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Sample records for rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis sasaki

  1. Sasaki-Einstein Manifolds and Volume Minimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, D; Yau, S T; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    We study a variational problem whose critical point determines the Reeb vector field for a Sasaki-Einstein manifold. This extends our previous work on Sasakian geometry by lifting the condition that the manifolds are toric. We show that the Einstein-Hilbert action, restricted to a space of Sasakian metrics on a link L in a Calabi-Yau cone M, is the volume functional, which in fact is a function on the space of Reeb vector fields. We relate this function both to the Duistermaat-Heckman formula and also to a limit of a certain equivariant index on M that counts holomorphic functions. Both formulae may be evaluated by localisation. This leads to a general formula for the volume function in terms of topological fixed point data. As a result we prove that the volume of any Sasaki-Einstein manifold, relative to that of the round sphere, is always an algebraic number. In complex dimension n=3 these results provide, via AdS/CFT, the geometric counterpart of a-maximisation in four dimensional superconformal field theo...

  2. Construction of Einstein-Sasaki metrics in D≥7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.; Vazquez-Poritz, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    We construct explicit Einstein-Kaehler metrics in all even dimensions D=2n+4≥6, in terms of a 2n-dimensional Einstein-Kaehler base metric. These are cohomogeneity 2 metrics which have the new feature of including a NUT-type parameter, or gravomagnetic charge, in addition to..' in addition to mass and rotation parameters. Using a canonical construction, these metrics all yield Einstein-Sasaki metrics in dimensions D=2n+5≥7. As is commonly the case in this type of construction, for suitable choices of the free parameters the Einstein-Sasaki metrics can extend smoothly onto complete and nonsingular manifolds, even though the underlying Einstein-Kaehler metric has conical singularities. We discuss some explicit examples in the case of seven-dimensional Einstein-Sasaki spaces. These new spaces can provide supersymmetric backgrounds in M theory, which play a role in the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence

  3. Dual giant gravitons in Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a BPS D3-brane wrapped on a three-sphere in AdS 5 xL, a so-called dual giant graviton, where L is a Sasakian five-manifold. The phase space of these configurations is the symplectic cone X over L, and geometric quantisation naturally produces a Hilbert space of L 2 -normalisable holomorphic functions on X, whose states are dual to scalar chiral BPS operators in the dual superconformal field theory. We define classical and quantum partition functions and relate them to earlier mathematical constructions by the authors and S.-T. Yau, [D. Martelli, J. Sparks, S.-T. Yau, Sasaki-Einstein manifolds and volume minimisation, hep-th/0603021]. In particular, a Sasaki-Einstein metric then minimises an entropy function associated with the D3-brane. Finally, we introduce a grand canonical partition function that counts multiple dual giant gravitons. This is related simply to the index-character of the above reference, and provides a method for counting multi-trace scalar BPS operators in the dual superconformal field theory

  4. A note on Einstein-Sasaki metrics in D ≥ 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W; Lue, H; Pope, C N; Vazquez-Poritz, J F

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain new non-singular Einstein-Sasaki spaces in dimensions D ≥ 7. The local construction involves taking a circle bundle over a (D - 1)-dimensional Einstein-Kaehler metric that is itself constructed as a complex line bundle over a product of Einstein-Kaehler spaces. In general, the resulting Einstein-Sasaki spaces are singular, but if parameters in the local solutions satisfy appropriate rationality conditions, the metrics extend smoothly onto complete and non-singular compact manifolds. The seven-dimensional space, whose base is a complex line bundle over S 2 x S 2 , is discussed in detail since it has relevance in terms of the AdS/CFT correspondence

  5. New Einstein-Sasaki and Einstein spaces from Kerr-de Sitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, M.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Page, Don N.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, which is an elaboration of our results in Phys. Rev. Lett. 95:071101, 2005 (hep-th/0504225), we construct new Einstein-Sasaki spaces L p,q,r 1 ,...,r n-1 in all odd dimensions D = 2n+1 ≥ 5. They arise by taking certain BPS limits of the Euclideanised Kerr-de Sitter metrics. This yields local Einstein-Sasaki metrics of cohomogeneity n, with toric U(1) n+1 principal orbits, and n real non-trivial parameters. By studying the structure of the degenerate orbits we show that for appropriate choices of the parameters, characterised by the (n+1) coprime integers (p,q,r 1 ,...,r n-1 ), the local metrics extend smoothly onto complete and non-singular compact Einstein-Sasaki manifolds L p,q,r 1 ,...,r n-1 . We also construct new complete and non-singular compact Einstein spaces Λ p,q,r 1 ,...,r n in D = 2n+1 that are not Sasakian, by choosing parameters appropriately in the Euclideanised Kerr-de Sitter metrics when no BPS limit is taken.

  6. Integrability of geodesics and action-angle variables in Sasaki-Einstein space T{sup 1,1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visinescu, Mihai [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department Theoretical Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-09-15

    We briefly describe the construction of Staekel-Killing and Killing-Yano tensors on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds without working out intricate generalized Killing equations. The integrals of geodesic motions are expressed in terms of Killing vectors and Killing-Yano tensors of the homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein space T{sup 1,1}. We discuss the integrability of geodesics and construct explicitly the action-angle variables. Two pairs of frequencies of the geodesic motions are resonant giving way to chaotic behavior when the system is perturbed. (orig.)

  7. Semiclassical strings in Sasaki-Einstein manifolds and long operators in N = 1 gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, Sergio; Kruczenski, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We study the AdS/CFT relation between an infinite class of 5-d Y p,q Sasaki-Einstein metrics and the corresponding quiver theories. The long BPS operators of the field theories are matched to massless geodesics in the geometries, providing a test of AdS/CFT for these cases. Certain small fluctuations (in the BMN sense) can also be successfully compared. We then go further and find, using an appropriate limit, a reduced action, first order in time derivatives, which describes strings with large R-charge. In the field theory we consider holomorphic operators with large winding numbers around the quiver and find, interestingly, that, after certain simplifying assumptions, they can be described effectively as strings moving in a particular metric. Although not equal, the metric is similar to the one in the bulk. We find it encouraging that a string picture emerges directly from the field theory and discuss possible ways to improve the agreement

  8. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M. Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  9. Antibiosis resistance in national uniform wheat yield trials against rhopalosiphum padi (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Ashfaque, M.; Gillani, W.A.; Ata-ul-Mohsin; Tahfeen, A.; Begum, I.

    2010-01-01

    The germplasm of National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (Normal) (2003-04) were screened against Rhopalosiphum padi L., bird cherry oat aphid at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Twenty National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (NUWYT) , Normal and 12 (NUWYT) rain fed varieties/ lines were evaluated for seedling bulk test to know the resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible wheat varieties/ lines. These results revealed that varieties Diamond and Margalla-99 and lines V-99022, 99B2278 and 7-03 were partially resistant, two lines V-00125 and SD-66 were susceptible and three varieties and ten lines were moderately resistant in seedling bulk test. For antibiosis studies, 10 varieties/ lines out of 20 were selected to know the effect of host plants on the fecundity of R. padi. Two varieties Wafaq-2007 and Diamond were the least preferred for fecundity and one line VOO125 was highly preferred for fecundity. (author)

  10. Toric Geometry, Sasaki-Einstein Manifolds and a New Infinite Class of AdS/CFT Duals

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, D; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James

    2006-01-01

    Recently an infinite family of explicit Sasaki-Einstein metrics Y^{p,q} on S^2 x S^3 has been discovered, where p and q are two coprime positive integers, with qSasaki-Einstein metric on the horizon of the complex cone over the first del Pezz...

  11. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Identification of minimal sequences of the Rhopalosiphum padi virus 5' untranslated region required for internal initiation of protein synthesis in mammalian, plant and insect translation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppelli, Elisabetta; Belsham, Graham; Roberts, Lisa O.

    2007-01-01

    Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) is a member of the family Dicistroviridae. The genomes of viruses in this family contain two open reading frames, each preceded by distinct internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements. The RhPV 5' IRES is functional in mammalian, insect and plant translation syste...

  13. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius

    2008-01-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R o = 205.38 and 164.08 females; r m = 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; λ= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  14. Damage of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat plants related to duration time and density of infestation; Danos de Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) no trigo em funcao da duracao e da densidade de infestacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roza-Gomes, Margarida F. [Rua Pedro Roso, 42, Nonoai, RS, (Brazil)]. E-mail: margafrg@brturbo.com.br; Salvadori, Jose R. [Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: jrsalva@cnpt.embrapa.b; Schons, Jurema [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria]. E-mail: schons@upf.br

    2008-09-15

    Aphids are considered relevant pests on wheat either by direct damage through sap sucking or by indirect damage vectoring BYDV (Barley yellow dwarf virus). Rhopalosiphum padi L. has been observed infesting wheat fields with an increasing frequency. The knowledge and the available technology, besides being more related to other aphids species already recognized as pests, they are insufficient to control the specific c problem of R. padi. Thus, this work evaluated the effects of feeding duration and infestation densities of R. padi on seedlings of wheat cv. EMBRAPA 16. rain yield, yield components and the extent of symptoms were recorded. The experiment was carried out in the fi eld under a completely randomized split-plot experimental design with four replications. The main plot was feeding duration (two and seven days) and the sub-plots were infestation densities (zero, two and 10 aphids per plant). Independent on feeding duration, 10 aphids per plant resulted in significant yield losses, reduction of number of heads and tillers per plant. Canopy dry matter was also reduced. Infestations of two and 10 aphids per plant resulted in continuous yellowing of wheat plants from tillering to the end of flowering stage. When aphids fed for seven days on wheat, more yellowing symptoms were observed at the flower stage in comparison with two days feeding. (author)

  15. Population Growth and Damage Caused by Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Different Cultivars and Phenological Stages of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaris, M; Lampert, S; Salvadori, J R; Lau, D; Pereira, P R V S; Smaniotto, M A

    2013-10-01

    Among the aphids associated with wheat and other winter cereals, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is currently the predominant species in the wheat growing region of southern Brazil. The damage caused by this aphid occurs by direct feeding and/or by the transmission of pathogenic viruses, such as the Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus. In order to estimate the direct damage caused by R. padi on wheat, we evaluated the population growth of this aphid during the tillering and elongation stages and its effects on grain yield components. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse with three wheat cultivars (BRS Guabiju, BRS Timbaúva, and Embrapa 16). The effect of a period of 16 days, starting from an infestation of 40 aviruliferous aphids/plant, was evaluated and compared to non-infested plants. In both stages, the population growth of R. padi was lower on the BRS Timbaúva. Although infestation caused a reduction in the grain yield of the three cultivars, this effect was lower for BRS Timbaúva. The cultivar Embrapa 16 supported higher infestations and was more tolerant to damage than the BRS Guabiju.

  16. Damage of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat plants related to duration time and density of infestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roza-Gomes, Margarida F.; Salvadori, Jose R.; Schons, Jurema

    2008-01-01

    Aphids are considered relevant pests on wheat either by direct damage through sap sucking or by indirect damage vectoring BYDV (Barley yellow dwarf virus). Rhopalosiphum padi L. has been observed infesting wheat fields with an increasing frequency. The knowledge and the available technology, besides being more related to other aphids species already recognized as pests, they are insufficient to control the specific c problem of R. padi. Thus, this work evaluated the effects of feeding duration and infestation densities of R. padi on seedlings of wheat cv. EMBRAPA 16. rain yield, yield components and the extent of symptoms were recorded. The experiment was carried out in the fi eld under a completely randomized split-plot experimental design with four replications. The main plot was feeding duration (two and seven days) and the sub-plots were infestation densities (zero, two and 10 aphids per plant). Independent on feeding duration, 10 aphids per plant resulted in significant yield losses, reduction of number of heads and tillers per plant. Canopy dry matter was also reduced. Infestations of two and 10 aphids per plant resulted in continuous yellowing of wheat plants from tillering to the end of flowering stage. When aphids fed for seven days on wheat, more yellowing symptoms were observed at the flower stage in comparison with two days feeding. (author)

  17. The impact of transgenic wheat expressing GNA (snowdrop lectin) on the aphids Sitobion avenae, Schizaphis graminum, and Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jin; Wu, Yuqing; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Yu, Zhenxing; Xu, Qiongfang

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the impact of transgenic wheat expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), commonly known as snowdrop lectin, on three wheat aphids: Sitobion avenae (F.), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). We compared the feeding behavior and the life-table parameters of aphids reared on GNA transgenic wheat (test group) and those aphids reared on untransformed wheat (control group). The results showed that the feeding behaviors of S. avenae and S. graminum on GNA transgenic wheat were affected. Compared with the control group, they had shorter initial probing period, longer total nonprobing period, shorter initial and total phloem sap ingestion phase (waveform E2), shorter duration of sustained ingestion (E (pd) > 10 min), and lower percentage of phloem phase of the total observation time. Moreover, S. graminum made more probes and had a longer total duration of extracellular stylet pathway (waveform C). The fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of S. avenae and S. graminum on the transgenic wheat were lowered in the first and second generations, however, the survival and lifespan were not affected. The effects of the GNA expressing wheat on S. graminum and S. avenae were not significant in the third generation, suggesting rapid adaptation by the two aphid species. Despite the impact we found on S. avenae and S. graminum, transgenic GNA expressing wheat did not have any effects on R. padi.

  18. Characterisation of imidacloprid resistance in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, a serious pest on wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Yanna; Yang, Zhuolin; Su, Sha; Chen, Maohua

    2018-06-01

    Rhopalosiphum padi is a destructive insect pest of wheat worldwide. Studies have shown that R. padi has developed resistance to different insecticides, including imidacloprid. We studied the mechanisms conferring resistance to imidacloprid at the biochemical and molecular levels. An R. padi imidacloprid-resistant (IM-R) strain and a susceptible (SS) strain were established. Fitness analysis using life-tables showed that the IM-R strain had obvious disadvantages in several parameters, indicating reduced fitness. Profiles of cross-resistance of IM-R and SS to seven insecticides were detected. Both synergistic and enzyme activity data suggested that P450 plays a role in resistance. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes CYP6CY3-1 and CYP6CY3-2 were significantly increased in the IM-R strain. No target-site mutation within the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits was detected in the IM-R strain. Interestingly, the expression levels of the nAChR α1, α2, α3, α7-2, and β1 subunit genes were significantly decreased, suggesting that down-regulation of these subunits may be involved in resistance. Multiple mechanisms confer imidacloprid resistance in R. padi. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The price of protection: a defensive endosymbiont impairs nymph growth in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybourne, Daniel J; Bos, Jorunn I B; Valentine, Tracy A; Karley, Alison J

    2018-05-24

    Bacterial endosymbionts have enabled aphids to adapt to a range of stressors, but their effects in many aphid species remain to be established. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus), is an important pest of cereals worldwide and has been reported to form symbiotic associations with Serratia symbiotica and Sitobion miscanthi L-type Symbiont endobacteria, although the resulting aphid phenotype has not been described. This study presents the first report of R. padi infection with the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Individuals of R. padi were sampled from populations in Eastern Scotland, UK, and shown to represent seven R. padi genotypes based on the size of polymorphic microsatellite markers; two of these genotypes harboured H. defensa. In parasitism assays, survival of H. defensa-infected nymphs following attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani (Viereck) was five-fold higher than for uninfected nymphs. Aphid genotype was a major determinant of aphid performance on two Hordeum species, a modern cultivar of barley H. vulgaris and a wild relative H. spontaneum, although aphids infected with H. defensa showed 16% lower nymph mass gain on the partially-resistant wild relative compared with uninfected individuals. These findings suggest that deploying resistance traits in barley will favour the fittest R. padi genotypes, but symbiont-infected individuals will be favoured when parasitoids are abundant, although these aphids will not achieve optimal performance on a poor quality host plant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated CO2 changes interspecific competition among three species of wheat aphids: Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu Cheng; Chen, Fa Jun; Ge, Feng

    2009-02-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (twice ambient) on the interspecific competition among three species of wheat aphids (Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum) and on wheat-aphid interactions were studied. Wheat plants had higher biomass and yield and lower water and nitrogen content of grain when grown under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2; levels of condensed tannins, total phenols, and total nonstructural carbohydrates were also higher in wheat ears under elevated CO2. Compared with ambient CO2, elevated CO2 increased the abundance of R. padi when introduced solely but reduced its abundance when S. avenae was also present. The spatial distribution of wheat aphids was apparently influenced by CO2 levels, with significantly more S. avenae on ears and a more even distribution of R. padi on wheat plants under elevated CO2 versus ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not affect the abundance and spatial distribution of S. graminus when inoculated solely. Moreover, when S. avenae was present with either R. padi or S. graminum, spatial niche overlap was significantly decreased with elevated CO2. When three species co-occurred, elevated CO2 reduced spatial niche overlap between S. avenae and S. graminum and between R. padi and S. graminum. Our results suggest that increases in atmospheric CO2 would alleviate interspecific competition for these cases, which would accentuate the abundance of and the damage caused by these wheat aphids.

  1. Long Chain Alcohols Produced by Trichoderma citrinoviride Have Phagodeterrent Activity Against the Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid Rhopalosiphum padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eGanassi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the effects of fungal metabolites isolated from cultures of the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride ITEM 4484 on the feeding preference of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, a major pest of cereal crops. Different phagodeterrent metabolites were purified by a combination of direct and reverse phase column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Chemical investigations, by spectroscopic and chemical methods, led to the identification of different long chain primary alcohols (LCOHs of the general formula R-OH, wherein R is a long, unbranched, unsubstituted, linear aliphatic group. LCOHs have been reported as components of lepidopteran pheromone blends, but their phagodeterrent effect to aphids is herein reported for the first time. We studied the effects of LCOHs on R. padi by behavioral and electrophysiological bioassays. Feeding preference tests that were carried out with winged and wingless morphs of R. padi showed that LCOHs have a distinctly high phagodeterrent activity and significantly restrain aphids from settling on treated leaves already at a concentration as low as 0.15 mM (0.036 g/l. The results of different electrophysiological analyses indicate that taste receptor neurons located on the aphid tarsomeres are involved in the LCOHs perception. Behavioral assays carried out with some commercial agrochemicals, including azadirachtin A, pyrethrum and mineral oil based products, in combination with 1-hexadecanol, the LCOH most abundantly produced by T. citrinoviride ITEM 4484, showed that these different active principles can be applied together, resulting in a useful increase of the phagodeterrent effect. Therefore these compounds can be profitably utilized for novel applications in biotechnical control of aphid pests. The LCOHs tested have no chiral centers and therefore can be obtained in good yields and at low cost through chemical synthesis, beside than from natural sources.

  2. Transcription of four Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) heat shock protein genes and their responses to heat stress and insecticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuting; Zhao, Qi; Duan, Xinle; Song, Chunman; Chen, Maohua

    2017-03-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), a worldwide destructive pest, is more heat tolerant than other wheat aphids, and it has developed resistance to different insecticides. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in coping with environmental stresses. To investigate Hsp transcriptional responses to heat and insecticide stress, four full-length Hsp genes from R. padi (RpHsp60, RpHsc70, RpHsp70-1, and RpHsp70-2) were cloned. Four RpHsps were expressed during all R. padi developmental stages, but at varying levels. The mRNA levels of RpHsps were increased under thermal stress and reached maximal induction at a lower temperature (36°C) in the alate morph than in the apterous morph (37°C or 38°C). RpHsp expressions under heat stress suggest that RpHsp70-1 and RpHsp70-2 are inducible in both apterous and alate morphs, RpHsc70 is only heat-inducible in apterous morph, and RpHsp60 exhibits poor sensitivity to heat stress. The pretreatment at 37°C significantly increase both the survival rate and the RpHsps expression level of R. padi at subsequent lethal temperature. Under exposure to two sublethal concentrations (LC 10 and LC 30 ) of beta-cypermethrin, both RpHsp70-1 and RpHsp70-2 expressions were induced and reached a maximum 24h after exposure. In contrast, expression of RpHsp60 was not induced by either sublethal concentration of beta-cypermethrin. Moreover, the responses of RpHsp70-1 and RpHsp70-2 to heat shock were more sensitive than those to beta-cypermethrin. These results suggest that induction of RpHsp expression is related to thermal tolerance, and that RpHsp70-1 and RpHsp70-2 are the primary genes involved in the response to both heat and pesticide stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  4. Identification of an intraspecific alarm pheromone and two conserved odorant-binding proteins associated with (E)-β-farnesene perception in aphid Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia; Xue, Wenxin; Duan, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Wenjuan; Jiang, Shanshan; Sun, Jingrun; Chen, Julian

    2017-08-01

    (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the common active component of aphid alarm pheromone. Either or both of two orthologs of ordorant-binding proteins (OBPs), OBP3 and OBP7, recently reported in aphids, may be involved in EBF perception. The aim of this study was to investigate the respondence of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi to its intraspecific alarm pheromone and which OBP is responsible for that response. We tested the olfactory response of the aphid R. padi to EBF and freshly crushed aphids. Then, we extracted the volatiles from crushed aphids using solid phase microextraction (SPME) for analysis with GC×GC-TOF/MS. We also cloned two OBPs cDNAs in R. padi (RpadOBP3 and RpadOBP7) and expressed them in competent Escherichia coli cells. Both recombinant proteins, RpadOBP3 and RpadOBP7, bound EBF well, with RpadOBP7 having specifically stronger affinity for EBF than for other volatiles. Based on the crystal structure of the OBPs with high identity, we performed homology modeling and analyzed the interactions between RpadOBPs and EBF. In conclusion, R. padi was repelled by both EBF and crushed aphids. EBF was identified as the only volatile that acted as the alarm pheromone. Our results indicated that OBP7 is a potential molecular target to control wheat aphids by disturbing their behaviors to the alarm pheromone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How the use of nitrogen fertiliser may switch plant suitability for aphids: the case of Miscanthus, a promising biomass crop, and the aphid pest Rhopalosiphum maidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Florent; Chesnais, Quentin; Catterou, Manuella; Rambaud, Caroline; Doury, Géraldine; Ameline, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    The use of nitrogen fertiliser in agrosystems can alter plant nitrogen and consequently improve nutrient availability for herbivores, potentially leading to better performance for herbivores and higher pest pressure in the field. We compared, in laboratory conditions, the effects of nitrogen fertilisation on a promising biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus, and its parents M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. The plant-mediated effects were compared on the second trophic level, the green corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis. Results showed that the biomass and leaf C:N ratio of M. sinensis plants treated with nitrogen fertiliser were significantly greater than those of non-treated plants. As regards M. × giganteus and M. sacchariflorus, the only reported change was a significantly smaller leaf C:N ratio for treated M. sacchariflorus compared with non-treated plants. Surprisingly, nitrogen fertilisation had opposite effects on plant-herbivore interactions. Following nitrogen treatments, M. sinensis was less suitable in terms of intrinsic rate of increase for R. maidis, the feeding behaviour of which was negatively affected, while M. sacchariflorus and M. × giganteus exhibited greater suitability in terms of aphid weight. Nitrogen fertilisation had contrasting effects on the three species of Miscanthus plants. These effects cascaded up to the second trophic level, R. maidis aphid pests, either through a modification of their weight or demographic parameters. The implications of these results were discussed in the context of agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. De novo transcriptome analysis and microsatellite marker development for population genetic study of a serious insect pest, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xinle; Wang, Kang; Su, Sha; Tian, Ruizheng; Li, Yuting; Chen, Maohua

    2017-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is one of the most abundant aphid pests of cereals and has a global distribution. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a rapid and efficient method for developing molecular markers. However, transcriptomic and genomic resources of R. padi have not been investigated. In this study, we used transcriptome information obtained by RNA-Seq to develop polymorphic microsatellites for investigating population genetics in this species. The transcriptome of R. padi was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 114.4 million raw reads with a GC content of 40.03% was generated. The raw reads were cleaned and assembled into 29,467 unigenes with an N50 length of 1,580 bp. Using several public databases, 82.47% of these unigenes were annotated. Of the annotated unigenes, 8,022 were assigned to COG pathways, 9,895 were assigned to GO pathways, and 14,586 were mapped to 257 KEGG pathways. A total of 7,936 potential microsatellites were identified in 5,564 unigenes, 60 of which were selected randomly and amplified using specific primer pairs. Fourteen loci were found to be polymorphic in the four R. padi populations. The transcriptomic data presented herein will facilitate gene discovery, gene analyses, and development of molecular markers for future studies of R. padi and other closely related aphid species.

  7. Feeding non-preference of the corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae to corn plants (Zea mays L. treated with silicon Não-preferência do pulgão-da-folha Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae para plantas de milho (Zea mays L. tratadas com silício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Campos Moraes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A tactic for control to corn leaf Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 would be the use of resistant materials, but, for not being a key pest of the crop, there are not yet corn genotypes availables with those characteristics. So, it was aimed in this work to evaluate the effect of silicon on the aphid's development on corn plants. Preference tests with leaves detached from the plants and on corn plants were accomplished. Its was found that the treatments where silicon was applied to the soil plus a foliar sprayed fertilization or through two foliar applications were the ones which contained a lower number of aphids, increasing the resistance of leaves and making the feeding of those insects difficult. In general, the results showed that silicon affected the leaf aphid's preference.Uma tática para o controle do pulgão-do-milho Rhopalosiphum maids (Fitch, 1856 seria a utilização de materiais resistentes, porém, por não se tratar de uma praga-chave da cultura, não há, ainda, disponibilidade de genótipos de milho com essas características. Assim com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do silício na preferência do pulgão-da-folha em plantas de milho. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de silício via solo e/ou foliar e testemunha. Foram realizados testes de não-preferência com folhas destacadas e diretamente em plantas de milho. Verificou-se que os tratamentos nos quais o silício foi aplicado via solo mais uma adubação foliar, ou mediante duas aplicações foliares, foram os que apresentaram menor número de pulgões, aumentando a resistência das folhas e dificultando a alimentação desses insetos. De modo geral, o silício afetou a preferência do pulgão-da-folha.

  8. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R Descamps

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0, mean generation time (T, doubling time (DT, and finite rate of increase (λ of the bird cherry-oat aphid on the different cereal crops were estimated. Differences in fertility life table parameters of R. padi among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by Jackknife re-sampling. Results indicated that beer barley might be the most suitable food for R. padi due to greater adult longevity (20.88 d, higher fecundity (41 nymphs female-1, higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.309 females female-1 d-1, lower doubling time (2.24, and lower nymphal mortality (22.2%. Therefore, it can be concluded from the present study that R. padi prefers beer barley for fast and healthy development over other cereal crops.El áfido Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae es una de las principales plagas de numerosos cultivos de la región semiárida pampeana de Argentina. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes cereales incluidos Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L. and Secale cereale L. sobre los parámetros biológicos de R. padi en laboratorio. Se estimaron longevidad, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (R0, tiempo generacional medio (T, tiempo de duplicación (TD, y tasa finita de incremento (λ del pulgón de la avena en diferentes cereales. Las diferencias de

  9. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson José da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar o potencial de crescimento de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson é importante para seu uso em programas de controle biológico de pulgões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a tabela de vida de fertilidade de L. testaceipes em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch e Aphis gossypii Glover. Na avaliação da mortalidade de imaturos, do desenvolvimento e da razão sexual foram utilizadas 12 fêmeas do parasitóide e 480 ninfas de cada pulgão testado. Na avaliação da longevidade e da fertilidade foram utilizadas 15 fêmeas do parasitóide e uma colônia por dia de cada pulgão, até a morte da fêmea do parasitóide, sendo 300 (1º dia; 250 (2º dia; 200 (3º dia; 150 (4º dia; 100 (5º dia e 50 ninfas nos demais dias. L. testaceipes apresentou taxas de mortalidade de imaturos de 5,6% em R. maidis e de 9,2% em A. gossypii, desenvolvimento de 10,2 e 10,1 dias e razão sexual de 0,71 e 0,66, respectivamente. L. testaceipes apresentou fecundidade de 498,2 ovos em R. maidis e de 327,8 ovos em A. gossypii. Os parâmetros de crescimento de L. testaceipes em R. maidis e A. gossypii foram, respectivamente, R O= 205,38 e 164,08 fêmeas; r m= 0,449 e 0,431 fêmeas/fêmeas/dia; lambda = 1,57 e 1,54 fêmeas/dia; T= 11,86 e 11,83 dias e TD= 10,78 e 11,27 dias. L. testaceipes apresenta alto potencial de crescimento em R. maidis e A. gossypii. R. maidis mostrou ser hospedeiro adequado aos propósitos de criação massal e utilização em sistema de criação aberta para L. testaceipes.The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female

  10. Affine analogues of the Sasaki-Shchepetilov connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Robaszewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For two-dimensional manifold M with locally symmetric connection ∇ and with ∇-parallel volume element vol one can construct a flat connection on the vector bundle TM⊕E, where E is a trivial bundle. The metrizable case, when M is a Riemannian manifold of constant curvature, together with its higher dimension generalizations, was studied by A.V. Shchepetilov [J. Phys. A: 36 (2003, 3893-3898]. This paper deals with the case of non-metrizable locally symmetric connection. Two flat connections on TM⊕(R⨯M and two on TM⊕(R2⨯M are constructed. It is shown that two of those connections - one from each pair - may be identified with the standard flat connection in RN, after suitable local affine embedding of (M,∇ into RN.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Octopus conispadiceus (Sasaki, 1917) (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaodong; Cheng, Rubin; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Octopus conispadiceus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae). The whole mitogenome of O. conispadiceus is 16,027 basepairs (bp) in length with a base composition of 41.4% A, 34.8% T, 16.1% C, 7.7% G and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a major non-coding region (MNR). The gene arrangements of O. conispadiceus showed remarkable similarity to that of O. vulgaris, Amphioctopus fangsiao, Cistopus chinensis and C. taiwanicus.

  12. Characterization of proteases from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis (Sasaki)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yulan; Wang, Yurong; Xiao, Lin; Lin, Xiukun

    2016-05-01

    A crude protease produced from Planomicrobium sp. L-2 is described, and its effectiveness as an additive in liquid detergent evaluated. We isolate the protease-producing Planomicrobium sp. L-2 from the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis. At least three caseinolytic protease clear bands were observed in zymogram analysis. The crude alkaline protease was highly tolerant of a pH range from 7.0 to 9.0, and temperatures to 50°C after incubation for 1 h. Proteolytic enzymes were stable towards three surfactants (5% Tween 80, 1% Triton X-100 and 0.05% SDS) and an oxidizing agent (1% hydrogen peroxide), in addition to being highly stable and compatible with popular commercial laundry powered detergent brands available in China. Our study demonstrates the potential these proteases have for development into novel classes of detergent additive. This study also suggests that the gastrointestinal tract of Octopus variabilis may be a rich source of commercially valuable strains of enzyme.

  13. The Usage of Loanwords by Japanese Learners and Their Background : case of English Native Speakers (Dedicated to the Memory of Dr. SASAKI Yoshinori)

    OpenAIRE

    堀切, 友紀子

    2010-01-01

    In the field of Teaching Japanese as a Second Language, the study of Japanese loanwords has focused on their acquisition, and Japanese loanwords tend to be an obstacle for Japanese learners. However, actual situations about loanword usage by English native speakers need to be identical. The purpose of this research is to understand the process involved in the cognition, emotion and usage of loanwords by Japanese learners. An investigatory interview was conducted with 11 Japanese learners who ...

  14. Schroedinger invariant solutions of type IIB with enhanced supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Group; Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Inst. for Mathematical Sciences

    2009-07-15

    We construct the Killing spinors for a class of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic Schroedinger algebra. The solutions depend on a five-dimensional Sasaki- Einstein space and it has been shown that they admit two Killing spinors. Here we will show that, for generic Sasaki-Einstein space, there are special subclasses of solutions which admit six Killing spinors and we determine the corresponding superisometry algebra. We also show that for the special case that the Sasaki-Einstein space is the round five-sphere, the number of Killing spinors can be increased to twelve. (orig.)

  15. Metric fluctuations and their evolution during inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabitarte, M.; Bellini, M.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of the fluctuations in a symmetric φ c -exponential potential which provides a power-law expansion during inflation using both the gauge-invariant field Φ and the Sasaki-Mukhanov field. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of groundwater salinity in Nellore district using multi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water samples at six locations close to the electrical resistivity survey sites also suggest high ... Electrical resistivity imaging; Nellore district; groundwater salinity; geochemistry. ..... Sasaki Y 1992 Resolution of resistivity tomography inferred.

  17. Photoelectronic Sensor with Gold Nanoparticle Plasmon Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    big advantages in the research fields of clinical diagnostics and pharmacology. However, the common optical detection system has definite ...process”, Nanotechnology 26 (2015) 285601 (8pp). (4) Jonghyeon Jeong, Shinya Kumagai, Ichiro Yamashita, Yukiharu Uraoka and Minoru Sasaki

  18. Toric Vaisman manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilca, Mihaela

    2016-09-01

    Vaisman manifolds are strongly related to Kähler and Sasaki geometry. In this paper we introduce toric Vaisman structures and show that this relationship still holds in the toric context. It is known that the so-called minimal covering of a Vaisman manifold is the Riemannian cone over a Sasaki manifold. We show that if a complete Vaisman manifold is toric, then the associated Sasaki manifold is also toric. Conversely, a toric complete Sasaki manifold, whose Kähler cone is equipped with an appropriate compatible action, gives rise to a toric Vaisman manifold. In the special case of a strongly regular compact Vaisman manifold, we show that it is toric if and only if the corresponding Kähler quotient is toric.

  19. Brane-world cosmology and inflation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Lukas and D Skinner, J. High Energy Phys. 0109, 020 (2001). M C Bento, O Bertolami and A A Sen, Phys. Rev. D67, 063511 (2003). [8] J Garriga and M Sasaki, Phys. Rev. D62, 043523 (2000). [9] K Koyama and J Soda, Phys. Lett. B483, 432 (2000). [10] S Kanno, M Sasaki and J Soda, Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 357 (2003).

  20. Second International Conference on Snow Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    for Scientific Research on Priority Areas 1991(03201137), Representative: Mikio Sasaki, Hachinohe Institute of Technology]. REFERENCES Sato T. and N...Technology Prof. Mikio Sasaki USACRREL 35-1 Kasumicho Yagiyama Hachinohe Inst. of Technology 72 Lyme Road Taihakuku, Sendai 982 Japan Department of Civil...Ebara Co. Ltd, Sato Engineering Co. Ltd., Maruiso Construction Co. Ltd. and Argos Co. Ltd. Also they have been supported by a Grant-in-Aid of

  1. Behavioral evidence for local reduction of aphid-induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five aphids of three different species, Brevicoryne brassicae L, Myzus persicae Schulzer, and Rhopalosiphum padi L(Hemiptera: Aphididae) were each allowed to infest leaves of a young plant of their respective host plant species for 4 days, except that the oldest expanded leaf (the `systemic¿

  2. Dynamics of Production of Sexual Forms in Aphids: Theoretical and Experimental Evidence for Adaptive \\"Coin-Flipping\\" Plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Halkett, F.; Harrington, R.; Hulle, M.; Menu, F.; Rispe, C.; Plantegenest, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 6 (2004), s. 112-125 ISSN 0003-0147 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Rhopalosiphum padi * stochastic polyphenism * bet hedging Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2004

  3. Influence of species composition of biocorridors on the abundance of aphids in cereal fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameixa, Olga; Dvořáková, R.; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 47-52 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : biocorridors * Prunus padus * Rhopalosiphum padi * pest refuge * spatial distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Supersymmetry breaking at the end of a cascade of Seiberg dualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, M.; Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A. L.

    2005-01-01

    We study the IR dynamics of the cascading nonconformal quiver theory on N regular and M fractional D3 branes at the tip of the complex cone over the first del Pezzo surface. The horizon of this cone is the irregular Sasaki-Einstein manifold Y 2,1 . Our analysis shows that at the end of the cascade supersymmetry is dynamically broken

  5. The odd side of torsion geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and study a notion of `Sasaki with torsion structure' (ST) as an odd-dimensional analogue of Kähler with torsion geometry (KT). These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd-dimensional compact Lie group is sho...

  6. Vaade lähiminevikku ja pilguheit tulevikku / Evelyn Müürsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Mooste Kunsti- ja Sotsiaalpraktika Keskuse tegevusest. Loetletud 2009. a. Moostes töötanud 16 kunstnikku. Ana Carvalho (Portugal), Jez Riley Frenchi (Inglismaa), Matt Marble'i ja Emma Lippi (USA), Susanne Kudielka ja Kaspar Wimberley (Saksamaa/Inglismaa) ning Kanako Sasaki (Jaapan) töödest

  7. Review Genetic prediction models and heritability estimates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edward

    2015-05-09

    May 9, 2015 ... Heritability estimates for functional longevity have been expressed on an original or a logarithmic scale with PH models. Ducrocq & Casella (1996) defined heritability on a logarithmic scale and modified under simulation to incorporate the tri-gamma function (γ) as used by Sasaki et al. (2012) and Terawaki ...

  8. 漢方生薬蒼朮の抗炎症作用に関する研究

    OpenAIRE

    渥美, 聡孝; Atsumi, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    博士論文本文 以下に掲載:Journal of Traditional Medicines 30(3) pp.124-131 2013. 和漢医薬学会. 共著者:Toshiyuki Atsumi, Akiho Iwashita, Isao Ohtsuka, Nobuko Kakiuchi, Yohei Sasaki, Masayuki Mikage, Kazuo Toriizuka

  9. 漢方生薬蒼朮の抗炎症作用に関する研究

    OpenAIRE

    渥美, 聡孝; Atsumi, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    博士論文要旨Abstract 以下に掲載:Journal of Traditional Medicines 30(3) pp.124-131 2013. 和漢医薬学会. 共著者:Toshiyuki Atsumi, Akiho Iwashita, Isao Ohtsuka, Nobuko Kakiuchi, Yohei Sasaki, Masayuki Mikage, Kazuo Toriizuka

  10. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit from chemotherapy or radiation.1 Due to the paucity of data in the literature, the management of these tumours should be individualized. REFERENCES. 1. Linden PA, Ashley SW. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the mesentery. Surgery. 2000 Jun 30;127(6):707-8. 2. Obuchi T, Shimooki O, Sasaki A, Abe T, ...

  11. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% lowered intraocularpressure of normal-tension glaucoma with minimal adverse events [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tsumura T, Yoshikawa K, Suzumura H, Kimura T, Sasaki S, Kimura I, Takeda R. Clinical Opthalmology. 2012;6:1547–1552. On page 1549 the significant difference in MD values was stated as in Table 1: −5.22 ± 4.07 It should have been: −5.47 ± 4.78Read the original article

  12. Characterization of a newly isolated Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus PS-5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... were purified by subculture several times until pure cultures were obtained. ... GM medium plus 10 mM levulinic acid at 24 h (Sasaki et al., 1991) ... Preliminary results indicate that without addition of levulinic acid, ... Analytical methods ...... determination of urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid by using pre-colume.

  13. Quantum and classical eigenfunctions in Calogero and Sutherland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loris, I; Sasaki, R

    2004-01-01

    An interesting observation was reported by Corrigan-Sasaki that all the frequencies of small oscillations around equilibrium are 'quantized' for Calogero and Sutherland (CS) systems, typical integrable multi-particle dynamics. We present an analytic proof by applying recent results. Explicit forms of 'classical' and quantum eigenfunctions are presented for CS systems based on any root system

  14. Effects of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed powder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    david

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... which included the control diet plus three levels of coriander extract in water ... antibiotics and could be regarded as natural feed additives and growth ... of mice at low doses (Sasaki et al., 2002) and may pose a serious threat to human health. .... herbs and spices and their active compounds act as food ...

  15. Effect of Bt maize on the plant-aphid-parasitoid tritrophic relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lumbierres, B.; Starý, Petr; Pons, X.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 133-143 ISSN 1386-6141 Grant - others:Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AGL2002-0204; Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2002-(4104) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : transgenic Bt maize * Aphididae * Rhopalosiphum padi Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2011

  16. Annual predictions of the peak numbers of Sitobion avenae infesting winter wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, A.; Martinková, Z.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Saska, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 5 (2017), s. 352-362 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : metopolophium-dirhodum wlk * cereal aphid populations * rhopalosiphum-padi l * english grain aphid * field populations * growth-stages * fixed levels * yield loss * homoptera * dynamics * abundance * ears * growth * leaves * maximum * population Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  17. Tank 241-S-109 Grab Samples 9S-99-1 and 9S-99-2 and 9S-99-3 Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 2414-109 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 13 on July 28, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on July 28, 1999. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler 1995, Mulkey and Miller 1998). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP (Sasaki, 1999)

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB, the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Li; Shi, Bao-Lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Su-Li; Gao, Bao-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  20. Tank 241S109 Grab Samples 9S-99-1 and 9S-99-2 and 9S-99-3 Analytical Results for the Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-11-23

    This document is the final report for tank 2414-109 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 13 on July 28, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on July 28, 1999. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler 1995, Mulkey and Miller 1998). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP (Sasaki, 1999).

  1. Database Description - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available classification Plant databases - Rice Database classification Sequence Physical map Organism Taxonomy Name: ...inobe Journal: Nature Genetics (1994) 8: 365-372. External Links: Article title: Physical Mapping of Rice Ch...rnal: DNA Research (1997) 4(2): 133-140. External Links: Article title: Physical Mapping of Rice Chromosomes... T Sasaki Journal: Genome Research (1996) 6(10): 935-942. External Links: Article title: Physical mapping of

  2. Tank 241-AP-103 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples, Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-103 (AP-103) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-103 samples were performed as directed in ''Compatibility Grub Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999'' (Sasaki 1999a). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. No notification limits were exceeded

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhi-hong; Wang, Zhi-li; Shi, Bao-lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-xin; Wang, Su-li; Gao, Bao-jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds sa...

  4. Data assimilation techniques in modeling ocean processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahadevan, R.; Fernandes, A.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    are usually called data analysis or assimilation. These homogeneous fields are prerequisites for various practical applications and theoretical studies. The fields produced by an analysi the one hand, they must be close to the observations.... The practical usefulness of variational methods for meteorological problems are pointed out very early by Sasaki (1955, 1958), but in spite of that these methods have not been fully utilized. Probably, the complex mathematical technicality of these methods...

  5. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion; Dirac-Operatoren und Killing-Spinoren mit Torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Bender, Julia

    2012-12-17

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  6. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Bender, Julia

    2012-01-01

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  7. Uji Toksisitas Ekstrak Tinta Cumi-Cumi (Photololigo Duvaucelii) Dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (Bslt)

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniansyah, Wendra

    2015-01-01

    During this people considers that squid ink is not useful so that if processing squid, the ink was removed. Based on research conducted by Sasaki and colleagues Jin'ichi of Hirosaki University in northern Japan, squid ink can activates white blood cells to fight cancer. The compound is thought to have anti-cancer activity should be tested first in animals before being developed further. The purpose of this study are determining and comparing the toxicity of the components of biological akti...

  8. Installation complete / Aet Ader, Kadri Klementi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ader, Aet

    2015-01-01

    Linnainstallatsioonidest avalikus ruumis. "Gas Pipe" Venezia Arhitektuuribiennaalil (Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Neeme Külm, Ingrid Ruudi, 2008). "Artificial Queue" (Andra Aaloe, Aet Ader, Flo Kasearu, Grete Soosalu, 2010). "To the Sea" (autorid Tomomi Hayashi, Mihkel Sagar, 2011). "Chimney" (tundmatu autor, 2011). "Straw Theatre" (Salto Arhitektid, 2011). "A Path in the Forest" (Tetsuo Kondo, Mitsuru Maekita, Mutsuro Sasaki, Yoshiyuki Hiraiwa, 2011). "O" (Aet Ader, Andra Aaloe, Kaarel Künnap, Grete Soosalu, Flo Kasearu, 2011)

  9. Supersymmetric solutions for non-relativistic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2009-01-01

    We construct families of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic conformal algebra for various values of dynamical exponent z≥4 and z≥3, respectively. The solutions are based on five- and seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifolds and generalise the known solutions with dynamical exponent z=4 for the type IIB case and z=3 for the D=11 case, respectively. (orig.)

  10. Gauge-invariant perturbations in hybrid quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomar, Laura Castelló; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Mercedes, E-mail: laura.castello@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: m.martin@hef.ru.nl, E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representation of the homogeneous sector with a more standard field quantization of the perturbations. Covariance is guaranteed in this approach inasmuch as no gauge fixing is adopted. Next, we adopt a Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for physical states and show how to obtain a Schrödinger-like equation for the quantum evolution of the perturbations. This evolution is governed by the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian, with the dependence on the homogeneous geometry evaluated at quantum expectation values, and with a time parameter defined also in terms of suitable expectation values on that geometry. Finally, we derive effective equations for the dynamics of the Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, that include quantum contributions, but have the same ultraviolet limit as the classical equations. They provide the master equation to extract predictions about the power spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations.

  11. Gauge-invariant perturbations in hybrid quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomar, Laura Castelló; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Martín-Benito, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representation of the homogeneous sector with a more standard field quantization of the perturbations. Covariance is guaranteed in this approach inasmuch as no gauge fixing is adopted. Next, we adopt a Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for physical states and show how to obtain a Schrödinger-like equation for the quantum evolution of the perturbations. This evolution is governed by the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian, with the dependence on the homogeneous geometry evaluated at quantum expectation values, and with a time parameter defined also in terms of suitable expectation values on that geometry. Finally, we derive effective equations for the dynamics of the Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, that include quantum contributions, but have the same ultraviolet limit as the classical equations. They provide the master equation to extract predictions about the power spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations

  12. Infecção mista pelo Sugarcane mosaic virus e Maize rayado fino virus provoca danos na cultura do milho no estado de São Paulo Mixed infection by Sugarcane mosaic virus and Maize rayado fino virus causing breaking yields in maize in São Paulo state

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos César Gonçalves; Ivan de Godoy Maia; Sílvia Regina Galleti; Gisèle Maria Fantin

    2007-01-01

    Os dois principais vírus que infectam o milho no Brasil são o Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) e o Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), cujos principais vetores são o afídeo Rhopalosiphum maidis e a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis, respectivamente. O MRFV é freqüentemente encontrado em infecções mistas com fitoplasmas e espiroplasmas, causando as doenças denominadas enfezamentos do milho. Em uma lavoura de milho próxima a Santo Antonio da Posse, SP, cercada por campos de cana-de-açúcar, foi encontrada alt...

  13. Infecção mista pelo Sugarcane mosaic virus e Maize rayado fino virus provoca danos na cultura do milho no estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Marcos César; Maia,Ivan de Godoy; Galleti,Sílvia Regina; Fantin,Gisèle Maria

    2007-01-01

    Os dois principais vírus que infectam o milho no Brasil são o Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) e o Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), cujos principais vetores são o afídeo Rhopalosiphum maidis e a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis, respectivamente. O MRFV é freqüentemente encontrado em infecções mistas com fitoplasmas e espiroplasmas, causando as doenças denominadas enfezamentos do milho. Em uma lavoura de milho próxima a Santo Antonio da Posse, SP, cercada por campos de cana-de-açúcar, foi encontrada alt...

  14. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasit

  15. Tank 241-U-103, grab samples 3U-99-1, 3u-99-2 and 3U-99-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-U-103 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 13 on March 12, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on March 15, 1999. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP

  16. Exactly solvable birth and death processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu

    2009-01-01

    Many examples of exactly solvable birth and death processes, a typical stationary Markov chain, are presented together with the explicit expressions of the transition probabilities. They are derived by similarity transforming exactly solvable 'matrix' quantum mechanics, which is recently proposed by Odake and the author [S. Odake and R. Sasaki, J. Math. Phys. 49, 053503 (2008)]. The (q-) Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials of a discrete variable and their dual polynomials play a central role. The most generic solvable birth/death rates are rational functions of q x (with x being the population) corresponding to the q-Racah polynomial.

  17. Tank 241-S-111 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples, and Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and SEC 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-S-111 (S-111) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank S-111 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (Sasaki 1999a,b). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. The notification limit for 137 Cs was exceeded on two samples. Results are discussed in Section 5.3.2. No other notification limits were exceeded

  18. Evolución del diseño estructural de la Mediateca de Sendai desde la perspectiva del ingeniero civil

    OpenAIRE

    Calvet Sisó, Alba

    2017-01-01

    Este proyecto se compone de una amplia recopilación de información sobre la Mediateca de Sendai, obra del arquitecto Toyo Ito, fuertemente influida por su ingeniero de estructuras Mutsuro Sasaki. La obra fue finalizada en el año 2001, durante el cambio de siglo, período de revoluciones tecnológicas que se ven plasmadas en cada uno de los niveles del edificio. Espacio multifuncional, capaz de soportar los continuos cambios asociados a la revolución tecnológica y capaz de soporta...

  19. La sílaba: Unidad temporal común en percepción y producción de habla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Pérez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available La sílaba no es sólo una unidad lingüística en producción de habla, sino también una unidad temporal que organiza nuestra percepción auditiva. Recientes modelos teóricos como la Gramática Auditiva (Nakajima & Sasaki, 1996 resaltan esta idea proponiendo sistemas de producción y percepción independientes con acceso a un mecanismo central común dedicado al procesamiento y organización temporal de ambos sistemas.

  20. La sílaba: Unidad temporal común en percepción y producción de habla

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira Pérez

    2009-01-01

    La sílaba no es sólo una unidad lingüística en producción de habla, sino también una unidad temporal que organiza nuestra percepción auditiva. Recientes modelos teóricos como la Gramática Auditiva (Nakajima & Sasaki, 1996) resaltan esta idea proponiendo sistemas de producción y percepción independientes con acceso a un mecanismo central común dedicado al procesamiento y organización temporal de ambos sistemas.

  1. Spectral Analysis of Certain Schrödinger Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad E.H. Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The J-matrix method is extended to difference and q-difference operators and is applied to several explicit differential, difference, q-difference and second order Askey-Wilson type operators. The spectrum and the spectral measures are discussed in each case and the corresponding eigenfunction expansion is written down explicitly in most cases. In some cases we encounter new orthogonal polynomials with explicit three term recurrence relations where nothing is known about their explicit representations or orthogonality measures. Each model we analyze is a discrete quantum mechanical model in the sense of Odake and Sasaki [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 (2011, 353001, 47 pages].

  2. Tank 241-SY-102 January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-05-11

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results.

  3. Tank 241-S-111 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples and Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and SEC 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-12-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-S-111 (S-111) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank S-111 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (Sasaki 1999a,b). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. The notification limit for {sup 137}Cs was exceeded on two samples. Results are discussed in Section 5.3.2. No other notification limits were exceeded.

  4. Tank 241-SY-102, January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results

  5. Gauge theories from toric geometry and brane tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Sebastian; Hanany, Amihay; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James; Vegh, David; Wecht, Brian

    2006-01-01

    We provide a general set of rules for extracting the data defining a quiver gauge theory from a given toric Calabi-Yau singularity. Our method combines information from the geometry and topology of Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, AdS/CFT, dimers, and brane tilings. We explain how the field content, quantum numbers, and superpotential of a superconformal gauge theory on D3-branes probing a toric Calabi-Yau singularity can be deduced. The infinite family of toric singularities with known horizon Sasaki-Einstein manifolds L a,b,c is used to illustrate these ideas. We construct the corresponding quiver gauge theories, which may be fully specified by giving a tiling of the plane by hexagons with certain gluing rules. As checks of this construction, we perform a-maximisation as well as Z-minimisation to compute the exact R-charges of an arbitrary such quiver. We also examine a number of examples in detail, including the infinite subfamily L a,b,a , whose smallest member is the Suspended Pinch Point

  6. Operational Meanings of Orders of Observables Defined through Quantum Set Theories with Different Conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanao Ozawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In quantum logic there is well-known arbitrariness in choosing a binary operation for conditional. Currently, we have at least three candidates, called the Sasaki conditional, the contrapositive Sasaki conditional, and the relevance conditional. A fundamental problem is to show how the form of the conditional follows from an analysis of operational concepts in quantum theory. Here, we attempt such an analysis through quantum set theory (QST. In this paper, we develop quantum set theory based on quantum logics with those three conditionals, each of which defines different quantum logical truth value assignment. We show that those three models satisfy the transfer principle of the same form to determine the quantum logical truth values of theorems of the ZFC set theory. We also show that the reals in the model and the truth values of their equality are the same for those models. Interestingly, however, the order relation between quantum reals significantly depends on the underlying conditionals. We characterize the operational meanings of those order relations in terms of joint probability obtained by the successive projective measurements of arbitrary two observables. Those characterizations clearly show their individual features and will play a fundamental role in future applications to quantum physics.

  7. Casimir effect in rugby-ball type flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Minamitsuji, Masato; Naylor, Wade

    2007-01-01

    As a continuation of the work by Minamitsuji, Naylor, and Sasaki [J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2006) 079], we discuss the Casimir effect for a massless bulk scalar field in a 4D toy model of a 6D warped flux compactification model, to stabilize the volume modulus. The one-loop effective potential for the volume modulus has a form similar to the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The stability of the volume modulus against quantum corrections is related to an appropriate heat kernel coefficient. However, to make any physical predictions after volume stabilization, knowledge of the derivative of the zeta function, ζ ' (0) (in a conformally related spacetime) is also required. By adding up the exact mass spectrum using zeta-function regularization, we present a revised analysis of the effective potential. Finally, we discuss some physical implications, especially concerning the degree of the hierarchy between the fundamental energy scales on the branes. For a larger degree of warping our new results are very similar to the ones given by Minamitsuji, Naylor, and Sasaki [J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2006) 079] and imply a larger hierarchy. In the nonwarped (rugby ball) limit the ratio tends to converge to the same value, independently of the bulk dilaton coupling

  8. Gauged supergravities from M-theory reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katmadas, Stefanos; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    In supergravity compactifications, there is in general no clear prescription on how to select a finite-dimensional family of metrics on the internal space, and a family of forms on which to expand the various potentials, such that the lower-dimensional effective theory is supersymmetric. We propose a finite-dimensional family of deformations for regular Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds M 7, relevant for M-theory compactifications down to four dimensions. It consists of integrable Cauchy-Riemann structures, corresponding to complex deformations of the Calabi-Yau cone M 8 over M 7. The non-harmonic forms we propose are the ones contained in one of the Kohn-Rossi cohomology groups, which is finite-dimensional and naturally controls the deformations of Cauchy-Riemann structures. The same family of deformations can be also described in terms of twisted cohomology of the base M 6, or in terms of Milnor cycles arising in deformations of M 8. Using existing results on SU(3) structure compactifications, we briefly discuss the reduction of M-theory on our class of deformed Sasaki-Einstein manifolds to four-dimensional gauged supergravity.

  9. Biological aspects of Eriopis connexa (Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae fed on different insect pests of maize (Zea mays L. and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Silva

    Full Text Available Eriopis connexa (Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae occurs in several countries of South America and its mass rearing is important for biological control programmes. This work evaluated biological aspects of E. connexa larva fed on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae frozen for one day, fresh eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, S. frugiperda newly-hatched caterpillars, nymphs of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Duration of larva, pupa and larva to adult stages differed among prey offered, whereas the prepupa stage was similar. Larva, pupa, prepupa and larva to adult viabilities were equal or major of 87.5% in all prey, except for larva fed on newly-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda. Eriopis connexa has good adaptation to different prey corroborating its polyphagous feeding habit, which evidences the potential of this natural enemy for controlling corn and sorghum pests.

  10. Temporary suspension of acute facial paralysis using the S-S Cable Suture (Medical U&A, Tokyo, Japan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Mine; Takushima, Akihiko; Momosawa, Akira; Kurita, Masakazu; Harii, Kiyonori

    2008-07-01

    For a treatment of facial paralysis, suture suspension of soft tissue is considered effective due to its less invasiveness and relatively simple technique, with minimal bruising and rapid recovery. However, suture suspension effect may not last for a long period of time. We obtained good outcome with temporary static suture suspension in 5 cases of severe facial paralysis in the intervening period between the onset of paralysis and expected spontaneous recovery. We used the S-S Cable Suture (Medical U&A, Tokyo, Japan), which was based on the modification of previously established method using the Gore-Tex cable suture originally reported by Sasaki et al in 2002. Because of the ease of technique and relatively strong lifting capability of the malar pad, we recommend it as a useful procedure for a patient suffering acute facial paralysis with possible spontaneous recovery for an improved quality of life by the quick elimination of facial distortion.

  11. New constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs via difference sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gaojun; Cao, Xiwang

    2018-04-01

    In quantum information theory, symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures (SIC-POVMs) are related to quantum state tomography (Caves et al., 2004), quantum cryptography (Fuchs and Sasaki, 2003) [1], and foundational studies (Fuchs, 2002) [2]. However, constructing SIC-POVMs is notoriously hard. Although some SIC-POVMs have been constructed numerically, there does not exist an infinite class of them. In this paper, we propose two constructions of approximately SIC-POVMs, where a small deviation from uniformity of the inner products is allowed. We employ difference sets to present the first construction and the dimension of the approximately SIC-POVMs is q + 1, where q is a prime power. Notably, the dimension of this framework is new. The second construction is based on partial geometric difference sets and works whenever the dimension of the framework is a prime power.

  12. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% lowered intraocular pressure of normal-tension glaucoma with minimal adverse events. [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsumura T, Yoshikawa K, Suzumura H, Kimura T, Sasaki S, Kimura I, Takeda R. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2012;6:1547–1552.On page 1549 the significant difference in MD values was stated as:(−5.22 ± 4.07 dB and −2.72 ± 4.06 dB, P = 0.0385It should have been:(−5.47± 4.78 dB and −5.26 ± 5.22 dB, P = 0.6757Figure 2 legend was missing the words:Left axis relates to the bars and right axis relates to the line chart.Read the original article

  13. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document

  14. The Cardy limit of the topologically twisted index and black strings in AdS{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Nedelin, Anton; Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2017-04-04

    We evaluate the topologically twisted index of a general four-dimensional N=1 gauge theory in the “high-temperature' limit. The index is the partition function for N=1 theories on S{sup 2}×T{sup 2}, with a partial topological twist along S{sup 2}, in the presence of background magnetic fluxes and fugacities for the global symmetries. We show that the logarithm of the index is proportional to the conformal anomaly coefficient of the two-dimensional N=(0,2) SCFTs obtained from the compactification on S{sup 2}. We also present a universal formula for extracting the index from the four-dimensional conformal anomaly coefficient and its derivatives. We give examples based on theories whose holographic duals are black strings in type IIB backgrounds AdS{sub 5}×SE{sub 5}, where SE{sub 5} are five-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein spaces.

  15. Topological Weyl semimetals in Bi1 -xSbx alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hsin; Shi, Wujun; Felser, Claudia; Sun, Yan

    2018-04-01

    We investigated Weyl semimetal (WSM) phases in bismuth antimony (Bi1 -xSbx ) alloys by combination of atomic composition and arrangement. Via first-principles calculations, we found two WSM states with Sb concentrations of x =0.5 and 0.83 with specific inversion-symmetry-broken elemental arrangement. The Weyl points are close to the Fermi level in both of these two WSM states. Therefore, it is likely to obtain Weyl points in Bi-Sb alloy. The WSM phase provides a reasonable explanation for the current transport study of Bi-Sb alloy with the violation of Ohm's law [D. Shin, Y. Lee, M. Sasaki, Y. H. Jeong, F. Weickert, J. B. Betts, H.-J. Kim, K.-S. Kim, and J. Kim, Nat. Mater. 16, 1096 (2017), 10.1038/nmat4965]. This paper shows that the topological phases in Bi-Sb alloys depend on both elemental composition and their specific arrangement.

  16. Generation of carotenoid radical cation in the vicinity of a chlorophyll derivative bound to titanium oxide, upon excitation of the chlorophyll derivative to the Q y state, as identified by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Xiang, Junfeng; Koyama, Yasushi; Rondonuwu, Ferdy S.; Nagae, Hiroyoshi; Sasaki, Shin-ichi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2005-12-01

    Electron injection from a chlorophyll derivative (methyl 3-carboxy-3-devinylpyropheophorobide a, abbreviated as PPB a) to TiO 2 nanoparticle took place in ≈30 fs following the decay of an excimer that was generated immediately after excitation to the Q y state (681 nm). Then, electron transfer from carotenoids (Cars) to PPB arad + took place in ≈200-240 ps. The latter observation supports the electron-transfer mechanism proposed in a previous investigation, in which Cars were added as redox spacers to the PPB a-sensitized TiO 2 solar cells to enhance their performance (X.-F. Wang, J. Xiang, P. Wang, Y. Koyama, S. Yanagida, Y. Wada, K. Hamada, S. Sasaki, H. Tamiaki, Chem. Phys. Lett. 408 (2005) 409).

  17. Nivolumab in the treatment of malignant melanoma: review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashima E

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emi Mashima, Akiha Inoue, Yumiko Sakuragi, Takashi Yamaguchi, Natsuko Sasaki, Yoko Hara, Daisuke Omoto, Shun Ohmori, Sanehito Haruyama, Yu Sawada, Manabu Yoshioka, Daisuke Nishio, Motonobu Nakamura Department of Dermatology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan Abstract: Nivolumab was developed as a monoclonal antibody against programmed death receptor-1, an immune checkpoint inhibitor which negatively regulates T-cell proliferation and activation. Intravenous administration of nivolumab was approved for the treatment of unresectable malignant melanoma in 2014 in Japan. When advanced melanoma patients were treated with nivolumab, median overall survival became longer. Overall survival rate was significantly better in nivolumab-treated melanoma patients than dacarbazine-treated melanoma patients. Nivolumab had an acceptable long-term tolerability profile, with 22% of patients experiencing grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to the drug. Therefore, nivolumab can become an alternative therapy for advanced malignant melanoma. Keywords: monoclonal antibody, PD-1, PD-L1

  18. Vacuum thin shells in Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet brane-world cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marcos A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we construct new solutions of the Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet field equations in an isotropic Shiromizu–Maeda–Sasaki brane-world setting which represent a couple of Z 2-symmetric vacuum thin shells splitting from the central brane, and explore the main properties of the dynamics of the system. The matching of the separating vacuum shells with the brane-world is as smooth as possible and all matter fields are restricted to the brane. We prove the existence of these solutions, derive the criteria for their existence, analyse some fundamental aspects or their evolution and demonstrate the possibility of constructing cosmological examples that exhibit this feature at early times. We also comment on the possible implications for cosmology and the relation of this system with the thermodynamic instability of highly symmetric vacuum solutions of Lovelock theory.

  19. Optimum detection for extracting maximum information from symmetric qubit sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Jun; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Akiba, Makoto; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate a class of optimum detection strategies for extracting the maximum information from sets of equiprobable real symmetric qubit states of a single photon. These optimum strategies have been predicted by Sasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. A 59, 3325 (1999)]. The peculiar aspect is that the detections with at least three outputs suffice for optimum extraction of information regardless of the number of signal elements. The cases of ternary (or trine), quinary, and septenary polarization signals are studied where a standard von Neumann detection (a projection onto a binary orthogonal basis) fails to access the maximum information. Our experiments demonstrate that it is possible with present technologies to attain about 96% of the theoretical limit

  20. N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory on connected sums of S{sup 2}×S{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festuccia, Guido [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Qiu, Jian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Mathematics Institute, Uppsala University,Box 480, SE-75106 Uppsala (Sweden); Winding, Jacob; Zabzine, Maxim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-03-06

    We construct 4D N=2 theories on an infinite family of 4D toric manifolds with the topology of connected sums of S{sup 2}×S{sup 2}. These theories are constructed through the dimensional reduction along a non-trivial U(1)-fiber of 5D theories on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds. We discuss the conditions under which such reductions can be carried out and give a partial classification result of the resulting 4D manifolds. We calculate the partition functions of these 4D theories and they involve both instanton and anti-instanton contributions, thus generalizing Pestun’s famous result on S{sup 4}.

  1. Revealing hidden covariation detection: evidence for implicit abstraction at study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnagel, C S

    2001-09-01

    Four experiments in the brain scans paradigm (P. Lewicki, T. Hill, & I. Sasaki, 1989) investigated hidden covariation detection (HCD). In Experiment 1 HCD was found in an implicit- but not in an explicit-instruction group. In Experiment 2 HCD was impaired by nonholistic perception of stimuli but not by divided attention. In Experiment 3 HCD was eliminated by interspersing stimuli that deviated from the critical covariation. In Experiment 4 a transfer procedure was used. HCD was found with dissimilar test stimuli that preserved the covariation but was almost eliminated with similar stimuli that were neutral as to the covariation. Awareness was assessed both by objective and subjective tests in all experiments. Results suggest that HCD is an effect of implicit rule abstraction and that similarity processing plays only a minor role. HCD might be suppressed by intentional search strategies that induce inappropriate aggregation of stimulus information.

  2. Classical anisotropies in models of open inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, J.; Mukhanov, V.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the simplest model of open inflation there are two inflaton fields decoupled from each other. One of them, the tunneling field, produces a first stage of inflation which prepares the ground for the nucleation of a highly symmetric bubble. The other, a free field, drives a second period of slow-roll inflation inside the bubble. However, the second field also evolves during the first stage of inflation, which to some extent breaks the needed symmetry. We show that this generates large supercurvature anisotropies which, together with the results of Tanaka and Sasaki, rule out this class of simple models (unless, of course, Ω 0 is sufficiently close to 1). The problem does not arise in modified models where the second field does not evolve in the first stage of inflation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. New supersymmetric AdS4 type II vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsimpis, D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the supersymmetric AdS 4 x w M 6 backgrounds of type IIA/IIB supergravity constructed in[1]. In type IIA the supersymmetry is N=2, and the six-dimensional internal space is locally an S 2 bundle over a four-dimensional Kaehler-Einstein base; in IIB the internal space is the direct product of a circle and a five-dimensional squashed Sasaki-Einstein manifold. These backgrounds do not contain any sources, all fluxes (including the Romans mass in IIA) are generally non-zero, and the dilaton and warp factor are non-constant. The IIA solutions include the massive deformations of the IIA reduction of the eleven-dimensional AdS 4 x Y p,q solutions, and had been predicted to exist on the basis of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Tank 241-U-102, Grab Samples 2U-99-1, 2U-99-2 and 2U-99-3 Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-U-102 grab samples. Five grab samples were collected from riser 13 on May 26, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on May 26 and May 27, 1999. Samples 2U-99-3 and 2U-99-4 were submitted to the Process Chemistry Laboratory for special studies. Samples 2U-99-1, 2U-99-2 and 2U-99-5 were submitted to the laboratory for analyses. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler 1995, Mulkey and Miller 1998). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP

  5. Inflationary perturbations in anisotropic, shear-free universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Thiago S.; Carneiro, Saulo; Marugan, Guillermo A. Mena

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the linear and gauge-invariant theory of cosmological perturbations in a class of anisotropic and shear-free spacetimes is developed. After constructing an explicit set of complete eigenfunctions in terms of which perturbations can be expanded, we identify the effective degrees of freedom during a generic slow-roll inflationary phase. These correspond to the anisotropic equivalent of the standard Mukhanov-Sasaki variables. The associated equations of motion present a remarkable resemblance to those found in perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes with curvature, apart from the spectrum of the Laplacian, which exhibits the characteristic frequencies of the underlying geometry. In particular, it is found that the perturbations cannot develop arbitrarily large super-Hubble modes

  6. c-Extremization from toric geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amariti, Antonio; Cassia, Luca; Penati, Silvia

    2018-04-01

    We derive a geometric formulation of the 2d central charge cr from infinite families of 4d N = 1 superconformal field theories topologically twisted on constant curvature Riemann surfaces. They correspond to toric quiver gauge theories and are associated to D3 branes probing five dimensional Sasaki-Einstein geometries in the AdS/CFT correspondence. We show that cr can be expressed in terms of the areas of the toric diagram describing the moduli space of the 4d theory, both for toric geometries with smooth and singular horizons. We also study the relation between a-maximization in 4d and c-extremization in 2d, giving further evidences of the mixing of the baryonic symmetries with the exact R-current in two dimensions.

  7. Modeling of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki

    2012-10-01

    Recently, many experimental study of plasma-assisted combustion has been done. However, numerous complex reactions in combustion of hydrocarbons are preventing from theoritical study for clarifying inside the plasma-assisted combustion, and the effect of plasma-assist is still not understood. Shinohara and Sasaki [1,2] have reported that the shortening of flame length by irradiating microwave without increase of gas temperature. And they also reported that the same phenomena would occur when applying dielectric barrier discharges to the flame using simple hydrocarbon, methane. It is suggested that these phenomena may result by the electron heating. To clarify this phenomena, electron behavior under microwave and DBD was examined. For the first step of DBD plasma-assisted combustion simulation, electron Monte Carlo simulation in methane, oxygen and argon mixture gas(0.05:0.14:0.81) [2] has been done. Electron swarm parameters are sampled and electron energy distribution function (EEDF)s are also determined. In the combustion, gas temperature is higher(>1700K), so reduced electric field E/N becomes relatively high(>10V/cm/Torr). The electrons are accelerated to around 14 eV. This result agree with the optical emission from argon obtained by the experiment of reference [2]. Dissociation frequency of methane and oxygens are obtained in high. This might be one of the effect of plasma-assist. And it is suggested that the electrons should be high enough to dissociate methane, but plasma is not needed.[4pt] [1] K. Shinohara et al, J. Phys. D:Appl. Phys., 42, 182008 (1-7) (2009).[0pt] [2] K. Sasaki, 64th Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, 56, 15 CT3.00001(2011).

  8. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  9. Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Responses to Different Aphid Species Reveals Genes that Contribute to Host Susceptibility and Non-host Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouannet, Maëlle; Morris, Jenny A.; Hedley, Peter E.; Bos, Jorunn I. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants. PMID:25993686

  10. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-02-23

    Reduced forms of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are among the most important non-enzymatic foliar antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.). The survey was aimed to evaluate impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) herbivory on expression of genes related to ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in seedlings of six maize varieties (Ambrozja, Nana, Tasty Sweet, Touran, Waza, Złota Karłowa), differing in resistance to the cereal aphids. Relative expression of sixteen maize genes encoding isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase (APX1, APX2, APX3, APX4, APX5, APX6, APX7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR1, MDHAR2, MDHAR3, MDHAR4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1, DHAR2, DHAR3) and glutathione reductase (GR1, GR2) was quantified. Furthermore, effect of hemipterans' attack on activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and the content of reduced and oxidized ascorbate and glutathione in maize plants were assessed. Seedling leaves of more resistant Z. mays varieties responded higher elevations in abundance of target transcripts. In addition, earlier and stronger aphid-triggered changes in activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and greater modulations in amount of the analyzed antioxidative metabolites were detected in foliar tissues of highly resistant Ambrozja genotype in relation to susceptible Tasty Sweet plants.

  11. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants.

  12. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  13. Differential Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Aphid-Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:24722734

  14. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2 •−) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2 •− was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2 •− generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  15. Application of RNA-seq for mitogenome reconstruction, and reconsideration of long-branch artifacts in Hemiptera phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; An, Shiheng; Yin, Xinming; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Hemiptera make up the largest nonholometabolan insect assemblage. Despite previous efforts to elucidate phylogeny within this group, relationships among the major sub-lineages remain uncertain. In particular, mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data are still sparse for many important hemipteran insect groups. Recent mitogenomic analyses of Hemiptera have usually included no more than 50 species, with conflicting hypotheses presented. Here, we determined the nearly complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for the aphid species of Rhopalosiphum padi using RNA-seq plus gap filling. The 15,205 bp mitogenome included all mitochondrial genes except for trnF. The mitogenome organization and size for R. padi are similar to previously reported aphid species. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships for Hemiptera were examined using a mitogenomic dataset which included sequences from 103 ingroup species and 19 outgroup species. Our results showed that the seven species representing the Aleyrodidae exhibit extremely long branches, and always cluster with long-branched outgroups. This lead to the failure of recovering a monophyletic Hemiptera in most analyses. The data treatment of Degen-coding for protein-coding genes and the site-heterogeneous CAT model show improved suppression of the long-branch effect. Under these conditions, the Sternorrhyncha was often recovered as the most basal clade in Hemiptera. PMID:27633117

  16. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production.

  17. Do Refuge Plants Favour Natural Pest Control in Maize Crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Reinaldo; Mazón, Marina; Rodríguez-Berrío, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests’ natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies. Insects occurring in all the plants, including the maize crop itself, were sampled weekly during the crop growing cycle, from February to June 2011. All individuals collected were identified and classified into three functional groups: herbivores, parasitoids, and predators. Refuges were compared based on their effectiveness in enhancing the populations of predator and parasitoid insects of the crop enemies. Refuges A and B were the most effective, showing the highest richness and abundance of both predators and parasitoids, including several insect species that are reported to attack the main insect pests of maize (Spodoptera frugiperda and Rhopalosiphum maidis), as well as other species that serve as alternative hosts of these natural enemies. PMID:28718835

  18. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems.

  19. COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF A GENERALIST PREDATORY LADYBIRD ON FIVE APHID PREY: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omkar; AhmadPervez

    2004-01-01

    Prey driven demographic parameters of an aphidophagous ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were studied in attempt to answer how ladybird overcomes the problem of seasonally fluctuating food base. The ladybird reared for five generations in laboratory derived differential nutrition from five food sources (i.e. aphid species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis gossypii Glover, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)). The order of relative prey suitability was A. gossypii, A. craccivora, R. maidis, U. compositae and L.erysimi. Neonates suffered maximum mortality followed by eggs. Estimates of net reproductive rate,intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest (407.18, 0.2274 day-1, 1.2553 day-1) on A. gossypii and lowest (176.02, 0.1533 day-1, 1.1657 day-1) on L. erysimi. Generation time was shortest (26.43 days) on A. gossypii and longest (33.73 days) on L. erysimi. The present study thus,provides an explanation to the high incidence of P. dissecta on A. gossypii, as it experienced high intrinsic rate of increase and optimal values for related demographic parameters.

  20. Exploring the nitrogen ingestion of aphids--a new method using electrical penetration graph and (15N labelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Kuhlmann

    Full Text Available Studying plant-aphid interactions is challenging as aphid feeding is a complex process hidden in the plant tissue. Here we propose a combination of two well established methods to study nutrient acquisition by aphids focusing on the uptake of isotopically labelled nitrogen ((15N. We combined the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG technique that allows detailed recording of aphid feeding behaviour and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS to precisely measure the uptake of nitrogen. Bird cherry-oat aphids Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera, Aphididae fed for 24 h on barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L., cultivar Lina, Poaceae that were cultivated with a (15N enriched nutrient solution. The time aphids fed in the phloem was strongly positive correlated with their (15N uptake. All other single behavioural phases were not correlated with (15N enrichment in the aphids, which corroborates their classification as non-feeding EPG phases. In addition, phloem-feeding and (15N enrichment of aphids was divided into two groups. One group spent only short time in the phloem phase and was unsuccessful in nitrogen acquisition, while the other group displayed longer phloem-feeding phases and was successful in nitrogen acquisition. This suggests that several factors such as the right feeding site, time span of feeding and individual conditions play a role for the aphids to acquire nutrients successfully. The power of this combination of methods for studying plant-aphid interactions is discussed.

  1. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Burg, Simone; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici) and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM) mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew) became more favourable for another pest (aphids).

  2. SEED AND POLLEN TTRANSMISSION OF A NEW UNIDENTIFIED MOTTLE DISORDER OF MAIZE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wakman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new unidentified mottle disorder of maize Indonesia was found at the Research Institute for Maize and Other Cereals (RIMOC, Maros, South Sulawesi in 1995. Attempts to identify the disorder were made by mechanical inoculation, insect vector (Rhopalosiphum maidis and Peregrinus maidis transmission, seed and pollen transmission, electron microscopy, and serological test. Fifty seeds from each of 22 ears of Arjuna maize plants showing the disorder were planted and symptoms on the seedlings were recorder at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 40 to 100. Pollen of affected Arjuna was then used to pollinate four sweet corn female flowers. Hybrid seeds (50 per ear of the crosses were planted and symptoms were recorded at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The results showed that percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 22 to 84. Electron microscopy and ELISA tests on 15 viruses and one phytospiroplasma antiserum however, gave negative results. Therefore, maize disorder at Maros was not identical to any known viral disease of maize. It could be a genetical disorder and has been given the name maize mottle.

  3. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone von Burg

    Full Text Available In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew became more favourable for another pest (aphids.

  4. Inter-varietal interactions among plants in genotypically diverse mixtures tend to decrease herbivore performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grettenberger, Ian M; Tooker, John F

    2016-09-01

    Much research has explored the effects of plant species diversity on herbivore populations, but far less has considered effects of plant genotypic diversity, or how abiotic stressors, like drought, can modify effects. Mechanisms by which plant genotypic diversity affects herbivore populations remain largely unresolved. We used greenhouse studies with a model system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) to determine whether the genotypic diversity of a plant's neighborhood influences performance and fitness of herbivores on a focal plant and if drought changes the influence of neighborhood diversity. Taken across all varieties we tested, plant-plant interactions in diverse neighborhoods reduced aphid performance and generated associational resistance, although effects on aphids depended on variety identity. In diverse mixtures, drought stress greatly diminished the genotypic diversity-driven reduction in aphid performance. Neighborhood diversity influenced mother aphid size, and appeared to partially explain how plant-plant interactions reduced the number of offspring produced in mixtures. Plant size did not mediate effects on aphid performance, although neighborhood diversity reduced plant mass across varieties and watering treatments. Our results suggest inter-varietal interactions in genotypic mixtures can affect herbivore performance in the absence of herbivore movement and that abiotic stress may diminish any effects. Accounting for how neighborhood diversity influences resistance of an individual plant to herbivores will help aid development of mixtures of varieties for managing insect pests and clarify the role of plant genotypic diversity in ecosystems.

  5. Metabolic rate of spiders (Pardosa prativage) feed on prey species of different diet quality measured by colorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kynde, Bjarke; Westh, Peter

    The metabolic rate was measured in the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga after preying different species of aphids, collembolans and fruit flies raised on common commercial medium. The activity of detoxification enzyme systems Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSTpx) was invest......The metabolic rate was measured in the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga after preying different species of aphids, collembolans and fruit flies raised on common commercial medium. The activity of detoxification enzyme systems Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSTpx......) was investigated for spiders preying the different species. The heat production of starved P. prativaga was ca. 1.5 mW per mg fresh weight. For specimens feed on fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) the heat production was appreciable higher whereas feed on the aphids Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi...... the heat production was on the same level or lower than in the staved spiders. The variation of the observed metabolic changes was in concordance with the variations in enzyme activities....

  6. Biocidal effects of Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) essential oil and synergism among its main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, M F; Rossa, G E; Cassel, E; Vargas, R M F; Santana, O; Díaz, C E; González-Coloma, A

    2017-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a pressure gradient (1-2 atm) in the extraction and composition of the essential oil (EO) of Piper hispidinervum by steam distillation. We also evaluated the insect antifeedant effects (Spodoptera littoralis, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi) and nematicidal activity (Meloidogyne javanica) of the oils, their major components and their synergistic interactions. Safrole was the major component (78-81%) followed by terpinolene (5-9%). The EOs tested were effective insect antifeedants. Safrole, explained most of the insect antifeedant action of P. hispidinervum EOs. When safrole and terpinolene were tested in binary combinations, low ratios of safrole improved the antifeedant effects of terpinolene. P. hispidinervum EOs caused higher mortality of M. javanica juveniles than their major components. In binary combinations, low ratios of terpinolene increased the nematicidal effects of safrole. The EO treatment strongly suppressed nematode egg hatching and juvenile infectivity. P. hispidinervum EOs affected the germination of S. lycopersicum and L. sativa mostly at 24 h of treatment, being L. sativa the most sensitive. Safrole moderately affected germination and root growth of L. sativa, S. lycopersicum and L. perenne. Terpinolene only affected S. lycopersicum root growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Análise dialélica para tolerância ao vírus-do-nanismo-amarelo-da-cevada em cultivares brasileiras de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Rosa Lía

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Seis cultivares brasileiras de trigo com diferentes níveis de tolerância ao vírus-do-nanismo-amarelo-da-cevada (VNAC foram cruzadas de modo dialélico para avaliar as capacidades geral e específica de combinação quanto à herança da tolerância. Um isolado do vírus transmitido por Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi inoculado nas cultivares e nos híbridos F1 no estádio de plântula com duas folhas. Foram atribuídas notas individuais a cada planta de acordo com a severidade de sintomas apresentados. Os dados obtidos foram analisados segundo os três métodos: o de Griffing, o modelo fixo, e método 2. Ficou evidenciada a presença de heterose, provavelmente decorrente do efeito aditivo de genes complementares. As cultivares BR 34 e BR 35 se destacaram com melhores valores de capacidade geral de combinação (CGC, e é recomendado seu uso como genitores em programas de melhoramento de trigo que visem à obtenção de combinações genéticas com tolerância ao VNAC.

  8. Biocidal Potential and Chemical Composition of Industrial Essential Oils from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula × intermedia var. Super, and Santolina chamaecyparissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Vioque, Raúl; Berruga, María Isabel; Herraiz-Peñalver, David; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, María Fé; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal, and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia or L. × hybrida var. Super), and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. × intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0 2,4 ]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. × intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis, and Lolium perenne. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Prey Acceptability and Preference of Oenopia conglobata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, a Candidate for Biological Control in Urban Green Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Lumbierres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenopia conglobata is one of the most common ladybird species in urban green areas of the Mediterranean region. We have obtained data about its prey acceptability and prey preferences. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the acceptability of seven aphid and one psyllid species as prey for this coccinellid: the aphids Chaitophorus populeti, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora Monelliopsis caryae, Eucallipterus tiliae, Aphis nerii (on white poplar, pomegranate, false acacia, black walnut, lime, and oleander, respectively, and the psyllid Acizzia jamatonica on Persian silk tree. These species are abundant in urban green areas in the Mediterranean region. In addition, we tested the acceptability of Rhopalosiphum padi on barley, an aphid species easily reared in the laboratory. We also tested preferences of the predator in cafeteria experiments with three aphid species and one aphid and the psyllid. Adults and larvae of the coccinellid accepted all of the preys offered, except A. nerii, with a clear preference for M. caryae. The predator also showed preference for M. caryae when it was offered in a cafeteria experiment with other aphid species or with the psyllid. The aphid R. padi obtained a good acceptability and could be used for rearing O. conglobata in the laboratory.

  10. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production. PMID:26941044

  11. Coupling genetics and proteomics to identify aphid proteins associated with vector-specific transmission of polerovirus (luteoviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Thannhauser, T W; Burrows, Mary; Cox-Foster, Diana; Gildow, Fred E; Gray, Stewart M

    2008-01-01

    Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) is transmitted specifically by the aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum in a circulative nonpropagative manner. The high level of vector specificity results from the vector aphids having the functional components of the receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways to allow virus to transverse the gut and salivary tissues. Studies of F(2) progeny from crosses of vector and nonvector genotypes of S. graminum showed that virus transmission efficiency is a heritable trait regulated by multiple genes acting in an additive fashion and that gut- and salivary gland-associated factors are not genetically linked. Utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to compare the proteomes of vector and nonvector parental and F(2) genotypes, four aphid proteins (S4, S8, S29, and S405) were specifically associated with the ability of S. graminum to transmit CYDV-RPV. The four proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with purified RPV, indicating that the aphid proteins are capable of binding to virus. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified S4 as a luciferase and S29 as a cyclophilin, both of which have been implicated in macromolecular transport. Proteins S8 and S405 were not identified from available databases. Study of this unique genetic system coupled with proteomic analysis indicated that these four virus-binding aphid proteins were specifically inherited and conserved in different generations of vector genotypes and suggests that they play a major role in regulating polerovirus transmission.

  12. Coupling Genetics and Proteomics To Identify Aphid Proteins Associated with Vector-Specific Transmission of Polerovirus (Luteoviridae)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Thannhauser, T. W.; Burrows, Mary; Cox-Foster, Diana; Gildow, Fred E.; Gray, Stewart M.

    2008-01-01

    Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) is transmitted specifically by the aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum in a circulative nonpropagative manner. The high level of vector specificity results from the vector aphids having the functional components of the receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways to allow virus to transverse the gut and salivary tissues. Studies of F2 progeny from crosses of vector and nonvector genotypes of S. graminum showed that virus transmission efficiency is a heritable trait regulated by multiple genes acting in an additive fashion and that gut- and salivary gland-associated factors are not genetically linked. Utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to compare the proteomes of vector and nonvector parental and F2 genotypes, four aphid proteins (S4, S8, S29, and S405) were specifically associated with the ability of S. graminum to transmit CYDV-RPV. The four proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with purified RPV, indicating that the aphid proteins are capable of binding to virus. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified S4 as a luciferase and S29 as a cyclophilin, both of which have been implicated in macromolecular transport. Proteins S8 and S405 were not identified from available databases. Study of this unique genetic system coupled with proteomic analysis indicated that these four virus-binding aphid proteins were specifically inherited and conserved in different generations of vector genotypes and suggests that they play a major role in regulating polerovirus transmission. PMID:17959668

  13. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Elizabeth N; Beckett, Randy J; Gray, Stewart M; Miller, W Allen

    2013-01-01

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV).

  14. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N. Krueger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392. The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV.

  15. Hydroxamic acids in Secale cereale L. and the relationship with their antifeedant and allelopathic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copaja, Sylvia V; Villarroel, Elisa; Bravo, Héctor R; Pizarro, Lorena; Argandoña, Víctor H

    2006-01-01

    Contents of the hydroxamic acids 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA), and 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) in leaves and roots of 14 cultivars of rye, Secale cereale L., were determined. Dynamics of accumulation in three cultivars were evaluated. DIBOA was the main cyclic hydroxamic acid in leaves but the contents differed significantly between the cultivars. Both DIBOA and DIMBOA were present in the roots. Maximum concentration of DIBOA in leaves and DIMBOA in roots was reached between 48-54 h and 54-72 h after germination, respectively. Antifeedant activity of DIBOA towards the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi and the feeding behavior were studied by electronic recording in barley leaves treated with different contents of DIBOA. The deleterious activity of DIBOA could arise by starvation and/or a toxic effect. Additionally, allelopathic potential of pure DIBOA and aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of rye (Tetra-Baer) on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rye (Tetra-Baer) seeds was evaluated. A high percentage of germination inhibition of pure DIBOA and the extracts of leaves and roots was observed. The activity is in agreement with the contents of hydroxamic acids in the plants. The substrates had no allelopathic effect on rye seeds.

  16. Air-insufflated high-definition dacryoendoscopy yields significantly better image quality than conventional dacryoendoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tsugihisa Sasaki,1 Tsutomu Sounou,2 Hideki Tsuji,3 Kazuhisa Sugiyama4 1Sasaki Eye Clinic, Mikuni, Sakai, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keiju Kanazawa Hospital, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Cancer Institute Hospital, 4Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan Purpose: To facilitate the analysis of lacrimal conditions, we utilized high-definition dacryoendoscopy (HDD and undertook observations with a pressure-controlled air-insufflation system. We report the safety and performance of HDD.Methods: In this retrospective, non-randomized clinical trial, 46 patients (14 males and 32 females; age range 39–91 years; mean age ± SD 70.3±12.0 years who had lacrimal disorders were examined with HDD and conventional dacryoendoscopy (CD. The high-definition dacryoendoscope had 15,000 picture element image fibers and an advanced objective lens. Its outer diameter was 0.9–1.2 mm. Air insufflation was controlled at 0–20 kPa with a digital manometer-based pressure-controlled air-insufflation system to evaluate the quality of the image. The HDD had an air/saline irrigation channel between the outer sheath (outer diameter =1.2 mm and the metal inner sheath of the endoscope. We used it and the CD in air, saline, and diluted milk saline with and without manual irrigation to quantitatively evaluate the effect of air pressure and saline irrigation on image quality.Results: In vivo, the most significant improvement in image quality was demonstrated with air-insufflated (5–15 kPa HDD, as compared with saline-irrigated HDD and saline-irrigated CD. No emphysema or damage was noted under observation with HDD. In vitro, no significant difference was demonstrated between air-insufflated HDD and saline-irrigated HDD. In vitro, the image quality of air-insufflated HDD was significantly improved as compared with that of saline-irrigated CD.Conclusion: Pressure-controlled (5–15 kPa air

  17. Production and characterization of phosphorescent nanopowders doped with rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Paulo Jorge Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    In this work the feasibility of employing the synthesis process using a methodology developed by Macedo and Sasaki (Macedo, M. A. e Sasaki, J. M. Fabrication process nano particulate powders. INPI 0203876-5 1998) to produce pore and rare earths doped ceramic nano powders of SrAl 2 O 4 and Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 was investigated. In this new methodology, coconut water is used as a start solvent for the production of the samples. Thermal analysis techniques were employed in order to obtain the best calcination conditions. The structural and microstructural characterizations of the samples were made using powder X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy techniques. The analysis by X-ray diffraction showed the formation of the SrAl 2 O 4 and Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 phases in the calcined powders. The emission/excitation spectra exhibited the typical transitions of the rare earth elements indicating the incorporation of the dopant in the nano crystals. Emission characteristics of divalent europium show that the reduction of Eu ions is induced during the synthesis stage. The doped samples show an intense bright emission when exposed to X-rays. That emission is associated with divalent europium transitions, indicating that irradiation also induces the reduction of the valence state of Eu ions from Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ . Radioluminescence spectra (RL) versus time show a decay of the RL intensity to 40% of the initial intensity after 20 minutes of exposure to X-rays. Irradiation also causes a change in color of the samples indicating the production of radiation damage. Analysis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy (XAS- X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy) and the luminescent emission of samples excited by X-rays (XEOL - X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence) enabled the creation of a model that explains that behavior. DXAS technique (Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy) was used to monitor the kinetics of the reduction process of Eu ions during irradiation, in order to verify the

  18. Quantum fluctuations in brane-world inflation without an inflaton on the brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago, Norichika; Himemoto, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Misao

    2002-01-01

    A Randall-Sundrum-type brane-cosmological model in which slow-roll inflation on the brane is driven solely by a bulk scalar field was recently proposed by Himemoto and Sasaki. We analyze their model in detail and calculate the quantum fluctuations of the bulk scalar field φ with m 2 =V '' (φ). We decompose the bulk scalar field into the infinite mass spectrum of four-dimensional fields; the field with the smallest mass square, called the zero mode, and the Kaluza-Klein modes above it with a mass gap. We find the zero-mode dominance of the classical solution holds if vertical bar m 2 vertical bar l-bar 2 2 vertical bar l-bar2>>1, though the violation is very small. Then we evaluate the vacuum expectation value 2 > on the brane. We find the zero-mode contribution completely dominates if vertical bar m 2 vertical barl-bar 2 2 vertical barl-bar 2 is large

  19. Comparison of collisional radiative models for edge electron density reconstruction from Li I (2s-2p) emission profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoschus, H.; Hudson, B.; Munoz Burgos, J. M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-0117 (United States); Thomas, D. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Schweinzer, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Four collisional radiative models (CRMs) for reconstruction of the edge electron density profile from the measured Li I (2s-2p) emission profile of an accelerated lithium beam are compared using experimental data from DIII-D. It is shown for both L- and H-mode plasmas that edge density profiles reconstructed with the CRMs DDD2, ABSOLUT, [Sasaki et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1699 (1993)] and a new model developed at DIII-D agree in a density scan from n{sub e}{sup ped}= (2.0-6.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} within 20%, 20%, <5%, and 40%, respectively, of the pedestal density measured with Thomson scattering. Profile shape and absolute density vary in a scan of the effective ion charge Z{sub eff}= 1-6 up to a factor of two but agree with Thomson data for Z{sub eff}= 1-2 within the error bars.

  20. Performance Factors and Sulfur Tolerance of Metal Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Nanostructured Ni:GDC Infiltrated Anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa Helen; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    poisoning. The ceria can be incorporated as a Ni:GDC cermet anode, but also via infiltration of ceria and doped ceria into the conventional Ni:YSZ cermet anode. Both approaches have been reported to improve the tolerance towards sulfur poisoning [1-3]. In the present study we report the performance...... concentrations of 2, 5 and 10 ppm in hydrogen fuel, during galvanostatic operation at a current load of 0.25 Acm-2. The results are illustrated and compared with the conventional SOFC Ni:YSZ cermet anode in figure 1, where the relative increase in anode polarization resistance as a function of Ni sulfur coverage...... is shown. The comparison indicate the MS-SOFC anode of the present study to be more tolerant towards sulfur poisoning than the conventional Ni:YSZ cermet anode. [1] K. Sasaki et al., J. Electrochem. Soc., 153, A2023–A2029 (2006). [2] L. Zhang et al., International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 35, 12359...

  1. Molecular diagnostics of a single drug-resistant multiple myeloma case using targeted next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Ikeda,1 Kazuya Ishiguro,1 Tetsuyuki Igarashi,1 Yuka Aoki,1 Toshiaki Hayashi,1 Tadao Ishida,1 Yasushi Sasaki,1,2 Takashi Tokino,2 Yasuhisa Shinomura1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, 2Medical Genome Sciences, Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: A 69-year-old man was diagnosed with IgG λ-type multiple myeloma (MM, Stage II in October 2010. He was treated with one cycle of high-dose dexamethasone. After three cycles of bortezomib, the patient exhibited slow elevations in the free light-chain levels and developed a significant new increase of serum M protein. Bone marrow cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex karyotype characteristic of malignant plasma cells. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of this patient, we sequenced for mutations in the entire coding regions of 409 cancer-related genes using a semiconductor-based sequencing platform. Sequencing analysis revealed eight nonsynonymous somatic mutations in addition to several copy number variants, including CCND1 and RB1. These alterations may play roles in the pathobiology of this disease. This targeted next-generation sequencing can allow for the prediction of drug resistance and facilitate improvements in the treatment of MM patients. Keywords: multiple myeloma, drug resistance, genome-wide sequencing, semiconductor sequencer, target therapy

  2. Gravitational radiation from the radial infall of highly relativistic point particles into Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the gravitational radiation generated by the collision of highly relativistic particles with rotating Kerr black holes. We use the Sasaki-Nakamura formalism to compute the waveform, energy spectra, and total energy radiated during this process. We show that the gravitational spectrum for high-energy collisions has definite characteristic universal features, which are independent of the spin of the colliding objects. We also discuss the possible connections between these results and black-hole-black-hole collisions at the speed of light. Our results show that during the high-speed collision of a nonrotating hole with a rotating one, at most 35% of the total energy can get converted into gravitational waves. This 35% efficiency occurs only in the most optimistic situation, that of a zero impact parameter collision, along the equatorial plane, with an almost extreme Kerr black hole. In the general situation, the total gravitational energy radiated is expected to be much less, especially if the impact parameter increases. Thus, if one is able to produce black holes at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, at most 35% of the partons' energy should be emitted during the so-called balding phase. This energy will be missing, since we do not have gravitational wave detectors able to measure such amplitudes. The collision at the speed of light between one rotating black hole and a nonrotating one or two rotating black holes turns out to be the most efficient gravitational wave generator in the Universe

  3. Vibrational characterization of hexagonal duct core assemblies under various support conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholf, L.W.; Julyk, L.J.; Ryan, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    Analysis of the dynamic response of advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) core internals to seismic excitation requires a significant number of simplifying assumptions and idealizations to economically meet the constraints of present-day computer limitations. Fluid coupling and nonlinearities associated with inter-assembly lateral support stiffness and clearances of a large cluster of core internal assemblies are some of the factors that complicate the analytical procedure (Moran, 1976). Well defined test data were needed to quantify these and other uncertainties associated with the use of analytical or numerical computer codes used in the seismic design and analysis of reactor cores. The purpose of the present experimental program was to supplement existing data, such as reported in (Sasaki and Muto, 1983), by developing vibrational characteristics of core assemblies over a range of parameters relative to LMR conceptual designs. The parameters selected for this program were variations in number and location of restraints, restraint-pad to duct-load-pad clearances, and input forcing frequency and g-level. Feature tests were conducted to characterize load pad stiffness and coefficient of restitution, and to calibrate load pads to measure inter-assembly across-flat impact loads. Simulated full-size LMR hexagonal duct core assemblies were used in vibration tests. A single assembly and a row of five assemblies were tested in air to establish modal characteristics and forced response behavior. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Effect of oxygen atoms dissociated by non-equilibrium plasma on flame of methane oxygen and argon pre-mixture gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    For more efficient way of combustion, plasma-assisted combustion has been investigated by many researchers. But it is very difficult to clarify the effect of plasma even on the flame of methane. Because there are many complex chemical reactions in combustion system. Sasaki et al. has reported that the flame length of methane and air premixed burner shortened by irradiating microwave power. They also measured emission from Second Positive Band System of nitrogen during the irradiation. The emission indicates existence of high energy electrons which are accelerated by the microwave. The high energy electrons also dissociate oxygen molecules easily and oxygen atom would have some effects on the flame. But the dissociation ratio of oxygen molecules by the non-equilibrium plasma is significantly low, compared to that in the combustion reaction. To clarify the effect of dissociated oxygen atoms on the flame, dependence of dissociation ratio of oxygen on the flame has been examined using CHEMKIN. It is found that in the case of low dissociation ratio of 10-6, the ignition of the flame becomes slightly earlier. It is also found that in the case of high dissociation ratio of 10-3, the ignition time becomes significantly earlier by almost half. This work was supported by KAKENHI (22340170).

  5. Four stages of hepatic hematopoiesis in human embryos and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, D; Angotzi, F; Lai, F; Gerosa, C; Senes, G; Fanos, V; Faa, G

    2018-03-01

    The liver is a major hematopoietic organ during embryonic and fetal development in humans. Its hematopoietic activity starts during the first weeks of gestation and continues until birth. During this period the liver is colonized by undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that gradually differentiate and once mature, enter the circulatory system through the hepatic sinusoids, this process is called hepatic hematopoiesis. The morphology of hepatic hematopoiesis, has been studied in humans through the years, and led to a characterization of all the cell types that make up these phenomena. Studies on murine models also helped to describe the extent of hepatic hematopoiesis at different gestational ages. Using this knowledge, we attempted to describe how hepatic hematopoiesis morphologically evolves as gestation progresses, in human embryos and fetuses. Thus, we observed a total of 32 tissue specimens obtained from the livers of embryos and fetuses at different gestational ages. Basing our observations on the four stages of liver hematopoiesis identified by Sasaki and Sonoda in mice, we also described four consecutive stages of liver hematopoiesis in humans, which resulted to be highly similar to those described in murine models.

  6. Medial blepharosynechioplasty: a new surgical concept for severe dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsugihisa Sasaki,1,2 Taeko Ota,3 Youko Ookura,4 Kazuhisa Sugiyama11Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tonami General Hospital, Tonami-city, Toyama; 4Department of Ophthamology, Saiseikai Kanazawa Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to report on the performance of medial blepharosynechioplasty (MBSP, a newly devised technique for treating severe dry eye.Methods: In this retrospective, nonrandomized clinical trial, three cases with severe dry eye (Sjögren’s syndrome associated with repeated punctal plug loss were treated using MBSP to create a synechia between the upper and lower lid medial borders of the puncta to suppress the lacrimal pump.Results: Postoperative follow-up showed improvement in the corneal condition in all three cases that persisted for 12–35 months. None of the patients had visual impairment.Conclusion: MBSP is a promising treatment for severe dry eye and merits further study.Keywords: dry eye, lacrimal pump suppression, medial blepharosynechioplasty

  7. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  8. Exactly marginal deformations from exceptional generalised geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Gabella, Maxime [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Graña, Mariana [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 05, UMR 7589, LPTHE,75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-27

    We apply exceptional generalised geometry to the study of exactly marginal deformations of N=1 SCFTs that are dual to generic AdS{sub 5} flux backgrounds in type IIB or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the gauge theory, marginal deformations are parametrised by the space of chiral primary operators of conformal dimension three, while exactly marginal deformations correspond to quotienting this space by the complexified global symmetry group. We show how the supergravity analysis gives a geometric interpretation of the gauge theory results. The marginal deformations arise from deformations of generalised structures that solve moment maps for the generalised diffeomorphism group and have the correct charge under the generalised Reeb vector, generating the R-symmetry. If this is the only symmetry of the background, all marginal deformations are exactly marginal. If the background possesses extra isometries, there are obstructions that come from fixed points of the moment maps. The exactly marginal deformations are then given by a further quotient by these extra isometries. Our analysis holds for any N=2 AdS{sub 5} flux background. Focussing on the particular case of type IIB Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds we recover the result that marginal deformations correspond to perturbing the solution by three-form flux at first order. In various explicit examples, we show that our expression for the three-form flux matches those in the literature and the obstruction conditions match the one-loop beta functions of the dual SCFT.

  9. The exceptional generalised geometry of supersymmetric AdS flux backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, Anthony [Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, Oxford, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Petrini, Michela [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7589,LPTHE, 75005 Paris (France); Waldram, Daniel [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-29

    We analyse generic AdS flux backgrounds preserving eight supercharges in D=4 and D=5 dimensions using exceptional generalised geometry. We show that they are described by a pair of globally defined, generalised structures, identical to those that appear for flat flux backgrounds but with different integrability conditions. We give a number of explicit examples of such “exceptional Sasaki-Einstein” backgrounds in type IIB supergravity and M-theory. In particular, we give the complete analysis of the generic AdS{sub 5} M-theory backgrounds. We also briefly discuss the structure of the moduli space of solutions. In all cases, one structure defines a “generalised Reeb vector” that generates a Killing symmetry of the background corresponding to the R-symmetry of the dual field theory, and in addition encodes the generic contact structures that appear in the D=4 M-theory and D=5 type IIB cases. Finally, we investigate the relation between generalised structures and quantities in the dual field theory, showing that the central charge and R-charge of BPS wrapped-brane states are both encoded by the generalised Reeb vector, as well as discussing how volume minimisation (the dual of a- and F-maximisation) is encoded.

  10. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.

  11. [Treatment of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masahiro; Fujita, Akira

    2013-12-01

    Early detection and appropriate treatment are the keys to tuberculosis control. In particular, providing appropriate treatment for tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic hepatic disease, or renal failure necessitating hemodialysis, and taking appropriate measures against adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs are issues of critical importance. This mini-symposium, four experts explained the current status of "treatment of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities" and proposed measures to address these problems. Dr. Aoki talked about "HIV infection complicated by tuberculosis." To the next, Dr. Yoshinaga gave a talk on "treatment of tuberculosis in RA patients receiving biological agents. Further, Dr. Sasaki lectured on "tuberculosis in patients with hepatic disease/impairment". Lastly, Dr. Takamori gave a lecture on "tuberculosis in patients with renal disease and those on hemodialysis. Tuberculosis patients often have some underlying diseases, and adverse reactions caused by antituberculosis drugs, such as hepatic and renal impairments, are matters of concern. I believe that this mini-symposium has provided useful information for physicians engaged in tuberculosis treatment and for many other healthcare professionals as well.

  12. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  13. Electrical stimulation of human lower extremities enhances energy consumption, carbohydrate oxidation, and whole body glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Taku; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kazuwa; Moritani, Toshio

    2004-03-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that low-frequency electrical stimulation (ES) of quadriceps muscles alone significantly enhanced glucose disposal rate (GDR) during euglycemic clamp (Hamada T, Sasaki H, Hayashi T, Moritani T, and Nakao K. J Appl Physiol 94: 2107-2112, 2003). The present study is further follow-up to examine the acute metabolic effects of ES to lower extremities compared with voluntary cycle exercise (VE) at identical intensity. In eight male subjects lying in the supine position, both lower leg (tibialis anterior and triceps surae) and thigh (quadriceps and hamstrings) muscles were sequentially stimulated to cocontract in an isometric manner at 20 Hz with a 1-s on-off duty cycle for 20 min. Despite small elevation of oxygen uptake by 7.3 +/- 0.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) during ES, the blood lactate concentration was significantly increased by 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l in initial period (5 min) after the onset of the ES (P increased anaerobic glycolysis by ES. Furthermore, whole body glucose uptake determined by GDR during euglycemic clamp demonstrated a significant increase during and after the cessation of ES for at least 90 min (P energy consumption, carbohydrate oxidation, and whole body glucose uptake at low intensity of exercise. Percutaneous ES may become a therapeutic utility to enhance glucose metabolism in humans.

  14. Kinetics of hydrogen peroxide elimination by astrocytes and C6 glioma cells analysis based on a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Nobuo; Mise, Takeshi; Sagara, Jun-Ichi

    2008-06-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in a variety of disorders including neurodegenerative diseases, and H(2)O(2) is important in the generation of reactive oxygen and oxidative stress. In this study, we have examined the rate of extracellular H(2)O(2) elimination and relevant enzyme activities in cultured astrocytes and C6 glioma cells and have analyzed the results based on a mathematical model. As compared with other types of cultured cells, astrocytes showed higher activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) but lower activities for GSH recycling. C6 cells showed relatively low GPx activity, and treatment of C6 cells with dibutyryl-cAMP, which induces astrocytic differentiation, increased catalase activity and H(2)O(2) permeation rate but exerted little effect on other enzyme activities. A mathematical model [N. Makino, K. Sasaki, N. Hashida, Y. Sakakura, A metabolic model describing the H(2)O(2) elimination by mammalian cells including H(2)O(2) permeation through cytoplasmic and peroxisomal membranes: comparison with experimental data, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1673 (2004) 149-159.], which includes relevant enzymes and H(2)O(2) permeation through membranes, was found to be fitted well to the H(2)O(2) concentration dependences of removal reaction with the permeation rate constants as variable parameters. As compared with PC12 cells as a culture model for neuron, H(2)O(2) removal activity of astrocytes was considerably higher at physiological H(2)O(2) concentrations. The details of the mathematical model are presented in Appendix.

  15. Enhancement of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis and New Bone Formation in Rats by Obtusilactone A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiung Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural pure compound obtusilactone A (OA was identified in Cinnamomum kotoense Kanehira & Sasaki, and shows effective anti-cancer activity. We studied the effect of OA on osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. OA possesses biocompatibility, stimulates Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activity and facilitates mineralization of BMSCs. Expression of osteogenesis markers BMP2, Runx2, Collagen I, and Osteocalcin was enhanced in OA-treated BMSCs. An in vivo rat model with local administration of OA via needle implantation to bone marrow-residing BMSCs revealed that OA increased the new bone formation and trabecular bone volume in tibias. Micro-CT images and H&E staining showed more trabecular bone at the needle-implanted site in the OA group than the normal saline group. Thus, OA confers an osteoinductive effect on BMSCs via induction of osteogenic marker gene expression, such as BMP2 and Runx2 expression and subsequently elevates ALP activity and mineralization, followed by enhanced trabecular bone formation in rat tibias. Therefore, OA is a potential osteoinductive drug to stimulate new bone formation by BMSCs.

  16. Frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes of women with breast cancer treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza Jeria, Marcela; Castro Acuna, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This study proposes to obtain information about the behavior of the frequency and distribution of radiation induced lymphocyte dicentric chromosome aberrations with therapeutic doses in women with breast cancer treated only with radiotherapy, about which there are no existing works in Chile. Blood samples were taken from 6 women volunteers included in the study, with their informed consent, treated in the Fundacion Arturo Lopez Perez, aged 24 to 65 years old, without prior or parallel chemotherapy, nor prior radiotherapy. Three peripheral blood samples were taken from each patient in 0, 16.2 and 43.2 Gy doses. The lymphocytes obtained from each sample were cultivated using the micro-culture technique following the protocol in IAEA Technical Report No. 405, 2001. The samples were evaluated under a microscope and the unstable chromosome aberrations for lymphocytes were counted. A total of 500 cells per sample was evaluated in most cases, which were distributed depending on the number of aberrations that they had. The results were analyzed by treatment dose for each of the study patients, using the Papworth u test, Dolphin's 'Contaminated Poisson' method and Sasaki's 'QDR'. Great variations were observed in the frequency distribution of aberrations among the patients studied, which could be due to the influence of factors related to the patients' partial irradiations (C.Wood)

  17. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed

  18. A necrotic lung ball caused by co-infection with Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toshinobu Yokoyama, Jun Sasaki, Keita Matsumoto, Chie Koga, Yusuke Ito, Yoichiro Kaku, Morihiro Tajiri, Hiroki Natori, Masashi HirokawaDivision of Respirology, Neurology and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, JapanIntroduction: A necrotic lung ball is a rare radiological feature that is sometimes seen in cases of pulmonary aspergillosis. This paper reports a rare occurrence of a necrotic lung ball in a young male caused by Candida and Streptococcus pneumoniae.Case report: A 28-year-old male with pulmonary candidiasis was found to have a lung ball on computed tomography (CT of the chest. The patient was treated with ß-lactams and itraconazole and then fluconazole, which improved his condition (as found on a following chest CT scan and serum ß-D-glucan level. The necrotic lung ball was suspected to have been caused by co-infection with Candida and S. pneumoniae.Conclusion: A necrotic lung ball can result from infection by Candida and/or S. pneumoniae, indicating that physicians should be aware that patients may still have a fungal infection of the lungs that could result in a lung ball, even when they do not have either Aspergillus antibodies or antigens.Keywords: lung ball, necrotic lung ball, Candida, Streptococcus pneumoniae

  19. In vivo detection of fluctuating brain steroid levels SHORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Maaya; Rensel, Michelle A.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for in vivo measurement of steroid hormones in brain circuits of the zebra finch. In vivo microdialysis has been used successfully to detect fluctuating neurosteroids in the auditory forebrain (Remage-Healey et al., 2008; 2012; Ikeda et al., 2012) and in the hippocampus (Rensel et al., 2012; 2013) of behaving adult zebra finches. In some cases, the steroids measured are derived locally (e.g., ‘neurosteroids’ like estrogens in males) whereas in other cases the steroids measured reflect systemic circulating levels and/or central conversion (e.g., the primary androgen testosterone and the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone). We also describe the method of reverse-microdialysis (‘retrodialysis’) of compounds that can influence local steroid neurochemistry as well as behavior. In vivo microdialysis can now be used to study steroid signaling in the brain for a variety of experimental purposes. Furthermore, similar methods have been developed to examine changing levels of catecholamines in behaving zebra finches (e.g., Sasaki et al., 2006). Thus, the combined study of neurochemistry and behavior in a vocal learning species now has a new set of powerful tools. PMID:25342066

  20. Lack of genotoxic effect of food dyes amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine and their metabolites in the gut micronucleus assay in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poul, Martine; Jarry, Gérard; Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Poul, Jean-Michel

    2009-02-01

    The food dyes amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine were administered twice, at 24h intervals, by oral gavage to mice and assessed in the in vivo gut micronucleus test for genotoxic effects (frequency of micronucleated cells) and toxicity (apoptotic and mitotic cells). The concentrations of each compound and their main metabolites (sulfanilic acid and naphthionic acid) were measured in faeces during a 24-h period after single oral administrations of the food dyes to mice. Parent dye compounds and their main aromatic amine metabolites were detected in significant amounts in the environment of colonic cells. Acute oral exposure to food dye additives amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine did not induce genotoxic effect in the micronucleus gut assay in mice at doses up to 2000 mg/kg b.w. Food dyes administration increased the mitotic cells at all dose levels when compared to controls. These results suggest that the transient DNA damages previously observed in the colon of mice treated by amaranth and tartrazine by the in vivo comet assay [Sasaki, Y.F., Kawaguchi, S., Kamaya, A., Ohshita, M., Kabasawa, K., Iwama, K., Taniguchi, K., Tsuda, S., 2002. The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat. Res. 519, 103-119] are unable to be fixed in stable genotoxic lesions and might be partly explained by local cytotoxicity of the dyes.

  1. Tank 241-TX-302C grab samples, 302C-TX-97-1A through 302C-TX-97-3B analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-TX-302C grab samples. Six grabs samples (302C-TX-97-1A, 302C-TX-97-1B, 302C-TX-97-2A, 302C-TX-97-2B, 302C-TX-97-3A, and 302C-TX-97-3B) were collected from the catch tank level gauge riser on December 19, 1997. The ''A'' and ''B'' portions from each sample location were composited and analyses were performed on the composites in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information

  2. Tank 241-TX-302C grab samples 302C-TX-97-1A through 302C-TX-97-3B analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-03-12

    This document is the final report for tank 241-TX-302C grab samples. Six grabs samples (302C-TX-97-1A, 302C-TX-97-1B, 302C-TX-97-2A, 302C-TX-97-2B, 302C-TX-97-3A, and 302C-TX-97-3B) were collected from the catch tank level gauge riser on December 19, 1997. The ``A`` and ``B`` portions from each sample location were composited and analyses were performed on the composites in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information.

  3. Practical round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2017-01-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, with which legitimate users are able to estimate information leakage by monitoring the disturbance of the transmitted quantum signals. Normally, the disturbance is reflected as bit flip errors in the sifted key; thus, privacy amplification, which removes any leaked information from the key, generally depends on the bit error rate. Recently, a round-robin differential-phase-shift QKD protocol for which privacy amplification does not rely on the bit error rate (Sasaki et al 2014 Nature 509 475) was proposed. The amount of leaked information can be bounded by the sender during the state-preparation stage and hence, is independent of the behavior of the unreliable quantum channel. In our work, we apply the tagging technique to the protocol and present a tight bound on the key rate and employ a decoy-state method. The effects of background noise and misalignment are taken into account under practical conditions. Our simulation results show that the protocol can tolerate channel error rates close to 50% within a typical experiment setting. That is, there is a negligible restriction on the error rate in practice. (paper)

  4. On post-inflation validity of perturbation theory in Horndeski scalar-tensor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Cristiano [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kudryashova, Nina [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany); Watanabe, Yuki, E-mail: germani@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: nina.kudryashova@campus.lmu.de, E-mail: yuki.watanabe@nat.gunma-ct.ac.jp [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Gunma College, Gunma 371-8530 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    By using the newtonian gauge, we re-confirm that, as in the minimal case, the re-scaled Mukhanov-Sasaki variable is conserved leading to a constraint equation for the Newtonian potential. However, conversely to the minimal case, in Horndeski theories, the super-horizon Newtonian potential can potentially grow to very large values after inflation exit. If that happens, inflationary predictability is lost during the oscillating period. When this does not happen, the perturbations generated during inflation can be standardly related to the CMB, if the theory chosen is minimal at low energies. As a concrete example, we analytically and numerically discuss the new Higgs inflationary case. There, the Inflaton is the Higgs boson that is non-minimally kinetically coupled to gravity. During the high-energy part of the post-inflationary oscillations, the system is anisotropic and the Newtonian potential is largely amplified. Thanks to the smallness of today's amplitude of curvature perturbations, however, the system stays in the linear regime, so that inflationary predictions are not lost. At low energies, when the system relaxes to the minimal case, the anisotropies disappear and the Newtonian potential converges to a constant value. We show that the constant value to which the Newtonian potential converges is related to the frozen part of curvature perturbations during inflation, precisely like in the minimal case.

  5. Measuring a film flowing down a tube inner wall using a laser focus displacement meter and an image-processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kobayashi, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate details of the fascinating nonlinear phenomena of waves on a film, spatial temporal knowledge of the interfacial waves is essential. This paper presents an experimental study on waves on a film flowing down a vertical tube inner wall measured with a laser focus displacement meter (LFD) and an image-processing method. As a result, the film thickness was measured within a 1% margin of error by LFD, and the wave velocity was measured within a 10% margin of error by the image-processing. The experimental results are summarized as follows: At entry length L = 900 mm, the wave becomes a two-wave system. In the entry region, L = 216 mm, and 400 mm, the wave amplitude decreases as the flow rate increases, in the same manner as that in a film flowing down a plate wall. The velocity measured by the image processing agreed well with that calculated using Nusselt's theoretical equation and the Ito-Sasaki empirical equation for Reynolds numbers < 250. (author)

  6. Protein changes associated with reprotonation of the Schiff base in the photocycle of Asp96-->Asn bacteriorhodopsin. The MN intermediate with unprotonated Schiff base but N-like protein structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, J.; Shichida, Y.; Lanyi, J. K.; Maeda, A.

    1992-01-01

    The difference Fourier transform infrared spectrum for the N intermediate in the photoreaction of the light-adapted form of bacteriorhodopsin can be recorded at pH 10 at 274 K (Pfefferle, J.-M., Maeda, A., Sasaki, J., and Yoshizawa, T. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 6548-6556). Under these conditions, Asp96-->Asn bacteriorhodopsin gives a photoproduct which shows changes in protein structure similar to those observed in N of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. However, decreased intensity of the chromophore bands and the single absorbance maximum at about 400 nm indicate that the Schiff base is unprotonated, as in the M intermediate. This photoproduct was named MN. At pH 7, where the supply of proton is not as restricted as at pH 10, Asp96-->Asn bacteriorhodopsin yields N with a protonated Schiff base. The Asn96 residue, which cannot deprotonate as Asp96 in wild-type bacteriorhodopsin, is perturbed upon formation of both MN at pH 10 and N at pH 7. We suggest that the reprotonation of the Schiff base is preceded by a large change in the protein structure including perturbation of the residue at position 96.

  7. Infecção mista pelo Sugarcane mosaic virus e Maize rayado fino virus provoca danos na cultura do milho no estado de São Paulo Mixed infection by Sugarcane mosaic virus and Maize rayado fino virus causing breaking yields in maize in São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César Gonçalves

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os dois principais vírus que infectam o milho no Brasil são o Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV e o Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, cujos principais vetores são o afídeo Rhopalosiphum maidis e a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis, respectivamente. O MRFV é freqüentemente encontrado em infecções mistas com fitoplasmas e espiroplasmas, causando as doenças denominadas enfezamentos do milho. Em uma lavoura de milho próxima a Santo Antonio da Posse, SP, cercada por campos de cana-de-açúcar, foi encontrada alta incidência de plantas apresentando mosaico, riscas, nanismo e espigas com falhas no enchimento de grãos. Análises serológicas com anti-soros específicos detectaram a presença do SCMV e MRFV nessas plantas. A infecção pelo SCMV também foi confirmada por RT-PCR com primers específicos e análise de seqüências. Em observações de preparações contrastadas negativamente em TEM, partículas flexuosas (ca.770 nm e isométricas (ca.30 nm foram detectadas. Em cortes ultrafinos, inclusões citoplasmáticas, típicas de Potyviridae, foram observadas; não foi encontrada a presença de espiroplasmas nem de fitoplasmas. Esses resultados mostram que a infecção conjunta por SCMV e MRFV pode ser responsável pelos danos encontrados nessa lavoura.The two main viruses infecting maize in Brazil are Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV and Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, whose main vectors are the aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis and the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis, respectively. MRFV is frequently found in mixed infections with phytoplasms and spiroplasms causing the so-called corn stunting diseases. In a maize commercial field close to Santo Antonio da Posse, São Paulo state, surrounded by sugarcane fields, it was found a high incidence of plants showing mosaic, striping, stunting and cobs with decreased number of grains. Serological analysis with specific antisera detected the presence of SCMV and MRFV in these plants. SCMV infection was also confirmed by RT

  8. Deciphering the role of NADPH oxidase in complex interactions between maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes and cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-07-22

    Plant NADPH oxidases (NOXs) encompass a group of membrane-bound enzymes participating in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions as well as in response to environmental stressors. The purpose of the survey was to unveil the role of NADPH oxidase in pro-oxidative responses of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling leaves exposed to cereal aphids' infestation. The impact of apteral females of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) feeding on expression levels of all four NADPH oxidase genes (rbohA, rbohB, rbohC, rbohD) and total activity of NOX enzyme in maize plants were investigated. In addition, inhibitory effect of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) pre-treatment on NOX activity and hydrogen peroxide content in aphid-stressed maize seedlings was studied. Leaf infestation biotests were accomplished on 14-day-old seedlings representing two aphid-resistant varieties (Ambrozja and Waza) and two aphid-susceptible ones (Tasty Sweet and Złota Karłowa). Insects' attack led to profound upregulation of rbohA and rbohD genes in tested host plants, lower elevations were noted in level of rbohB mRNA, whereas abundance of rbohC transcript was not significantly altered. It was uncovered aphid-induced enhancement of NOX activity in examined plants. Higher increases in expression of all investigated rboh genes and activity of NADPH oxidase occurred in tissues of more resistant maize cultivars than in susceptible ones. Furthermore, DPI treatment resulted in strong reduction of NOX activity and H2O2 accumulation in aphid-infested Z. mays plants, thus evidencing circumstantial role of the enzyme in insect-elicited ROS generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethylene Contributes to maize insect resistance1-Mediated Maize Defense against the Phloem Sap-Sucking Corn Leaf Aphid1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Joe; Basu, Saumik; Varsani, Suresh; Castano-Duque, Lina; Jiang, Victoria; Williams, W. Paul; Felton, Gary W.; Luthe, Dawn S.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling networks among multiple phytohormones fine-tune plant defense responses to insect herbivore attack. Previously, it was reported that the synergistic combination of ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) was required for accumulation of the maize insect resistance1 (mir1) gene product, a cysteine (Cys) proteinase that is a key defensive protein against chewing insect pests in maize (Zea mays). However, this study suggests that mir1-mediated resistance to corn leaf aphid (CLA; Rhopalosiphum maidis), a phloem sap-sucking insect pest, is independent of JA but regulated by the ET-signaling pathway. Feeding by CLA triggers the rapid accumulation of mir1 transcripts in the resistant maize genotype, Mp708. Furthermore, Mp708 provided elevated levels of antibiosis (limits aphid population)- and antixenosis (deters aphid settling)-mediated resistance to CLA compared with B73 and Tx601 maize susceptible inbred lines. Synthetic diet aphid feeding trial bioassays with recombinant Mir1-Cys Protease demonstrates that Mir1-Cys Protease provides direct toxicity to CLA. Furthermore, foliar feeding by CLA rapidly sends defensive signal(s) to the roots that trigger belowground accumulation of the mir1, signifying a potential role of long-distance signaling in maize defense against the phloem-feeding insects. Collectively, our data indicate that ET-regulated mir1 transcript accumulation, uncoupled from JA, contributed to heightened resistance to CLA in maize. In addition, our results underscore the significance of ET acting as a central node in regulating mir1 expression to different feeding guilds of insect herbivores. PMID:26253737

  10. Comparative role of neem seed extract, moringa leaf extract and imidacloprid in the management of wheat aphids in relation to yield losses in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Farhan Mahmood; Razaq, Muhammad; Ali, Abid; Han, Peng; Chen, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Wheat being staple food of Pakistan is constantly attacked by major wheat aphid species, Schizaphis graminum (R.), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). Due to concern on synthetic chemical use in wheat, it is imperative to search for alternative environment- and human- friendly control measures such as botanical pesticides. In the present study, we evaluated the comparative role of neem seed extract (NSE), moringa leaf extract (MLE) and imidacloprid (I) in the management of the aphid as well as the yield losses parameters in late planted wheat fields. Imidacloprid reduced significantly aphids infestation compared to the other treatments, hence resulting in higher yield, particularly when applied with MLE. The percentages of yield increase in I+MLE treated plots over the control were 19.15-81.89% for grains per spike, 5.33-37.62% for thousand grain weight and 27.59-61.12% for yield kg/ha. NSE was the second most effective control measure in suppressing aphid population, but the yield protected by NSE treatment over the control was comparable to that by imidacloprid. Population densities of coccinellids and syrphids in the plots treated with NSE-2 were higher than those treated with imidacloprid in two out of three experiments during 2013-14. Low predator density in imidacloprid-treated plots was attributed to the lower availability of prey aphids. The efficacy of NSE against aphids varied depending on degree of synchronization among the application timing, the activity of aphids, crop variety and environmental conditions. Despite that, we suggested NSE to be a promising alternative botanical insecticide compared to the most commonly recommended imidiacloprid. Further studies should consider the side effects of biopesticides on non-target organisms in order to provide better management practices in the field.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Columbia Basin and Northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mathew L; Rondon, Silvia I; Walenta, Darrin L; Zeb, Qamar; Murphy, Alexzandra F

    2017-08-01

    Aphid species, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, are routinely considered the most important pests of potatoes. Potato aphid, green peach aphid, and more recently, other aphids such as the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. have been identified as vectors of multiple plant pathogenic viruses in potatoes. Since 2006, an area-wide trapping network consisting of ∼60 sites was developed through collaboration between researchers, extension faculty, and stakeholders, to monitor aphid populations in the Columbia Basin of Oregon (Umatilla and Morrow counties) and in northeastern Oregon (Union and Baker counties). Over a 9-yr period (2006 to 2014), aphid specimens were collected weekly using yellow bucket traps and specimens were then identified and counted to determine population levels during the growing season (May-September). Thus, aphid population data were compiled and subjected to spatial and temporal distribution analysis. Weather data, obtained from an established network of weather stations located in the monitoring areas, were used in a nonparametric multiplicative regression analysis to determine which abiotic variables may impact aphid populations. Weather conditions were characterized using confidence intervals (CIs) established based on weather data from 1999 to 2005 for each environmental variable. Aphid populations were found to have a heterogeneous distribution in most years; a few sites had high aphid populations while low numbers were observed at most sites; aphids were also found to correlate with several abiotic variables, namely, elevation, previous season temperature, and previous season dew point. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dynamic Maize Responses to Aphid Feeding Are Revealed by a Time Series of Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Assays1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzin, Vered; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Richter, Annett; Schmelz, Eric A.; Schoettner, Matthias; Schäfer, Martin; Ahern, Kevin R.; Meihls, Lisa N.; Kaur, Harleen; Huffaker, Alisa; Mori, Naoki; Degenhardt, Joerg; Mueller, Lukas A.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    As a response to insect attack, maize (Zea mays) has inducible defenses that involve large changes in gene expression and metabolism. Piercing/sucking insects such as corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) cause direct damage by acquiring phloem nutrients as well as indirect damage through the transmission of plant viruses. To elucidate the metabolic processes and gene expression changes involved in maize responses to aphid attack, leaves of inbred line B73 were infested with corn leaf aphids for 2 to 96 h. Analysis of infested maize leaves showed two distinct response phases, with the most significant transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring in the first few hours after the initiation of aphid feeding. After 4 d, both gene expression and metabolite profiles of aphid-infested maize reverted to being more similar to those of control plants. Although there was a predominant effect of salicylic acid regulation, gene expression changes also indicated prolonged induction of oxylipins, although not necessarily jasmonic acid, in aphid-infested maize. The role of specific metabolic pathways was confirmed using Dissociator transposon insertions in maize inbred line W22. Mutations in three benzoxazinoid biosynthesis genes, Bx1, Bx2, and Bx6, increased aphid reproduction. In contrast, progeny production was greatly decreased by a transposon insertion in the single W22 homolog of the previously uncharacterized B73 terpene synthases TPS2 and TPS3. Together, these results show that maize leaves shift to implementation of physical and chemical defenses within hours after the initiation of aphid feeding and that the production of specific metabolites can have major effects in maize-aphid interactions. PMID:26378100

  13. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    Full Text Available Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize, confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86. Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017 and non-Bt (DK315 untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability.

  14. Distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in the Sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands and Characterization of Two New Luteovirus Species.

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    Laurence Svanella-Dumas

    Full Text Available A systematic search for viral infection was performed in the isolated Kerguelen Islands, using a range of polyvalent genus-specific PCR assays. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV was detected in both introduced and native grasses such as Poa cookii. The geographical distribution of BYDV and its prevalence in P. cookii were analyzed using samples collected from various sites of the archipelago. We estimate the average prevalence of BYDV to be 24.9% in P. cookii, with significant variability between sites. BYDV genetic diversity was assessed using sequence information from two genomic regions: the P3 open reading frame (ORF (encoding the coat protein and the hypervariable P6 ORF region. The phylogenetic analysis in the P3 region showed that BYDV sequences segregate into three major lineages, the most frequent of which (Ker-I cluster showed close homology with BYDV-PAV-I isolates and had very low intra-lineage diversity (0.6%. A similarly low diversity was also recorded in the hypervariable P6 region, suggesting that Ker-I isolates derive from the recent introduction of BYDV-PAV-I. Divergence time estimation suggests that BYDV-PAV-I was likely introduced in the Kerguelen environment at the same time frame as its aphid vector, Rhopalosiphum padi, whose distribution shows good overlap with that of BYDV-Ker-I. The two other lineages show more than 22% amino acid divergence in the P3 region with other known species in the BYDV species complex, indicating that they represent distinct BYDV species. Using species-specific amplification primers, the distribution of these novel species was analyzed. The high prevalence of BYDV on native Poaceae and the presence of the vector R. padi, raises the question of its impact on the vulnerable plant communities of this remote ecosystem.

  15. Detrimental and neutral effects of a wild grass-fungal endophyte symbiotum on insect preference and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Stephen L; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R

    2011-01-01

    Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass-endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass-endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more than one insect species. This study quantified the preference and performance of the bird cherry oat-aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two important pests of forage and cereal grasses, on Neotyphodium-infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) plants of the wild grass Alpine timothy, Phleum alpinum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The experiments tested for both constitutive and wound-induced resistance in E+ plants to characterize possible plasticity of defense responses by a wild E+ grass. The aphid, R. padi preferred E- over E+ test plants in choice experiments and E+ undamaged test plants constitutively expressed antibiosis resistance to this aphid by suppressing population growth. Prior damage of E+ test plants did not induce higher levels of resistance to R. padi. By contrast, the beetle, O. melanopus showed no preference for E+ or E- test plants and endophyte infection did not adversely affect the survival and development of larvae. These results extend the phenomenon of variable effects of E+ wild grasses on the preference and performance of phytophagous insects. The wild grass- Neotyphodium symbiotum in this study broadens the number of wild E+ grasses available for expanded explorations into the effects of endophyte metabolites on insect herbivory.

  16. Seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.

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    Sascha M Kirchner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007-010 using yellow pan traps (YPTs placed in 4-8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days. Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change.

  17. Interactions among the Predatory Midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, the Fungal Pathogen Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales, and Maize-Infesting Aphids in Greenhouse Mesocosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gorete Campos de Azevedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The generalist entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, has proved to have great potential as a versatile biological pest control agent. The gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza is a specialist predator that occurs naturally in Europe and has been successfully used for aphid suppression. However, the interaction between these two biological control organisms and how it may affect the biological control of aphids awaits further investigation. As part of the EU-supported project INBIOSOIL, this study was conducted in greenhouse conditions to assess the possible effects of combining both biological control agents. In a randomized complete block design, sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata plants were grown in large pots filled with natural soil or natural soil inoculated with M. brunneum. At the third leaf stage, before being individually caged, plants were infested with Rhopalosiphum padi and A. aphidimyza pupae were introduced in the soil. Aphidoletes aphidimyza midge emergence, number of living midges and number of aphids were recorded daily. The presence of conidia in the soil and on leaves was assessed during the experiment. At the conclusion of the experiment, the number of live aphids and their developmental stage, consumed aphids, and A. aphidimyza eggs was assessed under stereomicroscope. This study’s findings showed that the presence of M. brunneum did not affect A. aphidimyza midge emergence. However, longevity was significantly affected. As the study progressed, significantly fewer predatory midges were found in cages treated with M. brunneum compared to untreated cages. Furthermore, by the end of the study, the number of predatory midges found in the Metarhizium-treated cages was four times lower than in the untreated cages. Both daily and final count of aphids were significantly affected by treatment. Aphidoletes aphidimyza applied alone suppressed the aphid population more effectively than M. brunneum applied alone. Additionally

  18. Plant Water Stress Affects Interactions Between an Invasive and a Naturalized Aphid Species on Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, N E; Davis, T S; Crowder, D W; Bosque-Pérez, N A; Eigenbrode, S D

    2017-06-01

    In cereal cropping systems of the Pacific Northwestern United States (PNW), climate change is projected to increase the frequency of drought during summer months, which could increase water stress for crop plants. Yet, it remains uncertain how interactions between herbivore species are affected by drought stress. Here, interactions between two cereal aphids present in PNW cereal systems, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium (a newly invasive species) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (a naturalized species), were tested relative to wheat water stress. When aphids were confined in leaf cages on wheat, asymmetrical facilitation occurred; per capita fecundity of R. padi was increased by 46% when M. festucae cerealium was also present, compared to when only R. padi was present. Imposed water stress did not influence this interaction. When aphids were confined on whole wheat plants, asymmetrical competition occurred; cocolonization inhibited M. festucae cerealium population growth but did not affect R. padi population growth. Under conditions of plant water stress, however, the inhibitory effect of R. padi on M. festucae cerealium was not observed. We conclude that beneficial effects of cocolonization on R. padi are due to a localized plant response to M. festucae cerealium feeding, and that cocolonization of plants is likely to suppress M. festucae cerealium populations under ample water conditions, but not when plants are water stressed. This suggests that plant responses to water stress alter the outcome of competition between herbivore species, with implications for the structure of pest communities on wheat during periods of drought. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  19. Evidence for additive effects of virus infection and water availability on phythormone induction in a staple crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seth Davis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with phytoviruses influences plant responses to environmental stress, but the biochemical mechanisms underlying these interactions are unknown. Infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum with a cereal virus (Barley yellow dwarf virus, BYDV has context-dependent effects on plant productivity and survival conditional to water stress, and we hypothesized this was due to phythormone induction resulting from virus infection. We tested whether BYDV infection and water availability interact to influence hormone profiles in wheat across multiple time periods. Wheat plants were inoculated with BYDV by exposing them to infectious aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi. Concentrations of five hormones (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate [MS], and salicylic acid [SA] in leaf tissues were compared to concentrations in plants exposed to noninfectious aphids (sham treatment and nondamaged control plants for five time-since-infection periods (0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 d and two levels of water availability (0.2 and 0.8 g H20/g soil. Three important findings emerged: (1 total hormone concentrations in BYDV-infected plants exceeded concentrations in sham-treated and control plants up to 16 d following infection, after which nondamaged plants exhibited the highest concentrations of hormones; compared with nondamaged and BYDV-infected plants, hormone levels were reduced in sham-treated plants; (2 inoculation treatment affected concentrations of MS and SA: SA concentrations were increased in BYDV-infected plants, but control plants exhibited higher MS concentrations than either BYDV-infected or sham-treated plants irrespective of watering treatments and across all time periods; and (3 correlation analysis revealed no evidence of hormonal cross-inhibition. This study provides the first evidence that BYDV infection elevates both total phytohormone levels and SA in wheat in a time-sensitive manner, suggesting a potential biochemical basis for virus

  20. Activity of aphids associated with lettuce and broccoli in Spain and their efficiency as vectors of Lettuce mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebreda, M; Moreno, A; Pérez, N; Palacios, I; Seco-Fernández, V; Fereres, A

    2004-03-01

    This research sought to identify the aphid virus vector species associated with lettuce and broccoli crops in Spain, and to determine their population dynamics and ability to transmit Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Green tile traps and Moericke yellow water-pan traps were used to monitor aphid flights during the spring and autumn growing seasons of 2001. Aphid species feeding on lettuce were counted weekly. The transmission efficiencies of LMV were determined for the aphid species caught most frequently. The Moericke traps generally caught more aphid species than the tile trap, but the latter was the most suitable to estimate flight activity of species involved in virus spread. Spring aphid catches indicated that the main aphid species landing on lettuce in the regions of Madrid and Murcia was Hyperomyzus lactucae, but Brachycaudus helichrysi was also abundant in both regions. In broccoli in the Navarra region, the most abundant species in spring were Aphis fabae, B. helichrysi and H. lactucae. In autumn-sown crops, the main species landing on lettuce in the Madrid region were Hyadaphis coriandri and Aphis spiraecola. In Murcia, A. spiraecola and Myzus persicae were the most abundant, while in Navarra, Therioaphis trifolii, and various Aphis spp. were the most numerous landing on broccoli. The main aphid species colonising lettuce was Nasonovia ribisnigri, but other less abundant colonising species were Aulacorthum solani and Macrosiphum euphorbiae. The most efficient vectors of LMV were M. persicae, Aphis gossypii and M. euphorbiae, while A. fabae and H. lactucae transmitted with low efficiency, and Rhopalosiphum padi and N. ribisnigri did not transmit. Occurrence of LMV epidemics in central Spain in relation to aphid flights and the role of weeds as virus reservoirs is discussed.

  1. Quality of different aphids as hosts of the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae); Qualidade de diferentes especies de pulgoes como hospedeiros do parasitoide Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson J.; Bueno, Vanda H.P. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia]. E-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus V.[Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-03-15

    Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) has a broad aphid host range; however the quality of these preys may interfere in its biological feature. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of three Macrosiphini, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and three Aphidini Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover as hosts to L. testaceipes and to determine the relation possible of host preference, of size and quality of the host. The tests were carried out in climatic chamber at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12h photophase. The parasitoid did not oviposite in B. brassicae and L. erysimi, while the other species were nutritionally suitable to the parasitoid. L. testaceipes showed preference for aphids from tribe Aphidini and these hosts presented better quality to the parasitoid when compared to Macrosiphini. Interactions among size, preference and quality between the Aphidini were found. L. testaceipes showed preference (parasitism rate 76.7%) for R. maidis, the bigger host (hind tibia with 0.281 mm). This host provided bigger size (hind tibia with 0.49 mm) and higher emergence rate (95.6%) to the parasitoid when compared to A. gossypii (parasitism rate of 55.7%). Also the smaller host A. gossypii (0.266 mm) provided smaller size hind tibia (0.45 mm) and higher mortality of the parasitoid (emergence rate 72.1%). However, the development time was shorter and the longevity was higher in A. gossypii (6.3 and 5.4 days, respectively) when compared to the host R. maidis (6.7 and 3.8 days, respectively), and not been related to host size. (author)

  2. Are distribution coefficients measured from batch experiments meaningful for quantifying retention in compacted material?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutelard, F.; Charles, Y.; Page, J. [CEA/DEN/DPC/SECR/L3MR batiment 450, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    }Ni are used to quantify the distribution coefficient. The equilibrium state is checked with activity measurement of the aqueous phase at consistent elapse time. Callovo-Oxfordian argillite is a natural compacted material, then square pieces (1 x 1 cm{sup 2}) are produced from rough material. In the simulated site water, the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite does not weather. In order to ensure that chemical equilibrium is reached before addition of radioactive tracers, a pre-equilibration period is going on for at least 2 month. All adsorption experiments are followed by desorption experiments. The distribution coefficient onto aqueous suspensions of bentonite and Callovo-Oxfordian are calculated and compared to those found for compacted materials. Main results are discussed towards literature values. [1] Miyahara, K. A., T.; Kohara,Y.; Yusa,Y.; Sasaki, N. (1991). 'Effect of bulk density on diffusion for cesium in compacted sodium bentonite'. Radiochimica acta 52/53: 293-297. [2] Sato, H. A., T.; kohara, Y.; Yui, M.; Sasaki, N. (1992). 'Effect of dry density of some radionuclides in compacted sodium bentonite'. Journal of Nuclear Science and technology 29(9): 873-882. [3] Ly, J. L. V., J-C.; Meier, P. (1998). Retention dans une barriere argileuse en milieu granitique: Effet de la consolidation et de la composition de l'eau. Paris, CEA: 32. (authors)

  3. Are distribution coefficients measured from batch experiments meaningful for quantifying retention in compacted material?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutelard, F.; Charles, Y.; Page, J.

    2005-01-01

    distribution coefficient. The equilibrium state is checked with activity measurement of the aqueous phase at consistent elapse time. Callovo-Oxfordian argillite is a natural compacted material, then square pieces (1 x 1 cm 2 ) are produced from rough material. In the simulated site water, the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite does not weather. In order to ensure that chemical equilibrium is reached before addition of radioactive tracers, a pre-equilibration period is going on for at least 2 month. All adsorption experiments are followed by desorption experiments. The distribution coefficient onto aqueous suspensions of bentonite and Callovo-Oxfordian are calculated and compared to those found for compacted materials. Main results are discussed towards literature values. [1] Miyahara, K. A., T.; Kohara,Y.; Yusa,Y.; Sasaki, N. (1991). 'Effect of bulk density on diffusion for cesium in compacted sodium bentonite'. Radiochimica acta 52/53: 293-297. [2] Sato, H. A., T.; kohara, Y.; Yui, M.; Sasaki, N. (1992). 'Effect of dry density of some radionuclides in compacted sodium bentonite'. Journal of Nuclear Science and technology 29(9): 873-882. [3] Ly, J. L. V., J-C.; Meier, P. (1998). Retention dans une barriere argileuse en milieu granitique: Effet de la consolidation et de la composition de l'eau. Paris, CEA: 32. (authors)

  4. Radiotherapy of degenerative joint disorders. Indication, technique and clinical results; Radiotherapie bei schmerzhaften degenerativ-entzuendlichen Gelenkerkrankungen. Indikation, Technik und klinische Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keilholz, L.; Sauer, R. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Strahlentherapeutische Klinik und Poliklinik; Seegenschmiedt, M.H. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Strahlentherapeutische Klinik und Poliklinik]|[Alfred-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    1998-05-01

    From 1984 to 1994, 85 patients with painful osteoarthritis were treated. The mean follow-up was 4 (1 to 10) years. Seventy-three patients (103 joints) were available for long-term analysis: 17 patients (27 joints) with omarthrosis, 19 (20 joints) with rhizarthrosis, 31 (49 joints) with osteoarthritis of the knee and 6 patients (7 joints) with osteoarthritis of the hip. All patients were intensively pretreated over long time. Mean symptom duration prior to radiotherapy was 4 (1 to 10) years. Orthovoltage or linac photons were applied using some technical modifications depending upon the joint. Two radiotherapy series (6 x 1 Gy, total dose: 12 Gy, 3 weekly fractions) were prescribed. The interval between the 2 series was 6 weeks. The subjective pain profil was assessed prior to and 6 months after radiotherapy and at last follow-up. Forty-six (63%) patients (64 joints) achieved a reduction of pain symptoms; 16 of those had a `major pain relief` and 14 `complete pain relief`. Large joints - knee and hip - responded better (64% each) than the rhizarthrosis (53%). All pain categories and grades and their combined pain score were significantly reduced. The pain reduction was mostly pronounced for the symptom `pain at rest`. The orthopedic score correlated well with the subjective response of the patients. The thumb score improved in 11 (57%) joints, the shoulder score of Constant and Murley in 16 (59%), the Japonese knee score of Sasaki et al. in 33 (67%), the hip score of Harris in 5 (71%) joints. Only 9 of 19 patients which were treated to avoid surgery, had to be operated, and 3 of those received a total arthroplasty of the hip or knee. In multivariate analysis for the endpoint `complete` or `major pain relief` only the criterion `symptom duration {>=}2 years prior to radiotherapy` was an independent negative prognostic parameter. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Von 1984 bis 1994 wurden 85 Patienten wegen schmerzhaft arthrotischer Gelenkerkrankungen bestrahlt. 73 Patienten (103

  5. Finding peace from Hiroshima. One oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoufalos, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The article informs about one oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation. In a small town just outside Osaka, Japan, Ritsuko Komaki was born, quite literally, into the atomic age. She was just an infant in 1945 when the first atomic bomb ever detonated on a human population devastated her family's ancestral home of Hiroshima. One of her friends, Sasaki was diagnosed with leukemia, and was later hospitalized with bone marrow suppression. Her grandmother had been exposed to the same chemical radiation that Sasaki had, yet never contracted leukemia despite presenting with all the other side effects of exposure. Komaki wa wondering why her grandmother never had any leukemia, but Sadako did? She never had any cancer, but she had all the symptoms of exposure, e.g. hair loss, diarrhea and bone marrow problems. During medical school, Komaki volunteered her summers at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, the institute the United States built in Japan to examine the victims of atomic exposure. Anyone diagnosed as anemic underwent a bone marrow exam, and Komaki learned a great deal about chromosomal abnormalities by performing blood tests alongside visiting researchers from Yale University and other American hospitals. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had fostered a national paranoia about radiation and radioactivity. In Japan, they hate radiation, and for so many years, they did not want to hear about radiation therapy. Patients had an illogical fear of it that delayed offering it as treatment there. In Japan, the majority of cancer treatment culminated in surgery. Radiation oncology was not a recognized specialization; oncologists were grouped in with diagnostic radiation techs. Yet today, Ritsuko Komaki, MD, is the chief operating officer of one of the most sophisticated radiation oncology treatment facilities in the United States: the 120 million US Dollar M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. And ironically, the technical equipment that forms

  6. Reading speed, comprehension and eye movements while reading Japanese novels: evidence from untrained readers and cases of speed-reading trainees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Miyata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that meditative training enhances perception and cognition. In Japan, the Park-Sasaki method of speed-reading involves organized visual training while forming both a relaxed and concentrated state of mind, as in meditation. The present study examined relationships between reading speed, sentence comprehension, and eye movements while reading short Japanese novels. In addition to normal untrained readers, three middle-level trainees and one high-level expert on this method were included for the two case studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Study 1, three of 17 participants were middle-level trainees on the speed-reading method. Immediately after reading each story once on a computer monitor, participants answered true or false questions regarding the content of the novel. Eye movements while reading were recorded using an eye-tracking system. Results revealed higher reading speed and lower comprehension scores in the trainees than in the untrained participants. Furthermore, eye-tracking data by untrained participants revealed multiple correlations between reading speed, accuracy and eye-movement measures, with faster readers showing shorter fixation durations and larger saccades in X than slower readers. In Study 2, participants included a high-level expert and 14 untrained students. The expert showed higher reading speed and statistically comparable, although numerically lower, comprehension scores compared with the untrained participants. During test sessions this expert moved her eyes along a nearly straight horizontal line as a first pass, without moving her eyes over the whole sentence display as did the untrained students. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to revealing correlations between speed, comprehension and eye movements in reading Japanese contemporary novels by untrained readers, we describe cases of speed-reading trainees regarding relationships between these variables

  7. Logarithmic divergences in the k-inflationary power spectra computed through the uniform approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinea, Allan L.; Kubota, Takahiro; Naylor, Wade, E-mail: alinea@het.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kubota@celas.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: naylor@phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We investigate a calculation method for solving the Mukhanov-Sasaki equation in slow-roll k-inflation based on the uniform approximation (UA) in conjunction with an expansion scheme for slow-roll parameters with respect to the number of e-folds about the so-called turning point. Earlier works on this method have so far gained some promising results derived from the approximating expressions for the power spectra among others, up to second order with respect to the Hubble and sound flow parameters, when compared to other semi-analytical approaches (e.g., Green's function and WKB methods). However, a closer inspection is suggestive that there is a problem when higher-order parts of the power spectra are considered; residual logarithmic divergences may come out that can render the prediction physically inconsistent. Looking at this possibility, we map out up to what order with respect to the mentioned parameters several physical quantities can be calculated before hitting a logarithmically divergent result. It turns out that the power spectra are limited up to second order, the tensor-to-scalar ratio up to third order, and the spectral indices and running converge to all orders. This indicates that the expansion scheme is incompatible with the working equations derived from UA for the power spectra but compatible with that of the spectral indices. For those quantities that involve logarithmically divergent terms in the higher-order parts, existing results in the literature for the convergent lower-order parts calculated in the equivalent fashion should be viewed with some caution; they do not rest on solid mathematical ground.

  8. A Fine Physical Map of the Rice Chromosome 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Zhukuan; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Shengyue; Feng, Qi; Huang, Yucheng; Li, Ying; Tang, Yesheng; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Zhehua; Yu, Shuliang; Zhu, Jingjie; Hu, Xin; Mu, Jie; Ying, Kai; Hao, Pei; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yiqi; Zhang, Lei S.; Liu, Yilei; Yu, Zhen; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Chen, Ling; Lu, Tingting; Liu, Xiaohui; Jia, Peixin; Sun, Tongguo; Wu, Yongrui; Zhang, Yujun; Lu, Ying; Li, Can; Wang, Rong; Lei, Haiyan; Li, Tao; Hu, Hao; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Runquan; Guan, Jianping; Zhu, Jia; Fu, Gang; Gu, Minghong; Hong, Guofan; Xue, Yongbiao; Wing, Rod; Jiang, Jiming; Han, Bin

    2002-01-01

    As part of an international effort to completely sequence the rice genome, we have produced a fine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map of the Oryza sativa japonica Nipponbare chromosome 4 through an integration of 114 sequenced BAC clones from a taxonomically related subspecies O. sativa indica Guangluai 4 and 182 RFLP and 407 expressed sequence tag (EST) markers with the fingerprinted data of the Nipponbare genome. The map consists of 11 contigs with a total length of 34.5 Mb covering 94% of the estimated chromosome size (36.8 Mb). BAC clones corresponding to telomeres, as well as to the centromere position, were determined by BAC-pachytene chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This gave rise to an estimated length ratio of 5.13 for the long arm and 2.9 for the short arm (on the basis of the physical map), which indicates that the short arm is a highly condensed one. The FISH analysis and physical mapping also showed that the short arm and the pericentromeric region of the long arm are rich in heterochromatin, which occupied 45% of the chromosome, indicating that this chromosome is likely very difficult to sequence. To our knowledge, this map provides the first example of a rapid and reliable physical mapping on the basis of the integration of the data from two taxonomically related subspecies. [The following individuals and institutions kindly provided reagents, samples, or unpublished information as indicated in the paper: S. McCouch, T. Sasaki, and Monsanto.] PMID:11997348

  9. Rover exploration on the lunar surface; a science proposal for SELENE-B mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Akiyama, H.; Hirata, N.; Kunii, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Okada, T.; Otake, M.; Saiki, K.; Sugihara, T.

    LUNARSURFACE:ASCIENCES. Sasaki (1), T. Kubota (2) , H. Akiyama (1) , N. Hirata (3), Y. Kunii (4), K. Matsumoto (5), T. Okada (2), M. Otake (3), K. Saiki (6), T. Sugihara (3) (1) Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Univ. Tokyo, (2) Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, (3) National Space Development Agency of Japan, (4) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chuo Univ., (5) National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, (6) Research Institute of Materials and Resources, Akita Univ. sho@eps.s.u -tokyo.ac.jp/Fax:+81-3-5841-4569 A new lunar landing mission (SELENE-B) is now in consideration in Japan. Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed. To clarify the origin and evolution of the moon, the early crustal formation and later mare volcanic processes are still unveiled. We proposed two geological investigation plans: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of dome-cone structures on young mare region. We propose multi-band macro/micro camera using AOTF, X-ray spectrometer/diffractometer and gamma ray spectrometer. Since observation of rock fragments in brecciaed rocks is necessary, the rover should have cutting or scraping mechanism of rocks. In our current scenario, landing should be performed about 500m from the main target (foot of a crater central peak or a cone/dome). After the spectral survey by multi-band camera on the lander, the rover should be deployed for geological investigation. The rover should make a short (a few tens meter) round trip at first, then it should perform traverse observation toward the main target. Some technological investigations on SELENE-B project will be also presented.

  10. Putting women's health in the picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) Workshop for the Production of Video Script on Women's Health was organized by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and JOICFP and held in Japan from November 29, through December 4, 1993. It produced 4 different prototypes for use in Asia that reflected the range of women's health issues and cultural differences involved. Representatives of family planning (FP) associations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), IEC experts, and health officials from both government and NGOs attended. Dr. Shizuko Sasaki spoke about various legal issues of women's health in Japan, while Colleen Cording spoke concerning the impact of social and policy changes on women's lives and health in New Zealand. Participants were then divided into 4 groups for discussion of target populations and their needs. 4 sets of illustrations were designed to stimulate discussion by instructors and were presented with 10-15 min scripts. The 4 videos included Christie and Me, Proud to Be a Girl, One Day at the Beach, and Happy to Be Me. The 1st film features a uterus as narrator who explains menstruation, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and contraception; the 2nd focuses on positive self images for girls; the 3rd, on a range of sexual topics discussed during a couple's seaside stroll; and the 4th, on a woman's love of self and cycle of life from puberty to old age. Participants are expected to produce similar material with adaptations to their specific countries from these prototypes. Participants also discussed their experiences in women's health education and methods of distributing and marketing educational materials.

  11. Radiotherapy of degenerative joint disorders. Indication, technique and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keilholz, L.; Sauer, R.; Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Alfred-Krupp-Krankenhaus, Essen

    1998-01-01

    From 1984 to 1994, 85 patients with painful osteoarthritis were treated. The mean follow-up was 4 (1 to 10) years. Seventy-three patients (103 joints) were available for long-term analysis: 17 patients (27 joints) with omarthrosis, 19 (20 joints) with rhizarthrosis, 31 (49 joints) with osteoarthritis of the knee and 6 patients (7 joints) with osteoarthritis of the hip. All patients were intensively pretreated over long time. Mean symptom duration prior to radiotherapy was 4 (1 to 10) years. Orthovoltage or linac photons were applied using some technical modifications depending upon the joint. Two radiotherapy series (6 x 1 Gy, total dose: 12 Gy, 3 weekly fractions) were prescribed. The interval between the 2 series was 6 weeks. The subjective pain profil was assessed prior to and 6 months after radiotherapy and at last follow-up. Forty-six (63%) patients (64 joints) achieved a reduction of pain symptoms; 16 of those had a 'major pain relief' and 14 'complete pain relief'. Large joints - knee and hip - responded better (64% each) than the rhizarthrosis (53%). All pain categories and grades and their combined pain score were significantly reduced. The pain reduction was mostly pronounced for the symptom 'pain at rest'. The orthopedic score correlated well with the subjective response of the patients. The thumb score improved in 11 (57%) joints, the shoulder score of Constant and Murley in 16 (59%), the Japonese knee score of Sasaki et al. in 33 (67%), the hip score of Harris in 5 (71%) joints. Only 9 of 19 patients which were treated to avoid surgery, had to be operated, and 3 of those received a total arthroplasty of the hip or knee. In multivariate analysis for the endpoint 'complete' or 'major pain relief' only the criterion 'symptom duration ≥2 years prior to radiotherapy' was an independent negative prognostic parameter. (orig./MG) [de

  12. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  13. Tipepidine in adolescent patients with depression: a 4 week, open-label, preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsuyoshi Sasaki,1,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masumi Tachibana,1 Tsutomu Kurata,1 Hiroshi Kimura,2 Hideki Komatsu,2 Masatomo Ishikawa,2 Tadashi Hasegawa,2 Akihiro Shiina,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,2 Nobuhisa Kanahara,4 Tetsuya Shiraishi,2 Masaomi Iyo1–41Department of Child Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 4Division of Medical Treatment and Rehabilitation, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Inohana, Chiba, JapanDepression in children and adolescents is a common, recurrent, and debilitating condition associated with increased psychosocial, and medical morbidity and mortality.1The global prevalence of depression in children and adolescents is 1%–2% and 3%–8%, respectively.2 Depressive symptoms are also associated with significant functional impairment in school and the work place (often requiring legal interventions,1–5 and an increased risk for substance abuse and suicide.6–9 Clinical guidelines suggest the use of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, namely fluoxetine and escitalopram, both of which are effective with generally acceptable safety profiles in the treatment of adolescent depression.10 Additionally, combination treatment with an SSRI and psychotherapy, typically cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, has shown benefit in this cohort.10 However, caution is warranted since antidepressants therapy in children and adolescents is associated with increased rates of suicidal ideation11–13 and adverse effects, characterized by excessive emotional arousal or behavioral activation.14 These results highlight the need for new therapies in adolescent patients with depression, particularly therapies with fewer side effects.View original paper by Brent and Maalouf.

  14. The Association of Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals with Glucocorticoid and Androgenic Hormones in Cord Blood Samples: The Hokkaido Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Houman; Araki, Atsuko; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Mitsui, Takahiko; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Katsuya; Kishi, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) disrupt cholesterol homeostasis. All steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol, and steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids and androgenic hormones mediate several vital physiologic functions. However, the in utero effects of PFCs exposure on the homeostasis of these steroid hormones are not well understood in humans. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and cord blood levels of glucocorticoid and androgenic hormones. We conducted a hospital-based birth cohort study between July 2002 and October 2005 in Sapporo, Japan (n = 514). In total, 185 mother-infant pairs were included in the present study. Prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels in maternal serum samples were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Cord blood levels of glucocorticoid (cortisol and cortisone) and androgenic hormones [dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione] were also measured in the same way. We found a dose-response relationship of prenatal PFOS, but not PFOA, exposure with glucocorticoid levels after adjusting for potential confounders. Cortisol and cortisone concentrations were -23.98-ng/mL (95% CI: -0.47.12, -11.99; p for trend = 0.006) and -63.21-ng/mL (95% CI: -132.56, -26.72; p for trend blood. Citation: Goudarzi H, Araki A, Itoh S, Sasaki S, Miyashita C, Mitsui T, Nakazawa H, Nonomura K, Kishi R. 2017. The association of prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals with glucocorticoid and androgenic hormones in cord blood samples: the Hokkaido Study. Environ Health Perspect 125:111-118; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP142.

  15. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Klimaszewski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszew­ski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey, Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin, Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say, Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605, Candida mesenterica (Geiger Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362, Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763, Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073, Candida sp. (accession number AY498864, Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246, Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345, Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581, Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630, Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501, Acremonium psammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287, Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946, Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750, and Aspergillus amstelodami (L. Mangin Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (KirchnerJordan (accession number BA000040 and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in

  16. Gravitational field equations on and off a 3-brane world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A N; Guemruekcueoglu, A E

    2004-01-01

    The effective gravitational field equations on and off a 3-brane world possessing a Z 2 mirror symmetry and embedded in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime with cosmological constant were derived by Shiromizu, Maeda and Sasaki (SMS) in the framework of the Gauss-Codazzi projective approach with the subsequent specialization to the Gaussian normal coordinates in the neighbourhood of the brane. However, the Gaussian normal coordinates imply a very special slicing of spacetime and clearly, the consistent analysis of the brane dynamics would benefit from complete freedom in the slicing of spacetime, pushing the layer surfaces in the fifth dimension at any rates of evolution and in arbitrary positions. We rederive the SMS effective gravitational field equations on a 3-brane and generalize the off-brane equations to the case where there is an arbitrary energy-momentum tensor in the bulk. We use a more general setting to allow for acceleration of the normals to the brane surface through the lapse function and the shift vector in the spirit of Arnowitt, Deser and Misner. We show that the gravitational influence of the bulk spacetime on the brane may be described by a traceless second-rank tensor W ij , constructed from the 'electric' part of the bulk Riemann tensor. We also present the evolution equations for the tensor W ij , as well as for the corresponding 'magnetic' part of the bulk curvature. These equations involve terms determined by both the nonvanishing acceleration of normals in the nongeodesic slicing of spacetime and the presence of other fields in the bulk

  17. Availability of a remote online hemodynamic monitoring system during treatment in a private dental office for medically high-risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamazaki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Shinya Yamazaki, Hiroyoshi Kawaai, Shigeo Sasaki, Kazuhiro Shimamura, Hiroshi Segawa, Takahiro SaitoSpecial Care Department in Dentistry, Ohu University Dental Hospital, Koriyama city, Fukushima prefecture, JapanAbstract: The importance of systemic management to prevent accidents is increasing in dentistry because co-morbid illnesses in an aging society and invasive surgical procedures are increasing. In this prefecture, a new medical system called the remote online hemodynamic monitoring system (ROHMs was started in 2001. Eight private dental offices participated in this trial. When dental practitioners feel the risk of a dental procedure, they can contact via ROHMs to this hospital. Then, the hemodynamic data (blood pressure, heart rate, ECG, SpO2, and RPP of the patient in the clinic can be transmitted here via the internet, and the images and the voice can be transmitted as well. The availability of this system was assessed in 66 patients (98 cases. The most frequent complications were hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Systemic management included monitoring during the dental procedure (71.4%, checking vital signs after an interview (15.3%, and monitoring under sedation (13.3%. There were 35.7% of all cases where an unscheduled procedure was necessary for the systemic management. Based on a questionnaire, the majority of the patients felt relieved and safe. This system creates a situation where a specialist is almost present during the procedure. This system will provide significant assistance for future medical cooperation for risk management.Keywords: online, high-risk patient, dental treatment, medical cooperation, medical accident, risk management

  18. Recoil velocity at second post-Newtonian order for spinning black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, Etienne; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kidder, Larry

    2009-01-01

    We compute the flux of linear momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes at second post-Newtonian (2PN) order for generic orbits. In particular we provide explicit expressions of three new types of terms, namely, next-to-leading order spin-orbit terms at 1.5 post-Newtonian (1.5PN) order, spin-orbit tail terms at 2PN order, and spin-spin terms at 2PN order. Restricting ourselves to quasicircular orbits, we integrate the linear-momentum flux over time to obtain the recoil velocity as function of orbital frequency. We find that in the so-called superkick configuration the higher-order spin corrections can increase the recoil velocity up to a factor ∼3 with respect to the leading-order PN prediction. Whereas the recoil velocity computed in PN theory within the adiabatic approximation can accurately describe the early inspiral phase, we find that its fast increase during the late inspiral and plunge, and the arbitrariness in determining until when it should be trusted, makes the PN predictions for the total recoil not very accurate and robust. Nevertheless, the linear-momentum flux at higher PN orders can be employed to build more reliable resummed expressions aimed at capturing the nonperturbative effects until merger. Furthermore, we provide expressions valid for generic orbits, and accurate at 2PN order, for the energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes. Specializing to quasicircular orbits we compute the spin-spin terms at 2PN order in the expression for the evolution of the orbital frequency and found agreement with Mikoczi, Vasuth, and Gergely. We also verified that in the limit of extreme mass ratio our expressions for the energy and angular momentum fluxes match the ones of Tagoshi, Shibata, Tanaka, and Sasaki obtained in the context of black hole perturbation theory.

  19. Study of the mass of the electron neutrino in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, Shinjiro; Maezawa, Hideki

    1996-02-01

    This report describes a study of the mass of the electron neutrino using electron capture in 163 Ho in Japan for the period from 1981 to 1994. This monograph has two purposes, one is to supplement the papers on the mass of the electron neutrino already published by us and another is to make a record on some details of our experiments for future. Electron capture in a nucleus takes place in a rather small space inside an atom, where atomic physics, nuclear physics and particle physics work closely together. Therefore, this study needed an intimate collaboration of atomic physicists, nuclear physicists and particle physicists. In addition, it was necessary for this study to use various fine techniques, including metallurgy, production of 163 Ho activity, micro-analysis by wet chemistry, isotope-dilution mass spectrometry, undulator radiation source technology, the soft X-ray monochromator technology, a counting technique for very intense soft X-rays and so on. As a result, our collaboration consisted of many researchers from various fields as follows; M. Ando, H. Arai, M. Fujioka, N. Hashimoto, H. Ikeda, Y. Inagaki, K. Ishii, K. Itoh, G. Izawa, O. Kawakami, S. Kishimoto, H. Kitamura, H. Maezawa, M. Maruyama, A. Masuda, K. Masumoto, A. Mikuni, T. Mizogawa, T. Mukoyama, F. Ochiai, T. Ohta, T. Omori, G. Rajasekaran, K. Sera, K. Shima, T. Shinozuka, P.M. Stefan, I. Sugai, H. Taketani, M. Yagi, and S. Yasumi. Without such an excellent collaboration, this study would not have been completed. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Professor T. Sasaki for supporting this study and recommending the undulator beam line of 2.5 GeV Photon Factory Storage Ring as a light source to be used in the experiment. We also would like to thank Dr. A. Yagishita and Dr. Y. Kitajima who are responsible for the BL-2 beamline. Finally we are grateful to Ms. M. Noji for her patient typewriting of manuscripts written by hand. (author)

  20. Nonanalytic Laboratory Automation: A Quarter Century of Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Charles D

    2017-06-01

    Clinical laboratory automation has blossomed since the 1989 AACC meeting, at which Dr. Masahide Sasaki first showed a western audience what his laboratory had implemented. Many diagnostics and other vendors are now offering a variety of automated options for laboratories of all sizes. Replacing manual processing and handling procedures with automation was embraced by the laboratory community because of the obvious benefits of labor savings and improvement in turnaround time and quality. Automation was also embraced by the diagnostics vendors who saw automation as a means of incorporating the analyzers purchased by their customers into larger systems in which the benefits of automation were integrated to the analyzers.This report reviews the options that are available to laboratory customers. These options include so called task-targeted automation-modules that range from single function devices that automate single tasks (e.g., decapping or aliquoting) to multifunction workstations that incorporate several of the functions of a laboratory sample processing department. The options also include total laboratory automation systems that use conveyors to link sample processing functions to analyzers and often include postanalytical features such as refrigerated storage and sample retrieval.Most importantly, this report reviews a recommended process for evaluating the need for new automation and for identifying the specific requirements of a laboratory and developing solutions that can meet those requirements. The report also discusses some of the practical considerations facing a laboratory in a new implementation and reviews the concept of machine vision to replace human inspections. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  1. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Scorsetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T. cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T. cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC, on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween ® 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC. The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10 7 conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24°C, the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween® 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4

  2. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae associated with different aphid hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya M. Villegas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation. The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. Methods We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS, revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. Results The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat biotype. There was no significant effect of plant

  3. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation

  4. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93-100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  5. Perfil químico y biológico de aceites esenciales de plantas aromáticas de interés agro-industrial en Castilla-La Mancha (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana, O.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L. are presented. The essential oils have been analysed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and 61 compounds were identified, 23 of which represented more than 1% of the essential oil. The 1,8 cineole (16-23% appeared as the main compound of Salvia sp. essential oils. The high content of α-thujone was characteristic in S. officinalis oil. Remarkable concentrations of linalool (30-33%, camphor (5-17% and linalyl acetate (9-28% were detected in Lavandula sp. oils while carvacrol (21.6% and p-cimene (23.7% were the most abundant compounds in T. vulgaris oil. Biological characterization was based on their bioplaguicide activity. The essential oils studied had strong antifeedant effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd., Myzus persicae Sulzer and Rhopalosiphum padi L., phytotoxic activity against Lactuca sativa L. and Lolium perenne L. and also exhibited high antifungal activity against Fusarium sp. Oils from T. vulgaris and L. latifolia showed the highest levels of bioactivity against all target species. These results provide an added-value to the essential oils of aromatic plants of agro-industrial interest for its potential use in the development of natural agrochemicals.

    En este trabajo se presenta el estudio químico y biológico de los aceites esenciales de Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. y Thymus vulgaris L. El estudio químico por cromatografía de gases acoplada a

  6. Safety comparison of additives in antiglaucoma prostaglandin (PG analog ophthalmic formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Masamichi Fukuda, Shinsuke Shibata, Naoko Shibata, Kenta Hagihara, Hiromoto Yaguchi, Hiromi Osada, Nobuo Takahashi, Eri Kubo, Hiroshi SasakiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, JapanPurpose: To investigate the safety of five types of antiglaucoma prostaglandin analog ophthalmic formulations, and to clarify their differences in accordance with contained additives (preservatives and surface-active agents.Methods: The following five types of ophthalmic solutions and three types of additives were investigated: latanoprost (Xalatan®; latanoprost, tafluprost (Tapros®; tafluprost, bimatoprost (Lumigan®; bimatoprost, travoprost (Travatan®; travoprost, travoprost (Travatan Z®; travoprost-Z, benzalkonium chloride (BAK, polyoxyethylene hardening castor oil 40 (HCO-40, and polysorbate 80 (P-80. These experimental solutions were exposed to the cultured cells of a rabbit-derived corneal cell line for a certain time, and the exposure time causing 50% cell damage (CD50, indicated by the ratio of viable cells to total cells was calculated (in vitro. In addition, corneal resistance (CR was measured and CR ratio (post-treatment CR/pretreatment CR × 100 was calculated (in vivo.Results: CD50 of each ophthalmic solution was the longest with tafluprost, followed by travoprost-Z, bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost. CD50 of 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.02% BAK was 14.5 minutes, 8.1 minutes, and 4.0 minutes, respectively. The number of viable cells decreased to 60%, 8 minutes after exposure with HCO-40, and 30 minutes after being exposed to P-80. The CR ratio was 81.0% with travoprost and 82.0% with latanoprost, indicating a significant posttreatment reduction of CR (P < 0.05. The CR ratio did not decrease after treatment with tafluprost, travoprost-Z, or bimatoprost. The CR ratio of 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.02% BAK was 105.0%, 90.5%, and 68.7%, respectively, and that of HCO-40 and P-80 was 108.7% and 114.2%, respectively.Conclusion: BAK

  7. Mechanism-based fluorescent labeling of beta-galactosidases. An efficient method in proteomics for glycoside hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurogochi, Masaki; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Lee, Yuan Chuan

    2004-10-22

    (4-N-5-Dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl-2-difluoromethylphenyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside was synthesized and successfully tested on beta-galactosidases from Xanthomonas manihotis (Wong-Madden, S. T., and Landry, D. Glycobiology (1995) 5, 19-28 and Taron, C. H., Benner, J. S., Hornstra, L. J., and Guthrie, E. P. (1995) Glycobiology 5, 603-610), Escherichia coli (Jacobson, R. H., Zhang, X. J., DuBose, R. F., and Matthews, B. W. (1994) Nature 369, 761-766), and Bacillus circulans (Fujimoto, H., Miyasato, M., Ito, Y., Sasaki, T., and Ajisaka, K. (1988) Glycoconj. J. 15, 155-160) for the rapid identification of the catalytic site. Reaction of the irreversible inhibitor with enzymes proceeded to afford a fluorescence-labeled protein suitable for further high throughput characterization by using antidansyl antibody and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF). Specific probing by a fluorescent aglycon greatly facilitated identification of the labeled peptide fragments from beta-galactosidases. It was demonstrated by using X. manihotis beta-galactosidase that the Arg-58 residue, which is located within a sequence of 56IPRAYWKD63, was labeled by nucleophilic attack of the guanidinyl group. This sequence including Arg-58 (Leu-46 to Tyr-194) was similar to that (Met-1 to Tyr-151) of Thermus thermophilus A4, which is the first known structure of glycoside hydrolases family 42 (Hidaka, M., Fushinobu, S., Ohtsu, N., Motoshima, H., Matsuzawa, H., Shoun, H., and Wakagi, T. (2002) J. Mol. Biol. 322, 79-91). A catalytic glutamic acid (Glu-537) of E. coli beta-galactosidase was proved to be labeled by the same procedure, suggesting that the modification site with this irreversible substrate might depend both on the nucleophilicity of the amino acids and their spatial arrangement in the individual catalytic cavity. Similarly, a Glu-259 in 257TLEE260 was selectively labeled using B. circulans beta-galactosidase, indicating that Glu

  8. Neuromelanin imaging in Parkinson's disease. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Hisashi; Ida, Masahiro; Nagao, Takehiko; Yokochi, Masayuki; Ishiduka, Michiko; Motoyoshi, Kenichi; Saitou, Kenji; Akita, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    The most striking pathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the loss of pigmented neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the locus coeruleus (LC), pigmentation that is attributable to neuromelanin (NM). NM has a paramagnetic T 1 -shortening effect when bound to iron. Sasaki and associates have reported that high resolution, fast spin-echo T 1 -weighted images obtained at 3-tesla can depict neuromelanin-generated signal in the SNpc and the LC because of the higher signal-to-noise ratio and prolongation of T 1 relaxation time than those at 1.5-tesla. We attempted to evaluate changes in NM in patients with PD using NM-sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (NMI). We conducted a series of MR examinations using a 3-tesla MR system. For NMI, we employed a 2D fast spin-echo, T 1 -weighted sequence with repetition time (TR) of 600 ms, echo time (TE) of 10 ms, voxel size of 0.6 x 0.4 x 2.5 mm. Trained neurologists examined 60 patients clinically diagnosed with PD (38 women, 22 men; age range 32 to 80 years, mean age 72.8 years). The visual score of NMI was determined by adding the SN and LC scores, and signal intensity of both medial and lateral portions of the SNpc was measured using square cursors. Compared with findings in normal volunteers, 50 of 60 patients with PD (83.3%) demonstrated decreased T 1 -shortening in the SNpc, and signal reduction on NMI tended to occur in the ventrolateral portion of the SNpc. Signal intensity of the lateral and medial segments of the SNpc on NMI are statistically significantly different between controls and patients with PD. However, the signal ratios between patients with PD and controls and HY1-5 overlap substantially. There is a subtle correlation between the depletion of NM signal and reduction of uptake of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in the sympathetic system of the myocardium, but they are not significantly different. There is a moderate correlation between the degree of depletion of NM and Hoehn

  9. Study of the mass of the electron neutrino in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, Shinjiro; Maezawa, Hideki [eds.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes a study of the mass of the electron neutrino using electron capture in {sup 163}Ho in Japan for the period from 1981 to 1994. This monograph has two purposes, one is to supplement the papers on the mass of the electron neutrino already published by us and another is to make a record on some details of our experiments for future. Electron capture in a nucleus takes place in a rather small space inside an atom, where atomic physics, nuclear physics and particle physics work closely together. Therefore, this study needed an intimate collaboration of atomic physicists, nuclear physicists and particle physicists. In addition, it was necessary for this study to use various fine techniques, including metallurgy, production of {sup 163}Ho activity, micro-analysis by wet chemistry, isotope-dilution mass spectrometry, undulator radiation source technology, the soft X-ray monochromator technology, a counting technique for very intense soft X-rays and so on. As a result, our collaboration consisted of many researchers from various fields as follows; M. Ando, H. Arai, M. Fujioka, N. Hashimoto, H. Ikeda, Y. Inagaki, K. Ishii, K. Itoh, G. Izawa, O. Kawakami, S. Kishimoto, H. Kitamura, H. Maezawa, M. Maruyama, A. Masuda, K. Masumoto, A. Mikuni, T. Mizogawa, T. Mukoyama, F. Ochiai, T. Ohta, T. Omori, G. Rajasekaran, K. Sera, K. Shima, T. Shinozuka, P.M. Stefan, I. Sugai, H. Taketani, M. Yagi, and S. Yasumi. Without such an excellent collaboration, this study would not have been completed. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Professor T. Sasaki for supporting this study and recommending the undulator beam line of 2.5 GeV Photon Factory Storage Ring as a light source to be used in the experiment. We also would like to thank Dr. A. Yagishita and Dr. Y. Kitajima who are responsible for the BL-2 beamline. Finally we are grateful to Ms. M. Noji for her patient typewriting of manuscripts written by hand. (author).

  10. Assessment of direct analgesic effect of duloxetine for chronic low back pain: post hoc path analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enomoto H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Enomoto,1 Shinji Fujikoshi,2 Jumpei Funai,3 Nao Sasaki,4 Michael H Ossipov,5 Toshinaga Tsuji,6 Levent Alev,7 Takahiro Ushida8 1Medical Science, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Tokyo, 2Statistical Science, 3Science Communications, 4Medical Science, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 5Clinical Division, inVentiv Health, LLC, Blue Bell, PA, USA; 6Medical Affairs Department, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 7Medical Department, Lilly Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey; 8Multidisciplinary Pain Center, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan Background: Comorbid depression and depressive symptoms are common in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP. Duloxetine is clinically effective in major depressive disorder and several chronic pain states, including CLBP. The objective of this post hoc meta-analysis was to assess direct and indirect analgesic efficacy of duloxetine for patients with CLBP in previous clinical trials. Methods: Post hoc path analyses were conducted of 3 randomized, double-blind, clinical studies of patients receiving duloxetine or placebo for CLBP. The primary outcome measure for pain was the Brief Pain Inventory, average pain score. A secondary outcome measure, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, was used for depressive symptoms. The changes in score from baseline to endpoint were determined for each index. Path analyses were employed to calculate the proportion of analgesia that may be attributed to a direct effect of duloxetine on pain.Results: A total of 851 patients (400 duloxetine and 451 placebo were included in this analysis. Duloxetine significantly improved pain scores compared with placebo (p<0.001. It also significantly improved depressive scores compared with placebo (p=0.015. Path analyses showed that 91.1% of the analgesic effect of duloxetine could be attributed to a direct analgesic effect, and 8.9% to its antidepressant effect. Similar results were obtained when data were evaluated at weeks 4 and 7, and when

  11. Preventive effect of kampo medicine (hangeshashin-to, TJ-14 plus minocycline against afatinib-induced diarrhea and skin rash in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiki M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Masao Ichiki,1 Hiroshi Wataya,2 Kazuhiko Yamada,3 Nobuko Tsuruta,4 Hiroaki Takeoka,1 Yusuke Okayama,1 Jun Sasaki,1 Tomoaki Hoshino3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization, Kyushu Medical Center, 2Division of Internal Medicine, Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka City, 3Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University, Kurume City, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hamanomachi Hospital, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka, Japan Purpose: Diarrhea and oral mucositis induced by afatinib can cause devastating quality of life issues for patients undergoing afatinib treatment. Several studies have shown that hangeshashin-to (TJ-14 might be useful for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and oral mucositis. In this study, we investigated the prophylactic effects of TJ-14 for afatinib-induced diarrhea and oral mucositis and minocycline for afatinib-induced skin rash.Patients and methods: First- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors have become the standard first-line treatment in patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer. The incidence of diarrhea was higher with afatinib than with gefitinib, and we conducted a single-arm Phase II study with afatinib. Patients who had previously undergone treatment with afatinib were ineligible. Both TJ-14 (7.5 g/day and minocycline (100 mg/day were administered simultaneously from the start of afatinib administration. The primary end point was the incidence of ≥ grade 3 (G3 diarrhea (increase of ≥7 stools/day over baseline during the first 4 weeks of treatment. The secondary end points were the incidence of ≥ G3 oral mucositis (severe pain interfering with oral intake and ≥ G3 skin toxicity (severe or medically significant but not immediately life-threatening.Results: A total of 29 patients (nine men and 20 women; median age, 66

  12. Pressure-induced transition in the grain boundary of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Tang, L.; Ma, C.; Fan, D.; Yang, B.; Chu, Q.; Yang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Equation of state of diamond powder with different average grain sizes was investigated using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Comparison of compression curves was made for two samples with average grain size of 50nm and 100nm. The two specimens were pre-pressed into pellets and loaded in the sample pressure chamber of the DAC separately to minimized differences of possible systematic errors for the two samples. Neon gas was used as pressure medium and ruby spheres as pressure calibrant. Experiments were conducted at room temperature and high pressures up to 50 GPa. Fitting the compression data in the full pressure range into the third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state yields bulk modulus (K) and its pressure derivative (K') of 392 GPa and 5.3 for 50nm sample and 398GPa and 4.5 for 100nm sample respectively. Using a simplified core-shell grain model, this result indicates that the grain boundary has an effective bulk modulus of 54 GPa. This value is similar to that observed for carbon nanotube[1] validating the recent theoretical diamond surface modeling[2]. Differential analysis of the compression cures demonstrates clear relative compressibility change at the pressure about 20 GPa. When fit the compression data below and above this pressure separately, the effect of grain size on bulk modulus reverses in the pressure range above 20 GPa. This observation indicates a possible transition of grain boundary structure, likely from sp2 hybridization at the surface[2] towards sp3like orbital structure which behaves alike the inner crystal. [1] Jie Tang, Lu-Chang Qin, Taizo Sasaki, Masako Yudasaka, Akiyuki Matsushita, and Sumio Iijima, Compressibility and Polygonization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes under Hydrostatic Pressure, Physical Review Letters, 85(9), 1187-1198, 2000. [2] Shaohua Lu, Yanchao Wang, Hanyu Liu, Mao-sheng Miao, and Yanming Ma, Self-assembled ultrathin nanotubes on diamond (100) surface, Nature

  13. Psychiatric diagnoses in patients with burning mouth syndrome and atypical odontalgia referred from psychiatric to dental facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Takenoshita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Miho Takenoshita1, Tomoko Sato1, Yuichi Kato1, Ayano Katagiri1, Tatsuya Yoshikawa1, Yusuke Sato2, Eisuke Matsushima3, Yoshiyuki Sasaki4, Akira Toyofuku11Psychosomatic Dentistry, 2Complete Denture Prosthodontics, 3Liaison Psychiatry and Palliative Medicine, 4Center for Education and Research in Oral Health Care, Faculty of Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS and atypical odontalgia (AO are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as “somatoform disorder”. From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Objective: To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities.Study design: Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients’ medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision.Results: The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress

  14. Extreme QCD 2012 (xQCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    university Nicholson, Amy University of Maryland Nishida, Yusuke Los Alamos National Laboratory Petreczky, Peter Brookhaven National Laboratory Sakai, Yuji RIKEN Sasaki, Takahiro Kyushu University Schmidt, Christian University of Bielefeld Scorzato, Luigi ECT* - Trento, Italy Shi, Zhifeng The College of William and Mary Shuryak, Edward Stony Brook University Skokov, Vladimir Brookhaven National Laboratory Strickland, Michael Gettysburg College Teaney, Derek Stony Brook University Wang, Qun University of Science and Technology of China Xu, Nu CCNU/LBNL Xu, Xiao-Ming Shanghai University Yamamoto, Naoki Institute for Nuclear Theory Conference photograph

  15. Unilateral corneal leukoplakia without limbal involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Koji Hirano,1 Mihoko Koide,2 Yoshikazu Mizoguchi,3 Yasuhiro Osakabe,4 Kaoru-Araki Sasaki5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ban Buntane Hotokukai Hospital, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Koide Internal Medicine and Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Pathology, Ban Buntane Hotokukai Hospital, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Molecular Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Japan Health Care Organization, Hoshigaoka Medical Center, Hirakata, Japan Purpose: Leukoplakia is the term given to a white patch or plaque that is found mainly on the oral mucus membrane. It can occasionally be seen on the corneal surface. We report our clinical and histopathological findings in a case of unilateral corneal leukoplakia. Methods: A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a white patch on her right cornea that continued to expand. She first noticed the white patch when she was 20 years old, and the white patch had expanded to cover the pupillary area affecting her vision. After plastic surgery on both eyelids for bilateral entropion to alleviate the pain caused by the eyelashes rubbing the cornea, the white corneal patch decreased in size. Because of this reduction, we performed surgery to remove the patch with microforceps under topical anesthesia. The plaque was removed easily and completely, and submitted for histopathological examination. Results: Histopathological examination showed that the specimen had characteristics of epidermis with a basal cell layer, spinous cell layer, granular cell layer, and horny layer with hyperkeratosis. She was diagnosed with leukoplakia of the corneal surface. The basic structure of the squamous cell layer was preserved, and there were no signs of metaplasia. Six months after the removal of the leukoplakia, no recurrence was seen and her corrected decimal visual acuity recovered to 1

  16. Localized irradiations, Evaluation through ''comet assay''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Bustos, N.; Cavalieri, H.; Bolgiani, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last 50 years various radiation accidents involving localized irradiations occurred, resulting mainly from improper handling of sealed sources Co 60 , Cs 137 or Ir 192 at workplaces for industrial gammagraphy. Severe skin reaction may develop at the contact sites. Such inhomogeneous irradiations lead to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissues or other organs that may recirculate into the peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. Applying the mathematical models ''Contaminated Poisson'' of Dolphin and Qdr method of Sasaki, a mean dose in the irradiated body area and its size can be estimated from unstable chromosome aberration scoring. This give an indication of the proportion of haemopoietic stem cell compartment involved in the overexposure. There are also different biophysical techniques that can give responses in biological dosimetry. The ''Comet Assay'' (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells. The advantages of the technique include: collection of data at the level of individual cell; the need for small numbers of cells per sample; its sensitivity for detecting DNA damage and that virtually any eukaryote cell population is amenable to analysis. The objective of this work is to apply ''Comet Assay'' method to evaluate the effect of radiation on skin and subcutaneous tissues, differentiating irradiated from unirradiated body areas. It could provide a useful tool to estimate the extension and the dose in the irradiated region, contributing with the current techniques. In this first study, we evaluate the alkaline comet assay as a method for detection of DNA radiation induced damage in keratinocytes from primary culture obtained from full thickness skin biopsies of patients requiring grafts. Skin and, particularly, keratinocytes were selected as an appropriate cellular system due to: Skin, the first barrier

  17. Tipepidine in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 4-week, open-label, preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsuyoshi Sasaki,1,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masumi Tachibana,1 Tsutomu Kurata,1 Keiko Okawada,1 Maki Ishikawa,1 Hiroshi Kimura,2 Hideki Komatsu,2 Masatomo Ishikawa,2 Tadashi Hasegawa,2 Akihiro Shiina,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,2 Nobuhisa Kanahara,3 Tetsuya Shiraishi,2 Masaomi Iyo1–31Department of Child Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, JapanBackground: Tipepidine (3-[di-2-thienylmethylene]-1-methylpiperidine has been used solely as a nonnarcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959. The safety of tipepidine in children and adults has already been established. It is reported that tipepidine inhibits G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK-channel currents. The inhibition of GIRK channels by tipepidine is expected to modulate the level of monoamines in the brain. We put forward the hypothesis that tipepidine can improve attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms by modulating monoaminergic neurotransmission through the inhibition of GIRK channels. The purpose of this open-label trial was to confirm whether treatment with tipepidine can improve symptoms in pediatric patients with ADHD.Subjects and methods: This was a 4-week, open-label, proof-of-efficacy pilot study for pediatric subjects with ADHD. Ten pediatric ADHD subjects (70% male; mean age, 9.9 years; combined [inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive] subtype, n=7; inattentive subtype, n=3; hyperimpulsive subtype, n=0 received tipepidine hibenzate taken orally at 30 mg/day for 4 weeks. All subjects were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS, Japanese version, and the Das–Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS, Japanese version.Results: A comparison of baseline scores and 4-week end-point scores showed that all the ADHD-RS scores (total scores, hyperimpulsive subscores, and inattentive subscores

  18. Does perceptual learning require consciousness or attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Julia D I; Post, Ruben A G; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that visual attention and consciousness are separate [Koch, C., & Tsuchiya, N. Attention and consciousness: Two distinct brain processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 16-22, 2007] and possibly even orthogonal processes [Lamme, V. A. F. Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 12-18, 2003]. Attention and consciousness converge when conscious visual percepts are attended and hence become available for conscious report. In such a view, a lack of reportability can have two causes: the absence of attention or the absence of a conscious percept. This raises an important question in the field of perceptual learning. It is known that learning can occur in the absence of reportability [Gutnisky, D. A., Hansen, B. J., Iliescu, B. F., & Dragoi, V. Attention alters visual plasticity during exposure-based learning. Current Biology, 19, 555-560, 2009; Seitz, A. R., Kim, D., & Watanabe, T. Rewards evoke learning of unconsciously processed visual stimuli in adult humans. Neuron, 61, 700-707, 2009; Seitz, A. R., & Watanabe, T. Is subliminal learning really passive? Nature, 422, 36, 2003; Watanabe, T., Náñez, J. E., & Sasaki, Y. Perceptual learning without perception. Nature, 413, 844-848, 2001], but it is unclear which of the two ingredients-consciousness or attention-is not necessary for learning. We presented textured figure-ground stimuli and manipulated reportability either by masking (which only interferes with consciousness) or with an inattention paradigm (which only interferes with attention). During the second session (24 hr later), learning was assessed neurally and behaviorally, via differences in figure-ground ERPs and via a detection task. Behavioral and neural learning effects were found for stimuli presented in the inattention paradigm and not for masked stimuli. Interestingly, the behavioral learning effect only became apparent when performance feedback was given on the task to measure learning

  19. Preparation and characterization of gold nanocrystals and nanomultilayer mirrors for X-ray diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slieh, Jawad

    2009-03-01

    In order to make possible studies on the dynamics of protein molecules in their natural environment Sasaki has developed in the last years a new X-ray diffraction procedure. In this procedure, which is called dynamical X-ray tracking (DXT), the diffraction occurs not directly on the protein molecule, but on a nanomirror rigidly bound to the protein molecule. Measured is hereby the time variation od the alignment of the nanocrystal, which is determined by means of the position of the Laue-diffraction points. By means of these position variations statements on structure variations of the studied protein can be derived with a high spatial accuracy in the time domain. The scientific aim of this thesis is the construction of a DXT measuring place as well as the preparation of the requireds nanocrystalline X-ray diffracting protein labels including their characterization. First a short survey about the foundations of the X radiation and their interactions with matter, especially under regardment of X-ray diffraction on crystals, is given. The measuring methods for the determination of the crystal alignment as well as the vertical and lateral crystal size are presented. In the following chapter a comprehensive survey about the different devices and analysis methods used for the fabrication and characterization of gold crystals is presented. Additionally with precise technical statements the self-constructed MBE apparature is described. This apparature has the purpose to fabricate gold nanocrystals by means of the molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) procedure. In the fourth chapter the construction of the DXT laboratory are presented and its beam profile in the focus, its divergence, and its beam spectrum determined. Based on this in the fifth chapter the study of the radiation damage of 2 cysteine-peroxyredoxine (2CP) proteins and the detection of this radiation damage without Au colloids and with Au colloids are presented. The main content of the sixth chapter is the precise

  20. Emission cross sections in low-energy collisions between He{sup +}, Ne{sup +} ions and CF{sub 4} molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, Kenji; Takahashi, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Naruto; Tsurubuchi, Seiji [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2005-09-28

    Emission cross sections (Q{sub em}) of CF{sup +}{sub 4}(C-tilde - A-tilde, C-tilde - X-tilde; 200-500 nm), CF{sup +}{sub 4}(D-tilde - C-tilde, 350-440 nm), F(3p {sup 4}D{sup o}{sub 7/2}-3s {sup 4}P{sub 5/2}; 685.6 nm), He(3d {sup 3}D-2p {sup 3}P{sup o}; 587.6 nm), and Ne(3p {sup 2}[5/2]-3s {sup 2}[3/2]; 640.2 nm) produced in charge-exchange collisions between He{sup +} and Ne{sup +} and CF{sub 4} molecule were measured in the energy range below 5000 eV down to 1 eV (E{sub Lab}). Emission cross sections of F(3s {sup 2}P-2p{sup 5} {sup 2}P{sup o}; 95.5 nm) and F(3s {sup 4}P-2p{sup 5} {sup 2}P{sup o}; 97.5 nm) were also measured in He{sup +}+CF{sub 4}. No emission peaks were observed in the spectrum of Ar{sup +}+CF{sub 4} (E{sub Lab} = 2000 eV) in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm. The emission cross section of CF{sup +}{sub 4}(C-tilde - A-tilde, C-tilde - X-tilde; 200-500 nm) observed in Ne{sup +}+CF{sub 4} decreased with increasing the energy with a relation of Q{sub em} {proportional_to} E{sup -1/2}{sub CM} up to 60 eV, whereas it increased with increasing the energy above 100 eV. This result agreed well with one of Sasaki et al [1]. It was concluded that such dependence below 60 eV originated from an orbiting resonance into Ne+CF{sup +}{sub 4} (C-tilde{sup 2}T{sub 2}) channel. Emission cross sections of F, He and Ne rapidly increased with increasing the energy from the near thresholds.

  1. Association of code status discussion with invasive procedures among advanced-stage cancer and noncancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Akinori Sasaki,1 Eiji Hiraoka,1 Yosuke Homma,2 Osamu Takahashi,3 Yasuhiro Norisue,4 Koji Kawai,5 Shigeki Fujitani4 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City, Chiba, 3Department of Internal Medicine, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 4Department of Critical Care Medicine, Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City, Chiba, 5Department of Gastroenterology, Ito Municipal Hospital, Ito City, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Code status discussion is associated with a decrease in invasive procedures among terminally ill cancer patients. We investigated the association between code status discussion on admission and incidence of invasive procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, and opioid use among inpatients with advanced stages of cancer and noncancer diseases. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in a single center, Ito Municipal Hospital, Japan. Participants were patients who were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine between October 1, 2013 and August 30, 2015, with advanced-stage cancer and noncancer. We collected demographic data and inquired the presence or absence of code status discussion within 24 hours of admission and whether invasive procedures, including central venous catheter placement, intubation with mechanical ventilation, and CPR for cardiac arrest, and opioid treatment were performed. We investigated the factors associated with CPR events by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Among the total 232 patients, code status was discussed with 115 patients on admission, of which 114 (99.1% patients had do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders. The code status was not discussed with the remaining 117 patients on admission, of which 69 (59% patients had subsequent code status discussion with resultant DNR orders. Code status discussion on admission decreased the incidence of central venous

  2. Severe iatrogenic bradycardia related to the combined use of beta-blocking agents and sodium channel blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mihoko Kawabata,1 Yasuhiro Yokoyama,1 Takeshi Sasaki,1 Susumu Tao,1 Kensuke Ihara,1 Yasuhiro Shirai,1 Tetsuo Sasano,2 Masahiko Goya,1 Tetsushi Furukawa,3 Mitsuaki Isobe,4 Kenzo Hirao1 1Heart Rhythm Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Biofunctional Informatics, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Bio-informational Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Drug-induced bradycardia is common during antiarrhythmic therapy; the major culprits are beta-blockers. However, whether other antiarrhythmic drugs are also a significant cause of this, alone or in combination with beta-blockers, is not well known. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the records of all patients hospitalized at our institution for drug-related bradycardia from the years 2004 to 2012. Patients with cardiac disease and electrolytic or hormonal abnormalities that could cause bradyarrhythmias were excluded. Results: Eight patients were identified (mean age, 79±5 years; range, 71–85 years; 6 women. Three patients were taking only beta-blockers (hereafter referred to as the BB group, while five patients were on both beta-blockers and Na channel blockers (hereafter referred to as the BB + Na group. Heart rates ranged from 20~49 beats/minute on arrival. The initial electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia (n=6 or sinus arrest with escape beats (n=2. QRS duration was 80–100 ms. The clinical presentation of the BB + Na group was considerably worse than that of the BB group, and included cardiogenic shock and heart failure. Four of the BB + Na patients had been on their medications for over 300 days. The BB group recovered solely with drug discontinuation, while 4 of the 5 patients in the BB + Na group needed additional

  3. Development and evaluation of a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese sleep apnea patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayako Saito,1 Shigeko Kojima,2 Fumihiko Sasaki,3 Masamichi Hayashi,4 Yuki Mieno,4 Hiroki Sakakibara,5 Shuji Hashimoto1 1Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 2Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nihon Fukushi University, Handa, Japan; 3SDB Research Laboratory, Takaoka Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Allergy, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 5Tokushige Kokyuki Clinic, Nagoya, Japan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Analyzed subjects were 653 Japanese OSA patients (619 males and 34 females treated with CPAP at a sleep laboratory in a respiratory clinic in a Japanese city. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, the CPAP Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea in Japanese (CSESA-J was developed by a focus group of experts, using a group interview of OSA patients for the items of two previous self-efficacy scales for Western sleep apnea patients receiving CPAP treatment. CSESA-J has two subscales, one for self-efficacy and the other for outcome expectancy, and consists of a total of 15 items. Content validity was confirmed by the focus group. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were 0.47–0.76 and 0.41–0.92, respectively, for the corresponding items. CSESA-J had a significant but weak positive association with the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a strong positive association with “Self-efficacy scale on health behavior in patients with chronic disease.” Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.85 for the self-efficacy subscale and 0.89 for the outcome expectancy subscale. The intraclass correlation coefficient using data from the first and second measurements with

  4. Diagnosis and activity assessment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy: current perspectives on noninvasive testing with aberrantly glycosylated immunoglobulin A-related biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Suzuki,1 Hitoshi Suzuki,1 Yuko Makita,1 Akiko Takahata,1 Keiko Takahashi,1 Masahiro Muto,1 Yohei Sasaki,1 Atikemu Kelimu,1 Keiichi Matsuzaki,2 Hiroyuki Yanagawa,1 Keiko Okazaki,1 Yasuhiko Tomino1 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Kyoto University Health Service, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: Immunoglobulin (Ig A nephropathy (IgAN is the most common form of glomerular disease worldwide and is associated with a poor prognosis. Thus, development of a curative treatment and strategies for early diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed. Pathological analysis of renal biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and assessment of disease activity; however, immediate and frequent assessment based on biopsy specimens is difficult. Therefore, a simple and safe alternative is desirable. On the other hand, it is now widely accepted that multi-hit steps, including production of aberrantly glycosylated serum IgA1 (first hit, and IgG or IgA autoantibodies that recognize glycan containing epitopes on glycosylated serum IgA1 (second hit and their subsequent immune complex formation (third hit and glomerular deposition (fourth hit, are required for continued progression of IgAN. Although the prognostic and predictive values of several markers have been discussed elsewhere, we recently developed a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic method by measuring serum levels of glycosylated serum IgA1 and related IgA immune complex. In addition, we confirmed a significant correlation between serum levels of these essential effector molecules and disease activity after treatment, suggesting that each can be considered as a practical surrogate marker of therapeutic effects in this slowly progressive disease. Such a noninvasive diagnostic and activity assessment method using these disease-oriented specific biomarkers may be useful in the early diagnosis of and intervention in IgAN, with

  5. On wall pressure fluctuations and their coupling with vortex dynamics in a separated–reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenaud, C.; Podvin, B.; Fraigneau, Y.; Daru, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study devoted to the compressible LES of the separated/reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate with a right-angled leading edge. • Original contribution using a compressible approach to analyze main coherent structure features and their relation to the unsteady pressure field in the separated/reattached turbulent flow. • The present study provides a well resolved LES reference data-basis that is compared to incompressible results for validation. • It contributes to a better understanding of the coupling between the vortex dynamics and the wall pressure fluctuations, especially in connection with either the vortex shedding or the low frequency shear-layer flapping. - Abstract: This study deals with the numerical predictions through Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the separated–reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate for analyzing main coherent structure features and their relation to the unsteady pressure field. A compressible approach that inherently includes acoustic propagation is here followed to describe the relationship between pressure fluctuations and vortex dynamics around the separation bubble. The objective of the present work is then to contribute to a better understanding of the coupling between the vortex dynamics and the wall pressure fluctuations. The filtered compressible Navier–Stokes equations are then solved with a numerical method that follows a Lax–Wendroff approach to recover a high accuracy in both time and space. For validations, the present numerical results are compared to experimental measurements, coming from both the Pprime laboratory (Sicot el al., 2012) and the literature (Cherry et al., 1984; Kiya and Sasaki, 1985; Tafti and Vanka,1991; Sicot et al., 2012). Our numerical results very well predict mean and fluctuating pressure and velocity fields. Flapping, shedding as well as Kelvin–Helmholtz characteristic frequencies educed by present simulations are in very good agreement with the

  6. Localized irradiations, evaluation through 'Comet Assay'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Taja, Maria R.; Nasazzi, Nora B.; Bustos, N.; Cavalieri, H.; Bolgiani, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last 50 years various radiation accidents involving localized irradiations occurred, resulting mainly from improper handling of sealed sources of Cobalt 60, Cesium 137 or Iridium 192 at work placed for industrial gammagraphy and other radiation sources. Severe skin reaction may developed at the contact sites. Such inhomogeneous irradiations lead to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissues or other organs that may recirculate into the peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. Applying the mathematical models 'Contaminated Poisson' of Dolphin and Qdr method of Sasaki, a mean dose in the irradiated body area and its size can be estimated from unstable chromosome aberration scoring. There are also different biophysical techniques that can give response in localized irradiations. Biological dosimetry is a necessary complement to physical and clinical dosimetries. Thus, there is increasing interest in the assessment of biological markers that permit the detection of radiation induced damage in the localized irradiations. The 'Comet Assay' (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive, rapid and relatively inexpensive method for measuring DNA damage in individual cells. Single cells are embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed to remove the majority of the proteins, electrophoresed, then stained with ethidium bromide in order to visualize the DNA. When visualized using a fluorescent microscope, DNA of undamaged cells appears as a spherical mass occupying the cavity formed by the lysed cell. Following radiation damage, the smaller the fragment size and the grater the number of fragments of DNA, the grater the percentage of DNA that it is able to migrate in an electric field, forming a comet image. The assay can be performed under alkaline conditions to examine DNA single strand breaks (SSBs), or in non denaturing (neutral) conditions to measure double strand breaks (DSBs) in individual

  7. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric imaging of the 1997 Kagoshima earthquake doublet, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamori, K.; Makuuchi, A.; Umeda, K.

    2013-12-01

    The 1997 Kagoshima earthquake doublet struck on unrecognized active faults lacking clear surface expression where very few large earthquakes have occurred. Two shallow moderate earthquakes occurred in the northwestern part of Kagoshima province, on March 26 (Mw 6.1) and May 13 (Mw 6.0) in 1997, both followed by intensive aftershock sequences. Aftershock distribution of the 1997 earthquake doublet reflects complicated rupture process attributed to the geological (rheological) conditions and coupling of hydraulic pressure as well as tectonic shear stress. For advanced understanding of dynamic interactions between fluids and faulting, it is imperative to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images of the electrical resistivity structure around the seismogenic faults. In this study, we conduct magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in and around the source region of the 1997 Kagoshima earthquake sequence and perform a 3-D inversion of wideband MT data above a depth of 30 km. MT stations were deployed around the aftershock area of the 1997 Kagoshima earthquake. All of 42 MT sites were set up in the land area. The data were collected using five component (three magnetic and two telluric components) wide-band MT instruments (Phoenix MTU-5 system) in February, 2013. The data were acquired in the frequency range from 0.000343 to 320 Hz. The recording duration ranged from 2 to 8 days. As the cultural noises severely affect the measurements, the time series analysis focused on the nocturnal data when there were fewer noise. A simultaneous remote reference measurement was carried out at the Sawauchi site (1300 km northeast of the study area). Using the remote reference technique (Gamble et al., 1979), we were able to reduce the unfavorable cultural noises. The observed apparent resistivity and phase data were inverted simultaneously using the 3-D inversion code of Sasaki (2004). In this inversion, the 3-D blocks were set up in the crust and upper mantle. These block size in the horizontal

  8. Survey of Preventable Disaster Deaths at Medical Institutions in Areas Affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: Retrospective Survey of Medical Institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Mase, Tomohiko; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2017-10-01

    affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at coastal hospitals with insufficient medical resources, disrupted lifelines, delayed medical intervention, and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters constituting the main contributing factors. Preventing PDD, in addition to strengthening organizational support and functional enhancement of DBHs, calls for the development of business continuity plans (BCPs) for medical facilities in directly affected areas, including non-DBHs. Yamanouchi S , Sasaki H , Kondo H , Mase T , Otomo Y , Koido Y , Kushimoto S . Survey of preventable disaster deaths at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: retrospective survey of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):515-522.

  9. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium, Sessions 'X. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' and 'Y. Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials - Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi

    2009-09-01

    Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science (Symposium X of IUMRS-ICA2008) Toshiji Kanaya, Kohji Tashiro, Kazuo Sakura Keiji Tanaka, Sono Sasaki, Naoya Torikai, Moonhor Ree, Kookheon Char, Charles C Han, Atsushi Takahara This volume contains peer-reviewed invited and contributed papers that were presented in Symposium X 'Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' at the IUMRS International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA 2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. Structure analyses of soft materials based on synchrotron radiation (SR) and neutron beam have been developed steadily. Small-angle scattering and wide-angle diffraction techniques clarified the higher-order structure as well as time dependence of structure development such as crystallization and microphase-separation. On the other hand, reflectivity, grazing-incidence scattering and diffraction techniques revealed the surface and interface structural features of soft materials. From the viewpoint of strong interests on the development of SR and neutron beam techniques for soft materials, the objective of this symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in research, development, and applications of SR and neutron beams to soft matter science. In this symposium, 21 oral papers containing 16 invited papers and 14 poster papers from China, India, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan were presented during the three-day symposium. As a result of the review of poster and oral presentations of young scientists by symposium chairs, Dr Kummetha Raghunatha Reddy (Toyota Technological Institute) received the IUMRS-ICA 2008 Young Researcher Award. We are grateful to all invited speakers and many participants for valuable contributions and active discussions. Organizing committee of Symposium (IUMRS-ICA 2008) Professor Toshiji Kanaya (Kyoto University) Professor Kohji

  10. Preparation and characterization of gold nanocrystals and nanomultilayer mirrors for X-ray diffraction experiments; Praeparation und Charakterisierung von Goldnanokristallen und Nanomultilayerspiegeln fuer Roentgenbeugungsexperimente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slieh, Jawad

    2009-03-15

    In order to make possible studies on the dynamics of protein molecules in their natural environment Sasaki has developed in the last years a new X-ray diffraction procedure. In this procedure, which is called dynamical X-ray tracking (DXT), the diffraction occurs not directly on the protein molecule, but on a nanomirror rigidly bound to the protein molecule. Measured is hereby the time variation od the alignment of the nanocrystal, which is determined by means of the position of the Laue-diffraction points. By means of these position variations statements on structure variations of the studied protein can be derived with a high spatial accuracy in the time domain. The scientific aim of this thesis is the construction of a DXT measuring place as well as the preparation of the requireds nanocrystalline X-ray diffracting protein labels including their characterization. First a short survey about the foundations of the X radiation and their interactions with matter, especially under regardment of X-ray diffraction on crystals, is given. The measuring methods for the determination of the crystal alignment as well as the vertical and lateral crystal size are presented. In the following chapter a comprehensive survey about the different devices and analysis methods used for the fabrication and characterization of gold crystals is presented. Additionally with precise technical statements the self-constructed MBE apparature is described. This apparature has the purpose to fabricate gold nanocrystals by means of the molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) procedure. In the fourth chapter the construction of the DXT laboratory are presented and its beam profile in the focus, its divergence, and its beam spectrum determined. Based on this in the fifth chapter the study of the radiation damage of 2 cysteine-peroxyredoxine (2CP) proteins and the detection of this radiation damage without Au colloids and with Au colloids are presented. The main content of the sixth chapter is the precise

  11. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Scorsetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T. cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T. cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC, on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween ® 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC. The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10 7 conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24°C, the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween® 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4

  12. Crop-associated virus reduces the rooting depth of non-crop perennial native grass more than non-crop-associated virus with known viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrom, Carolyn M; Bigelow, Patrick; Trębicki, Piotr; Busch, Anna K; Friel, Colleen; Cole, Ellen; Abdel-Azim, Heba; Phillippo, Colin; Alexander, Helen M

    2017-09-15

    As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus). The yellow dwarf virus (YDV) species in these two genera share genetic similarities in their 3'-ends, but diverge in the 5'-regions. Most notably, CYDVs encode a P0 viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) absent in BYDV-PAV. Because BYDV-PAV has been reported more frequently in annual cereals and CYDVs in perennial non-crop grasses, we examine the hypothesis that the viruses' genetic differences reflect different affinities for crop and non-crop hosts. Specifically, we ask (i) whether CYDVs might persist within and affect a native non-crop grass more strongly than BYDV-PAV, on the grounds that the polerovirus VSR could better moderate the defenses of a well-defended perennial, and (ii) whether the opposite pattern of effects might occur in a less defended annual crop. Because previous work found that the VSR of CYDV-RPS possessed greater silencing suppressor efficiency than that of CYDV-RPV, we further explored (iii) whether a novel grass-associated CYDV-RPS isolate would influence a native non-crop grass more strongly than a comparable CYDV-RPV isolate. In growth chamber studies, we found support for this hypothesis: only grass-associated CYDV-RPS stunted the shoots and crowns of Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), a perennial native North American prairie grass, whereas crop-associated BYDV-PAV (and coinfection with BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPS) most

  13. The fundamental parameter approach of quantitative XRFA- investigation of photoelectric absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, A.

    2003-06-01

    The present work describes some actual problems of quantitative x-ray fluorescence analysis by means of the fundamental parameter approach. To perform this task, some of the main parameters are discussed in detail. These parameters are photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections, mass absorption cross sections and the variation of the x-ray tube voltage. Photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections and mass absorption cross sections in the energy range from 1 to 300 keV for the elements from Z=1 to 94 considering ten different data bases are studied. These are data bases given by Hubbell, McMaster, Mucall, Scofield, Xcom, Elam, Sasaki, Henke, Cullen and Chantler's data bases. These data bases have been developed also for an application in fundamental parameter programs for quantitative x-ray analysis (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Total Electron Yield (TEY)). In addition a comparison is performed between different data bases. In McMaster's data base, the missing elements (Z=84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 91, and 93) are added by using photoelectric cross sections of Scofield's data base, coherent as well as incoherent scattering cross sections of Elam's data base and the absorption edges of Bearden. Also, the N-fit coefficients of the elements from Z=61 to 69 are wrong in McMaster data base, therefore, linear least squares fits are used to recalculate the N-fit coefficients of these elements. Additionally, in the McMaster tables the positions of the M- and N-edges of all elements with the exception of the M1- and N1- edges are not defined as well as the jump ratio of the edges. In the present work, the M- and N-edges and the related jump ratios are calculated. To include the missing N-edges, Bearden's values of energy edges are used. In Scofield's data base, modifications include check and correction

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP'09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntorad, Jan; Lokajicek, Milos

    2010-11-01

    Physics Milos Lokajicek (co-chair), Institute of Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague Vojtech Petracek, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering and especially the Programme Committee for their careful choice of conference contributions and their enormous work with organization of 340 post conference proceedings paper review Ludek Matyska (chair), CESNET Online Computing Volker Gülzow, DESY Jiri Masik, University of Manchester/on leave from Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Event Processing Elizabeth Sexton-Kennedy, FNAL Tomas Davidek, Charles University, Prague Software Components, Tools and Databases Paolo Calafiura, LBNL Julius Hrivnac, LAL Track 4 Hardware and Computing Fabrics Takashi Sasaki, KEK Jiri Chudoba, Institute of Physics AS CR, Prague Grid Middleware and Networking Technologies Francesco Giacomini, CERN Ales Krenek, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Distributed Processing and Analysis Latchezar Betev, CERN Simon Lin, ASGC, Taipei Dagmar Adamova, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague Collaborative Tools Eva Hladka, Masaryk University, Brno/CESNET Thank you to all who made CHEP'09 a success. Jan Gruntorad and Milos Lokajicek CHEP'09 Conference Chairs Prague, March 2010 The PDF and HTML files contain a list of all CHEP'09 contributions.

  15. Help-seeking behavior among Japanese school students who self-harm: results from a self-report survey of 18,104 adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furukawa TA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,* Atsushi Nishida,2,* Shinji Shimodera,3 Ken Inoue,4 Norihito Oshima,5 Tsukasa Sasaki,6 Shimpei Inoue,3 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Yuji Okazaki81Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Schizophrenia Research, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, 4Department Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, 5Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 6Health Service Center, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 7Department of Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, 8Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with poor help-seeking among adolescents who self-harm and to explore the resources used for help.Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted in 47 junior and 30 senior high schools in Japan. Adolescent self-harm was defined as an adolescent who had harmed himself or herself in the previous year, as in previous studies reported in Western countries. Poor help-seeking was defined as not consulting anyone despite reporting current psychological or somatic complaints. Information about sociodemographic and psychological factors possibly associated with help-seeking, such as suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like experiences, was also collected. Regression analyses were performed to examine associated factors.Results: A total of 18,104 students (8620 aged 12–15 years, 9484 aged 15–18 years, accounting for 93% of all students in the relevant student classes, participated in the study. Two hundred and

  16. Biological dose estimation of partial body exposures in cervix cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Nasazzi, Nora B.; Taja, Maria R.; Roth, B.; Sardi, M.; Menendez, P.

    2000-01-01

    At present, unstable chromosome aberrations analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the most sensitive method to provide a biological estimation of the dose in accidental radiation over exposures. The assessment of the dose is particularly reliable in cases of acute, uniform, whole-body exposures or after irradiation of large parts of the body. However, the scenarios of most radiation accidents result in partial-body exposures or non-uniform dose distribution, leading to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in the body. Inhomogeneity produces a yield of dicentrics, which does not conform to a Poisson distribution, but is generally over dispersed. This arises because those lymphocytes in tissues outside the radiation field will not be damaged. Most of the lymphocytes (80 %) belong to the 'redistributional pool' (lymphatic tissues and other organs) and made recirculate into peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. So-called over dispersion, with a variance greater than the mean, can be taken as an indication of non-uniform exposure. The main factors operating in vivo partial-body irradiation may be the location and size of the irradiation field and, at high doses, various cellular reactions such as reduced blast transformation, mitotic delay or interphase death may contribute. For partial-body exposures, mathematical-statistical analysis of chromosome aberration data can be performed to derive a dose estimate for the irradiated fraction of the body, been more realistic than to quote a mean equivalent uniform whole body dose. The 'Contaminated Poisson' method of Dolphin or the Qdr method of Sasaki, both based on similar principles, can achieve this. Contaminated Poisson considers the over dispersed distribution of dicentrics among all the cells scored. The observed distribution is considered to be the sum of a Poisson distribution, which represents the irradiated fraction of the body, and the remaining unexposed

  17. Imprints of dark energy on the structuring of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouillot, V.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the research of specific imprints of Dark Energy in both linear and non-linear gravitational collapse processes through theoretical and numerical developments. Indeed, many aspects of cosmology has been tackled: first, to study the influence of various complex Dark Energy models on the halo clustering, we develop in a covariant formalism the usual linear cosmological perturbation theory. It gives an extent of the classical Sasaki-Mukhanov equations to scalar fields coupled with multiple cosmological fluids. The result is the description of the evolution of linear perturbations of complex Dark Energy models with a minimal number of degrees of freedom. In the last decade, the number and quality of cosmological observations on the matter distribution in the Universe as well on the velocity fields have increased exponentially. In particular, recent measurements show the existence of abnormally high velocity fields with respect to the linear theory in ΛCDM. The explanation of this cosmic flow excess at intermediate scales is the main contribution of this thesis: reinterpreting the anomalous cosmic flow (Watkins et al.) measured at scales ∼ 50 Mpc/h as a rare event realization in linear theory, we propose a new cosmological probe. This probe uses the scale of convergence of the measured cosmic flow with the theoretical one. We develop the sensibility on this new cosmological probe in three competitive Dark Energy models. Those results, based on analytical methods, are compared with measures issued from state-of-the-art numerical simulations we are deeply involved in. Then, starting from those numerical simulations, we investigate the dynamical origin of such a cosmic flow: we prove this movement to be due to an asymmetry of the three-dimensional matter distribution at higher scales (∼ 80 Mpc/h). This asymmetry is shown by introducing an original estimator of the matter field, which quantify the deviation from symmetry of a given field

  18. [Research and control of relapse tuberculosis cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Fumio; Toyota, Makoto

    2009-12-01

    were recognized more significantly in male cases aged 70's. In the cases that deviated from the standard treatment and that became impossible to use rifampicin, it should be careful to emergence of isoniazid resistance. 3. The current status of the recurrence tuberculosis cases in Tokyo: Michiko NAGAMINE (Specific Disease Control Section, Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau of Social Welfare and Public Health). As for the background of the patient whose disease has relapsed, unstable elements are observed. After any symptom, more patients are diagnosed as a relapse case rather than finding by a medical check up. And more than half are related to homeless or life without fixed address. Their status of insurance is the livelihood protection, no insurance or the national health insurance. By RFLP analysis in Shinjuku city, some clusters have recurrent cases, one of clusters has both a relapse and exogenous reinfection. This is able to elucidate an infectious state. Like this, the analysis of each cluster can help effective countermeasures. 4. Recurrence of tuberculosis in the City of Yokohama between 2004 and 2008: Michihiko YOSHIDA (Shinagawa Public Health Center), Takahiro TOYOZAWA (Yokohama Public Health Center). To identify the TB recurrence rate, we studied a cohort of 40 cases (treatment completion 36 cases, interruption 4 cases) of whom had a previous history of TB treatment including isoniazid and rifampicin. The time for relapse was 7.9 +/- 8.6 years and the overall relapse rate was 0.6% (0.47-0.7%). Our study suggested the relapse was almost equal to the low incident countries but the long-term follow-up and surveillance data should be carefully evaluated. 5. Comparison of the retreatment cases of pulmonary tuberculosis: Yuka SASAKI (National Hospital Organization Chiba-East National Hospital). To investigate the factors of the retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, 134 retreatment cases were studied. The factors leading to retreatment were cavitary and large

  19. Controllable Quantum States Mesoscopic Superconductivity and Spintronics (MS+S2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku; Nakano, Hayato

    2008-10-01

    Josephson effect in diffusive d-wave junctions / T. Yokoyama. Quantum dissipation due to the zero energy bound states in high-T[symbol] superconductor junctions / Shiro Kawabata. Spin-polarized heat transport in ferromagnet/unconventional superconductor junctions / T. Yokoyama. Little-Parks oscillations in chiral p-wave superconducting rings / Mitsuaki Takigawa. Theoretical study of synergy effect between proximity effect and Andreev interface resonant states in triplet p-wave superconductors / Yasunari Tanuma. Theory of proximity effect in unconventional superconductor junctions / Y. Tanaka -- Quantum information. Analyzing the effectiveness of the quantum repeater / Kenichiro Furuta. Architecture-dependent execution time of Shor's algorithm / Rodney Van Meter -- Quantum dots and Kondo effects. Coulomb blockade properties of 4-gated quantum dot / Shinichi Amaha. Order-N electronic structure calculation of n-type GaAs quantum dots / Shintaro Nomura. Transport through double-dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads / Yoichi Tanaka. A study of the quantum dot in application to terahertz single photon counting / Vladimir Antonov. Electron transport through laterally coupled double quantum dots / T. Kubo. Dephasing in Kondo systems: comparison between theory and experiment / F. Mallet. Kondo effect in quantum dots coupled with noncollinear ferromagnetic leads / Daisuke Matsubayashi. Non-crossing approximation study of multi-orbital Kondo effect in quantum dot systems / Tomoko Kita. Theoretical study of electronic states and spin operation in coupled quantum dots / Mikio Eto. Spin correlation in a double quantum dot-quantum wire coupled system / S. Sasaki. Kondo-assisted transport through a multiorbital quantum dot / Rui Sakano. Spin decay in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum point contact / Massoud Borhani -- Quantum wires, low-dimensional electrons. Control of the electron density and electric field with front and back gates / Masumi Yamaguchi. Effect of the array

  20. EDITORIAL: On display with transparent conducting films On display with transparent conducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-03-01

    the sheet resistance of HNO3 treated carbon-nanotube films than the removal of residual N-methylpyrrolidone. Unsurprisingly graphene, the latest carbon wonder material, has also shown remarkable potential as a transparent conducting film. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis of graphene has the advantage that it allows fabrication of the sheets to be scaled up. A collaboration of researchers in the USA, Singapore and Korea demonstrated that the conductivity of CVD graphene sheets can be improved by p-doping with AuCl3 [9]. The potential of graphene in a range of applications is also being demonstrated, as researchers in Australia and China show in a report on graphene in transparent conducting electrodes for GaN LED devices [10]. The review in this issue [4] provides a comprehensive overview of graphene as an electrode, including the synthesis, chemical doping and work function engineering of the material, as well as applications in transistors, memories, molecular junctions, touch screens, LCDs, LEDs and solar cells. Back in the early 1950s Gillham and Preston saw the possibility of using their gold sputtered bismuth oxide films for windows that could be electrically heated and took out a patent on their discovery [11]. While they saw potential applications for conducting transparent films, it could be argued that even Gillham and Preston would have been surprised at the extent to which transparent conducting films have infiltrated everyday technology over the 60 years since. It is tempting to wonder what wide reaching ramifications the current fruitful activity in graphene device research may have in the decades to come. References [1] Ayrton W E and Mather T 1894 J. Int. Elec. Eng. 23 376-80 [2] Gillham E J and Preston J S 1952 Proc. Phys. Soc. B 65 649 [3] Ishiguro K, Sasaki T, Arai T and Imai I 1958 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 13 296-304 [4] Jo G, Choe M, Lee S, Park W, Kahng Y H and Lee T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 112001 [5] Guo P and Aegerter M A 1999 Thin Solid

  1. Realizing Controllable Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    -[symbol]-doped GaAs quantum wells with a back gate / M. Yamaguchi et al. Direct observation of [symbol]Si nuclear-spin decoherence process / S. Sasaki and S. Watanabe.

  2. Gravitational Radiation from Binary Black Holes: Advances in the Perturbative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, C. O.

    2005-08-01

    After the work of Regge, Wheeler, Zerilli, Teukolsky and others in the 1970s, it became possible to accurately compute the gravitational radiation generated by the collision of two black holes (in the extreme-mass limit). It was soon evident that, to first perturbative order, a particle in a circular orbit would continue orbiting forever if the radiative corrections to the particle motion that make the orbit decay were not taken into account. When I entered the field in 1996, a quick search of the literature showed that this problem was still unsolved. A straightforward computation leads to infinities produced by the representation of the particle in terms of Dirac delta functions. Since 1938, when Dirac had solved the equivalent problem in electromagnetic theory, nobody had succeeded in regularizing this in a self-consistent manner. Fortunately, the solution was arrived at much sooner than we expected. In 1997, Mino, Sasaki and Tanaka, and Quinn and Wald published the equations of motion that a particle obeys after self-force corrections. This essentially gave birth to the field of radiation reaction/self-force computations. The aim of this programme is first to obtain the corrections to the geodesic motion of a particle in the background of a single black hole, and then to use this corrected trajectory to compute second-order perturbations of the gravitational field. This will give us the energy-momentum radiated to infinity and into the hole, as well as the waveforms that we will eventually be able to measure with ground- or space-based gravitational wave detectors. As mentioned, the programme as a whole will give us waveforms accurate to second perturbative order in the mass ratio of the black holes, i.e. Script O[(m/M)2]. This will be a good approximation for galactic binary black holes of the order of a few solar masses, in the right frequency range (few hundred Hertz) to be detected by ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as LIGO and VIRGO

  3. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    and Fusion Center, USA) F Ryter (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany) H Saimaru (University of Tsukuba, Japan) R Sakamoto (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) Y Sakamoto (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) M Sasaki (University of Tokyo, Japan) Y Shi (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, China) A Shimizu (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) T Shimozuma (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) P B Snyder (General Atomics, USA) C Suzuki (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) H Takahashi (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) Y Takahashi (Nagoya University, Japan) Y Takeiri (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) H Takenaga (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) M Takeuchi (Nagoya University, Japan) T Takizuka (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) N Tamura (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) K Tanaka (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) S Tokuda (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) S Tokunaga (Kyushu University, Japan) G Turri (Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Switzerland) H Urano (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) H Utoh (Tohok University, Japan) K Uzawa (Kyoto University, Japan) M Valovic (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) L Vermare (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany) F Watanabe (Nagoya University, Japan) M Yagi (Kyushu University, Japan) Y Yamaguchi (University of Tsukuba, Japan) K Yamazaki (Nagoya University, Japan) M Yokoyama (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) M Yoshida (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) M Yoshinuma (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan)