WorldWideScience

Sample records for rhopalosiphum padi homoptera

  1. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R Descamps

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0, mean generation time (T, doubling time (DT, and finite rate of increase (λ of the bird cherry-oat aphid on the different cereal crops were estimated. Differences in fertility life table parameters of R. padi among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by Jackknife re-sampling. Results indicated that beer barley might be the most suitable food for R. padi due to greater adult longevity (20.88 d, higher fecundity (41 nymphs female-1, higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.309 females female-1 d-1, lower doubling time (2.24, and lower nymphal mortality (22.2%. Therefore, it can be concluded from the present study that R. padi prefers beer barley for fast and healthy development over other cereal crops.El áfido Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae es una de las principales plagas de numerosos cultivos de la región semiárida pampeana de Argentina. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes cereales incluidos Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L. and Secale cereale L. sobre los parámetros biológicos de R. padi en laboratorio. Se estimaron longevidad, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (R0, tiempo generacional medio (T, tiempo de duplicación (TD, y tasa finita de incremento (λ del pulgón de la avena en diferentes cereales. Las diferencias de

  2. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Antibiosis resistance in national uniform wheat yield trials against rhopalosiphum padi (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Ashfaque, M.; Gillani, W.A.; Ata-ul-Mohsin; Tahfeen, A.; Begum, I.

    2010-01-01

    The germplasm of National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (Normal) (2003-04) were screened against Rhopalosiphum padi L., bird cherry oat aphid at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Twenty National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (NUWYT) , Normal and 12 (NUWYT) rain fed varieties/ lines were evaluated for seedling bulk test to know the resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible wheat varieties/ lines. These results revealed that varieties Diamond and Margalla-99 and lines V-99022, 99B2278 and 7-03 were partially resistant, two lines V-00125 and SD-66 were susceptible and three varieties and ten lines were moderately resistant in seedling bulk test. For antibiosis studies, 10 varieties/ lines out of 20 were selected to know the effect of host plants on the fecundity of R. padi. Two varieties Wafaq-2007 and Diamond were the least preferred for fecundity and one line VOO125 was highly preferred for fecundity. (author)

  4. The price of protection: a defensive endosymbiont impairs nymph growth in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybourne, Daniel J; Bos, Jorunn I B; Valentine, Tracy A; Karley, Alison J

    2018-05-24

    Bacterial endosymbionts have enabled aphids to adapt to a range of stressors, but their effects in many aphid species remain to be established. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus), is an important pest of cereals worldwide and has been reported to form symbiotic associations with Serratia symbiotica and Sitobion miscanthi L-type Symbiont endobacteria, although the resulting aphid phenotype has not been described. This study presents the first report of R. padi infection with the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Individuals of R. padi were sampled from populations in Eastern Scotland, UK, and shown to represent seven R. padi genotypes based on the size of polymorphic microsatellite markers; two of these genotypes harboured H. defensa. In parasitism assays, survival of H. defensa-infected nymphs following attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani (Viereck) was five-fold higher than for uninfected nymphs. Aphid genotype was a major determinant of aphid performance on two Hordeum species, a modern cultivar of barley H. vulgaris and a wild relative H. spontaneum, although aphids infected with H. defensa showed 16% lower nymph mass gain on the partially-resistant wild relative compared with uninfected individuals. These findings suggest that deploying resistance traits in barley will favour the fittest R. padi genotypes, but symbiont-infected individuals will be favoured when parasitoids are abundant, although these aphids will not achieve optimal performance on a poor quality host plant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated CO2 changes interspecific competition among three species of wheat aphids: Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu Cheng; Chen, Fa Jun; Ge, Feng

    2009-02-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (twice ambient) on the interspecific competition among three species of wheat aphids (Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum) and on wheat-aphid interactions were studied. Wheat plants had higher biomass and yield and lower water and nitrogen content of grain when grown under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2; levels of condensed tannins, total phenols, and total nonstructural carbohydrates were also higher in wheat ears under elevated CO2. Compared with ambient CO2, elevated CO2 increased the abundance of R. padi when introduced solely but reduced its abundance when S. avenae was also present. The spatial distribution of wheat aphids was apparently influenced by CO2 levels, with significantly more S. avenae on ears and a more even distribution of R. padi on wheat plants under elevated CO2 versus ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not affect the abundance and spatial distribution of S. graminus when inoculated solely. Moreover, when S. avenae was present with either R. padi or S. graminum, spatial niche overlap was significantly decreased with elevated CO2. When three species co-occurred, elevated CO2 reduced spatial niche overlap between S. avenae and S. graminum and between R. padi and S. graminum. Our results suggest that increases in atmospheric CO2 would alleviate interspecific competition for these cases, which would accentuate the abundance of and the damage caused by these wheat aphids.

  6. Characterisation of imidacloprid resistance in the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, a serious pest on wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Yanna; Yang, Zhuolin; Su, Sha; Chen, Maohua

    2018-06-01

    Rhopalosiphum padi is a destructive insect pest of wheat worldwide. Studies have shown that R. padi has developed resistance to different insecticides, including imidacloprid. We studied the mechanisms conferring resistance to imidacloprid at the biochemical and molecular levels. An R. padi imidacloprid-resistant (IM-R) strain and a susceptible (SS) strain were established. Fitness analysis using life-tables showed that the IM-R strain had obvious disadvantages in several parameters, indicating reduced fitness. Profiles of cross-resistance of IM-R and SS to seven insecticides were detected. Both synergistic and enzyme activity data suggested that P450 plays a role in resistance. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes CYP6CY3-1 and CYP6CY3-2 were significantly increased in the IM-R strain. No target-site mutation within the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits was detected in the IM-R strain. Interestingly, the expression levels of the nAChR α1, α2, α3, α7-2, and β1 subunit genes were significantly decreased, suggesting that down-regulation of these subunits may be involved in resistance. Multiple mechanisms confer imidacloprid resistance in R. padi. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Identification of minimal sequences of the Rhopalosiphum padi virus 5' untranslated region required for internal initiation of protein synthesis in mammalian, plant and insect translation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppelli, Elisabetta; Belsham, Graham; Roberts, Lisa O.

    2007-01-01

    Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) is a member of the family Dicistroviridae. The genomes of viruses in this family contain two open reading frames, each preceded by distinct internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements. The RhPV 5' IRES is functional in mammalian, insect and plant translation syste...

  8. Damage of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat plants related to duration time and density of infestation; Danos de Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) no trigo em funcao da duracao e da densidade de infestacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roza-Gomes, Margarida F. [Rua Pedro Roso, 42, Nonoai, RS, (Brazil)]. E-mail: margafrg@brturbo.com.br; Salvadori, Jose R. [Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: jrsalva@cnpt.embrapa.b; Schons, Jurema [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria]. E-mail: schons@upf.br

    2008-09-15

    Aphids are considered relevant pests on wheat either by direct damage through sap sucking or by indirect damage vectoring BYDV (Barley yellow dwarf virus). Rhopalosiphum padi L. has been observed infesting wheat fields with an increasing frequency. The knowledge and the available technology, besides being more related to other aphids species already recognized as pests, they are insufficient to control the specific c problem of R. padi. Thus, this work evaluated the effects of feeding duration and infestation densities of R. padi on seedlings of wheat cv. EMBRAPA 16. rain yield, yield components and the extent of symptoms were recorded. The experiment was carried out in the fi eld under a completely randomized split-plot experimental design with four replications. The main plot was feeding duration (two and seven days) and the sub-plots were infestation densities (zero, two and 10 aphids per plant). Independent on feeding duration, 10 aphids per plant resulted in significant yield losses, reduction of number of heads and tillers per plant. Canopy dry matter was also reduced. Infestations of two and 10 aphids per plant resulted in continuous yellowing of wheat plants from tillering to the end of flowering stage. When aphids fed for seven days on wheat, more yellowing symptoms were observed at the flower stage in comparison with two days feeding. (author)

  9. Population Growth and Damage Caused by Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Different Cultivars and Phenological Stages of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaris, M; Lampert, S; Salvadori, J R; Lau, D; Pereira, P R V S; Smaniotto, M A

    2013-10-01

    Among the aphids associated with wheat and other winter cereals, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is currently the predominant species in the wheat growing region of southern Brazil. The damage caused by this aphid occurs by direct feeding and/or by the transmission of pathogenic viruses, such as the Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus. In order to estimate the direct damage caused by R. padi on wheat, we evaluated the population growth of this aphid during the tillering and elongation stages and its effects on grain yield components. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse with three wheat cultivars (BRS Guabiju, BRS Timbaúva, and Embrapa 16). The effect of a period of 16 days, starting from an infestation of 40 aviruliferous aphids/plant, was evaluated and compared to non-infested plants. In both stages, the population growth of R. padi was lower on the BRS Timbaúva. Although infestation caused a reduction in the grain yield of the three cultivars, this effect was lower for BRS Timbaúva. The cultivar Embrapa 16 supported higher infestations and was more tolerant to damage than the BRS Guabiju.

  10. Damage of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat plants related to duration time and density of infestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roza-Gomes, Margarida F.; Salvadori, Jose R.; Schons, Jurema

    2008-01-01

    Aphids are considered relevant pests on wheat either by direct damage through sap sucking or by indirect damage vectoring BYDV (Barley yellow dwarf virus). Rhopalosiphum padi L. has been observed infesting wheat fields with an increasing frequency. The knowledge and the available technology, besides being more related to other aphids species already recognized as pests, they are insufficient to control the specific c problem of R. padi. Thus, this work evaluated the effects of feeding duration and infestation densities of R. padi on seedlings of wheat cv. EMBRAPA 16. rain yield, yield components and the extent of symptoms were recorded. The experiment was carried out in the fi eld under a completely randomized split-plot experimental design with four replications. The main plot was feeding duration (two and seven days) and the sub-plots were infestation densities (zero, two and 10 aphids per plant). Independent on feeding duration, 10 aphids per plant resulted in significant yield losses, reduction of number of heads and tillers per plant. Canopy dry matter was also reduced. Infestations of two and 10 aphids per plant resulted in continuous yellowing of wheat plants from tillering to the end of flowering stage. When aphids fed for seven days on wheat, more yellowing symptoms were observed at the flower stage in comparison with two days feeding. (author)

  11. The impact of transgenic wheat expressing GNA (snowdrop lectin) on the aphids Sitobion avenae, Schizaphis graminum, and Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jin; Wu, Yuqing; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Yu, Zhenxing; Xu, Qiongfang

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the impact of transgenic wheat expressing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), commonly known as snowdrop lectin, on three wheat aphids: Sitobion avenae (F.), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). We compared the feeding behavior and the life-table parameters of aphids reared on GNA transgenic wheat (test group) and those aphids reared on untransformed wheat (control group). The results showed that the feeding behaviors of S. avenae and S. graminum on GNA transgenic wheat were affected. Compared with the control group, they had shorter initial probing period, longer total nonprobing period, shorter initial and total phloem sap ingestion phase (waveform E2), shorter duration of sustained ingestion (E (pd) > 10 min), and lower percentage of phloem phase of the total observation time. Moreover, S. graminum made more probes and had a longer total duration of extracellular stylet pathway (waveform C). The fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of S. avenae and S. graminum on the transgenic wheat were lowered in the first and second generations, however, the survival and lifespan were not affected. The effects of the GNA expressing wheat on S. graminum and S. avenae were not significant in the third generation, suggesting rapid adaptation by the two aphid species. Despite the impact we found on S. avenae and S. graminum, transgenic GNA expressing wheat did not have any effects on R. padi.

  12. Long Chain Alcohols Produced by Trichoderma citrinoviride Have Phagodeterrent Activity Against the Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid Rhopalosiphum padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eGanassi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the effects of fungal metabolites isolated from cultures of the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride ITEM 4484 on the feeding preference of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, a major pest of cereal crops. Different phagodeterrent metabolites were purified by a combination of direct and reverse phase column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Chemical investigations, by spectroscopic and chemical methods, led to the identification of different long chain primary alcohols (LCOHs of the general formula R-OH, wherein R is a long, unbranched, unsubstituted, linear aliphatic group. LCOHs have been reported as components of lepidopteran pheromone blends, but their phagodeterrent effect to aphids is herein reported for the first time. We studied the effects of LCOHs on R. padi by behavioral and electrophysiological bioassays. Feeding preference tests that were carried out with winged and wingless morphs of R. padi showed that LCOHs have a distinctly high phagodeterrent activity and significantly restrain aphids from settling on treated leaves already at a concentration as low as 0.15 mM (0.036 g/l. The results of different electrophysiological analyses indicate that taste receptor neurons located on the aphid tarsomeres are involved in the LCOHs perception. Behavioral assays carried out with some commercial agrochemicals, including azadirachtin A, pyrethrum and mineral oil based products, in combination with 1-hexadecanol, the LCOH most abundantly produced by T. citrinoviride ITEM 4484, showed that these different active principles can be applied together, resulting in a useful increase of the phagodeterrent effect. Therefore these compounds can be profitably utilized for novel applications in biotechnical control of aphid pests. The LCOHs tested have no chiral centers and therefore can be obtained in good yields and at low cost through chemical synthesis, beside than from natural sources.

  13. Transcription of four Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) heat shock protein genes and their responses to heat stress and insecticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuting; Zhao, Qi; Duan, Xinle; Song, Chunman; Chen, Maohua

    2017-03-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), a worldwide destructive pest, is more heat tolerant than other wheat aphids, and it has developed resistance to different insecticides. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in coping with environmental stresses. To investigate Hsp transcriptional responses to heat and insecticide stress, four full-length Hsp genes from R. padi (RpHsp60, RpHsc70, RpHsp70-1, and RpHsp70-2) were cloned. Four RpHsps were expressed during all R. padi developmental stages, but at varying levels. The mRNA levels of RpHsps were increased under thermal stress and reached maximal induction at a lower temperature (36°C) in the alate morph than in the apterous morph (37°C or 38°C). RpHsp expressions under heat stress suggest that RpHsp70-1 and RpHsp70-2 are inducible in both apterous and alate morphs, RpHsc70 is only heat-inducible in apterous morph, and RpHsp60 exhibits poor sensitivity to heat stress. The pretreatment at 37°C significantly increase both the survival rate and the RpHsps expression level of R. padi at subsequent lethal temperature. Under exposure to two sublethal concentrations (LC 10 and LC 30 ) of beta-cypermethrin, both RpHsp70-1 and RpHsp70-2 expressions were induced and reached a maximum 24h after exposure. In contrast, expression of RpHsp60 was not induced by either sublethal concentration of beta-cypermethrin. Moreover, the responses of RpHsp70-1 and RpHsp70-2 to heat shock were more sensitive than those to beta-cypermethrin. These results suggest that induction of RpHsp expression is related to thermal tolerance, and that RpHsp70-1 and RpHsp70-2 are the primary genes involved in the response to both heat and pesticide stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. De novo transcriptome analysis and microsatellite marker development for population genetic study of a serious insect pest, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xinle; Wang, Kang; Su, Sha; Tian, Ruizheng; Li, Yuting; Chen, Maohua

    2017-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is one of the most abundant aphid pests of cereals and has a global distribution. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a rapid and efficient method for developing molecular markers. However, transcriptomic and genomic resources of R. padi have not been investigated. In this study, we used transcriptome information obtained by RNA-Seq to develop polymorphic microsatellites for investigating population genetics in this species. The transcriptome of R. padi was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 114.4 million raw reads with a GC content of 40.03% was generated. The raw reads were cleaned and assembled into 29,467 unigenes with an N50 length of 1,580 bp. Using several public databases, 82.47% of these unigenes were annotated. Of the annotated unigenes, 8,022 were assigned to COG pathways, 9,895 were assigned to GO pathways, and 14,586 were mapped to 257 KEGG pathways. A total of 7,936 potential microsatellites were identified in 5,564 unigenes, 60 of which were selected randomly and amplified using specific primer pairs. Fourteen loci were found to be polymorphic in the four R. padi populations. The transcriptomic data presented herein will facilitate gene discovery, gene analyses, and development of molecular markers for future studies of R. padi and other closely related aphid species.

  15. Identification of an intraspecific alarm pheromone and two conserved odorant-binding proteins associated with (E)-β-farnesene perception in aphid Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia; Xue, Wenxin; Duan, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Wenjuan; Jiang, Shanshan; Sun, Jingrun; Chen, Julian

    2017-08-01

    (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the common active component of aphid alarm pheromone. Either or both of two orthologs of ordorant-binding proteins (OBPs), OBP3 and OBP7, recently reported in aphids, may be involved in EBF perception. The aim of this study was to investigate the respondence of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi to its intraspecific alarm pheromone and which OBP is responsible for that response. We tested the olfactory response of the aphid R. padi to EBF and freshly crushed aphids. Then, we extracted the volatiles from crushed aphids using solid phase microextraction (SPME) for analysis with GC×GC-TOF/MS. We also cloned two OBPs cDNAs in R. padi (RpadOBP3 and RpadOBP7) and expressed them in competent Escherichia coli cells. Both recombinant proteins, RpadOBP3 and RpadOBP7, bound EBF well, with RpadOBP7 having specifically stronger affinity for EBF than for other volatiles. Based on the crystal structure of the OBPs with high identity, we performed homology modeling and analyzed the interactions between RpadOBPs and EBF. In conclusion, R. padi was repelled by both EBF and crushed aphids. EBF was identified as the only volatile that acted as the alarm pheromone. Our results indicated that OBP7 is a potential molecular target to control wheat aphids by disturbing their behaviors to the alarm pheromone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Annual predictions of the peak numbers of Sitobion avenae infesting winter wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, A.; Martinková, Z.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Saska, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 5 (2017), s. 352-362 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : metopolophium-dirhodum wlk * cereal aphid populations * rhopalosiphum-padi l * english grain aphid * field populations * growth-stages * fixed levels * yield loss * homoptera * dynamics * abundance * ears * growth * leaves * maximum * population Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  17. PADI ASIC for straw tube read-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietraszko, Jerzy; Traeger, Michael; Fruehauf, Jochen; Schmidt, Christian [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ciobanu, Mircea [ISS, Bucharest (Romania); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A prototype of the CBM MUCH straw tube detector consisting of six individual straws of 6mm inner diameter and 220 mm length filled with Ar/CO{sub 2} gas mixture has been tested at the COSY accelerator in Juelich. The straw tubes were connected to the FEET-PADI6-HDa PCB equipped with PADI-6 fast amplifier/discriminator ASIC. As a reference counter in this measurement the scCVD diamond detector has been used delivering excellent timing, time resolution below 100 ps (sigma), and very precise position information, below 50 μm. The demonstrated position resolution of about 160 μm of the straw tube read out with PADI-6 ASIC confirms the capability of the PADI chip and puts this development as a very attractive readout option for straw tubes and wire chambers.

  18. Flatidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) of Indonesia, exclusive of Irian Jaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medler, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Taxa of the fulgoroid family Flatidae (Homoptera) occurring in Indonesia exclusive of Irian Jaya are treated. One hundred twenty seven species are recorded under 50 genera. Keys, descriptions, illustrations and collection data are presented. New genera described: Insulume, type species - Insulume

  19. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M. Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  20. POTENSI JERAMI PADI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PANEL AKUSTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the increase of environmental noise, building elements enriched with acoustical properties are significant to serve amenities and healtiness among inhabitants. However, this type of elements which usually consist of high quality materials is much too expensive for most people. The use of paddy straw as the main material to construct acoustical panels is considered in a very early stage of material research. Paddy straw has chareacteristics which is close to acoustical requirements of panels, besides abundance of availability. These benefits will significantly lowered cost production without significantly reduce the quality. Further research to seek the next step of application of paddy straw as acoustic panels is in conduct. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kebisingan di sekitar bangunan yang terus meningkat serta naiknya permintaan bahan bangunan yang bersifat akustik untuk keperluan studio pribadi telah menyebabkan kebutuhan bahan bangunan yang bersifat akustik juga meningkat. Namun, bahan semacam ini tidak secara merata terjangkau masyarakat. Penggunaan bahan limbah, salah satunya jerami padi sebagai bahan baku pembuatan panel akustik, diharapkan mampu memenuhi kebutuhan bahan bangunan bersifat akustik dengan kualitas tinggi namun tetap dalam harga bersaing. Jerami padi menjadi bahan yang realistis dipertimbangkan sebagai bahan utama karena ketersediaannya yang melimpah dan sifat-sifat fisik batangnya yang secara teoretis mampu menjadi bahan akustik yang baik. Penelitian lanjutan ke arah pemanfaatan limbah jerami padi sebagai bahan baku panel akustik sedang dilaksanakan. Kata kunci: panel akustik, jerami padi.

  1. Insect succession on three coffee types in Ghana | Padi | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insect succession on three coffee types in Ghana. B Padi, E Ampomah. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  2. Peer-Assessment Debriefing Instrument (PADI): Assessing Faculty Effectiveness in Simulation Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Jennifer L; Wainwright, Susan F; Herge, E A; Pohlig, Ryan T

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the debriefing skill of faculty in simulations is essential but often challenging. The Peer Assessment Debriefing Instrument (PADI) is a self and peer assessment designed to assess a debriefers' effectiveness and is grounded in current scientific debriefing literature and peer review methodology. This pilot study tested the PADI at three institutions during 10 different healthcare debriefing sessions. The PADI is useful to faculty and administrators of simulation centers by demonstrating ongoing quality improvement and as a guide to train new debriefers.

  3. PADI4 Haplotypes in Association with RA Mexican Patients, a New Prospect for Antigen Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guadalupe Zavala-Cerna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminase IV (PAD 4 is the responsible enzyme for a posttranslational modification called citrullination, originating the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA. Four SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms have been described in PADI4 gene to form a susceptibility haplotype for rheumatoid arthritis (RA; nevertheless, results in association studies appear contradictory in different populations. The aim of the study was to analyze if the presence of three SNPs in PADI4 gene susceptibility haplotype (GTG is associated with ACPA positivity in patients with RA. This was a cross-sectional study that included 86 RA patients and 98 healthy controls. Polymorphisms PADI4_89, PADI4_90, and PADI4_92 in the PADI4 gene were genotyped. The susceptibility haplotype (GTG was more frequent in RA patients; interestingly, we found a new haplotype associated with RA with a higher frequency (GTC. There were no associations between polymorphisms and high scores in Spanish HAQ-DI and DAS-28, but we did find an association between RARBIS index and PADI4_89, PADI4_90 polymorphisms. We could not confirm an association between susceptibility haplotype presence and ACPA positivity. Further evidence about proteomic expression of this gene will determine its participation in antigenic generation and autoimmunity.

  4. EFEKTIVITAS AGENS PENGENDALI HAYATI DAN INSEKTISIDA SINTETIK TERHADAP HAMA TANAMAN PADI DI KECAMATAN MAYANG KABUPATEN JEMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Maghfiratul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPadi (Oryza sativa L merupakan komoditas tanaman pangan utama di Indonesia. Hambatan dalam produksi padi yaitu serangan Organisme Pengganggu Tanaman (OPT. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui efektivitas APH (Agens Pengendali Hayati dalam mengendalikan OPT serta mengetahui pengaruh pengendalian APH terhadap produksi padi. Penelitian dilakukan di lahan pertanaman padi di Kecamatan Mayang, Kabupaten Jember pada bulan juni sampai september 2014. Penelitian dirancang dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK yang terdiri 5 perlakuan yaitu: P1 = Nematoda Entomopatogen (NEP, P2 = Beauveria bassiana, P3 = Bakteri Merah Serratia spp., P4 = Insektisida, dan P5 = Kontrol setiap perlakuan diulang sebanyak 5 kali. Parameter yang diamati meliputi jenis hama pada tanaman padi: belalang hijau, kepik hijau, dan walang sangit, populasi hama pada tanaman padi, produksi padi yang meliputi berat basah dan berat kering hasil panen padi. Hasil pengematan menunjukkan bahwa berbagai jenis APH memiliki pengaruh yang tidak signifikan terhadap penurunan populasi hama belalang hijau (Oxya sp dengan rerata populasi mencapai 4,12 ekor/10rumpun, populasi kepik hijau (Nezara viridula dengan rerata 0,56 ekor/10rumpun dan walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius F. dengan rerata 4,76 ekor/10rumpun diakhir pengamatan (91 HST. Hasil berat gabah kering sawah dan berat gabah kering giling terbanyak yaitu pada perlakuan P4 (Insektisida sebesar 532 gram dan 432 gram, sedangkan hasil produksi terkecil pada perlakuan P3 (Bakteri merah sebesar 468 gram dan 390 gram.Kata kunci: Padi, Hama, Agens hayati 

  5. Respon 2 Varietas Padi (Oryza Sativa L.) Terhadap Pyraclostrobin Dalam Efisiensi Penyerapan Nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Rudyanto, Mochamad Yusuf; Basuki, Nur; Kuswanto, Kuswanto

    2014-01-01

    Penggunaan varietas unggul serta berumur pendek memiliki sifat responsif terhadap aplikasi nitrogen. Pyraclostrobin merupakan fungisida sistemik berbentuk emulsi yang dapat larut dalam air dan memiliki fungsi sebagai Zat Pengatur Tanaman (ZPT) yang dapat menjadi pemicu pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah mengkaji pyraclostrobin dalam peningkatan efisiensi nitrogen dan produktivitas serta pertumbuhan tanaman padi. Bahan percobaan varietas padi yaitu varietas Ciherang d...

  6. ALGORITMA ESTIMASI KANDUNGAN KLOROFIL TANAMAN PADI DENGAN DATA AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Sukmono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klorofil merupakan pigmen yang paling penting dalam proses fotosintesis. Tanaman sehat yang mampu tumbuh maksimum umumnya  memiliki jumlah klorofil yang lebih besar daripada tanaman yang tidak sehat. Dalam Estimasi kandungan klorofil tanaman padi dengan airborne hyperspectral dibutuhkan algoritma khusus untuk mendaaptkan akurasi yang baik. Objek dari penelitian ini mengembangkan reflektan in situ menjadi model algoritma   estimasi kandungan klorofil tanaman padi untuk airborne hyperspectral.  Dalam penelitian ini beberapa indeks vegetasi seperti normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, modified simple ratio (MSR  , modified/transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI, TCARI dan bentuk integrasi (MCARI/OSAVI and TCARI/OSAVI digunakan untuk membentuk model estimasi dengan metode regresi linear. Selain itu juga digunakan  Blue/Green/Yellow/Red Edge Absorption Clhorophyll Index. Dari proses regresi di dapatkan tiga ground model yang mempunyai korelasi kuat (R2≥0.5 terhadap klorofil tanaman padi. Ketiga model tersebut yaitu MSR (705,750 dengan R2 sebesar 0.51, TCARI/OSAVI (705, 750 dengan R2 sebesar 0.52 dan REACL 2 dengan R2 sebesar 0.57. Dari ketiga tersebut dipilih groun model terbaik REACL 2 untuk di upscalling ke model algoritma airborne hyperspectral.  Pembentukan algoritma dengan data airborne hyperspectral sensor Hymap dan REACL 2 menghasilkan model algoritma ( Klorofil (SPAD unit = 3.031((B22-B18/(B18-B13 + 31.596 dengan R2 sebesar 0.78

  7. Treehoppers (Homoptera, Membracidae in southeastern Brazil: use of host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito C. Lopes

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the use of host plants by treehoppers in plants in cerrado (savanna vegetation at Moji-Guaçu (São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil was made. Fifty-two species of treehoppers were recorded in association with 40 host plant species from October 1980 to February 1982. The families Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae and Nyctaginaceae were the most commonly used for oviposition. Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae had the highest number of associated treehopper species (10 species. The abundance of treehopper individuals was related to the hot and rainy season (from October to February, while during the cold and dry season (from March to September there was a decrease in the number of these Homoptera. After the occurrence of a frost, few adults and nymphs were observed on the host plants for one to two months.

  8. Kajian Kualitas Briket Biomassa dari Sekam Padi dan Tempurung Kelapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idzni Qistina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Biomassa seperti sekam padi dan tempurung kelapa dapat menjadi sumber bahan baku briket sebagai salah satu energi alternatif pengganti bahan bakar fosil (minyak bumi.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kualitas briket sekam padi dan tempurung kelapa melalui proses semi-karbonisasi pada temperatur antara 50-125 0C dengan durasi waktu proses 50-120 menit. Proses pembuatan briket meliputiproses semi-karbonisasi, pencampuran biomassa dengan perekat, pencetakan, pengeringan, dan uji kualitas briket. Pengujian kualitas briket meliputi analisis briket yaitu nilai kalor, kadar air, fixed carbon, volatile matter, abu, dan analisis ultimat. Disamping itu juga dilakukan uji kuat tekan, pengukuran emisi gas, dan uji termal briket yang dihasilkan.Hasilnya menunjukkan penurunan kadar air bahan baku briket sekam padi dan tempurung kelapa membutuhkan energi masing-masing 8.54% dan 4.97% dari proses karbonisasi murni yang menghasilkan semi arang. Nilai kalor briket sekam padi maupun tempurung kelapa mengalami penurunan masing-masing 9.72% dan 7.21% jika dibandingkan dengan bahan bakunya.Gas emisi dari briket sekam padi dan tempurung kelapa yaitu gas NOx, SOx, CO, dan hidrokarbon (HC masih di bawah baku mutu yang dipersyaratkan. Hasil uji termal briket menunjukkan efisiensi termal briket sekam lebih baik dibandingkan briket tempurung kelapa dengan nilai efisiensi masing-masing sebesar 31.13% dan 22.28%. Kata kunci: Briket sekam padi, briket tempurung kelapa, semi karbonisasi, emisi gas, efisiensi termal. Abstract   Biomass energy, among others, rice husk and coconut shell can be an alternative energy source to replace fossil fuels (petroleum. This study aims to assess the quality briquettes rice husk and coconut shell with raw materials through semi-carbonization process at a temperature between 50-125 0C with a duration of 50-120 minutes of processing time. Briquetting process meliputu semi-carbonization, refining raw materials and sieving made

  9. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4 post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Methods Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673 as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121. Results Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with

  10. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xiaotian; Han, Jinxiang; Pang, Li; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yi; Shen, Zhonglin

    2009-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673) as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT) were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121). Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease) than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with various malignant tumors compared to those in patients

  11. Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Geografis Produksi Padi dan Cabe di Kabupaten Lima Puluh Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harison Harison

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Lima Puluh Kota merupakan salah satu daerah produksi padi dan cabe. Saat ini pemasaran hasil produksi hanya di antarkan ke pasar terdekat, pada hal dengan sentuhan sistem informasi geografis maka hasil  panen petani akan dicari oleh marketing ke kebun langsung, karna kebutuhan akan padi dan cabe ini sangat di cari pasar.  Aplikasi Sistem informasi geografis produksi padi dan cabe berbasis android  dirancang dengan menggunakan bahasa pemograman java dan database MySqLite dan untuk GIS memanfaatkan google maps dan langsung mengambil titik koordinat pada setiap Nagari atau Desa yang ada pada Kabupaten Limapuluh Kota.

  12. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN USAHATANI DALAM UPAYA PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI PADI ORGANIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudewo Krisna Jumna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sentra padi organik Kabupaten  Sragen adalah di Kecamatan Tanon, Sidoharjo, Gondang, Sambirejo, Masaran, Kabupaten Sragen adalah daerah penghasil padi organik terbesar di Jawa Tengah dan daerah yang pertama kali mendapatkan sertifikasi untuk padi organik di Jawa Tengah sejak tahun 2001, Pada tahun 2009 Sragen telah mengekspor 1.000 ton beras organik.Sampai dengan tahun 2012 Kabupaten Sragen mampu memberikan kontribusi luas panen dan Karangmalang. Produksi organik yang paling memenuhi standar adalah di Sukorejo, Kec. Sambirejo karena airnya langsung dari sumber. Desa Sukorejo merupakan salah satu desa yang konsisten dalam menerapkan pertanian organik. Petani organik Desa Sukorejo secara mandiri dapat menghasilkan pupuk organik dan pestisida organik. Sampel dalam penelitian ini terdiri dari 12 key person yang terdiri dari unsur akademisi/peneliti, swasta, pemerintah, dan masyarakat. Adapun metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif kualitatif dengan teknik analisis AHP. Dari penelitian diperoleh hasil olah data mengunakan analisis hirarki proses (AHP dapat terlihat bahwa strategi pengembangan usahatani padi organik di Kecamatan Sambirejo Kabupaten Sragen tersusun atas beberapa kriteria program yang di prioritaskan dalam pembentukannya yaitu pertama kriteria pemasaran (nilai bobot 0,428, kedua kriteria budidaya (nilai bobot 0,221, ketiga kriteria input (nilai bobot 0,169, keempat kriteria lembaga (nilai bobot 0,092, dan kelima kriteria pasca panen (nilai bobot 0,090.Adapun saran dari penelitian ini antara lain diharapkan pemerintah dan pihak yang berkepentingan berkenan untuk mengaplikasikan kebijakan berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini. Serta dengan adanya pasar pemasaran produk pertanian organik di Kabupaten Sragen terutama di sentra-sentra produksi komoditas tertentu serta dengan mengadakan pameran gelar pangan organik, gelar budaya, desa wisata organik dan dengan adanya kemitraan antara petani dengan pihak swasta dan pengguna

  13. Investigating the expression, effect and tumorigenic pathway of PADI2 in tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo W

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Guo,1,2,* Yabing Zheng,2,* Bing Xu,1 Fang Ma,1 Chang Li,3 Xiaoqian Zhang,4 Yao Wang,1 Xiaotian Chang1 1Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, 2Obstetrical Department, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 3Pathology Department, Tengzhou Central People’s Hospital, Tengzhou, 4Clinical Laboratory, PKU Care Luzhong Hospital, Zibo, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD catalyzes the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues, termed citrullination. Recent studies have suggested that PAD isoform 2 (PADI2 plays an important role in tumors, although its tumorigenic effect and mechanism are largely unknown. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were used to investigate the expression level of PADI2 in various tumor tissues and patient blood samples, respectively. MNK-45 and Bel-7402 tumor cell lines originating from gastric and liver tumors, respectively, were treated with anti-PADI2 siRNA, and the subsequent cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration were observed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays, including Cancer PathwayFinder, Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes, p53 Signaling Pathway, Signal Transduction Pathway and Tumor Metastasis PCR arrays, were used to investigate the tumorigenic pathway of PADI2 in the siRNA-treated tumor cells. This analysis was verified by real-time PCR. Results: Immunohistochemistry detected significantly increased expression of PADI2 in invasive breast ductal carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, liver hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma samples. ELISA detected a twofold increase in PADI2 expression in the blood of 48.3% of patients with liver cancer, 38% of patients with cervical

  14. PADI4 and the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisa, Kaori; Yanagimachi, Masakatsu D; Naruto, Takuya; Miyamae, Takako; Kikuchi, Masako; Hara, Rhoki; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Yokota, Shumpei; Mori, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors are associated with susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Many studies have reported that both a 'shared epitope' (SE) encoded by several HLA-DRB1 alleles and the peptidyl arginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is uncertain whether JIA and RA share the latter genetic risk factor. Therefore, here we investigated relationships between HLA-SE and PADI4 polymorphisms with clinical subtypes of JIA. JIA patients (39 oligoarthritis, 48 RF-positive polyarthritis, 19 RF-negative polyarthritis and 82 systemic) and 188 healthy controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1 by PCR-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe methodology. Three PADI4 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2240340, rs2240337 and rs1748033, were genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Frequencies of the HLA-SE were higher in RF-positive polyarticular JIA than in healthy controls. RF-positive polyarticular JIA was associated with HLA-SE (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 2.5-11.9, pc < 0.001). No associations were found between clinical subtypes of JIA and PADI4 allele frequency. Nonetheless, rs2240337 in the PADI4 gene was significantly associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA)-positivity in JIA. The A allele at rs2240337 was a significant risk factor for ACPA positivity in JIA (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.71-23.7 pc = 0.03). PADI4 gene polymorphism is associated with ACPA-positivity in JIA. The association of HLA-SE with RF-positive polyarticular JIA as well as RA is confirmed in Japanese. Thus, HLA-SE and PADI4 status both influence JIA clinical manifestations.

  15. PADI4 and the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Hisa

    Full Text Available Both genetic and environmental factors are associated with susceptibility to juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Many studies have reported that both a 'shared epitope' (SE encoded by several HLA-DRB1 alleles and the peptidyl arginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, it is uncertain whether JIA and RA share the latter genetic risk factor. Therefore, here we investigated relationships between HLA-SE and PADI4 polymorphisms with clinical subtypes of JIA.JIA patients (39 oligoarthritis, 48 RF-positive polyarthritis, 19 RF-negative polyarthritis and 82 systemic and 188 healthy controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1 by PCR-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe methodology. Three PADI4 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs2240340, rs2240337 and rs1748033, were genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays.Frequencies of the HLA-SE were higher in RF-positive polyarticular JIA than in healthy controls. RF-positive polyarticular JIA was associated with HLA-SE (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 2.5-11.9, pc < 0.001. No associations were found between clinical subtypes of JIA and PADI4 allele frequency. Nonetheless, rs2240337 in the PADI4 gene was significantly associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA-positivity in JIA. The A allele at rs2240337 was a significant risk factor for ACPA positivity in JIA (OR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.71-23.7 pc = 0.03.PADI4 gene polymorphism is associated with ACPA-positivity in JIA. The association of HLA-SE with RF-positive polyarticular JIA as well as RA is confirmed in Japanese. Thus, HLA-SE and PADI4 status both influence JIA clinical manifestations.

  16. Pengaruh Waktu Dan Temperatur Hidrolisis Dalam Proses Sintesis Furfural Dari Sekam Padi Dengan Menggunakan Metode Hidrolisis Dan Dehidrasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindi Amborowati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lahan persawahan di Kalimantan Timur merupakan salah satu lahan yang masih produktif. Hal ini terlihat dari banyaknya tumpukan limbah sekam padi di tempat penggilingan padi. Limbah sekam padi tersebut belum banyak dimanfaatkan, sehingga pada penelitian ini menggunakan limbah sekam padi sebagai bahan baku pembuatan furfural. Penelitian dilakukan dengan tiga tahap, yaitu persiapan bahan baku, hidrolisa dan analisa. Pada tahap persiapan bahan baku, sekam padi dikecilkan ukurannya hingga 100 mesh, kemudian dikeringkan didalam oven. Proses hidrolisa menggunakan asam sulfat 1% sebagai katalis dengan memvariasikan waktu 10, 40, 70, 100, 130 (menit dan temperatur 30, 50, 70, 90, 105 (°C. Kemudian hasil hidrolisis disaring dan filtratnya dianalisa kuantitatif dengan metode volumetri, pada variasi waktu diperoleh hasil tertinggi yaitu pada 130 menit dengan konsentrasi furfural 8,182 mol/L, sedangkan pada variasi temperatur diperoleh hasil tertinggi pada suhu 105°C dengan konsentrasi furfural yaitu 10,741 mol/L.

  17. UTILISASI NITROGEN DAN KOMPOSISI TUBUH KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWAH YANG DIBERI PAKAN HIJAUAN RUMPUT LAPANGAN DENGAN SUPLEMENTASI DEDAK PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. W. SITI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui utilisasi nitrogen dan komposisi tubuh kambing peranakan etawah yang diberi pakan hijauan rumput lapangan dengan suplementasi dedak padi, telah dilaksanakan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari 4 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Keempat perlakuan tersebut adalah Rumput lapangan ad libitum sebagai perlakuan (A; perlakuan B= perlakuan A + 75 g dedak padi; perlakuan C = perlakuan A + 150 g dedak padi dan perlakuan D= perlakuan A + 225 g dedak padi. Pemberian rumput lapangan 2 kali sehari yaitu pagi pukul 7.00 Wita dan sore pukul 16.00 Wita, sedangkan dedak padi diberikan sekali pada pukul 7.00 Wita. Air minum yang diberikan berasal dari PDAM secara ad libitum. Variabel yang diamati adalah komposisi tubuh, konsentrasi urea darah, konsumsi nitrogen, retensi nitrogen dan utilisasi nitrogen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi dedak padi dari 75-225 g/ekor/hari pada kambing PE yang diberi pakan hijauan rumput lapangan secara nyata (P0,05 menurunkan urea darah. Namun suplementasi dedak padi 75 g/e/h belum berpengaruh terhadap air tubuh dan lemak tubuh, tetapi suplementasi dedak padi pada level 150-225 g/e/h dapat menurunkan air tubuh dan meningkatkan lemak tubuh. Suplementasi dedak padi dari 75-225 g/ekor/hari belum berpengaruh nyata terhadap penurunan protein tubuh. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa suplementasi dedak padi dari 75-225 g/ekor/hari dapat meningkatkan utilisasi nitrogen pada kambing peranakan etawah yang diberi pakan hijauan rumput lapangan.

  18. Struktur, Fungsi, dan Makna Talempong Bundo dalam Upacara Maanta Padi Saratuih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Sriwulan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Talempong bundo adalah istilah untuk permainan musik talempong oleh sekelompok musisiperempuan di Nagari Singkarak Minangkabau. Permainan musik ini hanya dipertunjukkan dalamupacara maanta padi saratuih, yaitu upacara persembahan hasil panen yang dilakukan oleh perempuanperempuandari pihak induak bako dalam rangkaian tradisi perkawinan anak pisangnya. Dalam upacaraini induak bako menjemput anak pisang, membawanya ke rumah bako, kemudian mengantarkankembali dengan arak-arakan maanta padi saratuih. Talempong bundo merupakan satu-satunya musikprosesi yang dihadirkan dalam upacara itu, dan hingga saat ini kehadirannya masih dijunjung tinggioleh masyarakat setempat. Fokus dari tulisan ini menjelaskan latar belakang kehadiran talempong bundodi dalam upacara maanta padi saratuih, melacak dan menjelaskan struktur talempong bundo dan relasiantar struktur secara fungsional, dan kemudian menjelaskan makna talempong bundo dalam upacaratersebut. Melalui teori fungsionalisme struktural A.R. Radcliffe-Brown dibantu dengan teori simbolVictor Turner diperoleh pemahaman bahwa prosesi arak-arakan maanta padi saratuih yang didukungoleh bunyi-bunyian talempong bundo mengumandangkan kepada masyarakat bahwa eksistensi pihakinduak bako masih fenomenal di daerah tersebut. Talempong bundo merupakan simbol eksistensipihak induak bako dalam konteks legitimasi terhadap anak pisangnya. Keberadaan talempong bundodalam upacara maanta padi saratuih merupakan representasi sistem matrilineal dalam masyarakatMinangkabau di Nagari Singkarak The Structure, Function, and Meaning of Talempong Bundo in the Ceremony of MaantaPadi Saratuih. Talempong bundo is a term that is used for music performace of talempong by some femalemusicians in Nagari Singkarak, Minangkabau. The music is typically performed only in the ceremony ofmaanta padi saratuih, namely an offering ceremony for a rice harvest that is made by some women of induakbako in a context of their anak pisang, a tradition of its

  19. Local Duck Fanning At Paddy Three Times Planting Areas ("IP Padi 300"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setioko A.R

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of duck husbandry in Indonesia is still run traditionally, herded in rice field or in the swampy area. This kind of husbandry seemed to be much preferred by farmers as they thought it was a simple and did not need high skill and high capital "IP padi 300" was a term of rice planting system tree times instead of twice in a year. This kind of changing might have significantly affected duck faming. The objective of the study was to observe the interactively effect of "IP padi 300" to duck husbandry at the same area. Two locations were choosen (Subang, West Jawa and Pemalang, Central Java with 5 farmers at each location to be involved in the study. As many as 1200 laying pullet ducks were distributed to 10 farmers at two locations. The farmers were suggested to raise laying ducks with their own systems (fully intensive, semi intensive and fully herded and were observed for 6 months. Biota was observed on both field and in the crop of the laying ducks. There was an interactive effect of "IP padi 300" and the duck farming on the same area. The availability of feed was increased on the "IP padi 300", which gave benefit to duck farming especially fue herded system, not to go far from owner's home base. Whilst the benefit to "IP padi 300" was assumed to the reduction of pest and desease, which was frequently attacked the rice field. The production of egg from herded duck was very fluctuative due to the movement and feed availability in the rice field. Field biota in Subang and Pemalang was very much the same in profile, although "golden snail" was only found in Subang. Ducks' crop content seemed to be very much similar with the profile of field biota, although rice grain was the most in the crop. Thus, it was found that field biota was not reduced by "IP padi 300", in fact it was rather increased.

  20. KECERNAAN NUTRIEN KAMBING PERANAKAN ETAWAH YANG DIBERI PAKAN DASAR RUMPUT LAPANGAN DISUPLEMENTASI DENGAN DEDAK PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W. WIRAWAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui kecernaan nutrien kambing Peranakan Etawah (PE yang diberi pakan dasar rumput lapangan disuplementasi dengan dedak padi, telah dilaksanakan di Tabanan dan Lab. Nutrisi Ternak Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Udayana, selama 4 bulan. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 4 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan, masing-masing ulangan menggunakan 1 ekor kambing PE dengan berat badan awal 15,92 ± 1,34 kg. Ke empat perlakuan tersebut adalah: perlakuan A rumput lapangan tanpa suplementasi dedak padi, perlakuan B : rumput lapangan + 75 g dedak padi, perlakuan C : rumput lapangan + 150 g dedak padi, dan perlakuan D : rumput lapangan + 225 g dedak padi. Pemberian dedak padi sekali dalam sehari yaitu pagi hari, sedangkan rumput lapangan dan air minum diberikan secara ad libitum. Variabel yang diamati adalah konsumsi bahan kering, kecernaan nutrien (bahan kering, bahan organik, protein kasar dan serat kasar, pH, VFA dan amonia cairan rumen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsumsi bahan kering ransum dan DMI pada perlakuan suplementasi dedak padi nyata (P0,05 lebih tinggi dari perlakuan A, tetapi konsumsi air minum pada perlakuan C dan D nyata (P0,05 lebih tinggi dari pada perlakuan A, namun koefisien cerna bahan kering dan serat kasar pada perlakuan C dan D nyata (P0,05. Konsentrasi asam asetat dan butirat pada ke-empat perlakuan secara statistik berbeda tidak nyata (P>0,05, tetapi konsentrasi asam propionat pada peralakuan suplementasi dedak padi nyata (P0.05 difference, but water consumption on the treatments C and D were significantly higher (P0.05 difference, but on the treatments C and D were significantly higher (P0.05 difference, but the propionate concentration on the treatments B, C and D were significantly higher (P<0.05 than treatment A. From the result in this experiment it can be concluded that the supplemented rice bran 75g-225g on the effect to increased

  1. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius

    2008-01-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R o = 205.38 and 164.08 females; r m = 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; λ= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  2. ANALISIS KEBERLANJUTAN USAHATANI PADI SAWAH DI KECAMATAN SOREANG KABUPATEN BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilang Fauzi Dzikrillah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice farming in Soreang district of Bandung Regency face problems that pose a threat to the sustainability of food security. This research objectives is to analyse and assess the sustainability of rice farming in Soreang District with Rapid Appraisal Usahatani Padi (RAP-FARM using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS method. Results shows rice farming in Soreang District assessment using RAP-FARM yield 49.07 in sustainability index which can be categorized as less sustainable. Leverage analysis results showed that out of 48 existing attributes, 21 sensitive attributes proven to have influence on the rice farming sustainability index. The perspective analysis shows that there are 6 key factors that have significant influence on wetland rice farming which are: (1 conformity of land usage to the land properties, (2 farmers motivation, (3 organic material usage and utilization of farm waste, (4 freedom from pest infestations and diseases, (5 land fertility, and (6 usage of chemical pesticides. The efforts for improving rice farming in Soreang Regency require a sustainability index value by way of managing and repairing sensitive attributes with attribute 21 focus on improvements of the sensitive 6 key factors attribute against the rice farming.

  3. Seleksi Resistansi Wereng Batang Padi Coklat terhadap Insektisida Fipronil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melhanah Melhanah

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The rice brown planthoper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae, is one of  key pests on rice. The use of insecticides unwisely has caused N. lugens to develop resistance. The objective of this research was to determine the potency of N. lugens to develop resistance through laboratory, selections to fipronil, a relatively new insecticide.  A population of N. lugens was collected from rice field in Muntilan, Central Java during the outbreak in 2001. Selections were carried out every generation for four generations against third instars. Selection was started by dipping Cisadane rice seedlings in a solution of fipronil (50 ppm. The concentration was increased every generation, and the concentration used for the last selection (the fourth generation was 250 ppm. To determine the rate of resistance development, biassays were carried out to estimate LC50 of fipronil against selected and non-selected populations of N. lugens, and their LC50 values were compared to that of the laboratory population. The laboratory population has been in the laboratory for 15 years without any insecticides exposure. The founding population was as susceptible as the laboratory population to fipronil because their LC50 values were similar. Even though the concentration for selections was increased from generation to generation, the survival rate of N. lugens increased steadily. After four generations of selection, the resistance of selected population was 27.3 times than the non-selected population. These findings indicate that N. lugens population has the potency to develop resistance to fipronil in a continuous selection pressure is applied.

  4. Analisis Neraca Air Lahan untuk Tanaman Padi dan Jagung Di Kota Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka A. I. Paski

    2018-01-01

    Citation: Paski, J.A.I., Faski, G.I.S.L., Handoyo, M.F. dan Pertiwi, D.A.S. (2017. Analisis Neraca Air Lahan untuk Tanaman Padi dan Jagung di Kota Bengkulu. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 15(2, 83-89, doi:10.14710/jil.15.2.83-89

  5. Rekayasa Biopolimer Jerami Padi dengan Teknik Kopolimerisasi Cangkok dan Taut Silang

    OpenAIRE

    Henny Purwaningsih; Tun Tedja Irawadi; Zainal Alim Mas’ud; Anas Miftah Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Kopolimerisasi cangkok dan taut silang akrilamida (AAm) terhadap jerami padi dilakukan dalamsuasana hampa udara menggunakan aliran gas N2 dengan amonium persulfat (APS) sebagai inisiatordan N,N’-metilena-bis-akrilamida (MBAAm). Pencirian dilakukan dengan teknik mikroskopipemayaran elektron (SEM) untuk melihat morfologi permukaan, teknik spektroskopi FTIR untukmelihat gugus fungsi, dan teknik DTA untuk menganalisis ketahanan produk terhadap suhu. Kajiandilakukan terhadap swelling capacity prod...

  6. Rekayasa Biopolimer Jerami Padi Dengan Teknik Kopolimerisasi Cangkok Dan Taut Silang

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningsih, Henny; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Mas’ud, Zainal Alim; Fauzi, Anas Miftah

    2012-01-01

    Kopolimerisasi cangkok dan taut silang akrilamida (AAm) terhadap jerami padi dilakukan dalamsuasana hampa udara menggunakan aliran gas N2 dengan amonium persulfat (APS) sebagai inisiatordan N,N'-metilena-bis-akrilamida (MBAAm). Pencirian dilakukan dengan teknik mikroskopipemayaran elektron (SEM) untuk melihat morfologi permukaan, teknik spektroskopi FTIR untukmelihat gugus fungsi, dan teknik DTA untuk menganalisis ketahanan produk terhadap suhu. Kajiandilakukan terhadap swelling capacity prod...

  7. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN AGRIBISNIS KOMODITAS PADI DALAM MENINGKATKAN KETAHANAN PANGAN KABUPATEN JEMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardito Atmaka Aji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study were to: 1 analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to develop paddy commodities in an effort to improve food security; 2 analyze alternative formulation of appropriate strategies for the development of paddy in an effort to improve food security; 3 determine the strategic priorities that should be selected for paddy development in an effort to improve food security; 4 provide policy recommendations for central/local government to improve food security. SWOT analysis was used to determine the alternative strategies that can be implemented by the government. QSPM analysis was used to determine the choice of strategy in developing paddy agribusiness priorities in Jember. Descriptive method was used to describe a case study at the Department of Agriculture Jember with 35 people as samples. Motivation of farmers was the main strength of the Jember government. The main weakness that should be corrected was the weak financial condition. The main opportunities were the increase in rice demand, while the main threat was the paddy pest attack. Alternative strategies that could be undertaken by the government include: 1 Intensification of rice farming, 2 Synergy between farmers, industries and government, 3 Strengthening the local food policies that favor the farmers, 4 Revitalization of facilities and infrastructure, 5 product differentiation. The strategy which became the top priority in this study was rice farming intensification strategy.Keywords: food security, Jember, QSPM, rice, SWOTABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah 1 menganalisis kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang dan ancaman untuk mengembangan komoditas padi dalam upaya meningkatkan ketahanan pangan; 2 melakukan analisis rumusan alternatif strategi yang tepat untuk pengembangan komoditas padi dalam upaya meningkatkan ketahanan pangan; 3 menentukan prioritas strategi yang seharusnya dipilih untuk pengembangan komoditas padi dalam upaya

  8. Pengaruh Sistem Tanam Benih Langsung (TABELA, SRI (System of Rice Intensification dan Konvensional terhadap Gulma dan Hasil Padi (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dessy sarfika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Produksi padi pada tahun  2014 menurun dari tahun sebelumnya, tahun 2013 produksi padi mencapai 71.279.709 ton, sedangkan pada tahun 2014 produksi padi hanya mencapai 70.846.465 ton. Penurunan produksi padi dapat disebabkan oleh sistem tanam tanaman padi yang digunakan petani. Di Indonesia telah dikenal beberapa sistem tanam padi yaitu padi dengan sistem tanam benih langsung (tabela, SRI (System of Rice Intentification dan sistem konvensional. SRI termasuk dalam sistem tanam pindah (tapin bibit yang menggunakan sistem pengairan berselang namun berbeda dengan sistem tapin konvensional yang menggunakan sistem pengairan penggenangan pada lahan atau media tanam. Sistem tanam benih langsung dilakukan dengan cara menyemai benih ke lahan dengan kondisi air pada lahan macak-macak. Kondisi pengairan pada masing-masing sistem tanam yang berbeda menyebabkan adanya OPT. Salah satu OPT yang keberadaannya dipengaruhi  oleh sistem tanam yaitu gulma. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada media pot menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK yang terdiri dari 5 perlakuan yang diulang sebanyak 5 kali. Dari hasil penelitian semua perlakuan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini, perlakuan sistem tanam konvensional dengan umur bibit 16 hari merupakan perlakuan yang terbaik dikarenakan populasi gulma yang rendah serta jumlah anakan, jumlah, malai, panjang malai, jumlah bulir per malai dan berat gabah tanaman padi memiliki rerata yang tertinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan yang lain. Kata Kunci : Sistem tanam, gulma, hasil padi

  9. Penerapan Sistem Tanam Legowo Usahatani Padi Sawah dan Kontribusinya Terhadap Pendapatan dan Kelayakan Usaha di Kecamatan Dungaliyo Kabupaten Gorontalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Rauf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh sistem tanam padi sawah Legowo terhadap pendapatan petani padi dan kelayakan usahatani padi. Lokasi penelitian di Kecamatan Dungaliyo Kabupaten Gorontalo. Penelitian menggunakan metode survei.  data primer diperoleh dari sampel petani dengan menggunakan panduan wawancara. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa penerapan sistem tanam legowo 4:1 menghasilkan pendapatan Rp 21.844.604 / ha, dan sistem tanam legowo 2:1 menghasilkan pendapatan sebesar Rp 21.705.833 / ha. Kelayakan padi tanam pertanian sistem legowo 4: 1 = 2.16 dan 2: 1 = 2.63. Kedua sistem tanam legowo adalah layak diterapkan untuk padi pertanian padi. Kata kunci : Sistem tanam legowa, pendapatan petani, kelayakan usaha tani     Abstract This study aims to determine the effect of lowland rice cropping system Legowo on farmers' income and eligibility paddy rice. Location research in Subdistrcit Dungaliyo Subdistrict, District of Gorontalo. Research using survey method. primary data obtained from a sample of farmers using an interview guide. The results found that the application of the system of planting Legowo 4: 1 generates a revenue of Rp 21,844,604 / ha, and cropping systems legowo 2: 1 generate a revenue Rp 21,705,833 / ha. Feasibility of transplanting rice farming system legowo 4:1 = 2.16 and 2:1 = 2.63. Both legowo cropping system is feasible for paddy rice farming. Keywords: Legowo cropping system , farm income, farming feasiliblity

  10. Rekayasa Biopolimer Jerami Padi dengan Teknik Kopolimerisasi Cangkok dan Taut Silang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Purwaningsih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kopolimerisasi cangkok dan taut silang akrilamida (AAm terhadap jerami padi dilakukan dalamsuasana hampa udara menggunakan aliran gas N2 dengan amonium persulfat (APS sebagai inisiatordan N,N’-metilena-bis-akrilamida (MBAAm. Pencirian dilakukan dengan teknik mikroskopipemayaran elektron (SEM untuk melihat morfologi permukaan, teknik spektroskopi FTIR untukmelihat gugus fungsi, dan teknik DTA untuk menganalisis ketahanan produk terhadap suhu. Kajiandilakukan terhadap swelling capacity produk hasil rekayasa. Spektra FTIR dan mikrografmenunjukkan bahwa kopolimerisasi cangkok dan taut silang telah terjadi pada biopolimer selulosajerami padi. Produk hasil rekayasa memiliki ketahanan termal yang lebih baik dan indeks kristalinitasyang lebih tinggi dari isolat selulosanya. Nisbah dan efisiensi pencangkokan berturut-turut adalah66,14-78.15% dan 13,23-16.63%. Swelling capacity sebelum proses hidrolisis berkisar antara 8,16-12,20 g g-1. Proses hidrolisis terhadap produk hasil rekayasa mampu meningkatkan swelling capacityhingga 12,5 kali kapasitas awal.

  11. DELIGNIFIKASI BAMBU PETUNG (DENDROCALAMUS ASPER DENGAN EKSTRAK ABU JERAMI PADI DAN KAYU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Sulistiawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan tekstil di Indonesia terus meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk. Selama ini pemenuhan tekstil sebagian besar diimpor dari beberapa negara, antara lain: India, China, dan Jepang. Di sisi lain, Indonesia merupakan negara agraris, dengan limbah pertanian yang melimpah. Juga tanaman bambu tumbuh subur dan banyak terdapat di negeri ini. Keunggulan serat tekstil bambu adalah bersifat antiseptik, tahan terhadap mikroba. Penelitian ini merupakan salah satu langkah dalam pembuatan serat tekstil alami dari bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper dan limbah pertanian yaitu abu jerami padi dan kayu, yaitu tahap delignifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini mencari waktu perendaman bambu dalam ekstrak abu yang memberikan hasil terbaik. Bambu dipotong dan dibelah tipis, berukuran panjang 15 cm, setebal 0,5 mm. Mula-mula sampel bambu ditimbang (antara 12 sampai 57 gram, lalu direndam dalam ekstrak abu (jerami padi dan kayu sebanyak 500 ml dalam sebuah botol berkapasitas 600 ml dan ditutup. Perendaman dilakukan pada suhu kamar. Waktu perendaman bervariasi dari 4 jam hingga 80 jam. Setelah perendaman selesai, hasil disaring. Sampel filtrat dititrasi untuk diketahui konsentrasi alkali aktifnya. Bambu yang telah direndam lalu dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 110ºC sampai berat tetap. Selisih berat antara bambu awal dan akhir (kering dihitung, dan dianggap sebagai lignin yang terdegradasi. Dari penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa perendaman menggunakan ekstrak abu jerami padi memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dari pada ekstrak abu kayu, karena pengurangan berat padatan lebih besar. Hasil yang tertinggi pada perendaman menggunakan ekstrak abu jerami padi selama 76 jam, dengan selisih berat (basis kering mencapai 44,5%.

  12. Analysis of personal care products on model skin surfaces using DESI and PADI ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Tara L; Green, Felicia M; Faruqui, Nilofar; Gilmore, Ian S

    2011-08-21

    Two ambient ionisation techniques, desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) and plasma assisted desorption ionisation (PADI), have been used to analyse personal care products (PCPs) on fixed fibroblast cell surfaces. The similarities and differences between the two techniques for this type of analysis have been explored in various ways. Here, we show the results of DESI and PADI analysis of individual PCP ingredients as well as the analysis of these as complex creams on model skin surfaces, with minimal sample preparation. Typically, organosiloxanes and small molecules were detected from the creams. A study of the morphological damage of the fibroblast cells by the two ionisation techniques showed that for a less than 10% reduction in cell number, acquisition times should be limited to 5 s for PADI, which gives good signal levels; with DESI, the morphological damage was negligible. The operating parameters for the plasma source were optimised, and it was also found that the parameters could be modified to vary the relative intensity of different ions in the mass spectrum.

  13. BUDI DAYA TERPADU Cherax quadricarinatus DAN C. albertisi DENGAN PADI DALAM KOLAM TANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Cherax spp. in Indonesia is not so well known compare to other crustaceans such as penaeids shrimp, the main aquaculture products. Since the 1990’s, the production of cherax post larvae has been intended to supply the hobbyists of ornamental crustaceans.  No data available of how large is the production of cherax in Indonesia, either for food or ornament. To provide evidence that cherax is not a padi eater, an experiment was carried out in an integrated culture with padi in 1 m x 1 m x 0.5 m earthen ponds. The cherax stocked into the ponds are C. quadricarinatus and C. albertisi, at 15 PL-45/m2 of each different pond. The water depth in each pond is maintained at 30—40 cm on the perimeter ditch. The feed, grower penaeids shrimp feed, is given at 3% biomass weight when necessary. The cherax is sampled every 30 days for total and carapace length as well as individual weight. Number and weight of grain produced and numbers of paddy seedling are the variable observed to monitor padi growth. The number of grains and seedling in cherax ponds which is not significantly different (P>0.05 from those in ponds without cherax indicating that cherax is not padi eater. Either C. quadricarinatus or C. albertisi achieved maximum individual weight of 20 g in 90 days rearing period. Both of the cherax are dyke hole maker, but tend to causing seepage. The depth of the hole ranges from 20—80 cm, just enough for the cherax to hide just after moulting. Obviously, cherax culture could be developed as a new source of income for the farmers and would not cherax is not padi eater. Either C. quadricarinatus or C. albertisi achieved maximum individual weight of 20 g in 90 days rearing period. Both of the cherax are dyke hole maker, but tend to causing seepage. The depth of the hole ranges from 20—80 cm, just enough for the cherax to hide just after moulting. Obviously, cherax culture could be developed as a new source of income for the farmers and would not threaten the production

  14. TEKNIK PENGATURAN AIR PADA INTENSIFIKASI PADI AEROB TERKENDALI-BERBASIS ORGANIK (IPAT-BO UNTUK MENINGKATKAN POPULASI RHIZOBACTERIA, EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN AIR, PERAKARAN TANAMAN, DAN HASIL TANAMAN PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hingdri -

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teknik pengaturan air pada budidaya tanaman padi melalui Intensifikasi Padi Aerob Terkendali-Berbasis Organik (IPAT-BO perlu dilakukan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengtahui aktivitas rhizobacteria, tingkat efisiensi penggunaan air, perkaran tanaman, dan hasil tanaman pada berbagai teknik pengaturan air.Penelitian dilaksanakan di lahan percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Winaya Mukti, Tanjungsari pada inceptisol pada skala pot plastik. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK faktor tunggal dengan 16 perlakuan dan diulang tiga kali, yaitu terdiri dari kombinasi antara perlakuan air dan empat varietas. Perlakuan air: tinggi muka air + 5cm, 0 cm, – 5 cm dan  – 10 cm. Empat varietas: Ciherang, Sintanur, Inpari 13 dan Fatmawati..Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat pengaruhnyata terhadap populasi Rhizobacteria, perkembangan akar, dan hasil tanaman. Perlakuan tinggi muka air – 10 cm varietas Fatmawati memberikan hasil tertinggi pada volume akar 186,67 ml, populasi bakteri Azotobacter sp. (1,43 x 1010 CFU g-1, bakteri pelarut fosfat (6,07 x 108 CFU g-1, hasil tanaman tertinggi 95,9 g rumpun-1 setara dengan 9,14 ton ha-1 serta meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan air 47,1 % dibandingkan dengan pengenangan 5 cm.Kata kunci:  Teknik pengaturan air, efisiensi penggunaan air, IPAT-BO, populasi rhizobakteria

  15. The prosocial and aggressive driving inventory (PADI): a self-report measure of safe and unsafe driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul B; Houston, John M; Vazquez, Jose A; Smither, Janan A; Harms, Amanda; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Sachau, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Surveys of 1217 undergraduate students supported the reliability (inter-item and test-retest) and validity of the Prosocial and Aggressive Driving Inventory (PADI). Principal component analyses on the PADI items yielded two scales: Prosocial Driving (17 items) and Aggressive Driving (12 items). Prosocial Driving was associated with fewer reported traffic accidents and violations, with participants who were older and female, and with lower Boredom Susceptibility and Hostility scores, and higher scores on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism. Aggressive Driving was associated with more frequent traffic violations, with female participants, and with higher scores on Competitiveness, Sensation Seeking, Hostility, and Extraversion, and lower scores on Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. The theoretical and practical implications of the PADI's dual focus on safe and unsafe driving are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Padi2 as a novel angiogenesis-regulating gene by genome association studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajavi, Mehrdad; Zhou, Yi; Birsner, Amy E; Bazinet, Lauren; Rosa Di Sant, Amanda; Schiffer, Alex J; Rogers, Michael S; Krishnaji, Subrahmanian Tarakkad; Hu, Bella; Nguyen, Vy; Zon, Leonard; D'Amato, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Recent findings indicate that growth factor-driven angiogenesis is markedly influenced by genetic variation. This variation in angiogenic responsiveness may alter the susceptibility to a number of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Here, we utilized the genetic diversity available in common inbred mouse strains to identify the loci and candidate genes responsible for differences in angiogenic response. The corneal micropocket neovascularization assay was performed on 42 different inbred mouse strains using basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) pellets. We performed a genome-wide association study utilizing efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) mapping using the induced vessel area from all strains. Our analysis yielded five loci with genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 15 and 16. We further refined the mapping on chromosome 4 within a haplotype block containing multiple candidate genes. These genes were evaluated by expression analysis in corneas of various inbred strains and in vitro functional assays in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Of these, we found the expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase type II (Padi2), known to be involved in metabolic pathways, to have a strong correlation with a haplotype shared by multiple high angiogenic strains. In addition, inhibition of Padi2 demonstrated a dosage-dependent effect in HMVECs. To investigate its role in vivo, we knocked down Padi2 in transgenic kdrl:zsGreen zebrafish embryos using morpholinos. These embryos had disrupted vessel formation compared to control siblings. The impaired vascular pattern was partially rescued by human PADI2 mRNA, providing evidence for the specificity of the morphant phenotype. Taken together, our study is the first to indicate the potential role of Padi2 as an angiogenesis-regulating gene. The characterization of Padi2 and other genes in associated pathways may provide new understanding of angiogenesis regulation and novel targets for diagnosis and

  17. Identification of Padi2 as a novel angiogenesis-regulating gene by genome association studies in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khajavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings indicate that growth factor-driven angiogenesis is markedly influenced by genetic variation. This variation in angiogenic responsiveness may alter the susceptibility to a number of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Here, we utilized the genetic diversity available in common inbred mouse strains to identify the loci and candidate genes responsible for differences in angiogenic response. The corneal micropocket neovascularization assay was performed on 42 different inbred mouse strains using basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF pellets. We performed a genome-wide association study utilizing efficient mixed-model association (EMMA mapping using the induced vessel area from all strains. Our analysis yielded five loci with genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 15 and 16. We further refined the mapping on chromosome 4 within a haplotype block containing multiple candidate genes. These genes were evaluated by expression analysis in corneas of various inbred strains and in vitro functional assays in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. Of these, we found the expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase type II (Padi2, known to be involved in metabolic pathways, to have a strong correlation with a haplotype shared by multiple high angiogenic strains. In addition, inhibition of Padi2 demonstrated a dosage-dependent effect in HMVECs. To investigate its role in vivo, we knocked down Padi2 in transgenic kdrl:zsGreen zebrafish embryos using morpholinos. These embryos had disrupted vessel formation compared to control siblings. The impaired vascular pattern was partially rescued by human PADI2 mRNA, providing evidence for the specificity of the morphant phenotype. Taken together, our study is the first to indicate the potential role of Padi2 as an angiogenesis-regulating gene. The characterization of Padi2 and other genes in associated pathways may provide new understanding of angiogenesis regulation and novel targets for

  18. Hypoxia-induced autophagy is inhibited by PADI4 knockdown, which promotes apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Zhang, Changsong; Zong, Ming; Fan, Lieying

    2018-01-01

    Impaired apoptosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) is pivotal in the process of RA. Peptidyl arginine deiminase type IV (PADI4) is associated with autoantibody regulation via histone citrullination in RA. The present study aimed to investigate the role of PADI4 in the apoptosis of RA-FLS. FLS were isolated from patients with RA and a rat model. The effects of PADI4 on RA-FLS were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Hypoxia-induced autophagy was induced by 1% O2 and was detected by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analysis; in addition, apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. RA-FLS obtained from RA rat model exhibited significant proliferation under severe hypoxia conditions. Hypoxia also significantly induced autophagy and elevated the expression of PADI4. Subsequently, short hairpin RNA-mediated PADI4 knockdown was demonstrated to significantly inhibit hypoxia-induced autophagy and promote apoptosis in RA-FLS. The results of these in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that PADI4 may be closely associated with hypoxia-induced autophagy, and the inhibition of hypoxia-induced autophagy by PADI4 knockdown may contribute to an increase in the apoptosis of RA-FLS. PMID:29393388

  19. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PRODUKSI PADI Studi Kasus di Kecamatan Nogosari, Boyolali, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHANANTO - -

    2012-05-01

    was not optimum either so that its use needed to be increased.   Keywords: Rice production, production factor ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian antara lain untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi peningkatan produksi padi sawah, dan menganalisis tingkat optimasi penggunaan faktor-faktor produksi pada usahatani padi sawah. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap 120 petani sampel di empat desa sampel di wilayah Kecamatan Nogosari, Kabupaten Boyolali, Jawa Tengah. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dalam dua tahap, yang pertama menentukan sampel desa yang dilakukan dengan metode stratified random sampling dan yang kedua menentukan petani sampel yang dilakukan dengan metode simpel random sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan teknik wawancara dengan menggunakan instrumen kuesioner. Alat analisis yang digunakan adalah model Fungsi produksi Transendental. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: model yang digunaka secara simultan faktor-faktor luas lahan garapan, jumlah tenaga kerja efektif, jumlah pupuk, jumlah pestisida, pengalaman petani dalam berusahatani, jarak rumah petani dengan lahan garapan, dan sistem irigasi berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap peningkatan produksi padi sawah. Selain itu model yang digunakan menunjukkan bahwa: secara parsial luas lahan garapan, jumlah tenaga kerja efektif, jumlah pupuk, jumlah pestisida (obat-obatan, jarak lahan garapan dengan rumah petani, dan sistem irigasi berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan produksi padi sawah, sedangkan, pengalaman petani tidak berpengaruh (non significant terhadap peningkatan produksi padi sawah. Sedangkan hasil analisis optimasi (efisiensi ekonomis penggunaan faktor produksi menunjukkan bahwa: luas lahan garapan belum optimum (efisien sehingga penggunaannya perlu ditambah, jumlah tenaga kerja efektif tidak optimum sehingga penggunaannya perlu dikurangi terutama pada MT. I dan MT. II sedangkan pada MT. III sudah optimum (efisien, jumlah pupuk tidak optimum sehingga penggunaannya perlu dikurangi, jumlah pestisida (obat

  20. Asap Cair Sabut Kelapa sebagai Repelan Bagi Hama Padi Walang Sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmat S. Santoso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asap cair sabut kelapa berpotensi sebagai repelan terhadap hama padi walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius Corixa Acuta Thumb. Asap cair ini diperoleh melalui pirolisis dari bahan yang banyak mengandung biomasa yaitu hemi selulosa, selulosa dan lignin dimana dekomposisinya merupakan senyawa fenol dan asam serta turunannya. Hasil identifikasi asap cair ini ada 25 senyawa dan 3 senyawa dominan diantaranya asam palmitat, metal oleat, siklo tetraheksana, yang mampu bekerja aktif sebagai repelan terhadap walang sangit hingga dapat menekan populasi menuju arah nilai ambang ekonomi. Serta bersifat anti mikroba dan bacteria bagi hama dan penyakit tanaman.Kata kunci: Asap cair, Repelan, Walang sangit.

  1. PENGGUNAAN PARTIAL LEAST SQUARE REGRESSION (PLSR UNTUK MENGATASI MULTIKOLINEARITAS DALAM ESTIMASI KLOROFIL DAUN TANAMAN PADI DENGAN CITRA HIPERSPEKTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Sukmono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klorofil merupakan pigmen yang paling penting dalam proses fotosintesis. Tanaman sehat yang mampu tumbuh maksimum umumnya  memiliki jumlah klorofil yang lebih besar daripada tanaman yang tidak sehat. Dalam Estimasi kandungan klorofil tanaman padi dengan airborne hiperspektral dibutuhkan model khusus untuk mendaaptkan akurasi yang baik. Citra Hhiperspektral mempunyai ratusan band dan julat yang sempit pada setiap bandnya, sehingga mempunyai kemampuan yang cukup baik untuk estimasi klorofil. Akan tetapi karena julat yang cukup sempit ini menyebabkan adanya efek multikolinearitas. Objek dari penelitian ini mengembangkan reflektan in situ menjadi model  estimasi kandungan klorofil tanaman padi untuk citra airborne hiperspektral dengan menggunakan metode partial least square regression untuk menghilangkan efek multikolinearitas.  Dalam penelitian ini dengan menggunakan teknik hubungan reflektan dan klorofil dipilih band-band yang berhungan dan efektif untuk estimasi klorofil. Dari hasil seleksi tersebut terpilih 44 band yang efektif untuk estimasi kandungan klorofil daun tanaman padi. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan mertode PLSR dapat menghasilkan model yang cukup baik untuk estimasi kandungan klorofil tanaman padi dengan nilai Koefisien determinasi (R2 mencapai 0.75 pada PC no 11 dan mempunyai RMSE sebesar 1.44 SPAD unit. Validasi menggunakan data citra airborne hiperspektral menghasilkan RMSE sebesar 1.07 SPAD Unit.

  2. PRODUKTIVITAS JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus PADA MEDIA LIMBAH SEKAM PADI DAN DAUN PISANG KERING SEBAGAI MEDIA ALTERNATIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparti Suparti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jamur tiram putih (Pleurotus ostreatus merupakan jenis jamur pangan yang banyak dikonsumsi mengandung protein 27%. Kandungan protein pada jamur tiram putih dapat dipengaruhi oleh komposisi media tanam seperti selulosa, hemiselulosa, lignin dan nutrisi tambahan. Sekam padi dan daun pisang kering merupakan salah satu limbah organik yang dapat digunakan sebagai media alternatif untuk meningkatkan produktivitas jamur tiram putih.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui produktivitas jamur tiram putih yang ditumbuhkan pada media  limbah sekam padi dan daun pisang kering sebagai media alternatif. Jenis penelitian eksperimen dengan metode rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dua faktor yaitu faktor 1 penambahan sekam padi dan faktor 2 daun pisang kering (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, masing-masing  dengan empat perlakuan dan dua kali ulangan.  Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa penambahan sekam padi dan daun pisang kering  15% (S3T3 memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap lama penyebaran miselium, jumlah badan buah dan berat segar jamur tiram putih.Perlakuan yang paling baik untuk pertumbuhan jamur pada perlakuan S3T3, dengan rata-rata lama penyebaran miselium 25,5 hari, jumlah badan buah 64,5 buah dan berat segar yang dihasilkan 402,5. Hasil data tersebut lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan yang lain.

  3. Marketing Analysis Strategy Organic Rice at UD. Padi Marketing Region Bekasi with Single Agent (Yasin Holistic Super Organic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Dasipah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic food (organic rice actually is not something new for Indonesian people. Before "Green Revolution" (1960th, Indonesian farmers have produced rice without using chemical pest and fertilizer (conventional rice. Holistic Super Organic (HSO rice is one of the brand organic rice, which is sold in Indonesia's market. Usaha Dagang (U.D. Padi is the company, which is special to produce, and marketing HSO rice. The research is wanted to know marketing strategy HSO rice, especially in district of Bekasi with SWOT analysis. This research used case study methods with held by interview and literature study. The result of analyzing identified that the strengths from U.D. Padi was dominant and the opportunities so on. So, the next plan of marketing's strategy for is Aggressive Strategy. Aggressive Strategy is the effort to maximalize the strengths to get the opportunities optimally. The strengths of U.D. Padi is the especially of product and the distribution strategy which was held with excellent. The opportunities U.D. Padi is the wealth people who was increasing and the distributor channel who was welcome.

  4. PERANCANGAN MODEL DISTRIBUSI KOMODITAS PADI PASKA-PANEN BERBASIS SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (Studi Kasus Sistem SAPA Sukabumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didiek Sri Wiyono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ditinjau dari kajian Supply Chain Management (SCM, salah satu akar masalah pada bisnis komoditas padi paska-panen adalah masalah distribusi. Rendahnya tingkat aksesibilitas informasi ketersediaan komoditas bagi para stakeholder mengakibatkan proses distribusi tidak berjalan dengan baik, sehingga sering terjadi penumpukan komoditas maupun kekosongan komoditas di sisi yang lain. Permasalahan komunikasi dan koordinasi ini mengakibatkan distribusi komoditas padi tidak berjalan dengan baik sehingga sangat merugikan  konsumen, petani dan semua pihak yang terlibat di dalam sistem SCM. Fokus penelitian ini adalah merancang model distribusi komoditas padi paska-panen. Rancangan model berbasis Supply Chain Management (SCM dipilih karena karakteristiknya dalam hal kemudahan interaksi antar   stakeholder  dinilai mampu menjawab permasalahan rendahnya tingkat aksesibilitas informasi ketersediaan komoditas. Proses perancangan dimulai dengan melakukan inventarisasi kebutuhan stakeholder hingga mendapatkan format yang sesuai dengan distribusi komoditas padi paska-panen. Selanjutnya dibuat System Requirement Specification (SRS dan diidentifikasi value chain dari komoditas padi paska-panen. SRS dan value chain yang telah didapat dijadikan dasar dalam merancang model distribusi dengan bantuan Use Case Model. Hasil penelitian ini berupa model bisnis yang komperhensif dari sebuah sistem distribusi komoditas padi paska-panen berbasis SCM yang telah disesuaikan  dengan kebutuhan pengguna. Kata kunci: Supply Chain Management, komunikasi dan koordinasi, penyebaran informasi,   model distribusi komoditas padi pascapanen.   Abstract With the Supply Chain Management’s (SCM appoach, uncertaintly of rice, main commodity in agri-industry after-harvest paddy, supply and distribution which is giving a bad impact for consumers, farmers, and all who are involved in this business, found that root of the problems is minimum availability of comodities and accessibility of

  5. NLRP1, PTPN22 and PADI4 gene polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis in ACPA-positive Singaporean Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Liuh Ling; Yong, Mei Yun; See, Wei Qiang; Chee, Edward Yu Wing; Lim, Pei Qi; Koh, Ee Tzun; Leong, Khai Pang

    2017-08-01

    Studies have shown that the genetic risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) differ substantially between Asian and Caucasian populations. Even among Asian populations, the genetic contributions of NLRP1, PTPN22 and PADI4 have been controversial. Consequently, we sought to address these separate findings and determine whether any of these proposed risk variants are associated with RA susceptibility, onset, DAS activity and erosion in a Singaporean Chinese cohort. We genotyped five SNPs within NLRP1 (rs878329 and rs6502867), PTPN22 (rs2488457 and rs6665194), and PADI4 (rs2240340) in 500 anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody-positive (ACPA) patients with RA and 500 healthy controls using TaqMan assays. The CC genotype of NLRP1 rs878329 and TT genotype of PADI4 rs2240340 were associated with RA susceptibility. The risk association of the T allele of PADI4 rs2240340 with RA was confirmed through a meta-analysis based on previous reports in Asian populations. The GG genotype of PTPN22 rs6665194 (-3508A>G) was associated with significantly reduced risk of RA. No significant association was found for NLRP1 rs6502867 T/C and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms. None of the five SNPs was associated with RA's clinical features. This work supports the association of the T allele of PADI4 rs2240340 with RA in Asians. The roles of NLRP1 rs878329 G/C and PTPN22 rs6665194 A/G polymorphisms were demonstrated for the first time. We also propose rs6665194 to be a promising candidate for RA risk evaluation between ethnicities.

  6. Keanekaragaman makrofauna tanah pada lahan tanaman padi dengan sistem rotasi dan monokultur di Desa Banyudono, Boyolali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYU OKTARIANA VIDYA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vidya AO, Sugiyarto, Sunarto. 2013. Diversity of soil macrofauna on the ricefield with rorarion and monoculture systems in Banyudono Village, Boyolali. Bioteknologi 11: 19-22. Makrofauna tanah berperan penting dalam menjaga kesuburan tanah persawahan. Perbedaan sistem pengelolaan lahan mempengaruhi populasi dan komposisi makrofauna tanah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui indeks keanekaragaman makrofauna tanah pada lahan tanaman padi dengan sistem rotasi dan monokultur di Desa Banyudono Boyolali, Jawa Tengah. Koleksi makrofauna dalam tanah dilakukan dengan metode hand sorting. Lokasi sampling ditentukan dengan metode purposive sampling, yang masing-masing stasiun terdapat 5 titik sampling. Indeks dinyatakan dengan indeks keanekaragaman Simpson. Perbandingan studi komunitas antar penggunaan lahan dinyatakan dengan Indeks Similaritas Sorensen. Hubungan antara keanekaragaman makrofauna tanah dengan faktor lingkungan abiotik dianalisis dengan korelasi Pearson. Berdasarkan penelitian ini ditemukan 3 phylum yaitu annelida, arthopoda dan mollusca. Indeks keanekaragaman makrofauna dalam tanah tertinggi adalah pada lahan tanaman padi monokultur umur 80 hari (0,66. Berdasarkan hasil korelasi pearson menunjukkan bahwa indeks keanekaragaman makrofauna dalam tanah berhubungan kuat dengan suhu tanah (-0,732.

  7. Kajian Termodinamika Adsorpsi Hibrida Merkapto-Silika dari Abu Sekam Padi Terhadap Ion Co(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Rasy Mujiyanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTelah dilakukan penelitian tentang kajian termodinamika adsorpsi hibrida merkapto-silika dari abu sekam padi terhadap ion Co(II. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kapasitas dan energi adsorpsi hibrida merkapto-silika (HMS dan silika gel (SG terhadap ion Co(II. Pada penelitian ini, silika gel dibuat menggunakan natrium silikat dari abu sekam padi. Selanjutnya, senyawa organik 3-(trimetoksisilil-1-propantiol diimobilisasi pada SG menghasilkan HMS. Adsorben dikarakterisasi menggunakan difraktometer sinar-X dan spektrofotometer FTIR. Larutan Co(II kemudian dikontakkan dengan SG dan HMS pada variasi pH, waktu, dan konsentrasi awal. Hasil penelitian kapasitas adsorpsi yang diperoleh HMS hampir tiga kali lebih besar dibandingkan dengan SG, dengan besarnya kapasitas adsorpsi masing-masing yaitu 250,00 mg/g dan 90,91 mg/g. Sedangkan energi adsorpsi yang diperoleh adalah 51,69 KJ/mol untuk SG, dan 23,65 KJ/mol untuk HMS.Kata kunci : sekam padi, hibrida merkapto-silika, adsorpsi, ion Co(IIAbstractA research on the study of the thermodynamics of adsorption mercapto-silica hybrid from rice husk ash to the ions Co (II has been done. This study aims to determine capacity and energy adsorption of hybrid mercapto-silica (HMS and silica gel (SG to the ions Co (II . In this study, silica gel was made using sodium silicate from rice husk ash. Furthermore, the organic compound 3-(trimethoxysilil -1-prophantiol immobilized on SG to HMS produced. Adsorbents were characterized using X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometer. Solution of Co (II is then contacted with the SG and HMS at the variation of pH, time , and initial concentration. The results obtained by HMS adsorption capacity is almost three times larger than the SG, the magnitude of adsorption capacity of each is 250.00 mg / g and 90.91 mg / g . While the adsorption energy obtained is 51.69 KJ / mol for SG , and 23.65 KJ / mol for HMS.Keywords : rice husk, mercapto-silica hybrid , adsorption

  8. Pengaruh Pretreatment Secara Alkalisasi-Resistive Heating terhadap Kandungan Lignoselulosa Jerami Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Maya Maharani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is a potential biomass that is used for bioethanol production and commonly present in agricultural residues like rice straw. Cellulose is an important material to produce glucose and bioethanol, but it is covered by lignin and hemicellulose bonds to form a lignocellulose.  Bioethanol production using basic material containing cellulose requires special attention in the process of pretreatment for lignin degradation process and increase the accessible surface and decrystallize cellulose. The aim of this research was to apply alkalization and resistive heating combine method for rice straw pretreatment process before further being converted into bioethanol and to determine the effects of heating temperature and NaOH concentration on the content of  lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. The reactor had been designed for resistive heating process. Rice straw that was resized into 100 mesh has dissolved with 0.03 M, 0.05 M, and 0.07 M NaOH and heated with resistive heating temperature of 75 oC, 85 oC, and 99 oC. Cellulose is a raw material that will be further converted into glucose. So that, the selected optimum conditions of this study were  pretreatment with the highest increase of cellulose content level until 8.88% and resulted decreasing levels of lignin (1.39% and hemicellulose (4.33% by temperature  75 oC and 0.07 M NaOH concentration. Resistive heating that combine with alkalization can be used for rice straw pretreatment process that reduce lignin and hemicellulose content as well as increasing cellulose content.   ABSTRAK Selulosa merupakan biomassa yang potensial digunakan untuk produksi bioetanol dan banyak ditemukan di residu pertanian seperti jerami padi. Selulosa merupakan material penting yang dapat dikonversi menjadi glukosa kemudian dikonversi menjadi bioetanol, namun selulosa pada alam dilapisi oleh ikatan lignin dan hemiselulosa menjadi lignoselulosa. Pembuatan bioetanol berbasis selulosa membutuhkan proses

  9. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  10. Responses of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) to susceptible and resistant lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; McCreight, James D

    2006-06-01

    Nymphs and alates of aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae) were tested on 10 lettuce cultivars with N. ribisnigri resistance gene Nr and 18 cultivars without the resistance gene in various bioassays. Bioassays used whole plants, leaf discs, or leaf cages to determine susceptibility of commercial lettuce cultivars to N. ribisnigri infestation and to evaluate screening methods for breeding lettuce resistance to N. ribisnigri. Resistant and susceptible plants were separated in 3 d when using whole plant bioassays. Long-term (> or =7 d) no-choice tests using leaf cages or whole plants resulted in no survival of N. ribisnigri on resistant plants, indicating great promise of the Nr gene for management of N. ribisnigri. Effective screening was achieved in both no-choice tests where resistant or susceptible intact plants were tested separately in groups or individually and in choice tests where susceptible and resistant plants were intermixed. Leaf discs bioassays were not suitable for resistance screening. All lettuce cultivars without the resistance gene were suitable hosts for N. ribisnigri, indicating the great importance of this pest to lettuce production and the urgency in developing resistant lettuce cultivars to manage N. ribisnigri.

  11. Distribution and population development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) in iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2004-06-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the distribution and development of aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae) populations in iceberg lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. 'Salinas'. Lettuce plants were transplanted and caged individually in the field and inoculated with apterous N. ribisnigri at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after transplanting in spring and fall 2002. Plants were harvested 15-50 d after inoculations; numbers of alates and apterous N. ribisnigri were counted or estimated on each leaf for each plant. Inoculations during all 5 wk of plant development resulted in successful colonization of lettuce heads. Results indicated that head formation did not reduce the risk of colonization by N. ribisnigri to iceberg lettuce; plants were susceptible to colonization by N. ribisnigri throughout their development. For later inoculations, N. ribisnigri populations were relatively smaller, and aphids were found mostly within the heads. For earlier inoculations, N. ribisnigri populations were larger, and within-plant distributions shifted toward frame leaves. The shift of population distributions toward frame leaves correlated significantly with increases in N. ribisnigri population density. For most inoculations, more aphids were present on wrapper leaves than on other leaves. The proportion of alates did not vary significantly with population density. Population development of N ribisnigri also correlated significantly with heat unit accumulation. Yellow sticky cards were used to monitor alates in each cage. Catches of N. ribisnigri alates on yellow sticky cards were significantly correlated with total numbers of alates as well as with total population sizes on individual lettuce plants.

  12. Homoptera, Cicadidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-10-24

    Oct 24, 1988 ... There are also morphological differences between the two taxa which parallel the differences in their .... Female 5 31,0 29,9--32,2 9 26,8 25,3-28,7 -8,11 0,0001. • Student's t test. [. 1mm. A. B. Figure 2 Male genitalia (pygophore and urite). A, P. stridula; ... mainly on trees, all of which were exotics, e.g. Port.

  13. Homoptera: Cicadidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-10-24

    Oct 24, 1988 ... The geographical distributions, habitat preferences, plant associations and seasonal appearance of the platypleurine cicadas occurring on the Natal coastal plain, South Africa, are reported for the first time, and a key to the species is provided. Die geografiese verspreiding, habitatvoorkeur, plantassosiasies ...

  14. Homoptera: Aphididae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and parasitoids per plant, ladybird beetles per plot, and finally grain yield per plot were recorded. Based on the results of the ANOVA, plant ... is a food, fodder and feed crop belonging to the family Leguminosae (= Fabaceae) ... use of predators, parasitoids and pathogens for pest control, either by introduction from other ...

  15. PERAN KEPEMIMPINAN KONTAK TANI DALAM PROSES DIFUSI INOVASI TEKNOLOGI PENGELOLAAN TANAMAN DAN SUMBERDAYA TERPADU PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepi Rospina Pertiwi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmers group is lead by a farmer leader that was expected to improve a dynamic of group activities. The farmer leader has significant role in ensuring the relationship between farmers in relation to the information sharing of the agricultural innovation. This study was aimed to examine the leadership role of the farmer leaders in the process of technology diffusion namely PTT Paddy, an innovation that was currently being introduced. An explanatory research design was chosen to describe the phenomenon of the leadership role of farmer leaders that was evaluated by other farmers. The research was conducted in the subdistrict Carenang, Serang, Banten. Forty participants in successfull farmer groups were selected to evaluate farmer leadership characteristics. The results showed that the farmer leaders have been helping the group to achieve goals, improving communication, increasing the motivation of the farmers, facilitating the farming infrastructure, and solving problems. The role of the farmer leaders as bridging agent in communication is categorized satisfactory. This role is effectively used in the process of the innovation dissemination of PTT Paddy to the farmers. Kelompok tani dipimpin oleh seorang kontak tani yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan dinamika kegiatan kelompok. Kontak tani memiliki peran penting dalam memastikan hubungan antara petani dengan berbagi informasi mengenai inovasi pertanian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti peran kontak tani dalam proses difusi teknologi yaitu Pengelolaan Tanaman dan Sumberdaya Terpadu (PTT Padi, sebuah inovasi yang saat ini sedang diperkenalkan. Desain penelitian adalah eksplanatory research dipilih untuk menggambarkan fenomena peran kontak tani yang dievaluasi oleh petani lain. Penelitian dilakukan di Kecamatan Carenang, Serang, Banten. Empat puluh peserta dalam kelompok tani terpilih untuk mengevaluasi karakteristik kontak tani. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kontak tani telah membantu

  16. KAJIAN KUAT BENDING DAN KADAR AIR PADA KOMPOSIT DARI SEKAM PADI DAN SERAT BAMBU MENGGUNAKAN STATISTIK TAGUCHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Yunianto Prihatin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kayu merupakan komoditi utama dalam pembuatan mebel yang berasal dari alam. Dewasa ini penyusutan  hutan  dunia  telah  mengkhawatirkan mencapai  80%.  Sehingga  kebutuhan  oksigen  akan menurun karena tidak sesuai dengan upaya reboisasi. Disisi lain bambu memiliki kelebihan dalam hal masa panen yang lebih cepat berkisar 2–3 tahun. Sedangkan sekam padi adalah limbah yang dihasilkan dari kegiatan pengolahan hasil pertanian yang pemanfaatannya selama ini hanya sebagai bahan pembantu dalam aktifitas produksi, maka nilai ekonomis sekam padi ini sangat rendah. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas, maka penelitian ini dititik beratkan pada pembuatan komposit anyaman bambu dan sekam padi sebagai pengganti kayu dalam industri mebel. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimen statistik taguchi, sehingga meghasilkan nilai kuat bending optimal 35,58N/mm2 dengan kadar air 0,334%. Kondisi optimal tersebut terdiri dari A3B2C2D1 Variasi anyaman Satin, Tekanan hidrolik 60N, Waktu pemanasan sebelum pengecoran pada suhu 105oC adalah 45 menit, dan Komposisi = Resin 100 : Katalis 0,75.

  17. PENGGUNAAN ALGORITMA NDVI DAN EVI PADA CITRA MULTISPEKTRAL UNTUK ANALISA PERTUMBUHAN PADI (STUDI KASUS : KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Hafizh S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Indramayu merupakan salah satu kabupaten yang merupakan daerah sentra pertanian dimana sektor ini menyumbang 43% dari total PDRB (Produk Domestik Regional Bruto. Strategi yang tepat dan cepat harus dicanangkan untuk selalu memenuhi kebutuhan akan bahan pokok tersebut. Teknologi penginderaan jauh dapat mengakomodir informasi suatu objek secara cepat dan akurat tanpa harus berinteraksi langsung dengan objek dan dapat dimanfaatkan dalam berbagai aplikasi yang diinginkan. Pembangunan model - model estimasi produktivitas pada beberapa komoditas vegetasi pertanian seperti padi telah digunakan sejak dua dekade lalu. Dari berbagai macam permodelan vegetasi, indeks vegetasi yang paling umum digunakan adalah NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dan EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah penentuan fase pertumbuhan , masa tanam, dan masa panen tumbuhan padi pada citra MODIS L1B. Masa tanam padi di kabupaten Indramayu berada pada bulan Juni dan Desember 2011, masa panen berada pada bulan  Mei dan September 2011. Citra Aster digunakan sebagai data pendukung untuk menentukan korelasi linear  terhadap data lapangan (fieldspectometer. Korelasi yang dihasilkan Antara Modis - Aster sebesar 0.9576 pada EVI dan 0.9654 pada NDVI; Modis - Fieldspectometer sebesar 0.8798 pada EVI dan 0.9077 pada NDVI; dan pada Aster - Fieldspectometer sebesar 0.9220 pada EVI dan 0.9460 pada NDVI. Korelasi dari ketiga data tersebut memiliki hubungan yang cukup kuat dikarenakan nilai yang dihasilkan mendekati nilai 1.

  18. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  19. How the use of nitrogen fertiliser may switch plant suitability for aphids: the case of Miscanthus, a promising biomass crop, and the aphid pest Rhopalosiphum maidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Florent; Chesnais, Quentin; Catterou, Manuella; Rambaud, Caroline; Doury, Géraldine; Ameline, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    The use of nitrogen fertiliser in agrosystems can alter plant nitrogen and consequently improve nutrient availability for herbivores, potentially leading to better performance for herbivores and higher pest pressure in the field. We compared, in laboratory conditions, the effects of nitrogen fertilisation on a promising biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus, and its parents M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. The plant-mediated effects were compared on the second trophic level, the green corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis. Results showed that the biomass and leaf C:N ratio of M. sinensis plants treated with nitrogen fertiliser were significantly greater than those of non-treated plants. As regards M. × giganteus and M. sacchariflorus, the only reported change was a significantly smaller leaf C:N ratio for treated M. sacchariflorus compared with non-treated plants. Surprisingly, nitrogen fertilisation had opposite effects on plant-herbivore interactions. Following nitrogen treatments, M. sinensis was less suitable in terms of intrinsic rate of increase for R. maidis, the feeding behaviour of which was negatively affected, while M. sacchariflorus and M. × giganteus exhibited greater suitability in terms of aphid weight. Nitrogen fertilisation had contrasting effects on the three species of Miscanthus plants. These effects cascaded up to the second trophic level, R. maidis aphid pests, either through a modification of their weight or demographic parameters. The implications of these results were discussed in the context of agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. PENINGKATAN CD8 DAN IFN-γ PADA HYPERSENSITIVITY PNEUMONITIS (HP AKIBAT PAJANAN DEBU PENGGILINGAN PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Ma'rufi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak     Masalah klinis kesehatan kerja pada pekerja penggilingan padi saat ini adalah penyakit saluran pernafasan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis peningkatan CD8 dan IFN-γ pada Pneumonitis Hipersensitif (HP akibat pajanan debu penggilingan padi pada mencit  (Musmusculus BALB/C. Penelitian yang dilakukan adalah penelitian eksperimental laboratoris dengan hewan coba mencit (Musmusculus BALB/C,  rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Randomized the post test only control group design. Mencit  (Musmusculus BALB/C dipajan dengan debu penggilingan padi selama empat jam/hari selama tiga puluh hari dengan konsentrasi 0.50 mg/m3, 0.75 mg/m3, 1.00 mg/m3. Variabel bebas adalah debu penggilingan padi, sedangkan variabel tergantung adalah   CD8 dan IFN-γ, serta gambaran histopatologis paru mencit, sedangkan variabel kendali adalah strain, berat badan, dan umur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terjadi peningkatan kadar CD8 antara kontrol dengan perlakuan, dan secara statistik  ada perbedaan yang bermakna. Kemudian terjadi peningkatan IFN-γ dan secara statistik ada perbedaan yang bermakna antara kontrol dan perlakuan pada mencit  (Musmusculus BALB/C. Hasil penelitian dapat digunakan sebagai dasar upaya pencegahan dan pemberian terapi penyakit HP lebih dini sehingga dapat meningkatkan kualitas paru.   Kata Kunci: CD8, IFN-γ,  debu penggilingan padi     Abtract   The purpose of this research was to analyze increase of CD8  and IFN-γ of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP as a result from the exposure of dust from paddy milling on mice (MusmusculusBALB/C. The research done was a laboratory experimental research with mice (MusMusculus as experimental animal.  The research design used was the post only control group design using mice (MusMusculus Balb/c as experimental animal.  Mice (Musmusculus Balb/c were exposed to dust from paddy milling for four (4 hours/day and it was done for thirty (30 days with the exposed

  1. Molecular systematics of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae): new insights from the long-wavelength opsin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rivas, Benjamín; Moya, Andrés; Martínez-Torres, David

    2004-01-01

    Viviparous aphids (Aphididae) constitute a monophyletic group within the Homoptera with more than 4000 extant species worldwide but higher diversity in temperate regions. Several aspects of their biology account for attention paid to this group of insects. Their plant-sap-sucking way of feeding with many species transmitting viruses to crop plants has important implications on crop management strategies. Cyclical parthenogenesis associated in many groups to host alternation and elaborate polyphenisms is of special interests for evolutionists. Finally, the ancient association of most aphid species with intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria (Buchnera sp.) has also received much attention from evolutionists interested in mechanisms involved in the symbiotic process. Knowing the phylogenetic relationships among major aphid taxa is of special interest to evolutionists interested in the above issues. However, until recently, molecular approaches to aphid phylogeny were absent and discussions on the evolution of aphid life-cycles and on evolutionary aspects of their symbiotic association with Buchnera were framed by morphology-based phylogenies. Recently, two reports using molecular approaches attempted to address the yet unresolved phylogeny of Aphididae with limited although somehow different conclusions. In the present report we study the utility of the long-wave opsin gene in resolving phylogenetic relationships among seven subfamilies within the Aphididae. Our results corroborate some previously proposed relationships and suggest a revision of some others. In particular, our data support grouping the analysed aphid species into three main clades, being the subfamily Lachninae one of them, which contradicts its generally accepted sistership relationship with the subfamily Aphidinae. Moreover, our data also suggest a basal position of Lachninae which has implications on current discussions about the ancestrality of conifer-feeding in modern aphids.

  2. Evaluasi keseragaaman, keragaman, dan kestabilan karakter agronomi galur-galur padi haploid ganda hasil kultur antera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIATNA SASMITA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sasmita P. 2011. Evaluasi keseragaman, keragaman, dan kestabilan karakter agronomi galur-galur padi haploid ganda hasil kultur antera. Bioteknologi 8: 10-17. Pembentukan galur haploid ganda dalam kultur antera bertujuan untuk mempercepat perolehan galur murni. Seleksi karakter yang diinginkan dapat dilakukan langsung terhadap progeni hasil kultur antera pada generasi awal. Percobaan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik agronomi, keseragaman, dan kestabilan galur haploid ganda, serta mendapatkan putatif galur-gallur haploid ganda sebagai bahan evaluasi lebih lanjut untuk mendapatkan galur harapan. Percobaan pertama menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap diulang lima kali. Perlakuannya aadalah 111 galur haploid ganda hasil kultur antera generasi pertama (DH1. Percobaan kedua menggunakan rancangan petak terpisah dengan perlakuan petak utama adalah galur haploid ganda hasil kultur antera dan perlakuan anak petaknya generasi galur haploid ganda kedua (DH2 hingga kelima (DDH5. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa setiap tanaman dalam galur yang sama memiliki karakter agronnomi seragam, sedangkan tanaman antar galur berbeda memiliki karakter agronomi beragam. Hasil evaluasi lebih lanjut terhadap tiga dari 111 galur haploid ganda yang berasal dari generasi kedua hingga kelima menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan karakter antar generasi untuk setiap p galur yang sama. Hasil penelitian tersebut menunjukkan pula bahwa karakteristik agronomi galur haploid ganda stabil dari generasi ke generasi.

  3. Desa Tani, Penduduk Miskin, Lumbung Padi, dan Layanan Implementatif Perpustakaan Desa di Kecamatan Pamarican Kabupaten Ciamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawit M Yusup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study aims to explore the initial data on the pilot system development joint venture farmer groups in the form of a granary (granaries famine in the village. These types of business groups based on local knowledge systems are characterized by togetherness, solidarity, mutual help, and proved resilient in the face of global change. To begin the steps necessary technical-strategic and integrated approach, involving various related elements, such as universities, business entities that exist in the village, community leaders, business groups community, village library, and other elements. The approach used is the field observation and interviews with a number of related elements. The technical measures that do are as follows: (a explore the initial information through discussions with the community about the problems of rural poverty maps from the aspects of the provision of business training based reading information sources entrepreneurship; (b study with poor rural communities about the potential for business in the village on the basis of their views and experiences; (c developing a business model based on the use of reading materials that match the type of business in the village; (d a discussion on the pilot implementation of a business group based Lumbung Padi village, which proved resistant to global change; and (e to synergize all activities performed by each of the above elements, in the form of a model village harmony peasants, the poor, granary, and the village library.

  4. Comparative efficacy of some insecticides against cotton whitefly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (homoptera: aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.K.; Hasnain, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of five commonly used insecticides viz., acetamiprid, buprofezin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and endosulfan against nymph and adult population of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions has been studied. Results showed that buprofezin was the most effective insecticide against nymph population of whitefly among the tested insecticides where nymphal population of B. tabaci was 0.2/leaf after 24h spray as compared to 1.9/leaf in control. Acetamiprid was the most effective against adult population of whitefly (0.3 to 1.3/leaf post 72 h spray, as compared to control with 6.9 to 8.2/leaf) followed by diafenthiuron and imidaclopirid. whereas, endosulfan was found to be the least effective on both populations as adult and nymph of whitefly. From the tested insecticides, acetamaprid gave effective control of both nymph and adult population of B. tabaci. (author)

  5. Feeding non-preference of the corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae to corn plants (Zea mays L. treated with silicon Não-preferência do pulgão-da-folha Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae para plantas de milho (Zea mays L. tratadas com silício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Campos Moraes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A tactic for control to corn leaf Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 would be the use of resistant materials, but, for not being a key pest of the crop, there are not yet corn genotypes availables with those characteristics. So, it was aimed in this work to evaluate the effect of silicon on the aphid's development on corn plants. Preference tests with leaves detached from the plants and on corn plants were accomplished. Its was found that the treatments where silicon was applied to the soil plus a foliar sprayed fertilization or through two foliar applications were the ones which contained a lower number of aphids, increasing the resistance of leaves and making the feeding of those insects difficult. In general, the results showed that silicon affected the leaf aphid's preference.Uma tática para o controle do pulgão-do-milho Rhopalosiphum maids (Fitch, 1856 seria a utilização de materiais resistentes, porém, por não se tratar de uma praga-chave da cultura, não há, ainda, disponibilidade de genótipos de milho com essas características. Assim com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do silício na preferência do pulgão-da-folha em plantas de milho. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de silício via solo e/ou foliar e testemunha. Foram realizados testes de não-preferência com folhas destacadas e diretamente em plantas de milho. Verificou-se que os tratamentos nos quais o silício foi aplicado via solo mais uma adubação foliar, ou mediante duas aplicações foliares, foram os que apresentaram menor número de pulgões, aumentando a resistência das folhas e dificultando a alimentação desses insetos. De modo geral, o silício afetou a preferência do pulgão-da-folha.

  6. Identifikasi Transgene pada Tanaman Padi (oryza sativa var. koshihikari yang Ditransformasi dengan Bantuan Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Menggunakan Metode Tanpa Teknik Kultur Jaringan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Suparthana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metode transformasi tanaman dengan bantuan Agrobacterium tumefaciens biasa dilakukan dengan melibatkan teknik kultur jaringan, akan tetapi teknik kultur jaringan memiliki beberapa kelemahan yaitu memerlukan suatu kondisi steril, memakan banyak waktu, sering terjadi mutasi dalam proses kultur in vitro dan sejumlah tanaman bersifat rekalsitran pada tahap regenerasi. Disisi lain metode baru (in planta transformation system yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini mampu mengatasi kelemahan-kelemahan tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan pada tanaman padi dengan bantuan A. tumefaciens sebagai inokulum namun tidak melibatkan teknik kultur jaringan pada masa regenerasinya. Biji padi (Oryza sativa L. var. Koshihikari direndam dalam air selama 2 hari, dengan demikian embrionya yang mengandung sel apikal meristem dapat diinokulasi dengan cara menusukkan jarum yang telah dicelupkan dalam inokulum. Biji padi yang telah diinokulasi selanjutnya ditumbuhkan dilapangan selayaknya pembenihan biasa tanpa perlakuan steril. Untuk menentukan keberhasilan teknik ini, dua jenis strain mutan A. tumefaciens (M-21 dan LBA4404 digunakan dalam transformasi. Mutan M-21 mengandung Tn5 tersisip dalam gen iaaM dan mutan LBA4404 membawa binari plasmid vektor. Transgen dari mutan M-21 dapat diidentifikasi dari perubahan fenotipe pada tanaman padi transgenik sedangkan dari mutan LBA4404 dapat diidentifikasi dengan uji histokimia dan ketahanan terhadap antibitik (hygromycin B.Kata kunci: in planta transformation, A. tumefaciens, transformation method

  7. PEMANFAATAN ZEOLIT DARI ABU SEKAM PADI DENGAN AKTIVASI ASAM UNTUK PENURUNAN KESADAHAN AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VH Putranto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aktivasi menggunakan asam kuat dalam sintesis zeolit dikenal dapat meningkatkan kemampuan zeolit sebagai adsorben. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan abu sekam padi sebagai sumber silika yang diaktivasi dengan HCl 2 M pada sintesis zeolit secara hidrotermal dan memanfaatkan zeolit hasil sintesis untuk menurunkan tingkat kesadahan air sumur. Proses aktivasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan larutan HCl 2 M. Zeolit hasil sintesis diuji secara kualitatif menggunakan Spektrofotometer Inframerah (FTIR dan Difraksi Sinar-X (XRD kemudian dimanfaatkan untuk menurunkan kadar ion logam Ca2+ dan Mg2+ penyebab kesadahan air dengan variasi waktu kontak (0, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, dan 120 menit dilanjutkan variasi massa zeolit sintetis (0,05; 0,1; 0,125; 0,25; serta 0,5 gram per volume air sumur 25 ml. Hasil uji komposisi kimia dengan Fluoresensi Sinar-X menunjukkan abu sekam padi yang telah diaktivasi memiliki kadar silika (SiO2 yang lebih tinggi yakni mencapai 95,83%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa zeolit sintetis yang dihasilkan merupakan zeolit tipe NaY (zeolite like dengan kristal cancrinite sebagai fasa dominan. Adsorbsi optimum ion logam Ca2+ dan Mg2+ dalam air sumur oleh zeolit hasil sintesis terjadi pada waktu 60 menit dengan penyerapan optimum sebesar 94,71% Ca2+ dan 84,55% Mg2+ serta pada massa adsorben optimum 0,125 gram dengan penyerapan optimum sebesar 93,02% Ca2+ dan 83,78% Mg2+.Activation using a strong acid in zeolite synthesis is known can enhance the ability of zeolite as adsorbent. This study aims to utilize rice husk ash as a source of silica, which is activated with 2 M HCl in zeolite synthesis hydrothermally and apply the zeolite to reduce the level of hardness in well water. The activation process is performed by using HCl 2 M solution. Zeolite product is analyzed qualitatively using infrared spectrometer (FTIR and X-ray Diffraction (XRD and then used to reduce the levels of metal ions Ca2+ and Mg2+ which cause water hardness

  8. Hubungan Antara Inokulum Awal Patogen dengan Perkembangan Penyakit Hawar Upih pada Padi Varietas Ciherang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Nuryanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Study on the role of initial inoculums on disease development of rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn was conducted in glass house at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Gadjah Mada from December of 2009 to July of 2010. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of sclerotia and mycelium in plant debris as primary inoculum form of R. solani. Results indicated that both sclerotia and mycelium in plant debris significantly affect the development of rice sheath blight. Disease severity was closely related to the number of sclerotia on rice plant. The highest disease severity was observed in plant inoculated with 10 sclerotia per hills. Treatments of 6 sclerotia and 5 g plant debris per hills had comparable effect on disease severity and area under disease progress curve of rice sheath blight. The results suggested that sclerotia and mycelia in plant debris might play a major role as primary inocula of the disease in rice growing field. Kajian tentang peranan inokulum awal dalam perkembangan penyakit hawar upih padi (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn telah dilakukan di rumah kaca Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada dari bulan Desember 2009 sampai Juli 2010. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi arti penting sklerotium dan miselium dalam serasah jerami sebagai bentuk inokulum utama dari R. solani. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sklerotium dan miselium dalam serasah jerami berpengaruh nyata terhadap perkembangan penyakit hawar upih. Keparahan penyakit berhubungan erat dengan jumlah sklerotium yang menempel pada tanaman. Keparahan tertinggi terjadi pada tanaman dalam pot yang diinokulasi 10 sklerotium per rumpun. Perlakuan dengan 6 sklerotium dan 5 g serasah jerami mempunyai pengaruh yang sebanding terhadap keparahan dan luas area di bawah kurva perkembangan penyakit. Sklerotium dan miselium dalam serasah jerami mempunyai peran penting sebagai inokulum awal penyakit hawar upih di persawahan.

  9. Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than

  10. Perbandingan Pendapatan, Curahan Jam Kerja, dan Tenaga Kerja Usaha Tani Tebu Rakyat Intensifikasi (TRI dengan Usaha Tani Padi di Desa Karangmojo Kecamatan Tasikmadu Kabupaten Karanganyar Tahun 1992/1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dahroni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Program Tebu Rakyat Intensifikasi (TRI adalah program nasional yang mulai dilaksanakan sejak dikeluarkannya Inpres Nomor 9 Tahun 1975. Mengingat arti pentingnya program TRI sebagai program nasional dan kelompok sasaran yang dituju yakni para petani, maka penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur besarnya perbandingan pendapatan petani dari usaha tani TRI dengan pendapatan petani dari usaha tani padi. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk mengukur besarnya curahan jam kerja yang dimanfaatkan dari masing-masing cabang usaha tani di Desa Karangmojo, Kecamatan Tasikmadu, Kabupaten Karanganyar. Dalam penelitian ini metode yang digunakan yakni metode survai dan penentuan sampel dilaksanakan secara sampling. Sampel wilayah dan sekaligus sebagai daerah penelitian, ialah ditentukan secara purposife. Responden dalam penelitian ini ialah petani yang berusaha pada TRI, petani padi, dan buruh tani. Pengambilan responden dilakukan dengan cara mengambil 55 responden, terdiri dari Kelompok I sebanyak 11 sampel petani TRI dan padi, Kelompok II sebanyak 27 sampel petani TRI dan padi, dan Kelompok III sebanyak 23 sampel petani TRI dan padi. Data yang diambil dalam penelitian ini yakni data primer dan sekunder ditambah data yang diperoleh melalui wawancara bebas kepada pamong penduduk yang ada hubungannya dengan penelitian ini. Jenis data primer yang dikumpulkan berupa pendapatan petani dari usaha tani TRI dan usaha tani padi. Data sekunder yang dikumpulkan antara lain data penduduk, luas penggunaan lahan, pengairan, curah hujan dan pengolahan TRI beserta besarnya rendemen tebu. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pendapatan dari usaha tani TRI lebih kecil daripada pendapatan usaha tani padi (pendapatan usaha tani padi banyak Rp. 2.297.363,90 sedangkan usaha TRI Rp. 7.927.866,12. Curahan jam kerja (jam kerja dan tenaga kerja yang dimanfaatkan dari usaha tani TRI lebih kecil daripada usaha tani padi (jumlah jam kerja usaha tani padi sebanyak 2.237,29 jam dan usaha

  11. KAJIAN INPUT ENERGI PADA BUDIDAYA PADI METODE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION Studies on Energy Input in System of Rice Intensification Method of Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwantana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available System of Rice Intensification (SRI is a rice cultivation method that intensively control and manage macro and micro nutrients as well as irrigation. This paper quantifies and compares the energy uses of SRI and conventional rice cultiva- tion systems. The study was conducted at some SRI’s experimental plots in the districts of Sleman, Kulonprogo, and Bantul, the province of Yogyakarta. The calculation of the energy was based on the farmers’ work schedule, the time required for each operation, the number of laborers, machines, tools, fuel, and all materials and inputs used. The result shows that SRI method consumed 35% less energy to conventional rice cultivation. Energy inputs from seed, water, fertilizer and pesticide were significantly reduces. However, there was higher input of human energy due to compost- ing, land preparation and weeding operations. The specific energy of SRI method was 1.96 MJ ha-1 lower than conven- tional method of 4.43 MJ ha-1. In the SRI method, 56.2 % of energy consumed was classified as direct energy and 43.8% was indirect energy. The SRI method used 61.9 % of renewable energy and 38.1 % of non-renewable energy. The working efficiency in composting and weeding operations should be improved in perspective of machine and tools to reduce the use of human energy. ABSTRAK System of Rice Intensification (SRI, merupakan suatu metode budidaya padi secara intensif dengan pengendalian unsur-unsur hara makro dan mikro disertai pengendalian dan pengaturan kebutuhan air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penggunaan energi dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada budidaya padi SRI. Pe- nelitian dilakukan di Kabupaten Sleman, Kulonprogo, dan Bantul, Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Pengamatan dilakukan pada plot-plot percobaan budidaya padi SRI dengan melakukan audit seluruh input energi selama proses budidaya dan dikomparasikan dengan input energi pada budidaya padi cara konvensional. Hasil

  12. Evaluasi Perlakuan Pendahuluan Menggunakan Kalsium Hidroksida untuk Biokonversi Jerami Padi Menjadi L-Asam Laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 (Evaluation of Lime Pretreatment for Bioconversion of Rice Straw to L-Lactic Acid by Rhizopus Oryzae AT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhina Aprilia Nurani Widyahapsari

    2016-12-01

    laktat menjadi polylactic acid untuk menghasilkan biodegradable plastic membutuhkan asam laktat dengan isomer spesifik. Rhizopus oryzae adalah mikroorganisme yang spesifik menghasilkan L-asam laktat. Selain itu Rhizopus oryzae dapat menggunakan limbah pertanian seperti jerami padi sebagai substrat. Komponen utama jerami padi merupakan lignoselulosa yang dapat dihidrolisa secara enzimatis menjadi komponen gula sederhana penyusunnya dan selanjutnya dapat dikonversi menjadi L-asam laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae. Namun struktur lignoselulosa sangat kompak dan rapat, sulit untuk dihidrolisa secara enzimatis sehingga diperlukan adanya perlakuan pendahuluan untuk merombak struktur lignoselulosa agar mudah dihidrolisa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan pendahuluan menggunakan kalsium hidroksida (Ca(OH2 terhadap biokonversi jerami padi menjadi L-asam laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3. Perlakuan pendahuluan pada jerami padi dilakukan menggunakan (Ca(OH2 disertai pemanasan suhu 85 °C selama 16 jam. Jerami padi dengan dan tanpa perlakuan pendahuluan dihidrolisa secara enzimatis menggunakan crude enzyme yang diproduksi oleh Trichoderma reesei Pk1J2. Produksi crude enzyme dilakukan dengan fermentasi substrat padat dengan campuran jerami padi dan dedak sebagai substrat. Hidrolisat jerami padi dengan dan tanpa perlakuan pendahuluan selanjutnya difermentasi oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 menggunakan metode adsorbed carrier solid state fermentation dengan polyurethane foam (PUF sebagai bahan pendukung. Perlakuan pendahuluan menggunakan Ca(OH2 disertai pemanasan suhu 85 °C selama 16 jam dapat merubah komposisi lignoselulosa jerami padi yaitu dengan melarutkan lignin dan hemiselulosa. Perubahan komposisi lignoselulosa memudahkan kerja crude enzyme dalam menghidrolisa jerami padi sehingga menghasilkan gula reduksi lebih tinggi dibandingkan jerami padi tanpa perlakuan pendahuluan. Tingginya gula reduksi tidak serta merta meningkatkan yield L-asam laktat yang dihasilkan

  13. Controle da pérola-da-terra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera:Margarodidae), através da insetigação

    OpenAIRE

    Hickel, Eduardo R.; Peruzzo, Edegar L.; Schuck, Enio

    2001-01-01

    A pérola-da-terra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera: Margarodidae), é a principal praga da videira no Sul do Brasil. As estratégias normais de controle desta praga não afetam a população do inseto porque os indivíduos estão no subsolo e desenvolvem um corpo globoso resistente a intempéries. Assim sendo, um ensaio foi conduzido em laboratório para verificar a possibilidade de aplicar a insetigação no controle da pérola-da-terra. Tubos de 50 mm de altura de cano PVC (150 mm fi) fo...

  14. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  15. Potential damages, seasonal abundance and distribution of Empoasca terminalis Distant (Homoptera: Cicadellidae on soybean in South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nasruddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant damages caused by leafhopper, Empoasca terminalis Distant (Homoptera: Cicadellidae on soybean were first encountered in 2007 in Makassar, South Sulawesi. The insect has been constantly associated with soybean crops in the province ever since. The purposes of the present study were to (i evaluate potential yield loss attributable to the leafhopper in an experimental set up, (ii seasonal abundance of E. terminalis, and (iii distribution of E. terminalis in all major soybean-producing areas in the province. Potential yield loss due to the leafhopper was assessed in a field experiment using two large plots. One of the plots was kept leafhopper-free by weekly insecticide sprays; and the other plot was left unsprayed to allow leafhopper infestation to occur. Adult abundance was weekly monitored using a sweep net throughout the season. Nymph abundance was determined by direct count on the plant leaves. Leafhopper distribution was assessed through surveys conducted in all major soybean-producing areas in South Sulawesi, from 2009–2013. The results of the study showed that E. terminalis caused an average yield loss of 26% on susceptible crops without insecticide use. First leafhopper infestation in all planting seasons occurred two weeks after the plant emergence. Rainfall negatively correlated with the leafhopper abundance. The leafhopper existed in all major soybean production areas in the province. Therefore, our results confirmed the status of E. terminalis as an important soybean pest in the region. In addition, crops planted early in the dry season could escape from heavy leafhopper infestation.

  16. Association of MiRNA-146a, MiRNA-499, IRAK1 and PADI4 Polymorphisms with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Egyptian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfat Gamil Shaker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting up to 1% of the population worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether miRNA-146a rs2910164, miRNA-499 rs3746444, IRAK1 rs3027898 and PADI4 rs1748033 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to RA in Egyptians and whether they influence disease severity and activity. Methods: The study was performed on 104 unrelated RA patients and 112 healthy subjects. RA patients were further subdivided into active and inactive RA groups. Polymorphisms were genotyped by using real-time polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Results: Significant differences in the frequency of miRNA-146a rs2910164, miRNA-499 rs3746444, IRAK1 rs3027898 and PADI4 rs1748033 alleles and genotypes were observed between RA patients and controls. Only CA and AA genotypes of IRAK1 rs3027898 shows a significant difference between active and inactive subgroups. MiRNA-146a rs2910164 and IRAK1 rs3027898 polymorphisms were a risk factor for predisposition to RA in codominant and dominant tested inheritance models, while, the miRNA-499 rs3746444 and PADI4 rs1748033 polymorphisms were a risk factor in codominant and recessive one. CG and GG genotypes of miRNA-146a rs2910164 were associated with positive erosions. CA genotype of IRAK1 rs3027898 was associated with low disease activity and negative erosions, while, the AA genotype was associated with high disease activity. CC genotype of PADI4 rs1748033 was associated with negative rheumatoid factor. Conclusion: The 4 studied SNPs were likely to play an important role in the susceptibility to RA and can influence disease severity and activity in Egyptian population.

  17. ANALISIS STRUKTUR PERILAKU DAN KINERJA PASAR (STRUCTURE, CONDUCT AND MARKET PERFORMAN KOMODITI PADI DI DESA BUNGA RAYA DAN DESA KEMUNING MUDA KECAMATAN BUNGA RAYA KABUPATEN SIAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIA DEWI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis struktur, perilaku, dan kinerja pemasaran beras di Kabupaten Bunga Raya. Lokasi penelitian ditentukan dengan menggunakan metode purpossive sampling yaitu dua desa menjadi sentra produksi padi. Responden penelitian adalah petani padi dan semua agensi pemasaran yang terlibat dalam pemasaran beras dari petani sebagai produsen ke pedagang besar sebagai konsumen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada tiga saluran pemasaran beras yaitu saluran pemasaran I petani menjual kepada pedagang pengumpul dan kemudian dijual ke pedagang besar, saluran pemasaran II petani menjual ke pedagang pengumul yang memiliki penggilingan padi kemudian dijual ke pedagang grosir dan saluran pemasaran III yaitu petani menjual langsung ke pedagang grosir. Struktur pasar beras adalah pasar oligopsoni karena dilihat dari jumlah pembeli yang relatif sangat sedikit, kemudian dilihat dari nilai market share, rasio konsentrasi dan indeks Herfindahl dari pedagang manapun menunjukkan nilai yang tidak terlalu berbeda. Petani sebagai produsen adalah penerima harga (price taker, dimana petani sebagai produsen mendapatkan perubahan nilai harga lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan pedagang grosir sebagai konsumen. Margin pemasaran terlihat dari setiap saluran pemasaran yang terjadi menunjukkan bahwa margin dan keuntungan paling banyak didapat oleh pedagang yang melakukan lebih banyak fungsi pemasaran.

  18. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  19. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  20. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson José da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar o potencial de crescimento de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson é importante para seu uso em programas de controle biológico de pulgões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a tabela de vida de fertilidade de L. testaceipes em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch e Aphis gossypii Glover. Na avaliação da mortalidade de imaturos, do desenvolvimento e da razão sexual foram utilizadas 12 fêmeas do parasitóide e 480 ninfas de cada pulgão testado. Na avaliação da longevidade e da fertilidade foram utilizadas 15 fêmeas do parasitóide e uma colônia por dia de cada pulgão, até a morte da fêmea do parasitóide, sendo 300 (1º dia; 250 (2º dia; 200 (3º dia; 150 (4º dia; 100 (5º dia e 50 ninfas nos demais dias. L. testaceipes apresentou taxas de mortalidade de imaturos de 5,6% em R. maidis e de 9,2% em A. gossypii, desenvolvimento de 10,2 e 10,1 dias e razão sexual de 0,71 e 0,66, respectivamente. L. testaceipes apresentou fecundidade de 498,2 ovos em R. maidis e de 327,8 ovos em A. gossypii. Os parâmetros de crescimento de L. testaceipes em R. maidis e A. gossypii foram, respectivamente, R O= 205,38 e 164,08 fêmeas; r m= 0,449 e 0,431 fêmeas/fêmeas/dia; lambda = 1,57 e 1,54 fêmeas/dia; T= 11,86 e 11,83 dias e TD= 10,78 e 11,27 dias. L. testaceipes apresenta alto potencial de crescimento em R. maidis e A. gossypii. R. maidis mostrou ser hospedeiro adequado aos propósitos de criação massal e utilização em sistema de criação aberta para L. testaceipes.The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female

  1. PANTAI PASIR PADI (PADDY SAND BEACH OF BANGKA ISLAND; CRABS (Scopimera sp POPULATION, FEEDING BEHAVIOUR AND THEIR BIRD PREDATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifa Marisa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An observation about beach crab (Scopimera sp population, their feeding behaviour and predator bird had been done at October 9 th, 2014 in Pantai Pasir Padi, Eastern Bangka Island beach, near Pangkal Pinang town. Ten 1 meter square plots were put at sandy beach and number of Scopimera sp be counted by the number of their hole nest home. Their feeding behaviour observed directly by eye-watching and video making. The threatening of bird predator was noted too.  The investigation find out that the mean of crabs population is 17 individu/m2 .  They come out from home hole for feeding around by sieving wet sand that be taken by front legs, obsorb organic nutrious material by mouth and kick residual sand to behind legs, move it as a small sand ball to right of left back side.  Production of small ball sand were about 15 - 30 balls /per minute. For making the nest hole, bigger sand ball were produced about 7 – 9 ball/minute; ball colour is same with under layer beach sand; quite grey. The crabs run instinctivey fast, when the threat come from their natural enemy, predator bird, Actitis hypoleucos.  Bird searching behaviour look adapted to the fast run of crab. Keywords: Scopimera sp, Actitis hypoleucos, small sand ball, predator, behaviour

  2. Climatic factors and populational dynamics of Mahanarva posticata (Stal-1855) (Homoptera-Cercopidae) as a contribution to a possible regional implantation of the sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.L. de

    1981-01-01

    A field study on the population dynamics of M. posticata (STAL, 1855) (Homoptera-Cercopidae) was carried out from 1971 to 1978 under the ecological conditions prevailing in the Litoral-Mata-Sul Zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. The results indicated that maximal infestation of the sugar cane crops by the insect generally occured in June and in July, and it was dependent on rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The population density of adults was decreased markedly during the months of January, February and March. Technical and economical viability of the insect control by the male-sterilization-techniques through radiation was also demonstrated. The technique is to be used isolated or with other conventional procedures in the combat of froghopper infestations in the sugar cane growing in Pernambuco, Brazil. (Author) [pt

  3. Analysis of the populations genetic variability of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), virus vector of the rice white leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Alfaro, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a monophagous insect of the rice and virus vector of the white leaf (RHBV). It is distributed in America Central, El Caribe, part of the America del Sur and in Costa Rica it is in all the producing zones of rice. The genetic variability was analyzed by means of RAPD-PCR of individuals from three populations of Costa Rica: Parrita, Guanacaste (Liberia) y San Carlos (Santa Clara), that they are found separated geographically. The technique consisted of amplifying regions at random of the genome of these insects utilizing five primers. A total of 72 polymorphic bands were obtained, that upon being analyzed statistically by means of the multivariate analysis program of numerical taxonomy could show a clear genetic distancing among said populations. The genetic distance observed in the molecular analysis can be explained for the climatic and/or geographical isolation of the populations or by the incident of Wolbachia, riquettsia that induces cytoplasmic sterility in insects. These symbionts are transmitted of generation in generation, of the mother to their offspring and they cause reproductive alterations as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. The presence of Wolbachia was determined by means of transmission electronic microscopy being observed in the greasy and muscular weave of the abdomen of T. orizicolus. Rickettsias present pleomorphic morphology and form small groups, that are characterized for the presence of electrondense material semidetached to the cell wall with an interior electronlucent. Its size in transverse cuts ranged between 520 nm of length X 470 nm of width. In addition, its presence was detected by means of the amplification by PCR of the genomic DNA of the insects; a specific primer for the DNA ribosomal 16S of Wolbachia was utilized for it. A 86% of insects of the San Carlos population were positive, a 96% was determined for Guanacaste, a 37% for Parrita and a 100% for

  4. PERBANDINGAN KEMAMPUAN SILIKA GEL DARI ABU SABUT KELAPA DAN ABU SEKAM PADI UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR LOGAM Cd2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AF Yusrin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai pembuatan silika gel dari bahan baku abu sabut kelapa (ASK dan abu sekam padi (ASP telah dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan kandungan silikanya. Bahan baku ASK dan ASP ditambah larutan NaOH dengan pemanasan dan peleburan pada suhu 500C selama 30 menit menghasilkan larutan natrium silikat, kemudian larutan natrium silikat masing-masing diasamkan dengan HCl 3 M hingga pH 7 dan dikeringkan hingga menjadi silika gel abu sabut kelapa (SG-ASK dan silika gel abu sekam padi (SG-ASP. Hasil karakterisasi XRD menyatakan bahwa SG-ASK dan SG-ASP menghasilkan silika berbentuk amorf, sedangkan hasil analisis FT-IR menyatakan bahwa silika gel memiliki gugus fungsi Si-OH, Si-O dan Si-H. Hasil penelitian mengenai uji penyerapan ion logam Cd2+ menunjukkan bahwa penyerapan optimum ion logam Cd2+ dalam larutan oleh SG-ASK adalah pada pH 6, waktu kontak 60 menit dan konsentrasi optimum 7,45 ppm. Hasil uji penyerapan optimum ion logam Cd2+ dalam larutan oleh SG-ASP pada pH 7, waktu kontak 90 menit dan konsentrasi optimum 11,78 ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan SG-ASP lebih besar dibandingkan dengan kemampuan SG-ASK dalam menurunkan kadar ion logam Cd2+ dalam larutan.Research on the manufacture of gel silica from coconut husk ash (ASK and rice husk ash (ASP has been conducted by utilizing their silica contents. ASK and ASP were added by an NaOH solution, then by heated and melted at temperature 500C for 30 minutes to produce sodium silicate solution. The solution was then acidified separately with HCl 3 M up to pH 7 and dried into silica gel of coconut husk ash (SG-ASK and silica gel of rice husk ash (SG-ASP. The result of XRD characterization showed that SG-ASK and SG-ASP both produced amorphous silica, while the result of FT-IR analysis showed that silica gel had functional groups of Si-OH, Si-O and Si-H. The research on the test adsorption of Cd2+ metal ions showed that the optimum adsorption of Cd2+ metal ions in solution by SG

  5. KOEFISIEN TANAMAN PADI SAWAH PADA SISTEM IRIGASI HEMAT AIR Crop Coefficient for Paddy Rice Field under Water Saving Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Sujono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional irrigation for paddy rice is the leading of consumer of water, about 80 % of the water resource availabilityused for irrigation purpose. This phenomenon is related to the way how to estimate the crop water requirement where crop coefficient for paddy rice (k (Prosida is always greater than one starting from planting up to nearly harvesting. In this research, a number of water saving irrigations (WSI systems for paddy rice cultivation using pots such asalternate wetting and drying (AWD, shallow water depth with wetting and drying (SWD, semi-dry cultivation (SDC, system of rice intensification (SRI, and  AWD with mulch (AWD-Mul were applied. The amount of irrigated water and when it should be irrigated depend on evapotranspiration rate, soil moisture condition and the WSI system used. For this purpose, daily measurement of the pot weight was carried out. Crop coefficient (k  is then caluculated as a cratio between crop and reference evapotranspiration computed using Penman-Montheit  method. Results show that up to 45 days after transplanting, the k of WSI treatments were around half of the k (Prosida values currently used for computing the water requirement, whereas at the productive stage the k of WSI systems were relatively equal (AWD, SDC to or greater (SRI, SWD than the k (Prosida. Based on the the k values, the AWD and the SDC systems could save much water compared to the SRI or the SWD. Water saving could be increased by applying the AWD with mulch. ABSTRAK Irigasi padi sawah dengan sistem tradisional merupakan sistem irigasi  yang boros air, hampir 80 % sumber air yang ada untuk irigasi. Hal ini tidak terlepas dari perhitungan kebutuhan air tanaman dengan nilai koefisien tanaman (k menurut Standar Perencanaan Irigasi (Prosida selalu lebih besar dari satu mulai dari tanam hingga menjelang panen.Dalam penelitian ini beberapa metoda budidaya padi hemat air seperti alternate wetting and drying (AWD, shallow water depth

  6. APLIKASI KOMBINASI KOMPOS JERAMI, KOMPOS AZOLLA DAN PUPUK HAYATI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN JUMLAH POPULASI BAKTERI PENAMBAT NITROGEN DAN PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN PADI BERRBASIS IPAT-BO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferina Rosiana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian untuk mengetahui efek pemberian kombinasi kompos jerami dengan Azolla dan pupuk hayati majemuk terhadap peningkatan populasi bakteri penambat N dan produktivitas tanaman padi dengan teknologi IPAT-BO dilaksanakan dari bulan April hingga Juli 2012 di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, dengan ketinggian + 740 m dpl. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok faktor tunggal dengan dua belas perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari (A tanpa kompos jerami, (B kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1, (C kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1, (D kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (E kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (F kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1, (G pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (H kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (I kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (J kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (K kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1, (L kompos jerami 5 ton ha-1 + kompos Azolla 0,5 ton ha-1 + pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1.Aplikasi perlakuan kompos jerami, kompos Azolla dan pupuk hayati majemuk memberikan pengaruh terhadap populasi penambat N (Azotobacter sp. dan Azospirilium sp. dan produktifitas tanaman padi. Aplikasi kompos jerami 2,5 ton ha-1 dengan pupuk hayati 400 g ha-1 memberikan hasil GKP yaitu 64,39 g tanaman-1 (6,13 ton ha-1. Kata kunci: IPAT-BO, kompos Azolla, kompos jerami, pupuk hayati.

  7. Studi Pengembangan Pertanian Padi Sawah Organik Berdasarkan Kesesuaian Lahan dan Potensi Pupuk Organik dari Limbah Pertanian di Kecamatan Temon Kabupaten Kulon Progo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusiyah Rusiyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Revolusi Hijau telah menimbulkan berbagai dampak negatif, baik pada lingkungan, keanekaragaman hayati pertanian, maupun sosial ekonomi masyarakat. Tujuan  penelitian ini mengkaji: 1 tingkat kesesuaian lahan untuk tanaman padi sawah, 2 potensi pupuk organik dari  limbah pertanian,3 karakteristik  sosial ekonomi petani, dan 4 merumuskan  strategi  pengembangan pertanian padi  sawah organik. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode survei. Teknik pengambilan sampel  dengan  purposive area sampling untuk aspek fisik lahan dan purposive sampling untuk sampel petani. Teknik  pengolahan data  dengan Software LCLP, tabel frekuensi, dan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan menggunakan analisis kuantitatif dan  kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelas kesesuaian lahan untuk tanaman padi sawah di daerah penelitian adalah sesuai marginal (S3 dengan luas 1.165,77 ha atau  99,11% dan tidak sesuai saat ini (N1 dengan luas 10,51 ha atau 0,89%, potensi pupuk organik dari limbah pertanian  pada  musim tanam I adalah  5.070,05 ton dan  musim tanam II adalah 3.595,04 ton, karakteristik sosial ekonomi internal petani  memiliki  kekuatan lebih baik dibandingkan karakteristik sosial ekonomi eksternal  petani bagi  pengembangan pertanian padi sawah organik di daerah penelitian, strategi pengembangan pertanian padi sawah  organik di Kecamatan Temon dapat dilakukan  sebagai berikut: (a pemberian penghargaan/apresiasi kepada petani yang telah berhasil mengembangkan pertanian organik, (b pemerintah perlu membantu petani dalam mendapatkan  sertifikat produk pertanian organik, (c pembuatan lahan percontohan/demplot pertanian organik, (d pemberdayaan peran kelembagaan, (e kegiatan sosialisasi kepada petani, konsumen  pedagang, pemerintah daerah, penyuluh, dan institusi terkait lainnya, (f mengintegrasikan pembangunan bidang pertanian dan peternakan,(g pelatihan teknologi pembuatan pupuk organik dan

  8. Prey Preference of Predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Seiedy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The predator Amblyseius swirskii and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana are important biocontrol agents of Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Determination of the host preference of predators in the fields when receiving signals related to either untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated pest is important. Materials and Methods In this research, the prey preference of adult female (2 days old of A. swirskii was determined on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae in various treatments base on Manly Index. These different treatments consisted of two time intervals; 24 and 48 h post-inoculation of greenhouse whiteflies with 1×105 conidia /ml of B. bassiana with 13 replicates. 24-h starved predators were added to the leaf discs singly then the number of consumed untreated and B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in each Petri dish was assessed after 24 h. Results and Discussion The results revealed that mean number of consumed B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in two time intervals; 24 and 48 h. after inoculation were 4/15±0/19 and 2.23±0/12, respectively. This investigation showed a significant preference of A. swirskii towards untreated T. vaporariorum in 24 (P< 0.0034 and 48 h. (P

  9. Ocorrência de Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986(Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae em plantios experimentais de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae in experimental plantations of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luís Leitão Barbosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh tem apresentado inúmeros problemas fitossanitários, dentre os quais, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, que constantemente é citada como praga secundária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o nível e a intensidade de infestação (% por T. cognata e estudar aspectos do ciclo biológico e do comportamento de T. cognata, em plantios experimentais de camu-camu. Foram selecionados, de forma aleatória, 17 e 14 exemplares nos plantios I e II, respectivamente. Para cada uma das variáveis estudadas, foram calculados a média aritmética, o desviopadrão, a variância e a amplitude de variação. Foi verificado um nível de infestação de 82% (plantio I e 57% (plantio II, uma intensidade de infestação de 94% (plantio I e 75% (plantio II e uma média de seis ninfas/folha em cada plantio, o que indica que T. cognata representa uma das pragas-chave dessa cultura. Foram observados adultos de Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e ninfas de Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, que podem atuar como prováveis agentes de controle biológico de T. cognata.The cultivation of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh has presented countless phytosanitary problems, among them, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, which often is noticed as a secondary pest. This study aimed to determine the level and the intensity of infestation (% for T. cognata, as well as to study the biological cycle and behavioural aspects of T. cognata, in experimental plantation of camu-camu. 17 and 14 specimens from plantation I and II, respectively, were randomly selected. The arithmetic average, the standard deviation, the variance and the total amplitude were calculated for each studied variable. A level of infestation of 82% (plantation I and 57% (plantation II, an intensity of infestation of 94% (plantation I and 75% (plantation II and an

  10. EFISIENSI ENERGI DAN PRODUKSI PADA USAHATANI PADI DI LAHAN SULFAT MASAM POTENSIAL (Efficiency of Production and Energy on Rice Farming in Acid Sulphate Soil Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman Umar

    2016-02-01

    semakin tidak menentu dalam mencari pekerjaan. Umumnya dalam usaha pertanian, tenaga kerja petani digunakan mulai dari persiapan lahan hingga kegiatan pascapanen. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Belandean, Kabupaten Barito Kuala, Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan pada bulan April hingga September 2009. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengevaluasi sebaran dan konsumsi energi dalam mengelola usahatani di lahan sulfat masam potensial dengan teknologi introduksi pada musim kemarau. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melakukan penanaman padi unggul dengan teknologi introduksi dan teknologi petani.  Analisis konsumsi energi dan biaya usahatani dilakukan untuk semua tahapan proses produksi dengan basis satuan luas (ha. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa budidaya padi di sawah pasang surut lahan sulfat masam potensial secara keseluruhan menggunakan energi fisik (tenaga manusia tanpa mesin traktor dan perontok sebanyak 253,116,80-195.170,55 k.kal ha-1. Kebutuhan energi total untuk mengelola lahan sulfat masam seluas satu hektar dengan teknologi introduksi sebesar 274.858,90 k.kal ha-1, 1,41 kali lebih besar daripada teknologi petani. Biaya tenaga kerja dengan teknologi introduksi sebesar 56,92 % dari total biaya produksi. Dengan masukan biaya dari energi fisik dan kimia dalam proses produksi, output energi yang dihasilkan sebesar 20.799.900 k.kal ha-1 dan output biaya sebesar Rp.14.325.000 atau kenaikan 48,15%. Berdasarkan masukan energi dan output energi diperoleh efisiensi produksi 9,02% (introduksi dan 9,73% (petani. Dengan masuknya teknologi introduksi pada sistim usahatani di lahan sulfat masam potensial input energi meningkat 1,54 kali   dan produksi 1,15 kali. Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa pemakaian sarana produksi (berupa bahan kimia semakin tinggi dan dengan pemanfaatan purun tikus (eleocharis dulcis dan amelioran serta aliran air satu arah input energi dengan teknologi produksi meningkat 54,31%. Kata kunci: Energi, lahan sulfat masam, padi

  11. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Xet-Mull

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae, the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, microorganisms of similar characteristics have been successfully classified by using molecular taxonomy. In the present work, the YLS of Tagosodes orizicolus(YLSTo were purified on Percoll® gradients, and specific segments of 18S rDNA were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Sequences were aligned by means of the CLUSTAL V (DNASTAR program; phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Phylogeny Inference Package (PHYLIP, showing that YLSTo belong to the fungi class Pyrenomycetes, phylum Ascomycota. Similarities between 98% and 100% were observed among YLS of the rice delphacids Tagosodes orizicolus, Nilaparvata lugens, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera, and between 89.8% and 90.8% when comparing the above to YLS of the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci. These comparisons revealed that delphacid YLS are a highly conserved monophyletic group within the Pyrenomycetes and are closely related to Hypomyces chrysospermus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 777-785. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae es una especie endémica de América tropical que al igual que otros saltahojas de Asia, tiene simbiontes levaduriformes (YLS, por sus siglas en Inglés en los cuerpos grasos del abdomen y en los tejidos de los ovarios. Los YLS son simbiontes obligados que se transmiten transovarialmente y que mantienen relaciones mutualística con el insecto hospedero. Esta característica ha hecho muy difícil su cultivo in vitro y por ende su clasificaci

  12. Behavioral evidence for local reduction of aphid-induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five aphids of three different species, Brevicoryne brassicae L, Myzus persicae Schulzer, and Rhopalosiphum padi L(Hemiptera: Aphididae) were each allowed to infest leaves of a young plant of their respective host plant species for 4 days, except that the oldest expanded leaf (the `systemic¿

  13. Dynamics of Production of Sexual Forms in Aphids: Theoretical and Experimental Evidence for Adaptive \\"Coin-Flipping\\" Plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Halkett, F.; Harrington, R.; Hulle, M.; Menu, F.; Rispe, C.; Plantegenest, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 6 (2004), s. 112-125 ISSN 0003-0147 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Rhopalosiphum padi * stochastic polyphenism * bet hedging Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2004

  14. Influence of species composition of biocorridors on the abundance of aphids in cereal fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameixa, Olga; Dvořáková, R.; Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 47-52 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : biocorridors * Prunus padus * Rhopalosiphum padi * pest refuge * spatial distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Densidades y frecuencias de liberación de Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tello Paola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más importantes de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá. Para su control tradicionalmente se acude a la aplicación de insecticidas. Sin embargo, también son contempladas liberaciones del parasitoide Encarsia formosa (Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. Para estandarizar el proceso de cría masiva de E. formosa, se evaluaron tres densidades diferentes de liberación de las avispas (6, 12 y 18 avispas/planta en tres frecuencias de liberación (1, 2 y 3 veces/semana, sobre plantas de tomate de ocho semanas de edad con tres niveles de infestación (15, 30 y 45 ninfas de mosca blanca/hoja, susceptibles de ser parasitadas. El mayor porcentaje de parasitismo (70% en ninfas de tercer instar se logró cuando se liberaron seis avispas por planta, dosificadas en tres momentos diferentes en la misma semana. El menor porcentaje de parasitismo (50%, se obtuvo cuando se realizó una sola liberación de 6, 12 o 18 avispas. Los resultados anteriores permiten concluir que se puede lograr un porcentaje de parasitismo en torno a un 70% de la infestación de mosca blanca (hasta 45 ninfas/hoja en plantas de tomate con pocas avispas de E. formosa (seis cuando se liberan en tres momentos diferentes.

  16. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  17. Influence des facteurs écologiques (température et hygrométrie sur le développement de la cochenille farineuse du manioc (Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obame Minko, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of Ecological Factors (such as Temperature and Hygrometry on the Development of Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, Homoptera: Pseudococcidae. Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero cassava mealybug was accidentally carried away from South America to Africa by early 70s. Since then, it has been inducing a lot of damage to cassava cultures, which cassava remains the main foodstuff in the southern Sahara inhabitant's nutrition. Being anxious to understand the depredator population evolution in the nature, we have studied the temperature and hygrometry as main ecological factors helpful to development. The temperature favours eggs hatching and reduces the duration of embryonic, larval and cycle development whereas hygrometry's action on mealybug development can be neglected. As both factors are opposite functions in the nature, mutual influence on the field can be possible.

  18. PERBAIKAN KUALITAS PETIS KEPALA UDANG WINDU (Penaeus monodon DENGAN PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG ARANG KAYU GALAM (Melaleuca cajuputi powell, SEKAM PADI (Oryza sativa L DAN TEMPURUNG KELAPA (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhana Suhanda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan waktu selama 4 bulan yaitu meliputi  pelaksanaan penelitian, analisis data, penyusunan laporan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat petis sari kepala udang Windu yang berkualitas dengan penambahan tepung arang kayu galam, sekam padi, dan tempurung kelapa. Sedangkan kegunaannya adalah untuk menghasilkan petis sari kepala udang Windu yang dapat diterima dan disukai oleh konsumen. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental dan dilakukan berdasarkan pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan empat perlakuan yaitu A (tanpa penambahan tepung arang, perlakuan B (penambahan tepung arang kayu Galam 0,05%, perlakuan C (penambahan tepung arang sekam padi 0,05% dan perlakuan D (penambahan tepung arang tempurung kelapa 0,05%. Masing-masing perlakuan dilakukan 3 kali ulangan. Parameter yang diuji meliputi Uji Kadar Protein, Uji Kadar Air, Uji Kadar Abu, Uji Organoleptik yaitu rasa, warna, aroma dan tekstur. Penerimaan atau penolakan terhadap hipotesis didasarkan pada hasil Uji F (Analisis Sidik Ragam Dari hasil pengujian dan analisis keempat perlakuan tersebut untuk uji kadar protein yang tertinggi adalah perlakuan D (26,60%, uji kadar air terendah adalah pada perlakuan D (19,28% dan uji kadar abu terendah adalah perlakuan A (7,77%, tetapi antar perlakuan pada kadar abu tidak berbeda nyata sehingga dapat diartikan kadar abu pada tiap perlakuan tidak berbeda (tidak signifikan, sedangkan uji organoleptik untuk rasa, warna, aroma dan tekstur yang tertinggi adalah perlakuan D yaitu rasa (6,89, warna (7,31, aroma (6,48 dan tekstur (6,635. This research was conducted with time for 4 months which include the conduct of research, data analysis, report preparation. This study aims to make a paste shrimp head juice Windu quality with the addition of flour Galam wood charcoal, rice husk and coconut shell. While its use is to produce a paste shrimp head juice Windu acceptable and preferred by consumers. This study used an

  19. Evaluasi karakteristik abu sekam padi dengan kitosan molekul tinggi nanopartikel sebagai bahan dentinogenesis (Characteristic evaluation of rice husk ash with chitosan high molecule nanoparticle as dentinogenesis material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretty Farida Sinta Silalahi

    2014-06-01

    langsung karena biokompatibel, namun bahan ini memiliki banyak kekurangan. Trioksida Mineral agregat mengandung sejumlah kecil arsenik dan setting time-nya lama, sementara HEMA dalam SIKMR bersifat sitotoksik. Abu sekam padi nanopartikel (ASPn merupakan sumber potensial dari silika. Kitosan molekul tinggi nanopartikel (KMTn dapat merangsang pembentukan dentin reparatif. Kombinasi dari kedua bahan tersebut memiliki sifat biokompatibel dan memiliki kemampuan pelapisan yang baik. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa karakteristik mikrostruktur hubungan permukaan abu sekam padi dengan kitosan molekul tinggi nanopartikel pada jaringan dentin untuk melindungi jaringan pulpodential kompleks. Metode: Dua puluh empat gigi premolar mandibula yang diekstraksi untuk tujuan ortodontik digunakan sebagai sampel, gigi dibuat preparasi kavitas klas I dengan kedalaman 3 mm di atas cemento enamel junction (CEJ. Kemudian masing-masing gigi dibelah dua arah bucco-lingual dan setiap bagian dipotong menggunakan disc bur servikal. Sampel dibagi 3 kelompok, kelompok I diaplikasikan MTA, kelompok II diaplikasikan SIKMR, kelompok III diaplikasikan ASPn + KMTn. Karakterisasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM pada interface antara bahan uji dan dentin berdekatan dengan pulp untuk melihat struktur mikro permukaan. Hasil: Microstructure bahan ASPn + KMTn yang diaplikasi pada dentin menunjukkan struktur seperti tag yang lebih signifikan daripada MTA. ASPn + KMTn menunjukkan kemampuan pelapisan yang lebih baik dari MTA. Porositas ASPn + KMTn lebih sedikit dari MTA dan SIKMR. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi biomaterial ASPn + KMTn dapat digunakan sebagai biomaterial aktif yang dapat menjaga integritas pulpa.

  20. Karakteristik Fisiko-Kimiawi (Morfologi, Higroskopisitas, pH dan Toksisitas Panel Bangunan yang Dihasilkan dari Komposit Limbah Abu Terbang Batu Bara (Fly Ash, Daun-Ampas Tebu, Jerami-Sekam Padi dan Ijuk (Palm Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianto P. Prihatmaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang karakteristik fisiko-kimiawi (morfologi, higroskopisitas, ph dan toksisitas panel bangunan yang dihasilkan dari komposit limbah abu terbang batu bara (fly ash, daunampas tebu, jerami-sekam padi dan ijuk (palm fiber. Berdasarkah hasil uji dan analisis fisiko-kimiawi kaitannya dengan morfologi secara makroskopis menunjukkan bahwa komposit panel bangunan dari berbagai macam jenis bahan baku tersebut tampak menyatu secara solid dengan ikatan kimia antar bahan yang terlibat. Bahan organik yang berupa limbah ampas-daun tebu, jerami-sekam padi, dan ijuk tampak menyatu padu dengan komponen anorganiknya berupa fly ash dan semen. Kaitannya dengan higroskopisitasnya, produk panel bangunan yang dihasilkan tampaknya tidak terpengaruh oleh iklim dan kelembaban di dalam maupun di luar ruang karena kadar air panel bangunan yang diuji pada hari ke-30 dan hari ke-60 relatif stabil yakni 19,65% yang berarti normal. Kaitannya dengan tingkat keasaman (pH, panel bangunan yang dihasilkan menunjukkan kondisi yang aman/tidak menyebabkan iritasi karena pH: 7-8 yang berarti tidak mengiritasi/aman. Adapun hasil uji dan analisis toksisitas fly ash dilakukan menggunakan indikator biologis; mencit menunjukkan harga LD50: 32,915 mg/kg (bb yang berarti relatif tidak berbahaya. Kutu air menunjukkan harga LC50: 75,515 ppm (7,552% yang berarti hampir tidak toksik dan ikan mas menunjukkan harga LC50: 121,943 ppm (12,194% yang berarti tidak toksik. Oleh sebab itu produk panel bangunan yang dihasilkan dapat dipastikan aman dikonsumsi.

  1. Effect of Bt maize on the plant-aphid-parasitoid tritrophic relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lumbierres, B.; Starý, Petr; Pons, X.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 133-143 ISSN 1386-6141 Grant - others:Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AGL2002-0204; Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2002-(4104) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : transgenic Bt maize * Aphididae * Rhopalosiphum padi Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2011

  2. PERUBAHAN CARA PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN OLEH PETANI PENGENDALIAN HAMA TERPADU (PHT DALAM MENGGUNAKAN PESTISIDA KIMIA PADA PADI (The Change of Chemical Pesticides Use Decision Making in Rice by Intergrated Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Irham

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pestisida kimia merupakan salah satu masukan dalam produksi padi yang berfungsi untuk menekan kehilangan hasil oleh serangan hama dan penyakit. Penggunaan pestisida kimia harus bijaksana karena selain memberi manfaat juga menimbulkan bahaya terhadap kesehatan dan lingkungan. Banyak petani yang menggunakan pestisida kimia dengan dasar pencegahan, yaitu tanpa mempertimbangkan keadaan serangan hama dan penyakit sehingga penggunaannya cenderung berlebih. Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT diperkenalkan kepada petani melalui Sekolah Lapangan (SL PHT, dengan tujuan untuk nrengurangi pestisida kimia,  dan hanya digunakan jika memang diperlukan. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa SLPHT telah mengubah cara pengambilan keputusan dalam menggunakan pestisida kimia. Keadaan ini menyebabkan penggunaan pestisida kimia menjadi berkurang.   ABSTRACT Chemical pesticide is one of the inputs in rice production used to protect yield loss caused by pest attack. Chemical pesticides should be used wisely as they pose threat to human health and pollute environment. Many farmers use chemical pesticide based on prophylactic concept, that is using chemical pesticides without taking into consideration the level of pest attack, which leads to an excessive use. Integrated Pest Management (IPM concept is introduced to farmers through Farmer’s Field School (FFS in order to reduce chemical pesticides use. According to the IPM principle, farmers can use chemical pesticides when necessary. Results of this study show that farmers have changed their decision-making in chemical pesticides use after adopting IPM concept through participation at FFS in IPM. This condition causes decline in chemical pesticide use.

  3. Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant height, plant density per 0.25 m2, number of pea aphids and parasitoids per plant, ladybird beetles per plot, and finally grain yield per plot were recorded. Based on the results of the ANOVA, plant height was significantly different between treated and untreated plots especially after the vegetative stage. The density of ...

  4. ADSORPSI ION SIANIDA DALAM LARUTAN MENGGUNAKAN ADSORBEN HIBRIDA AMINOPROPIL SILIKA GEL DARI SEKAM PADI TERIMPREGNASI ALUMINIUM (Adsorption of Cyanide Ions in Solution Using a Hybrid Adsorbent Aminopropyl Silica Gel from Rice Husks of Impregnated With

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaria Amaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Telah dibuat dua macam adsorben hibrida aminopropil silika gel yang terimpregnasi aluminium (APSG-Al dan silika gel terimpregnasi aluminium (SG-Al dari silika gel sekam padi sebagai bahan untuk adsorpsi ion sianida dalam larutan. Interaksi antara adsorben dengan ion sianida dalam larutan dilakukan dalam sistem batch. Parameter-parameter yang dikaji dalam penelitian ini adalah pengaruh pH medium, pengaruh waktu interaksi dan pengaruh konsentrasi awal ion sianida terhadap kemampuan adsorpsi adsorben hibrida amino silika gel terimpregnasi aluminium. Analisis kuantitatif ion-ion sianida yang tersisa di dalam filtrat diuji dengan alat elektroda selektif ion. Data hasil pengaruh waktu interaksi dianalisis dengan model kinetika adsorpsi, data hasil pengaruh konsentrasi ion sianida dianalisis dengan model isoterm adsorpsi Langmuir dan Freundlich. Di samping itu gugus fungsional yang diperkirakan terlibat dalam adsorpsi diidentifikasi dengan spektrofotometer infra merah dan kristalinitas adsorben diuji dengan defraksi sinar X. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hasil identifikasi spektroskopi infra merah menunjukkan adsorben APSG-Al memiliki gugus silanol (Si-OH, siloksil (Si-O-Si, gugus amina primer, NH2. Hasil analisis XRD nilai 2θ pada 65,51 menunjukkan bahwa aluminium yang terimpregnasi pada silika berbentuk alumina Al2¬O3. Hasil adsorpsi ion sianida oleh hibrida aminopropil silika gel terimpregnasi aluminium (APSG-Al menunjukkan adsorpsi sianida terjadi maksimum pada pH 5 sebesar 67,62 %, sedangkan SG-Al mengadsorpsi sianida secara maksimum pada pH 8 sebesar 51,11%. Kajian kinetika dari pengaruh waktu interaksi menunjukkan bahwa adsorben APSG-Al maupun SG-Al memiliki konstanta laju adsorpsi k1 masing-masing adalah 2,7. 10-3 dan 1,9.10-3 min-1. Data kapasitas adsorpsi menunjukkan bahwa adsorben APSG-Al dan SG-Al cenderung mengikuti model isoterm adsorpsi Freundlich. ABSTRACT This research has made two kinds of adsorbents, namely hybrid

  5. KEPUASAN DAN LOYALITAS PETANI PADI TERHADAP PESTISIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fibria Mustikarini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction and loyalty are important factors to mantain and to increase the level of sales. The purpose of this study was to analyze the satisfaction and loyalty to pesticides of paddy farmers. This study used crosssectional design with 100 farmers as samplesthat were chosen by simple random sampling in the village of Cikarawang, District Dramaga, Bogor, West Java. The data was collected by interview techniques using questionnaire.This research used one of pesticides brand that used by paddy farmers at study site. The results showed that the paddy farmers have already satisfied, this result was indicated by CSI value which was 79,14 percent and the proportion of loyalty level mostly in habitual buyer level as much as 41 percent farmers. The analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the reference group of farmers and the satisfaction of farmers to the pesticides brand. In addition, there was also a significant positive correlation between the frequency of utilization and the brand loyalty of farmers. The model suggested that the family income per capita affect significantly on brand loyalty pesticides among paddy farmers.

  6. Piret Raud avaldas iPadi-raamatu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Raud, Piret. Emma roosad asjad. Tallinn : Tammerraamat, 2010 ; Raud, Piret. Emma roosad asjad : [digitaalne pildiraamat lastele. Suurbritannia] : WingedChariot, 2010. Teost on võimalik kasutada Apple´i elektroonikatoodetes iPad, iPhone ja iPod (eesti, inglise ja jaapani keeles)

  7. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasit

  8. Plant Water Stress Affects Interactions Between an Invasive and a Naturalized Aphid Species on Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, N E; Davis, T S; Crowder, D W; Bosque-Pérez, N A; Eigenbrode, S D

    2017-06-01

    In cereal cropping systems of the Pacific Northwestern United States (PNW), climate change is projected to increase the frequency of drought during summer months, which could increase water stress for crop plants. Yet, it remains uncertain how interactions between herbivore species are affected by drought stress. Here, interactions between two cereal aphids present in PNW cereal systems, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium (a newly invasive species) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (a naturalized species), were tested relative to wheat water stress. When aphids were confined in leaf cages on wheat, asymmetrical facilitation occurred; per capita fecundity of R. padi was increased by 46% when M. festucae cerealium was also present, compared to when only R. padi was present. Imposed water stress did not influence this interaction. When aphids were confined on whole wheat plants, asymmetrical competition occurred; cocolonization inhibited M. festucae cerealium population growth but did not affect R. padi population growth. Under conditions of plant water stress, however, the inhibitory effect of R. padi on M. festucae cerealium was not observed. We conclude that beneficial effects of cocolonization on R. padi are due to a localized plant response to M. festucae cerealium feeding, and that cocolonization of plants is likely to suppress M. festucae cerealium populations under ample water conditions, but not when plants are water stressed. This suggests that plant responses to water stress alter the outcome of competition between herbivore species, with implications for the structure of pest communities on wheat during periods of drought. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Penekanan Penyakit Blas Leher Malai Padi Menggunakan Ekstrak Kompos Jerami Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Suwandi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blast is the most important disease of rice and may cause significant losses in the reclaimed tidal swamp of South Sumatra. Water extracts of fermented composts prepared from straws of the vigorous rice plant were tested in pot experiment for their ability to control blast. Rice variety Ciherang was grown on mixture of field soil and 1% diseased rice straw (v/v collected from a tidal swamp rice field. Incidence of panicle blast was reduced by 71−87% in response to application of compost extract. The compost extract did not affect seed germination and plant height, instead, it increased the yield. The rice straw from healthy and vigorous plants is potential as a source for blast disease control.

  10. Keefektivan padi transgenik terhadap hama penggerek batang padi kuning Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Usyati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation two cry genes (cryIB-cryIAa and transformation with a single the cry1B gene under the control of a wound-inducible maize proteinase inhibitor gene (mpi promoter were two approaches that were used to get resistant rice to the rice stemborer which may be had a durable resistance. To obtain information on the effectiveness of seven transgenic rice lines to the rice yellow stemborer S. incertulas, a test was conducted in greenhouse. The seven lines were 1. line 4.2.3 and 2 line 4.2.4 both contain fusion of two cry genes (cryIB-cryIAa; 3 line 3R9 and 4 line 3R7 lines both contain of mpi-cryIB gene; and 5 line 6.11 contains of cryIAb gene by particle bombardment, 6 line DT-cry (Azygous that do not contain cry gene (null, and 7 DT-cry line contains cryIAb gene by Agrobacterium, and as a negative control, we used three non transgenic rice varieties i.e., Rojolele, Cilosari, and Ciherang. The result showed that transgenic rice lines, except DT-cry and DT-cry (Azygous lines were effective to suppress damage by the insect, and showed an inhibition effect on the growth of S. incertulas, and had a high level ofresistance than non transgenic rice varieties had. There were differences on resistance value/level among transgenic rice lines. Based on the resistance value, 6.11 line was the highest followed by 4.2.4 line and 3R7 line, these lines were categorized as high resistance. Transgenic rice-4.2.3 line and 3R9 line were categorized as moderat resistance. DT-cry and DT-cry (Azygous lines were susceptible.

  11. Keefektivan Padi Transgenik terhadap Hama Penggerek Batang Padi Kuning Scirpophaga Incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Usyati, N; Buchori, Damayanti; Manuwoto, Syafrida; Hidayat, Purnama; -Loedin, Inez H. Slamet

    2009-01-01

    Transformation two cry genes (cryIB-cryIAa) and transformation with a single the cry1B gene under the control of a wound-inducible maize proteinase inhibitor gene (mpi) promoter were two approaches that were used to get resistant rice to the rice stemborer which may be had a durable resistance. To obtain information on the effectiveness of seven transgenic rice lines to the rice yellow stemborer S. incertulas, a test was conducted in greenhouse. The seven lines were 1). line 4.2.3 and 2) line...

  12. Keefektivan padi transgenik terhadap hama penggerek batang padi kuning Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Usyati; Damayanti Buchori; Syafrida Manuwoto; Purnama Hidayat; Inez H. Slamet -Loedin

    2016-01-01

    Transformation two cry genes (cryIB-cryIAa) and transformation with a single the cry1B gene under the control of a wound-inducible maize proteinase inhibitor gene (mpi) promoter were two approaches that were used to get resistant rice to the rice stemborer which may be had a durable resistance. To obtain information on the effectiveness of seven transgenic rice lines to the rice yellow stemborer S. incertulas, a test was conducted in greenhouse. The seven lines were 1). line 4.2.3 and 2) line...

  13. Migration, trapping and local dynamics of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Lisbeth; Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    to population growth. 4 A model for changes in whitefly density during an entire bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop cycle, including an immigration parameter, was also developed. 5 Non-attractant window traps surrounding an annual field crop were assumed to intercept whiteflies immigrating into and emigrating...

  14. Calling songs of some South African cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-07-13

    Jul 13, 1987 ... Figure 11 Posture of male cicadas during calling song, illustrated by a specimen ... parameters of the smaller samples falls within that of the largest conspecific ... under the control of the neuromuscular system (Pringle. 1954b).

  15. Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Žanić; Sonja Kačić; Miro Katalinić

    2000-01-01

    Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits coated by sooty mold lose its market value. Because Dialeurodes citri is poorly known in Croatia, th...

  16. Comparative cytogenetics of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera, Homoptera): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentina; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of cytogenetic features is provided for the large hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha, which currently contains approximately 42,000 valid species. This review is based on the analysis of 819 species, 483 genera, and 31 families representing all presently recognized Auchenorrhyncha superfamilies, e.i. Cicadoidea (cicadas), Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers), Myerslopioidea (ground-dwelling leafhoppers), and Fulgoroidea (planthoppers). History and present status of chromosome studies are described, as well as the structure of chromosomes, chromosome counts, trends and mechanisms of evolution of karyotypes and sex determining systems, their variation at different taxonomic levels and most characteristic (modal) states, occurrence of parthenogenesis, polyploidy, B-chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements, and methods used for cytogenetic analysis of Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:26807037

  17. Distributional patterns and possible origin of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W. Nielson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a. when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary. Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126 are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76% of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian, from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities. Vicariance (physical was the principal event that appealed to explain the distribution of many subfamilies and tribes whereas dispersal accounted for distribution of the majority of interzoogeographical genera.

  18. Particle film affects black pecan aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C

    2002-08-01

    Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film.

  19. A synopsis of the tribe Micrutalini Haupt (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula sp.n. (Venezuela, Caracas; M. seminigra sp.n. (Brazil, Paraná; Micrutalis turriba sp.n. (Costa Rica, Turrialba. Lectotypes are designated for: Acutalis balteata Fairmaire, 1846, Aculalis binaria Fairmaire, 1846, Acutalis flavozonala Fairmaire, 1846, una Acutalis tripunctata Fairmaire, 1846. New taxonomic position: Micrutalis melanogramma (Petty, 1833 is transferred to Melu-sinella Metcalf, 1952 (Ceresini - Melusinella melanogramma (Petty, 1833, comb.n. = Melusinella nervosa (Fairmaire, 1846, syn.n.. Species incertae sedis: Tragopa ephippium Burmeister, 1836.

  20. Appearance of Neotoxoptera formosana (Homoptera: Aphididae) in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piron, P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Neotoxoptera formosana (Takahashi) is a pest of wild and cultivated Allium species, but never iwht disastrous consequences. In 1984, N. formosana was found in France. This was the first finding in Europe. Since then, N. formosana has been observed also in other European countries. The first record

  1. Aspects of the ecology of spittlebugs (Homoptera: Cercopidae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species type and pattern of distribution of spittlebugs was studied from 6th March to 15th December 2009 within the University of Nigeria, Nsukka campus. Three spittlebug species namely, Deois flavopicta, Aphrophora saratogensis and Philaenus spumarius were identified within the University campus. Whereas A.

  2. ANALISA DAYA SERAP SILIKA GEL BERBAHAN DASAR ABU SEKAM PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriwan Fahmi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk ash Silica Gel is aproduct which call be used in preventing the humidity by absorbing the water ion on the water andonthe air. This absorbing isbased onthe size, the composition and the total amount ofpolluter which contained on the Silica Gel. The purpose of making this silica gel is to seehow much thiskind of Silica Gel can absorb and compare it to the synthetic one,and also processing rise husk ashto be something useful, Ion water can be absorbed much more by using this natural silica gel if it is compared to the synthetic silica gel. This is because of its capable inabsorbing more –OHand O from water and air. Afterdoing a research with column method, silica gel was beingput in 50 ml water. Fromthis research, natural silica can absorb much more water (0.0010 gr/ml, 0.285 % water level ofweigh in comparing with synthetic one (0.008gr/ml with 0.248 %water level ofweight andsintering (0,007 gr/ml 0.253%water level and non-sintering silica gel contains 39.22 % weight of silica, 30.93 %weight of sintering silica gel, and 33.40 % of the synthetic. More silica and water level, means more total amount of absorbing. This silica gel application is considered with capability ofabsorbing andthe level of the water.

  3. Pertumbuhan Padi Varietas Ciherang Setelah Diinokulasi dengan Azospirillum Mutan Multifungsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Listanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is very closely related to the application of fertilizer to induce plants grow. The application of bio-fertilizers is expected to reduce the negative impact of chemical fertilizers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of multi-functional Azospirillum N2 fixation, P solubility and IAA production on the growth of Ciherang rice in pot experiment in greenhouse BB Biogen. The experiment treatment were 3 types of inoculation (non-inoculation, inoculation using wildtype Aj Bandung 6.4.1.2 and the mutant isolate of AJM 3.7.1.14 , and 4 levels of fertilizer application (non-fertilization, a quarter dose, a half dose, and the real dose of fertilization on rice in lowland. The Azospirillum isolates were used wildtype isolate Aj Bandung 6.4.1.2 and mutant isolate AJM 3.7.1.14 that was isolated and mutated using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS in BB Biogen. Seeds of Ciherang rice were inoculated using Azospirillum at cell density 106 cell/ml in different seedling tray. After 14 days, the seedlings were transferred to planting pots which consist of 3 plants per pot. Parameters observed were plant height, number of tillers, number of panicles per hill, wet and dry weight of panicles per hill, weight of 100 seeds, N and P content of the stover. The results showed that both wild-Azospirillum and mutant inoculum had no effect on the vegetative growth of Ciherang, but showed significant effect on the number of panicle per hill, grain weight per hill and dry weight of seeds per panicle. The use of Azospirillum and N fertilizer combination affected the growth and rice yields, also reduced chemical fertilizer application.

  4. Pemanfaatan arang aktif sekam padi untuk bahan pengisi keset karet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminiwati Herminiwati

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to make of activated carbon from rice husk be useful as filler. To inspect the conformity as filler, the activated carbon from rice husk was applied in the preparation of rubber mat compound, in the case carbon black N 330 was used as the standard of comparison. Activated carbon from rice husk was made by carbonization process at temperature of 450oC for one hour and activation process with NaCl 4% for 24 hours, followed by pyrolysis at temperature 500oC for one hour. Filler was milled and sieved by 400 mesh siefter. Rubber mat compound were prepared with various filler level of activated carbon from rice husk, carbon black N 330 either separately formulated or combination. The vulcanized rubber mat was then physically tested its tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, an density. The research showed that the addition of filler by combining the activated carbon from rice husk and carbon black with ratio of 40:20 phr into the rubber compound could meet the physical properties requirements of rubber mat. Activated carbon from rice husk can be used as filler, but not as reinforcing filler.

  5. Arang aktif sekam padi sebagai bahan pengisi kompon sol karet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research was to investigate the properties of activated carbon from rice husk filler in their application on vulcanized rubber soles, and to determine its suitability for rubber compound, the properties of activated carbon from rice husk filler in their application on vulcanized rubber soles, and to determine its suitability for rubber compound, the properties of activated carbon made from rice husk was investigated by comparing with cabon black N 330. Activated carbon made from rice husk was made by carbonization process at temperature of 4500C for 1 hour and activation process with NaCL 4% for 24 hours followed by pyrolysis at temperature 5000C for 1 hour. Filler was milled and sieved by 400 mesh siefter. The research showed that using activated carbon in the amount 20 phr and carbon black N330 40 phr. Fulfill the requirement at SNI : 12-0172-1987 : Canvas shoes sole for general purpose, where as tensile strength 11,24 N/mm2, elongation at break : 699%, tear strength 2,97 N/mm2, hardness : 65,7 shore A, density 1,23 gram/cm2, permanent set 0,10%, abrasion 0,72 mm3/ kgm and flexing at 250 kcs no crack.

  6. Potensi Gangguan Gulma pada Tiga Sistem Budidaya Padi Sawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Muhamad Zarwazi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWeeds has become a big problem in system of rice intensification (SRI, integrated crop management (ICM and conventional cultivation systems. The objective of the research was to study the dominancy and potential of harmful effect of weed in these three cultivation systems. The research was conducted at Sukamandi research station of Indonesian Center for Rice Research, Subang, from November 2013 to April 2014 during rainy season. The experiment was arranged in a split plot design with four replications. The cultivation systems was main plot consisted of system of rice intensification (SRI, integrated crop management (ICM and conventional system. The weeding techniques as subplot consisted of no weeding, manual weeding, mechanical weeding and chemical weeding. The result showed that based on dry mass of weeds the highest risk of weed was exhibited at SRI with total dry mass of weed 51.53 g m-2 (0.5 ton ha-1 and the lowest was at conventional system with 32.45 g m-2 (0.3 ton ha-1. Proper weed control increased rice production by 28.9% for SRI, by 29.4% for ICM and by 14.6% for conventional cultivation systems. Keywords: dominant, weeding technique, SRI, ICM, conventional system

  7. Model Kelembagaan pada Agribisnis Padi Organik Kabupaten Tasikmalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Nuraini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to: (1 to identify the forms of institutional and analyze interaction at the institutional organic rice agribusiness; (2 to design the institutional model in organic rice agribusiness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method. Result of the analysis showed that the profile of organic rice agribusiness institutions include: farmers, farmers' groups combined Sympathy, organic farmers cooperatives, village cooperatives, private enterprises agro-industry (CV, BPP, NGO, exporters, agro-industry company. The conditions of farmer organizations today are more cultural and mostly just to government facilities, it has not been fully geared to take advantage of economic opportunities through the use of accessibility to information technology, capital and markets necessary for the development of organic rice agribusiness and agricultural businesses.On the other hand, institutional businesses in rural areas, such as the cooperative has not fully accommodate the interests of farmers / farmer groups as a forum for technical guidance. Various farmer institution that already exist such as farmers 'groups, farmers' groups combined, the association of water user farmers are expected on the challenges ahead to revitalize themselves and institutions that currently more dominant just as container technical development and social into institutional also serve as a platform for business development legal entity or can integrate other institutions in the agribusiness chain of organic rice. Model on organic rice agribusiness institution system is based on agribusiness and institutional dimensions as well as the three pillars of the new institutional.

  8. PEMANFAATAN TANAMAN ATRAKTAN MENGENDALIKAN HAMA KEONG MAS PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2018-01-01

    In Indonesia, many plantation as use as beneficial plants. This study aims to obtain an effective formula that can be used as a biopesticide to control snail pests during the vegetative phase from May to July 2017 using random non-factorial methods at two rice planting locations in the Village Lae parira, Dairi, North Sumatra. Design with 6 treatments and 3 replicates (ie control, neem leaves (Azadirachta indica, tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tabacum, sweet potato leaf (Manihot glaziovii, noni fruit, Morinda citrifolia, and betel nut (Areca catechu and papaya (Carica papaya as an eco-friendly herbaceous and biopesticide. Based on the study recorded in sampling for 7 days with 6 treatments had significant effect on the percentage affected by the clump of rice attacked and the percentage of death. Pearson correlation value recorded percentage of death and percentage of impacted  showed a very significant relationship. Neem is the best biopesticide in controlling mollusicides, followed by betel nuts, tobacco, poisonous yams and noni. Death of 100% snail mas will prevent damage to the clump of rice plants Dairi, North Sumatra. All biopesticide treatments were tested to control snail pests in rice plants that will increase agicultural productivity in maintaining food security in Dairi, North Sumatra.

  9. Patogenisitas Virus Tungro pada Varietas Tetua Padi Tahan Tungro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Heru Praptana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tungro is one of the major diseases in rice which has become a constraint in increasing rice production in Indonesia. Tungro is caused by infection of two different viruses, i.e. Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV, both of which can only be transmitted by green leafhoppers Nephotettix virescens (Distant in a semipersistent manner. Since there is an indication of the existance of virulence variation of tungro viruses from different areas and the specific relationship between resistance of varieties and tungro viruses isolates, it is important to study the pathogenicity of tungro viruses from some endemic areas in Indonesia. This study aimed to identify the pathogenicity of tungro viruses from several endemic areas in Indonesia in some resistant varieties. One susceptible variety i.e. TN1 and ten resistant varieties were used in the study. Surveys and collection of infected plants and green leafhoppers were done in tungro endemic areas, namely West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, Central Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Bali and West Nusa Tenggara. Artificial transmission using the test tube method was used in the pathogenicity test. Green leafhoppers caught from the field were used as transmitters.. The pathogenicity of tungro viruses were identified by the values of the incidence of tungro and the diseases indexes (DI. The result showed that difference in pathogenicity of tungro viruses in some resistant varieties was observed. Isolates from Central Java, Central Sulawesi and West Nusa Tenggara were able to infect all of resistant varieties and the pathogenicity of Central Java isolate was the highest among the other isolates.

  10. Analisis Efisiensi Usahatani Padi di Kabupaten Lampung Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Yoko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An effort to increase rice production through agricultural extension in Central Lampung regency is difficult. This is because of the limited land that can be used as new planning areas and high competition for land use as non-agricultural activities. Therefore, the increase in rice production through production efficiency becomes the most important alternative. The objectives of this study are to analyze the level of technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, and economic efficiency of rice farming in Central Lampung district and identified the factors that influence it. The results of the analysis using stochastic frontier production function shows that rice farming in the study area has been efficient. Average efficiency level of technical efficiency is 0,94, allocative efficiency is 0,93, and economic efficiency is 0,88. The land area is the most responsive variable in an effort to increase rice production. Variables expected to affect the degree of technical efficiency of rice farming is the number of family members of farmers, rice farming experience, acces farmers to agricultural financing, and number of agricultural extension.

  11. Analisis Kelayakan USAhatani Tanaman Padi di Kecamatan Sebangki Kabupaten Landak

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyanto, Gunardi Dwi; Kusrini, Novira; Maswadi, Maswadi

    2013-01-01

    Pemerintah mempunyai peranan yang penting dalam USAha meningkatkan produktivitas pertanian yaitu salah satunya dengan perbaikan sistem pertanian yang ada sekarang dan pembentukan lahan pertanian baru. Pembangunan pertanian ini ditujukan pada daerah yang memiliki potensi yang dapat dikembangkan dibidang pertanian, salah satunya adalah Kecamatan Sebangki. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keadaan finansial yang mencakup biaya, penerimaan, pendapatan dan keuntungan dari USAhatani tanaman...

  12. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Subletal Deltametrin terhadap Nutrisi dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Ratna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the reproductive capacity through increasing plant growth and nutrition is one plausible mechanism of resurgence. This research was intended to determine the effect of deltamethrin on plant vigor and nutrition contents. The experiment was carried out outdoor. The treatments tested were deltamethrin (50 ppm, buprofezin (100 ppm, and control (water. Insecticide applications were applied one time (at age 26 d or 50 d and two times (at age 26 and 50 d. Deltamethrin applications as many as two times did not increase the total chlorophyll and the photosynthesis rate, nutrients (total nitrogen, total protein, total sugar, total reducing sugar at aged 26 d, and sucrose, growth (plant height and number of tillers, and yield (number of panicles. However, application of deltamethrin at aged 26 d increased the amount of asparagine. Asparagine is known to be associated with the feeding rate of Nilaparvata lugens stimulation. Therefore, increasing level of asparagine after application of deltamethrin at sublethal concentration was considered as one of the factors that might be involved in the mechanism of N. lugens resurgence. Salah satu mekanisme resurjensi adalah peningkatan reproduksi hama melalui peningkatan nutrisi dan pertumbuhan tanaman. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk melihat pengaruh deltametrin terhadap kandungan nutrisi dan vigor tanaman. Pengujian dilakukan di lapangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah deltametrin 50 ppm, buprofezin 100 ppm, dan kontrol (air. Aplikasi insektisida dilakukan satu kali masing-masing pada umur tanaman 26 dan 50 hst dan dua kali pada umur 26 dan 50 hst. Aplikasi deltametrin sebanyak dua kali tidak meningkatkan total klorofil dan laju fotosintesis, nutrisi (total nitrogen, total protein, total gula, total gula reduksi pada 26 hst, dan sukrosa kecuali asparagin, pertumbuhan (tinggi tanaman dan jumlah anakan, dan hasil (jumlah malai tanaman. Oleh karena asparagin berperan sebagai pemacu laju makan Nilaparvata lugens, maka peningkatan kadar asparagin tanaman setelah aplikasi konsentrasi subletal deltametrin diduga sebagai salah satu faktor yang terlibat dalam mekanisme resurjensi N. lugens

  13. Tingkat Infestasi Aphelenchoides besseyi pada Benih Padi di Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrianingrum Kurniawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The white tip disease on rice plants have been discovered in the district of Bogor, i.e. in  Sukamakmur, Petir, and Muara Experimental Station areas. The infected plant exhibited symptoms, involving whiten leaf tip 3–5 cm that later  turn to necrosis, twisted and crinkled. The disease is supposed caused by a parasitic nematode, namely Aphelenchoides besseyi, which is known seed borne. Extraction of nematodes based on  ISTA protocols on rice was conducted.  Seeds from eight varieties, SL8SHS, Hybrid Rice (HIPA14, IPB 3S, IR-64, Pertiwi (Pak Tiwi, Inpari 31, Pandan Wangi Bogor (Sintanur and Ciherang, was obtained from seed vendors in Bogor and Muara Experimental Station. The majority of nematodes recovered were females and only few males with morphological characteristics matching with A. besseyi.  All seed rice varieties tested contained A. besseyi with the average of 3–341 nematodes per 5 g seed. 

  14. Struktur Komunitas Artropoda pada Ekosistem Padi tanpa Perlakuan Pestisida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Mahrub

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally, rice ecosystem was les stable because the structure of natural community often change, and it may cause decrease in the natural biodiversity. The research has been done in the lowland ricefield during wet and dry season without pesticides application. Observation was started when the plant (IR64 was 7 days old after transplanting with interval of 8 days until one week before harvest, to collect the arthropods from each samples. The objectives were to study the structure of community of arthropods during wet and dry season and to study food web chain in natural ecosystem and its implementation in the Integrated Pest Management Program. The results showed that in rice ecosystem four arthropod groups or guilds, was found i.e. Pests, Predators, Parasites and Neutral Arthropods. The diversity and species abundance of arthropods were high but the highest abundance of arthropods was found on the member of certain order and family only. The population of pest was lower than predator. The relative abundance of pests were 5.75% in wet season and 8.57% in dry season, while predators were 27.96% in wet season and 33.88% in dry season. The population density of spider predators especially Lycosa sp. during wet and dry season were very high. It was supported by the abundant of neutral arthropods as alternate prey when the pest population was very low. This condition may support negative feed back interaction and increase the potential of natural control in the absence of pesticide application. Key words: predator, parasite, neutral arthropod

  15. ANALISIS KINERJA SEKTOR USAHA TANI PADI MELALUI PENDEKATAN AGRIBISNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to describe the efficiency level of rice agriculture in Central Java. Agribusiness approaches enable to explain the agriculture sector more comprehensively, focusing on agriculture with its backward and forward subsystems. This research employs DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis to compute efficiency level, and covers fourteen districts with land productivity above the province average level. This research finds that only four districts perform efficiency level 100 percent relative to other districts. The solution for this inefficiency problem can be achieved by employing managerial simulation generated by DEA.

  16. Application of RNA-seq for mitogenome reconstruction, and reconsideration of long-branch artifacts in Hemiptera phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; An, Shiheng; Yin, Xinming; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Hemiptera make up the largest nonholometabolan insect assemblage. Despite previous efforts to elucidate phylogeny within this group, relationships among the major sub-lineages remain uncertain. In particular, mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data are still sparse for many important hemipteran insect groups. Recent mitogenomic analyses of Hemiptera have usually included no more than 50 species, with conflicting hypotheses presented. Here, we determined the nearly complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for the aphid species of Rhopalosiphum padi using RNA-seq plus gap filling. The 15,205 bp mitogenome included all mitochondrial genes except for trnF. The mitogenome organization and size for R. padi are similar to previously reported aphid species. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships for Hemiptera were examined using a mitogenomic dataset which included sequences from 103 ingroup species and 19 outgroup species. Our results showed that the seven species representing the Aleyrodidae exhibit extremely long branches, and always cluster with long-branched outgroups. This lead to the failure of recovering a monophyletic Hemiptera in most analyses. The data treatment of Degen-coding for protein-coding genes and the site-heterogeneous CAT model show improved suppression of the long-branch effect. Under these conditions, the Sternorrhyncha was often recovered as the most basal clade in Hemiptera. PMID:27633117

  17. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Burg, Simone; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici) and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM) mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew) became more favourable for another pest (aphids).

  18. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone von Burg

    Full Text Available In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew became more favourable for another pest (aphids.

  19. Prey Acceptability and Preference of Oenopia conglobata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, a Candidate for Biological Control in Urban Green Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Lumbierres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenopia conglobata is one of the most common ladybird species in urban green areas of the Mediterranean region. We have obtained data about its prey acceptability and prey preferences. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated the acceptability of seven aphid and one psyllid species as prey for this coccinellid: the aphids Chaitophorus populeti, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora Monelliopsis caryae, Eucallipterus tiliae, Aphis nerii (on white poplar, pomegranate, false acacia, black walnut, lime, and oleander, respectively, and the psyllid Acizzia jamatonica on Persian silk tree. These species are abundant in urban green areas in the Mediterranean region. In addition, we tested the acceptability of Rhopalosiphum padi on barley, an aphid species easily reared in the laboratory. We also tested preferences of the predator in cafeteria experiments with three aphid species and one aphid and the psyllid. Adults and larvae of the coccinellid accepted all of the preys offered, except A. nerii, with a clear preference for M. caryae. The predator also showed preference for M. caryae when it was offered in a cafeteria experiment with other aphid species or with the psyllid. The aphid R. padi obtained a good acceptability and could be used for rearing O. conglobata in the laboratory.

  20. Detrimental and neutral effects of a wild grass-fungal endophyte symbiotum on insect preference and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Stephen L; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R

    2011-01-01

    Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass-endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass-endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more than one insect species. This study quantified the preference and performance of the bird cherry oat-aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two important pests of forage and cereal grasses, on Neotyphodium-infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) plants of the wild grass Alpine timothy, Phleum alpinum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The experiments tested for both constitutive and wound-induced resistance in E+ plants to characterize possible plasticity of defense responses by a wild E+ grass. The aphid, R. padi preferred E- over E+ test plants in choice experiments and E+ undamaged test plants constitutively expressed antibiosis resistance to this aphid by suppressing population growth. Prior damage of E+ test plants did not induce higher levels of resistance to R. padi. By contrast, the beetle, O. melanopus showed no preference for E+ or E- test plants and endophyte infection did not adversely affect the survival and development of larvae. These results extend the phenomenon of variable effects of E+ wild grasses on the preference and performance of phytophagous insects. The wild grass- Neotyphodium symbiotum in this study broadens the number of wild E+ grasses available for expanded explorations into the effects of endophyte metabolites on insect herbivory.

  1. Distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in the Sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands and Characterization of Two New Luteovirus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Svanella-Dumas

    Full Text Available A systematic search for viral infection was performed in the isolated Kerguelen Islands, using a range of polyvalent genus-specific PCR assays. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV was detected in both introduced and native grasses such as Poa cookii. The geographical distribution of BYDV and its prevalence in P. cookii were analyzed using samples collected from various sites of the archipelago. We estimate the average prevalence of BYDV to be 24.9% in P. cookii, with significant variability between sites. BYDV genetic diversity was assessed using sequence information from two genomic regions: the P3 open reading frame (ORF (encoding the coat protein and the hypervariable P6 ORF region. The phylogenetic analysis in the P3 region showed that BYDV sequences segregate into three major lineages, the most frequent of which (Ker-I cluster showed close homology with BYDV-PAV-I isolates and had very low intra-lineage diversity (0.6%. A similarly low diversity was also recorded in the hypervariable P6 region, suggesting that Ker-I isolates derive from the recent introduction of BYDV-PAV-I. Divergence time estimation suggests that BYDV-PAV-I was likely introduced in the Kerguelen environment at the same time frame as its aphid vector, Rhopalosiphum padi, whose distribution shows good overlap with that of BYDV-Ker-I. The two other lineages show more than 22% amino acid divergence in the P3 region with other known species in the BYDV species complex, indicating that they represent distinct BYDV species. Using species-specific amplification primers, the distribution of these novel species was analyzed. The high prevalence of BYDV on native Poaceae and the presence of the vector R. padi, raises the question of its impact on the vulnerable plant communities of this remote ecosystem.

  2. Annual Fire, Mowing and Fertilization Effects on Two Cicada Species (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Matt R. Whiles; John M. Blair

    2002-01-01

    In tallgrass prairie, cicadas emerge annually, are abundant and their emergence can be an important flux of energy and nutrients. However, factors influencing the distribution and abundance of these cicadas are virtually unknown. We examined cicada emergence in plots from a long-term (13 y) experimental manipulation involving common tallgrass prairie management...

  3. Radiation sterilization of the greenhouse white fly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw., Homoptera, Aleyrodidae). Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported of studies of the sterilizing effect on puparia and imagoes of the greenhouse white fly (T. vaporariorum). The irradiation was made by gamma rays at the rate of 12+-5% rad/s. The parameters of radiation-induced sterility were sex determined. The sterilizing effect was expressed in emergence of dominant lethal mutations in spermatozoa accompanied by partial sperm inactivation and of partial aspermia. The absolute sterilizing doses for the two ontogenetic stage are 6 and 7 krad respectively. Radiation induced sterilization of the male parent resulted in forced arrhenotoky in F 1 and was regarded as a transformation of parthogenesis factor necessary for the normal propagation in the insect process into one that is lethal to the population factor. Radiation induced female sterility in females was expressed in the emergence of dominant lethals in oocytes. The absolute sterilizing doses for the puparium and the imago were 5 and 6 krad, respectively. Doses ≥4 krad caused partial infertility

  4. First results in the use of sterile insect technique against Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyroididae) in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvitti, M.; Remotti, P.C.; Pasquali, A.; Cirio, U.

    1998-01-01

    Trials for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique for the suppression of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), both in cage and in greenhouse conditions are described. The results show a significant reduction of the reproductive capacity of the untreated whitefly populations interacting with sterile insects. Untreated whiteflies, co-existing in a mixed population together with sterile insects, attained less than the half (44%) of their potential reproductive capacity. This trend was also evident in the cage test where the untreated whitefly population, crossed with the sterile whiteflies, increased without exceeding 2/3 of the density recorded in the control cages. These results may be based on 2 joint sterile insect technique effects: primarily a drastic reduction of the progeny of normal untreated females, when mating with sterile males, carriers of dominant lethal mutations, and secondarily a progressive reduction of the females in the population due to an increasing rate of unsuccessful matings resulting in a condition of forced arrhenotoky. No deleterious effects, on plant health and fruit quality, were observed on plants exposed to high sterile whitefly pressures

  5. Responses of Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) to Aphid Alarm Pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, P. A.; Pickett, J. A.; Vandenberg, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    In a series of laboratory tests, Russian wheat aphids, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), responded to synthetic aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-β-farnesene, by removing stylets and leaving feeding sites or by crawling out of test arenas. Late instars and adults were more responsive than early instars. In dose-response assays, EC50 estimates ranged from 0.94 to 8.95 mg/ml among 3 experiments. In arenas, D. noxia also responded to the proximity of cornicle-damaged nymphs of either the green peach aphid, ...

  6. The tribe Acutalini Fowler (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae: new genera, new species and some nomenclatural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M Sakakibara

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.

  7. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae under greenhouse condition in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex González

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the “Rice hoja blanca virus”. During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundación Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundación Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition. Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control ‘Bluebonnet 50’ was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control ‘Makalioka’ had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and viposition. The genotype ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.Tagosodes orizicolus es una de las principales plagas del cultivo del arroz en América tropical causando dos tipos de daños a la planta, el directo, por efecto de la alimentación y oviposición; el indirecto, por la transmisión del virus de la hoja blanca del arroz. Durante el período 2006-2007 se llevó a cabo una investigación bajo condiciones de umbráculo en la Fundación Danac, Venezuela, con el objeto de determinar los mecanismos de resistencia de antixenosis, antibiosis y tolerancia a T. orizicolus que pudieran estar actuando en líneas avanzadas y cultivares del programa de mejoramiento enético de arroz de las instituciones INIA y Fundación Danac. Para la evaluación de antixenosis se utilizó el método de libre elección, para antibiosis (efecto sobre sobrevivencia y oviposición de los insectos el de alimentación forzada, adicionalmente se usó un método indirecto para estimar la tolerancia. Dentro de los principales parámetros determinados se encontraban: grado de daño, número de insectos posados sobre plantas de arroz, porcentaje de mortalidad de sogata en estado adulto, número de huevos y se calculó un índice de tolerancia con base en la biomasa. Los resultados mostraron que los genotipos de arroz evaluados poseen diferentes combinaciones en cuanto a los mecanismos de resistencia, así como el grado de su efecto. El testigo ‘Bluebonnet 50’ se mantuvo consistentemente susceptible en las evaluaciones y el testigo resistente ‘Makalioka’ fue el único genotipo que presentó alta antixenosis y alta antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. El resto de los genotipos presentaron un menor o mayor grado de resistencia de tipo antixenosis y antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. Se identificó el genotipo ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ con posible tolerancia al daño directo de sogata.

  8. Cytogenetic and taxonomic studies of some legless mealybugs (Homoptera, Coccinea, Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new monotypic genus and species, Komodesia circuliplurima gen. et sp. n., from Flores Is. (Indonesia and the new species, Antonina diversiglandulosa sp. n., from Southern Thailand are described and illustrated. Chromosomes of these species and also the ones of Antonina purpurea Signoret, 1872 and A. thaiensis Takahashi, 1942 are studied for the first time: 2n = 30, 20, 12 and 22+Bs correspondingly; the male embryos of all four species demonstrate Lecanoid paternal heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes. The karyotypes of three widely distributed species, Antonina pretiosa Ferris, 1953, A. graminis (Maskell, 1897 and Chaetococcus bambusae (Maskell, 1893, are studied based on material from other regions in comparison with previously published data. Photographs of the karyotypes are provided for the first time for all seven species. The terminological problems connected with the identification and naming of the three scale insect genetic systems, Lecanoid, Comstockioid and Diaspidoid, are discussed.

  9. Influences of pea morphology and interacting factors on pea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, N; Cuddington, K

    2009-08-01

    It has been claimed that plant architecture can alter aphid reproductive rates, but the mechanism driving this effect has not been identified. We studied interactions between plant architecture, aphid density, environmental conditions, and nutrient availability on the reproduction of pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] using four near-isogenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that differ in morphology. Manipulations of aphid density (1, 5, and 10 adults per plant) allowed us to examine any effects of plant morphology on crowding and consequently reproduction. Pea morphology per se did not alter pea aphid crowding, as measured by mean nearest neighbor distance, and there was no effect on reproduction. In addition, reproduction increased with increasing adult density, indicating positive density dependence. In a separate experiment, peas were fertilized to determine whether differences between nutrient availability of the four different morphologies might drive any observed differences in aphid reproduction. Although plant nitrogen content was altered by fertilization treatments, this did not have an impact on aphid reproduction. Greenhouse experiments, however, suggested that pea morphology can interact with environmental conditions to reduce aphid reproduction under some conditions. We conclude that plant morphology only influences aphid reproduction when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  10. The genus Baeturia Stål as represented in New Guinea (Homoptera, Cicadidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1960-01-01

    Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me

  11. Bioacoustic investigations and taxonomic considerations on the Cicadetta montana species complex (Homoptera: Cicadoidea: Tibicinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Gogala

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent bioacoustic investigations have shown that Cicadetta montana Scopoli 1772 is a complex of morphologically similar sister species that are best characterized by their song patterns. At the type locality of C. montana, only mountain cicadas with simple, long lasting song phrases were heard, recorded and collected. Therefore, we have good reasons to suggest that this type of song is characteristic for C. montana s. str. Boulard described a song of C. montana from France with phrases composed of a long and a short echeme; this type of song is characteristic for cicadas morphologically corresponding to C. montana var. brevipennis Fieber 1876; we suggest to raise this taxon to species level. On the basis of specific song, Puissant and Boulard described C. cerdaniensis from Pyrénées. A similar case was the discovery and description of C. montana macedonica Schedl 1999 from Macedonia; since these Macedonian cicadas are sympatric with at least two other cryptic species in the C. montana group and molecular investigations showed substantial genetic differences between C. macedonica and C. montana or C. brevipennis, we conclude that this taxon should also be raised to species level. Songs of closely related C. podolica and Korean mountain cicada are presented as well.Pesquisas recentes de bioacústica mostraram que Cicadetta montana Scopoli 1772 é um complexo de espécie-irmãs morfologicamente semelhantes e melhor caracterizadas por seus padrões de canto. Na localidade-tipo de C. montana somente cigarras serranas de longas frases de canto foram ouvidas, gravadas e coletadas. Portanto, temos boas razões para propor este tipo de canto como característico de C. montana s. str. Boulard descreveu um canto de C. montana da França com frases compostas de uma estridulação longa e uma curta; este tipo de canto é característico das cigarras correspondendo morfologicamente a C. montana var. brevipennis Fieber 1876; sugerimos elevar este táxon ao nível de espécie. Baseando-se nos cantos específicos, Puissant e Boulard descreveram C. cerdaniensis dos Pirineus. Um caso similar foi a descoberta e descrição de C. montana macedonica Schedl 1999 da Macedônia; desde que essas cigarras macedônicas são simpátricas com pelo menos duas outras espécies crípticas dentro do grupo C. montana e as análises moleculares mostraram diferenças genéticas substanciais entre C. montana e C. brevipennis, concluímos que este táxon também deve ser elevado ao nível de espécie. Cantos de espécies próximas, C. podolica e a cigarra serrana da Korea, são também apresentados.

  12. Appearance of cicada fauna (Homoptera: Cicadoidea) by altitudes in Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Aliadi Mohd; Sulaiman, Azman

    2015-09-01

    A total of 31 cicada species in 15 genera under two families (Cicadidae, 27 species in 11 genera; Tibicinidae, four species in three genera) was recorded for Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor. This was based on 666 individuals were obtained through six sampling occasions in November 2012 until October 2013, each time using light trap set in six sampling locations (L1, L2, L3, L4a, L4b, L4c) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Pomponia sp1 and recognized as new species that need to be described as new to science. Orientopsaltria saudarapadda Duffles & Zaidi appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 21 individuals which covers 34.43 % of the total cicadas specimen in that area. In the location of L3, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius) appeared as the most abundant species represented by 37 individuals or 26.81% while Abroma maculicollis Guerin appeared as the most common species. Shannon's Species Diversity Index (H') in L3 was the highest (H'=2.28) followed by L4b (H'=2.21), L2 (H'=1.93) L4a (H'=1.92), L4c (H'=1.84) and L1 (H'=1.58), and the evenness index in L1 was the highest (E= 0.88), followed by L4b (E= 0.79), L3 (E= 0.77), L2 (E= 0.75), L4c (E= 0.74) and L4a (E= 0.79). Margalef Species Richness Index in L3 was the highest (R'=3.65), followed by oleh L4b (R'=3.01), L4a (R'=2.97), L2 (R'=2.92), L4c (R'=2.4), and L1 (R'=2.01). Generally shows that L3 at the altitude 350 m appear as the best sampling site for cicadas species in Mount Ledang Johor with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.

  13. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha anew harmful species for entomofauna of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ljubodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early autumn 2006, a Nonarctic species of cicadas Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae was identified in Belgrade (Košutnjak. In Europe, this species was identified for the first time in Italy in 1979. In Slovenia, it was identified in 1990 in west Istria, and in 2001 in the neighbourhood of Ljubljana. In the park forest Košutnjak (Belgrade mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was recorded in the area of about 5 ha. The larvae developed on woody species in the genera: Acer, Aesculus, Gleditchia Robinia, Ailanthus, Populus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Ulmus, Tilia, Cornus Fraxinus, Quercus and Thuja, što is konstatovano based on damages of larvae while numerous adults were found on trees and branches of the same plants.

  14. Energetics of emergence in the cicadas, Cyclochila australasiae and Abricta curvicosta (Homoptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Prudence M; Thompson, Michael B

    2006-09-01

    The final moult in cicadas marks a major transition in lifestyle and is a behaviour that makes the cicada vulnerable to predation. Consequently, emergence times are short and, we predict, therefore the rate of energy consumption would be high. Hence, we measured the energetic cost of emergence in Cyclochila australasiae (green grocer) and Abricta curvicosta (floury baker) cicadas during the final moult from nymph to adult cicada. Maximum energy expended whilst emerging was compared between the sexes and species. Even though C. australasiae take longer to emerge than A. curvicosta, the mass-specific cost of emergence is not different between the two species (C. australasiae: 11.34+/-2.55 J g(-1); A. curvicosta: 12.91+/-1.90 J g(-1)). The mass-specific metabolic rates of fully emerged adults of both species are approximately twice those of the nymphs and the maximum metabolic rate during emergence is about 1.5 times higher than the resting metabolic rate of emerged adults. Emergence times, as indicated by rates of oxygen consumption, are longer than expected and probably reflect limitations in the oxygen capacity of the cicadas during moulting.

  15. The taxonomy and biogeography of the genus Thaumastopsaltira Kirkaldy, 1900 (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The taxonomic concept of the genus Thaumastopsaltria Kirkaldy is redefined on the basis of the shape of postclypeus and the length of the ovipositor. Tegmen venation is shown to be unreliable for this purpose. T. nana (Jacobi) does not fit this new concept and is, pending its transfer to another

  16. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W Nielson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.

  17. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Alvarez, Rosa M; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos, Venancio

    2012-03-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundaci6n Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundaci6n Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control 'Bluebonnet 50' was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control 'Makalioka' had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and oviposition. The genotype 'FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1' was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.

  18. The authority and types for the hackberry gall psyllid genus Pachypsylla (Riley) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...

  19. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  20. Evaluation of insecticides against cotton whitefly, bemisia tabachi (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, M.; Aslam, M.; Sharif, K.; Salman, B.; Aleem, F.

    2003-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of lmidacloprid (Confidor 200SL), Acetamaprid (Mospilon 20SP), Methamidophos (Tamaron 600SL), Endosulfan (Thioluxon 35EC), Buprofezin (Sitara 25WP), Fenpropathrin (Fenthrin 20EC) and Diafenthiuron (Polo 500 SC) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) on cotton variety CIM-473 during the crop year 2002. The crop was sprayed twice in September. After seven days of the first spray, the lowest population (0.6/leaf) of whitefly was observed in plots treated with Endosulfan 35EC followed by Acetamaprid 20SP(1.1/leaf), while the plots receiving Buprofezin 25 WP + Fenpropathrin 20 EC, Methamidophos 600SL and Imidacloprid 200SL had population of whitefly statistically similar. Seven days after second spray Acetamaprid 20SP and Diafenthiuron 500SC treated plots had the lowest population (1.4 per leaf) of whitefly followed by Imidacloprid 200SL (1.8 per leaf) and Fenpropathrin 20EC (1.9 per leaf).(author)

  1. The Toxicity and Detoxifying Mechanism of Cycloxaprid and Buprofezin in Controlling Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter(-1) but was buprofezin at 148 mg liter(-1). By the 4th day after infestation, however, control of nymphs by the two insecticides was similar, and cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter(-1) caused ≥ 80% mortality of adults but buprofezin at 148 mg liter(-1) (the highest rate tested) caused almost no adult mortality. LC50 values for cycloxaprid were lowest with nymphs, intermediate with adult males, and highest with adult females. Although buprofezin was slower acting than cycloxaprid, its LC50 for nymphs 5 d after infestation was 3.79-fold lower than that of cycloxaprid. Mean carboxylesterase (CarE) specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with cycloxaprid and buprofezin was higher than that of control, but there was no significant difference between cycloxaprid and control (no insecticide), and it was significantly higher for buprofezin than those of cycloxaprid and control. For glutathione S-transferase and mixed function oxygenase, the specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with buprofezin was significantly higher than those of cycloxaprid and control, too. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. The Toxicity and Detoxifying Mechanism of Cycloxaprid and Buprofezin in Controlling Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125?mg liter?1 but was

  3. Aleyrodes proletella (Linnaeaus, 1758) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) puede desarrollarse en plantas de tomate en condiciones controladas

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, D.; Gómez, Azahara A.; Nombela, Gloria; Muñiz, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    La mosca blanca de la col, Aleyrodes proletella L. causa importantes daños directos en cultivos del género Brassica en Europa, entre los que se incluyen la coliflor, brócoli, lombarda y romanesco. En España se ha observado un incremento de sus poblaciones, especialmente en Islas Canarias, Navarra y Murcia. La aplicación prolongada de plaguicidas de amplio espectro origina la aparición de poblaciones resistentes y efectos medioambientales adversos. Tras una infestación accidental de adult...

  4. Repellency and toxicity of three Impatients species (Balsaminaceae) extracts on Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Šerá, Božena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, - (2009), s. 48-51 ISSN 0974-391X R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QH72117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Impatiens * repellency * toxicity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae): stylet bundle insertion and feeding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca F. Young; Kathleen S. Shields; Graeme P. Berlyn

    1995-01-01

    Stylet bundle insertion site, path traveled, and feeding site were examined for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, on needles from current and previous years of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Carriere. The stylet bundle is composed of 4 individual stylets--2 outer mandibular stylets and 2 inner maxillary stylets...

  6. Dinamika Populasi Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae dan Deteksi CVPD dengan Teknik PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN WIJAYA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the field of Taro village Gianyar regency and Katung village Bangli regency and at the Laboratory of Biotechnology Faculty of Agricultural Udayana University. The purpose of the research were to investigate population dynamic of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and other insects that were assosiated with citrus cv. siam; and molecular detection of CVPD patogen in its vector, other phytophagous insects on citrus cv.siam and kemuning [Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.] The result of this study showed that in six month period there was one peak of D. citri population which was associated with the flushing period of citrus at Taro as well Katung villages. The peak of D. citri population of Taro village was higher than that of Katung village. Two species of parasitoids and four spesies of predators were found in the field and may contribute in the suppression of D. citri population. The parasitoids identified were Tamarixia radiata Wat. and Diaphorencyrtus alligharensi Shaffe, whereas the predators were Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Phiddipus sp., Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius and Oxyopes javanus Thorell. T. radiata has been proven to be an effective nymph parasitoid that could suppress the population development of D. citri in citrus orchads. The research revealed that kemuning could serve as a source of infection because it is also a host of CVPD disease as well as of D. citri. Toxoptera citricidus Kirkaldy and Maleuterpes dentipes Hell. were not proven to contain CVPD disease.

  7. Extended survival of spiders (Aranaeae) feeding on whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) honeydew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...

  8. The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Hoch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1, Maui (3, and Hawaii Island (3. Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

  9. Collective defense of Aphis nerii and Uroleucon hypochoeridis (Homoptera, Aphididae against natural enemies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hartbauer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typical for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid and Uroleucon hypochoeridis, an aphid species feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear, show a behavioral response to visual stimulation in the form of spinning or twitching, which is often accompanied by coordinated kicks executed with hind legs. Interestingly, this behaviour is highly synchronized among members of a colony and repetitive visual stimulation caused strong habituation. Observations of natural aphid colonies revealed that a collective twitching and kicking response (CTKR was frequently evoked during oviposition attempts of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and during attacks of aphidophagous larvae. CTKR effectively interrupted oviposition attempts of this parasitoid wasp and even repelled this parasitoid from colonies after evoking consecutive CTKRs. In contrast, solitary feeding A. nerii individuals were not able to successfully repel this parasitoid wasp. In addition, CTKR was also evoked through gentle substrate vibrations. Laser vibrometry of the substrate revealed twitching-associated vibrations that form a train of sharp acceleration peaks in the course of a CTKR. This suggests that visual signals in combination with twitching-related substrate vibrations may play an important role in synchronising defense among members of a colony. In both aphid species collective defense in encounters with different natural enemies was executed in a stereotypical way and was similar to CTKR evoked through visual stimulation. This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found in some aphid species that are not expected to be social at all.

  10. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2005-12-01

    The aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) is a common pest of lettuce in the United States. It hinders export of U.S. lettuce to the overseas market such as Japan where it is a quarantined pest. Ultralow oxygen treatments were studied for control of the insect on iceberg lettuce. Small-scale ultralow oxygen treatments in plastic jars were conducted at 1, 5, and 10 degrees C for different durations to determine effective treatment against nymphs and alates of N. ribisnigri. At oxygen levels of 0.015-0.025%, N. ribisnigri can be controlled in 3 d at 1 degrees C, 2 d at 5 degrees C, and 1 d at 10 degrees C. Large-scale ultralow oxygen treatments were conducted in bulk container treatment chambers with commercial iceberg lettuce heads for 2 d at 6 degrees C with oxygen levels of 0.015 and 0.025% and for 3 d at 3 degrees C with oxygen level of 0.015%. All treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. No negative impact on lettuce quality was detected after 2 wk of posttreatment storage. Therefore, the selected treatments have potential to be commercially developed for postharvest control of N. ribisnigri on iceberg lettuce.

  11. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use.

  12. Identification of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera : Aphididae) populations virulent to the Dn4 resistance gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, C. M.; Belay, T.; Stauffer, CH.; Starý, Petr; Kubečková, I.; Starkey, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 3 (2004), s. 1112-1117 ISSN 0022-0493 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Grant - others:Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station(US) 04-120-J Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Diuraphis noxia * barley * virulence Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2004

  13. Biology and taxonomy of Tuthillia cognata (Homoptera : Psylloidea), a pest on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burckhardt, D.; Couturier, Guy

    1988-01-01

    #Tuthillia cognata$ est découvert comme ravageur de #Myrciaria dubia$ (#Myrtaceae$) au Pérou et Brésil. Tenant compte de la morphologie de la larve, le genre est transféré des #Ciriacreminae$ dans les #Anomoneurinae$. (Résumé d'auteur)

  14. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Goethe (Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papura, D; Giresse, X; Chauvin, B; Caron, H; Delmotte, F; VAN Helden, M

    2009-05-01

    Eight dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized within the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Goethe) using an enrichment cloning procedure. Primers were tested on 171 individuals collected in the southwest of France from the vine plants. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from two to 18 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosities were from 0.021 to 0.760. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful tool for estimating the population genetic structure, host-plant specialization and migration capacity of this insect. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. PERSEPSI PETANI TERHADAP INOVASI TEKNOLOGI PENGELOLAAN TANAMAN TERPADU PADI GOGO DI KABUPATEN SARMI PROVINSI PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus A. Beding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the perception of the application of innovation upland rice integrated crop management at the farm level. The research was conducted from May to October 2015 in the village of Mukti Mawes, District Bonggo, Sarmi. Data collected through a structured interview with guiding questions (questionnaire. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that farmers have a positive perception of technological innovation upland rice integrated crop management. Farmers assume that upland rice integrated crop management profitable, uncomplicated, easy to try, easy to see the result, not bertentangkan with the values of local traditions and in accordance with the needs of the community. Perception level of technological innovation Integrated Crop Management upland rice reached 89.12%. The efforts of priorities that need attention in order to improve farmers' understanding of the management of upland rice farming that is both integrated manner by taking into account several factors: the income of farmers, farm business climate supportive of farmers and extension activities better.

  16. Respons Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Kacang Tanah Terhadap Pemberian Kompos Jerami Padi Dan Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskula

    OpenAIRE

    Bangun, Tua Bastari Prima; Rahmawati, Nini; Meiriani, Meiriani

    2013-01-01

    Growth Response and Yield of Peanut with Straw Compost and Mycorhiza Vesicular ArbuscularApplication. This research aims to study response in growth and yield of peanut for giving strawcompost and mycorhiza vesicular arbuscular. This research conducted on community land locatedat Pasar 1 Street, Tanjung Sari with altitude ± 25 meters above sea level in June until September2012 using Randomized Block Design (RBD) factorial with two factors , which are straw compostdoses (0, 750, 1500, 2250 g p...

  17. Peran Sklerotium dan Bentuk Lain Patogen Rhizoctonia solani sebagai Sumber Inokulum Awal Penyakit Hawar Pelepah Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparyono Suparyono

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in Sukamandi Experimental Station of the Research Institute for Rice (RIR, to evaluate the importance of sclerotia and other propagules as the primary inoculum of rice sheath blight. The trials were conducted during the growing season of 1996/1997. Two elite varieties, namely IR64 and Cisadane, were planted in plots of 2×2 m in size. Subplots were three different ways of crop establishment, i.e. transplanting with 20×20 cm distance, transplanting in-row with 10×40 cm, and direct seeding in row. Sub-sub plots were 6 different form of inoculum of R. solani, namely sclerotia, sclerotia+mycelium, fresh infected rice straw, decomposed infected rice straw, fresh infected weeds, and decomposed infected weeds. Checks were plots with no additional inoculum of R. solani. Disease incidence of sheath blight was observed once a week started at 2 week after planting. Data indicated that in both season, form of inoculum significantly affect the development of rice sheath blight. Highest disease incidence was observed in plots receiving fresh infected rice straw as the primary inoculum, indicating that this form of inoculum was the most efficient for rice sheath blight development. The other form appeared to be effective as primary source of inoculum, were decomposed infected rice straw and fresh infected weeds. In tropical rice ecosystem such as in Indonesia, sclerotia appeared to be not as an important primary inoculum for rice sheath blight. Such information would be of important as the basic of sheath blight management in Indonesia, since incorporation of fresh rice straw into the paddy field prior to planting is a common practice in Indonesian rice ecosystem. Key words: R. solani, sclerotia, primary inoculum, rice sheath blight

  18. Perlakuan Invigorasi untuk Meningkatkan Mutu Fisiologis dan Kesehatan Benih Padi Hibrida Intani-2 Selama Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawati ,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Storage condition and pathogen infection of seed can cause seed deteriorates faster. The rate of deterioration during storage could be slowed by seed invigoration, and pathogen infection could be elimited by application of natural pesticide. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of seed invigoration on seed physiological quality and health of Intani-2 hybrid rice seed during storage. All research activities were done at Laboratory of Quality Control and Plant Protection, PT. BISI International, Kediri, East Java. Split plot design was used in this experiment with 4 replications. Three seed lots of Intani-2 rice seed were used as main plot and 5 invigoration treatments were used as sub plot. Seed lot 1, 2 and 3 were harvested on 30 June 2012, 29 September 2012, and 2 November 2012, respectively. Invigoration treatments consisted of untreated, priming with ascorbic acid 40 ppm, osmoconditioning with KNO3 2%, osmoconditioning with PEG -0.2 MPa, and hydropriming. All invigoration treatments were added with clove oil 0.3%. Osmoconditioning with KNO3 2% + clove oil 0.3% was effective to maintain vigour index of seed lots 2 and 3 for up to 3 months storage. All seed invigoration treatments increased speed of germination before storage. Priming with ascorbic acid 40 ppm + clove oil 0.3% and osmoconditioning with PEG -0.2 MPa + clove oil 0.3% were effective to reduce the growth of Xanthomonas sp. on rice seeds monitored at 0, 2, and 3 months after storage.Keywords: ascorbic acid, clove oil, KNO3, osmoconditioning, PEG

  19. Uji Adaptasi Galur Mutan Harapan Padi Gogo pada Lokasi Lahan Kering Dataran Tinggi Iklim Basah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.N. ARYAWATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation Test of Promising Upland Rice Mutant Line On Dry Highland With Wet Climate. Upland rice productivity is still low, productivity can be improved by using high yielding varieties through the breeding programs, by the Agency for agricultural research (BATAN. Test adaptation is necessary to determine the superiority of promising lines. The objective of this research was to determine adaptability, performance of growth, and productivity of mutant lines of upland rice. Research used randomized complete block design (RAK single factor with 10 lines of treatment the results of gene mutation and 2 check varieties with three replications. Those treatments were PMG 01/Psj, PMG 02/Psj, PMG 03/Psj, PMG 04/Psj, PMG 05/Psj, PMG 06/Psj, PMG 07/Psj, PMG 08/Psj, PMG 09/Psj, PMG 10/Psj, Limboto and Local. The research was conducted on August 2014 until February 2015 in Tiga Village, District Susut, Bangli regency at high dry land wet climate. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (Annova and LSD test at 5% level. The results showed that tested of promising mutant lines show significant differences were observed in all parameters. Treatment of lines PMG 05/Psj, PMG 06/Psj, and PMG 08/Psj gave a yield of 2.22; 2.66; and 3.18 tons GKG/ha or higher than Limboto and Local check varieties as big as 2.04 and 0.90 tones GKG/ha. The three lines showed the parameters of flowering dates, number of filled grain, empty grain, and weight of 1000 grain, harvest time, KAR leaf, and chlorophyll better than check varieties. Lines of PMG 08/Psj gave the results 36.49% higher than Limboto and 71.78% higher than local varieties.

  20. POTRET KEARIFAN LOKAL, PERUBAHAN IKLIM DAN PENGGARUHNYA TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS PADI SAWAH DI SALATIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasius Aditya Wisnu Graha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research about portrait of local wisdom, climate change and the factors that affect the productivity of paddy was held on December 20, 2013 until March 21, 2014 in Kauman Kidul village, Sidorejo sub-district, Salatiga. The purposes of this study were 1 describing the portrait of local wisdom of farmers in Salatiga, 2 examining the effect of the seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, labors from the family members and outside family members, farming experience, local wisdom, climate change toward paddy’s productivity,and 3 examining the differences of paddy’s productivity and farmer’s income in 2009 and 2012. Samples were taken purposively, consist of 30 paddy’s farmer. Primary data were collected by survey method through interviewing by using structured questionnairesand secondary data collection is done by quoting monograph data and other documents related to the study. Data analysis using Cobb - Douglass production function with linear regression models were transformed into natural logarithm. The result of this study show that 1 there is local wisdom before planting and harvesting 2 partially, the fertilizers, pesticides, labors from outside the family members, local wisdom affect the paddy’s productivity, nevertheless the seeds, labors from family members, farming experience and climate change do not affect paddy’s productivity. Also 3 no prominent differences was found from the paddy’s productivity before and after the climate change, however there is prominent differences between the income before and during the climate change.

  1. Keanekaragaman, Dominasi, Persebaran Spesies Penggerek Batang Padi dan Serangannya pada Berbagai Tipologi Lahan di Provinsi Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Wilyus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity, domination, and distribution of rice stem borer species and its damage in various land typologies in Jambi Province.  The research was conducted to analyze the diversity, domination, species distribution of rice stem borers (RSB and its damage on various land typologies in Jambi Province.  The research was carried out using survey method, from December 2010 until June 2011.  Samples of RSB were collected from tidal swamp in Tanjung Jabung Timur District, swampy area in Muaro Jambi District, rainfed lowland in Sarolangun District, irrigated lowland in Merangin District, and irrigated upland in Kerinci District and Sungai Penuh District.  The results showed that there were five spesies of  RSB found in Jambi Province.  Scirpophaga  incertulas Walker (yellow stem borer was the most dominant of RSB, followed by Sesamia inferens Walker (pink stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (striped stem borer, Chilo polychrysus Meyrick (dark-headed stem borer, and Scirpophaga innotata Walker (white stem borer.  The distribution of S. incertulas, S. inferens, C. suppressalis and C. polychrysus were in all of rice field in Jambi Province, but that of S. innotata was limited over tidal swamp and  rainfield  lowland area. The RSB damage rate was lower than economic thereshold.

  2. Induksi Ketahanan terhadap Penyakit Hawar Daun Bakteri pada Tanaman Padi di Lapangan Menggunakan Rizobakteri Indigenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Khaeruni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Induced resistance to bacterial leaf blight disease in rice field by indigenous rhizobacteria.  Bacterial leaf blight is the most important disease on paddy at Southeast Sulawesi. Utilization of biological agents that induce plant resistance is an alternative tool to control bacterial leaf blight disease on paddy. The aim of  the experiment was obtain rhizobacteria that were able to stimulate the growth of paddy plants as well induce plant resistance towards bacterial leaf blight in the field. All experiment units were arranged with a factorial design in a randomized complete block design. The first factor was the rhizobacteria isolates, consisting 4 treatments, i.e: without rhizobacteria (R0, isolate P11a (R1, isolate PKLK5 (IR2, and  mixture P11a and PKLK5 (R3, the second factor is paddy varieties, (V1: IR64 variety, (V2: Cisantana variety. The pathogen was inoculated on leaf when 45 day after crop.  Weekly observation of disease severity, vegetative plant growth (leaf and stem numbers, and yield were conducted. The results showed that the 10 isolates of rhizobacteria tested were able to induce plant resistance toward bacterial leaf blight, stimulated vegetative growth as well as increased yield of paddy plant. Rhizobacteria application could increase the resistance of paddy toward Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The application rhizobacteria could increase the vegetative plant growth, application  mixture P11a and PKLK5 isolates showed higher resistance than single application in terms of plant growth and yield, both IR64 and Cisantana varietes

  3. PENGARUH KOMPOSISI SEKAM PADI DAN AMPAS TEBU TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK KERTAS DENGAN PROSES SODA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Ristianingsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Generallay, the paper is made from fiber plants which contained cellulose fibers and hemicellulose usually exist in nature . One of waste that can be processed into paper-making raw material alternative is rice husk and bagasse. The purpose of this research was to know the influence of the composition of the rice husk and bagasse as well as NaOH concentration against pulp that yields produced. The operating conditions for the best produced of the rice husk’s and bagasse's fiber by variation of NaOH concentration were also investigated. Dry raw materials on liquor/crop ratio was 15:1 (mL/g and mixed with 3 to 6% (w/v NaOH then digested in an autoclave (120 0C; 1 atm for 60 min. The operating condition which lowest yield production was mixed between the bagasse’s and rice husk’s fiber with ratio 1:3, 1:2 and 1:1. The NaClO 5.25% (v/v was added into the mixture as bleaching agent, then pressed and dried as a paper. The lowest rice husk’s and bagasse’s fiber yield at 5% (w/v NaOH concentration was obtained about 45.44% and 35.36%. The lowest yield and density at bagasse’s and rice husk’s fiber loading ratio 1:2 were obtained about 42.28% and 4.26 g/cm3.

  4. EFEK SENYAWA SAPONIN PADA SAPINDUS RARAK DENGAN PAKAN BERBASIS JERAMI PADI DALAM MITIGASI GAS METANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Krisnawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study saponin in Sapindus rarak were added to the diet of rice straw ammoniation (20 & 40%, related to the effect in reducing methane emissions of ruminants and pattern of rumen fermentation were tested by in vitro. Completly randomized block design with four treatments and four replications was used. Variables measured were gas production total, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA total, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. The results showed that the addition saponins in S. rarak as a source of rice straw ammoniation significant effect (P<0.05 of the total gas production, methane production, dray matter digestibility (DMD, N-ammonia, VFA partial, and population of protozoa. S. rarak use as a source of saponins with a dose of 20% on rice straw ammoniation was able to reduce methane gas production drop in gas production total, concentration of N-ammonia, and protozoa population.

  5. Toleransi Galur Harapan Padi Sawah (Oryza sativa L. pada Persaingan dengan Gulma Echinochloa crus-galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman ,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBarnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv. is a major weed competitor to rice production in Indonesia. In order to develop integrated weed management program, a research to select competitive rice lines to E. crus-galli was conducted in a green house of Indonesian Centre of Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Research and Development Bogor. The research design was split plot with four replications, E. crus-galli was designed as the main plot (rice without E. crus-galli compared  rice with four E. crus-galli per pot, and the sub-plots were 25 genotypes (23 lines, 1 tolerant variety and 1 sensitive variety. Level of tolerance was determined by the reduction percentage of grains weight, the number of productive tillers and dry matter weight. The results showed that rice competition with E. crus-galli reduced plant height, productive tiller numbers, filled spikelet numbers per panicle, dry matter weight and dry grain weight. Three lines, i.e., IR10L-155, IR10L-133 and BIO-R84-1 were classified as tolerant, 19 lines were moderate and 3 lines were sensitive to E. crus-galli competition.Keywords: Barnyard grass, competition, sensitive line, yield reduction

  6. PENENTUAN PATOTIPE DAN KERAGAMAN GENETIK Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PADA TANAMAN PADI DI WILAYAH KARESIDENAN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Adi Djatmiko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major diseases of rice paddy fields in Indonesia and the Asian countries is bacterial leaf blight or kresek caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo. Losses caused by the disease in Indonesia reached 70–80%, in India reached 74–81%, and Japan reached 20–50%, thus causing great losses in the economy. The objectives of that research were: 1 Characterize Xoo from Karesidenan Banyumas; 2 To study of the amount of damage and AUDPC (the area under disease progress curve of bacterial leaf blight disease at Karesidenan Banyumas; 3 To obtain of Xoo pathotype by using the test varieties; 4 To obtaining genetic diversity of Xoo that found in Banjarnegara, Purbalingga, Banyumas, Cilacap dan Kebumen region. Research was carried out in several stages: isolation and characterization of Xoo from Barlingmascakeb region, testing of Xoo with five varieties testing, assesment of disease intensity of bacterial leaf blight and AUDPC in the field, and testing the genetic diversity of Xoo. The results showed that pathogen of bacterial blight on rice is Xoo characterized yellow colour of colonies on SPA medium, negative gram reaction, catalase positive, oxidase negative, negative growth at 0.1% TZC, negative starch hydrolisis , and resistance to 0.001% Cu(NO32 positive. Xoo pathotype isolats found in Banjarnegara was pathotype X, Cilacap were pathotype I and II and Purbalingga was pathotype II. Eighteen of Xoo from Karesidenan Banyumas (Banjarnegara, Purbalingga, Banyumas, Cilacap and Kebumen of RAPD differ one from the others.

  7. Peningkatan Energi Metabolis Produk Fermentasi Campuran Bungkil Inti Sawit Dan Dedak Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Sukaryana, Yana

    2010-01-01

    The research objective is to compare the metabolism energy of palm kernel cake (80%) and rice bran (20%) mix fermentation product with the same unfermented product. To compare is used Student-t test. Determination and procedure of metabolism energy refers to Sibbald and Morse (1983) developed method. The results showed that the average metabolism energy content of palm kernel cake (80%) and rice bran (20%) mix fermentation product (2149,33 ±24,90) significantly different (P

  8. Tanggap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Padi (Oryza sativa L.) Varietas Ciherang Terhadap Pemberian Pupuk Organik

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Vira Irma

    2011-01-01

    VIRA IRMA SARI. Response of Growth and Production of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Variety Ciherang to The Application of Organic Fertilizer. Scarcity of inorganic fertilizer and the negative effect caused by inorganic fertilizer continuing to make organic fertilizer as a solution to overcome these problems. The availability of organic fertilizers is expected that the farmers can get the optimal production and profit, because the organic fertilizer is cheaper and easy ...

  9. Pengembangan dan Uji Kinerja Mesin Pemupuk Dosis Variabel pada Budidaya Padi Sawah dengan Konsep Presisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Gunawan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed about the development of electronically controlled fertilizer applicator machine based on modified riding type paddy transplanter tractor. The machine had ability to perform variable rate of application dose using urea, phosphor, and NPK compound. The developed variable rate applicator (VRA equipped with digital controlled metering devices so that the dose of application can be given accurately and the amount of application can be change in flexible way according to recommended dose. The machine has 4 unit of metering devices, has 8 application rows, and equipped with pneumatic diffusers. RTK-DGPS was used to monitor the position in the field. Performance test has been done for several parameters, included uniformity of air flow at each diffuser, granular fertilizer spreader pattern, and linearity of actual amount of fertilizer with respect to the commanded dose. Average rate of air flow in each diffuser was 0.0073 m3/s, with 7.23 % CV. Total working width of the machine was about 5 m. Field capacity was about 0.12 ha/hours. The results of the tests on metering dose showed that the develop VRA could spread fertilizer uniformly and gave accurate application dose. The yield result showed that uniformity of unhulled rice production was reached 74.7%.

  10. Analisis Model Ekstraksi Citra Satelit Untuk Prediksi Tanaman Padi Dengan Pendekatan Model Statistik Dan Kecerdasan Buatan

    OpenAIRE

    Chairuddin, Chairuddin

    2014-01-01

    Keunggulan teknologi inderaja dalam melakukan estimasi melalui objek data citra dengan wahana satelit menjadi salah satu alternatif para pengambil keputusan dalam rangka mendukung dan memperoleh informasi serta solusi terbaik dalam menentukan langkah yang harus diambil untuk menentukan suatu keputusan yang handal. Data citra dapat dimanipulasi dengan serangkaian metode sehingga dapat menghasilkan sebuah informasi yang dibutuhkan terutama dalam melakukan ekstraksi sehingga dapat memprediksi da...

  11. Keparahan Penyakit Hawar Daun Jingga pada Beberapa Galur dan Varietas Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudir Sudir

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Disease severity of orange leaf blight (OLB was observed on several different genotypes of rice in Sukamandi, Pusakanegara, and Batang Research Station during the dry season of 1993. Results indicated, that except in Batang, under natural condition OLB developed well in all locations. Different responses were observed among rice genotypes, indicated that different level of resistance to OLB are available in rice germplasm. Out of 230 rice genotypes observed in bastard population, 4 were rated resistant (disease severity 8.5-10%, 7 were moderately resistant (disease severity 15-20%. No resistant or moderately resistant genotypes were observed among 24 genotypes in yields trials, 16 in adaptability trials, 12 in promising lines demonstration, and 49  in hybrid rice trials. Key words: orange leaf blight, resistance

  12. Analisis Computational Fluid Dynamics untuk Perancangan Reaktor Gasifikasi Sekam Padi Tipe Downdraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziyad Dzulfansya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk is one of biomass type which can be utilized as gasification’s feedstock for producing combustible gas which can be used as fuel in internal combustion engine. The objective of this research was to obtain the best design of small scale rice husk gasifier from among geometry scenarios by applying computational fluid dynamics method. The geometry scenarios used in this study were angle of throat 70O, 80O, and 90O, and also angle of nozzel 10O and 20O. The softwares used in this study were Gambit 2.4.6 (meshing 3D model and Ansys Fluent 13.0 (simulation. The reactions involved in gasification (3 heterogeneous reactions and 6 homogeneous reactions were solved by finite rate/Eddy dissipation model. Results of simulation showed that gasifier with angle of throat 90O and angle of nozzel 10O produced the highest heating value of gas with volume fraction of CO, H2, and CH4 is 14.49%, 9.65%, and 2.39% respectively. This result showed reasonable agreement with experimental data from other researchers on rice husk gasification.

  13. PENENTUAN WAKTU KONTAK DAN pH OPTIMUM PENYERAPAN METILEN BIRU MENGGUNAKAN ABU SEKAM PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anung Riapanitra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are widely used for colouring in textile industries, significant losses occur during the manufacture and processing of the product, and these lost chemical are discharged in surrounding effluent. Adsorption of dyes is an effective technology for treatment of wastewater contaminated by the mismanaged of different types of dyes. In this research, we investigated the potential of rice husk ash for removal of methylene blue dyeing agent in aqueous system. The aim of this research is to find out the optimum contact time and pH on the adsorption of methylene blue using rice husk ash. Batch kinetics studies were carried out under varying experimental condition of contact time and pH. An adsorption equilibrium condition was reached within 10 minutes and the optimum condition for adsorption was at pH 3. The adsorption of methylene blue was decreasing with decreasing the solution pH value.

  14. Kinerja Balai Penyuluhan Pertanian (BPP) dan Dampaknya pada Perilaku Petani Padi di Sulawesi Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Muh Hatta; Jahi, Amri; Gani, Darwis S; Sarma, Ma'mun; Purnaba, I Gusti Putu

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed to know factors related to the action programs as a representation of BPP performance and relationship between factors that potentially increase BPP performance and their impacts to the behavioral changes of ricefield farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research were all BPP located in 15 districts (regencies) in South Sulawesi (176 sub-districts/150 BPP). Determination of samples used Slovin method, number of samples was 109 BPP located within 109 sub-distri...

  15. Keanekaragaman, Dominasi, Persebaran Spesies Penggerek Batang Padi dan Serangannya pada Berbagai Tipologi Lahan di Provinsi Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    . Wilyus; Fuad Nurdiansyah; Asni Johari; Siti Herlinda; Chandra Irsan; Yulia Pujiastuti

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, domination, and distribution of rice stem borer species and its damage in various land typologies in Jambi Province.  The research was conducted to analyze the diversity, domination, species distribution of rice stem borers (RSB) and its damage on various land typologies in Jambi Province.  The research was carried out using survey method, from December 2010 until June 2011.  Samples of RSB were collected from tidal swamp in Tanjung Jabung Timur District, swampy area in Muaro Jambi...

  16. Keanekaragaman, Dominasi, Persebaran Spesies Penggerek Batang Padi Dan Serangannya Pada Berbagai Tipologi Lahan Di Provinsi Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    Wilyus,; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Johari, Asni; Herlinda, Siti; Irsan, Chandra; Pujiastuti, Yulia

    2013-01-01

    Diversity, domination, and distribution of rice stem borer species and its damage in various land typologies in Jambi Province. The research was conducted to analyze the diversity, domination, species distribution of rice stem borers (RSB) and its damage on various land typologies in Jambi Province. The research was carried out using survey method, from December 2010 until June 2011. Samples of RSB were collected from tidal swamp in Tanjung Jabung Timur District, swampy area in Muaro Jambi...

  17. Perubahan Populasi Protozoa dan Alga Dominan pada Air Genangan Tanah Padi Sawah yang Diberi Bokashi Berkelanjutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainin Niswati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa and alga play important roles in biogeochemical nutrient cycles in freshwater environment, especially in the paddy fields. The changes from the conventional technologies to organic technologies will change the communities structures of organisms lived in the paddy fields environment. The fields experiment was conducted to study the population dynamic of protozoa and algae dominant inhabited in the floodwater of the paddy fields subjected by continues ‘bokashi’ application. The results showed that protozoa and algae inhabited in the paddy fields in present study were dominated by Euglena, Pleodorina, Volvox, and Diatom. The continued application of bokashi for 4 years significantly increased the total population of protozoa and algae, however, the significantly effect was obtained in the population of Volvox only. The population of protozoa and algae were affected by the time of flooding of paddy fields where it increases exponentially at the 20 and 30 days after flooding and stable after that, ecxept for Euglena where it increases sligthly by flooding time.

  18. Uji ketahanan galur padi terhadap wereng coklat biotipe 3 melalui population build-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehaki Suherlan Effendi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Screening of rice lines resistance to brown planthopper (BPH through mass screening, filtering line resistance and the population build-up are essential for the release of resistant rice varieties. In addition, the stages of the endurance are important in determining the stability of resistance, as well as the type of resistant. The research was carried out in the screen house at Indonesian Center for Rice Research in 2007. The BPH used in the research was the off spring of BPH biotype 3 that had been rearing on IR42 (bph2 variety since 1994. The result of this research showed that 22.2% of 18 lines/varieties were moderately resistant to BPH biotype 3ft namely BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B, BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B, BP2870-4e- Kn-22-2-1-5*B, and Pulut Lewok. On the population build-up test, the above lines/varieties were moderately resistant to BPH biotype 3pb. The low FPLI values were found in BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B and Pulut Lewok. The highest tolerance index was found on BP4130-1f- 13-3-2*B and Pulut Lewok followed by BP2870-4e-Kn-22-2-1-5*B and BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B. Pulut Lewok has the highest antibiosis index and is not significantly different to BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B, while BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B was lowest. Although Pulut Lewok has antibiosis defense mechanism, it is not tolerant to BPH biotype 3. The BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B line have both antibiosis and tolerant to BPH biotype 3. BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B line has tolerance character, but does not have character of antibiosis to BPH biotype 3.

  19. Gangguan fisiologis wereng batang padi coklat akibat pemberian abu terbang batubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Fauzana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash (CFA can be used as a control agent of brown plant hopper (BPH Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera; Delphacidae. This study was aimed to investigate the physiological disorders in BPH when exposed to CFA. The research was conducted by carrying out tests covering the mortality of BPH, measurement of BPH weight before and after CFA treatment, an analysis of the moisture content in BPH, an analysis of the BPH tissue, and a chemical analysis of BPH. The results of the study showed that the mortality rate of BPH after treatment was 71%. The physiological disorders due to CFA treatment was indicated by a 67.04% weight reduction as opposed to a 6.9% weight increase on the control specimens. The average moisture content of the treated BPH was significantly lower than that of the control specimens. CFA caused a shrinkage of body tissues and an increase in the contents of silica and alumina on BPH.

  20. Keunggulan Komparatif Dan Kompetitif Dalam Produksi Padi Di Kabupaten Lampung Tengah Propinsi Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain, Zulkarnain; Haryono, Dwi; Kasymir, Eka

    2010-01-01

    This objective of tis research was to: 1) Determine whether the Central Lampung District has a comparative advantage and competitive advantage in rice production. 2) Determine how the sensitivity of changes in output prices and input prices to the comparative and competitive advantage in rice production. Location of the study was conducted at the Rama Utama Village and Ramayana Village, Seputih Raman Subdistrict of Central Lampung District. This research was conducted by survey and interview ...

  1. STRATEGI MENCARI MAKAN BURUNG PECUK PADI HITAM (PHALACROCORAX SULDROSTRIS DI SUAKA MARGASATWA PULAU RAMBUT, TELUK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlDA FlTHRI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little black cormorant (Phalacrocorax suldrostris} feeding activity around their breeding area face many problem such as high velocity wind and piracy by frigate birds. P. suldrostris developed six type of flying to overcome high velocity wind and flew in group to avoid frigate attack. As much as 13 fish species were consumed by little black cormorant during this research.

  2. Pengaruh Luas Lahan, Produksi, Ketahanan Pangan dan Harga Gabah Terhadap Kesejahteraan Petani Padi di Kabupaten Pasuruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wahed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to look at the influence of Land, Production, Food Security and Welfare against the Grain Prices Rice Farmers Rice in the Pasuruan. This research was conducted in the Kedemungan village Kejayan District of Pasuruan. This research was conducted by used Probability Sampling, determination of the respondents in a random way (Stratified Sampling. Then next analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the area of land, production, Resilience food and grain prices have a significant influence effect on the level of welfare of rice farmers (NTP and showed a positive relationship.

  3. KONTRIBUSI TEKNOLOGI PENGENDALIAN HAMA TERPADU PADA PENURUNAN PENGGUNAAN PESTISIDA: KASUS PRODUKSI PADI DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of integtated pest management technology to significant decrease in use of pesticides in rice production.  This study was conducted in Yogyakarta, where the technology has been intensively disseminated through farmer’s field school. Aggregate data shows that the use of pesticides declines significantly after the introduction of the technology.  A constant elasticity of input demand model was employed in this study. The results of the study show that IPM technologi was increasingly disseminated during 1989-1998. At the same period, pesticide use declined significantly. The decrease in pesticide use was affected by the increase dissemination of IPM technology and the increase in relative price of pesticides.

  4. Karakteristik Kimia dan Fisika Semen Pozolan Kapur yang Diperkaya Silika Abu Sekam Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Assa, Asma; Adinata, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Development of infrastructures intensively in the last decades has increased the demand for building materials, such as cement. This also causes the prices of Portland Cement, the most common type of cements has also increased and sometimes it is difficult to find it in the markets. Another type of cement namely Lime Pozolan Cement (SPK) may be used to substitute for Portland Cement for building construction which receives relatively low loads. The SPK is produced from pozolan materials and l...

  5. Pengaruh Penggenangan dan Pengeringan terhadap Populasi dan Siklus Hidup Nematoda Puru Akar Padi (Meloidogyne graminicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyadi Mulyadi

    1997-09-01

    The research results showed: 1 continuously flooding inhibit the penetration and population development of M. graminicola on rice IR 64, but the life cycle of M. graminicola was not affected; and 2 seventy two hours period of draining enhanced the development of M. graminicola compared to period of draining shorter than 72 hours.

  6. Keanekaragaman Semut pada Persawahan di Daerah Urban: Investigasi Pengaruh Habitat Sekitar dan Perbedaan Umur Tanaman Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENRI AGUS SETIANI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification cause negative effect to insect diversity including beneficial insect such as natural enemies and pollinators. Habitat management through habitat heterogeneity is an alternative approach to protect insect diversity in agriculture area. In this study, we investigated the effect of habitat heterogeneity integrated with different age of crop plant in urban agricultural landscape to the ant diversity. The field research was conducted in agricultural area in Carang Pulang Village, Dramaga, Bogor. In around 6 ha area of rice field, grouped into four blocks which each block has different habitat condition and age of rice plant. In bunds of each block were put six pitfall traps with minimum distance 20 meter from each other. Ants were collected weekly from 6 until 12 weeks after planting to standardize the bunds condition. In total 22 species from 4 subfamilies of ants were recorded from this research. Iridomyrmex sp.01 and Odontoponera sp.01 are the common species which always found in each block and in different age of rice plant. There are no correlation between the distance of pitfall traps and similarity of ant species. In addition, habitat conditions surrounding rice field (block significantly effect to the ant diversity. However, age of rice plant have no effect to the ant diversity.

  7. Pengaruh Habitat Sekitar Lahan Persawahan dan Umur Tanaman Padi terhadap Keanekaragaman Hymenoptera Parasitika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Herlina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the largest group of biological control agents, Parasitic Hymenoptera play important role in controlling pest outbreak in agricultural habitat. Unfortunately, there is lack of information about how these parasitoids occur in agricultural habitat related to condition of surrounding habitat and phenology of crop plant. The objective of this research was to study the effect of rice field surrounding habitat and age of rice plant on the diversity of Parasitic Hymenoptera. Research area was located in Carang Pulang Village, Dramaga, Bogor. We selected four blocks which represented different of habitat condition and age of rice plant. Each block was set six yellow pan traps (with minimum distance 20 meter and one malaise trap. Sampling of insects were conducted weekly from 6 to 12 week after planting. From this research, we collected 1,833 individual of Hymenoptera (without ants belong to 9 superfamilies, 23 families, and 216 species. Parasitic Hymenoptera was more abundant (96% and species rich (84% than Aculeata. Rice field surrounding habitat (block and age of rice field significantly affect the diversity of Parasitic Hymenoptera. We found positively correlation between age of rice plant and species richness of Parasitic Hymenoptera.

  8. Perbandingan Efek Pemberian Bioinsektisida dan Ekstrak Kompos terhadap Produksi Padi Ratun dan Populasi Serangga Hama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herlinda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of ratooning rice are to save water, cost production, labor, preparation time for planting and harvesting, but the ratooning productivity is still low.  This research aimed to study the effect of the bioinsecticide and compost extract on ratooning rice production and insect populations. The ratooning rice was applied by bioinsecticide, compost extract, and combination of bioinsecticide and compost extract with dose 2 L ha-1  per application, respectively. Data of agronomic variables were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, whereas insect pest population data were analyzed using Chi Square test. The seedling height of ratoon applied by compost extract was the highest among treatments. The number of productive tillers per clumps and rice production on plot applied by compost extract were higher than the insecticide treatment. At the age of 17 day-ratooning rice, application bioinsecticide reduced the population of insect pests, such as Ciccadulina bipunctata, Recilia dorsalis, Nilaparvata lugens, and Nephotettix nigropictus. Thus, application of compost extract tended to improved the growth and production of the ratooning rice, while the bioinsecticide decreased the insect pest population.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, rice growth, production

  9. Identifikasi dan Tingkat Penerapan Inovasi Teknologi Padi Sawah di Kabupaten Parigi Moutong Sulawesi Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafruddin Syafruddin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pencapaian tingkat swasembada dan ketahanan pangan khususnya beras tidak terlepas dari beberapa dukungan seperti sumberdaya alam dan penerapan inovasi teknologi. Kabupaten Parigi Moutong merupakan salah satu wilayah penghasil beras yang cukup besar di Sulawesi Tengah yang diharapkan dapat menjadi sumber pertumbuhan baru produksi beras Nasional di Indonesia. Pemerintah Daerah menetapkan wilayah ini, sebagai daerah penyangga beras terbesar di Sulawesi Tengah. Tujuan dari Penelitian ini adalah untuk : 1. Mengidentifikasi berbagai permasalahan dan tingkat penerapan inovasi teknologi pertanian di Kabupaten Parigi Moutong dan 2. Menetapkan arahan dan alternatif teknologi yang potensial untuk pengembangan lahan di Kabupaten Parigi Moutong. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan sebanyak dua tahap yaitu tahap 1 Desk study dan 2. Penelitian Lapangan. Desk study dilakukan dengan cara penelusuran pustaka dan diskusi dengan stake holders lainnya. Untuk Penelitian lapangan dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan metode survey dengan melakukan pengamatan kondisi sosial ekonomi dan budaya serta pengamatan tingkat penerapan inovasi teknologi melalui pendekatan Partisifatif Rural Aprasial atau Pengenalan Desa Secara Partisifatif (PRA. Pelaksanaan penelitian dilakukan selama 2 bulan yaitu dari bulan Juni hingga bulan Juli 2014. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat potensi perluasan areal persawahan dan peningkatan luas tanam karena didukung oleh iklim dan irigasi yang cukup baik. Tingkat penerapan teknologi masih cukup rendah terutama penggunaan varietas unggul, benih unggul dan bermutu serta pemupukan. The achievement level of self-sufficiency and food security, particularly in rice production should be supported by natural resources and the application of technology innovation.  Parigi Moutong Regency is one of the largest rice producer areas in Central Sulawesi, which is expected to be a new growth source area of national rice production in Indonesia. Local government has set this region as the largest rice buffer zone in Central Sulawesi. The aim of this study was to: 1 Identify the problems and the application level of agricultural technology innovation in Parigi Moutong Regency and 2 Setting the direction and potential of alternative technologies for the development of rice land area in the Regency of Parigi Moutong. This research had two steps, namely : 1 desk study and 2 field research. Field research method was done using a survey method of observing socio-economic and cultural conditions as well as the observation of the level of technology innovation through Participative Rural Appraisal (PRA approach or partisipative village introduction. The research was conducted from June to July 2014. The result shows that there is a potential for expansion and improvement of rice cultivation acreage because it is supported by the suitable climate condition and well-managed irrigation facilities. However, the level of technology application is still relatively low, especially in the use of improved varieties, improved and quality seed and also proper fertilization.

  10. TEKNIK PENGGEROMBOLAN FUZI UNTUK PEWILAYAHAN CURAH HUJAN DI SENTRA PRODUKSI PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Pramudia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall zoning analysis with fuzzy clustering method has been performed at the centre of paddy area in the northern coast of Banten Province and West Java Province. Rainfall data recorded in the 1980-2006 period from 62 rainfall stations in the northern coast of Banten Province and from 75 rainfall stations at Karawang and Subang in the northern coast of West Java Province have been used in this analysis. For the first analysis a calculation of arithmetic mean values representing EI-Nino, La-Nina and Normal condition has been performed. Next, a fuzzy clustering analysis is applied to these mean values. The clustering analysis consists of two steps. First, a symmetric and reflective compatibility relation matrix describing a distance function between rainfall stations is calculated. Second, a fuzzy equivalency relationship i.e. a transitive approach of fuzzy compatibility matrices is determined. The results of analysis indicate a difference in the equivalency level among the stations under the EI-Nino, La-Nina and Normal conditions in the northern coast of Banten Province and West Java Province. Based on the 75°/o equivalency level, in the northern coast of Banten area can be grouped into four rainfall zones under EI-Nino condition, two zones under La-Nina condition and three zones under Normal condition. On the other hand, in the northern coast of West Java area can be grouped into three zones under EI-Nino condition, two zones under La-Nina condition, and four zones under Normal condition.

  11. Penerapan Teknologi Tepat Guna Padi Sawah Spesifik Lokasi di Dusun Ponggok, Trimulyo, Jetis, Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryani Hidayah Utami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of technology is very important in supporting improvement of agricultural production. The high-tech strategic role was demonstrated by the success in achieving increased production of rice within the last 35 years is the contribution of the application of more advanced technology. Mosher et al. (2003 put technology as an essential condition for agricultural development. If there is no change in the technological development of agriculture was halted. Production halted the increase, it may even decline because of declining fertility tannic or because of damage increased by pest play an increasingly rampant. A view to changing the technology, can be interpreted as an adaptive technology on the condition of the biophysical and social environment of the local culture. Practical application of specific technologies by farmers, for example how farmers adjust to the conditions of cultivation of local agro-ecosystem forming a specific production system on irrigated land, rainfed lowland, upland, swampy areas, and tidal. Choice according to agro-ecosystem farmers are adapting cultivation is calibration-specific technologies. It’s caused each commodity grows well on climatic conditions, soil and culture-specific social support. Community service activities has been implementing the specific technology that is enriched with appropriate technology research team of the Faculty of Agriculture of UGM by utilizing site-specific conditions of Ponggok Hamlet, Trimulyo, Jetis, Bantul, which have ingredients that can be used for making fertilizer and also wisdom locations in rice cultivation which has been done by farmers for generations. Community Service Team of Faculty of Agriculture, UGM during 2013-2015 had engaged in community service based on the results of research and appropriate technologies in Ponggok Hamlet, for 2 seasons seen significant progress and participation of farmers. In 2013 the results of the demonstration plot tile average of 6.8 tons/ha, after continuous mentoring and counseling in 2014 the results of tile becomes 7.8 to 9.8 tons/ha. Activities application of appropriate technology in a farmer’s land is not easy. Although guidance and counseling has been done before, but not all farmers want and dare to carry out all of the technology that is recommended because it is still in doubt, especially with regard to plant spacing, seed age and the number of seedlings planted. In 2015, a technology package has been introduced covering healthy seedlings, planting system “footprint tiger”, “tajarwo”, homemade compost with waste around the site and biological fertilizers. The results of the application of specific technologies in the growing season of April to July 2015 showed an increase in rice production, but the farmer as a principal factor remains the key to successful application of the technology.

  12. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kesejahteraan Petani Padi di Kecamatan Babalan Kabupaten Langkat

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhillah, Warid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors that affect the welfare of rice farmers in the district Babalan Langkat using primary data for 100 respondents was determined by the formula Slovin, represent the entire population of rice farmers in the district Babalan Langkat. The sampling technique using random sampling method, which means selecting a random sample by giving a same chance to all members of the population to be a member of the sample. The method used in this research i...

  13. PENGARUH JENIS DAN KONSENTRASI KATALISATOR ASAM TERHADAP SINTESIS FURFURAL DARI SEKAM PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinna Juwita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an agrarian country with a large rice production, where rice production is often high, the potential of rice waste will be higher, one of the waste is rice hull that can be used as raw material for the manufacture of furfural. This research aims to determine the type and concentration of acid catalyst in the manufacture of furfural, and analyze the effect of acid catalyst type and concentration to furfural obtained. This research was done by three stages, namely preparation of raw materials, hydrolysis and distillation process. Preparation of raw materials was started by reducing the rice hull’s size up to 80 mesh and then drying. Acid catalyst hydrolysis carried out for four hours with the operating temperature of 85 oC, then filtered hydrolyzate was purified by distillation. Research was done by varying the acid catalyst in the form of sulfuric acid and hidrochloric acid with the concentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9%. The results showed that the synthesis of furfural from rice hull obtained the highest furfural concentration on the sulfuric acidcatalyst at 1% concentration. The furfural obtained with concentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% on a sulfuric acidcatalyst respectively at 1.815%; 1.256%; 0.933%; 0.733% and 0.730%, while the furfural obtained on the hydrochloric acid catalyst respectively at 1.659%; 1.126%; 0.848%; 0.737% and 0.726%.

  14. PENGARUH WAKTU HIDROLISIS DAN KONSENTRASI KATALISATOR ASAM SULFAT TERHADAP SINTESIS FURFURAL DARI JERAMI PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primata Mardina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice straws are one of the hemicellulose-contained wastes, which one of its main components is pentosan. Pentosan can be reacted into furfural with acid catalytic hydrolysis reaction. This research is intended to find out the effect of hydrolysis durations and sulfuric acid (H2SO4 catalyst concentrations towards yield of furfural from rice straws. The synthesis of furfural from rice straws is conducted by refined the rice straws, then hydrolyze it with different concentrations of sulfuric acid solution (1%, 3%, and 5% v/v and with different durations of hydrolysis reaction (1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, dan 5 hours. This hydrolisis reaction produced liquid, which are distilled to separate furfural from sulfuric acid solution. The results of this research show the yield of furfural from rice straws hydrolysis is inversely proportional to sulfuric acid catalyst concentration and hydrolysis duration. The best yield of furfural was 5,441%, which obtained with 1% sulfuric acid catalyst concentration and 1 hour hydrolysis duration.

  15. HUBUNAGN KEMAMPUAN PERGANTIAN INANG DENGAN PLASTISITAS GENETIKA PADA CENDAWAN BLAS PADI (PYRICULARIA GRISEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Listiyowati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Digitaria ciliaris, wild grass grown around rice field, was a host for Pyricularia grisea (Cooke Sacc., the fungi caused blast disease of rice. This fungi have a specific mechanism to regenerate new genetic variation in its life cycle. The aim of this research is to study the relation between the ability of the fungi to infect different species of host with its genetic plasticity. It was used three SCAR molecular markers Cut1, Pwl 1 and Erg2. P. grisea isolates (Dc4J1 originated from D. ciliaris at Jasinga-Bogor were able to infect rice cultivars Kencana Bali and Cisokan. The original Dc4J1, from D. ciliaris, and the Dc4J1 that were reisolated from the infected rice cultivars (reisolates-1 had the same ability to infect Kencana Bali and Cisokan. Molecular technique showed that there was a different molecular marker genotype between the original Dc4J1, from D. ciliaris, and the Dc4J1 reisolated from infected rice cultivars. The original Dc4J1 owned Cut1 but did not Pwl2 in contrary the reisolates Dc4J1 from rice cultivars (reisolates-1 had Pwl2 but did not Cut1. The Erg2 presented in both the original and the reisolated Dc4J1. These results indicated that there were a change of genotype of P. grisea at the same time with the change of host species. The Dc4J1 isolates originated from Kencana Bali and Cisokan (reisolates-2 that were infected by reisolate-1, had the same genotype with the reisolates-1

  16. Pembuatan Dan Karakterisasi Kertas Dari Campuran Serat Jambul Nanas Dan Serat Jerami Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Mufridayati

    2015-01-01

    The Research for making and characterization of paper has been made by using crested pineapple and straw fiber. The study was conducted to determine the optimum mixture of crested pineapple fiber and straw fiber composition that varied to 100%:0%, 80%:20%, 60%:40%, 40%:60%, 20%:80%, 0%:100%. Dried crested pineapple cooked by using 1,5 % NaOH with 225 gr in 100 0C. Dried rice straw was cooked with by using 1,5 % NaOH in 100 0C. Then , the pulp was dried under the sun. The pulp was washed and w...

  17. Karakter Morfofisiologi dan Fisikokimia Beras dengan Berbagai Dosis Pemupukan Organik dan Hayati pada Budidaya Padi Organik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isna Tustiyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe awareness of the negative impacts of conventional agriculture has been encouraging people to switch from conventional farming to the organic farming, using organic and biological fertilizers. This farming system changes will influence the character of the plant and the yield. The objective of the research was to investigate the morphophysiology and physicochemical characters of rice with various rates of organic and biological  fertilizer. The experiment was conducted at rice field in Karawang and Bogor, West Java, from May to September 2012. The experiment used a single factor randomized block design consisted of three replications with 12 treatments. The first 6 treatments were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ton organic fertilizer ha-1, and the other 6 treatments were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 ton organic fertilizer ha-1 combined with 2 l biological fertilizer ha-1. As control treatment was application of anorganic fertilizer with the rate of 400 kg NPK (30-6-8 ha-1. Plot size was 15 m x 10 m, with a double row spacing (legowo 2:1 (25 cm x 15 cm x 50. The results showed that organic fertilizer either without or with biological fertilizers increased the weight of 1,000 grains and decreased amylose content of rice. The score of leaf color in plants with inorganic fertilizer was higher than those with organic fertilizer.Keywords: amylose, gelatinization temperature, leaf color, water uptake ratio, 1,000 grain weight

  18. Efektivitas Nematoda Patogenik Serangga (Rhabditida: Steinernema dan Heterorhabditis terhadap Penggerek Batang Padi Putih (Scirpophaga innotata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaerani Chaerani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available White rice stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata is a destructive insect pest which is difficult to control with various tactics. The possibility of the use of non-endemic natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernema and Heterorhabditis has been investigated in green house trials. Test of 12 isolates and species of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis originated from local and exotic sources revealed that H. indicus INA H4 was the most efficacious nematode by causing 74% larval and pupal mortality within rice stems. Reduction in plant damage due to nematode application could not be demonstrated as the experiment was limited to potted plants. Subsequent test using H. indicus INA H4 showed that increasing nematode concentration from 0.5 to 2.0x10^4 IJs/ml did not significantly affect insect mortality. The survival ability of H. indicus INA H4 infective juveniles on rice plant was less than 96 hours. Improvement of nematode application strategies including repeated spray, addition of antidesiccant, increasing spray volume and application at plant damage threshold or plant critical stage are therefore necessary to increase nematode effectiveness and simultaneously to reduce plant damage in field.

  19. Efektivitas Nematoda Patogenik Serangga (Rhabditida: Steinernema dan Heterorhabditis) terhadap Penggerek Batang Padi Putih (Scirpophaga innotata)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaerani, Chaerani; Nurbaeti, Bebet

    2006-01-01

    White rice stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata) is a destructive insect pest which is difficult to control with various tactics. The possibility of the use of non-endemic natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) has been investigated in green house trials. Test of 12 isolates and species of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis originated from local and exotic sources revealed that H. indicus INA H4 was the most efficacious nematode by causing 74...

  20. CO-COMPOSTING LIMBAH PADAT BELTPRESS DAN JERAMI PADI DENGAN AERATED STATIC PILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastiti Siswi Indrasti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste from beltpress machine in wastewater treatment plant is produced as much as 1,25 tons/day but hasnot been utilized, causing unpleasant odour and requires a high cost for disposal. Composting is one of alternative technology that can be applied to solve the problem. The objectives of this research were to examine the influence of the initial C/N value and aeration rate to the rate of co-composting process in reaching the C/N value that corresponds to SNI 19-7030-2004, and to characterize the compost produced. The research design used was factorial Complete Random Design (CRD with two factors and two repetitions. The first factor was C/N value, consisted of 25; 30; 35 and the second factor was aeration rate, consisted of 0; 0,4; 0,8 L/min.kg of dry material. Composting was done using 30 L reactor by giving active intermittent aeration for 1 hour/day during the first 7 days of composting. Effects of initial C/N value and aeration rate were significantly different (P0.05 on pH value. Lower initial C/N value and higher aeration rate attained standard C/N value fastest. The best treatment based on the conformity with SNI 19-7030-2004 was initial C/N25 with aeration rate 0,8 L/minute.kg dry matter. The compost produced met the SNI standards in macro elements, trace elements,and other elements, but didnot qualify the pH value and moisture content.

  1. Penampilan Galur Harapan Mutan Dihaploid Padi Tipe Baru di Sulawesi Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswari Saraswati Dewi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSouth Sulawesi is known as one of national rice production centers. However, average productivity of rice varieties planted in that area (4.43 ton ha-1 is lower than those of rice productivity in Java (5.25 ton ha-1. The aims of this research were to evaluate agronomic characters and adaptation of 7 dihaploid mutant advanced lines of new plant type (DH-NPT of rice at several locations in South Sulawesi. The research was conducted in 2012 at Maros, Gowa, Barru, and Pangkep. The experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design with 3 replications nested in locations. Treatment consisted of 7 DH-NPT of rice, i.e., BIO-MF115, BIO-MF116, BIO-MF125, BIO-MF130, BIO-MF133, BIO-MF151, BIO-MF153, and control varieties i.e., Fatmawati, Ciherang, and Inpari13. The results indicated that in general the lines had medium height (102.77-110.23 cm, moderate productive tiller (9-16 tiller per hill, moderate days to flower (50%, i.e., 73-76 days after sowing (DAS, earlier days to harvest (103-110 DAS, moderate panicle length (28.35-29.31 cm, large number of grain per panicle (> 250 grains with moderate panicle fertility (63-70%, moderate 1,000 grain weight, i.e., 26.51-27.75 g, and high yield (7.51-8.09 ton ha-1. Four lines, i.e., BIO-MF116, BIO-MF130, BIO-MF151, and BIO-MF153 were stable and had wide adaptability. Other lines, i.e., BIO-MF125 and BIO-MF133 were sensitive to environmental changes, therefore they were classified as specifically adapted to favorable environment; while BIO-MF115 was not sensitive to environmental changes, and therefore it was adapted to non-favorable environment.Keywords: adaptation, agronomic characters, rice mutant

  2. PRODUKSI BIOETANOL DARI ALKALI-PRETREATMENT JERAMI PADI DENGAN PROSES SIMULTANEOUS SACHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION (SSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryanti Fatyasari Nata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is an agricultural waste which contains 39% cellulose and 27.5% hemicelluloses. Rice straw can be converted into bio ethanol by Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF process. The aims of this research are to investigate the influence of rice straw pretreatment and operation condition (number of cellulose enzyme and Saccharomyces cereviseae for bioethanol production. The bioethanol conversion was devided by 2 steps, there were delignification and SSF. Delignification process was done by soak rice straw in NaOH 2% heated at temperature 85 oC for 1 hour then washed with water. The pretreatment rice straw was used as substrate in SSF. SSF was conducted in the presence of cellulase enzyme (20, 30, and 40 FPU and Sacharomyces Cerevisiae (2,4 and 6 ose for 3 days. The bioethanol concentration produced for 20 FPU, 30 FPU, and 40 FPU in 2 ose S.careviseae are 0,45%, 0,44%, and 0,43% respectively. The addition number of Saccharomyces cereviseae was gave high concentration of bioethanol. The result shown that bioethanol concentration of 2 ose, 4 ose and 6 ose are 0,45%, 0,46% and 1,07%, respectively. In the same concentration of enzyme (20 FPU which pretreatment and non pretretament substrate was increased of bioethanol concentration up to 82,2%. The pretretment process was broken the structure of lignin and made enzyme easy to attached cellulose and converted to glucose.

  3. KERAGAAN PENYAKIT PADI PADA VARIETAS UNGGUL BARU UNTUK AGROEKOSISTEM RAWA DAN LAHAN KERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Yuliani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Swampand dryland agroecosystems has the potential tobe used as acomplementary effort to improve national food security. This effort washamperedby the disruption of plant disease in new improved varieties of riceasone of the technology to increase rice production. This study aims to determine the performance of rice diseases at new improved varieties for swamp and dryland agro eco systems. Research conducted in 2013 growing season in ICR Rusinga randomized block design with 3 replications. The treatments were13new improved varietiesi.e. Inpara 1, Inpara 2, Inpara 3, Inpara 4, Inpara 5, Inpara 6, Inpara 7, Inpago 4, Inpago 4, Inpago 5, Inpago 6, Inpago 7, Inpago 8, and Inpago 9. For disease survei llance drawn diagonalline in each experimental plot, each diagonalline taken10 samples of plant clumps. Each sample clumps was observed the disease severity that were found by scoring method (IRRI, 2002.The results showed there were six diseases that infect new improved varieties for swampand upland agro ecosystems name lystem rot, sheath blight, red stripe, cercosporaleaf spot, bacterial leaf blight,and bacterialleafstreak. Stem rot with the highest severity found in Inpara3(35.18% and Inpago4(32.96%. Sheath blight with the highest severity found in Inpara1(6.11% and Inpago7(5.74%. Red stripe withthe highests everity found in Inpara6 (47.78% and Inpago9 (40.74%. Cercosporaleaf spotwiththe highestseverity found in Inpara5(40.37% and Inpago6 (14.82%. Bacterial leaf blight with the highest severity found in Inpara3(24.26% andInpago9 (32.04%. Bacterial leaf streak with the highest severity found in Inpara3(9.26% and Inpago6 (30.56%.

  4. Produktivitas Kambing Peranakan Etawah yang Diberi Ransum Berbasis Jerami Padi Fermentasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Novita

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agriculture by product has low nutritive value. Fermentation of rice straw increased its nutrient digestibility and palatability. Present experiments aimed to study the effect of feeding rations composed of concentrate and ground fermented rice straw supplemented with urea and probiotic. The first trial was conducted to study the apparent digestibility of experimental diets in 18 Etawah-grade bucks with 1-1.5 year age and initial body weight of 30.18 ± 8.38 kg. The second trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding experimental rations on reproduction, milk yield and its quality in 24 Etawah-grade does with 1 to 3 years age and initial weight of 35.75 ± 5.72 kg. The rations were as follows; KJP = concentrate + chopped fermented rice straw; KJG = concentrate + ground fermented rice straw; KRG = concentrate + elephant grass. A completely randomized design was applied in both nutrient digestibility and performance trials. In both trials, the rations were offered twice daily. Does and kids were weighted once in two week. Does were milked manually once a week for 3 months post partum. Milk was sampled for determination of its specific gravity, protein, fat and solid content. Gestation length, litter size, birth weigth and weaned weight were recorded. Dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake, and apparent digestibility of DM did not differ significantly among treatments. However, apparent digestibility of CP in goat offered KJG was lower (P<0.05 than those of KRG and KJP. DM and CP intake of does was higher (P<0.05 for the KRG treatment but those were not differ between KJP and KJG treatments. Gestation length, litter size, the body weight of does during pregnancy and lactation, the body weight of kids from birth to weaning, milk yield and quality of milk were not different ammong tretaments. These results suggested that fermented rice straw can be used to substitute the elephant grass.

  5. PENGARUH PERKEMBANGAN KEPARIWISATAAN DAN SISTEM KEKERABATAN TERHADAP SISTEM BAGI HASIL USAHA TANI PADI SAWAH DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Budi Susrusa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High population growthled to a scarcity of arable land in Indonesia. During 1963-1993periods, farmer households have increased 1.77% i.e, almost three times than the extend ofagricultural land. Soe, the land that is held by the farmer households were not only decreased inits size, but also increased in its inequality. Furthermore, this phenomenon encouraged theexistence of share cropping contract. Sharecropping contract is an old institution that was knownsince Babylonian era ( ± 2300 BC and still showing controversial issues related to agriculturalproductivity. Certainly, the institution that was born in along history of mankind could not beeasily change, however some modification should be conducted along with the implementation ofrecent agricultural debelopment programs.The objectives this study was identify the change of sharecropping contract on ricefarming along with development of economy in Bali which was also stimulated by development oftourism and to learn weather or not sharecropping contract was contra productive in terms laborused and farming performance.This study was conducted at the subaks area, three within and three others of tourismarea. The population was classified into three group, owner-cultivator, non-kinship-sharecrpper,kinship- sharecropper. Farming intensity was measured by the indicator of the used of labor andinputs, whereas farm performance will be evaluated by land productivity and farm income.This study reveals that the more developed economy within a region, the better sharecropper’ sbargaining position. Furthermore, kinship-sharecropping contract was as not bad as the generalopinion that is not agreed to sharesropping contract.Labor utilization and farm performance both in kinship sharecropping were consistentwith enforceable contract that is led to optimizing input allocation. From the view points ofowners-sharecropping relationships it was indicated that the owners held control upon theallocation of farm inputs.

  6. Kajian Keanekaragaman Artropoda pada Lahan Padi Sawah Tanpa Pestisida dan Manfaatnya dalam Pengendalian Hama Terpadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Mahrub

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research are to study the diversity and abundance of arthropods, and to study the foodweb chain composition in the ricefield ecosystem without application of chemical pesticide. This research has been done in the ricefield at Klaten district, with IR64 rice cultivar. The observation was started when the plant was 7 days old after transplanting, with an interval of 8 days until one week before harvesting, to collect the arthropods samples. Three plots and 50 hills per plot were sampled weekly. Arthropods from each hill were collected by using insect sucking apparatus. The data was analyzed following Cheng method to study the arthropod index diversity and its abundance. The results showed that in the rice ecosystem there were four groups o arthropod consisted of pest (21.19%; predator (26.09%; parasitoid (0.42%, and neutral insect (52.30%. Data of the pest population was very low in free from chemical pesticide application, plot while population of neutral insect was very high. The high population of neutral insect was very useful and functionary as alternate prey for predator and parasitoid when the pest population was very low. The diversity index (H’ of arthropods during the rice growing period in the first to the fourth week increased from 1.38 to 2.37, but during the fifth to the eleventh week the diversity was about constantly low. The diversity index decreased linearly with the rice growth stage, but as the plant got older the population of arthropods decreased because the habitat became unfavourable. It might cause the diversity index and the abundance decreased. Some of the arthropods moved to new area to find the most suitable habitat. There was a foodweb chain in the rice ecosystem consisted of arthropods complex including the natural enemies and which were neutral insects. It indicated a good balanced condition between pest and natural enemies more profitable when no chemical pesticide intervention was applied in the ecosystem. Key words: arthropods, diversity

  7. Penanganan Susut Panen dan Pasca Panen Padi Kaitannya dengan Anomali Iklim di Wilayah Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahargono Kobarsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To reduced losses in rice farming requires the application of modern agricultural machinery in harvesting equipment, postharvest and processing. Varying knowledge of farmers and entrepreneur rice milling unit (RMU in yield loss as well as the impacts of global climate change research should be conducted through a structured survey of farmers and entrepreneurs RMU in Yogyakarta. Results obtained demonstrate the preferred use of new type variety among farmers so that the tool is suitable harvest sickle cutting down system in districts of Bantul and Gunungkidul more popular as straw used for animal feed. More than 70% of farmers do at harvest time by looking at the panicle and leaf color. Utilization of power threshers more developed in Sleman because of such preferred cut up and threshing by stampede way. With the limitations of manpower, the farmer was forced to delay harvest in Gunungkidul. The thickness of the grain is dried in the sun need to be added so as not too thin and can produce more rice intact during milling. Entrepreneur RMU need to complete with seed cleaner to increase the yield, as well as using double-pass system so that quality and yield of rice produced would be better.

  8. EVALUASI USAHA PENGGILINGAN PADI SUMBER HIDUP DI DESA MARINDI KECAMATAN HARUAI KABUPATEN TABALONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Marliani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the production cost, the eligibility and sensitivity of “Sumber Hidup” rice milling business in Marindi village, sub-district of Haruai, Tabalong regency. This research uses quantitative analysis methods. The data collecting has been done in April to May 2015. The quatitative analysis methods use invesment criteria analysing with:, Net Present Value (NPV , Internal Rate of Return (IRR, Net Benefit Cost Ratio (Net B/C, and business sensitivity. Based on the research, the eligibility of business study conclude that “Sumber hidup” rise milling business is worth to be carried on as long as the range of production cost is 10% to 40%. But if the production cost reach more than 50% of the whole cost, the business is not worth to be carried on.

  9. Characterization of Arabidopsis Transcriptional Responses to Different Aphid Species Reveals Genes that Contribute to Host Susceptibility and Non-host Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouannet, Maëlle; Morris, Jenny A.; Hedley, Peter E.; Bos, Jorunn I. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are economically important pests that display exceptional variation in host range. The determinants of diverse aphid host ranges are not well understood, but it is likely that molecular interactions are involved. With significant progress being made towards understanding host responses upon aphid attack, the mechanisms underlying non-host resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated and compared Arabidopsis thaliana host and non-host responses to aphids at the transcriptional level using three different aphid species, Myzus persicae, Myzus cerasi and Rhopalosiphum pisum. Gene expression analyses revealed a high level of overlap in the overall gene expression changes during the host and non-host interactions with regards to the sets of genes differentially expressed and the direction of expression changes. Despite this overlap in transcriptional responses across interactions, there was a stronger repression of genes involved in metabolism and oxidative responses specifically during the host interaction with M. persicae. In addition, we identified a set of genes with opposite gene expression patterns during the host versus non-host interactions. Aphid performance assays on Arabidopsis mutants that were selected based on our transcriptome analyses identified novel genes contributing to host susceptibility, host defences during interactions with M. persicae as well to non-host resistance against R. padi. Understanding how plants respond to aphid species that differ in their ability to infest plant species, and identifying the genes and signaling pathways involved, is essential for the development of novel and durable aphid control in crop plants. PMID:25993686

  10. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-02-23

    Reduced forms of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are among the most important non-enzymatic foliar antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.). The survey was aimed to evaluate impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) herbivory on expression of genes related to ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in seedlings of six maize varieties (Ambrozja, Nana, Tasty Sweet, Touran, Waza, Złota Karłowa), differing in resistance to the cereal aphids. Relative expression of sixteen maize genes encoding isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase (APX1, APX2, APX3, APX4, APX5, APX6, APX7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR1, MDHAR2, MDHAR3, MDHAR4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1, DHAR2, DHAR3) and glutathione reductase (GR1, GR2) was quantified. Furthermore, effect of hemipterans' attack on activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and the content of reduced and oxidized ascorbate and glutathione in maize plants were assessed. Seedling leaves of more resistant Z. mays varieties responded higher elevations in abundance of target transcripts. In addition, earlier and stronger aphid-triggered changes in activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and greater modulations in amount of the analyzed antioxidative metabolites were detected in foliar tissues of highly resistant Ambrozja genotype in relation to susceptible Tasty Sweet plants.

  11. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants.

  12. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  13. Differential Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Aphid-Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:24722734

  14. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2 •−) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2 •− was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2 •− generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  15. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production.

  16. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems.

  17. Exploring the nitrogen ingestion of aphids--a new method using electrical penetration graph and (15N labelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Kuhlmann

    Full Text Available Studying plant-aphid interactions is challenging as aphid feeding is a complex process hidden in the plant tissue. Here we propose a combination of two well established methods to study nutrient acquisition by aphids focusing on the uptake of isotopically labelled nitrogen ((15N. We combined the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG technique that allows detailed recording of aphid feeding behaviour and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS to precisely measure the uptake of nitrogen. Bird cherry-oat aphids Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera, Aphididae fed for 24 h on barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L., cultivar Lina, Poaceae that were cultivated with a (15N enriched nutrient solution. The time aphids fed in the phloem was strongly positive correlated with their (15N uptake. All other single behavioural phases were not correlated with (15N enrichment in the aphids, which corroborates their classification as non-feeding EPG phases. In addition, phloem-feeding and (15N enrichment of aphids was divided into two groups. One group spent only short time in the phloem phase and was unsuccessful in nitrogen acquisition, while the other group displayed longer phloem-feeding phases and was successful in nitrogen acquisition. This suggests that several factors such as the right feeding site, time span of feeding and individual conditions play a role for the aphids to acquire nutrients successfully. The power of this combination of methods for studying plant-aphid interactions is discussed.

  18. Inter-varietal interactions among plants in genotypically diverse mixtures tend to decrease herbivore performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grettenberger, Ian M; Tooker, John F

    2016-09-01

    Much research has explored the effects of plant species diversity on herbivore populations, but far less has considered effects of plant genotypic diversity, or how abiotic stressors, like drought, can modify effects. Mechanisms by which plant genotypic diversity affects herbivore populations remain largely unresolved. We used greenhouse studies with a model system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) to determine whether the genotypic diversity of a plant's neighborhood influences performance and fitness of herbivores on a focal plant and if drought changes the influence of neighborhood diversity. Taken across all varieties we tested, plant-plant interactions in diverse neighborhoods reduced aphid performance and generated associational resistance, although effects on aphids depended on variety identity. In diverse mixtures, drought stress greatly diminished the genotypic diversity-driven reduction in aphid performance. Neighborhood diversity influenced mother aphid size, and appeared to partially explain how plant-plant interactions reduced the number of offspring produced in mixtures. Plant size did not mediate effects on aphid performance, although neighborhood diversity reduced plant mass across varieties and watering treatments. Our results suggest inter-varietal interactions in genotypic mixtures can affect herbivore performance in the absence of herbivore movement and that abiotic stress may diminish any effects. Accounting for how neighborhood diversity influences resistance of an individual plant to herbivores will help aid development of mixtures of varieties for managing insect pests and clarify the role of plant genotypic diversity in ecosystems.

  19. Metabolic rate of spiders (Pardosa prativage) feed on prey species of different diet quality measured by colorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kynde, Bjarke; Westh, Peter

    The metabolic rate was measured in the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga after preying different species of aphids, collembolans and fruit flies raised on common commercial medium. The activity of detoxification enzyme systems Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSTpx) was invest......The metabolic rate was measured in the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga after preying different species of aphids, collembolans and fruit flies raised on common commercial medium. The activity of detoxification enzyme systems Glutathione S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSTpx......) was investigated for spiders preying the different species. The heat production of starved P. prativaga was ca. 1.5 mW per mg fresh weight. For specimens feed on fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) the heat production was appreciable higher whereas feed on the aphids Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi...... the heat production was on the same level or lower than in the staved spiders. The variation of the observed metabolic changes was in concordance with the variations in enzyme activities....

  20. Biocidal effects of Piper hispidinervum (Piperaceae) essential oil and synergism among its main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, M F; Rossa, G E; Cassel, E; Vargas, R M F; Santana, O; Díaz, C E; González-Coloma, A

    2017-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a pressure gradient (1-2 atm) in the extraction and composition of the essential oil (EO) of Piper hispidinervum by steam distillation. We also evaluated the insect antifeedant effects (Spodoptera littoralis, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi) and nematicidal activity (Meloidogyne javanica) of the oils, their major components and their synergistic interactions. Safrole was the major component (78-81%) followed by terpinolene (5-9%). The EOs tested were effective insect antifeedants. Safrole, explained most of the insect antifeedant action of P. hispidinervum EOs. When safrole and terpinolene were tested in binary combinations, low ratios of safrole improved the antifeedant effects of terpinolene. P. hispidinervum EOs caused higher mortality of M. javanica juveniles than their major components. In binary combinations, low ratios of terpinolene increased the nematicidal effects of safrole. The EO treatment strongly suppressed nematode egg hatching and juvenile infectivity. P. hispidinervum EOs affected the germination of S. lycopersicum and L. sativa mostly at 24 h of treatment, being L. sativa the most sensitive. Safrole moderately affected germination and root growth of L. sativa, S. lycopersicum and L. perenne. Terpinolene only affected S. lycopersicum root growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Análise dialélica para tolerância ao vírus-do-nanismo-amarelo-da-cevada em cultivares brasileiras de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Rosa Lía

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Seis cultivares brasileiras de trigo com diferentes níveis de tolerância ao vírus-do-nanismo-amarelo-da-cevada (VNAC foram cruzadas de modo dialélico para avaliar as capacidades geral e específica de combinação quanto à herança da tolerância. Um isolado do vírus transmitido por Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi inoculado nas cultivares e nos híbridos F1 no estádio de plântula com duas folhas. Foram atribuídas notas individuais a cada planta de acordo com a severidade de sintomas apresentados. Os dados obtidos foram analisados segundo os três métodos: o de Griffing, o modelo fixo, e método 2. Ficou evidenciada a presença de heterose, provavelmente decorrente do efeito aditivo de genes complementares. As cultivares BR 34 e BR 35 se destacaram com melhores valores de capacidade geral de combinação (CGC, e é recomendado seu uso como genitores em programas de melhoramento de trigo que visem à obtenção de combinações genéticas com tolerância ao VNAC.

  2. Biocidal Potential and Chemical Composition of Industrial Essential Oils from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula × intermedia var. Super, and Santolina chamaecyparissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Vioque, Raúl; Berruga, María Isabel; Herraiz-Peñalver, David; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, María Fé; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal, and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia or L. × hybrida var. Super), and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. × intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0 2,4 ]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. × intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis, and Lolium perenne. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  3. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production. PMID:26941044

  4. Coupling genetics and proteomics to identify aphid proteins associated with vector-specific transmission of polerovirus (luteoviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Thannhauser, T W; Burrows, Mary; Cox-Foster, Diana; Gildow, Fred E; Gray, Stewart M

    2008-01-01

    Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) is transmitted specifically by the aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum in a circulative nonpropagative manner. The high level of vector specificity results from the vector aphids having the functional components of the receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways to allow virus to transverse the gut and salivary tissues. Studies of F(2) progeny from crosses of vector and nonvector genotypes of S. graminum showed that virus transmission efficiency is a heritable trait regulated by multiple genes acting in an additive fashion and that gut- and salivary gland-associated factors are not genetically linked. Utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to compare the proteomes of vector and nonvector parental and F(2) genotypes, four aphid proteins (S4, S8, S29, and S405) were specifically associated with the ability of S. graminum to transmit CYDV-RPV. The four proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with purified RPV, indicating that the aphid proteins are capable of binding to virus. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified S4 as a luciferase and S29 as a cyclophilin, both of which have been implicated in macromolecular transport. Proteins S8 and S405 were not identified from available databases. Study of this unique genetic system coupled with proteomic analysis indicated that these four virus-binding aphid proteins were specifically inherited and conserved in different generations of vector genotypes and suggests that they play a major role in regulating polerovirus transmission.

  5. Coupling Genetics and Proteomics To Identify Aphid Proteins Associated with Vector-Specific Transmission of Polerovirus (Luteoviridae)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Thannhauser, T. W.; Burrows, Mary; Cox-Foster, Diana; Gildow, Fred E.; Gray, Stewart M.

    2008-01-01

    Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV) is transmitted specifically by the aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum in a circulative nonpropagative manner. The high level of vector specificity results from the vector aphids having the functional components of the receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways to allow virus to transverse the gut and salivary tissues. Studies of F2 progeny from crosses of vector and nonvector genotypes of S. graminum showed that virus transmission efficiency is a heritable trait regulated by multiple genes acting in an additive fashion and that gut- and salivary gland-associated factors are not genetically linked. Utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to compare the proteomes of vector and nonvector parental and F2 genotypes, four aphid proteins (S4, S8, S29, and S405) were specifically associated with the ability of S. graminum to transmit CYDV-RPV. The four proteins were coimmunoprecipitated with purified RPV, indicating that the aphid proteins are capable of binding to virus. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified S4 as a luciferase and S29 as a cyclophilin, both of which have been implicated in macromolecular transport. Proteins S8 and S405 were not identified from available databases. Study of this unique genetic system coupled with proteomic analysis indicated that these four virus-binding aphid proteins were specifically inherited and conserved in different generations of vector genotypes and suggests that they play a major role in regulating polerovirus transmission. PMID:17959668

  6. Hydroxamic acids in Secale cereale L. and the relationship with their antifeedant and allelopathic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copaja, Sylvia V; Villarroel, Elisa; Bravo, Héctor R; Pizarro, Lorena; Argandoña, Víctor H

    2006-01-01

    Contents of the hydroxamic acids 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA), and 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) in leaves and roots of 14 cultivars of rye, Secale cereale L., were determined. Dynamics of accumulation in three cultivars were evaluated. DIBOA was the main cyclic hydroxamic acid in leaves but the contents differed significantly between the cultivars. Both DIBOA and DIMBOA were present in the roots. Maximum concentration of DIBOA in leaves and DIMBOA in roots was reached between 48-54 h and 54-72 h after germination, respectively. Antifeedant activity of DIBOA towards the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi and the feeding behavior were studied by electronic recording in barley leaves treated with different contents of DIBOA. The deleterious activity of DIBOA could arise by starvation and/or a toxic effect. Additionally, allelopathic potential of pure DIBOA and aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of rye (Tetra-Baer) on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rye (Tetra-Baer) seeds was evaluated. A high percentage of germination inhibition of pure DIBOA and the extracts of leaves and roots was observed. The activity is in agreement with the contents of hydroxamic acids in the plants. The substrates had no allelopathic effect on rye seeds.

  7. Revisão do gênero Potnia Stål (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini Revision of the genus Potnia Stål (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio J Creão-Duarte

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen species of Potnia Stål, 1866 are presented with descriptions, illustrations and a key for identification. The following nomenclatural changes are introduced: P. knightae sp.n. (from Guiana, P. miracyae sp.n. (from Costa Rica, P. diringshofeni sp.n. (from Brasil, P. webbi sp.n. (from Brazil, P. turrialbensis sp.n. (from Costa Rica, P. pinheiroi sp.n. (from Brazil, P. tapuruquarensis sp.n. (from Brasil, P. cornigera sp.n. (from Brazil and P. inca sp.n. (from Peru. Potnia venosa (Germar, 1821 = Aconophora nigrivittata Walker, 1851, syn.n. = Potnia perobtusa Fowler, 1894, syn.n.. Potnia brevicornis Fowler, 1894, sp. reval. = Potnia brunneifrontis Funkhouser, 1943, syn.n. = Potnia maculata Funkhouser, 1943, syn.n.. Potnia jacula (Fabricius, 1803 = Potnia orthosoma Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1974, syn.n.

  8. Biología de Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoide del complejo Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae, en condiciones de laboratorio Biology of Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci complex (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerlin Chacón Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de los atributos biológicos de un enemigo natural, previa a su empleo en el campo, constituye un aspecto de importancia en todo proyecto de control biológico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los principales parámetros biológicos de Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, parasitoide de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, bajo condiciones de laboratorio.La emergencia del adulto, longevidad y fecundidad de la hembra, proporción sexual de la descendencia, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (Ro y tiempo generacional (T; se estimaron mediante la técnica de tabla de vida y fecundidad, utilizando el pimiento (Capsicum annuum L. y el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. como plantas hospederas. Los resultados obtenidos en pimiento y tomate fueron respectivamente: supervivencia pupal: 86.86 ± 1.94 y 83,45 ± 2,13%; longevidad de la hembra: 18,19 ± 1,61 y 17,00 ± 0,92 días; proporción sexual: 0,34 ± 0,06 y 0,47 ± 0,05 hembras/(machos + hembras; l x50: 21 y 18 días; r m: 0,226 ± 0,061 y 0,228 ± 0,057 ninfas parasitadas/hembra/día; Ro: 189,71 ± 24,25 y 154,65 ± 17,58 ninfas parasitadas/hembra; T: 25,88 ± 0,42 y 24,03 ± 0,34 días. Los resultados obtenidos son una contribución al conocimiento de la población local del parasitoide y su posible papel como agente de control biológico de B. tabaci.The estimation of biological attributes of natural enemies prior to its use in the field is an important tool in a biological control program. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the main biological parameters of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, under controlled laboratory conditions. Parasitoid survival, female longevity, fecundity, sex rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (Ro and generational time (T were studied using life tables, with pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. as host plants. Results obtained on pepper and tomato, respectively, were: pupal survival: 86.86 ± 1.94 and 83,45 ± 2,13%; female longevity: 18,19 ± 1,61 and 17,00 ± 0,92 days; sex rate: 0,34 ± 0,06 and 0,47 ± 0,05 female/(male + female; l x50: 21 and 18 days; r m: 0,226 ± 0,061 and 0,228 ± 0,057 parasitized nymphs/female/day; Ro: 189,71 ± 24,25 and 154,65 ± 17,58 parasitized nymphs/female; T: 25,88 ± 0,42 and 24,03 ± 0,34 days. Results lead to a better understanding of the local population of this parasitoid and its potential role as a biological control agent of B. tabaci.

  9. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (sulz. (homoptera: aphididae na cultura da alface Evaluation of insecticides to control Myzus persicae (Sulz (Homoptera: Aphididae on lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Zagonel

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficiência de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (Sulz. na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica, em experimento conduzido na UEPG, em 1999. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha; imidacloprid na dose de 140 g i.a./ha; pymetrozine na dose de 150 g i.a./ha e testemunha sem pulverização. Os tratamentos foram aplicados nas mudas em bandejas, um dia antes do transplantio. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade, o número de pulgões por planta, a porcentagem de plantas com pulgões e a eficiência dos inseticidas. O thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha foi eficiente no controle de M. persicae durante todo o ciclo, mostrando eficiência igual ou superior a 98,6%, similar ao imidacloprid. O pymetrozine apresentou eficiência no controle de M. persicae até 21 dias após o transplante das mudas. Os inseticidas não causaram efeitos fitotóxicos nas plantas de alface; além disso, houve produção de plantas com maior massa fresca em relação à testemunha.A field trial was carried out at Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, in 1999, to evaluate the efficiency of insecticides in controlling Myzus persicae (Sulz on lettuce cv. Veronica. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of thiamethoxam (50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha imidacloprid (140 g i.a/ha; pymetrozine (150 g i.a/ha and control. The treatments were applied to seedlings grown in polyestyrene trays one day before the transplanting. The fitotoxicity, the number of aphids/plant, the percentage of plants with aphids and the efficiency of the insecticides were evaluated. Thiamethoxan at doses of 50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha was efficient to control M. persicae from transplanting till 43 days after showing equal or higher efficiency than 98.6%, similar to imidacloprid. The pymetrozine was efficient to control M. persicae until 21 days after transplanting. Effects of fitotoxicity on lettuce plants were not observed. Higher fresh weight was observed in treated plants in comparison to the one of the control.

  10. Phenology, natural enemies, and efficacy of horticultural oil for control of Chionaspis heterophyllae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Christmas tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondren, Kirsten M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2005-10-01

    Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD(10 degrees C)). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximately 1230-1300 DD(10 degrees C), and continued for approximately 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees C). Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees). Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.

  11. Pear transformed with a lytic peptide gene for disease control affects nontarget organism, pear psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Bocchetti, Chris; Dang, Phat; Bell, R L; Scorza, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    The biology and behavior of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, on a transgenic clone of 'Bartlett' pear, Pyrus communis L., containing a synthetic antimicrobial gene, D5C1, was compared with that of a nontransgenic parental clone to determine whether there were any nontarget effects. The gene construct also contained the marker gene nptII (aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase II) that encodes for antibiotic resistance to identify transformed plants. The purpose of the original transformation was to enhance pear resistance to the bacterial disease fireblight caused by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. The biology and behavior of pear psylla on a transgenic clone were compared with a nontransgenic parental pear clone in short- (crops.

  12. Scale insects and mealy bugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea) attacking deciduous fruit trees in the western north coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.

  13. Life table analysis of the performance of aphid Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae nymphs exposed to a static magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Juan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the age-stage two-sex life table, this work was undertaken in order to determine the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs at two flux densities (0.176T and 0.065T applied at increasing times of duration (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h on the development, fecundity and reproduction of the aphid, Sitobion avenae. Exposed nymphs had a statistically significant shortened first instar period and adult longevity and prolonged fourth instar periods compared to controls. There were significant differences in the population parameters for two exposure combinations, 0.176T for 0.5 h and 0.065T for 1 h. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T were 0.1165, 3.5 and 11.7 days, respectively, 0.176 T for 0.5 h and -0.0198, 0.7 and 11.8 days, respectively, 0.065T for 1 h. We therefore recommend using the age-stage, two-sex life table to study the effect of the static magnetic field on development and growth of the aphid, Sitobion avenae.

  14. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmei eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod. The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (< 24h old offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests.

  15. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  16. The environmental plasticity of diverse body color caused by extremely long photoperiods and high temperature in Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichen Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia. This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53% and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis.

  17. The impact of some physiomorphic characters of sugarcane genotypes on their resistance against sugarcane pyrilla, pyrilla perpusilla wlk. (lophopidae: homoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, A.; Hassan, M.; Suhail, A.; Sahi, S.T.

    2010-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in the Research Area, Directorate of Sugarcane, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to study he physio-morphic characters of sugarcane resistance to the sucking pest Pyrilla perpusilla. Twenty genotypes of sugarcane were tested for their resistance susceptibility against P. perpusilla, as a preliminary screening experiment, during 2006. Based on the population-density count, 3 genotypes, viz., HSF- 240, CPF-243 and S-2002-US-114 showing resistance responses, 3 genotypes viz. CPHS-35, S-2003-US-394 and S-2003-US-623 showing susceptible trends and 3 genotypes viz. S-2003-US-809, S-2002-US-140 and S- 2002-US-104 exerting intermediate trends against the pest under test were selected for the final screening trials during 2007.The genotype S-2003-US-623, was found to be comparatively susceptible; whereas, HSF-240, showed resistance responses. The leaf-width and cane length showed a positive and significant correlation whereas the leaf-spine density had a significant negative effect with pest-population. The Leaf-length and Cane-Diameter did not show a significant correlation with the pest population. (author)

  18. Insecticide susceptibility of the green plant bug, Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Homoptera: Miridae and two predatory arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhengqun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green plant bug (Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür is a key pest of Bt cotton in China. Along with biological control, chemical control is one of the most important strategies in A. lucorum Integrated Pest Management (IPM. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of eight conventional insecticides to A. lucorum and to assess the susceptibility of two generalist predators Chrysopa sinica (Jieder and Propylaea japonica (Thunbery to insecticides that are commonly used in A. lucorum management. Via glass-vial and leaf-dip bioassay, toxicity tests with selected insecticides at two different life-stages of A. lucorum indicated significant differences between the LD50 or LC50 values for these compounds within different insecticidal classes. Phenylpyrazole fipronil had the highest toxicity to 4th-instar nymphs and adults of A. lucorum, whereas neonicotinoid imidacloprid had the lowest toxicity among the insecticides. Females were more tolerant to insecticides than were males, as shown by the higher LD50 values for females. Furthermore, laboratory tests showed that endosulfan had the highest selectivity to C. sinica and P. japonica: the selective toxicity ratios (STRs were superior to other tested insecticides, particularly imidacloprid, and were 5.396 and 4.749-fold higher than baseline STRs, respectively. From this study, we conclude that fipronil can potentially be used to efficiently control A. lucorum. An alternative control agent worth consideration is endosulfan, owing to its relative safety to non-targeted natural enemies.

  19. Performance of novel vs traditional insecticides for the control of amrascs biguttula biguttula (homoptera, cicadellidae) on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karar, H.; Babar, T.K.; Shahzad, F.; Saleem, M.; Ali, A.; Akram, M.

    2013-01-01

    Amrasca biguttula biguttula (ishida) can reduce the yield of cotton approximately 25%. no potential predators have been recorded in the field for its control. to overcome this pest insecticides play significant role in the improvement of crop yields all over the world during the last four to five decades. to save the crop from this notorious pest, ten formulations of insecticides viz., acephate 75sp (acephate) at the rate 625g, imidacloprid 25wp (imidacloprid) at the rate188g, thiamethaxim 25wg (actara) at the rate 60g, imidacloprid 70wg (confidor) at the rate 43g, dimethoat e 40ec (sanitox) at the rate 1000 ml, nytonpyron 10sl (pyramid) at the rate 500ml, lambdacyhlothrin 2.5e (kango) at the rate 825 ml, thiachloprid 480sc (talent) at the rate 63 ml, imidacloprid 25sl (confidor) at the rate 500ml, and diafenthiuron 500sc (polo), at the rate 500ml, per hectare were sprayed in the field having maximum population of nymphs and adults of jassid at cotton research station, multan on cotton variety bt-886 in the month of july, 2011 and 2012. the maximum mortality of Jassid was observed in those treatments, where acephate was applied with 79, 72, 65 mortality, nytonpyron with 69, 63, 55 and imidacloprid 68, 63, 57 percent mortality after 24, 72 and 168 h of spray. minimum mortality of jassid was observed in the treatments where talent was applied having 25, 17 and 16 percent mortality 24, 72 and 168 h after spray. By the application of acephate, pyramid and confidor 25sl on cotton crop the yield can be increased. (author)

  20. Inheritance Mode and Realized Heritability of Resistance to Imidacloprid in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...

  1. Effect of different humidity levels on the biology of longtailed mealy bug pseudococcus longispinus (targioni and tozzetti) (homoptera: pseudococidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillani, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    On determining the effects of different humidity levels on the biology of mealy bug Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni and Tozzetti), it was found that the relative humidity (RH) at 35%, 55% and 75% had no effect on pre-adult development, adult longevity, life span and fecundity of P. longispinus. The survival of pre-adult stages was minimal at 35% RH. Sex ratio was male-biased at 35% RH and female-biased at 75% RH. (author)

  2. Comparison of AC electronic monitoring and field data for estimating tolerance to Empoasca kraemeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in common bean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M S; Backus, E A; Cardona, C

    2000-12-01

    Two methods for estimating the tolerance of common bean genotypes to Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore were compared, using a yield trial carried out at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, versus stylet penetration tactics measured by AC electronic feeding monitors. A stylet penetration index was devised based on principal component scores of three penetration tactics identified (pulsing laceration, cell rupturing, and lancing sap ingestion), combined with knowledge of the hopperburn symptoms caused by each tactic. Tolerant genotypes, as classified by the CIAT yield index, showed significantly more unprotected yield and lower hopperburn scores than the susceptible control. They also induced performance of less pulsing laceration (the tactic considered most damaging to the plant), and more of the other two, mitigating tactics, especially cell rupturing. When index values were calculated for each genotype, stylet penetration index values matched those of the yield index for three out of five genotypes: two EMP-coded tolerant lines ('EMP 385' and 'EMP 392') and the susceptible control 'BAT 41'. Thus, for these three genotypes, all subsequent hoppereburn symptoms are predictable by the type of feeding behavior performed on them. 'Porrillo Sintético' and 'EMP 84', considered borderline genotypes by the yield index, were overestimated and underestimated respectively, by the stylet penetration index. We postulate that, for these two genotypes, plant physiological responses to feeding (either compensatory or heightened sensitivity, respectively) synergize with type of feeding performed to generate the overall hopperburn condition. This multivariate analysis of electronic monitoring data was successfully used to devise an index of resistance. The implications of using the stylet penetration index and the advantages of using electronic monitoring in a bean-breeding program are discussed.

  3. Buprofezin susceptibility survey, resistance selection and preliminary determination of the resistance mechanism in Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Gao, Congfen; Xu, Zhiping; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Zhang, Jiushuang; Li, Wenhong; Dai, Dejiang; Lin, Youwei; Zhou, Weijun; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-10-01

    Buprofezin has been used for many years to control Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). Assessment of susceptibility change in the insect is essential for maintaining control efficiency and resistance management. Eleven-year surveys showed that most field populations were susceptible before 2004. However, substantially higher levels of resistance (up to 28-fold) were found in most of the rice fields in China after 2004. A field population was collected and periodically selected for buprofezin resistance in the laboratory. After 65 generations (56 were selected), the colony successfully obtained 3599-fold resistance to buprofezin. Synergism tests showed that O,O-diethyl-O-phenyl phosphorothioate (SV1), piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and diethyl maleate (DEM) increased buprofezin toxicity in the resistant strain by only 1.5-1.6 fold, suggesting that esterases, P450-monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases had no substantial effect on buprofezin resistance development. The results from this study indicate that N. lugens has the potential to develop high resistance to buprofezin. A resistance management program with rotation of buprofezin and other pesticides may efficiently delay or slow down resistance development in the insect. Further investigation is also necessary to understand the resistance mechanisms in N. lugens.

  4. Susceptibility to neonicotinoids and risk of resistance development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Jin; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ma, Chongyong; Huang, Yue; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, outbreaks of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), have occurred more frequently in China. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of N. lugens to neonicotinoids and other insecticides in major rice production areas in China. Results indicated that substantial variations in the susceptibility to different insecticides existed in N. lugens. Field populations had developed variable resistance levels to neonicotinoids, with a high resistance level to imidacloprid (RR: 135.3-301.3-fold), a medium resistance level to imidaclothiz (RR: 35-41.2-fold), a low resistance level to thiamethoxam (up to 9.9-fold) and no resistance to dinotefuran, nitenpyram and thiacloprid (RR buprofezin. In addition, N. lugens had been able to develop 1424-fold resistance to imidacloprid in the laboratory after the insect was selected with imidacloprid for 26 generations. Long-term use of imidacloprid in a wide range of rice-growing areas might be associated with high levels of resistance in N. lugens. Therefore, insecticide resistance management strategies must be developed to prevent further increase in resistance.

  5. Detection of resistance, cross-resistance, and stability of resistance to new chemistry insecticides in Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Muhammad; Saeed, Shafqat; Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmad; Denholm, Ian; Shah, Maqbool

    2013-06-01

    Resistance levels in whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) collections from cotton and sunflower (up to four districts) for five neonicotinoids and two insect growth regulators (IGRs) were investigated for two consecutive years. Based on the LC50(s), all collections showed slight to moderate levels of resistance for the tested insecticides compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The data also indicated that cotton and sunflower collections had similar resistance levels. In comparison (four collections), Vehari collections showed higher resistance for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram compared with those of others. Average resistance ratios for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram ranged from 5- to 13-, 4- to 8-, and 9- to 13-fold, respectively. Multan and Vehari collections also exhibited moderate levels (9- to 16-fold) of resistance to buprofezin. Furthermore, toxicity of neonicotinoids against immature stages was equal to that of insect growth regulators. The data also suggested that resistance in the field populations was stable. After selection for four generations with bifenthrin (G1 to G4), resistance to bifenthrin increased to 14-fold compared with the laboratory susceptible population. Selection also increased resistance to fenpropathrin, lambdacyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and diafenthuron. Cross-resistance and stability of resistance in the field populations is of some concern. Rotation of insecticides having no cross-resistance and targeting the control against immature stages may control the resistant insects, simultaneously reducing the selection pressure imposed.

  6. Action threshold for applying insect growth regulators to tomato for management of irregular ripening caused by Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, D J

    2002-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring is a major pest of tomatoes, causing an irregular ripening disorder characterized externally by incomplete or inhibited reddening of fruit, especially in longitudinal sections, and internally by an increase in the amount of white tissue. Experiments were undertaken during the spring and fall of 1997 and 1998 and the spring of 1999 to develop an action threshold for applying the insect growth regulators (IGRs) buprofezin and pyriproxyfen to manage B. argentifolii and irregular ripening. The IGRs were applied when predetermined thresholds were reached and were compared with a high rate of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid, which was applied at transplanting and provided season-long whitefly control. Only plots treated when the numbers of sessile nymphs (second through fourth instars) reached five per 10 leaflets consistently had both external and internal irregular ripening severity ratings similar to the imidacloprid standard. Results were similar for buprofezin and pyriproxyfen even though the modes of action differ. The five nymphs per 10 leaflets threshold lends itself to field scouting because nymphal counts completed in the field using the unaided eye supplemented with a 10x hand lens were linearly and significantly related to counts completed in the laboratory with a dissecting microscope.

  7. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  8. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol, 0.5% (water:methanol and 1.5% (diethyl ether. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12.Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico. Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga, tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol, 0.5% (agua:metanol y 1.5% (éter dietílico. Sin embargo, en los segundos (plantas expuestas dentro de un invernadero ninguna de las fracciones lo hizo, lo cual sugiere que los principios fagodisuasivos perdieron su actividad en esas condiciones experimentales.

  9. Biología de Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoide del complejo Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae, en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerlin CHACÓN CASTRO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La estimación de los atributos biológicos de un enemigo natural, previa a su empleo en el campo, constituye un aspecto de importancia en todo proyecto de control biológico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los principales parámetros biológicos de Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, parasitoide de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. La emergencia del adulto, longevidad y fecundidad de la hembra, proporción sexual de la descendencia, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m , tasa neta de reproducción (R o y tiempo generacional (T; se estimaron mediante la técnica de tabla de vida y fecundidad, utilizando el pimiento ( Capsicum annuum L. y el tomate ( Solanum lycopersicum L. como plantas hospederas. Los resultados obtenidos en pimiento y tomate fueron respectivamente: supervivencia pupal: 86.86 ± 1.94 y 83,45 ± 2,13%; longevidad de la hembra: 18,19 ± 1,61 y 17,00 ± 0,92 días; proporción sexual: 0,34 ± 0,06 y 0,47 ± 0,05 hembras/(machos + hembras; l x50 : 21 y 18 días; r m : 0,226 ± 0,061 y 0,228 ± 0,057 ninfas parasitadas/hembra/día; Ro: 189,71 ± 24,25 y 154,65 ± 17,58 ninfas parasitadas/hembra; T: 25,88 ± 0,42 y 24,03 ± 0,34 días. Los resultados obtenidos son una contribución al conocimiento de la población local del parasitoide y su posible papel como agente de control biológico de B. tabaci.

  10. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: II. Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae, were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether and 0.5% (water and water: methanol, with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2115-2129. Epub 2008 December 12.Bemisia tabaci es una plaga clave de hortalizas y otros cultivos, mundialmente, y representa un problema particularmente serio en los trópicos, debido a su habilidad para transmitir varios tipos de virus, especialmente begomovirus (Geminiviridae. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría consistir en la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas en las eta-pas tempranas del desarrollo de la planta (período crítico. Así, el extracto crudo y cuatro fracciones (agua, agua: metanol, metanol, y éter dietílico de tacaco cimarrón (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae, fueron evaluadas por su posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre B. tabaci en un invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta mostraron dicha actividad en el extracto crudo y en algunas de sus fracciones. En el primer tipo de experimento (en jaulas de manga, las fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (éter dietílico y 0.5% (agua y agua: metanol, mientras que la fracción metanólica no la causó. Sin embargo, en los otros experimentos (plantas expuestas a B. tabaci dentro de un invernadero ninguna de las fracciones funcionó bien, lo cual sugiere que los principios disuasivos se disiparon bajo esas condiciones experimentales.

  11. Interplant movement and spatial distribution of alate and apterous morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, B M; Barrios, L; Fereres, A

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on colonization modes and interplant movement of Nasonovia ribisnigri can contribute to the development of optimal control of this pest. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the mode of spread between adult morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri, comparing spring and autumn lettuce protected crops. The spatial and temporal pattern was analyzed using the spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) methodology and other related displacement indices. The population size of N. ribisnigri was greater in the autumn than in the spring growing seasons due to milder temperatures. The percentage of plants colonized by aphids was higher in spring than in autumn, showing the great dispersal potential of this aphid species independent of their population size. Differential propensity for initial displacement from the central plant was observed between adult morphs in spring, resulting in a greater ability of apterous than alate aphids to spread far away from the source plant. In autumn, both adult morphs showed an initial reduced displacement; however, the number of plants infested (≈20%) with at least one aphid at this initial time (seven days) was similar for both adult morphs and both growing seasons. Analysis of the spatial pattern of both adult morphs revealed a predominantly random distribution for both spring and autumn trials. This pattern was achieved by a prevalent random movement over the area (γ≈0.5). These results highlight the ability of the apterous N. ribisnigri to spread within greenhouse lettuce crops early in the spring, suggesting that detection of the pest by deep visual inspection is required after lettuce emergence.

  12. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Scorsetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T. cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T. cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC, on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween ® 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC. The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10 7 conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24°C, the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween® 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4

  13. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation

  14. Keragaan Vegetatif Dan Generatif Beberapa Varietas Tanaman Padi ( Oryza Sativa L. Terhadap Cekaman Kekeringan Pada Fase Pertumbuhan Yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyono Hariyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effects of drought stress conditions on the performance of vegetative and generative of various rice varieties on the different growth stages. The research was performed at field trial of Faculty of Agriculture, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Kasihan Bantul, from March to June 2010. The research was designed using a factorial experiment that arranged in Completely Randomized Design 4 x 5 with three replications. The first factor was the varieties of rice i.e. IR 64, Menthik, Cisadane and Dodokan. The second factor was the period of drought stress at the difference plant stage, i.e at the vegetative period, booting period, heading period, grain filling period, and without drought stress or control.The results showed that Cisadane varieties had a higher tolerance to the drought stress than to all varieties. Moreover, the plant treated on drought stress at vegetative period had lower grain number per hill than the other drought stress period.

  15. Karakter Populasi Wereng Hijau, Nephotettix virescens (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae di Wilayah Endemi dan Non Endemi Penyakit Tungro Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi Supriyadi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to determine the species composition, distribution pattern and virus transmission properties of N. virescens. Sweep net sampling of the leafhopper and others tungro vectors population were conducted from endemic areas in Central Java, East Java and Bali and also non endemic areas from Central Java and East Java. The species composition and distribution pattern of the leafhopper were studied in seedbeds and early stage of rice crop (30 days after transplanting. Inoculation test using Cisadane seedlings was conducted to determine the efficiency of virus transmission by N. virescens colonies. Four tungro virus vectors were found in all areas, namely N. virescens, N. nigropictus, N. malayanus, and Recilia sp. The domination of N. virescens occurred either in the endemic area or the non endemic areas. However, the domination of N. virescens did not correlate with the occurrence of the disease in the endemic area. The distribution pattern of N. virescens was regular. The number of N. virescens active transmitter in the endemic area was higher than that in the non-endemic areas. In addition, the female of N. virescens was more efficient in transmitting the tungro virus than that of the male.

  16. PREFERENSI TIKUS SAWAH (RATTUS-RATTUS ARGENTIVENTER DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP POLA KERUSAKAN PADI VARIETAS DODOKAN DAN CIANJUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikhin dan Purnomo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paddyfield Rat (Rattus-rattus argentiventer Preference and Its Impact on The Damage Pattern of Dodokan and Cianjur Rice Cultivar.  A field experiment was conducted during the dry season of 2006 in Central Lampung to evaluate the preference of  paddyfield rat (Rattus-rattus argentiventer to Dodokan and Cianjur rice cultivars in the rice field and its impact on the damage pattern caused by the rat’s attack. The experiment of  six treatments and 3 replications were arranged in a randomized completely block design.  Each treatment consisted of two rice cultivars i.e. Cisadane and Dodokan.  Dodokan cultivar was planted in centre of each experimental unit, surrounded by Cianjur, forming six different patterns (formations as treatment. All experimental units then were exposed to natural paddyfield rat population.  Weekly observations on both cultivars were made to record the damage caused by the rat from 30 to 84 day after transplanting.   Aerial view of all treatments  were also taken at 84 days after transplanting (a week prior to harvest. The result showed that the paddyfield rat significantly prefered Dodokan rice cultivar to  Cianjur.  Eventually, the preference of the rat influenced the damage pattern of Dodokan rice cultivar, showed by some unique aerial views of the plot.

  17. Analisis Produksi, Distribusi Pendapatan Petani dan Dampak Program Optimalisasi Lahan Terhadap Produksi Padi Sawah di Kabupaten Muaro Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are ; ( 1 How does the social and economic characteristics of rice farmers in Jambi Muaro ; ( 2 What factors are affecting rice production in Muaro Jambi; ( 3 How is the impact of the land optimization program toward the increase of rice production in Muaro Jambi and ( 4 How is the income distribution of rice farmers in Muaro Jambi. The methodology of research used in this study is survey method using primary data and secondary data . Analysis tools used in this study are qualitative description and quantitative description using Cobb Douglas Production-Function Model , and the Gini Index Ratio . The findings in this study are ; ( 1 The Average production per hectare of rice farmers in the study area during the growing season was below the average production of Muaro Jambi district . ( 2 Over-All Test ( F Test showed that the land variable, orea fertilizer , seeds, labor capital , farming experience and education level have influenced the rice production . While based on the partial test, it was showed that only the land area variable ( X1 and orea fertilizer ( x2 which significantly influence rice production while the amount of seed variable ( X3 , labor ( X4 , capital ( X5 , experience ( D1 , and formal education ( D2 had no significant effect on rice production in the research area ' ( 3 The land optimization has increased the income of the farmers' compared to pre-optimization condition, but the gini index ratio is higher as a result of the maximization of income to farmers who have more land which is proven by The Gini Index Ratio: 0.30 in pre-optimization and after optimization of land it raises to 0:32 ; ( 4 The Land-Optimization Program which has implemented by the Government Muaro Jambi has positive impact both on increasing rice production and the income of farmers.

  18. ESTIMASI NILAI EKONOMI AIR IRIGASI PADA USAHA TANI PADI SAWAH DI DAERAH IRIGASI VAN DER WIJCE, KABUPATEN SLEMAN, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusman Syaukat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Demand for rice increases with population and over time. However, the challenges to meet the increasing demand for rice are constrained by some factors: conversion of agricultural wetland (paddy field to non-agricultural uses, deterioration of irrigation channals, increase scarcity of water, and increase intersectoral competition of water use. These conditions have raised the concern of water irrigation distribution efficiency in rice production. Agricultural sector has to produce more rice with less irrigation water. In addition, water irrigation charges (IPAIR are also problematic in the area, since there is no water charge. The purpose of this research is to estimate the economic value of water irrigation at Van der Wijce irrigation areas in Yogyakarta, to determine the more appropriate water charges; and to evaluate the differences in water values with respect to their locations (upper, middle, and lower areas, cropping intensity, and rice productivity. Farmers at the upper irrigation areas could plant rice up to three times a year, while at the lower areas only twice a year. The productivities of rice were also different between these two areas, where the upper areas used more water and resulted in higher yields compared to the lower ones. Water values was estimated using Wicksteed’s product exhaustion approach. These results implied that the values of water were higher at the upper areas compared to the lower ones. The estimated value of water was about Rp 44/m3 in the upper areas, while in the middle and lower areas were about Rp 32 m3/ha and Rp 23 m3/ha, respectively. Since there is no water charge in the area, there is no fund to cover the costs of water distribution and maintenance. This could lead to unsustainable irrigation management. The above estimated water values could be used as benchmark, the maximum level, by the local government of Sleman and the farmers groups in the irrigation areas in determining the irrigation water charges and maintaining the sustainability of irrigation water services. However, this water charge has to be followed by the improvement in water management system to maintain effective and efficient water distribution among the farmers

  19. ANALISIS PENDAPATAN USAHATANI PADI SAWAH DENGAN METODE SRI (System of Rice Intensification DI DESA EMPAT BALAI KECAMATAN KUOK KABUPATEN KAMPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Francisco Tamba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Paddy is one of main farming commodity since rice is one of main food in Indonesia. Innovation adoption about paddy farming was meaningful, because there were land conversion from food farming to industrial land or plantation. This study aimed to know about the adoption of farming technical was used by farmers, then aimed to know the efficiency of farming. This study took place in Empat Balai Village Kuok Sub-district Kampar Municipality. The results of this study showed there were differences about faming technical between faming technical with SRI and conventional faming technical that was used for a long time. The differences between SRI paddy farming and conventional farming were the amount of seeds per planted hole and the use of fertilizers. The amount of seeds on SRI method was only 1 seed per planted hole, meanwhile the use of fertilizers was more prioritize on using the organic materials i.e. golden snail, rice water, and brown sugar. On the other hand, there was an increasing of paddy production from SRI method which reached the production of 3.014,51 kg per ha. The increase of production caused the increase of total net income by SRI method Rp.14.953.667,01 per ha. RCR value of this farming was 1,76 per ha, which the value of RCR > 1 then this farming was profitable categorized.Keywords: Farming, Paddy, SRI, Income, Efficiency

  20. Eksplorasi Bakteri Endofit dari Akar Tanaman Adam Hawa dan Potensinya sebagai Agens Hayati dan Pemacu Pertumbuhan Tanaman Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankardiansyah Pandu Pradana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhoeo discolor has been known to have a good adaptation to various environmental conditions. This character might be due to mutualistic association with endophytic bacteria. The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic bacteria from roots of R. discolor and to evaluate their potency as biocontrol agents and plant growth promoters. The methods to isolate endophytic bacteria involved the following methods, sterilization of root surface, grinding of root tissues, dilution, and plating in the medium tryptone soya agar (TSA. A total of 21 isolates of endophytic bacteria were isolated from the roots of R. discolor. Based on hypersensitivity test on tobacco leaves, 19 isolates showed negative reaction (no necrosis symptom and only 2 isolates showed positive reaction (necrosis was developed. The results on biocontrol and growth promoters assay showed that 7 isolates were able to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum under in vitro test and 12 isolates were able to increase the growth of rice seedlings.

  1. Evaluasi Penerapan Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP pada Usahatani Padi Organik di Kabupaten Bantul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriyadi Sriyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security has meaning not only the availability of adequate food, but also providing security for producers and consumers and ensuring environmental sustainability for sustainable production. Organic farming systems are expected to solve the problem for realizing food security and enhancement of people's welfare. The results of research indicated that, (1 The implementation level of Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming in Bantul district was quite high, (2 The implementation level of SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming related to the availability of capital, the selling price and the purchase price of inputs (seeds and fertilizers, (3 The level of the farmer's decision related to the implementation level of SOP-GAP of organic rice farming, and (4 development of organic rice farming required availability of sufficient capital. In this regard the government, particularly the agriculture authority and food security agency need to disburse or facilitate capital for farmers in revolving as well as low interest loans.

  2. ANALISIS DAMPAK DEBU USAHA PENGGILINGAN PADI TERHADAP KAPASITAS VITAL PARU TENAGA KERJA DI KECAMATAN ABIANSEMAL KABUPATEN BADUNG TAHUN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G.A.M. ARYASIH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The grain grinding business unit is needed by the farmer to process the harvest but also in particular, it creates air pollution from its dusty materials. The worker or operator has a potential risk of being contaminated by the dusty materials and lungs vital capacity reduction. This research is aimed to analyze the effects of the grain grinding polluting dust to wards the lungs vital capacity of workers at Abiansemal in Badung District. This research is sort of an analytical observation with cross sectional design. The number of chosen samples is 32 workers with a total sampling method among 16 grain grinding business units. The data resources is a primary data which obtained using questionnaire, the measurement and observation include: the worker's characteristic (working term, age, and height, dust value, breath frequency and lungs vital capacity. The data is analyzed using regression statistic. The result of the research indicates that the amount of dust at the grain grinding business unit is around 10,0079-11,6151 mg/m3, working term is one to 44 years, age 22-62, and height 155-175 cm, the condition of the grinding room is 93,75% does not meet the ventilation standard, 100% is not provided with dust control tool, 97,75% does not provide mask and 93,75% is situated in a housing are. The conclusion of the research is that dust level, working term and height in particular has a significant correlation with lungs vital capacity (p < 0,05 but age does not have a significant correlation with the workers lungs vital capacity (p> 0,05. The higher level of dust makes the higher lungs vital capacity reduction, the longer working term makes the lower lungs vital capacity and the taller of workers height .indicates the higher workers lungs vital capacity. The impact of dusty materials of grain grinding business unit towards the workers is the decreasing of workers lungs vital capacity by the disorder of lungs restriction function ( 65,62%. It is suggested to the business owner to conduct technical controls. Workers are strongly recommended to put on mask, have sufficient nutrition supplies and workers with the age over 40 years should not work in j:his area. For the health department of Badung District should implement any efforts of K3, and for other relevant departments which take a part in giving recommendation must consider a requirement to make it outside the housing area.

  3. Tingkah Laku Makan Sapi Peranakan Ongole yang Diberi Pakan Berbasis Jerami Padi Amoniasi Dengan Metode Pemberian yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Bata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available (Feeding behavior of local cattle fed based ammoniation rice straw with different feeding method ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding methods on feeding behavior include the frequency and duration of eating time, the frequency and the duration of rumination for one day, night and daytime. The study used twenty of local cattle feeder males (Peranakan Ongole with an age range of 1.5 – 2 years old and initial weight were 200-273 kg. They were fed randomly with four feeding methods of top concentrate, component feeding, total mixed ration (TMR and free choice. Thus, completely randomized design was used for this study. Data length of eating and rumination time was analyzed using analysis of variance and continuities by honestly significant difference test (HSD. The frequency of eating and rumination were analyzed using Chi square. The results showed that the treatments affect significantly (P 0,05 on spent of eating one day, spent of eating daytime and spent of rumination  for one day. Rumination frequency one day, daytime, and night were not affected (P > 0.05 by feeding method. Night rumination of feeder cattle groups fed with TMR method were longer ( P 0.05 to feeder cattle groups fed with Top Concentrate. Between the groups feeder cattle fed with Component feeding and Free Choice were not significantly different ( P > 0.05 .

  4. Pengaruh Perbedaan Waktu Tanam Tetua Padi Hibrida dan Aplikasi Zat Pengatur Tumbuh terhadap Hasil Benih F1 HIPA 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WAHYUNI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Effects of Planting Time of TheParental Hybrid Rice and Plant Growth RegulatorApplication on Seed Yield of F1 HIPA 8.Research the effect of planting time of parental lines andapplication of plant growth regulators (GA3and glysine on seed yield of F1 hybrid rice had beenconducted at The Indonesian Centre of Rice Research on 2010. The objective of the study was to findout combination of plating time and application of plant growth regualtors to get high seed yield ofhybrid rice. Seeds of parental lines Hipa 8 were planting in row ratio 2R:8A at Cilandak, Indramayu onthe dry season of 2010. Treatments to improve seed yield of hybrid rice consisted of (a planting timeof parental lines (CMS and R, and (b application of plant growth regualators (GA3 CG1 (commercialgrade 60 ppm, GA3 CG2 94 ppm, Glysine 40 ppm and control (untreated. Plant growth regualatorwere applied at three times i.e. heading time, 5% plant flowering and 20% plant flowering. Variableevaluated consisted of: plant growth, yield component and seed yield. Result of the exeperiment showedthat tiller number per hill and plant height at vegetatif stage were not affected by treatments. TreatmentA1B2 and A2B2 significantly improved panicle exercition, plant height of restorer and also seed yield.Rice plant treated with A1B2 (planting times of restorer were 12, 15, and 18 days after CMS andapllication GA3 CG1 60 ppm showed the highest seed yield, followed by A2B2 (planting times ofrestorer were 13, 17 and 21 days after CMS and application of GA3 CG1 60 ppm.

  5. KAJIAN PEMANFAATAN AIR PASANG DAN AMELIORASI TERHADAP PELARUTAN SENYAWA TOKSIK DAN HASIL PADI SAWAH DI TANAH GAMBUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Supriyo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was study on the usage of tidal water swamps and amelioration on silute of toxsic substance, growth and yield of rice on peat soils. Field experimental was conducted in Pangkoh X Bloch A (Kanamid Jaya village, Kapus District, Central Kalimantan in 2015 DS on peats soil, sapric degree maturity with 60 cm thickness. Factorial experiments were arraged in Spli-split plots designs with foor replications. As a mains plot (usage of tidal water i,e application of neap tide conserve in sawah plots, flushing water one day befor neap tide next periods (L1 and application of tidal water in neap tide period conseve water one days (24 hours on sawah plots and flushing water naturaly (Lo. Sub plots (A two ameliorant and fertilizers level i.e 4,85 t dolomit + 5,96 t farm yard manure + 119 kg Urea + 119 kg SP 36 + 80 kg KCl/ha (A1 and 50 kg urea + 50 kg SP 36 per ha as a control (Ao. Sub-sub plots (varieties consisted Martapura and IR 66. Minimum tillage was conducted in plot size 5 m x 6 m, ameliorant was applied in the soil 2 weeks before planting. Seedling were transplanted by 25 days after sowing at 25 cm x 25 cm plant spacing. An experimental were conducted in two seasons i,e wet seasons (WS and dry seasons (DS. Second experimental were conducted to add urea fertilizer only such as farmer practices. Parameters were colected i.e (a peat chemichal properties such as Soil-pH, Ecm Avl-P, Exch-H, Exch-Al and Excaheble base such as Ca, Mg, K and Na, (b Toxsic substant dilute such as H+, Al+3 dan Fe+2-dillute at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after planting (WAP. (c Yield component and yield rice (conversion of kernel weight at plot size 2,5 m x 2,5 m in a hectares on 14 % water contents. Research result showed that (a interaction of usage of tidal water at neap tide was conserve in sawah plots during 24 hours and flushing water naturaly (L1 with ameliorant and fertilizer levels (A1 equivalent (4.800 dolomite + 5.860 FYM +119 urea + 119 SP36+79,5 KCl kg.ha-1 on sparic peats to increase water-pH-air disolved, and to decrease of dilute acidity (disolved-H and disolved-Al and disolved-Fe.(b The usage water tide was conserve in sawah plots until one day before next neap tide periods.(Lo gave rice yield of IR 66 about 3,600 t.ha-1 or to increase 19,50% higher rice yield of Martapura were supported by high of yield component and plant dry weight (c Application of ameliorant and fertilizer levels (A1 in IR variety gave rice yield 4,360 t.ha-1 on WS and 2,670 t.ha-1 on DS more higher compared to rice yield of CV. Martapura

  6. ANALISIS AKTIVITAS NITROGENASE DAN GEN NIFH ISOLAT BAKTERI RHIZOSFER TANAMAN PADI DARI LAHAN SAWAH PESISIR JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ningsih Susilowati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenambatan nitrogen oleh bakteri rhizosfer dapat dimanfaatkan untuk menyiasati dampak salinitas pada tanah sawah pesisir. Kemampuan tersebut disebabkan oleh aktivitas nitrogenase yang disandikan gen nifH pada komponen II. Penelitian  ini bertujuan  menganalisis aktivitas nitrogenase pada kondisi salin dan mengidentifikasi gen nifH. Sebanyak 50 isolat bakteri rhizosfer asal tanah sawah pesisir daerah Eretan dan Patimban, Jawa Barat telah dianalisis. Lima isolat yang menunjukkan aktivitas nitrogenase pada kondisi salin adalah Er B1 3, Er B1 4, Er B1 9, Er B2 10, dan Ptb B1 4. Gen nifH kelima sampel diidentifikasi menggunakan PCR menghasilkan amplikon berukuran ~360 bp. Aktivitas nitrogenase tertinggi berdasarkan Analisis Reduksi Asetilen (ARA diperoleh pada isolat Er B2 10 yang memiliki kekerabatan terdekat dengan bakteri Providencia sp. Hasil yang diperoleh membuktikan bahwa beberapa bakteri asal sawah pesisir dapat menambat nitrogen pada kondisi salin.AbstractThe ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizosphere bacteria could be used to decrease salinity impact in coastal paddy field, due to nitrogenase capability, encoded by a nifH gene in component II. The objectives of this research are to analyze nitrogenase activity in saline condition and identify the presense of the nifH gene. A total of 50 isolates of the rhizosphere bacteria coastal from wetland areas of Eretan and Patimban, West Java, has been isolated and being analyzed. Among them, five isolates i.e. Er B1 3, ER B1 4, Er B1 9, Er B2 10 and Ptb B1 4, showed the nitrogenase activity under saline condition. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the nifH gene from those five samples resulted in the amplicon size of  ~360 bp. The highest activity of nitrogenase assessed by acetylene reduction assay (ARA was shown by Er B2 10 which closely related to bacteria of Providencia sp. The obtained result showed that several bacteria from coastal paddy field were able to conduct nitrogen fixation under saline stress.

  7. Pemberian Zeolit Dan Arang Sekam Pada Lahan Sawah Tercemar Limbah Pabrik Terhadap Pb Tanah Dan Tanaman Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana, Ester; Sarifuddin, Sarifuddin; Jamilah, Jamilah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of zeolites and rice husk to soil Pb and growth and production of paddy rice. The research was conducted in the screen house at Faculty of Agriculture USU and soil analyzed at the Laboratory Institute for Agricultural Technology ( BPTP) Medan North Sumatra . This experiment using a factorial randomized block design with two factors , namely zeolite treatment consists of 3 levels: Z0 = 0 g / pot , Z1 = 12.5 g / pot , Z2 = 25 g / pot and rice Husk consis...

  8. Pertumbuhan Populasi dan Oviposisi Wereng Hijau, Nephotettix virescens Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae Berkaitan dengan saat Padi Keluar Malai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Widiarta

    1996-12-01

    more eggs on early maturing variety after flowering stage than that on late maturing variety before flowering stage (p< 0.01; t-test in the pot experiment. Those field and pot experiment facts indicated that the first generation of adult emigrant influenced the population fluctuation in the fields, because the density of predator, Lycosa, was lower in the early maturing variety than in the late maturing variety in the wet season crop of 1994/1995 and it was similar in the dry season crop of 1995.

  9. APLIKASI ABU SEKAM PADA KONDISI DIBAWAH KAPASITAS LAPANG PADA LIMA VARIETAS PADI GOGO: HASIL DAN KOMPONEN HASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahadiyat Yugi Rahayu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to know application of burned-rice husk under lower soil field capacity on yield and yield components. The pot study was done at wire house Faculty of Agriculture Jenderal Soedirman University. Randomized complete block design was applied with the factors of variety (Situ patenggang, Limboto, Towuti, Batutegi dan Aek sibundong and burned-rice husk (0, 2, 4, 6 t/ha, and three times replication.  The result showed that application of burned-rie husk up to 6 t/ha could not improve yield and yield component at all varieties. Towuti and Aek sibundong varieties resulted the higher numbers of tiller and panicle, and weight of grain wth the values of 38,8 and 41,8; 26,31 and 27,71; 36,06 and 37,24 g, respectively. Aek sibundong had a highest value of 1000 seeds weight of 25,09 g. Batu tegi resulted the highest value on  panicle length and, number of grain per panicle and per pot of 23,62; 206,71 and  2540,58, respectively

  10. Analisis Faktor Risiko kadar debu Organik di udara terhadap Gangguan fungsi Paru pada Pekerja Industri Penggilingan Padi di Demak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Nugraheni S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Industry will not only increase the prosperity of society, but also could bring on an effect of pollution, included rice mill industry at Demak Regency. The effect is air pollution, in which it would take along a disturbance on lung’s function of, especially, workers of the industry. The aim of this research is to find out risk factor of dust’s amount on air at working area to lung’s function of the workers inside, and also to measure the prevalence ratio of dust exposure’s effect to the disturbance of lung’s function on workers. Disturbance of lung’s function, on this research, is limited on lung function parameter, which are FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio and all are classified as dichotomy. Methods: This research is classified as survey analitic research with cross sectional approach. The population is workers on industry at Demak Regency. Research is carried on by measuring lung’s function parameter using Spirometer. The samples are 45 peoples of 3 (three rice mill industry. They are taken by Simple Random Sampling method of 85 existing workers. Results: The result shows that 34 of 45 respondents are working indoor with the amount of dust is bigger than Limiting Value. From the Statistical Test, we get that the incidence of disturbance of lung’s function on workers is influenced by the amount of dust on air at working area (p value = 0,002, and also strengthened by working duration (p value = 0,000, smoking habit (p value = 0,001, and the existence of history of lung disease (p value = 0,001. The prevalence ratios of each independent variables to the incidence of disturbance of lung’s function are : the amoung of organic dust on air (PR = 3,018, p value = 0.039, and also strengthened by the existence of history of lung disease (PR = 3.535, p value = 0.021, working duration (PR = 4.130, p value = 0.024. Meanwhile, the utilization of masker is proven not influencing in decreasing the incidence of disturbance of lung’s function. It is caused by the utilization on observation is not the real one during the working duration of respondents. Conclusions: Based on the results explained above, we need to implement some exact steps in order to decrease work diseases, which are caused by organic dust of the grain’s grinding, in form of monitoring and controlling held by the industrialists and related institutions to the amount of dust, safety aid (masker and the workers’ healthy by doing a continue examination of lung’s function Keyword : Organic dust, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, Rice mill industry.

  11. Pemanfaatan Silika Abu Sekam Padi sebagai Bahan Pengisi Rubber Membrane Filter Press untuk Memisahkan Minyak Inti Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed to obtain rubber membrane filter press (RMFP) from natural rubber (NR) as well as synthetic rubber (chloroprene rubber and nytrike butadiene rubber). The research method was done my vulcanizing natural rubber, synthetic rubber, and filler to shape RMFP. Research formulation was done with 8 units of experiments using variations of mixers that have been pre-determined. The examination to the RMFP was done with ASTM test methods that cover parameters such as viscometer mo...

  12. Serangan Penggerek Batang Padi dan Peran Musuh Alami dalam Mengendalikan Populasinya pada Persawahan Tanam Serentak dan Tidak Serentak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ADIARTAYASA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Paddy Rice Stemborer Attact and The Role of Parasitoid in Control That Population atSimultaneous and Stagered Ricefield. The arrangement of suistable agriculture in Baliwhich appropriate with Bali governments mission : Bali Clean and Green Go to Organic. Theconcept of modern agriculture look like contradiction with the aspects suistainableagriculture. The aspect of cultivation have been done by local agriculture community in Balicall it Subak for many years, but the attack of yellow rice borer still happen, wich adversefarmers side, persist. The efforts control wich has been done, still rely on pesticides, becauseit can give quick effect, but it is not appropriate for suistainable agriculture. The othersolution to solve that issues with the integrated pest management (IPM as the maincomponent of with is the role parasitoids. The experiment was carried out at simultaneousplanting area (Subak Sidakarya, Denpasar Selatan District and at staggered planting area(Subak Buaji, Denpasar Timur District. The result of this experiment showed that damageintensity of rice stemborer at simmultaneus planting was lower than at staggered plantingarea. There are four species stemborer at simultaneous planting area and at staggered plantingareas, namely Scirpophaga incertulas, Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, and Chilopolychrysus. Three kinds of egg parasitoids were found to decrease the population of ricedstemborer. They were Tetrastichus schoenobii, Telenomus rowani and Trichogrammajaponicum.

  13. EFEKTIFITAS BAKTERI ENDOFIT DAN PENAMBAHAN INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA DALAM MENINGKATKAN PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN PADI Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Rizki Ramadhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice plant needs essential and non-essential nutrients to grow. However, the use of inorganic fertilizers may affect the soil microbe community which expected to increase the availability of nutrients for both plants and microbes, a condition that could control several types of diseases. Many efforts were made to find alternative fertilizer which environmentally friendly, for instance by exploiting microorganisms such as endophytic bacteria associated with plant tissue or seed plant cell. This research aimed to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria, the concentration of IAA, and the combination of endophytic bacteria with a concentration of IAA, on the growth of rice plant. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Soil Biology, The Soil Research Institute located in Cimanggu Bogor from December 2015 to February 2016. This research was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two factors, i.e., the inoculant of endophytic bacteria (2.2 KT, KR 6, and I CM, and the concentration of IAA (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ppm. Three replicates were applied for each treatment of the inoculant combined with different doses of IAA. The variety of rice plants tested were Inpari 13 and IR 64. The potential test has been applied to determine the factor with the highest yield of the rice plant growth. The parameters observed were the height of the rice plant, the length of the rice plant roots, and the total weight of the plant including root. The results showed the inocula of endophytic bacteria alone had no effect to increase growth for both IR 64 and Inpari 13 rice variety. The IAA concentration of 0.1 ppm was able to increase the height of rice plant and the length of rice plant root for both IR 64 rice plant and Inpari 13. The combined treatment of KR 6 bacterial inoculum with 1 ppm of IAA concentration was effectively promoted rice plant growth for both IR 64 and Inpari 13.

  14. PENGARUH APLIKASI PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS P60 TERHADAP MUTU PATOLOGIS, MUTU FISIOLOGIS, DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT PADI IR 64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Navitasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 on pathological and physiological quality and growth of rice IR 64  seedlings. The research objectives were (1 detection and identification of seed-borne pathogens of IR 64 rice, (2 testing Pseudomonas fluorescents P60 in inhibiting the in vitro growth of seed-borne pathogens colonies, (3 testing P. fluorescents P60 for pathological and physiological seed quality, and (4 testing P. fluorescents P60 on the growth of seedlings in the greenhouse. The results showed that some seed-borne pathogens can be found both on farmers’ IR 64 rice and factory’s; they were Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria padwickii, Pseudomonas glumae, and P. syringae. Application of P. flourescens P60 was able to inhibit the in vitrogrowth of colonies of all seed-borne pathogens, except P. syringae.  Related to pathological quality, the effect of P. flourescens P60 on percentage of seed-borne pathogens attack did not significantly different from that of benomil but smaller than distilled water. On the physiological quality of seeds, treatment of P. flourescens P60 has the same effect with benomil and distilled water, with  germination rate was more than 80%. In the greenhouse study,treatment of seed immersion time  in P. flourescens P60 suspension showed that the effect of immersion time as long as15 minutes and 25 minutes on  seedling height, root length, and seedling dry weightdid not significantly different. were. However, 25 minutes immersion time resulted in fresh seedling weight and root dry weight higher than that of 15 minutes immersion time.

  15. Pengaruh Pemberian Vermikompos dan Biochar Jerami Padi terhadap Sifat Biologi Tanah dan Kapasitas Menyimpan Air pada Tanah Ultisol

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhan, Azhari

    2016-01-01

    Soil biology and soil water holding capacity is an important aspect in determining the health of the soil. Giving vermicompost and paddy straw biochar can affect the biological properties of the soil and ultisol soil water holding capacity. This study aimed to determine the effect of vermicompost and paddy straw biochar on biological properties of the soil and the ultisol water holding capacity. The research was conducted in the laboratory. This research used randomized block design with one ...

  16. PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI PADI SAWAH DAN GOGO DENGAN PEMBERIAN PUPUK HAYATI BERBASIS BAKTERI PEMACU TUMBUH DI TANAH MASAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Aryanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is a substance which contains microorganism and promotes plant growth by increasing the soil nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to analyze the growth and production of lowland and upland rice by using the biofertilizer in acid soils. Seven isolates of bacteria were used as biofertilizer, i.e. Bacillus sp., two strains of Pseudomonas sp., two strains of Azospirillum sp., and two strains of Azotobacter sp.. The treatments of this study were without fertilization, compost, 100% NPK, compost enriched with 7 isolates, compost enriched with 7 isolates + 50% NPK, compost enriched with 4 isolates, and compost enriched with 4 isolates + 50% NPK. The results showed that biofertilizer in compost improved nutrient content in acid soil, and increased rice growth and production as well. Compost enriched with 7 isolates 50% NPK showed the highest rice yield production both in the lowland and upland rice. The biofertilizer could reduced 50% utilization NPK fertilizer dosage in the first growing season.

  17. UJI EFEKTIVITAS NEMATODA ENTOMOPATOGEN (RHABDITIDA: Steinernema DAN Heterorhabditis SEBAGAI MUSUH ALAMI NON-ENDEMIK PENGGEREK BATANG PADI KUNING (Scirpophaga incertulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaerani dan Bebet Nurbaeti .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy Tests of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida:  Steinernema dan Heterorhabditis as Non-endemic Natural Enemies of Yellow Rice stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas. Yellow rice stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas is a chronic insect pests of irrigated rice and difficult to control.  Entomopathogenic nematodes from the genus Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are promising biological control agents for this pest as their infective juveniles (IJs are capable of seeking and infecting insect living in moist, cryptic habitat such as galleries created by stem borer larvae. Thirteen indigenous and exotic Steinernema and Heterorhabditis sprayed to rice seedlings in laboratory with nematodes at concentrations of 0.5 or 2.0×104 IJs ml-1 water caused larval mortality between 7–93%.  Further test in greenhouse on nematodes that had >50%  efficacy showed that an indigenous isolate, H. indicus INA H17, was the most effective among the tested nematodes in killing larvae or pupae (78%.  Reduction in plant damage caused by the insects could not be demonstrated as the trials was limited to potted plants. The survival ability of nematodes on rice plants was evaluated by using INA H4 as an example. A low percentage of INA H4 IJs (0.5% persisted in inner leaf sheath until 7 days post application, while IJs on leaf surface and outer leaf sheath survived only until 2 and 48 hours post application, respectively. Improvement of application strategies including repeated spray, addition of antidessicant and adjusment of spray volume and application at damage threshold or plant critical period are deemed necessary to enhance nematode efficacy and reduce plant damage in the field.

  18. Uji Efektivitas Nematoda Entomopatogen (Rhabditida: Steinernema Dan Heterorhabditis) Sebagai Musuh Alami Non-endemik Penggerek Batang Padi Kuning (Scirpophaga Incertulas)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaerani dan Bebet Nurbaeti

    2007-01-01

    Efficacy Tests of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida:  Steinernema dan Heterorhabditis) as Non-endemic Natural Enemies of Yellow Rice stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas). Yellow rice stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) is a chronic insect pests of irrigated rice and difficult to control.  Entomopathogenic nematodes from the genus Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are promising biological control agents for this pest as their infective juveniles (IJs) are capable of seeking and infecting ins...

  19. DAMPAK APLIKASI HERBISIDA IPA GLIFOSAT DALAM SISTEM TANPA OLAH TANAH (TOT TERHADAP TANAH DAN TANAMAN PADI SAWAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dharma Kesuma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Weed is one of the important constraints in rice production, and therefore its effective control measure should be considered that the production can be optimized. The application of no tillage by using herbicide is assumed more effective and efficient than conventional one. However, herbicide which is used as contionusly can influence residue in soil, plant and rice. The objectives of the research were to analyze the effect of no tillage and its combination of IPA glyphosate herbicide concentration levels to rice productivity and to analyze IPA glyphosate herbicide residue in soil, straw and rice. The study was conducted in the field by using IPA glyphosate herbicide with five treatments, namely maximum tillage (Gm, no herbicide spraying (G0, glyphosate herbicide doses 1.5 l ha-1(G1, 3 l ha-1 (G2 and 4.5 l ha-1(G3. The analysis of glyphosate residue was done in soil, straw and rice samples by using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography method. The research results showed that Gm and G1 treatments had highest with rice yield average were 938 g m-2 and 728 g m-2, respectively. Gm treatmen more profitable with R / C ratio of 1.84 with a profit of Rp 13.714 million, but using more labor than G1 treatment. Thereby, no-tillage treatment (G1 could be done by using glyphosate herbicide in doses 1.5 l ha-1, economically. Glyphosate contained in soil samples, straw, and rice proved that using of gyphosate intensively could have negative impacts on soil microbial activity, plant resistance to plant diseases and residue of glyphosate carried by plants. Glyphosate residue concentration was highest found on rice sample in treatments G3 was 0.272 mg kg-1. These glyphosate residual values on rice was highest than maximum residue limit which was decided by Indonesia government (0.1 mg kg-1. Glyphosate residues contained in food is not within safe limits if taken every day and can cause adverse effects to human health. Keywords: glyphosate herbicide, maximum residue limits, paddy field, weed control

  20. Penerapan Sistem Tanam Legowo Usahatani Padi Sawah dan Kontribusinya Terhadap Pendapatan dan Kelayakan Usaha di Kecamatan Dungaliyo Kabupaten Gorontalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Rauf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of lowland rice cropping system Legowo on farmers' income and eligibility paddy rice. Location research in Subdistrcit Dungaliyo Subdistrict, District of Gorontalo. Research using survey method. primary data obtained from a sample of farmers using an interview guide. The results found that the application of the system of planting Legowo 4: 1 generates a revenue of Rp 21,844,604 / ha, and cropping systems legowo 2: 1 generate a revenue Rp 21,705,833 / ha. Feasibility of transplanting rice farming system legowo 4:1 = 2.16 and 2:1 = 2.63. Both legowo cropping system is feasible for paddy rice farming.

  1. PERAKITAN TEKNOLOGI PENGELOLAAN HARA SPESIFIK LOKASI PADI SISTEM GOGO RANCAH DI DESA SEMAWUNG KECAMATAN ANDONG KABUPATEN BOYOLALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Andrias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rainfed ricefield, planted at least for one cropping season in a year, depends heavily on rainfall for its water supply. This land generally is low in fertility as indicated by the limited availability of essential plant nutrients in particular nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K as well as organic matter. Its productivity is relatively low with a rather erratic precipitation distribution. In order to overcome fertility issue in rainfed land, it is necessary to conduct an integrated nutrient management; one of which is by implementing location specific nutrient management. This study aims to seek the appropriate nutrient management in rainfed paddy field of Semawung village in the sub-district of Andong of Boyolali regency to be provisioned as a technological tool of location specific nutrient management. Research on nutrient management of gogo rancah system-based paddy production was carried out from October 2014 to January 2015. The field experiment was arranged in a Randomized Block Design involving eight treatments and three replications for each treatment. Treatments were combinations of NPK fertilizer, Organofosfat, and straw-based organic fertilizer. Nutrient management using NPK fertilizer and its combination with Organofosfat or organic fertilizer had very significant effect on plant height and number of stem per hill, significantly affected number of panicle per hill, panicle length, and number of fully-filled grain but did not result in difference of fully filled grain percentage and weight of 1000 grains. There was no significant difference between the treatment of 100% of NPK fertilizer and the combination of 75% of NPK fertilizer with straw-based fertilizer regarding these variables: number of stem per hill, number of panicle per hill, panicle length, number of grain per hill, number and percentage of fully-filled grain, weight of 1000 grains, and weight of fresh grain and milled grain yield. Therefore, the latter treatment is feasible as an option of location-specific nutrient management Semawung village.

  2. Deciphering the role of NADPH oxidase in complex interactions between maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes and cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-07-22

    Plant NADPH oxidases (NOXs) encompass a group of membrane-bound enzymes participating in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions as well as in response to environmental stressors. The purpose of the survey was to unveil the role of NADPH oxidase in pro-oxidative responses of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling leaves exposed to cereal aphids' infestation. The impact of apteral females of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) feeding on expression levels of all four NADPH oxidase genes (rbohA, rbohB, rbohC, rbohD) and total activity of NOX enzyme in maize plants were investigated. In addition, inhibitory effect of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) pre-treatment on NOX activity and hydrogen peroxide content in aphid-stressed maize seedlings was studied. Leaf infestation biotests were accomplished on 14-day-old seedlings representing two aphid-resistant varieties (Ambrozja and Waza) and two aphid-susceptible ones (Tasty Sweet and Złota Karłowa). Insects' attack led to profound upregulation of rbohA and rbohD genes in tested host plants, lower elevations were noted in level of rbohB mRNA, whereas abundance of rbohC transcript was not significantly altered. It was uncovered aphid-induced enhancement of NOX activity in examined plants. Higher increases in expression of all investigated rboh genes and activity of NADPH oxidase occurred in tissues of more resistant maize cultivars than in susceptible ones. Furthermore, DPI treatment resulted in strong reduction of NOX activity and H2O2 accumulation in aphid-infested Z. mays plants, thus evidencing circumstantial role of the enzyme in insect-elicited ROS generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative role of neem seed extract, moringa leaf extract and imidacloprid in the management of wheat aphids in relation to yield losses in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Farhan Mahmood; Razaq, Muhammad; Ali, Abid; Han, Peng; Chen, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Wheat being staple food of Pakistan is constantly attacked by major wheat aphid species, Schizaphis graminum (R.), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). Due to concern on synthetic chemical use in wheat, it is imperative to search for alternative environment- and human- friendly control measures such as botanical pesticides. In the present study, we evaluated the comparative role of neem seed extract (NSE), moringa leaf extract (MLE) and imidacloprid (I) in the management of the aphid as well as the yield losses parameters in late planted wheat fields. Imidacloprid reduced significantly aphids infestation compared to the other treatments, hence resulting in higher yield, particularly when applied with MLE. The percentages of yield increase in I+MLE treated plots over the control were 19.15-81.89% for grains per spike, 5.33-37.62% for thousand grain weight and 27.59-61.12% for yield kg/ha. NSE was the second most effective control measure in suppressing aphid population, but the yield protected by NSE treatment over the control was comparable to that by imidacloprid. Population densities of coccinellids and syrphids in the plots treated with NSE-2 were higher than those treated with imidacloprid in two out of three experiments during 2013-14. Low predator density in imidacloprid-treated plots was attributed to the lower availability of prey aphids. The efficacy of NSE against aphids varied depending on degree of synchronization among the application timing, the activity of aphids, crop variety and environmental conditions. Despite that, we suggested NSE to be a promising alternative botanical insecticide compared to the most commonly recommended imidiacloprid. Further studies should consider the side effects of biopesticides on non-target organisms in order to provide better management practices in the field.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Columbia Basin and Northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mathew L; Rondon, Silvia I; Walenta, Darrin L; Zeb, Qamar; Murphy, Alexzandra F

    2017-08-01

    Aphid species, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, are routinely considered the most important pests of potatoes. Potato aphid, green peach aphid, and more recently, other aphids such as the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. have been identified as vectors of multiple plant pathogenic viruses in potatoes. Since 2006, an area-wide trapping network consisting of ∼60 sites was developed through collaboration between researchers, extension faculty, and stakeholders, to monitor aphid populations in the Columbia Basin of Oregon (Umatilla and Morrow counties) and in northeastern Oregon (Union and Baker counties). Over a 9-yr period (2006 to 2014), aphid specimens were collected weekly using yellow bucket traps and specimens were then identified and counted to determine population levels during the growing season (May-September). Thus, aphid population data were compiled and subjected to spatial and temporal distribution analysis. Weather data, obtained from an established network of weather stations located in the monitoring areas, were used in a nonparametric multiplicative regression analysis to determine which abiotic variables may impact aphid populations. Weather conditions were characterized using confidence intervals (CIs) established based on weather data from 1999 to 2005 for each environmental variable. Aphid populations were found to have a heterogeneous distribution in most years; a few sites had high aphid populations while low numbers were observed at most sites; aphids were also found to correlate with several abiotic variables, namely, elevation, previous season temperature, and previous season dew point. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    Full Text Available Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize, confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86. Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017 and non-Bt (DK315 untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability.

  6. Seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha M Kirchner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007-010 using yellow pan traps (YPTs placed in 4-8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days. Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change.

  7. Interactions among the Predatory Midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, the Fungal Pathogen Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales, and Maize-Infesting Aphids in Greenhouse Mesocosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gorete Campos de Azevedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The generalist entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, has proved to have great potential as a versatile biological pest control agent. The gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza is a specialist predator that occurs naturally in Europe and has been successfully used for aphid suppression. However, the interaction between these two biological control organisms and how it may affect the biological control of aphids awaits further investigation. As part of the EU-supported project INBIOSOIL, this study was conducted in greenhouse conditions to assess the possible effects of combining both biological control agents. In a randomized complete block design, sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata plants were grown in large pots filled with natural soil or natural soil inoculated with M. brunneum. At the third leaf stage, before being individually caged, plants were infested with Rhopalosiphum padi and A. aphidimyza pupae were introduced in the soil. Aphidoletes aphidimyza midge emergence, number of living midges and number of aphids were recorded daily. The presence of conidia in the soil and on leaves was assessed during the experiment. At the conclusion of the experiment, the number of live aphids and their developmental stage, consumed aphids, and A. aphidimyza eggs was assessed under stereomicroscope. This study’s findings showed that the presence of M. brunneum did not affect A. aphidimyza midge emergence. However, longevity was significantly affected. As the study progressed, significantly fewer predatory midges were found in cages treated with M. brunneum compared to untreated cages. Furthermore, by the end of the study, the number of predatory midges found in the Metarhizium-treated cages was four times lower than in the untreated cages. Both daily and final count of aphids were significantly affected by treatment. Aphidoletes aphidimyza applied alone suppressed the aphid population more effectively than M. brunneum applied alone. Additionally

  8. Evidence for additive effects of virus infection and water availability on phythormone induction in a staple crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seth Davis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with phytoviruses influences plant responses to environmental stress, but the biochemical mechanisms underlying these interactions are unknown. Infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum with a cereal virus (Barley yellow dwarf virus, BYDV has context-dependent effects on plant productivity and survival conditional to water stress, and we hypothesized this was due to phythormone induction resulting from virus infection. We tested whether BYDV infection and water availability interact to influence hormone profiles in wheat across multiple time periods. Wheat plants were inoculated with BYDV by exposing them to infectious aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi. Concentrations of five hormones (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate [MS], and salicylic acid [SA] in leaf tissues were compared to concentrations in plants exposed to noninfectious aphids (sham treatment and nondamaged control plants for five time-since-infection periods (0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 d and two levels of water availability (0.2 and 0.8 g H20/g soil. Three important findings emerged: (1 total hormone concentrations in BYDV-infected plants exceeded concentrations in sham-treated and control plants up to 16 d following infection, after which nondamaged plants exhibited the highest concentrations of hormones; compared with nondamaged and BYDV-infected plants, hormone levels were reduced in sham-treated plants; (2 inoculation treatment affected concentrations of MS and SA: SA concentrations were increased in BYDV-infected plants, but control plants exhibited higher MS concentrations than either BYDV-infected or sham-treated plants irrespective of watering treatments and across all time periods; and (3 correlation analysis revealed no evidence of hormonal cross-inhibition. This study provides the first evidence that BYDV infection elevates both total phytohormone levels and SA in wheat in a time-sensitive manner, suggesting a potential biochemical basis for virus

  9. Activity of aphids associated with lettuce and broccoli in Spain and their efficiency as vectors of Lettuce mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebreda, M; Moreno, A; Pérez, N; Palacios, I; Seco-Fernández, V; Fereres, A

    2004-03-01

    This research sought to identify the aphid virus vector species associated with lettuce and broccoli crops in Spain, and to determine their population dynamics and ability to transmit Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Green tile traps and Moericke yellow water-pan traps were used to monitor aphid flights during the spring and autumn growing seasons of 2001. Aphid species feeding on lettuce were counted weekly. The transmission efficiencies of LMV were determined for the aphid species caught most frequently. The Moericke traps generally caught more aphid species than the tile trap, but the latter was the most suitable to estimate flight activity of species involved in virus spread. Spring aphid catches indicated that the main aphid species landing on lettuce in the regions of Madrid and Murcia was Hyperomyzus lactucae, but Brachycaudus helichrysi was also abundant in both regions. In broccoli in the Navarra region, the most abundant species in spring were Aphis fabae, B. helichrysi and H. lactucae. In autumn-sown crops, the main species landing on lettuce in the Madrid region were Hyadaphis coriandri and Aphis spiraecola. In Murcia, A. spiraecola and Myzus persicae were the most abundant, while in Navarra, Therioaphis trifolii, and various Aphis spp. were the most numerous landing on broccoli. The main aphid species colonising lettuce was Nasonovia ribisnigri, but other less abundant colonising species were Aulacorthum solani and Macrosiphum euphorbiae. The most efficient vectors of LMV were M. persicae, Aphis gossypii and M. euphorbiae, while A. fabae and H. lactucae transmitted with low efficiency, and Rhopalosiphum padi and N. ribisnigri did not transmit. Occurrence of LMV epidemics in central Spain in relation to aphid flights and the role of weeds as virus reservoirs is discussed.

  10. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Scorsetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T. cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T. cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC, on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween ® 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4ºC, 12ºC and 24ºC. The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10 7 conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24°C, the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween® 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4

  11. Analisis Manfaat Biaya Biochar di Lahan Pertanian untuk Meningkatkan Pendapatan Petani di Kabupaten Merauke

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Widiastuti, Maria Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Biochar terbukti dapat meningkatkan ketersediaan unsur hara dalam tanah, meningkatkan produktivitas dan menambah pendapatan petani. Biochar dapat dibuat dari limbah kehutanan/pertanian dan tidak membutuhkan teknologi tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1) Menganalisis rasio manfaat biaya pembuatan biochar dari limbah sekam padi, (2) Membandingkan produktivitas tanaman padi dengan perlakuan biochar, dan (3) Menganalisis USAha tani padi sawah dengan perlakuan biochar. Metode penelitian m...

  12. Female-induced increase of host-plant volatiles enhance specific attraction of aphid male Dysaphis plantaginea (Homoptera: Aphididae) to the sex pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2009-01-01

    All aphid species studied so far share the same sex pheromone components, nepetalactol and nepetalactone. Variation by different enantiomers and blends of the two components released by different aphid species are limited and can only partially explain species-specific attraction of males to

  13. Comparative field evaluation of some newer versus conventional insecticides for the control of aphids (homoptera: aphididae) on oilseed rape (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Bux, M.; Nasrullah, A.; Tofique, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of new insecticides like, Imidacloprid (Confidor 200 EC), Thiomethoxam (Actara 25 WG) and Acetamiprid (Megamos 20 SL) belonging to Nitroguanidine group along with conventional insecticides such as, Chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 40 EC) and Dimethoate (Systoate 40 EC) belonging to Organophosphate group against aphids' population on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of the test compounds, reflected that newer insecticides were superior in reducing the population of aphids and yield enhancement as compared to conventional insecticides. The best results were achieved with the application of Imidacloprid by recording the lowest number of aphids (2.2 per plant) than obtained with Thiomethoxam and Acetamiprid (3.22 and 4.66, respectively). Other insecticides, viz., Chlorpyrifos and Dimethoate were also found to be effective in maintaining the aphids' population at lower levels per plant (16.2 and 17.5, respectively) over untreated control (227.7). Imidacloprid was responsible for increasing the grain yield to 3722.85 Kg per Hectare, approached by Thiomethoxam, Acetamiprid, Chlorpyrifos and Dimethoate as against unsprayed control (2980.0, 2542.85, 1542.85, 540.0 and 604.85 Kg per Hectare, respectively). Study indicated that selective use of newer insecticides would seem a reasonable strategy in aphids controlling and integration of such chemicals in insects' management package could help to reduce pest densities. (author)

  14. Host Plant-Herbivore-Predator Interactions in Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Four Plant Species Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Milad; Gharekhani, Gholamhossein; Iranipour, Shahzad; Hassanpour, Mahdi

    2017-12-05

    The common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), is a well-known biocontrol agent. The current study examined host plant-herbivore-predator interactions with C. carnea and Myzus persicae on four host plants (peach, almond, pepper, and potato). The experiments were carried out at 25 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% RH at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h). Duration of the preadult growth period, adult longevity, fecundity, and population growth parameters were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The shortest and longest preadult developmental times of the predator were observed on the peach and potato, respectively. The highest and lowest predation rate, oviposition period, and male and female longevity of predator were also observed on the peach and potato, respectively. The lowest intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were observed on the potato (0.1087 and 1.11 d-1, respectively) and the highest on the peach (0.1460 and 1.15 d-1, respectively). The maximum and minimum mean generation times (T) were 41.84 and 35.59 d in the potato and peach, respectively. Overall, peach was found to be a more appropriate host than the other host plants for development and predation fitness of C. carnea. These findings reveal that information on tritrophic interactions and subsequent life table evaluation of natural enemies improves integrated pest management programs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Source Areas for the Early Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) at Xiushan in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C X; Chen, X L; Bi, J C; Li, J J; Xiao, X H; Li, Q; Wang, H J; Yang, Q F

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of source areas for the early immigration of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvάth), at Xiushan in the middle reach of Yangtze River of China, was analyzed with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and ArcGIS 10.0. The analysis was based on light trap data collected during April-July in 2000-2012. The synoptic meteorology backgrounds during the immigration periods were analyzed by GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System). The light trap catches of S. furcifera varied monthly and annually. S. furcifera started immigration in Xiushan in early April to early May, whereas the main immigration period was in July. The distribution of the source areas varied monthly, and the core was moved from the south to the north gradually. The main source areas of S. furcifera in May were in southwestern Guangxi and northern Vietnam. The source areas of S. furcifera in June were located in southwestern Guangxi and western Hunan. Additionally, some of the pests were from southeastern Yunnan. The source areas in July were in northwestern Guangxi, southwestern Guizhou, eastern Yunnan, and the transitional parts of Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. The sum frequencies of southwest and south winds on the 850 hPa isobaric surface of Xiushan of May-July in heavy occurrence years were more than the light occurrence years. The key meteorological factors were suggested to be vertical perturbation, precipitation, and wind shear during S. furcifera immigration periods. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Cosmopsaltria halmaherae n. sp. endemic to Halmahera, Maluku, Indonesia (Homoptera, Cicadidae). The relationship of cicadas of Maluku Utara and Maluku Selatan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Cosmopsaltria halmaherae n. sp. is described from Halmahera, Maluku and placed in the C. doryca group. The characters of this group are reconsidered and the relationships of its members are discussed. The C. doryca group and two other monophyletic groups of cicadas demonstrate a vicariant

  17. The eye-catching cicada Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. n. in Indonesia and the Pacific: taxonomie status, synonymy, and distribution (Homoptera, Cicadoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The new combination Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus) is proposed for a cicada species widely distributed in Maluku ( = Moluccas), Timor, Banda, Kei and Banggai Islands, the Philippines, and the Palau group of the Caroline Islands. The synonymy of five species, treated in the literature as junior synonyms

  18. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  19. New species of the family Triozidae (Homoptera: Psylloidea) from China, and the first record of Psylloidea as host of Braconidae (Hymenoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.; Achterberg, van C.; He, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two new species of Triozidae (Psylloidea) from China producing sphere-shaped leaf galls on Ficus hainanensis Merr. & Shun., are illustrated and described. For the first time Psylloidea are reported as host of a species of Braconidae. The parasitoid belonging to the genus Bracon Fabricius, 1804, is

  20. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Flores-Hernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia de partenogénesis en hembras. La duración de los estadios biológicos depende del sexo del insecto; el adulto hembra permaneció durante 38.4 días y 4.2 días para machos, los primeros estadios ninfales fueron similares en duración (18.1-19.8 días. El ciclo biológico de las hembras fue de 77 días mientras que el de los machos fue de 43 días. Para las hembras se estimó un periodo de preoviposición de 18.8 días, manteniéndose en oviposición durante 21 días con un promedio de 131 insectos por hembra. La proporción sexual hembras: machos fue 1:1. El tipo de reproducción fue predominantemente sexual, aunque hubo hembras partenogénicas. Este es el primer reporte de Dactylopius opuntiae como cochinilla silvestre asociada a la zona árida del noreste de México, específicamente en el Bolsón de Mapimí, Durango, México.Wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. To characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh Mexico, using as a host organism Opuntia megacantha Salm dick. The results indicate that the wild specie is Dactylopius opuntiae. The presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. The duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. The adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days. The complete biological cycle of the females was 77 days, and in the males 43 days. A period of preoviposition of 18.8 days for the females was found, laying eggs during 21 days with an average of 131 insects per female. The sex ratio female: male was 1:1. The reproduction generally was sexual although there were parthenogenetic females. This is the first report of Dactylopius opuntiae as a source of wild cochineal in the arid zone of North, Central and Norwest of Mexico specifically in the Bolson of Mapimí, Durango, Mexico.

  1. Interactive Effects of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus Infection of Host Plant and Vector on Performance of the Vector, Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenbin; Liu, Danfeng; Li, Pei; Hou, Maolin

    2014-10-01

    Performance of insect vectors can be influenced by the viruses they transmit, either directly by infection of the vectors or indirectly via infection of the host plants. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a propagative virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hovath). To elucidate the influence of SRBSDV on the performance of white-backed planthopper, life parameters of viruliferous and nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper fed rice seedlings infected or noninfected with SRBSDV were measured using a factorial design. Regardless of the infection status of the rice plant host, viruliferous white-backed planthopper nymphs took longer to develop from nymph to adult than did nonviruliferous nymphs. Viruliferous white-backed planthopper females deposited fewer eggs than nonviruliferous females and both viruliferous and nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper females laid fewer eggs on infected than on noninfected plants. Longevity of white-backed planthopper females was also affected by the infection status of the rice plant and white-backed planthopper. Nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper females that fed on infected rice plants lived longer than the other three treatment groups. These results indicate that the performance of white-backed planthopper is affected by SRBSDV either directly (by infection of white-backed planthopper) or indirectly (by infection of rice plant). The extended development of viruliferous nymphs and the prolonged life span of nonviruliferous adults on infected plants may increase their likelihood of transmitting virus, which would increase virus spread. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  2. Herencia de la resistencia al daño mecánico causado por Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir (Homoptera-Delphacidae en arroz Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas P. Federico

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia all rice varieties developed are reported as resistant to Tagosodes orizicolus. Given the narrow genetic base of the resistant sources, this study was undertaken to identify the resistant parents or donors more oftenly used in Latin America. The materials were characterized as resistant (Mudgo, Amistad 82, IRAT 120, IRAT 124, Makalioka or susceptible based on the free chosen test and non chosen test and on the survival and oviposition of the insect (Chianan 8, Colombia 1, Bluebonnet 50, IR 8 (lCA, IR 8 (IRRI, Tetep and Cica 8. The damage was associated with insect survival, oviposition and eggs eclotion. To determine heritability two parents (Makalioka and Mudgo, were crossed with IR 8 F1 and F3 populations were also evaluated based on the free chosen test.

     

     

    En Colombia las variedades de arroz desarrolladas se consideran como resistentes a Tagosodes orizicolus. Dada la estrechez genética de las fuentes de resistencia, se inició este estudio para identificar los progenitores donantes de resistencia usados con mayor frecuencia en América Latina. Los materiales se caracterizaron como resistentes (Mudgo, Amistad 82, IRAT, 120, IRAT 124 Y Makalioka o susceptibles (Chianan 8, Colombia 1, Bluebonnet 50, IR 8 (lCA, IR (IRRI, Tetep y Cica 8, con base en las pruebas de libre escogencia, no escogencia, sobre vivencia y oviposición. El daño estuvo asociado con la supervivencia, oviposición y eclosión de huevos del insecto. Para la determinación de la herencia se cruzaron los progenitores Makalioka y Mudgo con IR8. En la Progenie F1 del cruzamiento resistente x resistente el 111% de las plantas fueron susceptibles; Mudgo y Makalioka segregaron 23 y 41% de plantas susceptibles.

  3. Molecular dynamics of detoxification and toxin-tolerance genes in brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål., Homoptera: Delphacidae) feeding on resistant rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifan; Zhang, Futie; He, Qing; He, Guangcun

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the molecular response of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (BPH) to BPH-resistant rice plants, we isolated cDNA fragments of the genes encoding for carboxylesterase (CAR), trypsin (TRY), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450), NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO), acetylcholinesterase (ACE), and Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Expression profiles of the genes were monitored on fourth instar nymphs feeding on rice varieties with different resistance levels. Northern blot hybridization showed that, compared with BPH reared on susceptible rice TN1, expression of the genes for P450 and CAR was apparently up-regulated and TRY mRNA decreased in BPH feeding on a highly resistant rice line B5 and a moderately resistant rice variety MH63, respectively. Two transcripts of GST increased in BPH feeding on B5; but in BPH feeding on MH63, this gene was inducible and its expression reached a maximum level at 24 h, and then decreased slightly. The expression of NQO gene was enhanced in BPH on B5 plants but showed a constant expression in BPH on MH63 plants. No difference in ACE gene expression among BPH on different rice plants was detected by the RT-PCR method. The results suggest these genes may play important roles in the defense response of BPH to resistant rice.

  4. Inheritance mode and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Hua; Liu, Xu Gan; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Wu, Sheng Gan; Li, Shu Yong; Chen, Wen Ming; Shen, Jin Liang

    2009-06-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a serious pest that causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a field population of N. lugens collected from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, showed a 964-fold resistance compared with the laboratory strain. Progenies of reciprocal crosses (F(1) and F(1)') showed similar dose-mortality responses (LC(50)) to imidacloprid, and also exhibited a similar degree of dominance (D), 0.58 for F(1) and 0.63 for F(1)'. Chi-square analyses of self-bred and backcross progenies (F(2), F(2)' and BC respectively) rejected the hypothesis for a single gene control of the resistance. The estimated realized heritability (h(2)) of imidacloprid resistance was 0.1141 in the resistant strain of N. lugens. The results showed that imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens was autosomal and was expressed as an incompletely dominant trait, probably controlled by multiple genes.

  5. Insect growth regulator effects of azadirachtin and neem oil on survivorship, development and fecundity of Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiss, Heidi; Cullen, Eileen M

    2008-06-01

    Aphis glycines Matsumura, an invasive insect pest in North American soybeans, is fed upon by a key biological control agent, Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Although biological control is preferentially relied upon to suppress insect pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce damaging pest populations. The authors evaluated direct spray treatments of two neem formulations, azadirachtin and neem seed oil, under controlled conditions for effects on survivorship, development time and fecundity in A. glycines and H. axyridis. Both azadirachtin and neem seed oil significantly increased aphid nymphal mortality (80 and 77% respectively) while significantly increasing development time of those surviving to adulthood. First-instar H. axyridis survival to adulthood was also significantly reduced by both neem formulations, while only azadirachtin reduced third-instar survivorship. Azadirachtin increased H. axyridis development time to adult when applied to both instars, while neem oil only increased time to adult when applied to first instar. Neither neem formulation affected the fecundity of either insect. Results are discussed within the context of future laboratory and field studies aimed at clarifying if neem-derived insecticides can be effectively integrated with biological control for soybean aphid management in organic soybeans. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Evaluación de extractos cetónicos de paraíso, eucalipto y ricino sobre Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizo, Paola; Pelicano, Alicia; Caffarini, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    En el cultivo de pimiento, Myzus persicae es una plaga cuyo manejo se basa en el uso de agroquímicos de síntesis. Una alternativa de menor impacto ambiental para su control es la aplicación de extractos naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de extractos provenientes de Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus globulus y Ricinus communis sobre este pulgón. Se escogió la técnica del film residual en papel de filtro, manteniendo los individuos sobre hojas de pimiento ornamental. Se uti...

  7. A reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the rice delphacid, Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Mora

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A reliable bioassay procedure was developed to test ingested Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins on the rice delphacid Tagosodes orizicolus. Initially, several colonies were established under greenhouse conditions, using rice plants to nurture the insect. For the bioassay, an in vitro feeding system was developed for third to fourth instar nymphs. Insects were fed through Parafilm membranes on sugar (10 % sucrose and honey bee (1:48 vol/vol solutions, observing a natural mortality of 10-15 % and 0-5 %, respectively. Results were reproducible under controlled conditions during the assay (18±0.1 °C at night and 28±0.1 °C during the day, 80 % RH and a 12:12 day:light photoperiod. In addition, natural mortality was quantified on insect colonies, collected from three different geographic areas of Costa Rica, with no significant differences between colonies under controlled conditions. Finally, bioassays were performed to evaluate the toxicity of a Bt collection on T. orizicolus. A preliminary sample of twenty-seven Bt strains was evaluated on coarse bioassays using three loops of sporulated colonies in 9 ml of liquid diet, the strains that exhibited higher percentages of T. orizicolus mortality were further analyzed in bioassays using lyophilized spores and crystals (1 mg/ml. As a result, strains 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43S-d and 23-O-to isolated from homopteran insects showed mortalities of 74, 96, 44 and 82 % respectively while HD-137, HD-1 and Bti showed 19, 83 and 95 % mortalities. Controls showed mortalities between 0 and 10 % in all bioassays. This is the first report of a reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity for a homopteran species using Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 373-383. Epub 2007 June, 29.Se desarrolló una metodología de bioensayo para evaluar toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt ingeridas por Tagosodes orizicolus, plaga del arroz y vector del virus de la hoja blanca. Se establecieron colonias del insecto en condiciones de invernadero usando plantas de arroz como alimento. Para el bioensayo, se desarrolló un sistema de alimentación in vitro para ninfas de tercer y cuarto estadío. Los insectos se alimentaron de soluciones de miel de abeja (1:48 vol/vol y sacarosa (10 % a través de membranas de Parafilm. Se observaron mortalidades del 10-15 % y 0-5 %, respectivamente, en ambas dietas. Los resultados fueron reproducibles en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura (18±0.1 °C de noche y 28±0.1 °C de día, 80 % H.R y a 12:12 fotoperíodo día:noche. Asimismo, se analizó la mortalidad natural de los insectos según su procedencia, sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias significativas en condiciones controladas. Finalmente, se elaboraron bioensayos para evaluar la toxicidad de una colección de cepas de Bt contra T. orizicolus. Se evaluó preliminarmente, una submuestra de 27 cepas de Bt en bioensayos burdos usando tres asadas como inóculo para 9 ml de dieta líquida. Posteriormente, las cepas que mostraron los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad se evaluaron en bioensayos usando esporas y cristales liofilizados (1 mg/ml. Como resultado, las cepas aisladas a partir de homópteros 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43-S-d y 23-O-to mostraron mortalidades de 74, 96, 44 y 82 % respectivamente, mientras que las HD-137, HD-1 y Bti mostraron 19, 83 y 95 % de mortalidad. Los controles presentaron mortalidades de 0 y 10 % en los bioensayos. Este es el primer informe de un bioensayo para evaluar la toxicidad de cepas de Bt utilizando la especie T. orizicolus.

  8. The jacoona assemblage of the genus Dundubia Amyot & Serville (Homoptera: Cicadidae): a taxonomic study of its species and a discussion of its phylogenetic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuk, Paul L.Th.

    1996-01-01

    The species of Orientopsaltria with unicolorous opercula and three related species of Platylomia are transferred to the genus Dundubia and allocated in the ‘Dundubia jacoona assemblage’ pending further investigation. The assemblage comprises eleven species in total; all are found in the

  9. Inter-regional differences in baseline toxicity of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) to the two insect growth regulators, buprofezin and pyriproxyfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, N C; Prabhaker, N; Castle, S J; Henneberry, T J

    2001-12-01

    A survey of 53 Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring populations from different agricultural regions in California and Arizona was conducted from 1997 to 1999 to establish baseline toxicological responses to buprofezin and pyriproxyfen. Although both compounds proved to be highly toxic even in minute quantities to specific stages, geographical and temporal differences in responses were detected using a leaf spray bioassay technique. Monitoring for three years revealed that six to seven populations had higher LC50 values but not greater survival when exposed to these two insecticides. A significant difference in relative susceptibility to buprofezin was first observed in late season 1997 in San Joaquin Valley populations with LC50s ranging from 16 to 22 microg (AI)/liter(-1) compared with IC50s of 1 to 3 mg (AI)/liter(-1) in Imperial, Palo Verde Valley and Yuma populations. Whiteflies collected in subsequent years from these and other locations showed an increase in susceptibility to buprofezin. Regional differences in susceptibilities to pyriproxyfen were minimal within the same years. Three years of sampling revealed consistently higher LC50s to pyriproxyfen in populations from Palo Verde Valley, CA, compared with whiteflies from Imperial, San Joaquin Valley or Yuma. As was the case with buprofezin, a decline in LC50s to pyriproxyfen was observed in whiteflies from all locations sampled in 1999. However, no correlation was observed between buprofezin and pyriproxyfen toxicity in any of the strains. The variable toxicities observed to both compounds over a period of 3 yr may be due principally to inherent differences among geographical populations or due to past chemical use which may confer positive or negative cross-resistance to buprofezin or pyriproxyfen.

  10. RESULTS OF THE THREE-YEAR MONITORING (2001.-2003. OF TOBACCO WHITEFLY Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889, (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Masten

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The quarantine pest tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 was for the first time found in Croatia in 2000 on some culture and weed plants in greenhouses and in the open field in the area from Trogir to Omiš. Monitoring of tobacco whitefly was organized in all counties (21. Eventual presence of tobacco whitefly adults on the plants in glasshouses was established by the hanging of yellow sticky traps. In the course of monitoring the undersides of leaves on host plants were inspected for the purpose of discovering pest nymphal and pupal stages. The plants of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima produced as pest free plants have been used as catch plants in the conditions of lower infestation of host plants by tobacco whitefly adults. In three-year monitoring it was found out that poinsettia is the most atractive host plant for this pest between 38 host plants being registered during this monitoring. The fact that tobacco whitefly during the summer was found on the vegetables, ornamentals and weeds in the open fields in Dalmatia indicate that tobacco whitefly became domesticated and it can successfully overwinter in mediteranean climate conditions. During the monitoring tobacco whitefly was detected in 13 counties in our country, indicating shows that tobacco whitefly has been spreading progresivly since it was found in Croatia for the first time.

  11. Tri-trophic interactions between Bt cotton, the herbivore Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), and the predator Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Ying; Wan, Fang-Hao; Dong, Liang; Lövei, Gábor L; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2008-02-01

    Tri-trophic impacts of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton GK12 and NuCOTN 99B were studied using a predator, the great lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Rambur), and its prey, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, in laboratory feeding experiments. The parental nontransgenic cotton cultivar of GK12 was used as control. The predator was fed with uniform (aphids from a single cultivar) or mixed prey (aphids from the three cotton cultivars provided on alternate days). Mortality and development of the immature stages, pupal body mass, adult sex ratio, fecundity, and egg viability of C. pallens were measured. When fed GK12-originated aphid prey, pupal body mass of C. pallens was significantly higher than that of the control, more females emerged, and these females laid significantly more eggs. Other parameters were not impacted. Females emerging from larvae maintained on NuCOTN 99B-originated prey laid fewer eggs than those maintained on GK12. Other measurements did not differ significantly between the two Bt cotton cultivars. Compared with the control, mixed feeding significantly prolonged pupal development time and increased pupal body mass and percentage of females but did not affect other parameters. These results indicate that C. pallens is sensitive to aphid prey from different cotton cultivars. Transgenic Bt cotton GK12-originated aphid prey has no adverse impact on survival, development, and fecundity of C. pallens. Between the two Bt cotton cultivars, NuCOTN 99B-originated aphid prey provided to C. pallens in the larval stage may lower female fecundity. Mixed feeding of C. pallens with the two Bt cotton-originated prey and non-Bt prey may have some adverse impacts on pupal development.

  12. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.

  13. Microsatellite markers reveal a predominant sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) clone is found on sorghum in seven states and one territory of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, has become a serious pest causing severe economic losses to sorghum grown in the southern United States (U.S.). Since its original detection in four states in 2013, M. sacchari on sorghum has now, for 2016, spread to 19 states. The presence of one or multip...

  14. Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae, a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth. Haworth. (Cactaceae in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Foxcroft

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.

  15. Establishment of Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persad, A.B.; Hoy, M.A.; Ru Nguyen

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphids in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [es

  16. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina Faso between 2008 and 2010 under the Corus 6015 research program. This review aims to show: (i) the insecticide resistance in B. tabaci as well as in An. gambiae; and (ii) due to this, the impact of selection of resistant populations on malaria vector control strategies. Some measures that could be beneficial for crop protection and vector control strategies in West Africa are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Les cochenilles des Myrtaceae en Amazonie péruvienne : 1. Description de deux nouveaux ravageurs de Myrciaria dubia (Homoptera, Coccidae et Kerriidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Matile-Ferrero, D.; Couturier, Guy

    1993-01-01

    #Ceroplastes flosculoides$ Matile-Ferrero n.sp. (Coccidae) et #Austrotachardiella sexcordata$ Matile-Ferrero n.sp. (Kerriidae), sont décrits et illustrés. Les deux espèces sont des ravageurs d'une Myrtacée cultivée, #Myrciaria dubia$, en Amazonie péruvienne. #Austrotachardiella trilobata$ (Mendes) n.comb. est transférée de #Tachardiella$ Cockerell. (Résumé d'auteur)

  18. PENGARUH PERLAKUAN DELIGNIFIKASI DENGAN LARUTAN NAOH DAN KONSENTRASI SUBSTRAT JERAMI PADI TERHADAP PRODUKSI ENZIM SELULASE DARI ASPERGILLUS NIGER NRRL A-II, 264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS WAYAN GUNAM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available his research was done in order to utilize agricultural waste (rice straw as substrate to produce crude cellulase enzyme from Aspergillus niger. This research was conducted in two stages; the first stage was determination of the initial pH and fermentation time by pH treatment (5, 6 and 7 and fermentation time (7, 9 and 11 days. The second stage was determination of concentration of NaOH treatment and concentration of substrate, namely: concentrations of NaOH (2, 4 and 6% and concentrations of substrate (1, 2 and 3% (w/v. The results showed that the fermentation time of 9 days with the initial pH 6.0 was the optimal condition for production of crude cellulase enzyme from A. niger with rice straw as a substrate. The highest enzyme activity derived from interaction of delignification treatment with NaOH concentration of 6% and 2% rice straw substrate which produces endoglukanase enzyme activity (0.037 units/ml, filter paperase activity (0.033 units/ml, soluble protein (0.362 mg/ml, and specific activity of filter paperase (0.123 units/mg.

  19. Long-Term Follow-up of the PADI Trial : Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Versus Drug-Eluting Stents for Infrapopliteal Lesions in Critical Limb Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreen, Marlon I; Martens, Jasper M; Knippenberg, Bob; van Dijk, Lukas C; De Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Vos, Jan Albert; de Borst, Gert Jan; Vonken, Evert-Jan P A; Bijlstra, Okker D; Wever, Jan J; Statius van Eps, Randolph G; Mali, Willem P Th M; van Overhagen, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes reported after treatment of infrapopliteal lesions with drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been more favorable compared with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with a bailout bare metal stent (PTA-BMS) through midterm follow-up in patients with critical limb ischemia.

  20. PRODUKSI PADI DAN JAGUNG DALAM EKONOMI RUMAH TANGGA PETANI LAHAN SAWAH: MODEL DAN SIMULASI KEBIJAKAN (Studi Kasus Di Desa Kepuh Kembeng Kecamatan Peterongan Kabupaten Jombang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimsto analyzemodel and impact ofpolicy simulationin riceandmaizeproduction werecarried out bywet land farm households. The study was conductedin Kepuh Kembengvillage PeteronganDistrict Jombang Regency, East Java Province. This study using simultaneous equationsmodel and analyzed by syslin 2SLS. The results showedthat farm householdsproductionof riceandmaizeaffected bythe use ofinputssuch aslabor, ureaandTSP fertilizers. Farm householdrice and maize productiondetermineearned of totalprofit. Simulationsubsidypolicy of increasingprices of fertilizersmake lowerrice andcorncost production, finally increase profitabilityof rice, cornandtotalprofits of farm household.

  1. EKSPLORASI CENDAWAN ENDOFIT DARI TANAMAN PADI SEBAGAI AGENS PEMACU PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN (The Exploration of Endophytic Fungi from Oryza sativa as Plant Growth Promoting Agents)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilia, Weni; Hayati, Islah; Ristyadi, Dwi

    2013-01-01

    Endophityc fungi have been successfully isolated from Oryza sativa atLaboratory of Plant Disease, Agriculture Faculty University of Jambi. Theaim of this research was to get endophityc fungi from Oryza sativa. Therewere three (3) candidates of endophityc fungi that have been successfullyisolated. Pathogenosity test which was done showed that all of fungi wereendophityc fungi. Those fungi were identified as endophityc fungi due to theseed of paddy could growth normally in pure culture of endop...

  2. Sifat Kimia Tanah Dan Kesesuaian Lahan Pada Masing-masing Tipologi Lahan Rawa Lebak Untuk Budidaya Tanaman Padi, Kasus Di Desa Tanjung Elai, Ogan Komering Ilir

    OpenAIRE

    Waluyo, Waluyo; Djamhari, Sudaryanto

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted in the village of Tanjung Alai, District of Padang Sira Island Komering Ogan Ilir district of South Sumatra with an area of 100 ha. This study aims to determine the soil chemical properties and suitability of land in each valley swamp land typology. Result interpretation and field observation and analysis of soil samples, the soil in the study area can be categorized as follows: 1) Typic Haplosaprists; saprik, shallow, drainage is blocked, flat pH 4.6, covering 13.5 hectare...

  3. SIFAT KIMIA TANAH DAN KESESUAIAN LAHAN PADA MASING-MASING TIPOLOGI LAHAN RAWA LEBAK UNTUK BUDIDAYA TANAMAN PADI, KASUS DI DESA TANJUNG ELAI, OGAN KOMERING ILIR

    OpenAIRE

    Waluyo, Waluyo; Djamhari, Sudaryanto

    2013-01-01

    Research conducted in the village of Tanjung Alai, District of Padang Sira Island Komering Ogan Ilir district of South Sumatra with an area of 100 ha. This study aims to determine the soil chemical properties and suitability of land in each valley swamp land typology. Result interpretation and field observation and analysis of soil samples, the soil in the study area can be categorized as follows: 1) Typic Haplosaprists; saprik, shallow, drainage is blocked, flat pH 4.6, covering 13.5 hectare...

  4. PENGURANGAN KADAR ASAM LEMAK BEBAS (FREE FATTY ACID DAN WARNA DARI MINYAK GORENG BEKAS DENGAN PROSES ADSORPSI MENGGUNAKAN CAMPURAN SERABUT KELAPA DAN SEKAM PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairul Irawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oils that used frequently will be destructed the physical and chemical of its composition and structure. The treatment of waste cooking oil is challenging due to the pressure of undesirable component such as FFA and colour degradation. This research aims are investigated the ability of mixed adsorbent from rice husk and coir coconut fiber to reduce FFA and colour of waste cooking oil. The adsorbent was activated with H3PO4 1 M. This adsorben use about 5, 10, and 20% of weight waste cooking oil with composition mixing adsorbent of rice husk and coir coconut fiber 30:70 ; 70:30 ; 50:50 ; 100:0 and 0:100 have prepared. Adsorben put into beaker glass of waste cooking oil then batch adsorption proccess was going on about 1 hour use heater and magnetic stirrer with mixing speed 100 rpm and temperature 80oC, then filtered and analyzed in order of FFA, colour, density, and water content. As the result, the best dose adsorben for maximum reduce FFA was 20% of weight waste cooking oil with composition mixing adsorbent of rice husk and coir coconut fiber 30:70 which gave FFA was 0,294% and value of colour was 295 PtCo.The effectivity reduce for FFA was 57,07% and value of colour was 37,04%.

  5. Pemanfaatan Tithonia Diversifolia pada Tanah Sawah yang Dipupuk P Secara Starter terhadap Produksi serta Serapan Hara N, P, dan K Tanaman Padi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusnidar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The research of Tithonia diversifolia utilization in the paddy soil that was fertilized P-starter on yield and N, P, K uptake on rice crop, has been conducted from August to December 2005. The objective of this research was to determine an interaction between P-starter levels, and tithonia levels on production and N, P, K element uptake of rice crop. The research was pot experiment in the green house in factorial design 4 x 4. First factor was 4 levels of tithonia with reduce dosage fertilizer applied (T0 = 0 t ha-1 of tithonia + 200 kg ha-1 of urea + 75 kg ha-1 of KCl ; T1= 2,5 t ha-1 of tithonia+ 150 kg ha-1 of urea , without KCl; T2 = 5,0 ton ha-1 of tithonia+ 100 kg ha-1 of urea , without KCl; dan T3 = 7,5 t ha-1 of tithonia + 50 kg ha-1 of urea, without KCl. The second factor was 4 levels of P-starter (0, 2, 4, and 6 kg P ha-1. The result showed that combination of T3 treatment and 2-4 kg P-starter ha-1 increased the grain yield 20,51-21,08 g pot-1 (18,65-19,21 %. Effect of T3 treatment was not significantly differences with T2 treatment on the grain yield. The best interaction was T3 treatment on N and K uptake (0,84 g pot-1 for N, dan 0,82 g pot-1 for K.

  6. Pengaruh Pemberian Kompos Jerami Dan Pupuk Sp-36 Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Terhadap Perubahan Sifat Kimia Serta Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Padi (Oriza Sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakari, Herlina Eka; Fauzi, Fauzi; Hanum, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of rice straw compost and the application ofphosphorus fertilizer of SP-36 on chemical characteristic of acid sulphate soils, rice growth andproduction (Oryza sativa L). This research was conducted in greenhouse agricultural departments,Universities Northen Sumatera, Medan. This study used a randomized block design factorial, with2 factors : factor 1 : rice straw compost treatment (J) wich consist of : J0 = 0 ton ha-1(0 g straw/pot); J1 =...

  7. Pengaruh Pemberian Kompos Jerami Dan Pupuk Sp-36 Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Terhadap Perubahan Sifat Kimia Serta Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Padi (Oryza Sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakari, Herlina Eka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of rice straw compost and the application of phosphorus fertilizer of SP-36 on chemical characteristic of acid sulphate soils, rice growth and production (Oryza sativa L). This study used a randomized block design factorial, with 2 factors : factor 1 : rice straw compost treatment (J) wich consist of : J0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0 g straw/pot) ; J1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g straw/pot); J2 = 20 ton ha-1 (80 g straw /pot); J3 = 30 ton ha-1 ...

  8. Kompetisi Antara Ekotipe Echinochloa Crus-galli Pada Beberapa Tingkat Populasi Dengan Padi Sawah (Competition of Echinochloa Crus-galli Ecotypes at Several Populations Against Lowland Rice)

    OpenAIRE

    Guntoro, Dwi; Chozin, Muhamad Achmad; Santosa, Edi; Tjitrosemito, Soekisman; Burhan, Abdul Harris

    2009-01-01

    Echinochloa crus-galli is a major weed in paddy field that reduces rice yield. The objective of the research was to study the effect of E. crus-galli ecotypes and populations on rice growth and production. The research was conducted in a green house using split plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of three E. crus-galli ecotypes i.e ecotype from Karawang, Cikampek, and Sukabumi. E. crus-galli population as sub plot consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 E. crus-galli per po...

  9. Kajian Sifat Kimia Tanah, Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Padi Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Akibat Pemberian Kompos Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Dan Pupuk Sp-36

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Sri Wahyuni; Fauzi, Fauzi; Purba, Marpaung

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of empty palm oil bunch compost (EPOBC) andthe application of phosphorus fertilizer of SP-36 on chemical characteristic of acid sulphate soils,rice growth and production (Oryza sativa L.). This study used a randomized block design factorial,with 2 factors: factor 1: compost EPOBC treatment (B) which consist of: B0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0g EPOBC/pot) ; B1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g EPOBC/pot); B2 = 20 ton ha-1 (80 g EPOBC/pot);B3 = 30 ton ha-1 (120 g EPOB...

  10. Kajian Sifat Kimia Tanah, Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Padi (Oryiza sativa L.) Pada Tanah Sulfat Masam Potensial Akibat Pemberian Kompos Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit dan Pupuk SP-36

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Sri Wahyuni

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to compost give effect empty palm bunch studies and fertilizer SP-36 to improve chemistry characteristic, growing and rice production (Oryza sativa L.) in acidic sulfate soil. This research was conducted in greenhouse agricultural departments, universities northern Sumatra, Medan. This study used a randomized block design (RAK) factorial, with 2 factors: factor 1: compost TKS treatment factor (B) are : B0 = 0 ton ha-1 (0 g TKS/pot) ; B1 = 10 ton ha-1 (40 g TKS/pot); B2 = 20...

  11. RESPON MASYARAKAT DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN DARI PROGRAM SL-PTT PADI NON HIBRIDA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI SELATAN PROVINSI KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Normanita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the productivity of rice through the approach of Sekolah Lapang Pengelolaan Tanaman Terpadu (SL-PTT is one of the strategies that is expected to provide a greater contribution to the national rice production. Based on the results of research, the public response to the program of SL-PTT Non Hybrid Rice in Hulu Sungai Selatan was in the high category (85.71%. Factors affecting the public response to the program were the information, the field guides, the assistance component whereas those having no effects to the public response were the education, the practice, and the application of PTT. The environmental impact of the program of SLPTT Non Hybrid Rice was positive in the economic aspect, which could create welfare for farmers implementing the program. The Social aspect giving a positve impact was  through the transmission of technology adoption that could be applied to non-rice farmers who lived around the area of SL-PTT. The negative impact was the social jealousy among the people who could all not get involved in the program of SL-PTT Non Hybrid Rice.

  12. Pendugaan Gen Bph1, Bph2, Bph3, Dan Bph4 Pada Galur-galur Padi Terpilih Tahan Hama Wereng Batang Cokelat (Nilaparvata Lugens[Stål])

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanti, Diani; Utami, Dwinita W

    2014-01-01

    Pests are major constraints to increasingrice production and brown planthoppers/BPH (Nilaparvatalugens [Stål]) is one of the major pests of rice plant.Resistance cultivar is one of the strategies for BPHmanagement. The objective of this research was to analyzethe Bph1, bph2, Bph3, and bph4 gene existence on theselected rice lines using the molecular markers. Thephenotype of the rice lines were tested based on theirresponse to BPH population collected from West Java andCental Java. Molecular m...

  13. KAJIAN ADSORPSI ION LOGAM Cr(VI OLEH ADSORBEN KOMBINASI ARANG AKTIF SEKAM PADI DAN ZEOLIT MENGGUNAKAN METODE SOLID-PHASE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY (SPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyo Saputro

    2016-10-01

      This study aims to study the use of activated rice husk charcoal and zeolite as combination adsorbents to adsorb Cr(VI metal ions; the effect of the combination adsorbents of activated rice husk charcoal and zeolite’s compositions to adsorb Cr(VI metal ions; and the sensitivity of solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS as a method to determine the reduced levels of Cr(VI metal ions in the level of 15μ"> g/L. The activated rice husk charcoal used were obtained through the activation process by soaking in a solution of ZnCl2 10% while the zeolite with a solution of H2SO4 10%. The contacting process of the adsorbents with Cr(VI metal ions was done by varying the compositions of the activated rice husk charcoal and zeolite adsorbent, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 2:1. The data analysis of the Cr(VI level used solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS method. Characterization of activated rice husk charcoal and zeolite used FTIR. The results showed that: (1 a combination of activated rice husk charcoal and zeolite can be used as adsorbent to adsorb Cr(VI metal ions with the adsorption capacity was 0,28 15μ"> g/g; (2 the optimum composition of adsorbents was 1:2 with the percentage of absorption was 40,99%; (3 solid-phase spectrophotometry (SPS is a sensitive method to determine the reduced levels of Cr(VI in the level of 15μ"> g/L with the limit of detection (LOD was 0,021 15μ"> g/L.   Keywords: adsorption, Cr(VI,  activated  rice husk charcoal,  zeolite, solid-phase spectrophotometry

  14. Dampak Sebelum dan Setelah Penerapan Sekolah Lapang Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (SLPHT) Terhadap Biaya Produksi, Produksi dan Pendapatan Petani Padi Sawah Di Kabupaten SerdangBedagai

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Khoirul Basri

    2012-01-01

    The wisdom of Instruction of President No. 3 / 1986 about the Offense of 53 types of Insecticide for Pest Controlling, afterward it becomes the historical pillar for applying the Unity Pest Controlling to the rice plants. Concepts of the Unity Pest Controlling is a suitable choice to answer that dilemma. This research is purposed to analyse and to examine the different rate of Cost of Production, Production and Income of ricefield farmers in the Regency of Serdang Bedagai before and after t...

  15. UJI ADAPTASI VARIETAS UNGGUL DAN GALUR HARAPAN PADI UMUR SANGAT GENJAH PADA MUSIM KEMARAU DAN MUSIM HUJAN DI KABUPATEN SRAGEN, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Suhendrata

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the Village Gondang, Sragen Regency Central Java in the dry season (June-October 2009 and in the wet season (October 2009 - January 2010. The design of the study using a randomized block design with six replication. Treatments consisted of two rice varieties and three rice elite lines very short maturity i.e. varieties Silugonggo, Inpari 1 and rice elite lines OM 1490, OM 2395 and B11283. The results of the study indicated that (i harvesting of OM 1490 and OM 2395 in the wet season were shortern than harvest age in the dry season, while harvesting a variety Silugonggo and Inpari 1 in the wet season were longer than the harvesting in the dry season, (ii Silugonggo, Inpari 1 , OM 1490, OM 2395 and B11283 adaptive and productive planted in the irrigated lowland, especially in the dry and wet seasons. Productivity in the dry and in the wet seasons were Inpari 1 (9.2 and 8.4 t/ha, Silugonggo (9.3 and 8.2 t/ha, OM 1490 (9.5 and 8.1 t/ha, OM 2395 (8.9 and 7.7 t/ha and B11283 in the wet season (8.1 t/ha dried grain, (iii productivity in the dry season were higher than in the wet season. The average productivity was different between that in the dry and in the wet season were Silugonggo 1.1 t/ha, Inpari 1 0.8 t/ha, OM 1490 1.4 t/ha, and OM 2395 1.2 t/ha dried grain or decreased of productivity between 8.70 -14.74%, and (iv Inpari 1 and OM 1490 more preferred of the farmers compared Silugonggo and OM 2395

  16. OPTIMASI SUHU REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI PADA MINYAK JERAMI PADI (ORYZA SATIVA L. MENJADI BIODIESEL DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS CAO DARI KULIT TELUR AYAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasik Sinta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research on optimization of transesterification temperature for production of biodiesel from rice straw oil (Oryza sativa L. using CaO catalyst derived from the chicken egg skin has been conducted. Production of biodiesel was conducted at varied temperatures, namely 30oC, 40oC, 50oC, 60oC and 70oC. The fatty acid compositions of the transesterification products were determined by using GC-MS and the physical and chemical characteristics were determined using SNI Methods 04-7182-2006. The AAS result suggested that the chicken egg skin contained 91.41% CaO. The optimum transesterification temperature was 60oC producing 90,8405% methyl ester. The results of GC-MS showed that the highest percentage of fatty acid was methyl oleic (44.56%.

  17. PEMBANGUNAN DAN KONFLIK SOSIAL (Studi Etnografi Implementasi Program Upaya Khusus Peningkatan Produksi Padi, Jagung, dan Kedelai di Kabupaten Bondowoso-Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamyana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to answer the question raised is: describing the Program Implementation Specialty Effort Increasing Production of Rice, Corn and Soybeans (UPSUS PAJALE in Kabupaten Bondowoso is understood by the general public; describe the impact and the benefits arising from program UPSUS PAJALE perceived by the public; describe whether UPSUS PAJALE program activities have lead to social conflicts among people in Bondowoso. To realize the goal of the research, the research method used is an ethnographic approach, which is encapsulated in frames of qualitative research. Location research is purposive in Kabupaten in East Java. Data collection technique combines the study of documents and field study through interviews, observation, and observation participate. The results showed that the implementation of UPSUS Pajale illustrates that the elite, has impacted quite good and positive response to the implementation of the program UPSUS, but has not touched the marginalized people and communities powerless level structure of the lowest.

  18. PENGURANGAN KADAR ASAM LEMAK BEBAS (FREE FATTY ACID) DAN WARNA DARI MINYAK GORENG BEKAS DENGAN PROSES ADSORPSI MENGGUNAKAN CAMPURAN SERABUT KELAPA DAN SEKAM PADI

    OpenAIRE

    Chairul Irawan; Tiara Nur Awalia; Sherly Uthami W.P.H

    2013-01-01

    Cooking oils that used frequently will be destructed the physical and chemical of its composition and structure. The treatment of waste cooking oil is challenging due to the pressure of undesirable component such as FFA and colour degradation. This research aims are investigated the ability of mixed adsorbent from rice husk and coir coconut fiber to reduce FFA and colour of waste cooking oil. The adsorbent was activated with H3PO4 1 M. This adsorben use about 5, 10, and 20% of weight was...

  19. Pelaksanaan Ritual Usahatani Padi Sawah pada Subak Kawasan Perkotaan dan Kawasan Perdesaan Kasus: Subak Ayung, Desa Buduk, Kecamatan Mengwi dan Subak Sulangai, Desa Sulangai, Kecamatan Petang, Kabupaten Badung

    OpenAIRE

    ARTAJAYA, DEWA PUTU; SUTJIPTA, I NYOMAN; SUARDI, I DEWA PUTU OKA

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of Rice Farming Ritual at Subak of Urban and Rural Areas Case: Subak Ayung at BudukVillage Mengwi District and Subak Sulangai at Sulangai Village District of Petang Badung RegencyCultural diversity provides vivid colors in every area as a tradition that characterizes each tribe in Indonesia. Bali historically has had a tradition, culture, and religious commitment in the form of an organization called Subak. The belief of Subak members in conceiving land as Mother Nature, water ...

  20. Morphological variation of Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae associated with different aphid hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya M. Villegas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitoids are frequently used in biological control due to the fact that they are considered host specific and highly efficient at attacking their hosts. As they spend a significant part of their life cycle within their hosts, feeding habits and life history of their host can promote specialization via host-race formation (sequential radiation. The specialized host races from different hosts can vary morphologically, behaviorally and genetically. However, these variations are sometimes inconspicuous and require more powerful tools in order to detect variation such as geometric morphometrics analysis. Methods We examined Aphidius ervi, an important introduced biological control agent in Chile associated with a great number of aphid species, which are exploiting different plant hosts and habitats. Several combinations (biotypes of parasitoids with various aphid/host plant combinations were analyzed in order to obtain measures of forewing shape and size. To show the differences among defined biotypes, we chose 13 specific landmarks on each individual parasitoid wing. The analysis of allometric variation calculated in wing shape and size over centroid size (CS, revealed the allometric changes among biotypes collected from different hosts. To show all differences in shape of forewings, we made seven biotype pairs using an outline-based geometric morphometrics comparison. Results The biotype A. pis_pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum on pea was the extreme wing size in this study compared to the other analyzed biotypes. Aphid hosts have a significant influence in the morphological differentiation of the parasitoid forewing, splitting biotypes in two groups. The first group consisted of biotypes connected with Acyrthosiphon pisum on legumes, while the second group is composed of biotypes connected with aphids attacking cereals, with the exception of the R. pad_wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi on wheat biotype. There was no significant effect of plant

  1. Luta biológica clássica com Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae no combate à Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae em jacarandá Biological control with Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae to control Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae on blue jacaranda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Félix

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os jacarandás e várias plantas ornamentais que ornamentam passeios e áreas ajardinadas da cidade do Funchal encontram-se infestados pela cochonilha Orthezia insignis Browne. Para combater esta praga foi importada do Quénia, uma joaninha, Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch. Este predador é específico de O. insignis e tem sido utilizado, com sucesso em programas de luta biológica, em vários países de África, no Peru, Hawai e na Ilha de Santa Helena. Na Ilha da Madeira, desde Julho de 2002, H. pantherina está a ser criado em laboratório e largado em jacarandás infestados com o objectivo de combater a cochonilha-dojacarandá através da luta biológica clássica. Referem-se as largadas de H. pantherina e o sistema de monitorização adoptado para verificar a aclimatação do predador.The Jacaranda trees and other ornamental plants used in sidewalks and gardenlike areas of sidewalks and other gardened areas of the downton Capital city of Madeira Island (Funchal, are infested by the Jacaranda or Lantana Bug, Orthezia insignis Browne. A ladybird, Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch, was imported from Kenya to control this pest. This ladybird is a specific predator of O. insignis and it has been used, successfully in biological control programs, in several countries of Africa, in Peru, Hawaii and in Santa Helena Island. In Madeira Island, H. pantherina is being reared in laboratory and released into infested jacarandas since July 2002, in a classical biological control way. The releasing of H. pantherina is described in detail as well as the adopted monitoring system to verify its acclimation.

  2. Membracidos de Colombia - I. Revisión parcial de las especies del género Alchisme Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Membracidae: Hoplophorioninae Membracidos de Colombia - I. Revisión parcial de las especies del género Alchisme Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Membracidae: Hoplophorioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Mejía Ruben

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el género Alchisme Kirkaldy. De las diecinueve especies anotadas por Metcalf (1965 no se obtuvieron especímenes de A. apicalis (Walker, A. costaricensis Goding, A. elevata Goding, A. laticornis Funkhouser, A. pinguicornisFunkhouser, A. recurva (Stäl, A. spinosa Funkhouser y A. truncaticornis (Germar. Se incluyen las descripciones originales de estas especies y tentativamente se localizan en la clave presentada. Se redescriben: A. bos (Fairmaire, A. fastidiosa (Fairmaire, A. grossa (Fairmaire, A. inermis (Fairmaire, A. nigrocarinata (Fairmaire, A. rubrocostata (Spinola, A. turrita (Germar, A. ustulata (Fairmaire, A. virescens (Fairmaire y A. nigrocarinata var. tridentata (Fairmaire, para la cual se usa su combinación original A. tridentata (Fairmaire. Se sinonimizóa A. projecta Funkhouser en favor de A. bos (Fairmaire.Se ilustran las principales características del pronoto y de los genitales de los machos; se observaron y se obtuvieron fotografías de los edeagos en un microscopio electrónico "rastreador" (Scanning Electro Microscope, las cualesse incluyen como parte de las ilustraciones. Se analizó la distribución geográfica del género y se ilustró por medio de mapas.The genus Alchisme Kirkaldy was revised. From nineteen species listed by Metcalf (1965 not specimens were obtained of eight of them. Original descriptions of these species are included and tentatively are localized in the key.  A redescription is given for the species A. bos (Fairmaire, A. fastidiosa (Fairmaire, A. grossa (Fairmaire, A. inermis (Fairmaire, A. nigrocarinata (Fairmaire, A. rubrocostata (Spinola, A. turrita (Germar, A. ustulata (Fairmaire, A. virescens (Fairmaire y A. nigrocarinata var. tridentata (Fairmaire, for which was used the original combination A. tridentata (Fairmaire. A. projecta Funkhouser was synonymized in A. bos (Fairmaire. The main pronotum characters and male genitalia are illustred; Scanning Electro Microscope pictures of the aedeagus of the insects were observed and obtained and are included as part of the illustrations. Geographic distributionsof the genus was analized and maps were prepared.

  3. Efecto de la configuración de lotes de gramíneas invernales sobre poblaciones de Delphacidae (Insecta: Homoptera en dispersión The effect of the configuration of winter grass plots on dispersing populations of Delphacidae (Insecta: Homoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bruno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las características del paisaje afectan la distribución y abundancia de los insectos dentro y entre los lotes de cultivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de los elementos del paisaje agrícola sobre la abundancia de los individuos en dispersión de las especies de Delphacidae. Éstas son vectores de virus patogénicos que transmiten enfermedades de importancia económica para la producción agropecuaria. El estudio se realizó en el área central de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina; los insectos fueron capturados con trampas pegajosas ubicadas dentro de parches de hospedadores. Las métricas del paisaje analizadas fueron: área del parche, índice de proximidad media y porcentaje del paisaje cubierto por parches de una clase de hospedador. La abundancia de Delphacodes kuscheli tuvo relación positiva con el área de los parches de pasturas de invierno. El índice de proximidad media tuvo relación positiva con las abundancias de D. kuscheli y D . balboae en los parches de pasturas de invierno y el porcentaje del paisaje cubierto con parches de pasturas de invierno se relacionó positivamente con las abundancias de D. kuscheli, D. balboae y D. haywardi. Las abundancias de Toya propincua no mostraron relación con ninguna de las métricas del paisaje analizadas.Landscape configuration can affect the distribution and abundance of insect species. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of landscape elements configuration on the abundance of dispersing individuals of Delphacidae species. Delphacid species are important vectors of pathogenic viruses causing diseases of economic importance on grain production. The study was performed in the central area of Córdoba Province, Argentina; the insects were collected with sticky traps placed in plant host patches. The landscape metrics estimated were: host patch area, Mean Proximity Index (MPI and the Percentage of Landscape occupied (PLAND by host patches of the same class. The abundance of Delphacodes kuscheli showed a positive relationship with patch area of the winter pastures. There was a positive relationship between Mean Proximity Index of winter pastures patches and D. kuscheli and D . balboae abundances. The Percentage of Landscape occupied by the winter pastures patches also showed a positive relationship with Delphacodes kuscheli, Delphacodes balboae and Delphacodes haywardi abundances. Finally we found no relationship between Toya propinqua abundance and any of the landscape metrics analyzed in this work. These results show that landscape configuration has a different effect on the dispersing population of the different species of Delphacidae.

  4. Perfil químico y biológico de aceites esenciales de plantas aromáticas de interés agro-industrial en Castilla-La Mancha (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana, O.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L. are presented. The essential oils have been analysed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and 61 compounds were identified, 23 of which represented more than 1% of the essential oil. The 1,8 cineole (16-23% appeared as the main compound of Salvia sp. essential oils. The high content of α-thujone was characteristic in S. officinalis oil. Remarkable concentrations of linalool (30-33%, camphor (5-17% and linalyl acetate (9-28% were detected in Lavandula sp. oils while carvacrol (21.6% and p-cimene (23.7% were the most abundant compounds in T. vulgaris oil. Biological characterization was based on their bioplaguicide activity. The essential oils studied had strong antifeedant effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd., Myzus persicae Sulzer and Rhopalosiphum padi L., phytotoxic activity against Lactuca sativa L. and Lolium perenne L. and also exhibited high antifungal activity against Fusarium sp. Oils from T. vulgaris and L. latifolia showed the highest levels of bioactivity against all target species. These results provide an added-value to the essential oils of aromatic plants of agro-industrial interest for its potential use in the development of natural agrochemicals.

    En este trabajo se presenta el estudio químico y biológico de los aceites esenciales de Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. y Thymus vulgaris L. El estudio químico por cromatografía de gases acoplada a

  5. Understanding biological control of greenhouse whitefly with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa : from individual behaviour to population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van H.J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae), is a very common, highly polyphagous pest insect all over the world. Biological control of whiteflies with the parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) was already applied in the 1920s in

  6. Intraguild predation by the generalist predator Orius majusculus on the parasitoid Encarsia formosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrabi, Fariba; Enkegaard, Annie; Shishehbor, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    Intraguild predation of Orius majusculus (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) on Encarsia formosa (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), both natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied under laboratory conditions. The experiments quantified prey consumption b...

  7. Occurrence of Diaretiella rapae (Mc´Intosh, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae Parasitising Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach, 1843 and Brevicoryne brassicae (L. 1758 (Homoptera: Aphididae in Brassica napus in Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussury Rosilda Mara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Diaretiella rapae parasitising Lipaphis erysimi and Brevicoryne brassicae in canola field (Brassica napus was evaluated through two sample methods in Dourados-MS. The methods, used weekly, were: entomologic sweep net and plants sacking. The aphids population was observed from initial to the senescence plant development. Aphids were more abundant during the flowering phase, and they were usually located in the stems of the inflorescence and development fruits. In this phase the largest parasitism level for D. rapae (89,7% occurred. The sample method with a sweep net captured significantly (t=4,484, P <= 0,01 more D. rapae while sacking method captured more parasitise aphids (t=2,199 with P <= 0,05 and active aphids (t=3,513, P <= 0,01.

  8. 贵州斑大叶蝉属三新种(同翅目:大叶蝉科)%THREE NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS ANATKINA FROM GUIZHOU PROVINCE,CHINA(HOMOPTERA:CICADELLIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茂发; 李子忠

    2001-01-01

    In this paper three new species of the genus Anatkina are described from Guizhou,China.All the type specimens are deposited in the Agricultural College of Guizhou University. 1 Anatkina livimacula sp.nov. (Figs.1-7)   Length(incl.teg.):♂ 9.6?mm,♀9.0-9.3?mm.   This species resembles A.xanthomacula Kuoh in appearance,but can be distinguished from the latter by its crown with three distinct black markings;pronotum with four or two brown spots near anterior margin and a transverse black band in posterior portion;scutellum uniform black;forewing red with a blue marking on claval base and a pink marking in middle part of costal area;the shape of male pygofer process,subgenital plate,aedeagus and style also distinctly different.   Holotype ♂,Guizhou:Maolan(25°30′N,108°10′E),30 May 1998,collected by LI Zi-Zhong.Paratype 1♀,same location as holotype,18 May 1995,by CHEN Xiang-Sheng;1♀,Guizhou:Ziyun,18 Jul. 1988,by WEI Lian-Meng. 2 Anatkina rubipennis sp.nov. (Figs.8-16)   Length (incl.teg.):♂ 13.2?mm.   This species is similar to A.nigriventris Li,but can be easily distinguished from the latter by the pronotum black-brown without distinct black spots;forewing dark red with a black spot in base of clavus and confluent dark markings bordering base of apical cells;the end of male paraphysis furcate,pygofer process smooth,subgenital plate curved abruptly dorsad with macrosetae not uniseriate.   Holotype ♂,Guizhou:Maolan (25°30′N,108°10′E),19 May 1995,collected by CHEN Xiang-Sheng. 3 Anatkina bistriata sp.nov. (Figs.17-25)   Length (incl.teg.):♂10.0?mm-10.6?mm,♀10.0?mm.   This species has unique colour pattern on head and pronotum,forewing black with two red stripes in basal half,which are different from those of any other species of the genus.   Holotype ♂,Guizhou:Maolan(25°30′N,108°10′E),21 May 1995,by CHEN Xiang-Sheng.Paratypes 2 ♂♂,1♀,same data as holotype.%记述斑大叶蝉属Anatkina Young 3新种,即蓝斑大叶蝉A.livimacula sp.nov.;红翅斑大叶蝉A.rubipennis sp.nov.;双条斑大叶蝉A.bistriata sp.nov.,模式标本保存在贵州大学农学院。

  9. Effectiveness of two insect growth regulators against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their impact on population densities of arthropod predators in cotton in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogi, Muhammad D; Sarfraz, Rana M; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Arif, Muhammad J; Keddie, Andrew B; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2006-10-01

    Field efficacies of two insect growth regulators (IGRs) at two recommended application rates, buprofezin at 370 and 555 g AI ha(-1) and lufenuron at 37 and 49 g AI ha(-1), were determined against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), in experimental plots of cotton at the Directorate of Cotton Research, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Adverse effects of the IGRs on populations of associated arthropod predators, namely geocorids, chrysopids, coccinellids, formicids and arachnids, were also assessed. Both IGRs significantly reduced populations of B. tabaci at each application rate 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, and higher doses were more effective than lower doses. Buprofezin was not effective against H. armigera at any tested dose for any time of treatment in any spray. Lufenuron applied at 37 and 49 g AI ha(-1) effectively suppressed H. armigera populations, resulting in significant reductions in crop damage. At lower doses, both IGRs appeared safe to predator populations, which did not differ significantly in IGR-treated versus untreated control plots. Population densities of formicids and coccinellids were significantly lower at high concentrations of both IGRs in treatment plots, possibly as a result of reduced prey availability. The potential role of buprofezin and lufenuron for control of B. tabaci and H. armigera in a spray programme and the likelihood of direct toxic effects of IGRs on predatory fauna of cotton are discussed.

  10. Effect of an alternate weed host, hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, on the biology of the two most important potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) vectors, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Aphididae: Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Alvarez, Juan M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Novy, Richard G

    2008-04-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides (Sendtner), is a ubiquitous weed in potato agro-ecosystems and nonagricultural lands of southeastern Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. This weed increases the complexity of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polervirus)-potato pathosystem by serving as aphid and virus reservoir. Previous field studies showed higher densities of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), the two most important vectors of PLRV, on S. sarrachoides compared with potato plants in the same fields. Some of the S. sarrachoides plants sampled in these surveys tested positive for PLRV. Viral infections can alter the physiology of plant hosts and aphid performance on such plants. To understand better the potential effects of S. sarrachoides on the PLRV-potato-aphid pathosystem, the life histories of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae were compared on virus-free and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato. Individual nymphs of each aphid species were held in clip cages on plants from each treatment to monitor their development, survival, and reproductive output. Nymphal survival for both aphids across plant species was higher on S. sarrachoides than on potato, and, within plant species, it was higher on PLRV-infected plants than on noninfected plants. With a few exceptions, similar patterns occurred for fecundity, reproductive periods, adult longevity, and intrinsic rate of increase. The enhanced performance of aphids on S. sarrachoides and on PLRV-infected plants could alter the vector population dynamics and thus the PLRV-disease epidemiology in fields infested with this weed.

  11. KINETIKA FERMENTASI SELULOSA MURNI OLEH Trichoderma reesi QM 9414 MENJADI GLUKOSA DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA JERAMI PADI BEBAS LIGNIN [Kinetics of Pure Cellulose Fermentation by Trichoderma Reesei QM 9414 to Glucose and Its Application of on Lignin Free Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iyan Sofyan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were: 1 to determine aeration rate and substrate concentration of pure cellulose to produce maximum glucose by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 at 30 oC, and agitation 150 rpm; 2 to study the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 to glucose and its implication upon fermentation of the lignin free rice straw. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized complete design in three times replication. Treatments consisted of three levels of aeration (1,00 vvm; 1,5 vvm; 2,0 vvm and three levels of substrate concentration (0,75 ; 1,00 ; 1,25 % w/v. The results showed that at the exponential phase the average specific growth of Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 was 0,05374 hour-1, the maximum glucose product concentration of pure cellulose was 0.1644 gL-1,and the oxygen transfer was 0,0328 mg L-1 hour-1. According to t-test, the kinetics of pure cellulose fermentation model just the same as the lignin free rice straw fermentation.The enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 in pure cellulose fermentation media followed the Michaelis-Menten model. The enzyme kinetic parameters were the maximum growth rate was 37x10-3 hour-1 and Michaelis-Menten constant was ½ maximum μ =17,5x10-3 hour-1. The volumetric oxygen transfer (KLa using rice straw was 0,0337 mg.hour-1. The value of KLa could be used for conversion from bioreactor at laboratory scale to commercial scale design.

  12. Pengaruh pemberian abu sekam padi sebagai bahan desikan pada penyimpanan benih terhadap daya tumbuh dan pertumbuhan bibit kakao (The effects of rice husk ash as desiccation material of seed storage on viability and cocoa seedling growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Rahardjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk ash as desiccation material can be used to maintain seed viability in storage through its ability to absorb humidity during its storage. High relative humidity caused seed moisture content to increase so the respiration rate of seed increases and uses faster food stock. Finally the viability of seed is lost. A research on use of rice husk ash as desiccation material of cocoa seed storage was conducted in Agronomy Laboratory and Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Completely Randomized Design was used in this research with treatment of rice husk ash application on cocoa seed as follows: 0 g/100 seeds (A, 5 g/100 seeds (B, 10 g/100 seeds (C, 15 g/100 seeds (D, and 20 g/100 seeds (E. This experiment used four replications. Cocoa seeds were stored in plastic bag within carton box in ambient temperature. The storage periods were 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and parameters of observation consisted of electrical conductivity of dipped water of cocoa seeds, percentage of seed germination, percentage of seed emergence, early growth parameters at one month old including seedlings height of seedling, diameter, leaf number, root length, and dry weight. The result of the experiment showed that the use of rice husk ash at 5-10 g/100 seeds could maintain electrical conductivity of dipped water at low level, percentage of seed germination at 99-100 % and percentage of seed emergence at 79-91% after two weeks storage. The use of rice husk ash at 5-10 g/100 seeds after two weeks storage affected height of cacao seedling, but did not affected stem diameters, leaf numbers, root lengths, and dry weights

  13. Pengaruh Penggunaan Fungisida Sintetis Dan Trichoderma SP. Secara Tunggal Atau Gabungan Terhadap Penyakit Hawar Pelepah Daun Padi Effect of Synthetic Fungicidal Application Alone or Mixed with Trichoderma SP. on Sheat Blight of Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Pambudi; Soesanto, Loekas; Wachjadi, Muljo

    2005-01-01

    This research aimed at knowing the application effect of synthetic fungicide tebuconazole 25% alone or mixed with Trichoderma sp. on sheath blight disease and rice yield. The research was carried out at the Plant Disease Laboratory and the experimental field, the Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Jenderal Soedirman. Split Plot Design was used with Trichoderma sp. as main factor consisted of without and with antagonistic Trichoderma sp. applied on rice at 15, 30, and 45 and 55 days aft...

  14. Crop-associated virus reduces the rooting depth of non-crop perennial native grass more than non-crop-associated virus with known viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrom, Carolyn M; Bigelow, Patrick; Trębicki, Piotr; Busch, Anna K; Friel, Colleen; Cole, Ellen; Abdel-Azim, Heba; Phillippo, Colin; Alexander, Helen M

    2017-09-15

    As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus). The yellow dwarf virus (YDV) species in these two genera share genetic similarities in their 3'-ends, but diverge in the 5'-regions. Most notably, CYDVs encode a P0 viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) absent in BYDV-PAV. Because BYDV-PAV has been reported more frequently in annual cereals and CYDVs in perennial non-crop grasses, we examine the hypothesis that the viruses' genetic differences reflect different affinities for crop and non-crop hosts. Specifically, we ask (i) whether CYDVs might persist within and affect a native non-crop grass more strongly than BYDV-PAV, on the grounds that the polerovirus VSR could better moderate the defenses of a well-defended perennial, and (ii) whether the opposite pattern of effects might occur in a less defended annual crop. Because previous work found that the VSR of CYDV-RPS possessed greater silencing suppressor efficiency than that of CYDV-RPV, we further explored (iii) whether a novel grass-associated CYDV-RPS isolate would influence a native non-crop grass more strongly than a comparable CYDV-RPV isolate. In growth chamber studies, we found support for this hypothesis: only grass-associated CYDV-RPS stunted the shoots and crowns of Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), a perennial native North American prairie grass, whereas crop-associated BYDV-PAV (and coinfection with BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPS) most

  15. Potential role for MATER in cytoplasmic lattice formation in murine oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boram Kim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mater and Padi6 are maternal effect genes that are first expressed during oocyte growth and are required for embryonic development beyond the two-cell stage in the mouse. We have recently found that PADI6 localizes to, and is required for the formation of, abundant fibrillar Triton X-100 (Triton insoluble structures termed the oocyte cytoplasmic lattices (CPLs. Given their similar expression profiles and mutant mouse phenotypes, we have been testing the hypothesis that MATER also plays a role in CPL formation and/or function.Herein, we show that PADI6 and MATER co-localize throughout the oocyte cytoplasm following Triton extraction, suggesting that MATER co-localizes with PADI6 at the CPLs. Additionally, the solubility of PADI6 was dramatically increased in Mater(tm/tm oocytes following Triton extraction, suggesting that MATER is involved in CPL nucleation. This prediction is supported by transmission electron microscopic analysis of Mater(+/+ and Mater(tm/tm germinal vesicle stage oocytes which illustrated that volume fraction of CPLs was reduced by 90% in Mater(tm/tm oocytes compared to Mater(+/+ oocytes.Taken together, these results suggest that, similar to PADI6, MATER is also required for CPL formation. Given that PADI6 and MATER are essential for female fertility, these results not only strengthen the hypothesis that the lattices play a critical role in mediating events during the oocyte-to-embryo transition but also increase our understanding of the molecular nature of the CPLs.

  16. Valgustid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Tutvustatakse: põrandalamp "Lumo" (Marko Uibo), põrandalampide sari "Poeesia" (Jana Nõmm), padi-valgusti (Merle Lobjakas), keraamiline valgusti (Lauri Kilusk), laelampide sari "Valgusaasta" (Elize Hiiop), erinevate maade valgustid, mis on Eestis müügil

  17. CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING; POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustriayu Nalim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi cara memberantas vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus di sawah dengan ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia reticulata. Dalam penelitian ini terlihat bahwa dalam pelaksanaan program pemberantasan ini, partisipasi petani untuk mina padi dapat digalakkan melalui rapat kelompok tani. Program mina padi menye­diakan tempat hidup bagi ikan pemakan jentik. Rencana pelaksanaan program ini serta cara penggalakan   petani dibicarakan dalam makalah ini.

  18. Anterior atlantodental and posterior atlantodental intervals on plain radiography, multidetector CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Park, Dong Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ki Bo; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To determine the normal values of the anterior atlantodental interval (AADI) and posterior atlantodental interval (PADI) on plain radiography, multidetector CT (MDCT) and MRI, as well as the dural sac width and spinal cord diameter at the atlantoaxial joint level on MRI. In total, 60 subjects underwent plain radiography, MRI and MDCT. We obtained values for AADI and PADI on plain radiography, MDCT, and MRI, and for dural sac width and spinal cord diameter on MRI. Two radiologists independently measured each value and a consensus was reached. The average AADI was 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm on plain radiography, 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm on MDCT, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 mm on MRI. The average PADI was 20.6 +/- 2.4 mm on plain radiography, 18.0 +/- 2.1 mm on MDCT, and 17.7 +/- 1.9 mm on MRI. The dural sac width was 13.7 +/- 1.8 mm, and the spinal cord diameter was 7.8 +/- 0.7 mm. Interobserver agreement was 0.701-0.927 and intraobserver agreement was 0.681-0.937. AADI values obtained on MDCT are significantly lower than those obtained on plain radiography or MRI. PADI values obtained on plain radiography are significantly higher than those obtained on MDCT or MRI. The dural sac width is most closely correlated with PADI values on MDCT. PADI seems to be easier to measure, more relevant, and clinically useful than AADI.

  19. Anterior atlantodental and posterior atlantodental intervals on plain radiography, multidetector CT, and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Park, Dong Woo; Yoon, Ki Bo; Lee, Seung Hun; Joo, Kyung Bin

    2015-01-01

    To determine the normal values of the anterior atlantodental interval (AADI) and posterior atlantodental interval (PADI) on plain radiography, multidetector CT (MDCT) and MRI, as well as the dural sac width and spinal cord diameter at the atlantoaxial joint level on MRI. In total, 60 subjects underwent plain radiography, MRI and MDCT. We obtained values for AADI and PADI on plain radiography, MDCT, and MRI, and for dural sac width and spinal cord diameter on MRI. Two radiologists independently measured each value and a consensus was reached. The average AADI was 1.5 +/- 0.5 mm on plain radiography, 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm on MDCT, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 mm on MRI. The average PADI was 20.6 +/- 2.4 mm on plain radiography, 18.0 +/- 2.1 mm on MDCT, and 17.7 +/- 1.9 mm on MRI. The dural sac width was 13.7 +/- 1.8 mm, and the spinal cord diameter was 7.8 +/- 0.7 mm. Interobserver agreement was 0.701-0.927 and intraobserver agreement was 0.681-0.937. AADI values obtained on MDCT are significantly lower than those obtained on plain radiography or MRI. PADI values obtained on plain radiography are significantly higher than those obtained on MDCT or MRI. The dural sac width is most closely correlated with PADI values on MDCT. PADI seems to be easier to measure, more relevant, and clinically useful than AADI.

  20. [Family health and infant palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, Claudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2010-10-01

    This study discusses the creation of a new child palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. Eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients in the Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF) participated on the study. From those four were being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and the IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary care provided by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for it.

  1. [Family Health Program and children palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, Cláudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    This study discusses the creation of a new children palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. The study focused on eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients at Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF): four who are being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three who were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the Program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary cares taken by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for such.

  2. Previsual detection of two conifer-infesting adelgid species in North American forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Cook; Karen Humes; Ryan Hruska; Christopher Williams; Grant Fraley

    2010-01-01

    The balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae, and hemlock woolly adelgid, A. tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae), are invasive pests of coniferous forests in both the Eastern and Western United States. Balsam woolly adelgid is capable of attacking and killing native North American firs, with Fraser fir (Abies fraseri...

  3. Characterizing pathways of invasion using Sternorryhncha on imported plant material in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy T. Work

    2011-01-01

    Non-indigenous Homoptera, mainly scales, aphids, and mealy bugs, intercepted on plants destined for cultivation represent an elevated risk for the establishment of invasive insects in North America. These insects [grouped as the suborder Sternorrhyncha] are often parthenogenic and are imported on viable host plants.

  4. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science - Vol 13, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids Encarcia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on horticultural plants in ... Nutrient release patterns of kola pod husk and pacesetter grade b fertilizer during incubation in the laboratory · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Tissue location of resistance in apple to the rosy apple aphid established by electrical penetration graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, E.; Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Chicca, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Pasqualini, E.; Baroni, P.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the constitutive resistance of the apple cultivar Florina, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), to the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera Aphididae), was performed for the first time by the electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) system, using the susceptible apple

  6. Significance and transmission of maize streak virus disease in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... soil nutrients, altitude and temperature on the biology of maize streak virus (MSV) / vector populations is discussed. ... status of maize host plants and its effects on population dynamics of Cicadulina mbila Naudé. (Homoptera: ..... time necessary for the leafhopper to reach the mesophyll of the leaf and ingest ...

  7. Short Communication: Occurrence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), on wild annual and perennial leguminous plants was studied at two locations (Adet and Wondata) in West Gojam, Ethiopia in 1999/2000 seasons. Annual and perennial leguminous wild or volunteer plants encountered in the study areas ...

  8. Resistance to lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) biotype 0 in wild lettuce accessions PI 491093 and PI 274378

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera : Aphididae), is a major insect pest of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L, in many commercial lettuce productions areas around the world. Resistance to lettuce aphid was first reported in Lactuca virosa L. accession IVT 280 and characterized as complete,...

  9. Fungal Endophytes of Wild Barley and their Effects on Diuraphis noxia Population Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester; C.M. Davitt

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the expression of Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance in four plant introduction (PI) lines of wild barley (Hordeum) infected with different species or strains of endophytic fungi (tribe Balansieae, family Clavicipitaceae, Neotyphodium gen. nov. [formerly...

  10. Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.E.; Garzo, E.; Verbeek, M.; Vosman, B.; Dicke, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a

  11. Stimulation des défenses naturelles par l’application d’un Lombricompost. Effet sur les paramètres populationnels d’Aphis fabae scop. (Homoptera: Aphididae et la qualité Phytochimique de la fève

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahr-Eddine Djazouli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chaichi, W. Djazouli, Z. Djemai, I. Abdelkader, S. Ribera, I. and Nancé, J. 2017. Stimulation of natural defences by the application of lombricompost. Effect on the Aphis fabae scop. (Homoptéra: Aphididae population and phytochemical quality of faba bean. Lebanese Science Journal, 18(1: 81-97. The integrated production in durable agriculture aims to improve the efficiency of biological inputs through formulations extending the remanence in the field or the incorporation of synergistic products which, being themselves nontoxic at used quantities, increase the protective action of the viabe cultivations. The lombricultivation represents an appropriate technology to enhance the value of the farm residues and manage, on a long term basis, plant health. The study focused on the stimulation of natural defenses of bean through the use of a lombricompost dilutions produced in two different seasons. The effect of lombricompost has been evaluated based on the Aphis fabae population density in relation to the phytochemical quality of the nutritional support. Variations of biochemical molecule contents and major mineral elements during the leaf expanding phase have been noticed. These changes affect the biological performance as well as the density of A. fabae population. The results allowed detecting a positive effect of lombricompost on plant chemistry. On the other hand, enrichment in proteins and proline under the effect of strong dilution was noticed. Finally, results related to the repressive effect of the different forms of lombricompost showed a marked difference between treatments and the control, with a stronger effect on the winged forms. Results also indicated some variability of the Aphis Fabae populational structure in relation to the phytochemical enrichments established by the application of lombricompost.

  12. Sporné případy použití ozbrojené síly a poslední vývoj v oblasti mezinárodněprávní úpravy použití ozbrojené síly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popenková, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2009), s. 309-330 ISSN 0231-6625 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB700680601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : public international law * Use of Armed Force Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  13. IbM KELOMPOK PKK KELURAHAN WONOSEKAR DEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Kusumaningsih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Demak merupakan salah satu kabupaten yang memiliki wilayah pertanian terbesar di Jawa Tengah. Hampir semua kelurahan di kabupaten Demak memiliki wilayah pertanian yang luas, pun tak terkecuali kelurahan Wonosekar. Komoditas pertanian utama di Wonosekar adalah padi di mana selama ini hasil sampingan dari padi belum dimanfaatkan secara maksimal. Di sisi lain, di kelurahan Wonosekar ditemukan banyak ibu-ibu rumah tangga yang cenderung memiliki banyak waktu luang di sela-sela rutinitas mengerjakan pekerjaan rumah tangga. Melihat dua kondisi yang berelasi ini, kami melihat peluang pemberdayaan ibu-ibu rumah tangga melalui wirausaha dengan memanfaatkan bekatul yang merupakan hasil sampingan padi. Bekatul relatif murah dan mudah didapatkan. Selain itu, bekatul memiliki berbagai macam kandungan gizi bagi tubuh. Dewasa ini bekatul dapat diolah menjadi berbagai macam makanan salah satunya adalah kukis. Dalam pengabdian ini kami memberikan motovasi kewirausahan, demo pembuatan kukis bekatul, metode pengemasan produk dan metode marketing produk berbasis online.   Kata Kunci: Kewirausahaan, bekatul, kukis, marketing online

  14. SELEKSI BAKTERI METHANOTROF (PEREDUKSI EMISI GAS METAN DI LAHAN SAWAH BERDASARKAN AKTIVITAS ENZIM METHAN MONOOKSIGENASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimuna Nonci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kehadiran bakteri metanotrof pada daerah rhizosfer padi sangat dibutuhkan untuk mereduksi metan yang dihasilkan oleh bakteri metanogen, sehingga tidak terjadi emisi gas metan ke atmosfer. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan koleksi dan seleksi bakteri methanotrof asal rhizosfer tanaman padi yang mampu menghasilkan enzim metan monooksigenase. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara acak pada tiga fase pertumbuhan tanaman padi yaitu fase vegetatif, reproduktif dan pematangan. Koleksi isolat dilakukan dengan metode isolasi dan pemurnian. Seleksi isolat dilakukan dengan pengujian reaksi gram, motil, indol, aerob/anaerob dan aktivitas enzim monooksigenase dianalisis dengan metode kolorimetrik.  Hasil penelitian diperoleh 52 koleksi isolat bakteri. Berdasarkan reaksi gram terseleksi 22 isolat gram negatif, berdasarkan analisis kolorimetrik  diperoleh 10 isolat  menghasilkan enzim metan monooksigenase.

  15. Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophorou, Maria A; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Halley-Stott, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    citrullination of core histones has been linked to transcriptional regulation and the DNA damage response. PADI4 (also called PAD4 or PADV), the only PADI with a nuclear localization signal, was previously shown to act in myeloid cells where it mediates profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune...... and activating their expression. Its inhibition lowers the percentage of pluripotent cells in the early mouse embryo and significantly reduces reprogramming efficiency. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we identify linker histone H1 variants, which are involved in the generation of compact chromatin, as novel...... PADI4 substrates. Citrullination of a single arginine residue within the DNA-binding site of H1 results in its displacement from chromatin and global chromatin decondensation. Together, these results uncover a role for citrullination in the regulation of pluripotency and provide new mechanistic...

  16. PENGARUH PERBAIKAN TANAH SALIN TERHADAP KARAKTER FISIOLOGIS Calopogonium mucunoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kusmiyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peralihan fungsi lahan pertanian menjadi wilayah pemukimam dan industri menyebabkan semakinberkurangnya lahan pertanian.Hal tersebut menyebabkan pengembangan pertanian perlu diarahkan padalahan-lahan marginal seperti tanah salin.Tanah salin adalah tanah yang mengandung garam terlarut netraldalam jumlah tertentu yang berpengaruh buruk terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman.Penelitian yangdilaksanakan bertujuan mengkaji pengaruh perbaikan tanah salin secara kimia dan biologi terhadap karakterfisiologis Calopogonium mucunoides. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3ulangan. Perbaikan tanah salin dilakukan melalui penambahan gipsum (P1, pupuk kandang (P2, abu sekampadi (P3, tanaman halofita (P4, gipsum dan pupuk kandang (P5, gipsum dan abu sekam padi (P6, gipsumdantanamanhalofita (P7, pupuk kandang dan abu sekam padi (P8, pupuk kandang dan tanaman halofita(P9, abusekam padi dan tanaman halofita (P10 dan tanpa penambahan sebagai kontrol (P0. Parameter yangdiamati adalah kandungan klorofil a, kandungan klorofil b, kandungan total klorofil, aktivitas nitrat reduktase,luas daun dan laju fotosintesis.Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan sidik ragam dan uji lanjut dengan ujiwilayah ganda Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan klorofil a, klorofil b, total klorofil, aktivitasnitrat reduktase dan laju fotosintesis calopo berbeda nyata (P<0,05 lebih tinggi pada perlakuan perbaikantanah salin dibandingkan kontrol. Kandungan klorofil a, klorofil b dan total klorofil calopo pada perlakuankombinasi pupuk kandang dan abu sekam padi serta kombinasi gipsum dan pupuk kandang berbeda nyata(P<0,05 lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya. Aktivitas nitrat reduktase dan laju fotosintesis calopopada perlakuan kombinasi pupuk kandang dan abu sekam padi serta perlakuan pupuk kandang berbeda nyata(P<0,05 lebih tinggi daripada perlakuan lainnya. Simpulan adalah perbaikan tanah salin dengan penambahankombinasi pupuk kandang dan abu

  17. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Tunisian Cucumis melo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic Cucumis melo cv. Maazoun containing the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) chimeric gene conferring resistance to kanamycin were obtained from cotyledons explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (GV3101) that contained the binary vector plasmid pADI. Transformed shoots were obtained ...

  18. Arukad asjad võtavad maailmas võimu / Tiiu Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leis, Tiiu

    2009-01-01

    Arukate toodete disainiprojektist. Näited tudengite töödest: vibreeriv padi, vaikne sein, soojendav vest, helineeldematerjalid, valgustundlik kardin, tattoo-printer, helendav sall, riknemist tuvastav pakend, digivanaema, perereliikvia Relic, maksevahend-käevõru Smart-pay

  19. Collective Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Cooper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective improvisation as a creative practice is intensely social, trusting, unpopular, anti-hierarchical and, for these reasons, political. Cooper describes the risks and rich rewards of improvising with fellow artists and identifies the parallels between improvising ensembles of musicians in Australia with the collectively painted protest banners of the Taring Padi Collective in Indonesia after a brief visit to Jogjakarta.

  20. 49 CFR 572.121 - General description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specifications package P/N 127-0000, the titles of which are listed in Table A; (2) Procedures for Assembly, Disassembly, and Inspection (PADI) of the Hybrid III 6-year-old test dummy, Alpha version (August 1999). Table... segments are joined in a manner such that except for contacts existing under static conditions, there is no...

  1. Ära kosi Pikka: Pikk läheb pingile magama / Meelis Oidsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oidsalu, Meelis, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Kevadel lavakunstikooli lõpetavate tudengite lavastusest "Pikk pink" , mis koosneb kuuest lühiloost - Mait Jooritsa "Kantani padi", Kristjan Üksküla "Jääger" ja "Albioni tütar", Roland Laosi "Genees ja katastroof", Hendrik Toompere jun. "Karupoeg Puhh" ja Kerttu Moppeli " Leib!". Esietendus 23. nov. Hobuveskis

  2. Lavaka lõpetajate pink on pikk / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Kevadel lavakunstikooli lõpetavate tudengite lavastusest "Pikk pink" , mis koosneb kuuest lühiloost - Mait Jooritsa "Kantani padi", Kristjan Üksküla "Jääger" ja "Albioni tütar", Roland Laosi "Genees ja katastroof", Hendrik Toompere jun. jun. "Karupoeg Puhh" ja Kerttu Moppeli " Leib!". Etendused toimuvad Hobuveskis

  3. "Hunger makes a thief of any man": poverty and crime in British colonial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses rainfall variation as an instrumental variable for padi-rice production to estimate the impact of poverty on different types of crime across British colonies in South and South East Asia (1910-1940). Using original primary sources retrieved from annual administrative and statistical

  4. Saúde da família e cuidados paliativos infantis: ouvindo os familiares de crianças dependentes de tecnologia Family health and infant palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães Rabello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo discute um modelo de cuidados paliativos infantis baseado na Saúde da Família quando da assistência domiciliar, articulado com os demais níveis de atenção e nas demandas das famílias. Participaram do estudo dezoito membros de nove famílias de crianças do Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF, das quais quatro estão assistidas pelo Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI, três internadas aguardando a inclusão no programa e duas internadas e já pertencentes ao PADI. O PADI foi estudado por ser o único que oferece cuidados paliativos infantis na rede pública de saúde. Os resultados demonstram-se positivos quanto ao vínculo estabelecido com a equipe, ao acolhimento, ao conhecimento pelos familiares acerca da doença e à dinâmica entre o PADI e o IFF. Como pontos negativos aparecem as dificuldades, que vão desde a implantação do programa até sua continuidade; quase todos os familiares referem agravos ou doenças. Concluiu-se, que apesar de o PADI se apresentar como a forma encontrada pelo IFF para a desospitalização, os cuidados domiciliares pela Saúde da Família, bem articulado com a rede, seriam o ideal por se tratar do nível de assistência adequado para tal.This study discusses the creation of a new child palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. Eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC who were hospital patients in the Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF participated on the study. From those four were being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI; three were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the

  5. Saúde da família e cuidados paliativos infantis: ouvindo os familiares de crianças dependentes de tecnologia Family Health Program and children palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães Rabello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo discute um modelo de cuidados paliativos infantis baseado na Saúde da Família quando da assistência domiciliar, articulado com os demais níveis de atenção e nas demandas das famílias. Participaram do estudo dezoito membros de nove famílias de crianças do Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF, das quais quatro estão assistidas pelo Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI, três internadas aguardando a inclusão no programa e duas internadas e já pertencentes ao PADI. O PADI foi estudado por ser o único que oferece cuidados paliativos infantis na rede pública de saúde. Os resultados demonstram-se positivos quanto ao vínculo estabelecido com a equipe; o acolhimento; o conhecimento pelos familiares acerca da doença e a dinâmica entre o PADI e o IFF. Como pontos negativos, aparecem as dificuldades, que vão desde a implantação do programa até sua continuidade e que quase todos os familiares referem agravos ou doenças. Concluiu-se que, apesar do PADI se apresentar como a forma encontrada pelo IFF para a desospitalização, os cuidados domiciliares pela Saúde da Família, bem articulados com a rede, seria o ideal por ser o nível de assistência adequado para tal.This study discusses the creation of a new children palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. The study focused on eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC who were hospital patients at Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF: four who are being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI; three who were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the Program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health

  6. Uji kesetimbangan kalor proses sterilisasi kumbung jamur merang kapasitas 1.2 ton media tanam menggunakan tungku gasifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maulana K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pada setiap budidaya jamur merang memerlukan proses sterilisasi dengan menggunakan uap panas yang dihasilkan dari boiler sederhana dengan tungku tradisional berbahan bakar kayu bakar. Penggunaan tungku tradisional pada aplikasi proses sterilisasi tersebut dinilai kurang efisien karena efisiensi pembakaran yang masih sangat rendah dan emisi gas buang yang mengganggu. Tungku gasifikasi memiliki kinerja yang lebih baik dari pada tungku tradisional karena memiliki efisiensi yang relatif lebih tinggi dan bebas dari asap pembakaran yang mengganggu. Untuk menggantikan tungku tradisional tersebut dengan tunggku gasifikasi, harus dilakukan uji kesetimbangan kalor terlebih dahulu agar dapat diketahui kebutuhan energi yang diperlukan pada proses sterilisasi tersebut. Dengan uji kesetimbangan kalor dapat diketahui perbandingan energi input pada sisi bahan bakar dengan energi yang termanfaatkan (energi output dan energi yang terbuang (heat losses selama proses sterilisasi tersebut berlangsung. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menggunakan kumbung jamur ukuran sebenarnya yang ada di lapangan dengan jumlah media tanam jamur merang sekitar 1.2 ton limbah kapas menggunakan tungku gasifikasi yang dibuat dari drum bekas oli. Pengujian dilakukan dengan dua variasi bahan bakar pada reactor gasifikasinya yaitu bahan bakar limbah kapas dan bahan bakar limbah sekam padi. Dari hasil uji yang didapat, limbah kapas memiliki jumlah energi output yang lebih besar daripada limbah sekam padi (energi output pada limbah kapas sebesar 8.4% dari energi inputnya dan limbah sekam padi memiliki 7.9% energi output. Namun jika dilihat dari efisiensi pembakarannya, limbah sekam padi memiliki efisiensi yang lebih tinggi daripada limbah kapas (28.0% untuk limbah sekam padi dan 27.2% untuk limbah kapas.

  7. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  8. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  9. IDENTIFIKASI KOMODITI UNGGULAN PADA SEKTOR PERTANIAN DI KABUPATEN INDRAGIRI HILIR PROVINSI RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisca Vaulina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Setelah otonomi masing-masing daerah memiliki lebih dari kebebasan dalam menentukan komoditas yang diprioritaskan dalam pembangunannya. Salah satu potensi di Kabupaten Indragiri Hilir adalah pertanian. Untuk pertanian diperlukan identifikasi komoditas pertanian utama yang akan dikembangkan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi komoditas pertanian utama terlihat dari dasar komoditas pertanian, spesialisasi dan lokalisasi komoditas pertanian yang diprioritaskan untuk dikembangkan di Kabupaten Indragiri Hilir. Penelitian menggunakan metode studi kasus, data yang digunakan adalah data dari tahun 2014-2015, menggunakan analisis ekonomi LQ regional, spesialisasi quotient dan lokalisasi quotient. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komoditas di Kabupaten Indragiri Hilir kering padi, kacang tanah, ubi kayu, pepaya, durian, mangga, kelapa, pinang, kelapa, sagu, domba, sapi dan perikanan umum. KS dan KL nilai kegiatan pertanian terspesialisasi di setiap kabupaten. Pengembangan prioritas komoditas padi kering, kedelai, kacang tanah, ubi kayu, pepaya, mangga, durian, jeruk, pinang, kakao, domba dan perikanan umum. Kata kunci : Komoditas Unggulan, Komoditas Pertanian

  10. DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT FROM ENZYMATIC FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan sumber energi terbarukan bioetanol membutuhkan metode analisis produk bioetanol secara cepat dan akurat. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan pengukuran etanol produksi fermentasi hidrolisat dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS, ampas tebu, dan jerami padi. Reaksi didasarkan pada reaksi enzimatis. Etanol dioksidasi oleh nikotinamida-adenin dinukleotida (NAD+ menjadi asetaldehid dalam keberadaan enzim alkohol dehidrogenase (ADH, dan asetaldehid secara kuantitatif dioksidasi menjadi asam asetat dengan keberadaan aldehid dehidrogenase (Al-DH. NADH yang terbentuk ditentukan absorbansinya dengan spektrofotometer 334 nm, 340 nm, atau 365 nm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fermentasi yang dlakukan selama dua hari sudah menghasilkan etanol dengan kadar masing-masing 0,1368% (v/v; 0,1317% (v/v; dan 0,1149% (v/v dari hidrolisat TKKS, jerami padi, dan ampas tebu.

  11. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar

    2016-01-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant...... in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments...... and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic...

  12. Pemberian Biochar Dari Beberapa Bahan Baku Untuk Mengurangi Pencemaran Logam Berat Cd Di Tanah

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Elfride

    2017-01-01

    120301076 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan jenis bahan baku biochar yang terbaik dalam mengurangi pencemaran logam berat Cd di tanah. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) non faktorial dengan perlakuan kontrol, 3 jenis biochar dari bahan baku yang berbeda meliputi brangkasan jagung, jerami padi dan TKKS, sebanyak 5 ulangan. Parameter yang diamati adalah pH H2O, pH KCl, Cd ekstrak DTPA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ketiga jenis biochar...

  13. Index insurance for pro-poor conservation of hornbills in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chantarat, Sommarat; Barrett, Christopher B.; Janvilisri, Tavan; Mudsri, Sittichai; Niratisayakul, Chularat; Poonswad, Pilai

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the potential of index insurance as a mechanism to finance community-based biodiversity conservation in areas where a strong correlation exists between natural disaster risk, keystone species populations, and the well-being of the local population. We illustrate this potential using the case of hornbill conservation in the Budo-Sungai Padi rainforests of southern Thailand, using 16-y hornbill reproduction data and 5-y household expenditures data reflecting local economic w...

  14. Penentuan Harga Jual Produk Dengan Metode Cost Plus Pricing Pada Pt.pertani (Persero) Cabang Sulawesi Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Gayatri, Winny

    2013-01-01

    Harga jual suatu produk perlu ditetapkan, dimaksudkan untuk pencapaian laba. Harga jual suatu produk mempengaruhi posisi persaingan pasar, yang selanjutnya akan mempengaruhi volume produksi. Dapat dikatakan bahwa harga jual mepengaruhi besarnya pendapatan dan laba bersih Perusahaan. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui harga jual produk benih padi dengan menggunakan pendekatan cost plus pricing pada PT.Pertani. Alat analisis data yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif analisa...

  15. Penetapan Kadar Fosfor Dalam Buah Petai (Parkia speciosa) Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Melisa

    2013-01-01

    Parkia speciosa generally consumed by people as other dishes, although there are some people who do not like it due to its odor. It is often recognized as a traditional and uncommon food. This plant products mineral, one of the mineral much is producted is phosphorus. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of phosphorus in the both types: petai padi and papan. Qualitative analysis of phosphorus carried out by turning it into phosphate and ammonium molybdate reagent identified,...

  16. Infecção mista pelo Sugarcane mosaic virus e Maize rayado fino virus provoca danos na cultura do milho no estado de São Paulo Mixed infection by Sugarcane mosaic virus and Maize rayado fino virus causing breaking yields in maize in São Paulo state

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos César Gonçalves; Ivan de Godoy Maia; Sílvia Regina Galleti; Gisèle Maria Fantin

    2007-01-01

    Os dois principais vírus que infectam o milho no Brasil são o Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) e o Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), cujos principais vetores são o afídeo Rhopalosiphum maidis e a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis, respectivamente. O MRFV é freqüentemente encontrado em infecções mistas com fitoplasmas e espiroplasmas, causando as doenças denominadas enfezamentos do milho. Em uma lavoura de milho próxima a Santo Antonio da Posse, SP, cercada por campos de cana-de-açúcar, foi encontrada alt...

  17. Infecção mista pelo Sugarcane mosaic virus e Maize rayado fino virus provoca danos na cultura do milho no estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Marcos César; Maia,Ivan de Godoy; Galleti,Sílvia Regina; Fantin,Gisèle Maria

    2007-01-01

    Os dois principais vírus que infectam o milho no Brasil são o Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) e o Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), cujos principais vetores são o afídeo Rhopalosiphum maidis e a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis, respectivamente. O MRFV é freqüentemente encontrado em infecções mistas com fitoplasmas e espiroplasmas, causando as doenças denominadas enfezamentos do milho. Em uma lavoura de milho próxima a Santo Antonio da Posse, SP, cercada por campos de cana-de-açúcar, foi encontrada alt...

  18. GUDANG-GUDANG DI KARAWANG: KELETAKAN DAN FUNGSINYA DALAM SEJARAH PERNIAGAAN MASA HINDIA BELANDA The Storehouses In Karawang: Location and Functions On Commerce History in The Netherlands Indie Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libra Hari Inagurasi

    2014-06-01

    Abstrak Tulisan ini mencoba membahas keberadaan gudang-gudang kuna kolonial di Karawang, yang selama ini belum banyak ditulis. Topik gudang dalam tulisan ini dikaitkan dengan konteks perniagaan lokal, yang berlangsung di wilayah Karawang dengan daerah sekitarnya pada periode akhir Hindia Belanda. Melalui tulisan ini berhasil diungkapkan dua buah gudang kuna dari masa Hindia Belanda pada akhir abad ke-19 hingga awal abad ke-20, yakni gudang di Tanjungbungin dan gudang di Cilamaya. Letak dua buah gudang berada di tepi Ci Tarum, jalur perniagaan antara Tanjungbungin dengan Batavia, dan berada stasiun kereta Cilamaya jalur perniagaan antara Cilamaya dengan Cikampek. Jenis-jenis komoditas penting yang didistribusikan, misalnya, garam,  padi, ikan, kayu, dan kapur. Gudang berfungsi sebagai tempat penyimpanan garam, padi, yang  didistribusikan dari Laut Jawa menuju ke Tanjungbungin, dan dari Cilamaya ke Cikampek. Garam dan padi merupakan jenis-jenis komoditas penting untuk kebutuhan konsumsi sehari-hari. Tulisan bertema gudang di Karawang ini berhasil diselesaikan setelah melalui tahap-tahap penelusuran literatur, deskripsi data gudang kuna, dan sintesa antara data arkeologi dengan sumber tertulis.   Kata kunci: gudang, komoditas perniagaan lokal, Karawang, Hindia  Belanda.

  19. Parasitism of The Rice Brown Planthopper Eggs in Various Periods of Time of The Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Haryati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae is an important pest of rice. Since at the early stage, this pest is infested by parasitoids, but most cultural practices do not consider the existences of parasitoids in rice ecosystem. This study was aimed to determine the level of parasitism on N. lugens with regard to the time of the day. This information would be useful to minimize the effect of insecticide application to the parasitoids. Trapping  of  egg parasitoids in rice ecosystem was conducted every two hours from 05.00 a.m. until 04.00 p.m. Parasitism occured as early as at 05.00 a.m. (12.26% of the total parasitoid found, reached the peak abundance at 11.00 a.m. (36.13%, and decreased at 01.00 p.m. The parasitism level varied from 1.12 to 8.51% at 66 days after planting. The highest number of parasitoids and the highest parasitism level occured when trapping was conducted between 11.00 a.m.−01.00 p.m.. Before and after this period of time, the number of parasitoid emerged and parasitism were low. This suggest that if insecticide is necessary, it should be applied in the early morning or late afternoon.   INTISARI Wereng batang padi cokelat, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, merupakan salah satu hama penting padi. Praktik budidaya pertanian padi belum memperhatikan aktivitas parasitoid dalam ekosistem. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui tingkat parasitasi telur N. lugens pada beberapa waktu dalam sehari. Informasi ini akan bermanfaat untuk mengurangi dampak aplikasi insektisida terhadap parasitoid. Pemerangkapan parasitoid telur N. lugens di lahan padi dilakukan setiap dua jam yang dimulai pada pukul 05.00 sampai pukul 16.00. Parasitoid telur N. lugens mulai aktif pada pukul 05.00 (12,26%, mencapai puncaknya pukul 11.00 (36,13%, dan mulai mengalami penurunan pada pukul 13.00. Tingkat parasitasi pada tanaman padi umur 66 hari setelah tanam berkisar mulai 1,12−8,51%. Hasil

  20. Comparison of exclusion and imidacloprid for reduction of oviposition damage to young trees by periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Robert G; Frank, Steven D; Raupp, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    Insecticides are traditionally used to control periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae) and to reduce associated injury caused by oviposition. However, research has shown that conventional insecticides have low or variable season-long efficacy in reducing injury caused by cicadas. New systemic neonicotinoid insecticides provide excellent levels of control against a variety of sucking insects. We compared the efficacy of a neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, and a nonchemical control measure, netting, to reduce cicada injury. Netted trees sustained very little injury, whereas unprotected trees were heavily damaged. Fewer eggnests, scars, and flags were observed on trees treated with imidacloprid compared with unprotected trees; however, the hatching of cicada eggs was unaffected by imidacloprid.

  1. Plantas hospederas de Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector de virus del melón Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, M.V.; Agüero, R.; Rivera, C.

    2001-01-01

    Se identificaron las especies hospederas naturales de Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Homoptera) en plantaciones comerciales de melón para la exportación en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en dos fincas, ubicadas una en la provincia de Guanacaste y la otra en la provincia de Puntarenas, correspondientes a dos zonas de vida vegetal diferentes. Se identificaron como especies hospederas del áfido todas aquellas especies vegetales en las que se observó la presencia del áfido en su forma ápter...

  2. Food Composition of the Snake-Eyed Lizard, Ophisops elegans Ménétriés, 1832 (Reptilia: Sauria: Lacertidae from Gökçeada (Imbros, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Varol Tok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the food composition of the snake-eyed lizard (Ophisops elegans, from Gökçeada (Imbros, Çanakkale, Turkey. A total of 94 preys were determined in thedigestive systems of 20 individuals (10 males, 10 females examined in the study. Insects (67%constitute most of its food composition. Major prey groups in the food composition are included inAranea (13%, Lepidoptera (13%, Coleoptera (19%, and Homoptera (20% in numeric proportion.No significant difference was observed between sexes considering food composition.

  3. Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  4. CD28 and PTPN22 are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegab, Mohsen M; Abdelwahab, Aml Fawzy; El-Sayed Yousef, Ali M; Salem, Mohamed Nabil; El-Baz, Walaa; Abdelrhman, Sherry; Elshabacy, Fatemah; Alhefny, Abdelazim; Abouraya, Wagida; Ibrahim, Saleh Mohamed; Ragab, Gaafar

    2016-06-01

    Limited data are available on the genetics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Egyptians. Therefore, we investigated whether the confirmed genetic risk factors for RA in Europeans and/or Asians contribute to RA susceptibility in Egyptians. A set of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vicinity of CD28, TNFAIP3, PTPN22, PADI4 and HLA-DRA were tested in a large multi-centric RA cohort in Egypt, consisting of 394 cases and 398 matched controls. Patients were stratified based on the positivity of either anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) or rheumatoid factor (RF). Significant association was evident for three SNPs in this cohort: the CD28 (rs1980422) variant showed a strong association in the whole cohort (P=0.000119) and in seropositive subsets of the disease (PACPA+=0.004; PRF+=0.0005). Upon stratification, the PTPN22 (rs2476601) and TNFAIP3(rs5029939) variants showed association only with ACPA positive (PACPA+=0.00573) and negative (PACPA-=0.00999) phenotypes, respectively. Our results suggest that CD28(rs1980422) and PTPN22(rs2476601) contribute to RA-susceptibility in Egyptians. Failure to replicate the association of PADI4(rs2240340)/(PADI4_94) in Egyptian RA patients provides further support for the notion that genetic architecture of RA is different in multiple populations of European, Asian, African, and Middle Eastern ancestries. Further investigation using large-scale studies is thus needed to maximize the power of genetic association. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effects of Population Density and Host Availability on The Migration Process of Brown Planthopper Fed Using Susceptible and Resistant Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Habibi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, is an important pest of rice. This pest can cause hopperburn and field failure. This research aimed to determine the effects of population density and host availability on migration of N. lugens. The criteria used to justify the effects of host availability and population density on migration of N. lugens were based the hardness and tannin tests of the rice stems, fecundity of N. lugens, and the life cycle of N. lugens. The research was conducted under the temperature of 29.42°C with relative humidity of 61% and Light 12: Dark 12 times, using ten pairs of N. lugens brachypterous (F0 constant and then was added with five male adults on fifth days after the first infestation (F0 changed. The varieties used were IR64, as a resistant variety, and Ketan Lusi, as a susceptible variety. The results showed that the adding of the macropterous males did not affect the number of macropterous, because of that has been preplanned by the F0. Therefore, the percentage of existing macropterous was 51−52%.   INTISARI   Wereng Batang Cokelat (WBC merupakan salah satu hama tanaman padi yang sangat penting. Kerusakan parah dapat menyebabkan hopperburn dan puso (gagal panen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh kepadatan populasi dan tanaman inang sebagai tempat migrasi WBC. Parameter yang dikaji untuk mengetahui pengaruh kepadatan populasi WBC dan tanaman inang tempat migrasi WBC berdasarkan tingkat kekerasan dan kandungan tanin batang tanaman padi, fekunditas WBC, dan siklus hidup WBC. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada temperatur 29.42˚C dengan kelembapan relatif 61% dan durasi siang hari 12 jam: durasi malam hari 12 jam. Metode yang dilakukan adalah dengan menggunakan 10 pasang imago WBC brakhiptera (F0 konstan, kemudian dilakukan penambahan 5 ekor imago jantan pada hari kelima setelah infestasi awal (F0 diubah. Varietas padi yang digunakan yaitu padi varietas IR64 sebagai varietas

  6. PENGARUH TEPUNG DAUN GAMAL DAN DAUN KELOR DALAM UREA CASSAVA BLOK (UCB TERHADAP KECERNAAN, KADAR VFA, DAN NH3 IN-VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M. WITARIADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian telah dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang pengaruh tepung daun gamal dan daun kelor sebagai sumber protein dalam urea cassava blok (UCB terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik, kadar VFA, dan NH3 cairan rumen pakan jerami padi secara invitro. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan mempergunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 3 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Sehingga secara keseluruhan terdapat 15 unit penelitian. Adapun ketiga perlakuan tersebut adalah: Perlakuan A (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor; B (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun gamal, dan C (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor dan daun gamal. Varibel yang diamati adalah kecernaan bahan kering (KCBK , kecernaan bahan organik (KCBO in-vitro, produksi vollatile fatty acid (VFA, produksi NH3, dan pH supernatan. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa KCBK, KCBO invitro, VFA, NH3, dan pH supernatan pada ketiga perlakuan berbeda nyata (P<0,05. Penggunaan daun gamal sebagai sumber protein pada UCB menghasilkan KCBK, KCBO, VFA, NH3, tertinggi dibandingkan dengan daun kelor maupun kombinasi antara daun gamal dan daun kelor. EFFECT OF USING GLIRICIDIA (Gliricidia sepium AND MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAVES MEALS IN UREA CASSAVA BLOCK (UCB ON DIGESTIBILITY, VOLLATILE FATTY ACID, AND NH3 IN-VITRO. ABSTRACT The experiment has been conducted in order to now the effect of Gliricidia sepium and Moringa oleifera leaves meal a source of protein in urea cassava block (UCB to the digestibility dray matter and organic matter , VFA and ammonia concentration with rice straw diet. The experiment set in completely randomized design using three treatment. The treatment are: A (rise straw + UCB with Moringa; B (rise straw + UCB with Gliricidia sepium, and C (rise straw + UCB with Moringa and Gliricidia sepium. The observed variable are: dry matter, organic matter digestibility, volatile fatty acid, ammonia concentration, and pH rumen juice

  7. Biological aspects of Eriopis connexa (Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae fed on different insect pests of maize (Zea mays L. and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Silva

    Full Text Available Eriopis connexa (Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae occurs in several countries of South America and its mass rearing is important for biological control programmes. This work evaluated biological aspects of E. connexa larva fed on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae frozen for one day, fresh eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, S. frugiperda newly-hatched caterpillars, nymphs of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Duration of larva, pupa and larva to adult stages differed among prey offered, whereas the prepupa stage was similar. Larva, pupa, prepupa and larva to adult viabilities were equal or major of 87.5% in all prey, except for larva fed on newly-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda. Eriopis connexa has good adaptation to different prey corroborating its polyphagous feeding habit, which evidences the potential of this natural enemy for controlling corn and sorghum pests.

  8. The Effect of Traditional Cupping on Pain and Mechanical Thresholds in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Neck Pain: A Randomised Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Hohmann, Claudia; Choi, Kyung-Eun; Rampp, Thomas; Saha, Felix Joyonto; Musial, Frauke; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Cupping has been used since antiquity in the treatment of pain conditions. In this pilot study, we investigated the effect of traditional cupping therapy on chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNP) and mechanical sensory thresholds. Methods. Fifty CNP patients were randomly assigned to treatment (TG, n = 25) or waiting list control group (WL, n = 25). TG received a single cupping treatment. Pain at rest (PR), pain related to movement (PM), quality of life (SF-36), Neck Disability Index (NDI), mechanical detection (MDT), vibration detection (MDT), and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured before and three days after a single cupping treatment. Patients also kept a pain and medication diary (PaDi, MeDi) during the study. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. After cupping TG reported significantly less pain (PR: −17.9 mm VAS, 95%CI −29.2 to −6.6; PM: −19.7, 95%CI −32.2 to −7.2; PaDi: −1.5 points on NRS, 95%CI −2.5 to −0.4; all P cupping might be an effective treatment for improving pain, quality of life, and hyperalgesia in CNP. PMID:22203873

  9. ANALISIS PROSES PEMBELAJARAN DALAM KONSEP PEMBERDAYAAN KELOMPOK TANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Ari Setiawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is analyzing the role of agricultural extension Hall (BPP, analyze the process stages of the occurrence of agricultural learning, and analyze agricultural learning model on a group of farmers. This qualitative research methods are case studies. Data collection techniques: interviews, observation and study of the document. The result is that (1 the existence of the role of agricultural extension officers as education, dissemination of information/innovation facilitators, consultants, supervision, monitors and evaluators, (2 the learning process starts from his protégé participant fedback or, the lesson process, then the output or outputs of learning outcomes to farmers, and (3 learning Models include (a Airy School Integrated pest control (SLPHT; (b Pilot planting padi cultivation; (c guidance techniques; d exercises and visits; (e planting synchronously. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis peran Balai Penyuluhan Pertanian (BPP, menganalisis proses tahapan terjadinya pembelajaran pertanian, dan menganalisis model pembelajaran pertanian pada kelompok tani. Metode penelitian ini berupa kualitatif studi kasus. Teknik pengumpulan data, meliputi wawancara, observasi, dan studi dokumen. Hasilnya bahwa (1 adanya peran penyuluh pertanian sebagai edukasi, diseminasi informasi/inovasi fasilitator, konsultan, supervisi, pemantau dan evaluator, (2 proses Pembelajaran dimulai dari masukan atau peserta didiknya, proses pembelajarannya, kemudian keluaran dari hasil pembelajaran kepada petani, dan (3 model pembelajaran, meliputi (a Sekolah Lapang Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (SLPHT; (b percontohan budidaya tanam padi; (c bimbingan teknik; (d Latihan dan Kunjungan (LAKU; (e tanam serempak.

  10. Root-induced Changes in the Rhizosphere of Extreme High Yield Tropical Rice: 2. Soil Solution Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Osaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that the extreme high yield tropical rice (Padi Panjang produced 3-8 t ha-1 without fertilizers. We also found that the rice yield did not correlate with some soil properties. We thought that it may be due to ability of root in affecting soil properties in the root zone. Therefore, we studied the extent of rice root in affecting the chemical properties of soil solution surrounding the root zone. A homemade rhizobox (14x10x12 cm was used in this experiment. The rhizobox was vertically segmented 2 cm interval using nylon cloth that could be penetrated neither root nor mycorrhiza, but, soil solution was freely passing the cloth. Three soils of different origins (Kuin, Bunipah and Guntung Papuyu were used. The segment in the center was sown with 20 seeds of either Padi Panjang or IR64 rice varieties. After emerging, 10 seedlings were maintained for 5 weeks. At 4 weeks after sowing, some chemical properties of the soil solution were determined. These were ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3-, phosphorus (P and iron (Fe2+ concentrations and pH, electric conductivity (EC and oxidation reduction potential (ORP. In general, the plant root changed solution chemical properties both in- and outside the soil rhizosphere. The patterns of changes were affected by the properties of soil origins. The release of exudates and change in ORP may have been responsible for the changes soil solution chemical properties.

  11. Respon Fungsional Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius terhadap Aphis Gossypii Glover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Wagiman

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field-cage experiments were conducted at the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia. Objective of the study was to determine the functional response of Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae predating on chilli aphid Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae. The larvae and adults of the predaceous coccinellid exhibited the Hulling's Type II functional response. A first instar of the coccinellid predating on single first instar of the aphid within 24.6 minutes in the laboratory and 16.8 minutes in the field. While a fourth instar and an adult of the coccinellid predating on single fourth instar of the aphid within 4.2 and 1.5 minutes respectively.

  12. Secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Talaromyces pinophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinale, F; Nicoletti, R; Lacatena, F; Marra, R; Sacco, A; Lombardi, N; d'Errico, G; Digilio, M C; Lorito, M; Woo, S L

    2017-08-01

    Endophytic fungi have a great influence on plant health and growth, and are an important source of bioactive natural compounds. Organic extracts obtained from the culture filtrate of an endophytic strain of Talaromyces pinophilus isolated from strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) were studied. Metabolomic analysis revealed the presence of three bioactive metabolites, the siderophore ferrirubin, the platelet-aggregation inhibitor herquline B and the antibiotic 3-O-methylfunicone. The latter was the major metabolite produced by this strain and displayed toxic effects against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera Aphidiidae). This toxicity represents an additional indication that the widespread endophytic occurrence of T. pinophilus may be related to a possible role in defensive mutualism. Moreover, the toxic activity on aphids could promote further study on 3-O-methylfunicone, or its derivatives, as an alternative to synthetic chemicals in agriculture.

  13. Etude morphologique et biologique de la coccinelle Scymnus couturieri Chazeau (Coleoptera-Coccinellidae prédatrice de la cochenille farineuse du manioc Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obame Minko, D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and Biological Study of Scymnus couturieri Chazeau (Coleoptera-Coccinellidae, Predator of Cassava Mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera-Pseudococcidae in Ivory Coast. Scymnus couturieri is a coccinellidae which was first described from Ivory Coast (2. But that morphological description was just based on the adult. The trophic action developed by Scymnus couturieri in the regulation of the abundance of the cassava mealybug led us to precise that description and to extend our knowledge of the coccinellidae by studying the morphological aspects and the biological parameters. The study brings to the fore the holometaboly development, the low fecondity and the long-lasting biological cycle of the predator.

  14. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A

    2000-09-22

    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  15. [Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Landero-Torres, Ivonne; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Pino, José M M

    2008-03-01

    Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico. During two and a half years (2003-2005) we recorded the insect species used as food at Zongolica, Veracruz State, Mexico. Interviews were made among people (200) of this municipality to know which insects they consumed. The total of registered species was 57 (Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera). The Orthoptera was the most frequently ingested. Twenty-four of these species were new records for edible insects of Mexico. They are eaten in immature stages or as adults, generally only roasted. Consumption is seasonal. Some species are commercialized in the "tianguis" (little town markets) and/or in the larger Zongolica market. There is a "protoculture" of three species, one cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae Fabricius) and two moths (Latebraria amphipyroides Guenée and Arsenura armida armida Cramer). In Zongolica, anthropoentomophagy is an ancestral habit.

  16. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish...... other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited...... to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopi-dae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza...

  17. Food habits of Nyctinomops macrotis at a maternity roost in New Mexico, as indicated by analysis of guano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, D.W.; Valdez, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    We examined 56 fecal pellets from under a maternity colony of big free-tailed bats (Nyctinomops macrotis) in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. The most important food items, listed in order of decreasing percent volume, were Cicadellidae, leafhoppers (26.7% volume, 58.9% frequency); Ichneumonidae, Ichneumon wasps (19.3% volume, 35.7% frequency); and Lepidoptera, moths (17.2% volume, 82.1% frequency). Overall, the most important orders as prey consumed, listed by decreasing percent volume, were Homoptera (27.6% volume, 62.5% frequency), Hymenoptera (19.5% volume, 37.5% frequency), Lepidoptera (17.2% volume, 82.1% frequency), Hemiptera (11.7% volume, 37.5% frequency), and Diptera (10.6% volume, 50.0% frequency). Our study documents an unusually varied diet, as previous studies indicated that these bats fed almost exclusively on moths.

  18. Food habits of introduced rodents in high-elevation shrubland of Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, F. Russell; Loope, Lloyd L.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Howe, Cameron E.; Anderson, Laurel J.

    2000-01-01

    Mus musculus and Rattus rattus are ubiquitous consumers in the high-elevation shrubland of Haleakala National Park. Food habits of these two rodent species were determined from stomach samples obtained by snaptrapping along transects located at four different elevations during November 1984 and February, May, and August 1985. Mus musculus fed primarily on fruits, grass seeds, and arthropods. Rattus rattus ate various fruits, dicot leaves, and arthropods. Arthropods, many of which are endemic, were taken frequently by Mus musculus throughout the year at the highest elevation where plant food resources were scarce. Araneida, Lepidoptera (primarily larvae), Coleoptera, and Homoptera were the main arthropod taxa taken. These rodents, particularly Mus musculus, exert strong predation pressure on populations of arthropod species, including locally endemic species on upper Haleakala Volcano.

  19. Insect symbiosis: derivation of yeast-like endosymbionts within an entomopathogenic filamentous lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, S O; Noda, H; Blackwell, M

    2001-06-01

    Yeast-like endosymbionts (YLSs) of insects often are restricted to specific hosts and are essential to the host's survival. For example, in planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae), endosymbionts function in sterol utilization and nitrogen recycling for the hosts. Our study, designed to investigate evolutionary changes in the YLS lineage involved in the planthopper association, strongly suggests an origin of the YLSs from within the filamentous ascomycetes (Euascomycetes), not the true yeasts (Saccharomycetes), as their morphology might indicate. During divergence of the planthopper YLSs, dramatic changes would have occurred in the insect-fungus interaction and the fungal morphology that have previously been undescribed in filamentous ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees were based on individual and combined data sets of 2.6 kb of the nuclear small- and large-subunit ribosomal RNA genes for YLSs from three rice planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata lugens, and Sogatella furcifera) compared with 56 other fungi. Parsimony analysis placed the planthopper YLSs within Cordyceps (Euascomycetes: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), a genus of filamentous insects and a few fungal pathogenic ascomycetes. Another YLS species restricted to the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci (Homoptera: Aphididae) was a sister taxon to the planthopper YLSS: Filamentous insect pathogens (Metarhizium and Beauveria) specific to the same species of insect hosts as the YLSs also formed lineages within the Clavicipitaceae, but these were distinct from the clade comprising YLS species. Trees constrained to include the YLSs in families of the Hypocreales other than the Clavicipitaceae were rejected by the Kishino-Hasegawa test. In addition, the results of this study support a hypothesis of two independent origins of insect-associated YLSs from among filamentous ascomycetes: the planthopper YLSs in the Clavicipitaceae and the YLSs associated with anobiid beetles (Symbiotaphrina species). Several lineages of

  20. Entomopathogenic fungi from 'El Eden' Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Barragán; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Alatorre, Raquel; Toriello, Conchita

    2004-07-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated and identified from insects collected from the tropical forest and an agricultural area at El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. These fungi were studied to determine their potential as biological control agents of greenhouse Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity of this area. No pest insects were observed in the tropical forest. In contrast, all insects collected in the agricultural area were considered important pests by the local farmers, with the whitefly, as the most relevant, plentiful in Cucurbitaceae plants. From approximately 3400 collected insects in three different surveys, different anamorphic Ascomycetes were recovered. One isolate of Aspergillus sp., two of Penicillium sp., three of Paecilomyces marquandii, and three of Verticillium sp. out of 308 insects (2.9%) from three insect orders, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Isoptera in the tropical forest. In contrast, a higher number of fungal isolates were recovered from the agricultural area: three isolates from Aspergillus parasiticus, 100 of Fusarium moniliforme, one of Aschersonia sp., and 246 of Fusarium oxysporum out of 3100 insects (11.3%) from three insect orders, Homoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. The results of this study show Fusarium moniliforme and F oxysporum as highly virulent to infected insects in the agricultural area, with 100 and 246 isolates respectively, out of 350 infected insects of 3100 studied specimens. Laboratory whitefly nymph bioassays with isolates Ed29a of F. moniliforme, Ed322 of F. oxysporum, and Ed22 of P marquandii showed 96 to 97.5% insect mortality with no significant differences (P < 0.05) among them. F. oxysporum Ed322 produced no mortality when inoculated on tomato, bean, squash and maize seedlings (with and without injuries) compared to the 100% mortality caused by phytopathogenic strains, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis

  1. Biological control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through parasitoid augmentative releases: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Pablo; Liedo, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flies are among the main pests affecting the world fruit industry (Aluja 1993). Bait sprays have traditionally been used successfully to control them; however, the side effects on the environment and health hazards commonly associated with pesticides, have resulted in strong public opposition to the use of bait sprays. This is particularly so when sprays are applied in urban areas or in coffee plantations where, although Medflies are present, they do not pose a danger to crops. Alternative methods that are effective and environmental friendly to suppress fruit fly populations are highly desirable. Biological control, the use of natural enemies to suppress pest populations, represents such an alternative. Some of the most successful cases of biological control are the control of Iceria purchasi Maskell (Homoptera: Margarodidae) by Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in California (De Bach 1968, van den Bosch et al. 1982), and the control of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) mainly by Encarsia (=Prospaltella) opulenta Silv. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Mexico (Jimenez 1961, 1971), both using the classical approach. However, this approach has been limited to certain conditions of environmental stability and biodiversity which are only found in a few ecosystems. Other factors, such as types of pests, the economic threshold and product quality requirements represent additional limitations. The best option in many cases could be augmentative biological control, which could overcome some of the deficiencies of the classical approach (Sivinski 1996). According to Knipling (1992) and Barclay (1987), augmentative biological control can be considered as a formal alternative for suppressing pest populations and even for use in eradication programmes, after integration with the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this approach, mass production of natural enemies is required and this production has to be cost effective

  2. Preliminary Investigation of Myo-Inositol Phosphates Produced by ASUIA279 Phytase on MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohd. Yusoff

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytate or myo-inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6 is widely distributed in plants like rice brans. The production of myo-inositol phosphate intermediates has received much attention due to the remarkable potential health benefits offered by the compounds. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the partially purified myo-inositol phosphate fractions and commercial IP1 and IP6 were investigated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The study showed that the commercial standard IP1 and IP6 showed good inhibition towards the MCF-7 cell line. The MCF-7 cells growth was inhibited in minimum concentration of myo-inositol phosphates (<1000 µg/ml. However, no inhibition observed on the MCF-7 cell line by the myo-inositol phosphates fractions partially purified from rice bran at concentration <1000 ?g/ml. The inhibition of MCF-7 was only observed at concentration more than 30 mg/ml with more than 40% cells were inhibited. This indicates that the partially purified rice bran myo-inositol phosphates degraded by ASUIA279 phytase on MCF-7 breast cancer cells exhibit positive results towards the inhibition of cancer cells growth at relatively high concentration..KEYWORDS: myo-inositol phosphates, phytase, MCF-7,  cancerABSTRAK: Fitat atau myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 dikenali umum teragih di dalam tumbuhan seperti dedak padi. Penghasilan perantaraan fosfat myo-inositol mendapat perhatian memandangkan ia berpotensi tinggi dalam kesihatan. Dalam kajian ini, kesitotoksikan sebahagian daripada fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen, IP1 komersil dan IP6 komersil dikaji terhadap produk yang berupa sel kekal (cell lines kanser payu dara MCF-7. Tumbesaran sel MCF-7 direncatkan dalam pekatan minima fosfat myo-inositol (<1000 μg/ml. Tetapi, tidak ada perencatan dilihat terhadap sel kekal MCF-7 oleh sebahagian fosfat myo-inositol separa tulen daripada dedak padi pada kepekatan <1000 mg/ml. Perencatan MCF-7 hanya dilihat pada kepekatan lebih daripada 30 mg/ml dengan lebih

  3. Penentuan Alternatif Lokasi Pengembangan Kawasan Agroindustri Berbasis Komoditas Pertanian Unggulan Di Kabupaten Lamongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Nugrahaning Dewanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan alternatif lokasi pengembangan kawasan agroindustri berbasis komoditas pertanian unggulan di Kabupaten Lamongan guna meningkatkan nilai tambah sektor pertanian. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan beberapa alat analisis yakni analisis LQ dan analisis Shift Share yang digunakan untuk menentukan komoditas unggulan, analisis regresi linier berganda untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap penentuan lokasi kawasan agroindustri, serta analisa pembobotan untuk menentukan lokasi yang paling potensial untuk dikembangkan sebagai kawasan agroindustri. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, diperoleh bahwa komoditas pertanian unggulan di kabupaten Lamongan adalah komoditas padi. Selanjutnya didapatkan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi penentuan lokasi pengembangan agroindustri di Kabupaten Lamongan yakni tenaga kerja, aksesibilitas, listrik kuantitas bahan baku, dan pasar. Kemudian berdasarkan faktor-faktor tersebut didapatkan lokasi-lokasi yang potensial untuk pengembangan kawasan agroindustri berbasis komoditas unggulan di Kabupaten Lamongan yakni Kecamatan Babat, Paciran, Kedungpring, Lamongan, Modo, dan Brondong.

  4. Impact of Abamectin on Anagrus nilaparvatae, An Egg Parasitoid of Nilaparvata lugens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Eko Sasmito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae is an egg parasitoid potential for controlling the major pests on rice, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens [Hemiptera: Delphacidae].Abamectin is one of insecticides registered for N. lugens. The research was aimed to investigate the impact of contact application of abamectin on the parasitism level of A. nilaparvatae under laboratory conditions. Adults of A. nilaparvatae and the first instars as well as adults of N. lugens were exposed to the residue of abamection inside the test tube. A. nilaparvatae was much more susceptible to abamectin compared to N. lugens. Application of abamectin at the recommended concentration (22.78 ppm for 30 min caused 100% mortality, and it reduced to 85% when the concentration was decreased to 0.36 ppm. In contrast, the mortality for the first instar of N. lugens was only 15% at 22.78 and no mortality at 0.36 ppm. No N. lugens adults died even when they were exposed to 22.78 ppm. Furthermore, the parasitism test was conducted using 38 days after planting of IR-64 rice variety. Those plants were infested with 50 females of N. lugens for 2 days. A. nilaparvatae were exposed by contact to 0.02, 0.23, and 2.28 ppm of abamectin. The survivors were released to the rice plant containing eggs of N. lugens. Contact application of abamectin reduced parasitism level of A. nilaparvatae as much as 86.34, 70.01, and 28.43% with concentrations of 2.28 ppm, 0.23 and 0.02 ppm, respectively. In addition, the number of parasitoids emerged decreased with increasing concentration of abamectin. These results suggest that abamectin could be detrimental to A. nilaparvatae due to direct mortality, reduced the parasitism level, and decreased the number of progeny produced.   Intisari Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae merupakan salah satu parasitoid telur yang berpotensi untuk mengendalikan hama utama tanaman padi, wereng batang padi cokelat (Nilaparvata lugens [Hemiptera

  5. Inheritance of Early Maturity in Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Genotypes under Rain Fed Conditions in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Yaw Owusu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Savanna Agricultural Research Institute in 2015 cropping season to examine the inheritance of early maturity among an extra-early maturing landrace Sanzi and a medium maturing variety Padi-Tuya and their progenies. The results indicated highly significant (P0.05 were observed between F1 and RF1, implying absence of maternal effect. The segregation ratio in the F2 population for early and medium maturity fitted into the ratio 3 : 1, indicating single dominant gene mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlations were found between DNPM, DFFI, DFF, and DFPM; hence selection criteria to improve early maturity of cowpea should focus on these traits. Grain yield also had significant positive correlations with maturity indices indicating high grain yield is associated with late maturity; therefore, high grain yield should be considered alongside early maturity when selecting progenies for earliness.

  6. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid

    1985-01-01

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  7. APLIKASI BERBAGAI JENIS ADSORBEN PADA PENGOLAHAN AIR ASAM TAMBANG SINTETIK SKALA MINI PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subriyer Nasir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengolahan air asam tambang sintetis dengan memanfaatkan abu terbang batubara, tanah diatom dan abu sekam padi sebagai adsorben yang diikuti dengan pengolahan menggunakan metode sand filtrasi, ultrafiltrasi dan reverse osmosis. air asam tambang sintetik dibuat dengan variasi pH 3; .,5; dan 4. Persentase kenaikan pH karena pemakaian masing-masing adsorben dan penurunan kadar ion besi, mangan dan sulfat juga diteliti. Hasil yang diperoleh coal fly ash merupakan adsorben yang paling efektif dalam menaikkan pH dan menurunkan EC serta ion logam dari air asam tambang sintetik. Persentase kenaikan pH sebesar 97,40%, persentase penurunan EC 96,71%, dan persentase penurunan ion logam mangan, besi, sulfat tertinggi berturut-turut adalah 99,1%, 98,4%, dan 99,7% serta prosentase perolehan air (WRP sebesar 75%. .

  8. ANALISA THERMOGRAVIMETRY PADA PIROLISIS LIMBAH PERTANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan karakterisasi degradasi termal dari limbah pertanian untuk dijadikan suatu bahan bakar padat alternatif. Penelitian diawali dengan tahap pengumpulan bahan yang dilanjutkan penyeragaman ukuran sampel uji hingga berukuran 20 mesh. Setelah itu masing-masing sampel dikeringkan hingga kadar air maksimal 12 %. Sebelum Sampel seberat 20 gram diuji pirolisis dengan menempatkan sampel dalam reaktor yang telah dialiri nitrogen dengan laju 100 ml/menit. Sampel diuji dengan kondisi heating rate 15 oC/menit, temperatur akhir 600 oC dan holding time 10 menit. Data yang didapat berupa penurunan massa dan perubahan temperatur dicatat dalam laptop dengan menggunakan software RS-Key, Ms Excel dan Adam.NET Utility. Dari penelitian yang telah dilakukan, maka dapat disimpulkan campuran serbuk gergaji dan jerami memiliki temperatur pirolisis paling rendah, sementara campuran sekam padi dan kulit singkong memiliki massa arang paling banyak.

  9. KOSAKATA SISTEM PERTANIAN TRADISIONAL SUNDA: KAJIAN STRUKTUR DAN MAKNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Setyadi Aras

    2018-03-01

    afiksasi, reduplikasi, akronim, dan gabungan kata. Makna kosakata mengacu pada peralatan dan perkakas, aktivitas penggarapan, keadaan dan kondisi padi, proses penanaman, nama tempat dan wadah, nama waktu, upacara tradisional, tokoh masyarakat, hama padi, serta ukuran atau takaran.

  10. Biodiversidad antropoentomofágica de la región de Zongolica, Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Ramos-Elorduy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante dos años y medio (2003-2005 se rastrearon a los insectos que se ingieren en el área de Zongolica, Veracruz: para ello se entrevistó a la gente de ese municipio (200, para conocer cuáles especies ingerían. El total de especies registradas, ascendió a 57 distribuidas en los órdenes Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera, correspondiendo el mayor consumo al primer orden. De las especies registradas, 24 son nuevos registros de insectos comestibles para México. Estos se consumen tanto en estado inmaduro como en estado adulto y generalmente se ingieren asados. Hay una secuenciación estacional en el consumo de las diferentes especies y algunas de ellas (las cucarachas, la cuetla, la cuecla, los chapulines, los toritos, etc. se comercializan en los tianguis (puestos de venta callejeros informales que se realizan un día a la semana en diversos lugares del país o en el día de mercado en Zongolica. Existe el "protococultivo" de tres especies: una cucaracha (Periplaneta australasiae Fabricius y dos mariposas (Latebraria amphipyroides Guenée y Arsenura armida armida Cramer. La antropoentomofagía es un hábito ancestral en Zongolica.Anthropoentomophagic biodiversity of the Zongolica region, Veracruz, Mexico. During two and a half years (2003-2005 we recorded the insect species used as food at Zongolica, Veracruz State, Mexico. Interviews were made among people (200 of this municipality to know which insects they consumed. The total of registered species was 57 (Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera. The Orthoptera was the most frequently ingested. Twenty-four of these species were new records for edible insects of Mexico. They are eaten in immature stages or as adults, generally only roasted. Consumption is seasonal. Some species are commercialized in the "tianguis" (little town markets and/or in the larger Zongolica market. There is a

  11. Do Refuge Plants Favour Natural Pest Control in Maize Crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Reinaldo; Mazón, Marina; Rodríguez-Berrío, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests’ natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies. Insects occurring in all the plants, including the maize crop itself, were sampled weekly during the crop growing cycle, from February to June 2011. All individuals collected were identified and classified into three functional groups: herbivores, parasitoids, and predators. Refuges were compared based on their effectiveness in enhancing the populations of predator and parasitoid insects of the crop enemies. Refuges A and B were the most effective, showing the highest richness and abundance of both predators and parasitoids, including several insect species that are reported to attack the main insect pests of maize (Spodoptera frugiperda and Rhopalosiphum maidis), as well as other species that serve as alternative hosts of these natural enemies. PMID:28718835

  12. COMPARATIVE DEMOGRAPHICS OF A GENERALIST PREDATORY LADYBIRD ON FIVE APHID PREY: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omkar; AhmadPervez

    2004-01-01

    Prey driven demographic parameters of an aphidophagous ladybird, Propylea dissecta (Mulsant) were studied in attempt to answer how ladybird overcomes the problem of seasonally fluctuating food base. The ladybird reared for five generations in laboratory derived differential nutrition from five food sources (i.e. aphid species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis craccivora Koch, Aphis gossypii Glover, Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)). The order of relative prey suitability was A. gossypii, A. craccivora, R. maidis, U. compositae and L.erysimi. Neonates suffered maximum mortality followed by eggs. Estimates of net reproductive rate,intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest (407.18, 0.2274 day-1, 1.2553 day-1) on A. gossypii and lowest (176.02, 0.1533 day-1, 1.1657 day-1) on L. erysimi. Generation time was shortest (26.43 days) on A. gossypii and longest (33.73 days) on L. erysimi. The present study thus,provides an explanation to the high incidence of P. dissecta on A. gossypii, as it experienced high intrinsic rate of increase and optimal values for related demographic parameters.

  13. SEED AND POLLEN TTRANSMISSION OF A NEW UNIDENTIFIED MOTTLE DISORDER OF MAIZE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wakman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new unidentified mottle disorder of maize Indonesia was found at the Research Institute for Maize and Other Cereals (RIMOC, Maros, South Sulawesi in 1995. Attempts to identify the disorder were made by mechanical inoculation, insect vector (Rhopalosiphum maidis and Peregrinus maidis transmission, seed and pollen transmission, electron microscopy, and serological test. Fifty seeds from each of 22 ears of Arjuna maize plants showing the disorder were planted and symptoms on the seedlings were recorder at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 40 to 100. Pollen of affected Arjuna was then used to pollinate four sweet corn female flowers. Hybrid seeds (50 per ear of the crosses were planted and symptoms were recorded at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after planting. The results showed that percentage of seedlings showing the disorder ranged from 22 to 84. Electron microscopy and ELISA tests on 15 viruses and one phytospiroplasma antiserum however, gave negative results. Therefore, maize disorder at Maros was not identical to any known viral disease of maize. It could be a genetical disorder and has been given the name maize mottle.

  14. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Elizabeth N; Beckett, Randy J; Gray, Stewart M; Miller, W Allen

    2013-01-01

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV).

  15. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N. Krueger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392. The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV.

  16. PENENTUAN TINGKAT KEKERINGAN LAHAN BERBASIS ANALISA CITRA ASTER DAN SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfian Pujian Hadi

    2016-10-01

    hubungan indeks TVDI dengan kadar lengas tanah menunjukkan hubungan yang tidak terlalu kuat  sebesar 53,7%. Tingkat kekeringan lahan dengan analisis neraca air Thornthwaite-Mather menunjukkan indeks kekeringan (aridity index berada dalam tingkat kekeringan sedang dan berat. Kekeringan sedang terjadi pada satuan lahan yang terpengaruh stasiun hujan Giriwungu (Panggang, Kedung Keris, Gedangan serta sebagian Playen. Kekeringan berat terjadi pada satuan lahan yang terpengaruh stasiun hujan Wonosari, Tepus dan sebagian Playen.  Pola tanam berdasarkan agroklimat Oldeman dikelompokkan ke dalam pola tanam Padi Gogo (Palawija -Palawija - Bero, Padi sawah - Palawija - Bero, Palawija – Palawija - Bero. Pola tanam Padi Gogo (Palawija-Palawija-Bero diterapkan di sawah tadah hujan dan tegalan pada satuan lahan yang terpengaruh stasiun hujan Tepus dan Panggang dengan musim tanam 1 terjadi bulan Oktober–Januari dan musim tanam 2 terjadi pada bulan Februari-Mei, pola tanam Padi Sawah-Palawija-Bero diterapkan di sawah dan sawah tadah hujan pada satuan lahan yang terpengaruh stasiun hujan Wanagama (Playen, Kedung Keris dan Gedangan dengan musim tanam 1 terjadi pada bulan November-Februari dan musim tanam 2 terjadi pada bulan Maret-Juni sedangkan pola tanam Palawija-Palawija-Bero diterapkan di kebun campuran pada satuan lahan yang terpengaruh stasiun hujan Kedung Keris, Panggang, Playen, Gedangan, serta Wonosari untuk sawah tadah hujan dimana musim tanam 1 terjadi pada bulan November-Februari dan musim tanam 2 terjadi pada bulan Maret-Juni. ABSTRACT Dryness of farm knocking over an area to generate big impact to agricultural land productivity. The happening of this dryness because of water deficit as result of lack of falling rain, high water infiltration velocity and crop type which unmatched to water availability. Minimization of Impact to happened as result of dryness of farm hence need to be done anticipation given the deficit and surflus farm water through rainfall data and

  17. Osmanlı’da Bir Darbe ve Tahlili: Genç Osman Örneği A Coup in Ottoman Empire And Its Analysis: Genç Osman Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YAŞAROĞLU

    2013-09-01

    . Mustafa out of his seclusion and declared him as new Ottoman Sultan. Meantime, Genç Osman (Young Othman was lock up into Yedikule Dungeons and killed there. Genç Osman is the first Ottoman sultan killed as a result of a revolution. Osmanlı padişahlarından III. Selim döneminde başlatılan Nizam-ıCedit hareketi, batılılaşma yönünde atılmış önemli bir adımdır.Osmanlının son dönemlerinde bazı padişahlar benzer adımlar atmayagayret etmişlerdir. III. Selim’in babası III. Mustafa zamanında dahiıslahat hareketlerine girişildiğine dair kayıtlar vardır. Daha geriyegittiğimizde karşımıza Lale Devri çıkmaktadır. Lale Devri, zevku sefanınön planda olduğu bir dönem olmakla beraber, bu dönemde dahibatılılaşma/ yenileşme yönünde bazı adımlar atılmıştır. Yenileşmeyönünde atılan adımların ilkini ise Sultan II. Osman dönemi teşkiletmektedir. Mezkur dönemi sona erdiren ise bir ihtilal hareketiolmuştur. Gerek bu İlk Osmanlı yenilik hareketi ve gerekse onu sonaerdiren ilk Osmanlı ihtilalı, daha sonrakilere örnek olmaları bakımındanönem arz etmektedirler. Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda bundan sonraortaya çıkmış olan çoğu yenilik hareketi bu Genç Osman yenilikhareketi ile aynı kaderi paylaşmıştır.Amcası I. Mustafa’nın hal edilmesi üzerine padişah olan GençOsman, sert tavırları yüzünden kısa zamanda Yeniçeri ve Ulemanınnefretini üzerine çekmiştir. Bu nefret padişahın bizzat başkomutanlığıüstlenmesi ve hacca gitmeye karar vermesi üzerine zamanla artmış veneticede isyana dönüşmüştür. Yeniçeri ve Sipahi Ocakları öncülüğündebaşlatılmış olan ve bir sonraki gün ulemanın da katılımı ile güçlenenisyancılar, taleplerini bildirmek üzere Saray’ın kapısına dayanmışlardır.Genç Osman başlangıçta isyancıların taleplerini reddetmiş ancak butavrını fazla sürdürememiştir. Sonunda isyancılar Saray’a girmiş vepadişahın amcası I. Mustafa’yı bulundu

  18. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

  19. The Effects of Dispersal and Predator Density on Prey Survival in an Insect-Red Clover Metacommunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasek, David J; Radl, James N; Crist, Thomas O

    2018-01-01

    Trophic interactions are often studied within habitat patches, but among-patch dispersal of individuals may influence local patch dynamics. Metacommunity concepts incorporate the effects of dispersal on local and community dynamics. There are few experimental tests of metacommunity theory using insects compared to those conducted in microbial microcosms. Using connected experimental mesocosms, we varied the density of the leafhopper Agallia constricta Van Duzee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and a generalist insect predator, the damsel bug (Nabis spp., Heteroptera: Nabidae), to determine the effects of conspecific and predator density and varying the time available to dispersal among mesocosms on predation rates, dispersal rates, and leafhopper survival. Conspecific and damsel bug density did not affect dispersal rates in leafhoppers, but this may be due to leafhoppers' aversion to leaving the host plants or the connecting tubes between mesocosms hindering leafhopper movement. Leafhopper dispersal was higher in high-dispersal treatments. Survival rates of A. constricta were also lowest in treatments where dispersal was not limited. This is one of the first experimental studies to vary predator density and the time available to dispersal. Our results indicate that dispersal is the key to understanding short-term processes such as prey survival in predator-prey metacommunities. Further work is needed to determine how dispersal rates influence persistence of communities in multigenerational studies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Isolation and in vitro cultivation of the aphid pathogenic fungus Entomophthora planchoniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimoser, F M; Jensen, A B; Tuor, U; Aebi, M; Eilenberg, J

    2001-12-01

    Entomophthora planchoniana is an important fungal pathogen of aphids. Although Entomophthora chromaphidis has been considered a synonym for E. planchoniana, the two species are now separated, and E. planchoniana is reported not to grow in vitro. In this paper, we describe for the first time the isolation and cultivation of this species. Entomophthora planchoniana was isolated from a population of Ovatus crataegarius (Homoptera, Aphididae), which was infected by E. planchoniana only. The isolates did not sporulate, but the sequence of the small subunit rDNA and the restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of the first part of the large subunit rDNA and the ITS II region confirm that the isolates were E. planchoniana. The isolated fungus grew in a medium consisting of Grace's insect cell culture medium supplemented with lactalbumin hydrolysate, yeastolate, and 10% fetal bovine serum or in GLEN medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. Vegetative cells of E. planchoniana were long and club-shaped and did not stain with Calcofluor, thus suggesting that they were protoplasts.

  1. Presence of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on strawberry in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédola, Claudia; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this horticultural area. Life history and some demographic parameters were calculated for C. fragaefolii. The mean duration of nymphal stages was 10.44 days, the oviposition period was 11.8 days, and the mean number of nymph/female/day was 2.4 +/- 0.3. Demographic parameters analyzed included the net reproductive rate R(o) = 14.55 +/- 0.096 nymph/female, generation time T=16.91 +/- 0.035 days, and the intrinsic rate of increase r(m) = 0.158 +/- (0.004). No parasites were found associated with C. fragaefolli. The pathogenic fungus, Entomophthora planchoniana Cornu (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) was the main mortality factor. Although aphids are not the main pests in strawberry fields, C. fragaefolii can be a serious problem because it can transmit several virus diseases of strawberry. Greater knowledge of life history traits and mortality factors of this species is needed in order to design appropriate control strategies.

  2. Mutualisme pucerons – fourmis : étude des bénéfices retirés par les colonies d'Aphis fabae en milieu extérieur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheggen F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphid – ant mutualism: an outdoor study of the benefits for Aphis fabae. Aphid – ant relationships are common examples of mutualism. Aphids are indeed submitted to predation and therefore require protection, while ants are continuously looking for new sugar sources. The present work aimed to study the benefits that a mutualistic relationship with Lasius niger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae could bring to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae (Homoptera, Aphididae. Several parameters were observed in the field, on broad bean plants infested with an initial amount of 100 A. fabae and in presence or not of a L. niger colony. More aphids were observed on plants being visited by ants as well as a higher proportion of winged individuals. One explanation is that fewer predators were observed on plants being visited by ants, demonstrating their protective role. However, the number of parasitized aphids was not reduced in presence of L. niger. On the other hand, fewer different aphid species were present on plants foraged by ants, what suggests that they could exert a predation on unattended aphids. Our observations do not allow to conclude on any impact of L. niger on the fitness of the aphid host plant, although fewer exuvia and honeydew spots were observed when they were present. All these results confirm that L. niger increase the fitness of A. fabae colonies mainly by decreasing the number of predators and by reducing competition from aphid species unattended by ants.

  3. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  4. Relative degree of susceptibility and resistance of different brassica campestris l. genotypes against aphid myzus persicae- a field investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Field evaluation of twenty three Brassica campestris L. genotypes was conducted for aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance during 2008 crop season. The parameters used to assess tolerance of germplasm lines included pest population during growth season and grain yield at crop maturity. Aphids showed obvious preferences for all of the germplasm investigated; however, the evaluation for resistance to pest identified several genotypes with variable potential for tolerance and sensitivity. Estimated grain yield also varied significantly due to variable pest intensity noted, and seemed to be more appropriately dependent on the pest population conditions at the experimental site. Among the germplasm, the estimation obtained regarding both the parameters sorted out MM-II/02-3 and MM-I285 genotypes as most tolerant due to less pest infestation and damage. Peak infestations by aphid caused severe crop fatalities on S-9-S-97-0.75+75/55 and S-9-1006/95 genotypes, affecting the seed weight and resulting an immense reduction in grain Brassica genotypes appeared to be governed by means of varietals characteristics of diverse germplasms. The result of resistance test conducted under field environment is an effective and consistent approach in the practical selection of crop lines resistant or partially resistant to pests for use in future breeding programs. (author)

  5. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  6. For the Aphid fauna in the territory of Yenisei river basin. Communication 1. Aphids on coniferous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gurov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on new and previously not well-known data on insufficiently studied fauna of aphids living on coniferous trees in Central Siberia of the basin of Yenisei river. This region is the extensive transect of latitudinal geographic zones from semi-desert in the South to the arctic deserts in the North. That is why this region is very peculiar. This is the reason for insufficient study of regional entomological fauna. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoideaare a very taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of insects. The aphids living on conifer trees are notstudied completely on the territory of Yenisei basin. Due to this, the studying of not well-known and economicallyimportant aphids is actual. For example, the insufficient study of regional aphids is confirmed by the fact, that duringthree weeks only of the work for INTAS-94-0930 Project two new aphid species were found and described on thisterritory. Also, the new species of family Mindaridae, which was described in Mongolia in 1980, was found in Siberiafor the first time. These finds indicate the real possibility to describe an interesting conifer aphid complex in the absolutely unstudied forested territory between Angara and Lower Tunguska rivers. Geographical location, dates ofcollection and feeding preferences of different species are described. A general review of Yenisei basin Siberian aphidfauna is suggested for the first time ever.

  7. Ovary structure in a presocial insect, Elasmucha grisea (Heteroptera, Acanthosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorzałek, Antoni; Trochimczuk, Artur

    2009-11-01

    First generation egg clusters of Elasmucha grisea are more closely guarded than second generation clusters. The ovaries of this species are structured to enhance this behavior. The population of E. grisea from S-W Poland breeds in the spring (May-June) and late summer (July-August). The second generation clutches contain fewer eggs and are destroyed 3-4 days after oviposition by predators and parasitoids. The ovary structure in the studied species differs from that found in other Heteroptera. The average number of ovarioles per ovary is 24 while in the other investigated species the number of ovarioles per ovary is 6-7. Lateral oviducts are elongated and the ovarioles are arranged in a pennate pattern. Each ovariole contains only one growing ovarian follicle. Differentiation of the ovarioles and ovarian follicles is synchronised thus enabling simultaneous oviposition. A comparative analysis of the ovary structure during the life cycle, particularly the presence of atresive ovarian follicles in the ovarioles of egg- and nymph guarding females, as well as the shape and structure of the apical part of the tropharium all support the hypothesis of cooperation between females in E. grisea. A similar ovary structure has been observed in the Coccoidea (Hemiptera, Homoptera) which indicates presocial behavior.

  8. Are cicadas (Diceroprocta apache) both a "keystone" and a "critical-link" species in lower Colorado River riparian communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Apache cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Diceroprocta apache Davis) densities were estimated to be 10 individuals/m2 within a closed-canopy stand of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) in a revegetated site adjacent to the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona. Coupled with data drawn from the literature, I estimate that up to 1.3 cm (13 1/m2) of water may be added to the upper soil layers annually through the feeding activities of cicada nymphs. This is equivalent to 12% of the annual precipitation received in the study area. Apache cicadas may have significant effects on ecosystem functioning via effects on water transport and thus act as a critical-link species in this southwest desert riverine ecosystem. Cicadas emerged later within the cottonwood-willow stand than in relatively open saltcedar-mesquite stands; this difference in temporal dynamics would affect their availability to several insectivorous bird species and may help explain the birds' recent declines. Resource managers in this region should be sensitive to the multiple and strong effects that Apache cicadas may have on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  9. BIOLOGY OF CHRYSOPA PHYLLOCHROMA WESMAEL (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE). Ⅱ: INTRASPECIFIC INTERFERENCE AND SEARCHING CAPACITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-weiSu; Xiang-huiLiu; Neng-wenXiao; FengGe

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined intraspecific interference and searching behavior of Chrysopa phyllochroma Wesmael (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) for Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) nymphs under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results were shown as follow: 1) In four different arenas (i.e. Petri dish, glass vessel, glass vessel with barriers in it, and cage with potted cotton plant), the predaceous efficiency of C. phyllochroma larvae varied with the predator density, the hunt constant (Q) and the intraspecific interference (m)increased with the prey density but decreased with the space heterogeneity; 2) In cage with potted cotton plant, the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae consumed 13.6 and 29.4 cotton aphids/day respectively. The number of cotton aphids consumed by C. phyllochroma on lower leaves was significantly less than that on upper leaves; and 3) In cage with potted cotton plant, the percentage of the first- and second-instar green lacewing larvae located on upper leaves was significant less than that on lower leaves.

  10. Insectes ravageurs et propriétés biocides de Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae : synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Habou, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect pests and biocidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae. A review. Jatropha curcas is a Euphorbiaceae shrub widely distributed in many tropical countries. Its seeds are rich in oil that can be used as biofuel in modified diesel engines. Several insect species, mainly belonging to Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Orthoptera, have been referenced as insect pests of J. curcas. These insects attack the plant and cause damage to fruits, inflorescences and leaves. The most frequently observed pests belong to the genus Pachycoris (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae, which are widely distributed in Mexico, Australia, United States of America, Brazil and Nicaragua. Pachycoris spp. cause significant damage to the fruits, leading to the malformation of seeds and a reduction in their oil content. Although Jatropha shrubs are subjected to insect infestations, the oil has been shown to demonstrate biocidal activity, including insecticidal effects against several insect pests, including Busseola fusca (Fuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae and Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. In the present paper, we summarize the work carried out on inventories of J. curcas insect pests as well as on the biocidal activity of its oil.

  11. Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Short Distance Search Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M, used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning.

  12. Original Article. An evaluation of some eco-friendly biopesticides against Bemisia tabaci on two greenhouse tomato varieties in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razek Atef S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has two main approaches. First, it exploits the susceptibility of tomato cultivars as a prophylactic measure to detect auto resistance characters of the tested tomato varieties against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae. Secondly, it evaluates the efficacy of different bio-rational insecticides against B. tabaci under greenhouse conditions. The results exhibited a special significance in B. tabaci infestation suitability between the two tomato varieties with a high infestation significance found in the Shifa F1 hybrid tomato variety compared to the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety in the first plantation period. Subsequently, in the second plantation period, there was a significant difference between the two tomato varieties. Bemisia tabaci showed a preference for the Shifa F1 hybrid over the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety. These differences occurred during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 10th weeks. In the experimental trial for the efficacy of eco-friendly biorational insecticides, spinosad, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, there were significant differences between the treated and untreated plants during the two plantation periods. A high efficacy of spinosad on the B. tabaci population was found. Bemisia tabaci infestation under all the applications was reduced from 50 to 94.61% for the two plantation periods. This obvious decrease in B. tabaci population increase attention to benefits of the different bio-rational insecticides.

  13. Food habits of the southwestern willow flycatcher during the nesting season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Charles A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2003-01-01

    The food habits and prey base of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) are not well known. We analyzed prey remains in 59 fecal samples from an intensively-studied population of this flycatcher at the Kern River Preserve in southern California. These samples were collected during the nesting season in 1996 and 1997 from adults caught in mist nets, and from nestlings temporarily removed from the nest for banding. A total of 379 prey individuals were identified in the samples. Dominant prey taxa, both in total numbers and in percent occurrence, were true bugs (Hemiptera), flies (Diptera), and beetles (Coleoptera). Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), spiders (Araneae), bees and wasps (Hymenoptera), and dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) were also common items. Diet composition was significantly different between years, due to a large difference in the numbers of spiders between 1996 and 1997. There was also a significant difference between the diet of young and adults, with the diet of young birds having significantly higher numbers of odonates and beetles. There was a trend toward diet differences between males and females, but this was not significant at the P = 0.05 level.

  14. Aspectos biológicos y poblacionales de Nasonovia ribisnigri y Aulacorthum solani sobre lechuga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicek Araceli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la influencia de los cultivares Criolla Blanca, Cuatro Estaciones y Gallega, sobre la biología y los parámetros poblacionales de Nasonovia ribisnigri y Aulacorthum solani (Homoptera: Aphidoidea a 10±1ºC y HR de 90%. Los períodos ninfal, pre-reproductivo y post-reproductivo de N. ribisnigri fueron más largos sobre Cuatro Estaciones, no así el reproductivo. En A. solani el período ninfal fue más largo sobre Criolla Blanca y Cuatro Estaciones resultando el reproductivo mayor sobre Cuatro Estaciones. Las tasas intrínsecas de crecimiento natural (r m de N. ribisnigri y A. solani fueron mayores sobre Criolla Blanca y Gallega, respectivamente. De acuerdo a la especie predominante convendría utilizar Cuatro Estaciones para N. ribisnigri y Criolla Blanca para A. solani, en épocas frías.

  15. Comparison of the ionizing radiation effects on cochineal, annatto and turmeric natural dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Helio M.; Takinami, Patricia Y. I.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2016-07-01

    As studies on radiation stability of food dyes are scarce, commercially important natural food grade dyes were evaluated in terms of their sensitivity against gamma ionizing radiation. Cochineal, annatto and turmeric dyes with suitable concentrations were subjected to increasing doses up to 32 kGy and analyzed by spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis. The results showed different pattern of absorbance versus absorbed dose for the three systems. Carmine, the glucosidal coloring matter from the scale insect Coccus cacti L., Homoptera (cochineal) remained almost unaffected by radiation up to doses of about 32 kGy (absorbance at 494 nm). Meanwhile, at that dose, a plant-derived product annatto or urucum (Bixa orellana L.) tincture presented a nearly 58% reduction in color intensity. Tincture of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) the active ingredient in the eastern spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) showed to be highly sensitive to radiation when diluted. These data shall be taken in account whenever food products containing these food colors were going to undergo radiation processing.

  16. Entomofauna associated to horticultural crops under organic and conventional practices in Cordoba, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalazar, Laura; Salvo, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    Farming practices and the addition of chemical synthetic substances in conventional agroecosystems are detrimental mainly to natural enemies of phytophagous insects, diminishing the natural regulation of pest insects. On the other hand, in organic agriculture, biological processes and care of the environment are favoured, hence an increase in insect biodiversity is predicted in this type of systems. In this work, abundance, richness of insects and proportion of functional groups were compared through a single quantitative sampling of insects in horticultural crop fields, three under organic and three under conventional management practices. Insect species richness, total and for guilds (phytophagous and entomophagous insects) were significantly higher in organic orchards, and also was the abundance of entomophagous insects. Richness and abundance of all insect orders (with exception of Homoptera abundance), were higher in orchards under organic management, being significant the differences for richness of Coleoptera and richness and abundance of Hymenoptera. Similar tendencies were observed in data obtained through sweep net in weeds. These results suggest that organic practices increase the diversity of species, particularly that of natural enemies. (author)

  17. Arthropod prey of Wilson's Warblers in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, J.C.; Dugger, K.M.; Starkey, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  18. Diet of Wilson's warblers and distribution of arthropod prey in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Dugger, Kate; Starkey, Edward E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  19. With or without pheromone habituation: possible differences between insect orders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Walter, Gimme H; Sullivan, Nicola; El-Sayed, Ashraf M

    2018-06-01

    Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic. Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour. We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders. Similar pre-exposure for 24 h to either sex pheromone [Pseudococcus calceolariae (Homoptera) and apple leaf curling midge Dasineura mali (Dipte