbation expansion in which the first-order approximation is a sinusoidal oscillation of the air column with plane waves. The present paper describes theoretical analysis of the velocity profiles of the acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer by means of the matched asymptotic expansion method. The results obtained show the existence of reverse streaming in a very thin layer adjacent to the wall and the effects of thermal boundary conditions at the wall on the velocity profiles of acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer. 9 refs., 8 figs.
Inviscid limit of stochastic damped 2D Navier–Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bessaih, Hakima; Ferrario, Benedetta
2014-01-01
We consider the inviscid limit of the stochastic damped 2D Navier–Stokes equations. We prove that, when the viscosity vanishes, the stationary solution of the stochastic damped Navier–Stokes equations converges to a stationary solution of the stochastic damped Euler equation and that the rate of dissipation of enstrophy converges to zero. In particular, this limit obeys an enstrophy balance. The rates are computed with respect to a limit measure of the unique invariant measure of the stochastic damped Navier–Stokes equations. (paper)
On singularity formation of a 3D model for incompressible Navier–Stokes equations
Hou, Thomas Y.; Shi, Zuoqiang; Wang, Shu
2012-01-01
We investigate the singularity formation of a 3D model that was recently proposed by Hou and Lei (2009) in [15] for axisymmetric 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations with swirl. The main difference between the 3D model of Hou and Lei and the reformulated 3D Navier–Stokes equations is that the convection term is neglected in the 3D model. This model shares many properties of the 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. One of the main results of this paper is that we prove rigorously th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lites, B.W.; Skumanich, A.; Rees, D.E.; Murphy, G.A.; Carlsson, M.; Sydney Univ., Australia; Oslo Universitetet, Norway)
1987-01-01
Observed Stokes profiles of Mg I 4571 A are analyzed as a diagnostic of the magnetic field and thermal structure at the temperature minimum of sunspot umbrae. Multilevel non-LTE transfer calculations of the Mg I-II-III excitation and ionization balance in model umbral atmospheres show: (1) Mg I to be far less ionized in sunspot umbrae than in the quiet sun, leading to greatly enhanced opacity in 4571 A, and (2) LTE excitation of 4571 A. Existing umbral models predict emission cores of the Stokes I profile due to the chromospheric temperature rise. This feature is not present in observed umbral profiles. Moreover, such an emission reversal causes similar anomalous features in the Stokes Q, U, V profiles, which are also not observed. Umbral atmospheres with extended temperature minima are suggested. Implications for chromospheric heating mechanisms and the utility of this line for solar vector magnetic field measurements are discussed. 35 references
Stokes-Einstein relation for pure simple fluids
Cappelezzo, M.; Capellari, C. A.; Pezzin, S. H.; Coelho, L. A. F.
2007-06-01
The authors employed the equilibrium molecular dynamics technique to calculate the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity for simple fluids that obey the Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential in order to investigate the validity of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation for pure simple fluids. They performed calculations in a broad range of density and temperature in order to test the SE relation. The main goal of this work is to exactly calculate the constant, here denominated by α, present in the SE relation. Also, a modified SE relation where a fluid density is raised to a power in the usual expression is compared to the classical expression. According to the authors' simulations slip boundary conditions (α=4) can be satisfied in some state points. An intermediate value of α =5 was found in some regions of the phase diagram confirming the mode coupling theory. In addition depending on the phase diagram point and the definition of hydrodynamics radius, stick boundary condition (α=6) can be reproduced. The authors investigated the role of the hydrodynamic radius in the SE relation using three different definitions. The authors also present calculations for α in a hard-sphere system showing that the slip boundary conditions hold at very high density. They discuss possible explanations for their results and the role of the hydrodynamic radius for different definitions in the SE relation.
Stokes flow heat transfer in an annular, rotating heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saatdjian, E.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Mota, J.P.B.
2011-01-01
The heat transfer rate into highly viscous, low thermal-conductivity fluids can be enhanced significantly by chaotic advection in three-dimensional flows dominated by viscous forces. The physical effect of chaotic advection is to render the cross-sectional temperature field uniform, thus increasing both the wall temperature gradient and the heat flux into the fluid. A method of analysis for one such flow-the flow in the eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger-and a procedure to determine the best heat transfer conditions, namely the optimal values of the eccentricity ratio and time-periodic rotating protocol, are discussed. It is shown that in continuous flows, such as the one under consideration, there exists an optimum frequency of the rotation protocol for which the heat transfer rate is a maximum. - Highlights: → The eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger is studied for periodic Stokes flow. → Counter-rotating the inner tube with a periodic velocity enhances the heat transfer. → The heat-transfer enhancement under such conditions is due to chaotic advection. → For a given axial flow rate there is a frequency that maximizes the heat transfer. → There is also an optimum value of the eccentricity ratio.
Upwind algorithm for the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations
Lawrence, Scott L.; Tannehill, John C.; Chausee, Denny S.
1989-01-01
A new upwind algorithm based on Roe's scheme has been developed to solve the two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. This method does not require the addition of user-specified smoothing terms for the capture of discontinuities such as shock waves. Thus, the method is easy to use and can be applied without modification to a wide variety of supersonic flowfields. The advantages and disadvantages of this adaptation are discussed in relation to those of the conventional Beam-Warming (1978) scheme in terms of accuracy, stability, computer time and storage requirements, and programming effort. The new algorithm has been validated by applying it to three laminar test cases, including flat-plate boundary-layer flow, hypersonic flow past a 15-deg compression corner, and hypersonic flow into a converging inlet. The computed results compare well with experiment and show a dramatic improvement in the resolution of flowfield details when compared with results obtained using the conventional Beam-Warming algorithm.
The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations
Muzhinji, K.; Shateyi, S.; Motsa, S. S.
2015-01-01
The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q 2-Q 1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361
The Navier-Stokes equations an elementary functional analytic approach
Sohr, Hermann
2001-01-01
The primary objective of this monograph is to develop an elementary and self contained approach to the mathematical theory of a viscous incompressible fluid in a domain 0 of the Euclidean space ]Rn, described by the equations of Navier Stokes. The book is mainly directed to students familiar with basic functional analytic tools in Hilbert and Banach spaces. However, for readers' convenience, in the first two chapters we collect without proof some fundamental properties of Sobolev spaces, distributions, operators, etc. Another important objective is to formulate the theory for a completely general domain O. In particular, the theory applies to arbitrary unbounded, non-smooth domains. For this reason, in the nonlinear case, we have to restrict ourselves to space dimensions n = 2,3 that are also most significant from the physical point of view. For mathematical generality, we will develop the lin earized theory for all n 2 2. Although the functional-analytic approach developed here is, in principle, known ...
Cheyne-stokes respiration in patients with heart failure.
AlDabal, Laila; BaHammam, Ahmed S
2010-01-01
Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is a form of central sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in which there are cyclical fluctuations in breathing that lead to periods of central apneas/hypopnea, which alternate with periods of hyperpnea. The crescendo-decrescendo pattern of respiration in CSR is a compensation for the changing levels of blood oxygen and carbon dioxide. Severe congestive heart failure seems to be the most important risk factor for the development of CSR. A number of pathophysiologic changes, such as sleep disruption, arousals, hypoxemia-reoxygenation, hypercapnia/hypocapnia, and changes in intrathoracic pressure have harmful effects on the cardiovascular system, and the presence of CSR is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in subjects with variable degrees of heart failure. The management of CSR involves optimal control of underlying heart failure, oxygen therapy, and positive airway pressure support. In this review, we initially define and describe the epidemiology of central sleep apnea (CSA) and CSR, its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods, and then discuss the recent developments in the management in patients with heart failure.
Stochastic solutions of Navier-Stokes equations: an experimental evidence.
Djurek, Ivan; Djurek, Danijel; Petosić, Antonio
2010-12-01
An electrodynamic loudspeaker has been operated in anharmonic regime indicated by the nonlinear ordinary differential equation when spring constant γ in restoring term, as well as, viscoelasticity of the membrane material, increases with displacement. For driving currents in the range of 2.8-3.3 A, doubling of the vibration period appears, while for currents in the range of 3.3-3.6 A, multiple sequences of subharmonic vibrations begin with f/4 and 3f/4. An application of currents higher than 3.6 A results in a spectrum, characteristic for the chaotic state. The loudspeaker was then operated in a closed chamber, and subharmonic vibrations disappeared by an evacuation. Subsequent injection of air revoked them again at ∼ 120 mbar (Re(')=476) when air viscous forces dominate the Morse convection. At 430 mbar (Re=538) single vibration state was restored, and the phenomenon is in an agreement with prediction of the five mode truncation procedure applied to the Navier-Stokes equations describing a two-dimensional incompressible fluid. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Hydrodynamics beyond Navier-Stokes: the slip flow model.
Yudistiawan, Wahyu P; Ansumali, Santosh; Karlin, Iliya V
2008-07-01
Recently, analytical solutions for the nonlinear Couette flow demonstrated the relevance of the lattice Boltzmann (LB) models to hydrodynamics beyond the continuum limit [S. Ansumali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 124502 (2007)]. In this paper, we present a systematic study of the simplest LB kinetic equation-the nine-bit model in two dimensions--in order to quantify it as a slip flow approximation. Details of the aforementioned analytical solution are presented, and results are extended to include a general shear- and force-driven unidirectional flow in confined geometry. Exact solutions for the velocity, as well as for pertinent higher-order moments of the distribution functions, are obtained in both Couette and Poiseuille steady-state flows for all values of rarefaction parameter (Knudsen number). Results are compared with the slip flow solution by Cercignani, and a good quantitative agreement is found for both flow situations. Thus, the standard nine-bit LB model is characterized as a valid and self-consistent slip flow model for simulations beyond the Navier-Stokes approximation.
Disentangling the triadic interactions in Navier-Stokes equations.
Sahoo, Ganapati; Biferale, Luca
2015-10-01
We study the role of helicity in the dynamics of energy transfer in a modified version of the Navier-Stokes equations with explicit breaking of the mirror symmetry. We select different set of triads participating in the dynamics on the basis of their helicity content. In particular, we remove the negative helically polarized Fourier modes at all wave numbers except for those falling on a localized shell of wave number, |k| ~ k(m). Changing k(m) to be above or below the forcing scale, k(f), we are able to assess the energy transfer of triads belonging to different interaction classes. We observe that when the negative helical modes are present only at a wave number smaller than the forced wave numbers, an inverse energy cascade develops with an accumulation of energy on a stationary helical condensate. Vice versa, when negative helical modes are present only at a wave number larger than the forced wave numbers, a transition from backward to forward energy transfer is observed in the regime when the minority modes become energetic enough.
Hypersonic Navier Stokes Comparisons to Orbiter Flight Data
Campbell, Charles H.; Nompelis, Ioannis; Candler, Graham; Barnhart, Michael; Yoon, Seokkwan
2009-01-01
Hypersonic chemical nonequilibrium simulations of low earth orbit entry flow fields are becoming increasingly commonplace as software and computational capabilities become more capable. However, development of robust and accurate software to model these environments will always encounter a significant barrier in developing a suite of high quality calibration cases. The US3D hypersonic nonequilibrium Navier Stokes analysis capability has been favorably compared to a number of wind tunnel test cases. Extension of the calibration basis for this software to Orbiter flight conditions will provide an incremental increase in confidence. As part of the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment and the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements project, NASA is performing entry flight testing on the Orbiter to provide valuable aerothermodynamic heating data. An increase in interest related to orbiter entry environments is resulting from this activity. With the advent of this new data, comparisons of the US3D software to the new flight testing data is warranted. This paper will provide information regarding the framework of analyses that will be applied with the US3D analysis tool. In addition, comparisons will be made to entry flight testing data provided by the Orbiter BLT Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM projects. If data from digital scans of the Orbiter windward surface become available, simulations will also be performed to characterize the difference in surface heating between the CAD reference OML and the digitized surface provided by the surface scans.
Reciprocal locomotion of dense swimmers in Stokes flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Lauga, Eric
2009-01-01
Due to the kinematic reversibility of Stokes flow, a body executing a reciprocal motion (a motion in which the sequence of body configurations remains identical under time reversal) cannot propel itself in a viscous fluid in the limit of negligible inertia; this result is known as Purcell's scallop theorem. In this limit, the Reynolds numbers based on the fluid inertia and on the body inertia are all zero. Previous studies characterized the breakdown of the scallop theorem with fluid inertia. In this paper we show that, even in the absence of fluid inertia, certain dense bodies undergoing reciprocal motion are able to swim. Using Lorentz's reciprocal theorem, we first derive the general differential equations that govern the locomotion kinematics of a dense swimmer. We demonstrate that no reciprocal swimming is possible if the body motion consists only of tangential surface deformation (squirming). We then apply our general formulation to compute the locomotion of four simple swimmers, each with a different spatial asymmetry, that perform normal surface deformations. We show that the resulting swimming speeds (or rotation rates) scale as the first power of a properly defined 'swimmer Reynolds number', demonstrating thereby a continuous breakdown of the scallop theorem with body inertia.
The Stokes boundary layer for a thixotropic or antithixotropic fluid
McArdle, Catriona R.
2012-10-01
We present a mathematical investigation of the oscillatory boundary layer in a semi-infinite fluid bounded by an oscillating wall (the so-called \\'Stokes problem\\'), when the fluid has a thixotropic or antithixotropic rheology. We obtain asymptotic solutions in the limit of small-amplitude oscillations, and we use numerical integration to validate the asymptotic solutions and to explore the behaviour of the system for larger-amplitude oscillations. The solutions that we obtain differ significantly from the classical solution for a Newtonian fluid. In particular, for antithixotropic fluids the velocity reaches zero at a finite distance from the wall, in contrast to the exponential decay for a thixotropic or a Newtonian fluid.For small amplitudes of oscillation, three regimes of behaviour are possible: the structure parameter may take values defined instantaneously by the shear rate, or by a long-term average; or it may behave hysteretically. The regime boundaries depend on the precise specification of structure build-up and breakdown rates in the rheological model, illustrating the subtleties of complex fluid models in non-rheometric settings. For larger amplitudes of oscillation the dominant behaviour is hysteretic. We discuss in particular the relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate at the oscillating wall. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah Seidman
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.
MPFA algorithm for solving stokes-brinkman equations on quadrilateral grids
Iliev, Oleg; Kirsch, Ralf; Lakdawala, Zahra; Printsypar, Galina
2014-01-01
This work is concerned with the development of a robust and accurate numerical method for solving the Stokes-Brinkman system of equations, which describes a free fluid flow coupled with a flow in porous media. Quadrilateral boundary fitted grid
The incompressible non-relativistic Navier-Stokes equation from gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Wadia, Spenta R.
2009-01-01
We note that the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics reduce to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a particular scaling limit. In this limit boundary metric fluctuations of the underlying relativistic system turn into a forcing function identical to the action of a background electromagnetic field on the effectively charged fluid. We demonstrate that special conformal symmetries of the parent relativistic theory descend to 'accelerated boost' symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equations, uncovering a conformal symmetry structure of these equations. Applying our scaling limit to holographically induced fluid dynamics, we find gravity dual descriptions of an arbitrary solution of the forced non-relativistic incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the holographic context we also find a simple forced steady state shear solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, and demonstrate that this solution turns unstable at high enough Reynolds numbers, indicating a possible eventual transition to turbulence.
Decay Properties of Axially Symmetric D-Solutions to the Steady Navier-Stokes Equations
Weng, Shangkun
2018-03-01
We investigate the decay properties of smooth axially symmetric D-solutions to the steady Navier-Stokes equations. The achievements of this paper are two folds. One is improved decay rates of u_{θ } and \
Moment realizability and the validity of the Navier - Stokes equations for rarefied gas dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levermore, C.D.; Morokoff, W.J.; Nadiga, B.T.
1998-01-01
We present criteria for monitoring the validity of the Navier - Stokes approximation during the simulation of a rarefied gas. Our approach is based on an underlying kinetic formulation through which one can construct nondimensional non-negative definite matrices from moments of the molecular distribution. We then identify one such 3x3 matrix that can be evaluated intrinsically in the Navier - Stokes approximation. Our criteria are based on deviations of the eigenvalues of this matrix from their equilibrium value of unity. Not being tied to a particular benchmark problem, the resulting criteria are portable and may be applied to any Navier - Stokes simulation. We study its utility here by comparing stationary planar shock profiles computed using the Navier - Stokes equations with those computed using Monte Carlo simulations. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Random Attractors for the Stochastic Navier-Stokes Equations on the 2D Unit Sphere
Brzeźniak, Z.; Goldys, B.; Le Gia, Q. T.
2018-03-01
In this paper we prove the existence of random attractors for the Navier-Stokes equations on 2 dimensional sphere under random forcing irregular in space and time. We also deduce the existence of an invariant measure.
Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi
2016-01-01
A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a
Error analysis for a monolithic discretization of coupled Darcy and Stokes problems
Girault, V.; Kanschat, G.; Riviè re, B.
2014-01-01
© de Gruyter 2014. The coupled Stokes and Darcy equations are approximated by a strongly conservative finite element method. The discrete spaces are the divergence-conforming velocity space with matching pressure space such as the Raviart
Multigrid and defect correction for the steady Navier-Stokes equations : application to aerodynamics
Koren, B.
1991-01-01
Theoretical and expcrimental convergence results are presented for nonlinear multigrid and iterative defect correction applied to finite volume discretizations of the full, steady, 2D, compressible NavierStokes equations. lterative defect correction is introduced for circumventing the difficulty in
Multigrid and defect correction for the steady Navier-Stokes equations
Koren, B.
1990-01-01
Theoretical and experimental convergence results are presented for nonlinear multigrid and iterative defect correction applied to finite volume discretizations of the full, steady, 2D, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Iterative defect correction is introduced for circumventing the difficulty in
Investigation of vortex breakdown on a delta wing using Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
Agrawal, S.; Barnett, R. M.; Robinson, B. A.
1991-01-01
A numerical investigation of leading edge vortex breakdown in a delta wing at high angles of attack is presented. The analysis was restricted to low speed flows on a flat plate wing with sharp leading edges. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes equations were used and the results were compared with experimental data. Predictions of vortex breakdown progression with angle of attack with both Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are shown to be consistent with the experimental data. However, the Navier-Stokes predictions show significant improvements in breakdown location at angles of attack where the vortex breakdown approaches the wing apex. The predicted trajectories of the primary vortex are in very good agreement with the test data, the laminar solutions providing the overall best comparison. The Euler shows a small displacement of the primary vortex, relative to experiment, due to the lack of secondary vortices. The turbulent Navier-Stokes, in general, fall between the Euler and laminar solutions.
About Navier-Stokes Equation in the Theory of Convective Heat Transfer
Davidzon, M. Y.
2017-10-01
A system of differential equations (Navier-Stokes, continuity, heat conductivity) is used to solve convective heat transfer problems. While solving Navier-Stokes equation, it is usually assumed that tangent stress is proportional to the velocity gradient. This assumption is valid with a small velocity gradient, for example, near an axis of the channel, but velocity gradient can be very large near the channel wall. Our paper shows that if we accept power law instead of linear law for tangential stress, then the velocity profile for creeping, laminar, and turbulent flow in the channel can be calculated without using Navier-Stokes equation. Also, in this case Navier-Stokes equation itself changes: the coefficient of dynamic viscosity changes its value from normal (in case of the creeping flow) to tending to infinity (in case of the well-developed turbulent flow).
An Equal-Order DG Method for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Cockburn, Bernardo; Kanschat, Guido; Schö tzau, Dominik
2008-01-01
We introduce and analyze a discontinuous Galerkin method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that is based on finite element spaces of the same polynomial order for the approximation of the velocity and the pressure. Stability
A strongly conservative finite element method for the coupling of Stokes and Darcy flow
Kanschat, G.; Riviè re, B.
2010-01-01
We consider a model of coupled free and porous media flow governed by Stokes and Darcy equations with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition. This model is discretized using divergence-conforming finite elements for the velocities
Impact of the inherent separation of scales in the Navier-Stokes- alphabeta equations.
Kim, Tae-Yeon; Cassiani, Massimo; Albertson, John D; Dolbow, John E; Fried, Eliot; Gurtin, Morton E
2009-04-01
We study the effect of the length scales alpha and beta in the Navier-Stokes- alphabeta equations on the energy spectrum and the alignment between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the stretching tensor in three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows in a periodic cubic domain, including the limiting cases of the Navier-Stokes- alpha and Navier-Stokes equations. A significant increase in the accuracy of the energy spectrum at large wave numbers arises for betaNavier-Stokes- alphabeta equations also improve as beta decreases away from alpha . However, optimal choices for alpha and beta depend not only on the problem of interest but also on the grid resolution.
Discrete adjoint of fractional step Navier-Stokes solver in generalized coordinates
Wang, Mengze; Mons, Vincent; Zaki, Tamer
2017-11-01
Optimization and control in transitional and turbulent flows require evaluation of gradients of the flow state with respect to the problem parameters. Using adjoint approaches, these high-dimensional gradients can be evaluated with a similar computational cost as the forward Navier-Stokes simulations. The adjoint algorithm can be obtained by discretizing the continuous adjoint Navier-Stokes equations or by deriving the adjoint to the discretized Navier-Stokes equations directly. The latter algorithm is necessary when the forward-adjoint relations must be satisfied to machine precision. In this work, our forward model is the fractional step solution to the Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinates, proposed by Rosenfeld, Kwak & Vinokur. We derive the corresponding discrete adjoint equations. We also demonstrate the accuracy of the combined forward-adjoint model, and its application to unsteady wall-bounded flows. This work has been partially funded by the Office of Naval Research (Grant N00014-16-1-2542).
Bessaih, Hakima; Efendiev, Yalchin; Maris, Florin
2015-01-01
The evolution Stokes equation in a domain containing periodically distributed obstacles subject to Fourier boundary condition on the boundaries is considered. We assume that the dynamic is driven by a stochastic perturbation on the interior
Stokes Space-Based Optical Modulation Format Recognition for Digital Coherent Receivers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio
2013-01-01
We present a technique for modulation format recognition for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks. The method is based on Stokes space signal representation and uses a variational Bayesian expectation maximization machine learning algorithm. Differentiation between diverse common coheren...
Study of Tip-loss Using an Inverse 3D Navier-Stokes Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Robert; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong
2003-01-01
the 3D Navier-Stokes equations combined with the actuator line technique where blade loading is applied using an inverse method. The numerical simulations shows that the method captures the tip-correction when comparing with the theories of Prandtl and Goldstein, however, the accuracy of the obtained...... results reveal that further refinements still is needed. Keywords: Tip-loss; Actuator line; 3D Navier-Stokes methods....
Time evolution of the eddy viscosity in two-dimensional navier-stokes flow
Chaves; Gama
2000-02-01
The time evolution of the eddy viscosity associated with an unforced two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes flow is analyzed by direct numerical simulation. The initial condition is such that the eddy viscosity is isotropic and negative. It is shown by concrete examples that the Navier-Stokes dynamics stabilizes negative eddy viscosity effects. In other words, this dynamics moves monotonically the initial negative eddy viscosity to positive values before relaxation due to viscous term occurs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengzhan Huang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Several stabilized finite element methods for the Stokes eigenvalue problem based on the lowest equal-order finite element pair are numerically investigated. They are penalty, regular, multiscale enrichment, and local Gauss integration method. Comparisons between them are carried out, which show that the local Gauss integration method has good stability, efficiency, and accuracy properties, and it is a favorite method among these methods for the Stokes eigenvalue problem.
Generation of sub-100-fs Stokes pulses upon SRS in a barium nitrate crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu
2010-01-01
72-fs pulses are generated at the first Stokes component frequency upon stimulated Raman scattering in a barium nitrate crystal for the radiation of the Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 laser with the pulse duration of 50 fs. The energy efficiency of conversion is 20%. The barium nitrate crystal was optically pumped by two consecutive orthogonally polarised chirped pulses with the following time compression of the Stokes radiation pulse. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Tian, Giselle; Zeng, Haishan; Zhao, Jianhua; Wu, Zhenguo; Al Jasser, Mohammed; Lui, Harvey; Mclean, David I.
2016-02-01
Porphyrins produced by Propionibacterium acnes represent the principal fluorophore associated with acne, and appear as orange-red luminescence under the Wood's lamp. Assessment of acne based on Wood's lamp (UV) or visible light illumination is limited by photon penetration depth and has limited sensitivity for earlier stage lesions. Inducing fluorescence with near infrared (NIR) excitation may provide an alternative way to assess porphyrin-related skin disorders. We discovered that under 785 nm CW laser excitation PpIX powder exhibits fluorescence emission in the shorter wavelength range of 600-715 nm with an intensity that is linearly dependent on the excitation power. We attribute this shorter wavelength emission to anti-Stokes fluorescence. Similar anti-Stokes fluorescence was also detected focally in all skin-derived samples containing porphyrins. Regular (Stokes) fluorescence was present under UV and visible light excitation on ex vivo nasal skin and sebum from uninflamed acne, but not on nose surface smears or sebum from inflamed acne. Co-registered CW laser-excited anti-Stokes fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence images of PpIX powder showed similar features. In the skin samples because of the anti-Stokes effect, the NIR-induced fluorescence was presumably specific for porphyrins since there appeared to be no anti-Stokes emission signals from other typical skin fluorophores such as lipids, keratins and collagen. Anti-Stokes fluorescence under NIR CW excitation is more sensitive and specific for porphyrin detection than UV- or visible light-excited regular fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence. This approach also has higher image contrast compared to NIR fs laser-based multi-photon fluorescence imaging. The anti-Stokes fluorescence of porphyrins within sebum could potentially be applied to detecting and targeting acne lesions for treatment via fluorescence image guidance.
Stokes vector and its relationship to Discrete Wigner Functions of multiqubit states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Srinivasan, K., E-mail: sriniphysics@gmail.com; Raghavan, G.
2016-07-29
A Stokes vectors and Discrete Wigner Functions (DWF) provide two alternate ways of representing the state of multiqubit systems. A general relationship between the Stokes vector and the DWF is derived for arbitrary n-qubit states for all possible choices of quantum nets. The Stokes vector and the DWF are shown to be related through a Hadamard Matrix. Using these results, a relationship between the Stokes vector of a spin-flipped state and the DWF is derived. Finally, we also present a method to express the Minkowskian squared norm of the Stokes vector, corresponding to n-concurrence in terms of the DWF. - Highlights: • Relationship between Stokes vector (SV) and discrete Wigner function (DWF) for arbitrary multiqubit states is presented. • It is shown that SV and DWF are related to one another through Hadamard matrices. • We show that the Hadamard matrices depend on the choice of the quantum net. • Relationship between SV of the spin flipped state and the DWF is derived. • Expression to compute n-concurrence of the pure n-qubit systems purely in terms of DWF is given.
Boundary Shape Control of the Navier-Stokes Equations and Applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kaitai LI; Jian SU; Aixiang HUANG
2010-01-01
In this paper,the geometrical design for the blade's surface(s)in an impeller or for the profile of an aircraft,is modeled from the mathematical point of view by a boundary shape control problem for the Navier-Stokes equations.The objective function is the sum of a global dissipative function and the power of the fluid.The control variables are the geometry of the boundary and the state equations are the Navier-Stokes equations.The Euler-Lagrange equations of the optimal control problem are derived,which are an elliptic boundary value system of fourth order,coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations.The authors also prove the existence of the solution of the optimal control problem,the existence of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with mixed boundary conditions,the weak continuity of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with respect to the geometry shape of the blade's surface and the existence of solutions of the equations for the G(a)teaux derivative of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with respect to the geometry of the boundary.
Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure: causes and consequences.
Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Genta, Pedro R; Figueiredo, Adelaide C; Inoue, Daniel
2005-08-01
Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a form of periodic breathing in which central apneas and hypopneas alternate with periods of hyperventilation, producing a waxing and waning pattern of tidal volume. This review focuses on the causes and consequences of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure, in whom the prevalence is strikingly high and ranges from 30% to 50%. Several factors have been implicated in the genesis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, including low cardiac output and recurrent hypoxia. The key pathophysiological mechanism triggering Cheyne-Stokes respiration is hyperventilation and low arterial CO2 (PaCO2) that when below the apneic threshold triggers a central apnea. Hyperventilation is associated with pulmonary congestion, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration is more prone to occur during sleep, when the respiratory system is mainly dependent on chemical control. It is associated with recurrent dips in oxygen saturation and arousals from sleep, with oscillations in blood pressure and heart rate, sympathetic activation and increased risk of ventricular tachycardia. Cheyne-Stokes respiration is an independent marker of poor prognosis and may participate in a vicious cycle, further stressing the failing heart.
Stokes vector and its relationship to Discrete Wigner Functions of multiqubit states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinivasan, K.; Raghavan, G.
2016-01-01
A Stokes vectors and Discrete Wigner Functions (DWF) provide two alternate ways of representing the state of multiqubit systems. A general relationship between the Stokes vector and the DWF is derived for arbitrary n-qubit states for all possible choices of quantum nets. The Stokes vector and the DWF are shown to be related through a Hadamard Matrix. Using these results, a relationship between the Stokes vector of a spin-flipped state and the DWF is derived. Finally, we also present a method to express the Minkowskian squared norm of the Stokes vector, corresponding to n-concurrence in terms of the DWF. - Highlights: • Relationship between Stokes vector (SV) and discrete Wigner function (DWF) for arbitrary multiqubit states is presented. • It is shown that SV and DWF are related to one another through Hadamard matrices. • We show that the Hadamard matrices depend on the choice of the quantum net. • Relationship between SV of the spin flipped state and the DWF is derived. • Expression to compute n-concurrence of the pure n-qubit systems purely in terms of DWF is given.
Chen, Xuemei; Fried, Eliot
2008-10-01
Lundgren's vortex model for the intermittent fine structure of high-Reynolds-number turbulence is applied to the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations and specialized to the Navier-Stokes alpha equations. The Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations involve dispersive and dissipative length scales alpha and beta, respectively. Setting beta equal to alpha reduces the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations to the Navier-Stokes alpha equations. For the Navier-Stokes alpha equations, the energy spectrum is found to obey Kolmogorov's -5/3 law in a range of wave numbers identical to that determined by Lundgren for the Navier-Stokes equations. For the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations, Kolmogorov's -5/3 law is also recovered. However, granted that beta Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations may have the potential to resolve features smaller than those obtainable using the Navier-Stokes alpha equations.
Therapeutical options for the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration.
Randerath, Winfried J
2009-03-07
The awareness of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) and of the co-existence of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and central breathing disturbances has rapidly grown in recent years. CSR is defined by a waxing and waning pattern of the breathing amplitude. Sleep related breathing disorders in patients with heart failure are associated with impaired clinical outcome and survival. While continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP) is widely used to treat CSR, it has failed to improve overall survival of heart failure patients. Nevertheless, it has been shown that CPAP reduces mortality if breathing disturbances were sufficiently eliminated. Therefore, optimal suppression of CSR is critical. While CPAP reduces CSR by 50% on average, adaptive servoventilation (ASV) normalises CSR in most patients. ASV devices apply different levels of pressure support: during periods of hypoventilation the inspiratory pressure is increased while it is reduced to the lowest possible level during hyperventilation. The devices deliver an expiratory pressure to overcome upper airways obstruction. Pressure support is defined by the difference between expiratory and inspiratory pressure. Thus, while pressure support is fixed in bilevel devices, it varies under ASV. However, the hypothesis that ASV might improve survival in CSR patients has to be proved in prospective studies in CPAP nonresponders. There is a lack of evidence on the use of bilevel devices in CSR. However, ASV has proven both to effectively treat CSR and to be superior to CPAP in respiratory and sleep parameters in short term and medium term studies. Nevertheless, data on the long term use and the influence on cardiac parameters are necessary.
Świergiel, Jolanta; Bouteiller, Laurent; Jadżyn, Jan
2014-11-14
Impedance spectroscopy was used for the study of the static and dynamic behavior of the electrical conductivity of a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular polymer of high viscosity. The experimental data are discussed in the frame of the Stokes-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein-Debye models. It was found that the translational movement of the ions is due to normal Brownian diffusion, which was revealed by a fulfillment of Ohm's law by the electric current and a strictly exponential decay of the current after removing the electric stimulus. The dependence of the dc conductivity on the viscosity of the medium fulfills the Stokes-Einstein model quite well. An extension of the model, by including in it the conductivity relaxation time, is proposed in this paper. A breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye model is revealed by the relations of the dipolar relaxation time to the viscosity and to the dc ionic conductivity. The importance of the C=O···H-N hydrogen bonds in that breakdown is discussed.
On convergence of trajectory attractors of the 3D Navier-Stokes-α model as α approaches 0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishik, M I; Chepyzhov, V V; Titi, E S
2007-01-01
We study the relations between the long-time dynamics of the Navier-Stokes-α model and the exact 3D Navier-Stokes system. We prove that bounded sets of solutions of the Navier-Stokes-α model converge to the trajectory attractor A 0 of the 3D Navier-Stokes system as the time approaches infinity and α approaches zero. In particular, we show that the trajectory attractor A α of the Navier-Stokes-α model converges to the trajectory attractor A 0 of the 3D Navier-Stokes system as α→0+. We also construct the minimal limit A min (subset or equal A 0 ) of the trajectory attractor A α as α→0+ and prove that the set A min is connected and strictly invariant. Bibliography: 35 titles.
Global regularity for a family of 3D models of the axi-symmetric Navier–Stokes equations
Hou, Thomas Y.; Liu, Pengfei; Wang, Fei
2018-05-01
We consider a family of three-dimensional models for the axi-symmetric incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. The models are derived by changing the strength of the convection terms in the axisymmetric Navier–Stokes equations written using a set of transformed variables. We prove the global regularity of the family of models in the case that the strength of convection is slightly stronger than that of the original Navier–Stokes equations, which demonstrates the potential stabilizing effect of convection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawashima, S.; Matsumara, A.; Nishida, T.
1979-01-01
The compressible and heat-conductive Navier-Stokes equation obtained as the second approximation of the formal Chapman-Enskog expansion is investigated on its relations to the original nonlinear Boltzmann equation and also to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The solutions of the Boltzmann equation and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for small initial data are proved to be asymptotically equivalent (mod decay rate tsup(-5/4)) as t → + infinitely to that of the compressible Navier-Stokes equation for the corresponding initial data. (orig.) 891 HJ/orig. 892 MKO
Qi, Ji; He, Honghui; Lin, Jianyu; Dong, Yang; Chen, Dongsheng; Ma, Hui; Elson, Daniel S
2018-04-01
Tissue-depolarization and linear-retardance are the main polarization characteristics of interest for bulk tissue characterization, and are normally interpreted from Mueller polarimetry. Stokes polarimetry can be conducted using simpler instrumentation and in a shorter time. Here, we use Stokes polarimetric imaging with circularly polarized illumination to assess the circular-depolarization and linear-retardance properties of tissue. Results obtained were compared with Mueller polarimetry in transmission and reflection geometry, respectively. It is found that circular-depolarization obtained from these 2 methods is very similar in both geometries, and that linear-retardance is highly quantitatively similar for transmission geometry and qualitatively similar for reflection geometry. The majority of tissue circular-depolarization and linear-retardance image information (represented by local image contrast features) obtained from Mueller polarimetry is well preserved from Stokes polarimetry in both geometries. These findings can be referred to for further understanding tissue Stokes polarimetric data, and for further application of Stokes polarimetry under the circumstances where short acquisition time or low optical system complexity is a priority, such as polarimetric endoscopy and microscopy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kwon, Young-Sam; Li, Fucai
2018-03-01
In this paper we study the incompressible limit of the degenerate quantum compressible Navier-Stokes equations in a periodic domain T3 and the whole space R3 with general initial data. In the periodic case, by applying the refined relative entropy method and carrying out the detailed analysis on the oscillations of velocity, we prove rigorously that the gradient part of the weak solutions (velocity) of the degenerate quantum compressible Navier-Stokes equations converge to the strong solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Our results improve considerably the ones obtained by Yang, Ju and Yang [25] where only the well-prepared initial data case is considered. While for the whole space case, thanks to the Strichartz's estimates of linear wave equations, we can obtain the convergence of the weak solutions of the degenerate quantum compressible Navier-Stokes equations to the strong solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes/Euler equations with a linear damping term. Moreover, the convergence rates are also given.
Origin of the Size-Dependent Stokes Shift in CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals.
Brennan, Michael C; Herr, John E; Nguyen-Beck, Triet S; Zinna, Jessica; Draguta, Sergiu; Rouvimov, Sergei; Parkhill, John; Kuno, Masaru
2017-09-06
The origin of the size-dependent Stokes shift in CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals (NCs) is explained for the first time. Stokes shifts range from 82 to 20 meV for NCs with effective edge lengths varying from ∼4 to 13 nm. We show that the Stokes shift is intrinsic to the NC electronic structure and does not arise from extrinsic effects such as residual ensemble size distributions, impurities, or solvent-related effects. The origin of the Stokes shift is elucidated via first-principles calculations. Corresponding theoretical modeling of the CsPbBr 3 NC density of states and band structure reveals the existence of an intrinsic confined hole state 260 to 70 meV above the valence band edge state for NCs with edge lengths from ∼2 to 5 nm. A size-dependent Stokes shift is therefore predicted and is in quantitative agreement with the experimental data. Comparison between bulk and NC calculations shows that the confined hole state is exclusive to NCs. At a broader level, the distinction between absorbing and emitting states in CsPbBr 3 is likely a general feature of other halide perovskite NCs and can be tuned via NC size to enhance applications involving these materials.
An analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for internal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyberg, Mats D; Tryggeson, Henrik
2007-01-01
This paper derives a solution to the Navier-Stokes equation by considering vorticity generated at system boundaries. The result is an explicit expression for the velocity. The Navier-Stokes equation is reformulated as a divergence and integrated, giving a tensor equation that splits into a symmetric and a skew-symmetric part. One equation gives an algebraic system of quadratic equations involving velocity components. A system of nonlinear partial differential equations is reduced to algebra. The velocity is then explicitly calculated and shown to depend on boundary conditions only. This removes the need to solve the Navier-Stokes equation by a 3D numerical computation, replacing it by computation of 2D surface integrals over the boundary. (fast track communication)
Navier-Stokes-Fourier Equations A Rational Asymptotic Modelling Point of View
Zeytounian, Radyadour Kh
2012-01-01
This research monograph deals with a modeling theory of the system of Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations for a Newtonian fluid governing a compressible viscous and heat conducting flows. The main objective is threefold. First , to 'deconstruct' this Navier-Stokes-Fourier system in order to unify the puzzle of the various partial simplified approximate models used in Newtonian Classical Fluid Dynamics and this, first facet, have obviously a challenging approach and a very important pedagogic impact on the university education. The second facet of the main objective is to outline a rational consistent asymptotic/mathematical theory of the of fluid flows modeling on the basis of a typical Navier-Stokes-Fourier initial and boundary value problem. The third facet is devoted to an illustration of our rational asymptotic/mathematical modeling theory for various technological and geophysical stiff problems from: aerodynamics, thermal and thermocapillary convections and also meteofluid dynamics.
Bae, Kideog; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei
2017-08-01
We report the quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury using the circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CP-CARS) technique together with Stokes parameters in the Poincaré sphere. The pump and Stokes excitation beams are circularly polarized to suppress both the linear polarization-dependent artifacts and the nonresonant background of tissue CARS imaging, enabling quantitative CP-CARS image analysis. This study shows that CP-CARS imaging uncovers significantly increased phase retardance of injured spinal cord tissue as compared to normal tissue, suggesting that CP-CARS is an appealing label-free imaging tool for determining the degree of tissue phase retardance, which could serve as a unique diagnostic parameter associated with nervous tissue injury.
Yan, Wen; Corona, Eduardo; Veerapaneni, Shravan; Shelley, Michael
2017-11-01
A common challenge in simulating dense suspension of rigid particles in Stokes flow is the numerical instability that arises due to particle collisions. To overcome this problem, often a strong repulsive potential between particles is prescribed. This in turn leads to numerical stiffness and dramatic reduction in stable time-step sizes. In this work, we eliminate such stiffness by introducing contact constraints explicitly and solving the hydrodynamic equations in tandem with a linear complementarity problem with inequality constraints. The Newton's third law of the collision force is explicitly guaranteed to allow consistent calculation of collision stresses. Efficient parallelization for shared-memory and distributed-memory architectures is also implemented. This method can be coupled to any Stokes hydrodynamics solver for particles with various shapes and allows us to simulate 104 107 spheres on a laptop, depending on the cost of the Stokes hydrodynamics solver. We demonstrate its performance on a range of applications from active matter to multi-physics problems.
A Compact Numerical Implementation for Solving Stokes Equations Using Matrix-vector Operations
Zhang, Tao; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; Zhong, Hua
2015-01-01
In this work, a numerical scheme is implemented to solve Stokes equations based on cell-centered finite difference over staggered grid. In this scheme, all the difference operations have been vectorized thereby eliminating loops. This is particularly important when using programming languages that require interpretations, e.g., MATLAB and Python. Using this scheme, the execution time becomes significantly smaller compared with non-vectorized operations and also become comparable with those languages that require no repeated interpretations like FORTRAN, C, etc. This technique has also been applied to Navier-Stokes equations under laminar flow conditions.
Würthwein, Thomas; Brinkmann, Maximilian; Hellwig, Tim; Fallnich, Carsten
2017-11-21
We present the simultaneous detection of the spectrum and the complete polarization state of a multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal with a fast division-of-amplitude spectro-polarimeter. The spectro-polarimeter is based on a commercial imaging spectrograph, a birefringent wedge prism, and a segmented polarizer. Compared to the standard rotating-retarder fixed-analyzer spectro-polarimeter, only a single measurement is required and an up to 21-fold reduced acquisition time is shown. The measured Stokes parameters allow us to differentiate between vibrational symmetries and to determine the depolarization ratio ρ by data post-processing.
A Compact Numerical Implementation for Solving Stokes Equations Using Matrix-vector Operations
Zhang, Tao
2015-06-01
In this work, a numerical scheme is implemented to solve Stokes equations based on cell-centered finite difference over staggered grid. In this scheme, all the difference operations have been vectorized thereby eliminating loops. This is particularly important when using programming languages that require interpretations, e.g., MATLAB and Python. Using this scheme, the execution time becomes significantly smaller compared with non-vectorized operations and also become comparable with those languages that require no repeated interpretations like FORTRAN, C, etc. This technique has also been applied to Navier-Stokes equations under laminar flow conditions.
Modeling shock waves in an ideal gas: Going beyond the Navier-Stokes level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holian, B.L.; Patterson, C.W.; Mareschal, M.; Salomons, E.
1993-01-01
We model a shock wave in an ideal gas by solving a modified version of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations of hydrodynamics, where, following an earlier conjecture by Holian [Phys. Rev. A 37, 2562 (1988)], we use the temperature in the direction of shock propagation T xx , rather than the average temperature T=(T xx +T yy +T zz )/3, in the evaluation of the linear transport coefficients. The results are found to agree much better with the molecular-dynamics simulations of Salomons and Mareschal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 269 (1992)] than standard Navier-Stokes theory
Symmetry breaking and uniqueness for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dascaliuc, Radu; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward C.; Michalowski, Nicholas
2015-01-01
The present article establishes connections between the structure of the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations and the structure of (similarity) equations that govern self-similar solutions as expected values of certain naturally associated stochastic cascades. A principle result is that explosion criteria for the stochastic cascades involved in the probabilistic representations of solutions to the respective equations coincide. While the uniqueness problem itself remains unresolved, these connections provide interesting problems and possible methods for investigating symmetry breaking and the uniqueness problem for Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, new branching Markov chains, including a dilogarithmic branching random walk on the multiplicative group (0, ∞), naturally arise as a result of this investigation
Incompressible Navier-Stokes inverse design method based on adaptive unstructured meshes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahmati, M.T.; Charlesworth, D.; Zangeneh, M.
2005-01-01
An inverse method for blade design based on Navier-Stokes equations on adaptive unstructured meshes has been developed. In the method, unlike the method based on inviscid equations, the effect of viscosity is directly taken into account. In the method, the pressure (or pressure loading) is prescribed. The design method then computes the blade shape that would accomplish the target prescribed pressure distribution. The method is implemented using a cell-centered finite volume method, which solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. An adaptive unstructured mesh method based on grid subdivision and local adaptive mesh method is utilized for increasing the accuracy. (author)
Approximate controllability of the Navier-Stokes system in unbounded domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shorygin, P O
2003-01-01
The question of the approximate controllability for the 2- and the 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes system defined in the exterior of a bounded domain ω or in the entire space is studied. It is shown that one can find boundary controls or locally distributed controls (having support in a prescribed bounded domain) defined on the right-hand side of the system such that in prescribed time the solution of the Navier-Stokes system becomes arbitrarily close to an arbitrary prescribed divergence-free vector field
Shape Optimization for Navier-Stokes Equations with Algebraic Turbulence Model: Existence Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulicek, Miroslav; Haslinger, Jaroslav; Malek, Josef; Stebel, Jan
2009-01-01
We study a shape optimization problem for the paper machine headbox which distributes a mixture of water and wood fibers in the paper making process. The aim is to find a shape which a priori ensures the given velocity profile on the outlet part. The mathematical formulation leads to an optimal control problem in which the control variable is the shape of the domain representing the header, the state problem is represented by a generalized stationary Navier-Stokes system with nontrivial mixed boundary conditions. In this paper we prove the existence of solutions both to the generalized Navier-Stokes system and to the shape optimization problem
Existence and uniqueness of global solutions for the modified anisotropic 3D Navier−Stokes equations
Bessaih, Hakima
2016-01-27
We study a modified three-dimensional incompressible anisotropic Navier−Stokes equations. The modification consists in the addition of a power term to the nonlinear convective one. This modification appears naturally in porous media when a fluid obeys the Darcy−Forchheimer law instead of the classical Darcy law. We prove global in time existence and uniqueness of solutions without assuming the smallness condition on the initial data. This improves the result obtained for the classical 3D incompressible anisotropic Navier−Stokes equations.
A Liouville Problem for the Stationary Fractional Navier-Stokes-Poisson System
Wang, Y.; Xiao, J.
2017-06-01
This paper deals with a Liouville problem for the stationary fractional Navier-Stokes-Poisson system whose special case k=0 covers the compressible and incompressible time-independent fractional Navier-Stokes systems in R^{N≥2} . An essential difficulty raises from the fractional Laplacian, which is a non-local operator and thus makes the local analysis unsuitable. To overcome the difficulty, we utilize a recently-introduced extension-method in Wang and Xiao (Commun Contemp Math 18(6):1650019, 2016) which develops Caffarelli-Silvestre's technique in Caffarelli and Silvestre (Commun Partial Diff Equ 32:1245-1260, 2007).
Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emonot, P.
1992-01-01
In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem
Stokes image reconstruction for two-color microgrid polarization imaging systems.
Lemaster, Daniel A
2011-07-18
The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a new microgrid polarization imaging system capable of simultaneously reconstructing linear Stokes parameter images in two colors on a single focal plane array. In this paper, an effective method for extracting Stokes images is presented for this type of camera system. It is also shown that correlations between the color bands can be exploited to significantly increase overall spatial resolution. Test data is used to show the advantages of this approach over bilinear interpolation. The bounds (in terms of available reconstruction bandwidth) on image resolution are also provided.
A strongly conservative finite element method for the coupling of Stokes and Darcy flow
Kanschat, G.
2010-08-01
We consider a model of coupled free and porous media flow governed by Stokes and Darcy equations with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition. This model is discretized using divergence-conforming finite elements for the velocities in the whole domain. Discontinuous Galerkin techniques and mixed methods are used in the Stokes and Darcy subdomains, respectively. This discretization is strongly conservative in Hdiv(Ω) and we show convergence. Numerical results validate our findings and indicate optimal convergence orders. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Falling paper: Navier-Stokes solutions, model of fluid forces, and center of mass elevation.
Pesavento, Umberto; Wang, Z Jane
2004-10-01
We investigate the problem of falling paper by solving the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations subject to the motion of a free-falling body at Reynolds numbers around 10(3). The aerodynamic lift on a tumbling plate is found to be dominated by the product of linear and angular velocities rather than velocity squared, as appropriate for an airfoil. This coupling between translation and rotation provides a mechanism for a brief elevation of center of mass near the cusplike turning points. The Navier-Stokes solutions further provide the missing quantity in the classical theory of lift, the instantaneous circulation, and suggest a revised model for the fluid forces.
Large Time Behavior for Weak Solutions of the 3D Globally Modified Navier-Stokes Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junbai Ren
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the large time behavior of the weak solutions for three-dimensional globally modified Navier-Stokes equations. With the aid of energy methods and auxiliary decay estimates together with Lp-Lq estimates of heat semigroup, we derive the optimal upper and lower decay estimates of the weak solutions for the globally modified Navier-Stokes equations as C1(1+t-3/4≤uL2≤C2(1+t-3/4, t>1. The decay rate is optimal since it coincides with that of heat equation.
A nonperturbative approximation for the moderate Reynolds number Navier-Stokes equations.
Roper, Marcus; Brenner, Michael P
2009-03-03
The nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations makes predicting the flow of fluid around rapidly moving small bodies highly resistant to all approaches save careful experiments or brute force computation. Here, we show how a linearization of the Navier-Stokes equations captures the drag-determining features of the flow and allows simplified or analytical computation of the drag on bodies up to Reynolds number of order 100. We illustrate the utility of this linearization in 2 practical problems that normally can only be tackled with sophisticated numerical methods: understanding flow separation in the flow around a bluff body and finding drag-minimizing shapes.
Symmetry breaking and uniqueness for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Dascaliuc, Radu; Michalowski, Nicholas; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward C
2015-07-01
The present article establishes connections between the structure of the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations and the structure of (similarity) equations that govern self-similar solutions as expected values of certain naturally associated stochastic cascades. A principle result is that explosion criteria for the stochastic cascades involved in the probabilistic representations of solutions to the respective equations coincide. While the uniqueness problem itself remains unresolved, these connections provide interesting problems and possible methods for investigating symmetry breaking and the uniqueness problem for Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, new branching Markov chains, including a dilogarithmic branching random walk on the multiplicative group (0, ∞), naturally arise as a result of this investigation.
A nonperturbative approximation for the moderate Reynolds number Navier–Stokes equations
Roper, Marcus; Brenner, Michael P.
2009-01-01
The nonlinearity of the Navier–Stokes equations makes predicting the flow of fluid around rapidly moving small bodies highly resistant to all approaches save careful experiments or brute force computation. Here, we show how a linearization of the Navier–Stokes equations captures the drag-determining features of the flow and allows simplified or analytical computation of the drag on bodies up to Reynolds number of order 100. We illustrate the utility of this linearization in 2 practical problems that normally can only be tackled with sophisticated numerical methods: understanding flow separation in the flow around a bluff body and finding drag-minimizing shapes. PMID:19211800
Solutions to three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorma Jormakka
2010-07-01
Full Text Available This article gives explicit solutions to the space-periodic Navier-Stokes problem with non-periodic pressure. These type of solutions are not unique and by using such solutions one can construct a periodic, smooth, divergence-free initial vector field allowing a space-periodic and time-bounded external force such that there exists a smooth solution to the 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid with those initial conditions, but the solution cannot be continued to the whole space.
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a photonic crystal fiber based light source
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paulsen, H.N.; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Thøgersen, J.
2003-01-01
A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator and a photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The nonlinear response of the fiber is used to generate the additional wavelength needed in the Raman process. The applicability of the setup is demonstra......A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator and a photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The nonlinear response of the fiber is used to generate the additional wavelength needed in the Raman process. The applicability of the setup...
Multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares for Stokes equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lai, Chen-Yao G. [National Chung Cheng Univ., Chia-Yi (Taiwan, Province of China)
1996-12-31
Recently, The use of first-order system least squares principle for the approximate solution of Stokes problems has been extensively studied by Cai, Manteuffel, and McCormick. In this paper, we study multilevel solvers of first-order system least-squares method for the generalized Stokes equations based on the velocity-vorticity-pressure formulation in three dimensions. The least-squares functionals is defined to be the sum of the L{sup 2}-norms of the residuals, which is weighted appropriately by the Reynolds number. We develop convergence analysis for additive and multiplicative multilevel methods applied to the resulting discrete equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bito, Kotatsu; Okuno, Masanari; Kano, Hideaki; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We have developed a simultaneous measurement system of CARS and CSRS. ► We can obtain information on the electronic resonance effect with the measurement. ► The simultaneous measurement provides us with more reliable spectral information. - Abstract: We have developed a three-pulse non-degenerate multiplex coherent Raman microspectroscopic system using a white-light laser source. The fundamental output (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser is used for the pump radiation with the white-light laser output (1100–1700 nm) for the Stokes radiation to achieve broadband multiplex excitations of vibrational coherences. The second harmonic (532 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser is used for the probe radiation. Thanks to the large wavelength difference between the pump and probe radiations, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) can be detected simultaneously. Simultaneous detection of CARS and CSRS enables us to obtain information on the electronic resonance effect that affects differently the CARS and CSRS signals. Simultaneous analysis of the CARS and CSRS signals provides us the imaginary part of χ (3) without introducing any arbitrary parameter in the maximum entropy method (MEM)
Syniavskyi, I.; Ivanov, Yu.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Sergeev, A.
2015-08-01
The construction of an imaging Stokes-polarimeter in the MAO NAS of Ukraine is proposed. It allows measuring the three components of the Stokes vector simultaneously in large FOV without restrictions on the relative aperture of the system. Moreover, the polarimeter can be converted to a low resolution spectropolarimeter by placement into optical axis of the transparence diffraction grating.
Li, Jichun; Sun, Shuyu
2014-01-01
For decades, the widely used finite difference method on staggered grids, also known as the marker and cell (MAC) method, has been one of the simplest and most effective numerical schemes for solving the Stokes equations and Navier–Stokes equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gao Guo-Ping
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the local fractional 3-D compressible Navier-Stokes equation via local fractional derivative. We use the Cantor-type cylindrical co-ordinate method to transfer 3-D compressible Navier-Stokes equation from the Cantorian co-ordinate system to the Cantor-type cylindrical co-ordinate system.
Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes Computations for Flows past the Yawed MEXICO Rotor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Yang, H.
2011-01-01
In the paper the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes model has been used to simulate flows past the yawed MEXICO rotor. The computed loads as well as the velocity field behind the yawed rotor are compared to detailed pressure and PIV measurements which were carried out in the EU funded MEXICO project...
Couchot, F.; Delabrouille, J.; Kaplan, J.; Revenu, B.
1998-01-01
We present configurations of polarimeters which measure the three linear Stokes parameters of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation with a nearly diagonal error matrix, independent of the global orientation of the polarimeters in the focal plane. These configurations also provide the smallest possible error box volume.
Computation of 3D steady Navier-Stokes flow with free-surface gravity waves
Lewis, M.R.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Armfield, S.; Morgan, P.; Srinivas, K,
2003-01-01
In this paper an iterative method for the computation of stationary gravity-wave solutions is investigated, using a novel formulation of the free-surface (FS) boundary-value problem. This method requires the solution of a sequence of stationary Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes subproblems employing
Computation of 3D steady Navier-Stokes flow with free-surface gravity waves
M.R. Lewis; B. Koren (Barry); H.C. Raven
2003-01-01
textabstractIn this paper an iterative method for the computation of stationary gravity-wave solutions is investigated, using a novel formulation of the free-surface (FS) boundary-value problem. This method requires the solution of a sequence of stationary Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes subproblems
Note on the fast decay property of steady Navier-Stokes flows in the whole space
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nakatsuka, Tomoyuki
2018-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 2 (2018), s. 81-89 ISSN 0174-4747 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : stationary Navier-Stokes equation * asymptotic behavior Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/anly.2018.38.issue-2/anly-2017-0016/anly-2017-0016.xml
Monolithic multigrid method for the coupled Stokes flow and deformable porous medium system
P. Luo (Peiyao); C. Rodrigo (Carmen); F.J. Gaspar Lorenz (Franscisco); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)
2018-01-01
textabstractThe interaction between fluid flow and a deformable porous medium is a complicated multi-physics problem, which can be described by a coupled model based on the Stokes and poroelastic equations. A monolithic multigrid method together with either a coupled Vanka smoother or a decoupled
Modeling of Hydrophobic Surfaces by the Stokes Problem With the Stick–Slip Boundary Conditions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kučera, R.; Šátek, V.; Haslinger, Jaroslav; Fialová, S.; Pochylý, F.
2017-01-01
Roč. 139, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 011202. ISSN 0098-2202 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : algebra * boundary conditions * hydrophobicity * Lagrange multipliers * Navier Stokes equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.437, year: 2016 http://fluidsengineering.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2536532
A convergent numerical method for the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier system in smooth physical domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Hošek, Radim; Michálek, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 5 (2016), s. 3062-3082 ISSN 0036-1429 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes- Fourier system * finite element method * finite volume method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.978, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/15M1011809
FIRST ZEEMAN DOPPLER IMAGING OF A COOL STAR USING ALL FOUR STOKES PARAMETERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.
2015-01-01
Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in active cool stars, but they are in general complex and weak. Current Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) studies of cool star magnetic fields chiefly employ circular polarization observations because linear polarization is difficult to detect and requires a more sophisticated radiative transfer modeling to interpret. But it has been shown in previous theoretical studies, and in the observational analyses of magnetic Ap stars, that including linear polarization in the magnetic inversion process makes it possible to correctly recover many otherwise lost or misinterpreted magnetic features. We have obtained phase-resolved observations in all four Stokes parameters of the RS CVn star II Peg at two separate epochs. Here we present temperature and magnetic field maps reconstructed for this star using all four Stokes parameters. This is the very first such ZDI study of a cool active star. Our magnetic inversions reveal a highly structured magnetic field topology for both epochs. The strength of some surface features is doubled or even quadrupled when linear polarization is taken into account. The total magnetic energy of the reconstructed field map also becomes about 2.1–3.5 times higher. The overall complexity is also increased as the field energy is shifted toward higher harmonic modes when four Stokes parameters are used. As a consequence, the potential field extrapolation of the four Stokes parameter ZDI results indicates that magnetic field becomes weaker at a distance of several stellar radii due to a decrease of the large-scale field component
Existence of weak solutions for compressible Navier-Stokes equations with entropy transport
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Maltese, D.; Michálek, Martin; Mucha, P.; Novotný, A.; Pokorný, M.; Zatorska, E.
2016-01-01
Roč. 261, č. 8 (2016), s. 4448-4485 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039616301656
On time-periodic Navier-Stokes flows with fast spatial decay in the whole space
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nakatsuka, Tomoyuki
2018-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 1 (2018), s. 51-67 ISSN 2296-9020 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equation * time-periodic solution * asymptotic property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://link.springer.com/article/10. 1007 %2Fs41808-018-0011-8
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Isomäki, Antti; Hansen, Kim P.
2011-01-01
Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) designs with two zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) are experimentally investigated in order to suggest a novel PCF for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. From our investigation, we select the optimum PCF design and demonstrate a tailored spectru...
Lower Bounds for Possible Singular Solutions for the Navier-Stokes and Euler Equations Revisited
Cortissoz, Jean C.; Montero, Julio A.
2018-03-01
In this paper we give optimal lower bounds for the blow-up rate of the \\dot{H}s( T^3) -norm, 1/2Navier-Stokes equations, and we also present an elementary proof for a lower bound on blow-up rate of the Sobolev norms of possible singular solutions to the Euler equations when s>5/2.
Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.
2001-01-01
This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...
Homogenization of stationary Navier–Stokes equations in domains with tiny holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.
2015-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 2 (2015), s. 381-392 ISSN 1422-6928 Keywords : compressible Navier - Stokes system * homogenization * tiny holes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.023, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00021-015-0200-2
On a model for the Navier-Stokes equations using magnetization variables
Pooley, Benjamin C.
2018-04-01
It is known that in a classical setting, the Navier-Stokes equations can be reformulated in terms of so-called magnetization variables w that satisfy Our main focus is the proof of global well-posedness in H 1 / 2 for a new variant of (1), where Pw is replaced by w in the second nonlinear term:
Formal solution of the Navier-Stokes initial- and boundary-value problem for incompressible fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alankus, T.
1984-01-01
A general formal solution of the integral equivalent of Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible viscous fluids is presented through a linear operator acting on the functionals of solenoidal vector fields. This solution operator is completely determined by the Green functions of Laplace and diffusion equations corresponding to the flow region
One problem of the Navier type for the Stokes system in planar domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Medková, Dagmar
2016-01-01
Roč. 261, č. 10 (2016), s. 5670-5689 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Stokes system * Navier type problem * regularity of a solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039616302121
Exponential decay rate of the power spectrum for solutions of the Navier--Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doering, C.R.; Titi, E.S.
1995-01-01
Using a method developed by Foias and Temam [J. Funct. Anal. 87, 359 (1989)], exponential decay of the spatial Fourier power spectrum for solutions of the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations is established and explicit rigorous lower bounds on a small length scale defined by the exponential decay rate are obtained
Length scales for the Navier-Stokes equations on a rotating sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kyrychko, Yuliya N.; Bartuccelli, Michele V.
2004-01-01
In this Letter we obtain the dissipative length scale for the Navier-Stokes equations on a two-dimensional rotating sphere S 2 . This system is a fundamental model of the large scale atmospheric dynamics. Using the equations of motion in their vorticity form, we construct the ladder inequalities from which a set of time-averaged length scales is obtained
On the equivalence between particular types of Navier-Stokes and non-linear Schroedinger equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietrich, K.; Vautherin, D.
1985-01-01
We derive a Schroedinger equation equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation in the special case of constant kinematic viscosities. This equation contains a non-linear term similar to that proposed by Kostin for a quantum description of friction [fr
Application of thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations near maximum lift
Anderson, W. K.; Thomas, J. L.; Rumsey, C. L.
1984-01-01
The flowfield about a NACA 0012 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 1 million is computed through an angle of attack range, up to 18 deg, corresponding to conditions up to and beyond the maximum lift coefficient. Results obtained using the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are presented as well as results from the compressible Euler equations with and without a viscous coupling procedure. The applicability of each code is assessed and many thin-layer Navier-Stokes benchmark solutions are obtained which can be used for comparison with other codes intended for use at high angles of attack. Reasonable agreement of the Navier-Stokes code with experiment and the viscous-inviscid interaction code is obtained at moderate angles of attack. An unsteady solution is obtained with the thin-layer Navier-Stokes code at the highest angle of attack considered. The maximum lift coefficient is overpredicted, however, in comparison to experimental data, which is attributed to the presence of a laminar separation bubble near the leading edge not modeled in the computations. Two comparisons with experimental data are also presented at a higher Mach number.
Stokes flow past a swarm of porous circular cylinders with Happel ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The problem of creeping ﬂow past a swarm of porous circular cylinders with Happel and Kuwabara boundary conditions is investigated. The Brinkman equation for the ﬂow inside the porous cylinder and the Stokes equation outside the porous cylinder in their stream function formulations are used. The force experienced by ...
A simple and efficient segregated smoother for the discrete Stokes equations
F.J. Gaspar Lorenz (Franscisco); Y. Notay; C.W. Oosterlee (Kees); C. Rodrigo (Carmen)
2014-01-01
htmlabstractWe consider the multigrid solution of the generalized Stokes equations with a segre- gated (i.e., equationwise) Gauss–Seidel smoother based on a Uzawa-type iteration. We analyze the smoother in the framework of local Fourier analysis, and obtain an analytic bound on the smoothing factor
Turbomachinery Heat Transfer and Loss Modeling for 3D Navier-Stokes Codes
DeWitt, Kenneth; Ameri, Ali
2005-01-01
This report's contents focus on making use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities,to develop, validate, and apply models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes to enhance the capability to compute heat transfer and losses in turbomachiney.
Five-dimensional truncation of the plane incompressible navier-stokes equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boldrighini, C [Camerino Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica; Franceschini, V [Modena Univ. (Italy). Istituto Matematico
1979-01-01
A five-modes truncation of the Navier-Stokes equations for a two dimensional incompressible fluid on a torus is considered. A computer analysis shows that for a certain range of the Reynolds number the system exhibits a stochastic behaviour, approached through an involved sequence of bifurcations.
Identification of severe wind conditions using a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes solver
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Johansen, Jeppe
2007-01-01
The present paper describes the application of a Navier-Stokes solver to predict the presence of severe flow conditions in complex terrain, capturing conditions that may be critical to the siting of wind turbines in the terrain. First it is documented that the flow solver is capable of predicting...
Rigorous homogenization of a Stokes-Nernst-Planck-Poisson problem for various boundary conditions
Ray, N.; Muntean, A.; Knabner, P.
2011-01-01
We perform the periodic homogenization (i. e. e ¿ 0) of the non-stationary Stokes-Nernst-Planck-Poisson system using two-scale convergence, where e is a suitable scale parameter. The objective is to investigate the influence of different boundary conditions and variable choices of scaling in e of
Augmented Lagrangian methods to solve Navier-Stokes equations for a Bingham fluid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boscardin, Laetitia
1999-01-01
The objective of this research thesis is to develop one or more methods for the numerical resolution of equations of movement obtained for a Bingham fluid. The resolution of Navier-Stokes equations is processed by splitting elliptic and hyperbolic operators (Galerkin transport). In this purpose, the author first studied the Stokes problem, and then addressed issues of stability and consistency of the global scheme. The variational formulation of the Stokes problem can be expressed under the form of a minimisation problem under the constraint of non linear and non differentiable functions. Then, the author proposes a discretization of the Stokes problem based on a hybrid finite element method. Then he extends the demonstrations of stability and consistency of the Galerkin-transport scheme which have been established for a Newtonian fluid, to the case of a Bingham fluid. A relaxation algorithm and a Newton-GMRES algorithm are developed to solve the problem, and their convergence is studied. To ensure this convergence, some constraints must be verified. In order to do so, a specific speed element has been developed [fr
On time-periodic Navier-Stokes flows with fast spatial decay in the whole space
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nakatsuka, Tomoyuki
2018-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 1 (2018), s. 51-67 ISSN 2296-9020 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equation * time-periodic solution * asymptotic property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs41808-018-0011-8
Some strange numerical solutions of the non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations in pipes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rummler, B.
2001-07-01
A general class of boundary-pressure-driven flows of incompressible Newtonian fluids in three-dimensional pipes with known steady laminar realizations is investigated. Considering the laminar velocity as a 3D-vector-function of the cross-section-circle arguments, we fix the scale for the velocity by the L{sub 2}-norm of the laminar velocity. The usual new variables are introduced to get dimension-free Navier-Stokes equations. The characteristic physical and geometrical quantities are subsumed in the energetic Reynolds number Re and a parameter {psi}, which involves the energetic ratio and the directions of the boundary-driven part and the pressure-driven part of the laminar flow. The solution of non-stationary dimension-free Navier-Stokes equations is sought in the form u=u{sub L}+u, where u{sub L} is the scaled laminar velocity and periodical conditions in center-line-direction are prescribed for u. An autonomous system (S) of ordinary differential equations for the time-dependent coefficients of the spatial Stokes eigenfunction is got by application of the Galerkin-method to the dimension-free Navier-Stokes equations for u. The finite-dimensional approximations u{sub N({lambda}}{sub )} of u are defined in the usual way. (orig.)
How to distinguish elastically scattered light from Stokes shifted light for solid-state lighting?
Meretska, Maryna; Lagendijk, Aart; Thyrrestrup Nielsen, Henri; Mosk, Allard; IJzerman, W.L.; Vos, Willem L.
2016-01-01
We have studied the transport of light through phosphor diffuser plates that are used in commercial solid-state lighting modules (Fortimo). These polymer plates contain YAG:Ce+3phosphor particles that both elastically scatter and Stokes shift light in the visible wavelength range (400–700 nm). We
Phase Portrait Analysis For Navier – Stokes Equations in A Strip
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr. Anthony Peter
Peter Anthony. Department of Mathematics, Kaduna State University – Nigeria. .... + x ex. Cyx y ϕ. ϕ. ϕ μ. ϕ. ( ). For a. F u ll L en g th. Research. Article. 1 ..... Stokes equations in a strip revisited Comm.on Pure ... Cambridge University Press.
A convergent numerical method for the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier system in smooth physical domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Hošek, Radim; Michálek, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 5 (2016), s. 3062-3082 ISSN 0036-1429 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * finite element method * finite volume method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.978, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/15M1011809
Stable Galerkin versus equal-order Galerkin least-squares elements for the stokes flow problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, L.P.; Frey, S.L.; Sampaio, R.
1989-11-01
Numerical experiments are performed for the stokes flow problem employing a stable Galerkin method and a Galerkin/Least-squares method with equal-order elements. Error estimates for the methods tested herein are reviewed. The numerical results presented attest the good stability properties of all methods examined herein. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Numerical resolution of Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the heat equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenouda, Jean-Claude
1970-08-01
The author proves a uniqueness theorem for the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations coupled with heat flow in the two-dimensional case. He studies stability and convergence of several finite - difference schemes to solve these equations. Numerical experiments are done in the case of a square domain. (author) [fr
On the spectrum of a Stokes type operator arising from flow around a rotating body
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Farwig, R.; Neustupa, Jiří
2007-01-01
Roč. 122, č. 4 (2007), s. 419-437 ISSN 0025-2611 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/05/0005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : eigenvalues * essential spectrum * modified Stokes operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2007
On the Dynamic Programming Approach for the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manca, Luigi
2008-01-01
The dynamic programming approach for the control of a 3D flow governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid in a bounded domain is studied. By a compactness argument, existence of solutions for the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is proved. Finally, existence of an optimal control through the feedback formula and of an optimal state is discussed
Large Deviations for Stochastic Tamed 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roeckner, Michael; Zhang, Tusheng; Zhang Xicheng
2010-01-01
In this paper, using weak convergence method, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for the stochastic tamed 3D Navier-Stokes equations driven by multiplicative noise, which was investigated in (Roeckner and Zhang in Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 145(1-2), 211-267, 2009).
Aeroacoustic Calculations of Wind Turbine Noise with the Actuator Line/ Navier-Stokes Technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Debertshäuser, Harald; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2016-01-01
technique where the wind turbine flow is calculated by using the in-house actuator line/LES/Navier-Stokes technique and the acoustics is obtained by solving the acoustic perturbation equations. In the flow solver, the wind turbine blades are modelled by rotating lines with body forces determined according...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sani, R.L.; Gresho, P.M.; Lee, R.L.
1979-01-01
The spurious pressures and acceptable velocities generated when using certain combinations of velocity and pressure approximations in a Galerkin finite element discretization of the primitive variable form of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are analyzed both theoretically and numerically for grids composed of quadrilateral finite elements. Schemes for obtaining usable pressure fields from the spurious numerical results are presented for certain cases
Willemsz, Tofan A.; Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees
2013-01-01
Removal of microcrystalline cellulose agglomerates in a dry-mixing system (lactose, 100 M) predominantly occurs via abrasion. The agglomerate abrasion rate potential is estimated by the Stokes abrasion (StAbr) number of the system. The StAbrnumber equals the ratio between the kinetic energy density
Recovery of Stokes waves from velocity measurements on an axis of symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile
2015-01-01
We provide a new method to recover the profile of Stokes waves, and more generally of waves with smooth vorticity, from measurements of the horizontal velocity component on a vertical axis of symmetry of the wave surface. Although we consider periodic waves only, the extension to solitary waves is straightforward. (paper)
Resolving the ambiguity in the relation between Stokes shift and Huang-Rhys parameter
de Jong, Mathijs; Seijo, Luis; Meijerink, A; Rabouw, F.T.
2015-01-01
Electronic transitions in luminescent molecules or centers in crystals couple to vibrations. This results in broadening of absorption and emission bands, as well as in the occurence of a Stokes shift EStokes. In principle, one can derive from EStokes the Huang–Rhys parameter S, which describes the
Shock-wave structure based on the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations
Uribe, F. J.; Velasco, R. M.
2018-04-01
We use the Navier-Stokes-Fourier constitutive equations to study plane shock waves in dilute gases. It is shown that the experimental information on the normalized density profiles can be fit by using the so-called soft sphere model, in which the viscosity and thermal conductivity are proportional to a power of the temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnston, Hans; Liu Jianguo
2004-01-01
We present numerical schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on a primitive variable formulation in which the incompressibility constraint has been replaced by a pressure Poisson equation. The pressure is treated explicitly in time, completely decoupling the computation of the momentum and kinematic equations. The result is a class of extremely efficient Navier-Stokes solvers. Full time accuracy is achieved for all flow variables. The key to the schemes is a Neumann boundary condition for the pressure Poisson equation which enforces the incompressibility condition for the velocity field. Irrespective of explicit or implicit time discretization of the viscous term in the momentum equation the explicit time discretization of the pressure term does not affect the time step constraint. Indeed, we prove unconditional stability of the new formulation for the Stokes equation with explicit treatment of the pressure term and first or second order implicit treatment of the viscous term. Systematic numerical experiments for the full Navier-Stokes equations indicate that a second order implicit time discretization of the viscous term, with the pressure and convective terms treated explicitly, is stable under the standard CFL condition. Additionally, various numerical examples are presented, including both implicit and explicit time discretizations, using spectral and finite difference spatial discretizations, demonstrating the accuracy, flexibility and efficiency of this class of schemes. In particular, a Galerkin formulation is presented requiring only C 0 elements to implement
On Stationary Navier-Stokes Flows Around a Rotating Obstacle in Two-Dimensions
Higaki, Mitsuo; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakahara, Yuu
2018-05-01
We study the two-dimensional stationary Navier-Stokes equations describing the flows around a rotating obstacle. The unique existence of solutions and their asymptotic behavior at spatial infinity are established when the rotation speed of the obstacle and the given exterior force are sufficiently small.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makhalov, A S; Nikolaenko, V P
2003-01-01
This paper is a survey of results concerning the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and Euler equations with initial data characterized by uniformly large vorticity. The existence of regular solutions of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on an unbounded time interval is proved for large initial data both in R 3 and in bounded cylindrical domains. Moreover, the existence of smooth solutions on large finite time intervals is established for the three-dimensional Euler equations. These results are obtained without additional assumptions on the behaviour of solutions for t>0. Any smooth solution is not close to any two-dimensional manifold. Our approach is based on the computation of singular limits of rapidly oscillating operators, non-linear averaging, and a consideration of the mutual absorption of non-linear oscillations of the vorticity field. The use of resonance conditions, methods from the theory of small divisors, and non-linear averaging of almost periodic functions leads to the limit resonant Navier-Stokes equations. Global solubility of these equations is proved without any conditions on the three-dimensional initial data. The global regularity of weak solutions of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with uniformly large vorticity at t=0 is proved by using the regularity of weak solutions and the strong convergence
Group-theoretical model of developed turbulence and renormalization of the Navier-Stokes equation.
Saveliev, V L; Gorokhovski, M A
2005-07-01
On the basis of the Euler equation and its symmetry properties, this paper proposes a model of stationary homogeneous developed turbulence. A regularized averaging formula for the product of two fields is obtained. An equation for the averaged turbulent velocity field is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation by renormalization-group transformation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Liu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we consider the free boundary value problem for one-dimensional compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Possion (BNSP equations with density-dependent viscosities. For general initial data with finite energy and the density connecting with vacuum continuously, we prove the global existence of the weak solution. This extends the previous results for compressible NS [27] to NSP.
Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: Multiscale spin relaxation in molecular fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jesper Schmidt
2013-01-01
This paper studies the relaxation of the molecular spin angular velocity in the framework of generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory. Using molecular dynamics simulations, it is shown that for uncharged diatomic molecules the relaxation time decreases with increasing molecular moment of inertia...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šístek, Jakub; Cirak, F.
2015-01-01
Roč. 122, 20 November (2015), s. 165-183 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes * incompressible flow * Krylov subspace methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793015003023
Yang, Ruonan; Sen, Pratik; O'Connor, B. T.; Kudenov, M. W.
2017-08-01
An intrinsic coincident full-Stokes polarimeter is demonstrated by using stain-aligned polymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) which can preferentially absorb certain polarized states of incident light. The photovoltaic-based polarimeter is capable of measuring four stokes parameters by cascading four semitransparent OPVs in series along the same optical axis. Two wave plates were incorporated into the system to modulate the S3 stokes parameter so as to reduce the condition number of the measurement matrix. The model for the full-Stokes polarimeter was established and validated, demonstrating an average RMS error of 0.84%. The optimization, based on minimizing the condition number of the 4-cell OPV design, showed that a condition number of 2.4 is possible. Performance of this in-line polarimeter concept was compared to other polarimeter architectures, including Division of Time (DoT), Division of Amplitude (DoAm), Division of Focal Plane (DoFP), and Division of Aperture (DoA) from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) perspective. This in-line polarimeter concept has the potential to enable both high temporal (as compared with a DoT polarimeter) and high spatial resolution (as compared with DoFP and DoA polarimeters). We conclude that the intrinsic design has the same √2 SNR advantage as the DoAm polarimeter, but with greater compactness.
A study of plunging breaker mechanics by PIV measurements and a Navier-Stokes solver
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I. M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2000-01-01
The mechanics of a surf-zone plunging breaker are studied from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements and a numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations, using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. An additional numerical model using a Boundary-Integral Method (BIM) is also used in order...
A rigorous justification of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with geometric effects
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bella, P.; Feireisl, Eduard; Lewicka, M.; Novotný, A.
2016-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 6 (2016), s. 3907-3930 ISSN 0036-1410 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : isentropic Navier-Stokes system * isentropic Euler system * inviscid limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1048963
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vítek, V.; Vojtíšková, M.
2003-01-01
Roč. 93, č. 1 (2003), s. 37-64 ISSN 0167-9295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : T/P altimery * stokes 2-nd degree tesseral coeficients Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2003
Mathematical geophysics an introduction to rotating fluids and the Navier-Stokes equations
Chemin, Jean-Yves; Gallagher, Isabelle; Grenier, Emmanuel
2006-01-01
Aimed at graduate students and researchers in mathematics, engineering, oceanography, meteorology and mechanics, this text provides a detailed introduction to the physical theory of rotating fluids, a significant part of geophysical fluid dynamics. The Navier-Stokes equations are examined in both incompressible and rapidly rotating forms.
A convergent numerical method for the Navier-Stokes-Fourier system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Karper, T.; Novotný, A.
2016-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 4 (2016), s. 1477-1535 ISSN 0272-4979 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * Crouzeix-Raviart finite element method * finite volume method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.703, year: 2016 http://imajna.oxfordjournals.org/content/36/4/1477
EXPONENTIAL ERGODICITY FOR STOCHASTIC BURGERS AND 2D NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS
Goldys, B
2004-01-01
It is shown that transition measures of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation in dimension 2 converge exponentially fast to the corresponding invariant measures in the distance of total variation. As a corollary we obtain the existence of spectral gap for a related semigroup obtained by a sort of ground state trasformation. Analogous results are proved for the stochastic Burgers equation.
Sanderse, B.; Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Koren, B.
2014-01-01
A discretization method for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations conserving the secondary quantities kinetic energy and vorticity was introduced, besides the primary quantities mass and momentum. This method was extended to fourth order accuracy. In this paper we propose a new consistent
Effective temperatures and the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation for particle suspensions.
Mendoza, Carlos I; Santamaría-Holek, I; Pérez-Madrid, A
2015-09-14
The short- and long-time breakdown of the classical Stokes-Einstein relation for colloidal suspensions at arbitrary volume fractions is explained here by examining the role that confinement and attractive interactions play in the intra- and inter-cage dynamics executed by the colloidal particles. We show that the measured short-time diffusion coefficient is larger than the one predicted by the classical Stokes-Einstein relation due to a non-equilibrated energy transfer between kinetic and configuration degrees of freedom. This transfer can be incorporated in an effective kinetic temperature that is higher than the temperature of the heat bath. We propose a Generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (GSER) in which the effective temperature replaces the temperature of the heat bath. This relation then allows to obtain the diffusion coefficient once the viscosity and the effective temperature are known. On the other hand, the temporary cluster formation induced by confinement and attractive interactions of hydrodynamic nature makes the long-time diffusion coefficient to be smaller than the corresponding one obtained from the classical Stokes-Einstein relation. Then, the use of the GSER allows to obtain an effective temperature that is smaller than the temperature of the heat bath. Additionally, we provide a simple expression based on a differential effective medium theory that allows to calculate the diffusion coefficient at short and long times. Comparison of our results with experiments and simulations for suspensions of hard and porous spheres shows an excellent agreement in all cases.
Pattern recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinreich, Gerhard; Teschler, Helmut; Armitstead, Jeff
2008-01-01
The aim of this study was to assess the validity of an artificial neural network based on flow-related spectral entropy as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration. A data set of 37 subjects was used for spectral analysis of the airflow by performing a fast Fourier transform. The examined intervals were divided into epochs of 3 min. Spectral entropy S was applied as a measure for the spread of the related power spectrum. The spectrum was divided into several frequency areas with various subsets of spectral entropy. We studied 11 subjects with obstructive apnoeas (n = 267 epochs), 10 subjects with obstructive hypopnoeas (n = 80 epochs), 11 subjects with Cheyne–Stokes respiration (n = 253 epochs) and 5 subjects with normal breathing in non-REM sleep (n = 174 epochs). Based on spectral entropy an artificial neural network was built, and we obtained a sensitivity of 90.2% and a specificity of 90.9% for distinguishing between obstructive apnoeas and Cheyne–Stokes respiration, and a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 94.6% for discriminating between obstructive hypopnoeas and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. This resulted in an accuracy of 91.5% for identifying flow patterns of obstructive sleep apnoea, Cheyne–Stokes respiration and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. It is concluded that the use of an artificial neural network relying on spectral analysis of the airflow could be a useful method as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration
CUDA GPU based full-Stokes finite difference modelling of glaciers
Brædstrup, C. F.; Egholm, D. L.
2012-04-01
Many have stressed the limitations of using the shallow shelf and shallow ice approximations when modelling ice streams or surging glaciers. Using a full-stokes approach requires either large amounts of computer power or time and is therefore seldom an option for most glaciologists. Recent advances in graphics card (GPU) technology for high performance computing have proven extremely efficient in accelerating many large scale scientific computations. The general purpose GPU (GPGPU) technology is cheap, has a low power consumption and fits into a normal desktop computer. It could therefore provide a powerful tool for many glaciologists. Our full-stokes ice sheet model implements a Red-Black Gauss-Seidel iterative linear solver to solve the full stokes equations. This technique has proven very effective when applied to the stokes equation in geodynamics problems, and should therefore also preform well in glaciological flow probems. The Gauss-Seidel iterator is known to be robust but several other linear solvers have a much faster convergence. To aid convergence, the solver uses a multigrid approach where values are interpolated and extrapolated between different grid resolutions to minimize the short wavelength errors efficiently. This reduces the iteration count by several orders of magnitude. The run-time is further reduced by using the GPGPU technology where each card has up to 448 cores. Researchers utilizing the GPGPU technique in other areas have reported between 2 - 11 times speedup compared to multicore CPU implementations on similar problems. The goal of these initial investigations into the possible usage of GPGPU technology in glacial modelling is to apply the enhanced resolution of a full-stokes solver to ice streams and surging glaciers. This is a area of growing interest because ice streams are the main drainage conjugates for large ice sheets. It is therefore crucial to understand this streaming behavior and it's impact up-ice.
Zang, Jie; Cong, Zhenhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhang, Xingyu; Qin, Zengguang; Liu, Zhaojun; Lu, Jianren; Wu, Dong; Fu, Qiang; Jiang, Shiqi; Zhang, Shaojun
2016-04-04
This paper presents the tunable Stokes laser characteristics of KTiOAsO4 (KTA) crystal based on stimulated polariton scattering (SPS). When the pumping laser wavelength is 1064.2 nm, the KTA Stokes wave can be discontinuously tuned from 1077.9 to 1088.4 nm with four gaps from 1079.0 to 1080.1 nm, from 1080.8 to 1082.8 nm, from 1083.6 to 1085.5 nm, and from 1085.8 to 1086.8 nm. When a frequency doubling crystal LiB3O5 (LBO) is inserted into the Stokes laser cavity, the frequency-doubled wave can be discontinuously tuned from 539.0 to 539.5 nm, from 540.1 to 540.4 nm, from 541.3 to 541.8 nm, from 542.7 to 542.9 nm and from 543.4 to 544.2 nm. With a pumping pulse energy of 130.0 mJ and an output coupler reflectivity of about 30%, the obtained maximum Stokes laser pulse energy at 1078.6 nm is 33.9 mJ and the obtained maximum frequency-doubled laser pulse energy at 543.8 nm is 15.7 mJ. By using the most probably coupled transverse optical modes obtained from the literature, the polariton refractive indexes, and the simplified polariton Sellmeier equations, the polariton dispersion curve is obtained. The formation of the Stokes frequency gaps is explained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bespalov, V.G.; Efimov, Yu.N.; Staselko, D.I.
1992-01-01
This paper studies the emission spectra of backscattered stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in compressed hydrogen in the relaxation-oscillation mode and the compression SRS mode for the minimum width of the spontaneous scattering spectrum (in the region of the Dicke dip). It is shown that the generation of a train of Stokes-emission subpulses results in the appearance of fine structure in the backscattered SRS spectrum. The influence of the temporal structure of reflected Stokes pulses on this spectrum and on the appearance of fine structure in it is analyzed. The conditions for generating spectrally limited (without phase modulation), extremely coherent Stokes pulses are explained. 18 refs., 3 figs
Guan, Jinge; Ren, Wei; Cheng, Yaoyu
2018-04-01
We demonstrate an efficient polarization-difference imaging system in turbid conditions by using the Stokes vector of light. The interaction of scattered light with the polarizer is analyzed by the Stokes-Mueller formalism. An interpolation method is proposed to replace the mechanical rotation of the polarization axis of the analyzer theoretically, and its performance is verified by the experiment at different turbidity levels. We show that compared with direct imaging, the Stokes vector based imaging method can effectively reduce the effect of light scattering and enhance the image contrast.
An efficient numerical technique for solving navier-stokes equations for rotating flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haroon, T.; Shah, T.M.
2000-01-01
This paper simulates an industrial problem by solving compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The time-consuming tri-angularization process of a large-banded matrix, performed by memory economical Frontal Technique. This scheme successfully reduces the time for I/O operations even for as large as (40, 000 x 40, 000) matrix. Previously, this industrial problem can solved by using modified Newton's method with Gaussian elimination technique for the large matrix. In the present paper, the proposed Frontal Technique is successfully used, together with Newton's method, to solve compressible Navier-Stokes equations for rotating cylinders. By using the Frontal Technique, the method gives the solution within reasonably acceptance computational time. Results are compared with the earlier works done, and found computationally very efficient. Some features of the solution are reported here for the rotating machines. (author)
Soliman, George; Yevick, David; Jessop, Paul
2014-09-01
This paper demonstrates that numerous calculations involving polarization transformations can be condensed by employing suitable geometric algebra formalism. For example, to describe polarization mode dispersion and polarization-dependent loss, both the material birefringence and differential loss enter as bivectors and can be combined into a single symmetric quantity. Their frequency and distance evolution, as well as that of the Stokes vector through an optical system, can then each be expressed as a single compact expression, in contrast to the corresponding Mueller matrix formulations. The intrinsic advantage of the geometric algebra framework is further demonstrated by presenting a simplified derivation of generalized Stokes parameters that include the electric field phase. This procedure simultaneously establishes the tensor transformation properties of these parameters.
The Actuator Surface Model: A New Navier-Stokes Based Model for Rotor Computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhang, J.H.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2009-01-01
This paper presents a new numerical technique for simulating two-dimensional wind turbine flow. The method, denoted as the 2D actuator surface technique, consists of a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver in which the pressure distribution is represented by body forces that are distributed along ....... In the last part, the actuator surface technique is applied to compute the flow past a two-bladed vertical axis wind turbine equipped with NACA 0012 airfoils. Comparisons with experimental data show an encouraging performance of the method.......This paper presents a new numerical technique for simulating two-dimensional wind turbine flow. The method, denoted as the 2D actuator surface technique, consists of a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver in which the pressure distribution is represented by body forces that are distributed along...
Pipe Flow and Wall Turbulence Using a Modified Navier-Stokes Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jirkovsky, L.; Muriel, A.
2012-01-01
We use a derived incompressible modified Navier-Stokes equation to model pipe flow and wall turbulence. We reproduce the observed flattened paraboloid velocity profiles of turbulence that cannot be obtained directly using standard incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The solutions found are in harmony with multi-valued velocity fields as a definition of turbulence. Repeating the procedure for the flow of turbulent fluid between two parallel flat plates we find similar flattened velocity profiles. We extend the analysis to the turbulent flow along a single wall and compare the results with experimental data and the established controversial von Karman logarithmic law of the wall. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Simulations of transition and turbulence on the Navier-Stokes computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krist, S.E.; Zang, T.A.
1987-01-01
The Navier-Stokes Computer (NSC) consists of multiple local memory parallel processors interconnected in a hypercube network. Efficient implementation of algorithms on the NSC thus requires the effective utilization of both the coarse and fine grain paralelism inherent in the architectural design. The basic approach to implementing an algorithm on the NSC is presented herein. The particular finite-difference algorithm considered was developed for performing transition and turbulence simulations by direct solution of the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The suitability of this algorithm for performing simulations of the isotropic turbulence problem is verified from computations performed on a Cray 2. Projected timing results for the algorithm on the NSC itself are presented for both the isotropic turbulence and laminar turbulent transition problems. 7 references
Application of the implicit MacCormack scheme to the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations
Lawrence, J. L.; Tannehill, J. C.; Chaussee, D. S.
1984-01-01
MacCormack's implicit finite-difference scheme was used to solve the two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. This method for solving the PNS equations does not require the inversion of block tridiagonal systems of algebraic equations and permits the original explicit MacCormack scheme to be employed in those regions where implicit treatment is not needed. The advantages and disadvantages of the present adaptation are discussed in relation to those of the conventional Beam-Warming scheme for a flat plate boundary layer test case. Comparisons are made for accuracy, stability, computer time, computer storage, and ease of implementation. The present method was also applied to a second test case of hypersonic laminar flow over a 15% compression corner. The computed results compare favorably with experiment and a numerical solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equations.
Parabolized Navier-Stokes solutions of separation and trailing-edge flows
Brown, J. L.
1983-01-01
A robust, iterative solution procedure is presented for the parabolized Navier-Stokes or higher order boundary layer equations as applied to subsonic viscous-inviscid interaction flows. The robustness of the present procedure is due, in part, to an improved algorithmic formulation. The present formulation is based on a reinterpretation of stability requirements for this class of algorithms and requires only second order accurate backward or central differences for all streamwise derivatives. Upstream influence is provided for through the algorithmic formulation and iterative sweeps in x. The primary contribution to robustness, however, is the boundary condition treatment, which imposes global constraints to control the convergence path. Discussed are successful calculations of subsonic, strong viscous-inviscid interactions, including separation. These results are consistent with Navier-Stokes solutions and triple deck theory.
Ronan, R. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Orrall, F. Q.
1987-01-01
The results of two methods for deriving photospheric vector magnetic fields from the Zeeman effect, as observed in the Fe I line at 6302.5 A at high spectral resolution (45 mA), are compared. The first method does not take magnetooptical effects into account, but determines the vector magnetic field from the integral properties of the Stokes profiles. The second method is an iterative least-squares fitting technique which fits the observed Stokes profiles to the profiles predicted by the Unno-Rachkovsky solution to the radiative transfer equation. For sunspot fields above about 1500 gauss, the two methods are found to agree in derived azimuthal and inclination angles to within about + or - 20 deg.
On a multigrid method for the coupled Stokes and porous media flow problem
Luo, P.; Rodrigo, C.; Gaspar, F. J.; Oosterlee, C. W.
2017-07-01
The multigrid solution of coupled porous media and Stokes flow problems is considered. The Darcy equation as the saturated porous medium model is coupled to the Stokes equations by means of appropriate interface conditions. We focus on an efficient multigrid solution technique for the coupled problem, which is discretized by finite volumes on staggered grids, giving rise to a saddle point linear system. Special treatment is required regarding the discretization at the interface. An Uzawa smoother is employed in multigrid, which is a decoupled procedure based on symmetric Gauss-Seidel smoothing for velocity components and a simple Richardson iteration for the pressure field. Since a relaxation parameter is part of a Richardson iteration, Local Fourier Analysis (LFA) is applied to determine the optimal parameters. Highly satisfactory multigrid convergence is reported, and, moreover, the algorithm performs well for small values of the hydraulic conductivity and fluid viscosity, that are relevant for applications.
Navier-Stokes calculations on multi-element airfoils using a chimera-based solver
Jasper, Donald W.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Robinson, Brian A.
1993-01-01
A study of Navier-Stokes calculations of flows about multielement airfoils using a chimera grid approach is presented. The chimera approach utilizes structured, overlapped grids which allow great flexibility of grid arrangement and simplifies grid generation. Calculations are made for two-, three-, and four-element airfoils, and modeling of the effect of gap distance between elements is demonstrated for a two element case. Solutions are obtained using the thin-layer form of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence closure provided by the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic model or the Baldwin-Barth one equation model. The Baldwin-Barth turbulence model is shown to provide better agreement with experimental data and to dramatically improve convergence rates for some cases. Recently developed, improved farfield boundary conditions are incorporated into the solver for greater efficiency. Computed results show good comparison with experimental data which include aerodynamic forces, surface pressures, and boundary layer velocity profiles.
Chen, Y. K.; Henline, W. D.
1993-01-01
The general boundary conditions including mass and energy balances of chemically equilibrated or nonequilibrated gas adjacent to ablating surfaces have been derived. A computer procedure based on these conditions was developed and interfaced with the Navier-Stokes solver for predictions of the flow field, surface temperature, and surface ablation rates over re-entry space vehicles with ablating Thermal Protection Systems (TPS). The Navier-Stokes solver with general surface thermochemistry boundary conditions can predict more realistic solutions and provide useful information for the design of TPS. A test case with a proposed hypersonic test vehicle configuration and associated free stream conditions was developed. Solutions with various surface boundary conditions were obtained, and the effect of nonequilibrium gas as well as surface chemistry on surface heating and ablation rate were examined. The solutions of the GASP code with complete ablating surface conditions were compared with those of the ASC code. The direction of future work is also discussed.
MULTI-LINE STOKES INVERSION FOR PROMINENCE MAGNETIC-FIELD DIAGNOSTICS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casini, R.; Lopez Ariste, A.; Paletou, F.; Leger, L.
2009-01-01
We present test results on the simultaneous inversion of the Stokes profiles of the He I lines at 587.6 nm (D 3 ) and 1083.0 nm in prominences (90 deg. scattering). We created data sets of synthetic Stokes profiles for the case of quiescent prominences (B -3 of the peak intensity for the polarimetric sensitivity of the simulated observations. In this work, we focus on the error analysis for the inference of the magnetic field vector, under the usual assumption that the prominence can be assimilated to a slab of finite optical thickness with uniform magnetic and thermodynamic properties. We find that the simultaneous inversion of the two lines significantly reduces the errors on the inference of the magnetic field vector, with respect to the case of single-line inversion. These results provide a solid justification for current and future instrumental efforts with multi-line capabilities for the observations of solar prominences and filaments.
Jeyasingh, Ebenezar; Singaravelu, Ganesan; Prakasarao, Aruna
2018-02-01
In this study, we aim to characterize the tissue transformation in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin tumor model using stokes shift spectroscopy (SSS) technique for early detection of the neoplastic changes. Stokes shift (SS) spectra measured by scanning both excitation and emission wavelength simultaneously with a fixed wavelength of interval (Δλ=20 nm) in vivo from 33 DMBA treated animals and 6 control animals. The SS spectra of normal (n=6), hyperplasia (n=10), dysplasia (n=10), and WDSCC (n=13) of mice skin shows the distinct peaks around 300, 350, and 386 nm may be attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. From the observed spectral differences and the ratio variables that resulted in better classification between groups, it is concluded that tryptophan, collagen, and NADH are the key fluorophores that undergo changes during tissue transformation process and hence they can be targeted as tumor markers for early neoplastic changes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bratescu, Maria Antoneta; Hieda, Junko; Umemura, Tomonari; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu
2011-01-01
The degradation of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in water was investigated by the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method, in which the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity corresponding to the vibrational transitions of the molecule is monitored during and after solution plasma processing (SPP). In the beginning of SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensity of the ring vibrational molecular transitions at 1233 and 1660 cm -1 increases under the influence of the electric field of the plasma, depending on the delay time between the plasma pulse and the laser firing pulse. At the same time, the plasma contributes to the degradation of p-BQ molecules by generating hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which decompose p-BQ into different carboxylic acids. After SPP, the CARS signal intensity of the vibrational bands of p-BQ ceased and the degradation of p-BQ was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography analysis.
Least squares inversion of Stokes profiles in the presence of velocity gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skumanich, A.; Rees, D.E.; Lites, B.W.; Sacramento Peak Observatory, Sunspot, NM)
1985-01-01
The Auer, Heasley and House Stokes inversion procedure in use at High Altitude Observatory is based on the analytic solution of the equation of transfer for polarized light where the representation of the thermodynamic and magnetic structure of the atmosphere is assumed to have a high degree of invariance, namely, a Milne-Eddington (ME) structure with a constant magnetic field. In the presence of invariance breaking gradients the resultant Stokes profiles are represented only approximately, if at all, by analytic forms. The accuracy of the inversion parameters and their significance as measures of actual structure are explored for the ME and the Landman-Finn sunspot models under the effects of velocity gradients. The resulting field parameters are good to a few percent and prove to be insensitive to the errors committed by the use of a ME-representation, but the resulting ME parameters yield a less precise measure of thermal structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lubuma, M.S.
1991-05-01
The applicability of the Neumann indirect method of potentials to the Dirichlet and Neumann problems for the two-dimensional Stokes operator on a non smooth boundary Γ is subject to two kinds of sufficient and/or necessary conditions on Γ. The first one, occurring in electrostatic, is equivalent to the boundedness on C(Γ) of the velocity double layer potential W as well as to the existence of jump relations of potentials. The second condition, which forces Γ to be a simple rectifiable curve and which, compared to the Laplacian, is a stronger restriction on the corners of Γ, states that the Fredholm radius of W is greater than 2. Under these conditions, the Radon boundary integral equations defined by the above mentioned jump relations are solvable by the Fredholm theory; the double (for Dirichlet) and the single (for Neumann) layer potentials corresponding to their solutions are classical solutions of the Stokes problems. (author). 48 refs
Steady Stokes flow past dumbbell shaped axially symmetric body of revolution: An analytic approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srivastava Kumar Deepak
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of steady Stokes flow past dumbbell-shaped axially symmetric isolated body of revolution about its axis of symmetry is considered by utilizing a method (Datta and Srivastava, 1999 based on body geometry under the restrictions of continuously turning tangent on the boundary. The relationship between drag and moment is established in transverse flow situation. The closed form expression of Stokes drag is then calculated for dumbbell-shaped body in terms of geometric parameters b, c, d and a with the aid of this linear relation and the formula of torque obtained by (Chwang and Wu, part 1, 1974 with the use of singularity distribution along axis of symmetry. Drag coefficient and moment coefficient are defined in various forms in terms of dumbbell parameters. Their numerical values are calculated and depicted in respective graphs and compared with some known values.
Ludwig Guttmann (1899-1980), Stoke Mandeville Hospital and the Paralympic Games.
Silver, John R
2012-08-01
On 27 July 2012 London is hosting the Olympic and the Paralympic Games. The Olympic Games will be attended by 17,000 athletes to be followed by the Paralympic Games with 4200 athletes from 150 countries, participating in 20 different sports. This multicultural event has grown in the last 60 years from a small competition between British and Dutch athletes on the lawns of Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Buckinghamshire. The Paralympic Movement was born out of the vision of Sir Ludwig Guttmann. Before World War II, most paraplegic patients died. Guttmann came to Stoke Mandeville Hospital in 1944 and instituted the modern treatment of spinal injuries which kept paraplegic patients alive. While exercise is an essential part of rehabilitation, developing strength and agility, and a paraplegic patient can only participate in competitive sport when he or she is fully rehabilitated so the sports movement grew out of the successful treatment of paraplegic patients.
Transport, mixing and stretching in a chaotic Stokes flow: The two-roll mill
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaper, T.J.; Wiggins, S.
1989-01-01
We present the outline and preliminary results of an analytical and numerical study of transport, mixing, and stretching in a chaotic Stokes' flow in a two-roll mill apparatus. We use the theory of dynamical systems to describe the rich behavior and structure exhibited by these flows. The main features are the homoclinic tangle which functions as the backbone of the chaotic mixing region, the Smale horseshoe, and the island chains. We then use our detailed knowledge of these structures to develop a theory of transport and stretching of fluid in the chaotic regime. In particular, we show how a specific set of tools for adiabatic chaos- the adiabatic Melnikov function lobe area and flux computations and the adiabatic switching method is ideally suited to develop this theory of transport, mixing and stretching in time-dependent two-dimensional Stokes' flows. 19 refs., 8 figs
Viswanathan, T M; Viswanathan, G M
2011-01-28
Strong global solvability is difficult to prove for high-dimensional hydrodynamic systems because of the complex interplay between nonlinearity and scale invariance. We define the Ladyzhenskaya-Lions exponent α(L)(n)=(2+n)/4 for Navier-Stokes equations with dissipation -(-Δ)(α) in R(n), for all n≥2. We review the proof of strong global solvability when α≥α(L)(n), given smooth initial data. If the corresponding Euler equations for n>2 were to allow uncontrolled growth of the enstrophy (1/2)∥∇u∥(L²)(2), then no globally controlled coercive quantity is currently known to exist that can regularize solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for α<α(L)(n). The energy is critical under scale transformations only for α=α(L)(n).
Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Calculations Using the Modified Space-Time CESE Method
Chang, Chau-lyan
2007-01-01
The space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is modified to address the robustness issues of high-aspect-ratio, viscous, near-wall meshes. In this new approach, the dependent variable gradients are evaluated using element edges and the corresponding neighboring solution elements while keeping the original flux integration procedure intact. As such, the excellent flux conservation property is retained and the new edge-based gradients evaluation significantly improves the robustness for high-aspect ratio meshes frequently encountered in three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes calculations. The order of accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated for oblique acoustic wave propagation, shock-wave interaction, and hypersonic flows over a blunt body. The confirmed second-order convergence along with the enhanced robustness in handling hypersonic blunt body flow calculations makes the proposed approach a very competitive CFD framework for 3D Navier-Stokes simulations.
Steady-State Anderson Accelerated Coupling of Lattice Boltzmann and Navier–Stokes Solvers
Atanasov, Atanas
2016-10-17
We present an Anderson acceleration-based approach to spatially couple three-dimensional Lattice Boltzmann and Navier–Stokes (LBNS) flow simulations. This allows to locally exploit the computational features of both fluid flow solver approaches to the fullest extent and yields enhanced control to match the LB and NS degrees of freedom within the LBNS overlap layer. Designed for parallel Schwarz coupling, the Anderson acceleration allows for the simultaneous execution of both Lattice Boltzmann and Navier–Stokes solver. We detail our coupling methodology, validate it, and study convergence and accuracy of the Anderson accelerated coupling, considering three steady-state scenarios: plane channel flow, flow around a sphere and channel flow across a porous structure. We find that the Anderson accelerated coupling yields a speed-up (in terms of iteration steps) of up to 40% in the considered scenarios, compared to strictly sequential Schwarz coupling.
Method and system to measure temperature of gases using coherent anti-stokes doppler spectroscopy
Rhodes, Mark
2013-12-17
A method of measuring a temperature of a noble gas in a chamber includes providing the noble gas in the chamber. The noble gas is characterized by a pressure and a temperature. The method also includes directing a first laser beam into the chamber and directing a second laser beam into the chamber. The first laser beam is characterized by a first frequency and the second laser beam is characterized by a second frequency. The method further includes converting at least a portion of the first laser beam and the second laser beam into a coherent anti-Stokes beam, measuring a Doppler broadening of the coherent anti-Stokes beam, and computing the temperature using the Doppler broadening.
Tamellini, L.; Le Maî tre, O.; Nouy, A.
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider a proper generalized decomposition method to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with random Reynolds number and forcing term. The aim of such a technique is to compute a low-cost reduced basis approximation of the full stochastic Galerkin solution of the problem at hand. A particular algorithm, inspired by the Arnoldi method for solving eigenproblems, is proposed for an efficient greedy construction of a deterministic reduced basis approximation. This algorithm decouples the computation of the deterministic and stochastic components of the solution, thus allowing reuse of preexisting deterministic Navier-Stokes solvers. It has the remarkable property of only requiring the solution of m uncoupled deterministic problems for the construction of an m-dimensional reduced basis rather than M coupled problems of the full stochastic Galerkin approximation space, with m l M (up to one order of magnitudefor the problem at hand in this work). © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Trask, Nathaniel; Maxey, Martin; Hu, Xiaozhe
2018-02-01
A stable numerical solution of the steady Stokes problem requires compatibility between the choice of velocity and pressure approximation that has traditionally proven problematic for meshless methods. In this work, we present a discretization that couples a staggered scheme for pressure approximation with a divergence-free velocity reconstruction to obtain an adaptive, high-order, finite difference-like discretization that can be efficiently solved with conventional algebraic multigrid techniques. We use analytic benchmarks to demonstrate equal-order convergence for both velocity and pressure when solving problems with curvilinear geometries. In order to study problems in dense suspensions, we couple the solution for the flow to the equations of motion for freely suspended particles in an implicit monolithic scheme. The combination of high-order accuracy with fully-implicit schemes allows the accurate resolution of stiff lubrication forces directly from the solution of the Stokes problem without the need to introduce sub-grid lubrication models.
Application of an upwind Navier-Stokes code to two-dimensional transonic airfoil flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumsey, C.L.; Thomas, J.L.; Anderson, W.K.; Taylor, S.L.
1987-01-01
An upwind-biased implicit approximate factorization Navier-Stokes algorithm is applied to a variety of steady transonic airfoil cases, using the NACA 0012, RAE 2822, and Jones supercritical airfoils. The thin-layer form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is used. Both the CYBER 205 and CRAY 2 supercomputers are utilized, with average computational speeds of about 18 and 16 microsec/gridpoint/iteration, respectively. Lift curves, drag polars, and variations in drag coefficient with Mach number are determined for the NACA 0012 and Jones supercritical airfoils. Also, several cases are computed for comparison with experiment. The effect of grid density and grid extent on a typical turbulent airfoil solution is shown. An algebraic eddy-viscosity turbulence model is used for all of the computations. 10 references
Constraints on Particles and Fields from Full Stokes Observations of AGN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel C. Homan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Combined polarization imaging of radio jets from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN in circular and linear polarization, also known as full Stokes imaging, has the potential to constrain both the magnetic field structure and particle properties of jets. Although only a small fraction of the emission when detected, typically less than a few tenths of a percent but up to as much as a couple of percent in the strongest resolved sources, circular polarization directly probes the magnetic field and particles within the jet itself and is not expected to be modified by external screens. A key to using full Stokes observations to constrain jet properties is obtaining a better understanding of the emission of circular polarization, including its variability and spectrum. We discuss what we have learned so far from parsec scale monitoring observations in the MOJAVE program and from multi-frequency observations of selected AGN.
Reduction of reabsorption effects in scintillators by employing solutes with large Stokes shifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrah, L.A.; Renschler, C.L.
1986-01-01
A radiation or high energy particle responsive system is described useful as a scintillator, and comprising, a first component which interacts with the radiation or high energy particle to emit photons in a certain first wavelength range; and at least one additional solute component which absorbs the photons in the first wavelength range and thereupon emits photons in another wavelength range higher than the first range; the improvement wherein at least one of the components absorbs substantially no photons in the wavelength range in which it emits photons, due to large Stokes shift caused by an excited states intramolecular rearrangement, with the proviso that the component having a large Stokes shift is not methyl salicylate or salicyclic acid
Transition from fractional to classical Stokes-Einstein behaviour in simple fluids.
Coglitore, Diego; Edwardson, Stuart P; Macko, Peter; Patterson, Eann A; Whelan, Maurice
2017-12-01
An optical technique for tracking single particles has been used to evaluate the particle diameter at which diffusion transitions from molecular behaviour described by the fractional Stokes-Einstein relationship to particle behaviour described by the classical Stokes-Einstein relationship. The results confirm a prior prediction from molecular dynamic simulations that there is a particle size at which transition occurs and show it is inversely dependent on concentration and viscosity but independent of particle density. For concentrations in the range 5 × 10 -3 to 5 × 10 -6 mg ml -1 and viscosities from 0.8 to 150 mPa s, the transition was found to occur in the diameter range 150-300 nm.
Navier-Stokes-Voigt Equations with Memory in 3D Lacking Instantaneous Kinematic Viscosity
Di Plinio, Francesco; Giorgini, Andrea; Pata, Vittorino; Temam, Roger
2018-04-01
We consider a Navier-Stokes-Voigt fluid model where the instantaneous kinematic viscosity has been completely replaced by a memory term incorporating hereditary effects, in presence of Ekman damping. Unlike the classical Navier-Stokes-Voigt system, the energy balance involves the spatial gradient of the past history of the velocity rather than providing an instantaneous control on the high modes. In spite of this difficulty, we show that our system is dissipative in the dynamical systems sense and even possesses regular global and exponential attractors of finite fractal dimension. Such features of asymptotic well-posedness in absence of instantaneous high modes dissipation appear to be unique within the realm of dynamical systems arising from fluid models.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šístek, Jakub; Cirak, F.
2015-01-01
Roč. 122, 20 November (2015), s. 165-183 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes * incompressible flow * Krylov subspace method s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2015 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0045793015003023
Strong solutions for an incompressible Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system with different densities
Li, Yinghua; Huang, Mingxia
2018-06-01
In this paper, we investigate a coupled Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system describing a diffuse interface model for two-phase flow of viscous incompressible fluids with different densities in a bounded domain Ω \\subset R^N(N=2,3). We prove the existence and uniqueness of local strong solutions to the initial boundary value problem when the initial density function ρ _0 has a positive lower bound.
Martínez Guardiola, Francisco Javier; Márquez Ruiz, Andrés; Gallego Rico, Sergi; Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Francés Monllor, Jorge; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada
2014-01-01
Parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) displays have become the most attractive spatial light modulator device for a wide range of applications, due to their superior resolution and light efficiency, added to their phase-only capability. Recently we proposed a novel polarimetric method, based on Stokes polarimetry, enabling the characterization of their linear retardance and the magnitude of their associated phase fluctuations, if existent, as it happens in most of digital backp...
Interpreting coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra measured with multimode Nd:YAG pump lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farrow, R.L.; Rahn, L.A.
1985-01-01
We report comparisons of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements using single-axial-and multiaxial-mode Nd:YAG lasers. Our results demonstrate the validity of a recently proposed convolution expression for unresolved CARS spectra. The results also support the use of a relative delay of several coherence lengths between pump-beam paths for reducing the effects of pump-field statistics on the CARS spectral profile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koleshko, S.B.
1989-01-01
A three-parametric set of difference schemes is suggested to solve Navier-Stokes equations with the use of the relaxation form of the continuity equation. The initial equations are stated for time increments. Use is made of splitting the operator into one-dimensional forms that reduce calculations to scalar factorizations. Calculated results for steady- and unsteady-state flows in a cavity are presented
On lower bounds for possible blow-up solutions to the periodic Navier-Stokes equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cortissoz, Jean C.; Montero, Julio A.; Pinilla, Carlos E.
2014-01-01
We show a new lower bound on the H .3/2 (T 3 ) norm of a possible blow-up solution to the Navier-Stokes equation, and also comment on the extension of this result to the whole space. This estimate can be seen as a natural limiting result for Leray's blow-up estimates in L p (R 3 ), 3 .5/2 (T 3 ), and give the corresponding extension to the case of the whole space
Conformal Field Theory as Microscopic Dynamics of Incompressible Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fouxon, Itzhak; Oz, Yaron
2008-01-01
We consider the hydrodynamics of relativistic conformal field theories at finite temperature. We show that the limit of slow motions of the ideal hydrodynamics leads to the nonrelativistic incompressible Euler equation. For viscous hydrodynamics we show that the limit of slow motions leads to the nonrelativistic incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. We explain the physical reasons for the reduction and discuss the implications. We propose that conformal field theories provide a fundamental microscopic viewpoint of the equations and the dynamics governed by them
New representation of Navier-Stokes equations governing self-similar homogeneous turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foias, C.; Manley, O.P.; Temam, R.
1983-01-01
A new form of the Navier-Stokes equation resulting from a change of variables is presented. The new form has several advantages: It yields a new asymptotic behavior of the flow for long times and vanishingly small viscosity. In addition an interpretation of the new equation in terms of a simple random walk yields immediately not only the Kolmogorov (2/3)-power law but also an intermittency exponent well within the experimental uncertainty
On the behaviour of Navier–Stokes equations near a possible singular point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Kyungkeun; Lee, Jihoon
2010-01-01
We show that if a singularity of suitable weak solutions to Navier–Stokes equations occurs, then either p or at least two of ∂ i v i , i = 1, 2, 3, have neither upper bounds nor lower bounds in any neighbourhood of the singularity. In the case of axially symmetric solutions, we prove that either p or ∂ r v r is not bounded both below and above near a singular point, if it exists
Convergence of a numerical method for the compressible Navier-Stokes system on general domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Karper, T.; Michálek, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 134, č. 4 (2016), s. 667-704 ISSN 0029-599X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : numerical methods * Navier - Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.152, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00211-015-0786-6
Euler and Navier endash Stokes limits of the Uehling endash Uhlenbeck quantum kinetic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arlotti, L.; Lachowicz, M.
1997-01-01
The Uehling endash Uhlenbeck evolution equations for gases of identical quantum particles either fermions or bosons, in the case in which the collision kernel does not depend on the distribution function, are considered. The existence of solutions and their asymptotic relations with solutions of the hydrodynamic equations both at the level of the Euler system and at the level of the Navier endash Stokes system are proved. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Farouq, S.; Neytcheva, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 310, January 2017 (2017), s. 5-18 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : optimal control * time-harmonic Stokes problem * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0377042716302631?via%3Dihub
The incompressible limit of the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier system on domains with rough boundaries
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bucur, D.; Feireisl, Eduard
2009-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 5 (2009), s. 3203-3229 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190606; GA MŠk LC06052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : low Mach number * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * rough boundary Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2009
The solutions of Navier-Stokes equations in squeezing flow between parallel plates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Petrov, A. G.; Kharlamova, Irina
2014-01-01
Roč. 48, November–December (2014), s. 40-48 ISSN 0997-7546 Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 14-01- 00818; Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 14-01-00892 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : closed form solution * Navier-Stokes equations * squeezing flow between plates * counterflow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2014
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Donatelli, D.; Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.
2010-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 783-798 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06052; GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equations * singular limits * low Mach number * compressible fluids * unbounded domains Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.874, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=4976
Strong solutions for two-dimensional nonlocal Cahn–Hilliard–Navier–Stokes systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frigeri, S.; Grasselli, M.; Krejčí, Pavel
2013-01-01
Roč. 255, č. 9 (2013), s. 2587-2614 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equations * Navier-Stokes equations * global attractors Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.570, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039613002830
Performance monitoring for coherent DP-QPSK systems based on stokes vectors analysis
Louchet, Hadrien; Koltchanov, Igor; Richter, André
2010-12-01
We show how to estimate accurately the Jones matrix of the transmission line by analyzing the Stokes vectors of DP-QPSK signals. This method can be used to perform in-situ PMD measurement in dual-polarization QPSK systems, and in addition to the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) to mitigate polarization-induced impairments. The applicability of this method to other modulation formats is discussed.
General Navier–Stokes-like momentum and mass-energy equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monreal, Jorge, E-mail: jmonreal@mail.usf.edu
2015-03-15
A new system of general Navier–Stokes-like equations is proposed to model electromagnetic flow utilizing analogues of hydrodynamic conservation equations. Such equations are intended to provide a different perspective and, potentially, a better understanding of electromagnetic mass, energy and momentum behaviour. Under such a new framework additional insights into electromagnetism could be gained. To that end, we propose a system of momentum and mass-energy conservation equations coupled through both momentum density and velocity vectors.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe; Farouq, S.; Neytcheva, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 310, January 2017 (2017), s. 5-18 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : optimal control * time-harmonic Stokes problem * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377042716302631?via%3Dihub
Convergence of a numerical method for the compressible Navier-Stokes system on general domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Karper, T.; Michálek, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 134, č. 4 (2016), s. 667-704 ISSN 0029-599X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : numerical methods * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.152, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00211-015-0786-6
Existence and Stability of Spatial Plane Waves for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes in R^3
Correia, Simão; Figueira, Mário
2018-03-01
We consider the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation on the whole space. We observe that this system admits a L^∞ family of global spatial plane wave solutions, which are connected with the two-dimensional equation. We then proceed to prove local well-posedness over a space which includes L^3(R^3) and these solutions. Finally, we prove L^3-stability of spatial plane waves, with no condition on their size.
Robustness of strong solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bella, P.; Feireisl, Eduard; Jin, B.J.; Novotný, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 362, 1-2 (2015), s. 281-303 ISSN 0025-5831 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * smooth solution * stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00208-014-1119-2
Investigation of vortex breakdown on delta wings using Navier-Stokes equations
Hsu, C.-H.; Liu, C. H.
1992-01-01
An efficient finite-difference scheme solving for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is described. Numerical simulations of vortex breakdown are then carried out for a sharp-edged delta wing and a round-edged double-delta wing at high Reynolds numbers. Computed results show that several major features of vortex breakdown are qualitatively in agreement with observations made in experiments.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Haslinger, Jaroslav; Kučera, R.; Šátek, V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 22, October 2017 (2017), s. 1-14 ISSN 1081-2865 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01747S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Stokes system * threshold slip boundary conditions * solution dependent slip function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1081286517716222
Integral representation of a solution of the Neumann problem for the Stokes system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Medková, Dagmar
2010-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 4 (2010), s. 459-484 ISSN 1017-1398 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Stokes system * Neumann problem * single layer potential * double layer potential * integral equation method * successive approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11075-009-9346-4
Convergence of the Neumann series in BEM for the Neumann problem of the stokes system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Medková, Dagmar
2011-01-01
Roč. 116, č. 3 (2011), s. 281-304 ISSN 0167-8019 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stokes system * Neumann problem * integral equation method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.899, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/d73174l507577464/
Sokolowski, M.; Colegate, T.; Sutinjo, A. T.; Ung, D.; Wayth, R.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Lenc, E.; Pindor, B.; Morgan, J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Bell, M. E.; Callingham, J. R.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, Bi-Qing; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; McKinley, B.; Offringa, A. R.; Procopio, P.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.
2017-11-01
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), located in Western Australia, is one of the low-frequency precursors of the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project. In addition to pursuing its own ambitious science programme, it is also a testbed for wide range of future SKA activities ranging from hardware, software to data analysis. The key science programmes for the MWA and SKA require very high dynamic ranges, which challenges calibration and imaging systems. Correct calibration of the instrument and accurate measurements of source flux densities and polarisations require precise characterisation of the telescope's primary beam. Recent results from the MWA GaLactic Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey show that the previously implemented Average Embedded Element (AEE) model still leaves residual polarisations errors of up to 10-20% in Stokes Q. We present a new simulation-based Full Embedded Element (FEE) model which is the most rigorous realisation yet of the MWA's primary beam model. It enables efficient calculation of the MWA beam response in arbitrary directions without necessity of spatial interpolation. In the new model, every dipole in the MWA tile (4 × 4 bow-tie dipoles) is simulated separately, taking into account all mutual coupling, ground screen, and soil effects, and therefore accounts for the different properties of the individual dipoles within a tile. We have applied the FEE beam model to GLEAM observations at 200-231 MHz and used false Stokes parameter leakage as a metric to compare the models. We have determined that the FEE model reduced the magnitude and declination-dependent behaviour of false polarisation in Stokes Q and V while retaining low levels of false polarisation in Stokes U.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkmer, Andreas; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Sunney Xie, X.
2001-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally a novel epidetection scheme for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy that significantly improves the detection sensitivity. Calculations show that epidetected CARS (E-CARS) signals are present for scatterers smaller than the wavelength of light, whereas the large background signals from the surrounding bulk solvent are suppressed by destructive interference. E-CARS microscopy is capable of revealing small intracellular features that are otherwise buried by the strong water CARS signal
The Navier-Stokes-Fourier system: From weak solutions to numerical analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard
2015-01-01
Roč. 35, č. 3 (2015), s. 185-193 ISSN 0174-4747 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * weak solution * mixed finite-volume finite-element numerical scheme Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/anly.2015.35.issue-3/anly-2014-1300/anly-2014-1300. xml
Optical transitions and nature of Stokes shift in spherical CdS quantum dots
Demchenko, D. O.; Wang, Lin-Wang
2006-01-01
We study the structure of the energy spectra along with the character of the states participating in optical transitions in colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs) using the {\\sl ab initio} accuracy charge patching method combined with the %pseudopotential based folded spectrum calculations of electronic structure of thousand-atom nanostructures. In particular, attention is paid to the nature of the large resonant Stokes shift observed in CdS quantum dots. We find that the top of the valence band st...
Invariant measure for the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations in unbounded 2D domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brzezniak, Z.; Motyl, E.; Ondreját, Martin
2017-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 5 (2017), s. 3145-3201 ISSN 0091-1798 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08819S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Invariant measure * bw-Feller semigroup * stochastic Navier–Stokes equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/ondrejat-0478383.pdf
Error analysis for a monolithic discretization of coupled Darcy and Stokes problems
Girault, V.
2014-01-01
© de Gruyter 2014. The coupled Stokes and Darcy equations are approximated by a strongly conservative finite element method. The discrete spaces are the divergence-conforming velocity space with matching pressure space such as the Raviart-Thomas spaces. This work proves optimal error estimate of the velocity in the L2 norm in the domain and on the interface. Lipschitz regularity of the interface is sufficient to obtain the results.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Hošek, Radim; Maltese, D.; Novotný, A.
2017-01-01
Roč. 33, č. 4 (2017), s. 1208-1223 ISSN 0749-159X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATH EF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : convergence * error estimates * mixed numerical method * Navier–Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics OBOR OECD: Pure math ematics Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/num.22140/abstract
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscope/microscope based on a widely tunable laser source
Dementjev, A.; Gulbinas, V.; Serbenta, A.; Kaucikas, M.; Niaura, G.
2010-03-01
We present a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope based on a robust and simple laser source. A picosecond laser operating in a cavity dumping regime at the 1 MHz repetition rate was used to pump a traveling wave optical parametric generator, which serves as a two-color excitation light source for the CARS microscope. We demonstrate the ability of the presented CARS microscope to measure CARS spectra and images by using several detection schemes.
Conformal field theory as microscopic dynamics of incompressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations.
Fouxon, Itzhak; Oz, Yaron
2008-12-31
We consider the hydrodynamics of relativistic conformal field theories at finite temperature. We show that the limit of slow motions of the ideal hydrodynamics leads to the nonrelativistic incompressible Euler equation. For viscous hydrodynamics we show that the limit of slow motions leads to the nonrelativistic incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. We explain the physical reasons for the reduction and discuss the implications. We propose that conformal field theories provide a fundamental microscopic viewpoint of the equations and the dynamics governed by them.
Incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Tan, Ning-Bo; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Hu, Ze-Jun
2013-01-01
An incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner, for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized by stable finite elements, is proposed. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the incomplete augmented Lagrangian-based preconditioner proposed is very robust and performs quite well by the Picard linearization or the Newton linearization over a wide range of values of the viscosity on both uniform and stretched grids.
Time-Filtered Navier-Stokes Approach and Emulation of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction
Liu, Nan-Suey; Wey, Thomas; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
2013-01-01
This paper describes the time-filtered Navier-Stokes approach capable of capturing unsteady flow structures important for turbulent mixing and an accompanying subgrid model directly accounting for the major processes in turbulence-chemistry interaction. They have been applied to the computation of two-phase turbulent combustion occurring in a single-element lean-direct-injection combustor. Some of the preliminary results from this computational effort are presented in this paper.
Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Frankel, Steven H.
2013-01-01
Nonlinear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive provably stable, polynomial-based spectral collocation methods of arbitrary order. The new methods are closely related to discontinuous Galerkin spectral collocation methods commonly known as DGFEM, but exhibit a more general entropy stability property. Although the new schemes are applicable to a broad class of linear and nonlinear conservation laws, emphasis herein is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Prandtl boundary layer expansions of steady Navier-Stokes flows over a moving plate
Guo, Yan; Nguyen, Toan T.
2014-01-01
This paper concerns the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer theory in the inviscid limit for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes flows. The stationary flows, with small viscosity, are considered on $[0,L]\\times \\mathbb{R}_{+}$, assuming a no-slip boundary condition over a moving plate at $y=0$. We establish the validity of the Prandtl boundary layer expansion and its error estimates.
Inviscid incompressible limits of the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.
2013-01-01
Roč. 321, č. 3 (2013), s. 605-628 ISSN 0010-3616 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * inviscid limit * incompressible limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.901, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00220-013-1691-4
Local strong solutions to the stochastic compressible Navier-Stokes system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Breit, D.; Feireisl, Eduard; Hofmanová, M.
2018-01-01
Roč. 43, č. 2 (2018), s. 313-345 ISSN 0360-5302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible fluids * local strong solutions * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2016 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03605302.2018.1442476
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ciuperca, I. S.; Feireisl, Eduard; Jai, M.; Petrov, A.
2018-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 4 (2018), s. 697-732 ISSN 0218-2025 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible fluids * stationary Navier-Stokes equations * thin films Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 2.860, year: 2016 https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0218202518500185
Wolfe, Tristan; Stencel, Robert E.
2018-06-01
Measurements of optical circular polarization (Stokes V) introduced by dust grains in the ISM are important for two main reasons. First of all, the polarization itself contains information about the metallic versus dielectric composition of the dust grains themselves (H. C. van de Hulst 1957, textbook). Additionally, circular polarization can help constrain the interstellar component of the polarization of any source that may have intrinsic polarization, which needs to be calibrated for astrophysical study. Though interstellar circular polarization has been observed (P. G. Martin 1972, MNRAS 159), most broadband measurements of ISM polarization include linear polarization only (Stokes Q and U), due to the relatively low circular polarization signal and the added instrumentation complexity of including V-measurement capability. Prior circular polarization measurements have also received very little follow-up in the past several decades, even as polarimeters have become more accurate due to advances in technology. The University of Denver is pursuing these studies with POLVIS, a prototype polarimeter that utilizes a stress-engineered optic ("SEO", A. K. Spilman and T. G. Brown 2007, Applied Optics IP 46) to produce polarization-dependent PSFs (A. M. Beckley and T. G. Brown 2010, Proc SPIE 7570). These PSFs are analyzed to provide simultaneous Stokes I, Q, U, and V measurements, in a single beam and single image, along the line-of-sight to point source-like objects. Polvis is the first polarimeter to apply these optics and measurement techniques for astronomical observations. We present the first results of this instrument in B, V, and R wavebands, providing a fresh look at full Stokes interstellar polarization. Importantly, this set of efforts will constrain the ISM contribution to the polarization with respect to intrinsic stellar components. The authors are grateful to the estate of William Herschel Womble for the support of astronomy at the University of Denver
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Haslinger, Jaroslav; Kučera, R.; Šátek, V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 22, October 2017 (2017), s. 1-14 ISSN 1081-2865 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01747S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Stokes system * threshold slip boundary conditions * solution dependent slip function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http:// journals .sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1081286517716222
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hesthaven, Jan
1997-01-01
This paper presents asymptotically stable schemes for patching of nonoverlapping subdomains when approximating the compressible Navier-Stokes equations given on conservation form. The scheme is a natural extension of a previously proposed scheme for enforcing open boundary conditions and as a res......This paper presents asymptotically stable schemes for patching of nonoverlapping subdomains when approximating the compressible Navier-Stokes equations given on conservation form. The scheme is a natural extension of a previously proposed scheme for enforcing open boundary conditions...... and as a result the patching of subdomains is local in space. The scheme is studied in detail for Burgers's equation and developed for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The versatility of the proposed scheme for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is illustrated...
Coupling Navier-stokes and Cahn-hilliard Equations in a Two-dimensional Annular flow Configuration
Vignal, Philippe; Sarmiento, Adel; Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.
2015-01-01
In this work, we present a novel isogeometric analysis discretization for the Navier-Stokes- Cahn-Hilliard equation, which uses divergence-conforming spaces. Basis functions generated with this method can have higher-order continuity, and allow
Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu; Zhang, Tao
2017-01-01
In this paper we consider the energy stability estimates for some fully discrete schemes which both consider time and spatial discretizations for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. We focus on three kinds of fully discrete schemes, i
Bird surveys at Stokes Point and Philips Bay, Yukon in 1983. No. 40
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L; Aiudi, G M
1988-01-01
The distribution, abundance, and habitat preferences of birds were studied at Stokes Point, Phillips Bay and King Point in the northern Yukon in 1983. These data were gathered to assist in decisions about future development of a port to support marine drilling activities in the Beaufort Sea. Nesting bird densities at Stokes Point were similar to those found elsewhere on the Yukon Coastal Plain due to the similarity in habitat. The lagoon at Stokes Point was locally important to molting ducks. Several species occurred in higher densities at Phillips Bay than elsewhere on the Plain, mainly due to the deltas and spits created by rivers flowing into the Bay. These deltas were locally important to such species as molting non-breeding tundra swans, Canada geese, and ducks. During ground surveys in June, habitat was classified into 13 types and the nesting density for each bird species calculated for each habitat type. Overall bird densities were more than 3 times higher in lowland than in upland habitats. Passerine densities and species were highest in the tall shrub type of habitat found primarily in stream and river valleys. The Yukon Coastal Plain is an important nesting area for the stilt sandpiper, which has a limited breeding range. The Plain is also nationally important for nesting long-billed dowitchers and yellow wagtails, both fairly common in the study area but with very limited breeding distribution within Canada. The Plain is also internationally important to fall staging snow geese. 38 refs., 17 figs., 35 tabs.
Yang, Xiaoquan; Cheng, Jian; Liu, Tiegang; Luo, Hong
2015-11-01
The direct discontinuous Galerkin (DDG) method based on a traditional discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is extended and implemented for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. Compared to the widely used second Bassi-Rebay (BR2) scheme for the discretization of diffusive fluxes, the DDG method has two attractive features: first, it is simple to implement as it is directly based on the weak form, and therefore there is no need for any local or global lifting operator; second, it can deliver comparable results, if not better than BR2 scheme, in a more efficient way with much less CPU time. Two approaches to perform the DDG flux for the Navier- Stokes equations are presented in this work, one is based on conservative variables, the other is based on primitive variables. In the implementation of the DDG method for arbitrary grid, the definition of mesh size plays a critical role as the formation of viscous flux explicitly depends on the geometry. A variety of test cases are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the DDG method for discretizing the viscous fluxes in the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids.
A mimetic finite difference method for the Stokes problem with elected edge bubbles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipnikov, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berirao, L [DIPARTMENTO DI MATERMATICA
2009-01-01
A new mimetic finite difference method for the Stokes problem is proposed and analyzed. The unstable P{sub 1}-P{sub 0} discretization is stabilized by adding a small number of bubble functions to selected mesh edges. A simple strategy for selecting such edges is proposed and verified with numerical experiments. The discretizations schemes for Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations must satisfy the celebrated inf-sup (or the LBB) stability condition. The stability condition implies a balance between discrete spaces for velocity and pressure. In finite elements, this balance is frequently achieved by adding bubble functions to the velocity space. The goal of this article is to show that the stabilizing edge bubble functions can be added only to a small set of mesh edges. This results in a smaller algebraic system and potentially in a faster calculations. We employ the mimetic finite difference (MFD) discretization technique that works for general polyhedral meshes and can accomodate non-uniform distribution of stabilizing bubbles.
Spectral/hp least-squares finite element formulation for the Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pontaza, J.P.; Reddy, J.N.
2003-01-01
We consider the application of least-squares finite element models combined with spectral/hp methods for the numerical solution of viscous flow problems. The paper presents the formulation, validation, and application of a spectral/hp algorithm to the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations governing two- and three-dimensional stationary incompressible and low-speed compressible flows. The Navier-Stokes equations are expressed as an equivalent set of first-order equations by introducing vorticity or velocity gradients as additional independent variables and the least-squares method is used to develop the finite element model. High-order element expansions are used to construct the discrete model. The discrete model thus obtained is linearized by Newton's method, resulting in a linear system of equations with a symmetric positive definite coefficient matrix that is solved in a fully coupled manner by a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. Spectral convergence of the L 2 least-squares functional and L 2 error norms is verified using smooth solutions to the two-dimensional stationary Poisson and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results for flow over a backward-facing step, steady flow past a circular cylinder, three-dimensional lid-driven cavity flow, and compressible buoyant flow inside a square enclosure are presented to demonstrate the predictive capability and robustness of the proposed formulation
Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.
2015-01-01
Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).
Convergence acceleration of Navier-Stokes equation using adaptive wavelet method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Hyung Min; Ghafoor, Imran; Lee, Do Hyung
2010-01-01
An efficient adaptive wavelet method is proposed for the enhancement of computational efficiency of the Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on sparse point representation (SPR), which uses the wavelet decomposition and thresholding to obtain a sparsely distributed dataset. The threshold mechanism is modified in order to maintain the spatial accuracy of a conventional Navier-Stokes solver by adapting the threshold value to the order of spatial truncation error. The computational grid can be dynamically adapted to a transient solution to reflect local changes in the solution. The flux evaluation is then carried out only at the points of the adapted dataset, which reduces the computational effort and memory requirements. A stabilization technique is also implemented to avoid the additional numerical errors introduced by the threshold procedure. The numerical results of the adaptive wavelet method are compared with a conventional solver to validate the enhancement in computational efficiency of Navier-Stokes equations without the degeneration of the numerical accuracy of a conventional solver
Validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation in liquids: simple rules from the excess entropy.
Pasturel, A; Jakse, N
2016-12-07
It is becoming common practice to consider that the Stokes-Einstein relation D/T~ η -1 usually works for liquids above their melting temperatures although there is also experimental evidence for its failure. Here we investigate numerically this commonly-invoked assumption for simple liquid metals as well as for their liquid alloys. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations we show how entropy scaling relationships developed by Rosenfeld can be used to predict the conditions for the validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation in the liquid phase. Specifically, we demonstrate the Stokes-Einstein relation may break down in the liquid phase of some liquid alloys mainly due to the presence of local structural ordering as evidenced in their partial two-body excess entropies. Our findings shed new light on the understanding of transport properties of liquid materials and will trigger more experimental and theoretical studies since excess entropy and its two-body approximation are readily obtainable from standard experiments and simulations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
N., Kroll; P., Renzoni; M., Amato
1998-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe the influence of different Navier-Stokes solvers and grids on the prediction of the global coefficients for a simplified geometry of a helicopter fuselage.......The purpose of this paper is to describe the influence of different Navier-Stokes solvers and grids on the prediction of the global coefficients for a simplified geometry of a helicopter fuselage....
Modelling of arc jet plasma flow in transitional regime by Navier Stokes and state-to-state coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexandrova, T.; Izrar, B.; Lino da Silva, M.; Dudeck, M.
2005-01-01
The combination of 2D Navier-Stokes and state-to-state approaches has been used to describe the air plasma flow in an arc-jet. The gas dynamic parameters were calculated in Navier-Stokes approximation in a steady state description without chemical reaction and vibrational exchanges. And then, the set of equations of vibrational level densities and atomic species densities was locally solved. Experimental validations have been performed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Zhi-Jun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the systems of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on Cantor sets without the external force involving the fractal heat-conduction problem vial local fractional derivative. The spherical Cantor type co-ordinate method is used to transfer the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation from the Cantorian co-ordinate system into the spherical Cantor type co-ordinate system.
Zeng, Jianhua; Chen, Lei; Dai, Qiaofeng; Lan, Sheng; Tie, Shaolong
2016-01-21
We proposed a scheme in which normal Raman scattering is coupled with hyper-Raman scattering for generating a strong anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering in nanomaterials by using femtosecond laser pulses. The proposal was experimentally demonstrated by using a single-layer MoS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate, a 17 nm-thick MoS2 on an Au/SiO2 substrate and a 9 nm-thick MoS2 on a SiO2-SnO2/Ag/SiO2 substrate which were confirmed to be highly efficient for second harmonic generation. A strong anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering was also observed in other nanomaterials possessing large second-order susceptibilities, such as silicon quantum dots self-assembled into "coffee" rings and tubular Cu-doped ZnO nanorods. In all the cases, many Raman inactive vibration modes were clearly revealed in the anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering. Apart from the strong anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering, Stokes hyper-Raman scattering with small Raman shifts was detected during the ablation process of thick MoS2 layers. It was also observed by slightly defocusing the excitation light. The detection of anti-Stokes hyper-Raman scattering may serve as a new technique for studying the Raman inactive vibration modes in nanomaterials.
Brown, Donald L.
2013-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of fluid flow in porous media with many scales is often not feasible, and an effective or homogenized description is more desirable. To construct the homogenized equations, effective properties must be computed. Computation of effective properties for nonperiodic microstructures can be prohibitively expensive, as many local cell problems must be solved for different macroscopic points. In addition, the local problems may also be computationally expensive. When the microstructure varies slowly, we develop an efficient numerical method for two scales that achieves essentially the same accuracy as that for the full resolution solve of every local cell problem. In this method, we build a dense hierarchy of macroscopic grid points and a corresponding nested sequence of approximation spaces. Essentially, solutions computed in high accuracy approximation spaces at select points in the the hierarchy are used as corrections for the error of the lower accuracy approximation spaces at nearby macroscopic points. We give a brief overview of slowly varying media and formal Stokes homogenization in such domains. We present a general outline of the algorithm and list reasonable and easily verifiable assumptions on the PDEs, geometry, and approximation spaces. With these assumptions, we achieve the same accuracy as the full solve. To demonstrate the elements of the proof of the error estimate, we use a hierarchy of macro-grid points in [0, 1]2 and finite element (FE) approximation spaces in [0, 1]2. We apply this algorithm to Stokes equations in a slowly porous medium where the microstructure is obtained from a reference periodic domain by a known smooth map. Using the arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE) formulation of the Stokes equations (cf. [G. P. Galdi and R. Rannacher, Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction, Contemporary Challenges in Mathematical Fluid Dynamics and Its Applications 1, World Scientific, Singapore, 2010]), we obtain
Smetanin, S. N.; Jelínek, M.; Kubeček, V.
2017-07-01
Stimulated-Raman-scattering in crystals can be used for the single-pass frequency-conversion to the Stokes-shifted wavelengths. The anti-Stokes shift can also be achieved but the phase-matching condition has to be fulfilled because of the parametric four-wave mixing process. To widen the angular-tolerance of four-wave mixing and to obtain high-conversion-efficiency into the anti-Stokes, we developed a new scheme of the parametric Raman anti-Stokes laser at 503 nm with phase-matched collinear beam interaction of orthogonally-polarized Raman components in calcite oriented at the phase-matched angle under 532 nm 20 ps laser excitation. The excitation laser beam was split into two orthogonally-polarized components entering the calcite at the certain incidence angles to fulfill the nearly collinear phase-matching and also to compensate walk-off of extraordinary waves for collinear beam interaction. The phase matching of parametric Raman interaction is tangential and insensitive to the angular mismatch if the Poynting vectors of the biharmonic pump and parametrically generated (anti-Stokes) waves are collinear. For the first time it allows to achieve experimentally the highest conversion efficiency into the anti-Stokes wave (503 nm) up to 30% from the probe wave and up to 3.5% from both pump and probe waves in the single-pass picosecond parametric calcite Raman laser. The highest anti-Stokes pulse energy was 1.4 μJ.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
2005-08-01
Full Text Available Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a form of periodic breathing in which central apneas and hypopneas alternate with periods of hyperventilation, producing a waxing and waning pattern of tidal volume. This review focuses on the causes and consequences of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure, in whom the prevalence is strikingly high and ranges from 30% to 50%. Several factors have been implicated in the genesis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, including low cardiac output and recurrent hypoxia. The key pathophysiological mechanism triggering Cheyne-Stokes respiration is hyperventilation and low arterial CO2 (PaCO2 that when below the apneic threshold triggers a central apnea. Hyperventilation is associated with pulmonary congestion, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration is more prone to occur during sleep, when the respiratory system is mainly dependent on chemical control. It is associated with recurrent dips in oxygen saturation and arousals from sleep, with oscillations in blood pressure and heart rate, sympathetic activation and increased risk of ventricular tachycardia. Cheyne-Stokes respiration is an independent marker of poor prognosis and may participate in a vicious cycle, further stressing the failing heart.A respiração de Cheyne-Stokes é uma forma de respiração periódica na qual apnéias e hipopnéias se alternam com períodos de hiperpnéias que apresentam um padrão crescendo e decrescendo de volume corrente. Esta revisão enfoca as causa e conseqüências da respiração de Cheyne- Stokes em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva na qual a prevalência é extremamente alta e varia entre 30 a 50%. Vários fatores foram implicados na gênese da respiração de Cheyne-Stokes, incluindo baixo debito cardíaco e hipoxia recorrente. Hiperventilacão e baixos níveis de CO2 arterial (PaCO2, que quando abaixo do limiar de apnéia desencadeiam apnéia central são os mecanismos fisiopatológicos chave na g
Stokes phenomena and quantum integrability in non-critical string/M theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, Chuan-Tsung; Irie, Hirotaka; Yeh, Chi-Hsien
2012-01-01
We study Stokes phenomena of the k×k isomonodromy systems with an arbitrary Poincaré index r, especially which correspond to the fractional-superstring (or parafermionic-string) multi-critical points (p-hat,q-hat)=(1,r-1) in the k-cut two-matrix models. Investigation of this system is important for the purpose of figuring out the non-critical version of M theory which was proposed to be the strong-coupling dual of fractional superstring theory as a two-matrix model with an infinite number of cuts. Surprisingly the multi-cut boundary-condition recursion equations have a universal form among the various multi-cut critical points, and this enables us to show explicit solutions of Stokes multipliers in quite wide classes of (k,r). Although these critical points almost break the intrinsic Z k symmetry of the multi-cut two-matrix models, this feature makes manifest a connection between the multi-cut boundary-condition recursion equations and the structures of quantum integrable systems. In particular, it is uncovered that the Stokes multipliers satisfy multiple Hirota equations (i.e. multiple T-systems). Therefore our result provides a large extension of the ODE/IM correspondence to the general isomonodromy ODE systems endowed with the multi-cut boundary conditions. We also comment about a possibility that N=2 QFT of Cecotti-Vafa would be “topological series” in non-critical M theory equipped with a single quantum integrability.
Advances in Spectral Methods for UQ in Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Le Maitre, Olivier
2014-01-06
In this talk, I will present two recent contributions to the development of efficient methodologies for uncertainty propagation in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The first one concerns the reduced basis approximation of stochastic steady solutions, using Proper Generalized Decompositions (PGD). An Arnoldi problem is projected to obtain a low dimensional Galerkin problem. The construction then amounts to the resolution of a sequence of uncoupled deterministic Navier-Stokes like problem and simple quadratic stochastic problems, followed by the resolution of a low-dimensional coupled quadratic stochastic problem, with a resulting complexity which has to be contrasted with the dimension of the whole Galerkin problem for classical spectral approaches. An efficient algorithm for the approximation of the stochastic pressure field is also proposed. Computations are presented for uncertain viscosity and forcing term to demonstrate the effectiveness of the reduced method. The second contribution concerns the computation of stochastic periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. The objective is to circumvent the well-known limitation of spectral methods for long-time integration. We propose to directly determine the stochastic limit-cycles through the definition of its stochastic period and an initial condition over the cycle. A modified Newton method is constructed to compute iteratively both the period and initial conditions. Owing to the periodic character of the solution, and by introducing an appropriate time-scaling, the solution can be approximated using low-degree polynomial expansions with large computational saving as a result. The methodology is illustrated for the von-Karman flow around a cylinder with stochastic inflow conditions.
Advances in Spectral Methods for UQ in Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Le Maitre, Olivier
2014-01-01
In this talk, I will present two recent contributions to the development of efficient methodologies for uncertainty propagation in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The first one concerns the reduced basis approximation of stochastic steady solutions, using Proper Generalized Decompositions (PGD). An Arnoldi problem is projected to obtain a low dimensional Galerkin problem. The construction then amounts to the resolution of a sequence of uncoupled deterministic Navier-Stokes like problem and simple quadratic stochastic problems, followed by the resolution of a low-dimensional coupled quadratic stochastic problem, with a resulting complexity which has to be contrasted with the dimension of the whole Galerkin problem for classical spectral approaches. An efficient algorithm for the approximation of the stochastic pressure field is also proposed. Computations are presented for uncertain viscosity and forcing term to demonstrate the effectiveness of the reduced method. The second contribution concerns the computation of stochastic periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. The objective is to circumvent the well-known limitation of spectral methods for long-time integration. We propose to directly determine the stochastic limit-cycles through the definition of its stochastic period and an initial condition over the cycle. A modified Newton method is constructed to compute iteratively both the period and initial conditions. Owing to the periodic character of the solution, and by introducing an appropriate time-scaling, the solution can be approximated using low-degree polynomial expansions with large computational saving as a result. The methodology is illustrated for the von-Karman flow around a cylinder with stochastic inflow conditions.
Discretely Self-Similar Solutions to the Navier-Stokes Equations with Besov Space Data
Bradshaw, Zachary; Tsai, Tai-Peng
2017-12-01
We construct self-similar solutions to the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for divergence free, self-similar initial data that can be large in the critical Besov space {\\dot{B}_{p,∞}^{3/p-1}} where 3 1. These results extend those of uc(Bradshaw) and uc(Tsai) (Ann Henri Poincaré 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00023-016-0519-0) which dealt with initial data in L 3 w since {L^3_w\\subsetneq \\dot{B}_{p,∞}^{3/p-1}} for p > 3. We also provide several concrete examples of vector fields in the relevant function spaces.
Solving the incompressible surface Navier-Stokes equation by surface finite elements
Reuther, Sebastian; Voigt, Axel
2018-01-01
We consider a numerical approach for the incompressible surface Navier-Stokes equation on surfaces with arbitrary genus g (S ) . The approach is based on a reformulation of the equation in Cartesian coordinates of the embedding R3, penalization of the normal component, a Chorin projection method, and discretization in space by surface finite elements for each component. The approach thus requires only standard ingredients which most finite element implementations can offer. We compare computational results with discrete exterior calculus simulations on a torus and demonstrate the interplay of the flow field with the topology by showing realizations of the Poincaré-Hopf theorem on n-tori.
Study of high-temperature multiplex HCl coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectra.
Singh, J P; Yueh, F Y; Kao, W; Cook, R L
1993-02-20
A feasibility study of temperature measurement with multiplex HCl coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is investigated. The HCl CARS spectra of a 100% HCl gas sample are recorded in a quartz sample cell placed in a furnace at 1 atm pressure and at different temperatures. The nonlinear susceptibility of HCl (chi(nr)(HCl)), which is measured with the present CARS experimental setup, is reported. The experimental spectra are fit by using a library of simulated HCl CARS spectra with a least-squares-fitting program to infer the temperature. The inferred temperatures from HCl CARS spectra are in agreement with thermocouple temperatures.
3D Navier-Stokes simulations of a rotor designed for maximum aerodynamic efficiency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Gaunaa, Mac
2007-01-01
a constant load was assumed. The rotor design was obtained using an Actuator Disc model and was subsequently verified using both a free wake Lifting Line method and a full 3D Navier-Stokes solver. Excellent agreement was obtained using the three models. Global mechanical power coefficient, CP, reached...... a value of slightly above 0.51, while global thrust coefficient, CT, was 0.87. The local power coefficient, Cp, increased to slightly above the Betz limit on the inner part of the rotor as well as the local thrust coefficient, Ct, increased to a value above 1.1. This agrees well with the theory of de...
Viscous-inviscid interaction using the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filippone, Antonino; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
1997-01-01
adaptive grid is used.The interaction is achieved by iterative updatingof the boundary conditions, through the wall transpiration concept. The Navier-Stokes equationsare discretized on a semi-staggered grid.Space-marching integration is performed starting from the stagnation streamline ontwo independent......A numerical model for the calculation of incompressible viscous flows past airfoils andwings has been developed. The approach is based on a strong viscous-inviscid coupling of aboundary element method with the Navier-Stokesequations in vorticity-streamfunction formulation.A semi-adaptive or fully...
Remarks on the Liouville type results for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations in RN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chae, Dongho
2012-01-01
In this paper, we prove Liouville type result for the stationary solutions to the compressible Navier–Stokes equations (NS) and the compressible Navier–Stokes–Poisson (NSP) equations and in R N , N ≥ 2. Assuming suitable integrability and the uniform boundedness conditions for the solutions we are led to the conclusion that v = 0. In the case of (NS) we deduce that the similar integrability conditions imply v = 0 and ρ = constant on R N . This shows that if we impose the the non-vacuum boundary condition at spatial infinity for (NS), v → 0 and ρ → ρ ∞ > 0, then v = 0, ρ = ρ ∞ are the solutions
3-D Navier-Stokes Analysis of Blade Root Aerodynamics for a Tiltrotor Aircraft In Cruise
Romander, Ethan
2006-01-01
The blade root area of a tiltrotor aircraft's rotor is constrained by a great many factors, not the least of which is aerodynamic performance in cruise. For this study, Navier-Stokes CFD techniques are used to study the aerodynamic performance in cruise of a rotor design as a function of airfoil thickness along the blade and spinner shape. Reducing airfoil thickness along the entire blade will be shown to have the greatest effect followed by smaller but still significant improvements achieved by reducing the thickness of root airfoils only. Furthermore, altering the shape of the spinner will be illustrated as a tool to tune the aerodynamic performance very near the blade root.
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Analysis of Zero Efflux Flow Control over a Hump Model
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2006-01-01
The unsteady flow over a hump model with zero efflux oscillatory flow control is modeled computationally using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Three different turbulence models produce similar results, and do a reasonably good job predicting the general character of the unsteady surface pressure coefficients during the forced cycle. However, the turbulent shear stresses are underpredicted in magnitude inside the separation bubble, and the computed results predict too large a (mean) separation bubble compared with experiment. These missed predictions are consistent with earlier steady-state results using no-flow-control and steady suction, from a 2004 CFD validation workshop for synthetic jets.
Local lubrication model for spherical particles within incompressible Navier-Stokes flows
Lambert, B.; Weynans, L.; Bergmann, M.
2018-03-01
The lubrication forces are short-range hydrodynamic interactions essential to describe suspension of the particles. Usually, they are underestimated in direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows. In this paper, we propose a lubrication model for a coupled volume penalization method and discrete element method solver that estimates the unresolved hydrodynamic forces and torques in an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow. Corrections are made locally on the surface of the interacting particles without any assumption on the global particle shape. The numerical model has been validated against experimental data and performs as well as existing numerical models that are limited to spherical particles.
Applicability of Stokes method for measuring viscosity of mixtures with concentration gradient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
César Medina
2017-12-01
Full Text Available After measuring density and viscosity of a mixture of glycerin and water contained in a vertical pipe, a variation of these properties according to depth is observed. These gradients are typical of non-equilibrium states related to the lower density of water and the fact that relatively long times are necessary to achieve homogeneity. In the same pipe, the falling velocity of five little spheres is measured as a function of depth, and then a numerical fit is performed which agrees very well with experimental data. Based on the generalization of these results, the applicability of Stokes method is discussed for measuring viscosity of mixtures with a concentration gradient.
Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, N.; Johansen, J.
2001-08-01
This report sets up an evaluation of two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risoe. Two airfoils are investigated by computing the flow at several angles of attack ranging from the linear to the stalled region. The computational data are compared to experimental data and numerical results from other computational codes. Several numerical aspects are studied, as mesh dependency, convective scheme, steady state versus unsteady computations, transition modelling. Some general conclusions intended to help in using this code for numerical simulations are given. (au)
An Equal-Order DG Method for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Cockburn, Bernardo
2008-12-20
We introduce and analyze a discontinuous Galerkin method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that is based on finite element spaces of the same polynomial order for the approximation of the velocity and the pressure. Stability of this equal-order approach is ensured by a pressure stabilization term. A simple element-by-element post-processing procedure is used to provide globally divergence-free velocity approximations. For small data, we prove the existence and uniqueness of discrete solutions and carry out an error analysis of the method. A series of numerical results are presented that validate our theoretical findings. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Arteaga, Santiago Egido
1998-12-01
The steady-state Navier-Stokes equations are of considerable interest because they are used to model numerous common physical phenomena. The applications encountered in practice often involve small viscosities and complicated domain geometries, and they result in challenging problems in spite of the vast attention that has been dedicated to them. In this thesis we examine methods for computing the numerical solution of the primitive variable formulation of the incompressible equations on distributed memory parallel computers. We use the Galerkin method to discretize the differential equations, although most results are stated so that they apply also to stabilized methods. We also reformulate some classical results in a single framework and discuss some issues frequently dismissed in the literature, such as the implementation of pressure space basis and non- homogeneous boundary values. We consider three nonlinear methods: Newton's method, Oseen's (or Picard) iteration, and sequences of Stokes problems. All these iterative nonlinear methods require solving a linear system at every step. Newton's method has quadratic convergence while that of the others is only linear; however, we obtain theoretical bounds showing that Oseen's iteration is more robust, and we confirm it experimentally. In addition, although Oseen's iteration usually requires more iterations than Newton's method, the linear systems it generates tend to be simpler and its overall costs (in CPU time) are lower. The Stokes problems result in linear systems which are easier to solve, but its convergence is much slower, so that it is competitive only for large viscosities. Inexact versions of these methods are studied, and we explain why the best timings are obtained using relatively modest error tolerances in solving the corresponding linear systems. We also present a new damping optimization strategy based on the quadratic nature of the Navier-Stokes equations, which improves the robustness of all the
On the Critical One Component Regularity for 3-D Navier-Stokes System: General Case
Chemin, Jean-Yves; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zhifei
2017-06-01
Let us consider initial data {v_0} for the homogeneous incompressible 3D Navier-Stokes equation with vorticity belonging to {L^{3/2}\\cap L^2}. We prove that if the solution associated with {v_0} blows up at a finite time {T^\\star}, then for any p in {]4,∞[}, and any unit vector e of {R^3}, the L p norm in time with value in \\dot{H}^{1/2 + 2/p } of {(v|e)_{R^3}} blows up at {T^\\star}.
An adaptive Petrov-Galerkin formulation for solving the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeida, Regina Celia Cerqueira de
1993-01-01
A space-time finite element finite element formulation for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. The present work develops a stable generalized CAU method which represents shocks and boundary-layers accurately. An h-adaptive remeshing refinement, which takes into account directional stretching and stretching ratio, is used leading to a very good way to indicate and refine the flow regions with singularities. Numerical experiment were conducted for some steady and unsteady problems and the performance of the proposed methods is discussed. (author)
A numerical study of two-phase Stokes flow in an axisymmetric flow-focusing device
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mads Jakob; Stone, H.A.; Bruus, Henrik
2006-01-01
We present a numerical investigation of the time-dependent dynamics of the creation of gas bubbles in an axisymmetric flow-focusing device. The liquid motion is treated as a Stokes flow, and using a generic framework we implement a second-order time-integration scheme and a free-surface model...... in MATLAB, which interfaces with the finite-element software FEMLAB. We derive scaling laws for the volume of a created bubble and for the gas flow rate, and confirm them numerically. Our results are consistent with existing experimental results by Garstecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 164501 (2005...
Ergodicity for the Randomly Forced 2D Navier-Stokes Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuksin, Sergei; Shirikyan, Armen
2001-01-01
We study space-periodic 2D Navier-Stokes equations perturbed by an unbounded random kick-force. It is assumed that Fourier coefficients of the kicks are independent random variables all of whose moments are bounded and that the distributions of the first N 0 coefficients (where N 0 is a sufficiently large integer) have positive densities against the Lebesgue measure. We treat the equation as a random dynamical system in the space of square integrable divergence-free vector fields. We prove that this dynamical system has a unique stationary measure and study its ergodic properties
Continuum Navier-Stokes modelling of water ow past fullerene molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Walther, J. H.; Popadic, A.; Koumoutsakos, P.
We present continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are complemented with the Navier slip boundary condition with a slip length that is extracted from related molecular dynamics simulations. We find that several quantities of interest...... as computed by the present model are in good agreement with results from atomistic and atomistic-continuum simulations at a fraction of the computational cost. We simulate the flow past a single fullerene and an array of fullerenes and demonstrate that such nanoscale flows can be computed efficiently...
Continuum Navier-Stokes modelling of water flow past fullerene molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Walther, J. H.; Popadic, A.; Koumoutsakos, P.
We present continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are complemented with the Navier slip boundary condition with a slip length that is extracted from related molecular dynamics simulations. We find that several quantities of interest...... as computed by the present model are in good agreement with results from atomistic and atomistic-continuum simulations at a fraction of the computational cost. We simulate the flow past a single fullerene and an array of fullerenes and demonstrate that such nanoscale flows can be computed efficiently...
Regularity criteria for the Navier–Stokes equations based on one component of velocity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Guo, Z.; Caggio, M.; Skalák, Zdeněk
2017-01-01
Roč. 35, June (2017), s. 379-396 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Grant - others:Západočeská univerzita(CZ) SGS-2016-003; National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN) 11301394 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : Navier–Stokes equations * regularity of solutions * regularity criteria * Anisotropic Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lv Yong-Gang; Ji Zi-Heng; Dong Da-Shan; Gong Qi-Huang; Shi Ke-Bin
2015-01-01
We propose and implement a wide-field vibrational phase contrast detection to obtain imaging of imaginary components of third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope with full suppression of the non-resonant background. This technique is based on the unique ability of recovering the phase of the generated CARS signal based on holographic recording. By capturing the phase distributions of the generated CARS field from the sample and from the environment under resonant illumination, we demonstrate the retrieval of imaginary components in the CARS microscope and achieve background free coherent Raman imaging. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quick, C.R. Jr.; Moore, D.S.
1983-01-01
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is being utilized to investigate the rovibrational energy distributions produced by reactive and nonreactive collisions of translationally hot atoms with simple molecules. Translationally hot H atoms are produced by ArF laser photolysis of HBr. Using CARS we have monitored, in a state-specific and time-resolved manner, rotational excitation of HBr (v = 0), vibrational excitation of HBr and H 2 , rovibrational excitation of H 2 produced by the reaction H + HBr → H 2 + Br, and Br atom production by photolysis of HBr
Stokes profile analysis and vector magnetic fields. I. Inversion of photospheric lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skumanich, A.; Lites, B.W.
1987-01-01
Improvements are proposed for the Auer et al. (1977) method for the analytic inversion of Stokes profiles via nonlinear least squares. The introduction of additional physics into the Mueller absorption matrix (by including damping wings and magnetooptical birefringence, and by decoupling the intensity profile from the three-vector polarization profile in the analysis) is found to result in a more robust inversion method, providing more reliable and accurate estimates of sunspot vector magnetic fields without significant loss of economy. The method is applied to sunspot observations obtained with the High Altitude Observatory polarimeter. 29 references
Asymptotic properties of axisymmetric Stokes flow of a viscous liquid with intersecting boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voinov, O.V.
2004-01-01
The general axisymmetric problem on the liquid flow by the low Reynolds number when the boundary surfaces (both of the solid body and free one) are intersecting at the certain angle on the moving line, is considered. The work is aimed at establishing the asymptotic regularities of the behavior of the current function and voltages in the small vicinity of the intersection (contact) line of the boundary surfaces. The asymptotic analysis makes it possible to consider the arbitrary axisymmetric Stokes flow with the intersecting boundaries [ru
Brezzi-Pitkaranta stabilization and a priori error analysis for the Stokes Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aytekin Cibik
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, we consider a Brezzi-Pitkaranta stabilization scheme for the optimal control problem governed by stationary Stokes equation, using a P1-P1 interpolation for velocity and pressure. We express the stabilization as extra terms added to the discrete variational form of the problem. We first prove the stability of the finite element discretization of the problem. Then, we derive a priori error bounds for each variable and present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the stabilization clearly.
Finite volume methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meese, Ernst Arne
1998-07-01
Most solution methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) use structured grids based on curvilinear coordinates for compliance with complex geometries. In a typical industry application, about 80% of the time used to produce the results is spent constructing computational grids. Recently the use of unstructured grids has been strongly advocated. For unstructured grids there are methods for generating them automatically on quite complex domains. This thesis focuses on the design of Navier-Stokes solvers that can cope with unstructured grids and ''low quality grids'', thus reducing the need for human intervention in the grid generation.
Study of blade-tower interaction using a 2D Navier-Stokes solver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
The aim of this work is to model and study the dynamic interaction of the fluid flow with the structure which occurs when the blades of a wind turbine are passing in front of (or possibly behind) the tower. In order to capture the whole complexity of this phenomenon, the full unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid are used as a model. A new computational technique is described. For the sake of simplicity, we restrict ourselves to two-dimensional cases. The present methodology is illustrated by the computation of a wind turbine-like configuration in a periodic domain. (au)
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering rigid endoscope toward robot-assisted surgery.
Hirose, K; Aoki, T; Furukawa, T; Fukushima, S; Niioka, H; Deguchi, S; Hashimoto, M
2018-02-01
Label-free visualization of nerves and nervous plexuses will improve the preservation of neurological functions in nerve-sparing robot-assisted surgery. We have developed a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) rigid endoscope to distinguish nerves from other tissues during surgery. The developed endoscope, which has a tube with a diameter of 12 mm and a length of 270 mm, achieved 0.91% image distortion and 8.6% non-uniformity of CARS intensity in the whole field of view (650 μm diameter). We demonstrated CARS imaging of a rat sciatic nerve and visualization of the fine structure of nerve fibers.
Dynamics of three-tori in a periodically forced navier-stokes flow
Lopez; Marques
2000-07-31
Three-tori solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their dynamics are elucidated by use of a global Poincare map. The flow is contained in a finite annular gap between two concentric cylinders, driven by the steady rotation and axial harmonic oscillations of the inner cylinder. The three-tori solutions undergo global bifurcations, including a new gluing bifurcation, associated with homoclinic and heteroclinic connections to unstable solutions (two-tori). These unstable two-tori act as organizing centers for the three-tori dynamics. A discrete space-time symmetry influences the dynamics.
Stability of Planar Rarefaction Wave to 3D Full Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Li, Lin-an; Wang, Teng; Wang, Yi
2018-05-01
We prove time-asymptotic stability toward the planar rarefaction wave for the three-dimensional full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations with the heat-conductivities in an infinite long flat nozzle domain {R × T^2} . Compared with one-dimensional case, the proof here is based on our new observations on the cancellations on the flux terms and viscous terms due to the underlying wave structures, which are crucial for overcoming the difficulties due to the wave propagation in the transverse directions x 2 and x 3 and its interactions with the planar rarefaction wave in x 1 direction.
Quasiconservation laws for compressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow.
Gibbon, J D; Holm, D D
2012-10-01
We formulate the quasi-Lagrangian fluid transport dynamics of mass density ρ and the projection q=ω·∇ρ of the vorticity ω onto the density gradient, as determined by the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for an ideal gas, although the results apply for an arbitrary equation of state. It turns out that the quasi-Lagrangian transport of q cannot cross a level set of ρ. That is, in this formulation, level sets of ρ (isopycnals) are impermeable to the transport of the projection q.
Modeling digital pulse waveforms by solving one-dimensional Navier-stokes equations.
Fedotov, Aleksandr A; Akulova, Anna S; Akulov, Sergey A
2016-08-01
Mathematical modeling for composition distal arterial pulse wave in the blood vessels of the upper limbs was considered. Formation of distal arterial pulse wave is represented as a composition of forward and reflected pulse waves propagating along the arterial vessels. The formal analogy between pulse waves propagation along the human arterial system and the propagation of electrical oscillations in electrical transmission lines with distributed parameters was proposed. Dependencies of pulse wave propagation along the human arterial system were obtained by solving the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for a few special cases.
A Navier-Stokes phase-field crystal model for colloidal suspensions.
Praetorius, Simon; Voigt, Axel
2015-04-21
We develop a fully continuous model for colloidal suspensions with hydrodynamic interactions. The Navier-Stokes Phase-Field Crystal model combines ideas of dynamic density functional theory with particulate flow approaches and is derived in detail and related to other dynamic density functional theory approaches with hydrodynamic interactions. The derived system is numerically solved using adaptive finite elements and is used to analyze colloidal crystallization in flowing environments demonstrating a strong coupling in both directions between the crystal shape and the flow field. We further validate the model against other computational approaches for particulate flow systems for various colloidal sedimentation problems.
Local lubrication model for spherical particles within incompressible Navier-Stokes flows.
Lambert, B; Weynans, L; Bergmann, M
2018-03-01
The lubrication forces are short-range hydrodynamic interactions essential to describe suspension of the particles. Usually, they are underestimated in direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows. In this paper, we propose a lubrication model for a coupled volume penalization method and discrete element method solver that estimates the unresolved hydrodynamic forces and torques in an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow. Corrections are made locally on the surface of the interacting particles without any assumption on the global particle shape. The numerical model has been validated against experimental data and performs as well as existing numerical models that are limited to spherical particles.
Scaling properties of the two-dimensional randomly stirred Navier-Stokes equation.
Mazzino, Andrea; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Musacchio, Stefano
2007-10-05
We inquire into the scaling properties of the 2D Navier-Stokes equation sustained by a force field with Gaussian statistics, white noise in time, and with a power-law correlation in momentum space of degree 2 - 2 epsilon. This is at variance with the setting usually assumed to derive Kraichnan's classical theory. We contrast accurate numerical experiments with the different predictions provided for the small epsilon regime by Kraichnan's double cascade theory and by renormalization group analysis. We give clear evidence that for all epsilon, Kraichnan's theory is consistent with the observed phenomenology. Our results call for a revision in the renormalization group analysis of (2D) fully developed turbulence.
Stochastic Galerkin methods for the steady-state Navier–Stokes equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sousedík, Bedřich, E-mail: sousedik@umbc.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Elman, Howard C., E-mail: elman@cs.umd.edu [Department of Computer Science and Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2016-07-01
We study the steady-state Navier–Stokes equations in the context of stochastic finite element discretizations. Specifically, we assume that the viscosity is a random field given in the form of a generalized polynomial chaos expansion. For the resulting stochastic problem, we formulate the model and linearization schemes using Picard and Newton iterations in the framework of the stochastic Galerkin method, and we explore properties of the resulting stochastic solutions. We also propose a preconditioner for solving the linear systems of equations arising at each step of the stochastic (Galerkin) nonlinear iteration and demonstrate its effectiveness for solving a set of benchmark problems.
A Modular Approach to Model Oscillating Control Surfaces Using Navier Stokes Equations
Guruswamy, Guru P.; Lee, Henry
2014-01-01
The use of active controls for rotorcraft is becoming more important for modern aerospace configurations. Efforts to reduce the vibrations of helicopter blades with use of active-controls are in progress. Modeling oscillating control surfaces using the linear aerodynamics theory is well established. However, higher-fidelity methods are needed to account for nonlinear effects, such as those that occur in transonic flow. The aeroelastic responses of a wing with an oscillating control surface, computed using the transonic small perturbation (TSP) theory, have been shown to cause important transonic flow effects such as a reversal of control surface effectiveness that occurs as the shock wave crosses the hinge line. In order to account for flow complexities such as blade-vortex interactions of rotor blades higher-fidelity methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations are used. Reference 6 presents a procedure that uses the Navier-Stokes equations with moving-sheared grids and demonstrates up to 8 degrees of control-surface amplitude, using a single grid. Later, this procedure was extended to accommodate larger amplitudes, based on sliding grid zones. The sheared grid method implemented in EulerlNavier-Stokes-based aeroelastic code ENS AERO was successfully applied to active control design by industry. Recently there are several papers that present results for oscillating control surface using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. References 9 and 10 report 2-D cases by filling gaps with overset grids. Reference 9 compares integrated forces with the experiment at low oscillating frequencies whereas Ref. 10 reports parametric studies but with no validation. Reference II reports results for a 3D case by modeling the gap region with a deformed grid and compares force results with the experiment only at the mid-span of flap. In Ref. II grid is deformed to match the control surface deflections at the section where the measurements are made. However, there is no
Nearly Interactive Parabolized Navier-Stokes Solver for High Speed Forebody and Inlet Flows
Benson, Thomas J.; Liou, May-Fun; Jones, William H.; Trefny, Charles J.
2009-01-01
A system of computer programs is being developed for the preliminary design of high speed inlets and forebodies. The system comprises four functions: geometry definition, flow grid generation, flow solver, and graphics post-processor. The system runs on a dedicated personal computer using the Windows operating system and is controlled by graphical user interfaces written in MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc.). The flow solver uses the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations to compute millions of mesh points in several minutes. Sample two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations are demonstrated in the paper.
On a modified form of navier-stokes equations for three-dimensional flows.
Venetis, J
2015-01-01
A rephrased form of Navier-Stokes equations is performed for incompressible, three-dimensional, unsteady flows according to Eulerian formalism for the fluid motion. In particular, we propose a geometrical method for the elimination of the nonlinear terms of these fundamental equations, which are expressed in true vector form, and finally arrive at an equivalent system of three semilinear first order PDEs, which hold for a three-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. Next, we present the related variational formulation of these modified equations as well as a general type of weak solutions which mainly concern Sobolev spaces.