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Sample records for rhodium base alloys

  1. Rhodium segregation in dilute silver-rhodium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Sternik, M.

    1995-01-01

    Segregation of Rh in Ag-based alloys has been studied using the perturbed angular correlation of γ-rays emitted in the nuclear decay of radioactive 111 In. The formation of impurity complexes, consisting of an 111 In probe atom and one or more Rh atoms, was observed as a function of annealing time and temperature. Rhodium atom aggregation starts at about 600 K. From the fraction of 111 In bound to isolated Rh atoms the solute rhodium atom concentration was determined. It increases with the nominal alloy concentration up to about 0.04 at.% and then it is essentially constant for the nominal Rh concentration varying between 0.1 and 0.5 at.%. The solute rhodium atom concentration is 3 times larger at the melting point than at 750 K

  2. Superconductivity in zirconium-rhodium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegler, S. T.

    1969-01-01

    Metallographic studies and transition temperature measurements were made with isothermally annealed and water-quenched zirconium-rhodium alloys. The results clarify both the solid-state phase relations at the Zr-rich end of the Zr-Rh alloy system and the influence upon the superconducting transition temperature of structure and composition.

  3. Development of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for palladium and Rhodium determination in platinum-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, R.; Todorovic, M.; Manojlovic, D.; Mutic, J.

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy with internal standardization was applied for the analysis of an in-house reference platinum alloy containing palladium and rhodium (approximately 5% by weight). In order to compensate for variations in signal recovery due to matrix interferences, and therefore to improve the precision, platinum. the major component, was chosen as an internal standard. Quantitative analysis was based on calibration using a set of matrix-matched calibration standards with and without employing the internal standard. These results were compared with those obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results for both techniques were in a good agreement, although the precision was slightly better in the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique, with or without the internal standard

  4. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  5. Reaction pathways for reduction of nitrate ions on platinum, rhodium, and platinum-rhodium alloy electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M.C.P.M. da; De Souza, J.P.I.; Nart, F.C.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate ions on platinum, rhodium, and platinum-rhodium alloy electrodes has been investigated using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry and in situ FTIR measurements. For 3 M HNO 3 concentration it has been found that nitrate starts the reduction with partial N-O bond dissociation and N-N bond formation generating NO and N 2 O. At potentials lower than 0.2 V the reaction proceeds forming dissolved NH 4 + . For potentials lower than 0 V the reduction continues via a multiple pathway reaction leading to the nonselective production of N 2 , NH 2 OH, and N 2 H 2 . On the alloyed electrodes, the production of NO and N 2 O has been observed in both cathodic and anodic scans, while on pure platinum and rhodium electrodes the reaction has been observed only during the cathodic scan. Contrasting with the pure platinum and rhodium alloys, where the N-O bond break starts forming NO and N 2 O, on the alloys HNO 2 has been observed as the first reaction step. For alloys with higher rhodium composition, like Pt 75 Rh 25 , no N 2 has been detected for potentials lower than 0 V

  6. Investigation into cathode polarization during deposition of rhodium-nickel and rhodium-indium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimova, N.V.; Byacheslavov, P.M.; Lokshtanova, O.G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of kinetic regularities experimental investigations during electrodeposition of rhodium-nickel and rhonium-indium alloys are presented. Methods of general and partial polarization curves have been used to show the nature of polarization during the rhonium-nickel and rhodium-indium alloys deposition. It is shown that indium into the rhodium-indium alloy and nickel into the rhodium-nickel alloy deposit with great depolarization ( PHIsub(In)sup(0)=-0.33B, PHIsub(Ni)sup(0)=-0.23B). Indium and nickel in pure form do not deposit from the electrolytes of the given composition (H 2 SO 4 - 50 g/l, HNH 2 SO 3 -10 g/l). The recalculation of partial polarization curve of indium precipitation into the rhodium-indium alloy in the mixed kinetics coordinates gives a straight line with 40 mV inclination angle. This corresponds to the delayed stage of the second electron addition with the imposition of diffusion limitations

  7. Determination of rhodium in metallic alloy and water samples using cloud point extraction coupled with spectrophotometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohammed A.; Amin, Alaa S.

    2015-02-01

    A new method to estimate rhodium in different samples at trace levels had been developed. Rhodium was complexed with 5-(4‧-nitro-2‧,6‧-dichlorophenylazo)-6-hydroxypyrimidine-2,4-dione (NDPHPD) as a complexing agent in an aqueous medium and concentrated by using Triton X-114 as a surfactant. The investigated rhodium complex was preconcentrated with cloud point extraction process using the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 to extract rhodium complex from aqueous solutions at pH 4.75. After the phase separation at 50 °C, the surfactant-rich phase was heated again at 100 °C to remove water after decantation and the remaining phase was dissolved using 0.5 mL of acetonitrile. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear for the concentration range of 0.5-75 ng mL-1 and the detection limit was 0.15 ng mL-1 of the original solution. The enhancement factor of 500 was achieved for 250 mL samples containing the analyte and relative standard deviations were ⩽1.50%. The method was found to be highly selective, fairly sensitive, simple, rapid and economical and safely applied for rhodium determination in different complex materials such as synthetic mixture of alloys and environmental water samples.

  8. Methane Steam Reforming Kinetics for a Rhodium-Based Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jon Geest; Jakobsen, M.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Methane steam reforming is the key reaction to produce synthesis gas and hydrogen at the industrial scale. Here the kinetics of methane steam reforming over a rhodium-based catalyst is investigated in the temperature range 500-800 A degrees C and as a function of CH4, H2O and H-2 partial pressures....... The methane steam reforming reaction cannot be modeled without taking CO and H coverages into account. This is especially important at low temperatures and higher partial pressures of CO and H-2. For methane CO2 reforming experiments, it is also necessary to consider the repulsive interaction of CO...

  9. Complexes of technetium, rhenium, and rhodium with sexidentate Schiff-base ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, G.; Kilcullen, N.

    1989-01-01

    The monocationic technetium (IV) and rhenium (IV) complexes with the sexidentate Schiff-base ligands tris[2-(2'-hydroxybenzylideneethyl)]amine and its substituted derivatives have been prepared and their electrochemical properties studied. The variable-temperature 90.6 MHz 13 C-{ 1 H} n.m.r. spectrum of the rhodium (III) complex of tris[2-(2-hydroxy-5'-isopropylbenzylideneethyl)-amine] has been observed, indicating fluxionality at temperatures above 218 K. (author)

  10. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, R.; Budić, B.; Stamenković, D.; Čolić, M.; Ivanič, A.; Kosec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  11. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  12. Bimetallic poly- and oligo-nuclear complexes based on a rhodium(III) metalloligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, Danila B.; Venediktov, Anatoliy B.; Korenev, Sergey V.; Filatov, Evgeniy Yu.; Baidina, Iraida A.; Nadolinnyi, Vladimir A.

    2012-10-01

    Interaction of trans-[Rh(i-Nic)4Cl2]3- anions (i-Nic- - isonicotinate anion) with Cuaq2+ and Coaq2+ cations in water has afforded complex salts Co3[Rh(i-Nic)4Cl2]2·17H2O (1) and Cu3[Rh(i-Nic)4Cl2]2·14H2O (2). Oligonuclear character of 1 and 2 has been established. A coordination polymer Cu5[Rh(i-Nic)4Cl2]2(i-Nic)2(OH)2·2H2O (3) has been crystallized by hydrothermal treatment of 2 at 160 °C, and its structure was determined by X-ray structural analysis. EPR data for the complexes has been collected and interpreted. Thermal decomposition of the salts was studied by c-DTA. Bimetallic alloys rhodium-copper and rhodium-cobalt have been obtained as final products of thermal decomposition.

  13. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  14. Reactivity Control of Rhodium Cluster Ions by Alloying with Tantalum Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuné, Fumitaka; Tawaraya, Yuki; Kudoh, Satoshi

    2016-02-18

    Gas phase, bielement rhodium and tantalum clusters, RhnTam(+) (n + m = 6), were prepared by the double laser ablation of Rh and Ta rods in He carrier gas. The clusters were introduced into a reaction gas cell filled with nitric oxide (NO) diluted with He and were subjected to collisions with NO and He at room temperature. The product species were observed by mass spectrometry, demonstrating that the NO molecules were sequentially adsorbed on the RhnTam(+) clusters to form RhnTam(+)NxOx (x = 1, 2, 3, ...) species. In addition, oxide clusters, RhnTam(+)O2, were also observed, suggesting that the NO molecules were dissociatively adsorbed on the cluster, the N atoms migrated on the surface to form N2, and the N2 molecules were released from RhnTam(+)N2O2. The reactivity, leading to oxide formation, was composition dependent: oxide clusters were dominantly formed for the bielement clusters containing both Rh and Ta atoms, whereas such clusters were hardly formed for the single-element Rhn(+) and Tam(+) clusters. DFT calculations indicated that the Ta atoms induce dissociation of NO on the clusters by lowering the dissociation energy, whereas the Rh atoms enable release of N2 by lowering the binding energy of the N atoms on the clusters.

  15. Influence of adsorbed carbon dioxide on hydrogen electrosorption in palladium-platinum-rhodium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukaszewski, M.; Grden, M.; Czerwinski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide electroreduction was applied to examine the processes of hydrogen electrosorption (adsorption, absorption and desorption) by thin electrodeposits of Pd-Pt-Rh alloys under conditions of cyclic voltammetric (CV) experiments. Due to different adsorption characteristics towards the adsorption product of the electroreduction of CO 2 (reduced CO 2 ) exhibited by the alloy components hydrogen adsorption and hydrogen absorption signals can be distinguished on CV curves. Reduced CO 2 causes partial blocking of hydrogen adsorbed on surface Pt and Rh atoms, without any significant effect on hydrogen absorption into alloy. It reflects the fact that adsorbed hydrogen bonded to Pd atoms does not participate in CO 2 reduction, while hydrogen adsorbed on Pt and Rh surface sites is inactive in the absorption reaction. In contrast, CO is adsorbed on all alloy components and causes a marked inhibition of hydrogen sorption (both adsorption and absorption)/desorption reactions

  16. Hydrolysis of Letrozole catalyzed by macrocyclic Rhodium (I) Schiff-base complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Muralidhar; Shanker, K; Srinivas, V; Krishna, E Ravi; Rohini, R; Srikanth, G; Hu, Anren; Ravinder, V

    2015-03-15

    Ten mononuclear Rhodium (I) complexes were synthesized by macrocyclic ligands having N4 and N2O2 donor sites. Square planar geometry is assigned based on the analytical and spectral properties for all complexes. Rh(I) complexes were investigated as catalysts in hydrolysis of Nitrile group containing pharmaceutical drug Letrozole. A comparative study showed that all the complexes are efficient in the catalysis. The percent yields of all the catalytic reaction products viz. drug impurities were determined by spectrophotometric procedures and characterized by spectral studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A rhodium(III)-based inhibitor of autotaxin with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tian-Shu; Wang, Wanhe; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Liang, Jia-Xin; Ko, Chung-Nga; Lu, Jin-Jian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2017-02-01

    Cancer of the skin is by far the most common of all cancers. Melanoma accounts for only about 1% of skin cancers but causes a large majority of skin cancer deaths. Autotaxin (ATX), also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2), regulates physiological and pathological functions of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and is thus an important therapeutic target. We synthesized ten metal-based complexes and a novel cyclometalated rhodium(III) complex 1 was identified as an ATX enzymatic inhibitor using multiple methods, including ATX enzymatic assay, thermal shift assay, western immunoblotting and so on. Protein thermal shift assays showed that 1 increased the melting temperature (T m ) of ATX by 3.5°C. 1 also reduced ATX-LPA mediated downstream survival signal pathway proteins such as ERK and AKT, and inhibited the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). 1 also exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity against A2058 melanoma cells (IC 50 =0.58μM). Structure-activity relationship indicated that both the rhodium(III) center and the auxiliary ligands of complex 1 are important for bioactivity. 1 represents a promising scaffold for the development of small-molecule ATX inhibitors for anti-tumor applications. To our knowledge, complex 1 is the first metal-based ATX inhibitor reported to date. Rhodium complexes will have the increased attention in therapeutic and bioanalytical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  19. BOWIEITE: A NEW RHODIUM-IRIDIUM-PLATINUM SULFIDE IN PLATINUM-ALLOY NUGGETS, GOODNEWS BAY, ALASKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Criddle, Alan J.

    1984-01-01

    Bowieite (Rh,Ir,Pt)//2S//3, a new mineral species, is found in three nuggets of platinum from Goodnews Bay, Alaska. In linearly polarized reflected light, and compared to the host, higher reflecting white platinum-iridium alloy, bowieite is pale gray to pale gray-brown; neither bireflectance nor reflectance pleochroism is apparent. With polars crossed, its anisotropic rotation tints vary from gray to dark brown. Luminance values (relative to the CIE illuminant C) for R//1 and R//2, computed from full spectral data for the most bireflectant grain, are 45. 8% and 48. 2% in air, and 30. 5% and 33. 0% in oil, respectively. VHN//1//0//0 1288 (858 to 1635). Bowieite is orthorhombic, space group Pnca, with a 8. 454(7) -8. 473(8), b 5. 995(1)-6. 002(7), c 6. 143(1)-6. 121(8) A, Z equals 4. Some grains that are 2. 6 to 3. 8 atomic % metal-deficient occur as an optically coherent rim on bowieite; the rim and the bowieite grain are not optically continuous.

  20. Rhodium complexes as therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dik-Lung; Wang, Modi; Mao, Zhifeng; Yang, Chao; Ng, Chan-Tat; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2016-02-21

    The landscape of inorganic medicinal chemistry has been dominated by the investigation of platinum, and to a lesser extent ruthenium, complexes over the past few decades. Recently, complexes based on other metal centers such as rhodium have attracted attention due to their tunable chemical and biological properties as well as distinct mechanisms of action. This perspective highlights recent examples of rhodium complexes that show diverse biological activities against various targets, including enzymes and protein-protein interactions.

  1. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  2. Photocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction with rhodium-based catalysts in solution and heterogenized within metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Matthew B; Wang, Xia; Elgrishi, Noémie; Hendon, Christopher H; Walsh, Aron; Bonnefoy, Jonathan; Canivet, Jérôme; Quadrelli, Elsje Alessandra; Farrusseng, David; Mellot-Draznieks, Caroline; Fontecave, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The first photosensitization of a rhodium-based catalytic system for CO2 reduction is reported, with formate as the sole carbon-containing product. Formate has wide industrial applications and is seen as valuable within fuel cell technologies as well as an interesting H2 -storage compound. Heterogenization of molecular rhodium catalysts is accomplished via the synthesis, post-synthetic linker exchange, and characterization of a new metal-organic framework (MOF) Cp*Rh@UiO-67. While the catalytic activities of the homogeneous and heterogeneous systems are found to be comparable, the MOF-based system is more stable and selective. Furthermore it can be recycled without loss of activity. For formate production, an optimal catalyst loading of ∼10 % molar Rh incorporation is determined. Increased incorporation of rhodium catalyst favors thermal decomposition of formate into H2 . There is no precedent for a MOF catalyzing the latter reaction so far. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junicke, Henrik; Hart, Jonathan R.; Kisko, Jennifer; Glebov, Oleg; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2003-01-01

    A rhodium(III) complex, rac-[Rh(bpy)2phzi]3+ (bpy, 2,2′-bipyridine; phzi, benzo[a]phenazine-5,6-quinone diimine) has been designed as a sterically demanding intercalator targeted to destabilized mismatched sites in double-helical DNA. The complex is readily synthesized by condensation of the phenazine quinone with the corresponding diammine complex. Upon photoactivation, the complex promotes direct strand scission at single-base mismatch sites within the DNA duplex. As with the parent mismatch-specific reagent, [Rh(bpy)2(chrysi)]3+ [chrysene-5,6-quinone diimine (chrysi)], mismatch selectivity depends on the helix destabilization associated with mispairing. Unlike the parent chrysi complex, the phzi analogue binds and cleaves with high affinity and efficiency. The specific binding constants for CA, CC, and CT mismatches within a 31-mer oligonucleotide duplex are 0.3, 1, and 6 × 107 M−1, respectively; site-specific photocleavage is evident at nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, the specificity, defined as the ratio in binding affinities for mispaired vs. well paired sites, is maintained. The increase in affinity is attributed to greater stability in the mismatched site associated with stacking by the heterocyclic aromatic ligand. The high-affinity complex is also applied in the differential cleavage of DNA obtained from cell lines deficient in mismatch repair vs. those proficient in mismatch repair. Agreement is found between photocleavage by the mismatch-specific probes and deficiency in mismatch repair. This mismatch-specific targeting, therefore, offers a potential strategy for new chemotherapeutic design. PMID:12610209

  4. Electrochemical Sensor Based on Rh(III) Ion-Imprinted Polymer as a New Modifying Agent for Rhodium Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Huiping; Xiong, Caiyun; Wang, Chunqiong; Liu, Peng; Dong, Su; Cao, Qiue

    2018-05-01

    A rhodium (III) ion carbon paste electrode (CPE) based on an ion imprinted polymer (IIP) as a new modifying agent has been prepared and studied. Rh(III) ion imprinted polymer was synthesized by copolymerization of acrylamide-Rh(III) complex and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate according to the precipitation polymerization. Acrylamide acted as both functional monomer and complexing agent to create selective coordination sites in a cross-linked polymer. The ion imprinted carbon paste electrode (IIP-CPE) was prepared by mixing rhodium IIP-nanoparticles and graphite powder in n-eicosane as an adhesive and then embedding them in a Teflon tube. Amperometric i-t curve method was applied as the determination technique. Several parameters, including the functional monomer, molar ratio of template, monomer and cross-linking agent, the amounts of IIP, the applied potential, the buffer solution and pH have been studied. According to the results, IIP-CPE showed a considerably higher response in comparison with the electrode embedded with non-imprinted polymer (NIP), indicating the formation of suitable recognition sites in the IIP structure during the polymerization stage. The introduced electrode showed a linear range of 1.00×10-8~3.0×10-5 mol·L-1 and detection limit of 6.0 nmol L-1 (S/N = 3). The IIP-CPE was successfully applied for the trace rhodium determination in catalyst and plant samples with RSD of less than 3.3% (n = 5) and recoveries in the range of 95.5~102.5%.

  5. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  6. Rhodium thioacetate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovskij, I.B.; Golubnichaya, M.A.; Mazo, G.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    Thioacetato-complexes of rhodium(II) were prepared by the reaction of thioacetic acid with rhodium(II) carboxylates. Diamagnetic compounds of the type Rh 2 (CH 3 COS) 4 2A, where A=H 2 O, Py, N 2 H 4 .HCl, Thio, KNCS, DMSO, CH 3 CN, CsCl, or CH 3 COSH, were isolated. Their infrared spectra were recorded, and the principal vibrational wavenumbers assigned. The X-ray electron spectra confirm that rhodium is divalent. The thioacetato-complexes are dimeric, with a metal-metal bond. [Rh(NH 3 ) 5 (CH 3 COS)]I 2 was prepared, and its properties studied. The significant decrease in the strength of the bonds formed by the axial ligands with rhodium is due to the strong trans-influence of the covalent rhodium-rhodium sigma-bond

  7. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  8. Rhodium. Suppl. Vol. B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.P.; Jehn, H.; McCleverty, J.A.; Raub, C.J.; Robinson, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    The present rhodium vol. B1 is concerned largely with linary compounds and coordination complexes of this important metal, which is used either alone or in alloy form for fabrication of other materials or for heterogeneous catalysis. In first two chapters are devoted for hydrides, oxides, ternary and quaternary oxorhodates. Third chapter is on different type of complexes with nitrogen. From chapter four to seven is on halogen complexes with this metal. Next chapters are on sulphides, sulphoxide and sulphito complexes, sulphates and sulphato complexes, selenides and tellurides, borides, borane complexes, carbides, carbonato, cyno, fulminato and thiocyanato complexes. Finally, silicide, phosphides, phosphito and arsenides are treated over here. (AB)

  9. Line profile analyses of rhodium metal obtained by decomposition of rhodium carbonyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, D.; Mandalia, H.; Garner, M.L.; Blakely, M.K.; Lau, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    Metal carbonyls are important for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metals and alloys and formation of high surface area metallic particles which have potential applications as catalysts. Rhodium carbonyl [Rh 6 (CO) 16 ] produces high surface area metallic particles whose structure has been reported as monoclinic (I2/a) with lattice dimensions, a=17.00(±0.03)Angstrom, b=9.78(±0.02)Angstrom, c=17.53(±0.03)Angstrom and Β=121 degrees 45' ± 30' at room temperature. Generally, metal carbonyl crystals dissociate under vacuum as carbonyl gas and decompose to metallic crystals and carbon monoxide at higher temperatures. However, the behavior of rhodium carbonyl crystals is different; they decompose directly to metallic rhodium without the formation of rhodium carbonyl gas in vacuum. Several residual fine grains of rhodium metal are found after the decomposition in vacuum at relatively low temperatures. The metallic samples of rhodium were obtained from vapor pressure experiments using torsion Knudsen-effusion apparatus. X-ray diffraction analyses performed on these gains showed severely broadened Bragg reflections indicative of small particle size and/or lattice microgram. In this study, a comparison of lattice strains and domain sizes obtained by integral breadth and Fourier methods has been made. In addition a comparison of the lattice strains and domain sizes has been made between the Cauchy, Gaussian, Cauchy-Gaussian and Aqua integral breadth methods

  10. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  11. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    The specified alloys consist of Ni, Cr and Fe as main constituents, and Mo, Nb, Si, Zr, Ti, Al, C and B as minor constituents. They are said to exhibit high weldability and long-time structural stability, as well as low swelling under nuclear radiation conditions, making them especially suitable for use as a duct material and control element cladding for sodium-cooled nuclear reactors. (U.K.)

  12. Correction of rhodium detector signals for comparison to design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, J.L.; Chang, R.Y.; Gabel, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Rhodium detectors are used in many commercial pressurized water reactors PWRs [pressurized water reactor] as in-core neutron detectors. The signals from the detectors are the result of neutron absorption in 103 Rh and the subsequent beta decay of 104 Rh to 104 Pd. The rhodium depletes ∼1% per full-power month, so corrections are necessary to the detector signal to account for the effects of the rhodium depletion. These corrections result from the change in detector self-shielding with rhodium burnup and the change in rhodium concentration itself. Correction for the change in rhodium concentration is done by multiplication of the factor N(t)/N 0 , where N(t) is the rhodium concentration at time t and N 0 is the initial rhodium concentration. The calculation of the self-shielding factor is more complicated and is presented. A self-shielding factor based on the fraction of rhodium remaining was calculated with the CASMO-3 code. The results obtained from our comparisons of predicted and measured in-core detector signals show that the CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 code package is an effective tool for estimating pin peaking and power distributions

  13. Enantioselective Synthesis of Aminodiols by Sequential Rhodium-Catalysed Oxyamination/Kinetic Resolution: Expanding the Substrate Scope of Amidine-Based Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch, Joan; Giménez-Nueno, Irene; Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Bernús, Miguel; Matheu, M Isabel; Maseras, Feliu; Castillón, Sergio; Díaz, Yolanda

    2018-03-26

    Regio- and stereoselective oxyamination of dienes through a tandem rhodium-catalysed aziridination-nucleophilic opening affords racemic oxazolidinone derivatives, which undergo a kinetic resolution acylation process with amidine-based catalysts (ABCs) to achieve s values of up to 117. This protocol was applied to the enantioselective synthesis of sphingosine. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Glucose biosensor based on a platinum electrode modified with rhodium nanoparticles and with glucose oxidase immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xishan; Jian, Jinming; Liang, Bo; Ye, Xuesong; Zhang, Yelei

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an enzymatic glucose biosensor that is based on a flat platinum electrode which was covered with electrophoretically deposited rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles and then sintered to form a large surface area. The biosensor was obtained by depositing glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion, and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the Rh electrode. The electrical potential and the fractions of Nafion and GOx were optimized. The resulting biosensor has a very high sensitivity (68.1 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 15 mM (r = 0.989). The limit of detection is as low as 0.03 mM (at an SNR of 3). The glucose biosensor also is quite selective and is not interfered by electroactive substances including ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetaminophen. The lifespan is up to 90 days. It was applied to the determination of glucose in blood serum, and the results compare very well with those obtained with a clinical analyzer. (author)

  15. Progress in development of iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackay, V.V.; Parker, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    The ways of development of new iron base high-strength alloys are considered. Perspectiveness of ferritic steel strengthening with intermetallides (TaFe 2 , for instance) is shown. Favourable combination of plasticity, strength and fracture toughness in nickel-free iron-manganese alloys (16-20%) is also pointed out. A strength level of alloyed maraging steels can be achieved by changes in chemical composition and by proper heat treatments of low- and medium-alloyed steels

  16. A Rhodium(III)-Based Inhibitor of Lysine-Specific Histone Demethylase 1 as an Epigenetic Modulator in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Wanhe; Liang, Jia-Xin; Li, Guodong; Vellaisamy, Kasipandi; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2017-03-23

    We report herein a novel rhodium(III) complex 1 as a new LSD1 targeting agent and epigenetic modulator. Complex 1 disrupted the interaction of LSD1-H3K4me2 in human prostate carcinoma cells and enhanced the amplification of p21, FOXA2, and BMP2 gene promoters. Complex 1 was selective for LSD1 over other histone demethylases, such as KDM2b, KDM7, and MAO activities, and also showed antiproliferative activity toward human cancer cells. To date, complex 1 is the first metal-based inhibitor of LSD1 activity.

  17. Rhodium Catalyzed Decarbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Kahr, Klara; Riisager, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Rhodium catalyzed decarbonylation has developed significantly over the last 50 years and resulted in a wide range of reported catalyst systems and reaction protocols. Besides experimental data, literature also includes mechanistic studies incorporating Hammett methods, analysis of kinetic isotope...

  18. Rhodium based clusters for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation in 0.5 M H2SO4, tolerant to methanol and carbon monoxide, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe-Godinez, J.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O.; Borja-Arco, E.; Altamirano-Gutierrez, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Queritaro (Mexico); Castellanos, R.H. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Rhodium (Rh6(CO)16) and novel Rh-based clusters were prepared using thermolysis techniques under different conditions in N2 and H2 reaction media, as well as in n-nonane, o-xylene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide. The clusters were used as novel electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the absence and presence of 1.0 and 2.0 M methanol solutions. The catalysts were also used for hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) with pure hydrogen (H2) and in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO). Rotating disk electrode measurements were used to analyze the materials. The study showed that the electrocatalyst support ratio plays a significant role in the electrochemical behaviour of the materials. Rh6(CO)16 and Rh2(1,2-DCB) presented the best electrocatalytic behaviour for ORR and HOR in the absence and presence of methanol and CO. The study demonstrated that the rhodium-based materials are capable of performing ORR and HOR while being tolerant of both methanol and CO. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  20. Engineering data bases for refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Harms, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory alloys based on niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten are required for the multi-100kW(e) space nuclear reactor power concepts that have been assessed in the SP-100 Program because of the extremely high temperatures involved. A review is presented of the technology efforts on the candidate refractory alloys in the areas of availability/fabricability, mechanical properties, irradiation effects, and compatibility. Of the niobium-base alloys, only Nb-1Zr has a data base that is sufficiently comprehensive for the high level of confidence required in the reference-alloy selection process for the reactor concept to be tested in the Ground Engineering System (GES) Phase of the SP-100 Program. Based on relatively short-term tests, the alloy PWC-11 (Nb-1Zr-0.1C) appears to have significantly greater creep strength than Nb-1Zr; however, concerns as to whether this precipitation-hardened alloy will remain thermally stable during seven years of full-power reactor operation need to be resolved. Additional information on the reference GES alloy will be needed for the detailed engineering design of a space power system and the fabrication of prototypical GES test components. Expedient development and demonstration of an adequate total manufacturing capability will be required if a high risk of significant schedule slippages and cost overruns is to be avoided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. LASER CLADDING ON ALUMINIUM BASE ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Pilloz , M.; Pelletier , J.; Vannes , A.; Bignonnet , A.

    1991-01-01

    laser cladding is often performed on iron or titanium base alloys. In the present work, this method is employed on aluminum alloys ; nickel or silicon are added by powder injection. Addition of silicon leads to sound surface layers, but with moderated properties, while the presence of nickel induces the formation of hard intermetallic compounds and then to an attractive hardening phenomena ; however a recovery treatment has to be carried out, in order to eliminate porosity in the near surface...

  2. Inter-diffusion study of rhodium and tantalum by RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttens, V.E.; Hubert, R.L.; Bodart, F.; Lucas, S.

    2005-01-01

    The inter-diffusion of rhodium and tantalum has been studied with the goal of synthesizing an alloy acting as a diffusion barrier for high temperature applications. Rh/Ta sandwiched samples were annealed in vacuum at temperature ranging from 800 to 900 deg. C and from 1000 to 1075 deg. C. The diffusion profiles were obtained by RBS. They suggest the formation of two clearly different phases in each temperature range considered

  3. Inhibiting prolyl isomerase activity by hybrid organic-inorganic molecules containing rhodium(II) fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jane M; Kundu, Rituparna; Cooper, Julian C; Ball, Zachary T

    2014-11-15

    A small molecule containing a rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate fragment is shown to be a potent inhibitor of the prolyl isomerase FKBP12. The use of small molecules conjugates of rhodium(II) is presented as a general strategy for developing new protein inhibitors based on distinct structural and sequence features of the enzyme active site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of hardened alloys of Sr-Rh system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobromyslov, A.V.; Taluth, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurement were applied to study the structure of hardened zirconium-rhodium system alloys with rhodium contents up to 4.5 at.%. It is shown that in hardening alloys with rhodium concentration lower 2.2 at.% the eutectoid decomposition takes place and bainite-like structure is formed. A metastable ω-phase is formed in alloys with rhodium concentration equal to 2.65 at.% and above. The formation of ω-phase suppresses the process of eutectoid decomposition

  5. Partitioning of rhodium and ruthenium between Pd–Rh–Ru and (Ru,Rh)O{sub 2} solid solutions in high-level radioactive waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Toru, E-mail: toru@gipc.akita-u.ac.jp [Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, 1-1, Tegatagakuenmachi, Akita City, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Ohira, Toshiaki [Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, 1-1, Tegatagakuenmachi, Akita City, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Komamine, Satoshi; Ochi, Eiji [Research and Development Department, Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Okitsuke, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The partitioning of rhodium and ruthenium between Pd–Rh–Ru alloy with a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure and (Ru,Rh)O{sub 2} solid solution has been investigated between 1273 and 1573 K at atmospheric oxygen fugacity. The rhodium and ruthenium contents in FCC increase, while the RhO{sub 2} content in (Ru,Rh)O{sub 2} decreases with increasing temperature due to progressive reduction of the system. Based on the experimental results and previously reported thermodynamic data, the thermodynamic mixing properties of FCC phase and (Ru,Rh)O{sub 2} have been calibrated in an internally consistent manner. Phase equilibrium of platinum grope metals in an HLW glass was calculated by using the obtained thermodynamic parameters.

  6. Processing and properties of Nb-Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.

    1992-01-01

    The processing characteristics, tensile properties, and oxidation response of two Nb-Ti-Al-Cr alloys were investigated. One creep test at 650 C and 172 MPa was conducted on the base alloy which contained 40Nb-40Ti-10Al-10Cr. A second alloy was modified with 0.11 at. % carbon and 0.07 at. % yttrium. Alloys were arc melted in a chamber backfilled with argon, drop cast into a water-cooled copper mold, and cold rolled to obtain a 0.8-mm sheet. The sheet was annealed at 1,100 C for 0.5 h. Longitudinal tensile specimens and oxidation specimens were obtained for both the base alloy and the modified alloy. Tensile properties were obtained for the base alloy at room temperature, 400, 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1,000 C, and for the modified alloy at room temperature, 400, 600, 700, and 800 C. Oxidation tests on the base alloy and modified alloy, as measured by weight change, were carried out at 600, 700, 800, and 900 C. Both the base alloy and the modified alloy were extremely ductile and were cold rolled to the final sheet thickness of 0.8 mm without an intermediate anneal. The modified alloy exhibited some edge cracking during cold during cold rolling. Both alloys recrystallized at the end of a 0.5-h annealing treatment. The alloys exhibited moderate strength and oxidation resistance below 600 C, similar to the results of alloys reported in the literature

  7. The effect of coadsorbed oxygen on the reaction of methanol on Rh(111) and on a rhodium/vanadium surface alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schennach, R.; Krenn, G.; Rendulic, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Molecular adsorption of methanol can be observed on all transition metal surfaces at low temperatures. Methanol is adsorbed on Rh (111) at 98 K. With increasing methanol exposure first a mono-layer and then multi-layers of methanol are formed at this surface temperature. During heating, desorption of the methanol from physisorbed multi-layers is detected at about 120 K, followed by desorption of methanol from a chemisorbed mono-layer at 170 K. About 50 % of the adsorbed methanol undergoes a dehydrogenation reaction to form hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorbed on the surface. These reaction products desorb at 300 K and 480 K, respectively. Less than 0.05 monolayers of coadsorbed oxygen increases the amount of methanol that reacts on the surface to about 80 %. Experiments using a Rh/V surface alloy were performed, in order to distinguish between steric and electronic effects in the adsorption and reaction processes. Deposition of 0.3 monolayers of V on the Rh (111) surface leads to the formation of a subsurface alloy, with V atoms in the second atomic layer only. The initial reaction probability was measured as a function of surface temperature and molecular beam energy. A marked difference was found between the two surfaces. On the clean surface methanol adsorption and reaction stops above 198 K, whereas on the alloy surface adsorption and subsequent reaction occurs up to 473 K. The effects of coadsorbed oxygen are similar on both surfaces. The results are discussed in terms of the possible reactions of the adsorbed methanol on the surface. (author)

  8. About the extraction recovery of fission rhodium from radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaperskaya, A.V.; Renard, E.V.; Koltunov, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    The report will cover a radically new approach to the problem of rhodium recovery from HLLW after the transformation of kinetically inert poly-aqua cation of trivalent rhodium (which is not recoverable by the majority known extractants) to Rh (IV) form by chemical methods. Presented are the research results of Rh (IV) extraction from nitric acid solutions by several extractants that are of considerable current use in noble metals and radiochemical industries (tri-n-butyl phosphate, di-octyl-sulphide, tri-n-octylamine, quaternary ammonium bases). High level of rhodium extraction has been found for the above extractants: for several systems, for example, tri-n-octylamine - diethyl-benzene, rhodium distribution coefficient achieves high values (10-plus), as well as the sufficient extraction kinetics. Rhodium extraction increases with a decrease of the acidity, a rise in phase mixing time and in the following series: tri-n-butyl phosphate → di-octyl-sulphide → quaternary ammonium bases → tri-n-octylamine. Rh (IV) can be easily reduced to non-extractable Rh (III) by such reductants as Fe (II), HCOOH, C 6 H 8 O 6 , NH 2 OH, N 2 H 4 et al, that may be applied for the re-extraction process. (authors)

  9. Rhodium-103m generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamadaliev, N.; Levin, V.I.; Malinin, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    103 Pd separated from metal rhodium irradiated with deuterons has been used without a carrier for sup( 03m)Rh generator The generator of sup(103m)Rh is a column 6mm in diameter filled with an anionite in Cl - form (Dowex-2,8,200-400 mesh) with an adsorbed parent isotope of 103 Pd. As a result of its decay, a 103 Rh daughter isotope is accumulated, which can be washed out from the generator from time to time with a corresponding solution. To prepare the generator, 0.5g of the resin with an adsorbed 103 Pd is charged into the column containing 1g of the same resin. Washing out with 2N HCl yields more than 90% of sup(103m)Rh with a radionuclide purity of more than 99.99%

  10. Hydrogen adsorption on skeletal rhodium-tantalum electrodes-catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsinstevich, V.M.; Krejnina, N.M.

    1975-01-01

    Skeleton rhodium-tantalic catalyst electrodes with a tantalum mass percentage of 0 to 100 have been obtained by the methodology of Crupp and others. The hydrogen adsorption is studied through the method of removing the galvano-static and potentiodynamic curves of charging in sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide. It has been discovered that the maximum adsorption ability relatively to the hydrogen can be observed in an alloy with a 5% tantalum contents. The energetic characteristics of the alloys are higher in alkali than in acid

  11. Studies on neutron irradiation effects of iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    1987-09-01

    The present paper describes the results of neutron irradiation effects on iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys. As for the iron alloys, irradiation hardening and embrittlement were investigated using internal friction measurement, electron microscopy and tensile testings. The role of alloying elements was also investigated to understand the irradiation behavior of iron alloys. The essential factors affecting irradiation hardening and embrittlement were thus clarified. On the other hand, postirradiation tensile and creep properties were measured of Hastelloy X alloy. Irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures is discussed. (author)

  12. A sulfidation-resistant nickel-base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, G.Y.

    1989-01-01

    For applications in mildly to moderately sulfidizing environments, stainless steels, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys (e.g., alloys 800 and 330), and more recently Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloys (e.g., alloy 556) are frequently used for construction of process equipment. However, for many highly sulfidizing environments, few existing commercial alloys have adequate performance. Thus, a new nickel-based alloy containing 27 wt.% Co, 28 wt.% Cr, 4 wt.% Fe, 2.75 wt.% Si, 0.5 wt.% Mn and 0.05 wt.% C (Haynes alloy HR-160) was developed

  13. Kalman filtering for rhodium self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Rhodium self-powered neutron detectors are utilized in many pressurized water reactors to determine the neutronic behavior within the core. In order to compensate for the inherent time delay associated with the response of these detectors, a dynamic compensation algorithm is currently used in Combustion Engineering plants to reconstruct the dynamic flux signal which is being sensed by the rhodium detectors. This paper describes a new dynamic compensation algorithm, based on Kalman filtering, which improves on the noise gain and response time characteristics of the algorithm currently used, and offers the possibility of utilizing the proven rhodium detector based fixed in-core detector system as an integral part of advanced core control and/or protection systems

  14. On the superconductivity of vanadium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouers, F.; Rest, J. Van der

    1984-01-01

    The electron density of states of solid solutions of vanadium based transition metal alloys V 90 X 10 is computed with the aim of calculating the superconducting transition temperature using the McMillan formula. As observed experimentally for X on the left hand side of V in the periodic table, one obtains an increase of Tc while for X on the right hand side of V the critical temperature decreases. The detailed comparison with experiments indicate that when the bandwidths of the two constituents are different, one cannot neglect the variation of the electron-phonon interactions. Another important conclusion is that for alloys which are in the split-band limit like VAu, VPd and VPt, the agreement with experimental data can be obtained only by assuming that these alloys have a short-range order favouring clusters of pure vanadium. (Author) [pt

  15. Segregation in welded nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.I.; Shoaib, K.A.; Ahmad, M.; Shaikh, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    Segregation effects have been investigated in nickel-base alloys monel 400, inconel 625, hastelloy C-276 and incoloy 825, test welded under controlled conditions. Deviations from the normal composition have been observed to varying extents in the welded zone of these alloys. Least effect of this type occurred in Monel 400 where the content of Cu increased in some of the areas. Enhancement of Al and Ti has been found over large areas in the other alloys which has been attributed to the formation of low melting slag. Another common feature is the segregation of Cr, Fe or Ti, most likely in the form of carbides. Enrichment of Al, Ti, Nb, Mb, Mo, etc., to different amounts in some of the areas of these materials is in- terpretted in terms of the formation of gamma prime precipitates or of Laves phases. (author)

  16. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show DP while others do not. In this paper the misfit strain parameter, , has been calculated and predicted that if 100 > ± 0.1, DP is ...

  17. Neutronographic Texture Analysis of Zirconium Based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruz'elová, M; Vratislav, S; Kalvoda, L; Dlouhá, M

    2012-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is a very powerful tool in texture analysis of zirconium based alloys used in nuclear technique. Textures of five samples (two rolled sheets and three tubes) were investigated by using basal pole figures, inversion pole figures, and ODF distribution function. The texture measurement was performed at diffractometer KSN2 on the Laboratory of Neutron Diffraction, Department of Solid State Engineering, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, CTU in Prague. Procedures for studying textures with thermal neutrons and procedures for obtaining texture parameters (direct and inverse pole figures, three dimensional orientation distribution function) are also described. Observed data were processed by software packages HEXAL and GSAS. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) All samples of zirconium alloys show the distribution of middle area into two maxima in basal pole figures. This is caused by alloying elements. A characteristic split of the basal pole maxima tilted from the normal direction toward the transverse direction can be observed for all samples, ii) Sheet samples prefer orientation of planes (100) and (110) perpendicular to rolling direction and orientation of planes (002) perpendicular to normal direction, iii) Basal planes of tubes are oriented parallel to tube axis, meanwhile (100) planes are oriented perpendicular to tube axis. Level of resulting texture and maxima position is different for tubes and for sheets. The obtained results are characteristic for zirconium based alloys.

  18. Lead and lead-based alloys as waste matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arustamov, A.E.; Ojovan, M.I.; Kachalov, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Metals and alloys with relatively low melting temperatures such as lead and lead-based alloys are considered in Russia as prospective matrices for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel in containers in preparation for final disposal in underground repositories. Now lead and lead-based alloys are being used for conditioning spent sealed radioactive sources at radioactive waste disposal facilities

  19. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined

  20. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined.

  1. Application of mechanical alloying to synthesis of intermetallic phases based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is the process of synthesis of powder materials during milling in high energetic mills, usually ball mills. The central event in mechanical alloying is the ball-powder-ball collision. Powder particles are trapped between the colliding balls during milling and undergo deformation and/or fracture. Fractured parts are cold welded. The continued fracture and cold welding results in a uniform size and chemical composition of powder particles. The main applications of mechanical alloying are: processing of ODS alloys, syntheses of intermetallic phases, synthesis of nonequilibrium structures (amorphous alloys, extended solid solutions, nanocrystalline, quasi crystals) and magnetic materials. The present paper deals with application of mechanical alloying to synthesis Ni A l base intermetallic phases as well as phases from the Nb-Al binary system. The alloy were processed from elemental powders. The course of milling was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. After milling, the collected powders were sieved by 45 μm grid and hot pressed (Nb alloys and NiAl) or hot extruded (NiAl). The resulting material was fully dense and exhibited fine grain (< 1 μm) and uniform distribution of oxide dispersoid. The consolidated material was compression and creep tested. The mechanical properties of mechanically alloys were superior to properties of their cast counterparts both in the room and elevated temperatures. Higher strength of mechanically alloyed materials results from their fine grains and from the presence of dispersoid. At elevated temperatures, the Nb-Al alloys have higher compression strength than NiAl-based alloys processed at the same conditions. The minimum creep rates of mechanically alloyed Nb alloys are an order of magnitude lower than analogously processed NiAl-base alloys. (author)

  2. Measurement of the hyperfine magnetic field on rhodium in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.; Teisseron, G.; Berthier, J.

    1978-01-01

    Hyperfine magnetic field of rhodium in a chromium matrix is studied. Anisotropy of rhodium 100 is + 0.17. Time dependence of angular correlation is given with a sample containing 145 ppm of rhodium despite the short life [fr

  3. Ring Expansion and Rearrangements of Rhodium(II) Azavinyl Carbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Nicklas; Worrell, Brady T.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient, regioselective and convergent method for the ring expansion and rearrangement of 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles under rhodium(II)-catalyzed conditions is described. These denitrogenative reactions form substituted enaminone and olefin-based products, which in the former case can be further functionalized to unique products rendering the sulfonyl triazole traceless. PMID:23161725

  4. On the superconductivity of vanadium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouers, F.; Rest, J.V. der

    1985-01-01

    We have computed the electron density of States of solid solutions of vanadium based transition metal alloys V 90 X 10 by using the tight-binding recursion method for degenerate d-bands in order to calculte the alloy superconducting transition temperature with the McMillan formula. As observed experimentally for X on the left hand side of V in the periodic table one obtains an increase of T c while for X on the right hand side of V the critical temperature decreases. The detailed comparison with experiments indicate that when the bandwidths of the two constituents are different, one cannot neglect the variation of the electron-phonon interactions. (author) [pt

  5. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Haidong; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. PMID:28788539

  6. Electronic and magnetic properties of small rhodium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Yee Yeen; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    We report a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of rhodium-atomic clusters. The lowest energy structures at the semi-empirical level of rhodium clusters are first obtained from a novel global-minimum search algorithm, known as PTMBHGA, where Gupta potential is used to describe the atomic interaction among the rhodium atoms. The structures are then re-optimized at the density functional theory (DFT) level with exchange-correlation energy approximated by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation. For the purpose of calculating the magnetic moment of a given cluster, we calculate the optimized structure as a function of the spin multiplicity within the DFT framework. The resultant magnetic moments with the lowest energies so obtained allow us to work out the magnetic moment as a function of cluster size. Rhodium atomic clusters are found to display a unique variation in the magnetic moment as the cluster size varies. However, Rh{sub 4} and Rh{sub 6} are found to be nonmagnetic. Electronic structures of the magnetic ground-state structures are also investigated within the DFT framework. The results are compared against those based on different theoretical approaches available in the literature.

  7. Kinetic method of determination of rhodium trace amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, V.E.; Lyakushina, V.M.; Rybina, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    A catalytic action of rhodium compounds has been detected and studied in the reaction of copper (2) tellurate oxidation with hypobromite to ditelluratocuprate (3) in an alkaline medium. The relationships between the reaction rate and concentrations of copper, tellurate, and hypobromite have been established. The optimum concentrations of the used compounds have been found: Csub(Cu(2))=4x10 -5 g-ion/l; Csub(OHsup(-))=3.0 g-ion/l; Csub(Te)=1.4x10 -2 g-ion/l; Csub(NaBrO)=2.17x10 -3 M. It has been established for chloride, sulphate, and perchlorate solutions of rhodium (3) and (4) that the reaction sensitivity increases by 2-3-fold with a temperature rise from 25-60 deg C. The technique of determining rhodium traces has been developed based on its catalytic action. The low limit of determined rhodium amounts is about 10 -3 mkg/ml

  8. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  9. Modifiers in rhodium catalysts for carbon monoxide hydrogenation: Structure-activity relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhore, N. A.

    1989-05-01

    This report is aimed at identifying interesting modified rhodium systems and elucidating structure-activity relationships in these systems with the overall goal of understanding the scientific issues in the catalytic conversion of syngas to oxygenates. Specific additives (sodium and molybdenum) are selected based on the scoping experiments. The effect of the additives on supported rhodium catalysts is then investigated. Throughout the investigation, experiments and analysis were performed on real systems instead of ideal systems. 374 refs., 82 figs., 57 tabs.

  10. Ti-Ni-based shape memory alloys as smart materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, K.; Xu, Y.; Ren, X.

    2003-01-01

    Smart materials consist of three principal materials, ferroelectrics, shape memory alloys (SMA) and electro-active polymers (EAP). Among these SMAs, especially Ti-Ni-based alloys are important, since only they can provide large recoverable strains and high recovery stress. In the present paper the unique characteristics of Ti-Ni-based shape memory alloys are reviewed on an up-to-date basis with the aim of their applications to smart materials and structures. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of the Rhodium (II) citrate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, R.; Santos, F.S. dos; Seidel, W.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of the rhodium (II) citrate is described. Rhodium citrate was prepared by reacting citric acid trihydrated (3,4 g, 16 mmols) with anhydrous rhodium acetate (0,44 g, 1 mmol). Th electronic instruments, thermogravimetric curve and spectrum of rhodium (II) citrate are analysed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  12. Stress corrosion crack tip microstructure in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shei, S.A.; Yang, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behavior of several nickel-base alloys in high temperature caustic environments has been evaluated. The crack tip and fracture surfaces were examined using Auger/ESCA and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) to determine the near crack tip microstructure and microchemistry. Results showed formation of chromium-rich oxides at or near the crack tip and nickel-rich de-alloying layers away from the crack tip. The stress corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys in caustic may be explained by the preferential oxidation and dissolution of different alloying elements at the crack tip. Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) shows good general corrosion and intergranular attack resistance in caustic because of its high nickel content. Thermally treated Alloy 690 (UNS N06690) and Alloy 600 provide good stress corrosion cracking resistance because of high chromium contents along grain boundaries. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) does not show as good stress corrosion cracking resistance as Alloy 690 or Alloy 600 because of its high molybdenum content

  13. Corrosion behaviour of cladded nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Ruczinski, D.; Nolde, M.; Blum, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the high cost of nickel base alloys their use as surface layers is convenient. In this paper the properties of SA-as well as RES-cladded NiMo 16Cr16Ti and NiCr21Mo14W being produced in single and multi-layer technique are compared and discussed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. Decisive criteria describing the qualities of the claddings are the mass loss, the susceptibility against intergranular corrosion and the pitting corrosion resistance. The results prove that RES cladding is the most suitable technique to produce corrosion resistant nickel base coatings. The corrosion behaviour of a two-layer RES deposition shows a better resistance against pitting than a three layer SAW cladding. 7 refs

  14. Corrosion and oxidation of vanadium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Wiggins, G.

    1983-10-01

    The corrosion of several V-base alloys on exposure at elevated temperatures to helium environments containing hydrogen and/or water vapor are presented. These results are utilized to discuss the consequences of the selection of certain radiation-damage resistant, V-base alloys for structural materials applications in a fusion reactor

  15. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  16. Reactivity of rhodium during co-deposition of rhodium and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; De Temmerman, Gregory; Oelhafen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The detailed characterizations of rhodium/carbon films prepared by co-deposition using a dual magnetron sputtering have been carried out on silicon substrates at room temperature. Effects of the carbon incorporated in the film on the chemical bonding state, optical reflectivity and crystallinity were investigated using XPS, reflectivity measurements, XRD and SEM. The incorporation of carbon changes the films' crystallinity and thus producing amorphous films. The reflectivity of the films decreases linearly as the rhodium concentration decreases. It is important to note that no chemical bonding was observed between rhodium and carbon whatever the deposition conditions, even at high deposition temperature. Concerning the reactivity of rhodium films with oxygen, after long term storage in air the rhodium surface is covered with a thin rhodium oxide (few nanometers). However, for these films no variation of the optical reflectivity was observed after long air storage.

  17. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  18. Corrosion resistance improvement of titanium base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy in comparison with ternary Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Ringer-Brown solution and artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva of different pH values was studied. In Ringer-Brown solution, the new alloy presented an improvement of all electrochemical parameters due to the alloying with Zr; also, impedance spectra revealed better protective properties of its passive layer. In Carter-Brugirard artificial saliva, an increase of the passive film thickness was proved. Fluoride ions had a slight negative influence on the corrosion and ion release rates, without to affect the very good stability of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy.

  19. Applications of thermodynamic calculations to Mg alloy design: Mg-Sn based alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Park, Woo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Ho; Kang, Dae Hoon; Kim, Nack J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently an Mg-Sn based alloy system has been investigated actively in order to develop new magnesium alloys which have a stable structure and good mechanical properties at high temperatures. Thermodynamic modeling of the Mg-Al-Mn-Sb-Si-Sn-Zn system was performed based on available thermodynamic, phase equilibria and phase diagram data. Using the optimized database, the phase relationships of the Mg-Sn-Al-Zn alloys with additions of Si and Sb were calculated and compared with their experimental microstructures. It is shown that the calculated results are in good agreement with experimental microstructures, which proves the applicability of thermodynamic calculations for new Mg alloy design. All calculations were performed using FactSage thermochemical software. (orig.)

  20. Electron beam and laser surface alloying of Al-Si base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhille, P.; Tosto, S.; Pelletier, J.M.; Issa, A.; Vannes, A.B.; Criqui, B.

    1992-01-01

    Surface alloying on aluminium-base alloys is achieved either by using an electron beam or a laser beam, in order to improve the mechanical properties of the near-surface region. A predeposit of nickel is first realized by plasma spraying. Melting of both the coating and part of the substrate produces a surface alloy with a fine, dendritic microstructure with a high hardness. Enhancement of this property requires an increase in the nickel content. Various problems occur during the formation of nickel-rich surface layers: incomplete homogenization owing to a progressive increase of the liquidus temperature, cracks owing to the brittleness of this hard suface alloy, formation of a plasma when experiments are carried out in a gaseous environment (laser surface alloying). Nevertheless, various kinds of surface layers may be achieved; for example very hard surface alloys (HV 0.2 =900), with a thickness of about 500-600 μm, or very thick surface alloys (e>2 mm), with a fairly good hardness (greater than 350 HV 0.2 ). Thus, it is possible to obtain a large variety of new materials by using high energy beams on aluminium substrates. (orig.)

  1. Corrosion and wear protective composition modulated alloy coatings based on ternary Ni-P-X alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, P.; Benzon, M. E.; Christoffersen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Scattered reporting in the litterature describes a number of ternary Ni-P-X alloyes (where X can be Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Re or W) with promising corrosin and wear protective performance. Based on a systematic study of Ni-P-X alloys it is the intention to produce coatings with improved corrosion...... and wear performance compared with conventional coatings like electroless nickel, hard chromioum and anodised aluminium....

  2. DNA Mismatch Binding and Antiproliferative Activity of Rhodium Metalloinsertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Russell J.; Song, Hang; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2009-01-01

    Deficiencies in mismatch repair (MMR) are associated with carcinogenesis. Rhodium metalloinsertors bind to DNA base mismatches with high specificity and inhibit cellular proliferation preferentially in MMR-deficient cells versus MMR-proficient cells. A family of chrysenequinone diimine complexes of rhodium with varying ancillary ligands that serve as DNA metalloinsertors has been synthesized, and both DNA mismatch binding affinities and antiproliferative activities against the human colorectal carcinoma cell lines HCT116N and HCT116O, an isogenic model system for MMR deficiency, have been determined. DNA photocleavage experiments reveal that all complexes bind to the mismatch sites with high specificities; DNA binding affinities to oligonucleotides containing single base CA and CC mismatches, obtained through photocleavage titration or competition, vary from 104 to 108 M−1 for the series of complexes. Significantly, binding affinities are found to be inversely related to ancillary ligand size and directly related to differential inhibition of the HCT116 cell lines. The observed trend in binding affinity is consistent with the metalloinsertion mode where the complex binds from the minor groove with ejection of mismatched base pairs. The correlation between binding affinity and targeting of the MMR-deficient cell line suggests that rhodium metalloinsertors exert their selective biological effects on MMR-deficient cells through mismatch binding in vivo. PMID:19175313

  3. Effects of alloying elements on nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The effects of alloying and impurity elements (tin, iron, chromium, nickel, niobium, tantalum, oxygen, aluminum, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and phosphorus) on the nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys were studied. The improving effect of iron, nickel and niobium in nodular corrosion resistance were observed. The uniform corrosion resistance was also improved by nickel, niobium and tantalum. The effects of impurity elements, nitrogen, aluminum and phosphorus were negligibly small but increasing the silicon content seemed to improve slightly the uniform corrosion resistance. Hydrogen pick-up fraction were not changed by alloying and impurity elements except nickel. Nickel addition increased remarkably hydrogen pick-up fraction. Although the composition of secondary precipitates changed with contents of alloying elements, the correlation of composition of secondary precipitates to corrosion resistance was not observed. (author)

  4. Precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys for sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, M.; Mukai, S.; Kudo, T.; Okada, Y.; Ikeda, A.

    1987-01-01

    SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) in sour gas environments of γ'(gamma prime: Ni/sub 3/(Ti and/or Al)) and γ''(gamma double prime: Ni/sub 3/Nb) precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys has been studied using the SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test, anodic polarization measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The γ'-type alloy containing Ti was more susceptible to SCC in the SSRT tests up to 350 0 F(450 K) than the γ''-type alloy containing Nb. The susceptibility to SCC was related to their deformation structures in terms of stress localization and sensitivity to pitting corrosion in H/sub 2/S solutions. TEM observation showed the γ'-type alloy deformed by the superlattice dislocations in coplanar structures. This mode of deformation induced the stress localization to some boundaries such as grain boundary and as a result the susceptibility to SCC of the γ'-type alloy was increased. On the other hand, the γ''-type alloy deformed by the massive dislocation not in coplanar structures so that it was less susceptible to SCC in terms of the stress localization. The anodic polarization measurement suggested the γ'-type alloy was more susceptible to pitting corrosion compared with the γ''-type alloy

  5. Microstructures and oxidation behavior of some Molybdenum based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Pratik Kumar [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Ni based superalloys revolutionized the high temperature alloy industry. These materials are capable of operating in extremely harsh environments, comprising of temperatures around 1050 C, under oxidative conditions. Demands for increased fuel efficiency, however, has highlighted the need for materials that can be used under oxidative conditions at temperatures in excess of 1200 C. The Ni based superalloys are restricted to lower temperatures due to the presence of a number of low melting phases that melt in the 1250 - 1450 C, resulting in softening of the alloys above 1000 C. Therefore, recent research directions have been skewed towards exploring and developing newer alloy systems. This thesis comprises a part of such an effort. Techniques for rapid thermodynamic assessments were developed and applied to two different systems - Mo-Si alloys with transition metal substitutions (and this forms the first part of the thesis) and Ni-Al alloys with added components for providing high temperature strength and ductility. A hierarchical approach towards alloy design indicated the Mo-Ni-Al system as a prospective candidate for high temperature applications. Investigations on microstructures and oxidation behavior, under both isothermal and cyclic conditions, of these alloys constitute the second part of this thesis. It was seen that refractory metal systems show a marked microstructure dependence of oxidation.

  6. Rhodium(I) catalysis in olefin photoreactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, R.G.; El Sanadi, N.

    1975-01-01

    The photorearrangement (254 nm) of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (1) in the presence of rhodium(I) chloride to give 1,4-cyclooctadiene (4) was found by deuterium labeling to involve an intramolecular [1,3] shift of hydrogen. A rate-determining cleavage of an allylic C--H bond is indicated by a deuterium isotope effect, k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.55 +- 0.03 for the 1 → 4 rearrangement. The acyclic 1,5-diene, 3,3-dimethyl-1,5-hexadiene (8), rearranges in the presence of rhodium(I) chloride upon uv irradiation (254 nm) to give cis-3,3-dimethyl-1,4-hexadiene (10) and the trans isomer 11 in a 1:4 ratio, respectively. This observation supports a mechanism for the photorearrangement of olefins catalyzed by rhodium(I) involving an initial photodissociation of one of two rhodium(I) coordinated carbon-carbon double bonds. This results in an increase in the coordinative unsaturation of rhodium(I) and enhances the proclivity of this d/sub s/ metal atom toward oxidative addition of an allylic C--H bond. A eta 3 -allylrhodium hydride intermediate then gives rearranged olefin by reductive elimination. Lastly, a novel photochemical, rhodium(I) catalyzed hydrogen transfer is reported which gives cyclooctene (7) from cyclooctadienes under unprecedentedly mild conditions. (auth)

  7. Corrosion resistance of tantalum base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gypen, L.A.; Brabers, M.; Deruyttre, A.

    1984-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of substitutional Ta-Mo, Ta-W, Ta-Nb, Ta-Hf, Ta-Zr, Ta-Re, Ta-Ni, Ta-V, Ta-W-Mo, Ta-W-Nb, Ta-W-Hf and Ta-W-Re alloys has been investigated in various corrosive media, i.e. (1) concentrated sulfuric acid at 250 0 C and 200 0 C, (2) boiling hydrochloric acid of azeotropic composition, (3) concentrated hydrochloric acid at 150 0 C under pressure, (4) HF-Containing solutions and (5) 0.5% H 2 SO 4 at room temperature (anodisation). In highly corrosive media such as concentrated H 2 SO 4 at 250 0 C and concentrated HCl at 150 0 C tantalum is hydrogen embrittled, probably by stress induced precipitation of β-hydride. Both corrosion rate and hydrogen embrittlement in concentrated H 2 SO 4 at 250 0 C are strongly influenced by alloying elements. Small alloying additions of either Mo or Re decrease the corrosion rate and the hydrogen embrittlement, while Hf has the opposite effect. Hydrogen embrittlement in concentrated H 2 SO 4 at 250 0 C is completely eliminated by alloying Ta with 1 to 3 at % Mo (0.5 to 1.5 wt % Mo). These results can be explained in terms of oxygen deficiency of the Ta 2 O 5 film and the electronic structure of these alloys. (orig.) [de

  8. Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Characteristics of martensitic transformation fcc(γ)→hcp(ε) in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys are briefly reviewed. By analyzing the influences of constituents and treatments on shape memory effect (SME) in Fe-Mn-Si, the main factors controlling SME are summarized as austenite strengthening, stacking fault energy (probability) and antiferromagnetic temperature. Contribution of thermomechanical training to SME is introduced. The Fe-Mn-Si-RE (rare earth elements) and Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-N alloys are recommended as two novel shape memory alloys with superior SME. (orig.)

  9. Galvanic corrosion resistance of welded dissimilar nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.; Snyder, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A program for evaluating the corrosion resistance of various dissimilar welded nickel-base alloy combinations is outlined. Alloy combinations included ALLCORR, Hastelloy C-276, Inconel 72 and Inconel 690. The GTAW welding process involved both high and minimum heat in-put conditions. Samples were evaluated in the as-welded condition, as well as after having been aged at various condtions of time and temperature. These were judged to be most representative of process upset conditions which might be expected. Corrosion testing evaluated resistance to an oxidizing acid and a severe service environment in which the alloy combinations might be used. Mechanical properties are also discussed

  10. The development of cobalt-base alloy ball bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinshui; Chen Jianting; Wang Zaishu; Wang Ximei; Huang Chongming.

    1986-01-01

    The main technologies and experiences in developing a Cobalt-base alloy ball bearing are described. In the hardfacing of bearing races, a lower-hardness alloy of type St-6 is used rather than an alloy with hardness similar to that of the ball and finally the hardness of race is increased to match that of the ball by heat treatment. This improvement has certain advantages. The experience of whole developing technology indicates that strict control of the technology in the bearing-race hardfacing is the key problem in the quality assurance of bearings

  11. Quantification of Rhodium in a Series of Inorganic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    ... such as rhodium hydridocarbonyl tristriphenylphosphine, [HRh(CO)(PPh3)3], .... The selection of the most suitable wavelengths for rhodium, yttrium and cobalt ... chloride ions were removed from the CRM samples as chlorine gas with the ...

  12. Acoustic properties of TiNiMoFe base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, V.Eh.; Chernyshev, V.I.; Chekalkin, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    The regularity of changing the acoustic properties of the TiNi base alloys in dependence on the alloy composition and impact temperature is studied. It is shown that the oscillations of the TiNiMoFe base alloys within the temperature range of the B2 phase existence and possible appearance of the martensite under the load differ from the traditional materials oscillations. After excitation of spontaneous oscillations within the range of M f ≤ T ≤ M d there exists the area of long-term and low-amplitude low-frequency acoustic oscillations. It is established that free low-frequency oscillations of the TH-10 alloy sample are characterized by the low damping level in the given temperature range [ru

  13. Indentation creep behaviors of amorphous Cu-based composite alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Defeng; Ma, Xiangdong; Qian, Linfang

    2018-04-01

    This work reports the indentation creep behaviors of two Si2Zr3/amorphous Cu-based composite alloys utilizing nanoindentation technique. By analysis with Kelvin model, the retardation spectra of alloys at different positions, detached and attached regions to the intermetallics, were deduced. For the indentation of detached regions to Si2Zr3 intermetallics in both alloys, very similarity in creep displacement can be observed and retardation spectra show a distinct disparity in the second retardation peak. For the indentation of detached regions, the second retardation spectra also display distinct disparity. At both positions, the retardation spectra suggest that Si elements may lead to the relatively dense structure in the amorphous matrix and to form excessive Si2Zr3 intermetallics which may deteriorate the plastic deformation of current Cu-based composite alloys.

  14. Cerium Titanate Nano dispersoids in Ni-base ODS Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Young-Bum; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Jang, Jinsung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee-Suk [Korea Basic Science Institute, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) nickel-base alloys have potential for use in rather demanding elevated-temperature environments, such as aircraft turbine engines, heat exchanger of nuclear reactor. For improved high temperature performance, several ODS alloys were developed which possess good elevated temperature strength and over-temperature capacity plus excellent static oxidation resistance. The high temperature strength of ODS alloys is due to the presence of a uniform dispersion of fine, inert particles. Ceria mixed oxides have been studied because of their application potential in the formation of nanoclusters. By first principle study, it was estimated that the formation energy of the Ce-O dimer with voids in the nickel base alloy is lower than other candidates. The result suggests that the dispersion of the Ceria mixed oxides can suppress the voiding or swelling behavior of nickel base alloy during neutron irradiation. In this study, the evolution of cerium titanate nano particles was investigated using in-situ TEM. It was found that the Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 9} phase was easily formed rather than remain as CeO{sub 2} during annealing; Ti was effective to form the finer oxide particles. Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 9} is expected to do the great roll as dispersoids in Ni-base alloy, contribute to achieve the better high temperature property, high swelling resistance during neutron radiation.

  15. EXAFS investigation on microstructure of La-based alloy deuteride

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Bo Fei; Xie Chao Mei; Chen Xi Ping; Liu Li Juan; Xie Ya Ning; Hu Tian Dou; Zhang Jing

    2002-01-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were measured to investigate the microstructure of La-based alloy deuteride. The radial structural functions of LaNi sub 4 sub . sub 2 sub 5 Al sub 0 sub . sub 7 sub 5 D sub x samples were obtained and the comparisons among different samples were performed. The results show that removal of deuterium is fast in La-Ni-Al hydrogen storage alloys under non-airtight condition

  16. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  17. Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanical properties of soldered joints of niobium alloys widely distributed in industry: VN3, VN4, VN5A, VN5AE, VN5AEP etc., 0.6-1.2 mm thick are investigated. It is found out that the usage of zirconium-vanadium, titanium-tantalum solders for welding niobium base alloys permits to obtain soldered joints with satisfactory mechanical properties at elevated temperatures

  18. Oxidation Behavior of TiAl-Based Alloy Modified by Double-Glow Plasma Surface Alloying with Cr-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangfei; Zhang, Pingze; Wang, Qiong; Wei, Dongbo; Chen, Xiaohu

    2017-07-01

    A Cr-Mo alloyed layer was prepared on a TiAl-based alloy using plasma surface alloying technique. The isothermal oxidation kinetics of the untreated and treated samples was examined at 850 °C. The microstructure and phase composition of the alloyed layer were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The morphology and constituent of the oxide scales were also analyzed. The results indicated that the oxidation resistance of TiAl was improved significantly after the alloying treatment. The oxide scale eventually became a mixture of Al2O3, Cr2O3 and TiO2. The oxide scale was dense and integrated throughout the oxidation process. The improvement was mainly owing to the enhancing of scale adhesion and the preferential oxidation of aluminum brought by the alloying effect for TiAl-based alloy.

  19. Preparation of rhodium target for cyclone-30 accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xuesong; Li Dakang; Xie Xiangqian; Li Chao

    2002-01-01

    The rhodium target for Cyclone-30 accelerator is prepared by pulse electroplating method. The effects of pulse parameters, rhodium concentration, acidity and temperature on the properties of the target layer are studied, and the optimal process is determined. The rhodium target, mass thickness is more than 150 mg/cm 2 , adapts to producing 103 Pd on Cyclone-30 accelerator

  20. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, Raul B.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  1. Reliability of copper based alloys for electric resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovicj, M.; Mihajlovicj, A.; Sherbedzhija, B.

    1977-01-01

    Durability of copper based alloys (B-5 and B-6) for electric resistance spot-welding was examined. The total amount of Be, Ni and Zr was up to 2 and 1 wt.% respectively. Good durability and satisfactory quality of welded spots were obtained in previous laboratory experiments carried out on the fixed spot-welding machine of an industrial type (only B-5 alloy was examined). Electrodes made of both B-5 and B-6 alloy were tested on spot-welding grips and fixed spot-welding machines in Tvornica automobila Sarajevo (TAS). The obtained results suggest that the durability of electrodes made of B-5 and B-6 alloys is more than twice better than of that used in TAS

  2. Production and properties of light-metal base amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Masumoto, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    Light-metal base alloys with high specific strength and good corrosion resistance were produced through amorphization of Al and Mg-based alloys. The amorphous phase is formed in rapidly solidified Al-TM-Ln and Mg-TM-Ln (TM=transition metal, Ln=lanthanide metal) alloys. The highest tensile strength (σ f ) reaches 1,330 MPa for the Al base and 830 MPa for the Mg base. Furthermore, the Mg-based alloys have a large glass-forming capacity which enables to produce an amorphous phase by a metallic mold casting method. The extrusion of the Al-based amorphous powders at temperatures above crystallization temperature caused the formation of high strength materials with finely mixed structure consisting of dispersed intermetallic compounds in an Al matrix. The highest values of σ f and fatigue limit are as high as 940 and 313 MPa, respectively, at room temperature and 520 and 165 MPa at 473 K. The extruded Al-Ni-Mm alloy has already been used as machine parts and subsequent further development as practical materials is expected by taking these advantages

  3. Fracture assessment for a dissimilar metal weld of low alloy steel and Ni-base alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Takuya, E-mail: takuya4.ogawa@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan); Itatani, Masao; Saito, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Narazaki, Chihiro; Tsuchihashi, Kentaro [Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Recently, instances of SCC in Ni-base alloy weld metal of light water reactor components have been reported. Despite the possibility of propagation of SCC crack to the fusion line between low alloy steel (LAS) of pressure vessel and Ni-base alloy of internal structure, a fracture assessment method of dissimilar metal welded joint has not been established. The objective of this study is to investigate a fracture mode of dissimilar metal weld of LAS and Ni-base alloy for development of a fracture assessment method for dissimilar metal weld. Fracture tests were conducted using two types of dissimilar metal weld test plates with semi-elliptical surface crack. In one of the test plates, the fusion line lies around the surface points of the surface crack and the crack tips at the surface points have intruded into LAS. Material ahead of the crack tip at the deepest point is Ni-base alloy. In the other, the fusion line lies around the deepest point of the surface crack and the crack tip at the deepest point has intruded into LAS. Material ahead of the crack tip at the deepest point is LAS. The results of fracture tests using the former type of test plate reveal that the collapse load considering the proportion of ligament area of each material gives a good estimation for fracture load. That is, fracture assessment based on plastic collapse mode is applicable to the former type of test plate. It is also understood that a fracture assessment method based on the elastic-plastic fracture mode is suitable for the latter type of test plate.

  4. Characterization of the microstructure in Mg based alloy

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T

    2013-06-01

    The cast products Mg–Sn based alloys are promising candidates for automobile industries, since they provide a cheap yet thermally stable alternative to existing alloys. One drawback of the Mg–Sn based alloys is their insufficient hardness. The hardenability can be improved by engineering the microstructure through additions of Zn to the base alloy and selective aging conditions. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the microstructural characteristics and the role of Zn to promote precipitation hardening is essential for age hardenable Mg-based alloys. In this work, microstructural investigation of the Mg–1.4Sn–1.3Zn–0.1Mn (at.%) precipitation system was performed using TEM. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using EDS. APT was employed to obtain precise chemical information on the distribution of Zn in the microstructure. It was found from microstructural studies that different precipitates with varying sizes and phases were present; lath-shaped precipitates of the Mg2Sn phase have an incoherent interface with the matrix, unlike the lath-shaped MgZn2 precipitates. Furthermore, nano-sized precipitates dispersed in the microstructure with short-lath morphology can either be enriched with Sn or Zn. On the other hand, APT analysis revealed the strong repulsion between Sn and Zn atoms in a portion of the analysis volume. However, larger reconstruction volume required to identify the role of Zn is still limited to the optimization of specimen preparation.

  5. Variations of color with alloying elements in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Takanobu; Takuma, Yasuko; Miura, Eri; Fujita, Takeshi; Hisatsune, Kunihiro

    2007-01-01

    The effects of alloying addition of a small amount of base metals (In, Sn, Fe, Zn) on color variations in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys were investigated in terms of rectilinear and polar color coordinates. The ternary Au-Pt-X (X = In, Sn, Fe, Zn) and quaternary Au-Pt-In-Y (Y = Sn, Fe, Zn) alloys were prepared from high purity component metals. The amount of alloying base metals, X and Y, were restricted up to 2 at.%. The alloying addition of a small amount of Fe, In, Sn, to a binary Au-10 at.% Pt alloy (referred to as AP10) effectively increased chroma, C *. On the other hand, the addition of Zn to the parent alloy AP10 did not change color coordinates greatly. The increase in chroma in the present Au-Pt-based high noble alloys was attributed to the increase in the slope of spectral reflectance curve at its absorption edge near 515 nm. It was found that the addition of a small amount of Fe to the parent alloy AP10 markedly increased lightness, L *, and the addition of Sn gave a very light tint of red to the parent alloy. Although red-green chromaticity index a * contributed to chroma to some extent, contribution of yellow-blue chromaticity index b * was much greater in determining chroma in this Pd-free Au-Pt-based multi-component alloys. The present results are expected to be valuable in case color is to be taken into account in designing Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

  6. Variations of color with alloying elements in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Takanobu [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan)]. E-mail: siraisi@nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Takuma, Yasuko [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Miura, Eri [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Fujita, Takeshi [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Hisatsune, Kunihiro [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The effects of alloying addition of a small amount of base metals (In, Sn, Fe, Zn) on color variations in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys were investigated in terms of rectilinear and polar color coordinates. The ternary Au-Pt-X (X = In, Sn, Fe, Zn) and quaternary Au-Pt-In-Y (Y = Sn, Fe, Zn) alloys were prepared from high purity component metals. The amount of alloying base metals, X and Y, were restricted up to 2 at.%. The alloying addition of a small amount of Fe, In, Sn, to a binary Au-10 at.% Pt alloy (referred to as AP10) effectively increased chroma, C *. On the other hand, the addition of Zn to the parent alloy AP10 did not change color coordinates greatly. The increase in chroma in the present Au-Pt-based high noble alloys was attributed to the increase in the slope of spectral reflectance curve at its absorption edge near 515 nm. It was found that the addition of a small amount of Fe to the parent alloy AP10 markedly increased lightness, L *, and the addition of Sn gave a very light tint of red to the parent alloy. Although red-green chromaticity index a * contributed to chroma to some extent, contribution of yellow-blue chromaticity index b * was much greater in determining chroma in this Pd-free Au-Pt-based multi-component alloys. The present results are expected to be valuable in case color is to be taken into account in designing Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys.

  7. A Concise Synthesis of the Erythrina Alkaloid 3–Demethoxyerythratidinone via Combined Rhodium Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jung Min; David, Ramoncito A.; Yuan, Yu; Lee, Chulbom

    2010-01-01

    The total synthesis of the erythrina alkaloid 3–demethoxyerythratidinone has been achieved via a strategy based on combined rhodium catalysis. The catalytic tandem cyclization effected by the interplay of alkynyl and vinylidene rhodium species allows for efficient access to the A and B rings of the tetracyclic erythrinane skeleton in a single step. The synthesis also features rapid preparation of the requisite precursor for the double ring closure and thus has been completed in only 7 total steps in 41% overall yield. PMID:21090648

  8. Poor glass-forming ability of Fe-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.J.; Hu, L.N.; Zhao, X.

    2017-01-01

    processes. By using the concept of fluid cluster and supercooled liquid fragility in metallic liquids, it has been found that this dynamic transition makes the Fe-based supercooled liquids become more unstable, which leads to the poor GFA of Fe-based alloys. Further, it has been found that the degree...

  9. Physical and welding metallurgy of Gd-enriched austenitic alloys for spent nuclear fuel applications. Part II, nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Michael, Joseph Richard; Williams, David Brian; Dupont, John Neuman; Robino, Charles Victor

    2004-01-01

    The physical and welding a metallurgy of gadolinium- (Gd-) enriched Ni-based alloys has been examined using a combination of differential thermal analysis, hot ductility testing. Varestraint testing, and various microstructural characterization techniques. Three different matrix compositions were chosen that were similar to commercial Ni-Cr-Mo base alloys (UNS N06455, N06022, and N06059). A ternary Ni-Cr-Gd alloy was also examined. The Gd level of each alloy was ∼2 wt-%. All the alloys initiated solidification by formation of primary austenite and terminated solidification by a Liquid γ + Ni 5 Gd eutectic-type reaction at ∼1270 C. The solidification temperature ranges of the alloys varied from ∼100 to 130 C (depending on alloy composition). This is a substantial reduction compared to the solidification temperature range to Gd-enriched stainless steels (360 to 400 C) that terminate solidification by a peritectic reaction at ∼1060 C. The higher-temperature eutectic reaction that occurs in the Ni-based alloys is accompanied by significant improvements in hot ductility and solidification cracking resistance. The results of this research demonstrate that Gd-enriched Ni-based alloys are excellent candidate materials for nuclear criticality control in spent nuclear fuel storage applications that require production and fabrication of large amounts of material through conventional ingot metallurgy and fusion welding techniques

  10. Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Alloys 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revet -se tside lf necessary and identify by block number) ~ lThe sodium sulfate-induced hot corrosion of cobalt and...Figures 12 and 13. The Na2 SO 4 was observed to form puddles on the oxide-covered specimen surface. An oxide slag was usually suspended in the... slag (black arrows) were suspended (30 sees at 1000°C in air). b) After washing the Na2SO 4 from the specimen, the exposed oxide surface was highly

  11. Surface alloying of nickel based superalloys by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.P.; Garcia, I.; Damborenea, J.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Ni based superalloys present a high oxidation resistance at high temperature as well as good mechanical properties. But new technology developments force to research in this materials to improve their properties at high temperature. In this work, two Ni based superalloys (Nimonic 80A and Inconel 600) were surface alloyed with aluminium using a high power laser. SEM and EDX were used to study the microstructure of the obtained coatings. Alloyed specimens were tested at 1.273 K between 24 and 250 h. Results showed the generation of a protective and continuous coating of alumina on the laser treated specimens surface that can improve oxidation resistance. (Author) 8 refs

  12. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  13. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qijun; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Dongbin; Ren, Shubin; Qu, Xuanhui

    2017-01-01

    Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20–110 μm. With the decr...

  14. Techniques for intergranular crack formation and assessment in alloy 600 base and alloy 182 weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Hong Deok; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A technique developed to produce artificial intergranular stress corrosion cracks in structural components was applied to thick, forged alloy 600 base and alloy 182 weld metals for use in the qualification of nondestructive examination techniques for welded components in nuclear power plants. An externally controlled procedure was demonstrated to produce intergranular stress corrosion cracks that are comparable to service-induced cracks in both the base and weld metals. During the process of crack generation, an online direct current potential drop method using array probes was used to measure and monitor the sizes and shapes of the cracks. A microstructural characterization of the produced cracks revealed realistic conformation of the crack faces unlike those in machined notches produced by an electrodischarge machine or simple fatigue loading using a universal testing machine. A comparison with a destructive metallographic examination showed that the characteristics, orientations, and sizes of the intergranular cracks produced in this study are highly reproducible.

  15. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G.K.; Srivastava, D.

    1997-01-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables

  16. Lave phase precipitation in Nb- and Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, R.; Vishwanadh, B.; Dey, G.K.

    2010-01-01

    In multicomponent Nb-based alloys system, which are potential candidate materials for high temperature applications, the presence of Laves phase was noticed along with the silicides in equilibrium with the soft β-matrix. In Ti-Cr alloys, which show a tendency for inverse melting, the formation of the phase was noticed in the β matrix upon aging. The Laves phase being topologically closed pack structure appears to have strong tendency for the formation provided the criterion of atomic size factor is met

  17. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

  18. Effect of B addition to hypereutectic Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguina-Luzgina, Larissa V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of Ti-Fe-B and Ti-Fe-Co-B alloys produced in the shape of the arc-melted ingots of about 25 mm diameter and 10 mm height are studied. The hypereutectic alloys showed excellent compressive mechanical properties. The structures of the high-strength and ductile hypereutectic alloys studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy were found to consist of the primary cubic cP2 intermetallic compound (TiFe-phase or a solid solution on its base) and a dispersed eutectic consisting of this cP2 intermetallic compound + BCC cI2 β-Ti supersaturated solid solution phase. The addition of B increased mechanical strength. Si causes embrittlement owing to the formation of alternative intermetallic compounds. The structure and deformation behaviour were studied

  19. Improved Mg-based alloys for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, K.; Ming, L.; Stetson, N.T.; Evans, J. [Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The overall objective of this on-going work is to develop low temperature alloys capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen, allowing greater than for 2 wt.% at the system level which is required by most applications. Surface modification of Mg can be used to improve its H-sorption kinetics. The authors show here that the same Mg-transition metal-based multi-component alloy when prepared by melt-spinning results in a more homogeneous materials with a higher plateau pressure as compared to preparing the material by mechanical grinding. They have also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg{sub 50}Al{sub 45}Zn{sub 5} results in a sample having a higher plateau pressure.

  20. Characterization of the microstructure in Mg based alloy

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T

    2013-01-01

    hardening is essential for age hardenable Mg-based alloys. In this work, microstructural investigation of the Mg–1.4Sn–1.3Zn–0.1Mn (at.%) precipitation system was performed using TEM. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using EDS. APT

  1. Rhodium-Catalyzed Decarbonylation of Aldoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune; Madsen, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A catalytic procedure is described for decarbonylation of unprotected aldoses to afford alditols with one less carbon atom. The reaction is performed with the rhodium complex Rh(dppp)2Cl in a refluxing diglyme - DMA solution. A slightly improved catalyst turnover is observed when a catalytic amount...

  2. Elimination of Iron Based Particles in Al-Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with influence on segregation of iron based phases on the secondary alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 microstructure by chrome. Iron is the most common and harmful impurity in aluminum casting alloys and has long been associated with an increase of casting defects. In generally, iron is associated with the formation of Fe-rich phases. It is impossible to remove iron from melt by standard operations, but it is possible to eliminate its negative influence by addition some other elements that affect the segregation of intermetallics in less harmful type. Realization of experiments and results of analysis show new view on solubility of iron based phases during melt preparation with higher iron content and influence of chrome as iron corrector of iron based phases. By experimental work were used three different amounts of AlCr20 master alloy a three different temperature of chill mold. Our experimental work confirmed that chrome can be used as an iron corrector in Al-Si alloy, due to the change of intermetallic phases and shortening their length.

  3. Highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy for reactor structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yoichi.

    1996-01-01

    The alloy of the present invention is a zirconium based alloy comprising tin (Sn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) in zirconium (Zr). The amount of silicon (Si) as an impurity is not more than 60ppm. It is preferred that Sn is from 0.9 to 1.5wt%, that of Cr is from 0.05 to 0.15wt%, and (Fe + Ni) is from 0.17 to 0.5wt%. If not less than 0.12wt% of Fe is added, resistance against nodular corrosion is improved. The upper limit of Fe is preferably 0.40wt% from a view point of uniform suppression for the corrosion. The nodular corrosion can be suppressed by reducing the amount of Si-rich deposition product in the zirconium based alloy. Accordingly, a highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy improved for the corrosion resistance of zircaloy-2 and usable for a fuel cladding tube of a BWR type reactor can be obtained. (I.N.)

  4. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  5. Electrochemical hydrogen storage alloys and batteries fabricated from Mg containing base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrogen storage material comprising: (Base Alloy).sub.a M.sub.b where, Base Alloy is an alloy of Mg and Ni in a ratio of from about 1:2 to about 2:1, preferably 1:1; M represents at least one modifier element chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Cu, Mo, W, Cr, V, Ti, Zr, Sn, Th, Si, Zn, Li, Cd, Na, Pb, La, Mm, and Ca; b is greater than 0.5, preferably 2.5, atomic percent and less than 30 atomic percent; and a+b=100 atomic percent. Preferably, the at least one modifier is chosen from the group consisting of Co, Mn, Al, Fe, and Cu and the total mass of the at least one modifier element is less than 25 atomic percent of the final composition. Most preferably, the total mass of said at least one modifier element is less than 20 atomic percent of the final composition.

  6. Alloying behavior of iron, gold and silver in AlCoCrCuNi-based equimolar high-entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, U.S.; Hung, U.D.; Yeh, J.W.; Chen, S.K.; Huang, Y.S.; Yang, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    High-entropy alloys are newly developed alloys that are composed, by definition, of at least five principal elements with concentrations in the range of 5-35 at.%. Therefore, the alloying behavior of any given principal element is significantly affected by all the other principal elements present. In order to elucidate this further, the influence of iron, silver and gold addition on the microstructure and hardness of AlCoCrCuNi-based equimolar alloys has been examined. The as-cast AlCoCrCuNi base alloy is found to have a dendritic structure, of which only solid solution FCC and BCC phases can be observed. The BCC dendrite has a chemical composition close to that of the nominal alloy, with a deficiency in copper however, which is found to segregate and form a FCC Cu-rich interdendrite. The microstructure of the iron containing alloys is similar to that of the base alloy. It is found that both of these aforementioned alloys have hardnesses of about 420 HV, which is equated to their similar microstructures. The as-cast ingot forms two layers of distinct composition with the addition of silver. These layers, which are gold and silver in color, are determined to have a hypoeutectic Ag-Cu composition and a multielement mixture of the other principal elements, respectively. This indicates the chemical incompatibility of silver with the other principal elements. The hardnesses of the gold (104 HV) and silver layers (451 HV) are the lowest and highest of the alloy systems studied. This is attributed to the hypoeutectic Ag-Cu composition of the former and the reduced copper content of the latter. Only multielement mixtures, i.e. without copper segregation, form in the gold containing alloy. Thus, it may be said that gold acts as a 'mixing agent' between copper and the other elements. Although several of the atom pairs in the gold containing alloy have positive enthalpies, thermodynamic considerations show that the high entropy contribution is sufficient to counterbalance

  7. Corrosion resistance of Fe-based amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, W.J.; Berger, J.E.; Kiminami, C.S.; Roche, V.; Nogueira, R.P.; Bolfarini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report corrosion properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys in different media. ► The Cr-containing alloys had corrosion resistance close to that of Pt in all media. ► The wide range of electrochemical stability is relevant in many industrial domains. -- Abstract: Fe-based amorphous alloys can be designed to present an attractive combination of properties with high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Such properties are clearly adequate for their technological use as coatings, for example, in steel pipes. In this work, we studied the corrosion properties of amorphous ribbons of the following Fe-based compositions: Fe 66 B 30 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.6 Co 0.4 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , [(Fe 0.7 Co 0.3 ) 0.75 B 0.2 Si 0.05 ] 96 Nb 4 , Fe 56 Cr 23 Ni 5.7 B 16 , Fe 53 Cr 22 Ni 5.6 B 19 and Fe 50 Cr 22 Ni 5.4 B 23 . The ribbons were obtained by rapid solidification using the melt-spinning process, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion properties were evaluated by corrosion potential survey and potentiodynamic polarization. The Cr containing alloys, that is the FeCrNiB type of alloys, showed the best corrosion resistance properties with the formation of a stable passive film that ensured a very large passivation plateau

  8. High temperature cathodic charging of hydrogen in zirconium alloys and iron and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    These investigations lead to the development of a new technique for charging hydrogen into metals and alloys. In this technique a mixture of sulfates and bisulfates of sodium and potassium is kept saturated with water at 250-300degC in an open pyrex glass beaker and electrolysed using platinum anode and the material to be charged as the cathode. Most of the studies were carried out on Zr alloys. It is shown that because of the high hydrogen flux available at the surface and the high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals at these temperatures the materials pick up hydrogen faster and more uniformly than the conventional electrolytic charging at room temperature and high temperature autoclaving in LiOH solutions. Chemical analysis, metallographic examination and XRD studies confirm this. This technique has been used to charge hydrogen into many iron and nickel base austentic alloys, which are very resistant to hydrogen pick up and to H-embrittlement. Since this involved a novel method of electrolysing water, the hydrogen/deuterium isotopic ratio has been studied. At this temperatures the D/H ratio in the evolved hydrogen gas was found to be closer to the value in the liquid water, which means a smaller separation factor. This confirm the earlier observation that separation factor decreases with increase of temperature. (author). 16 refs., 21 fi gs., 6 tabs

  9. Glass formation and crystallization in Zr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G. K.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come in to prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. Though these have been produced for the last four decades, the necessity of rapid solidification at cooling rates of 10 5 K/sec or higher for their production, have restricted their geometry to thin ribbons and prevented their application to many areas despite their excellent properties. It has been shown in recent investigations that, many Zr base multicomponent alloys can be obtained in glassy state by cooling at much lower rate typically 10 2 to 10 3 K/sec. This has enabled production of these alloys in the glassy stat in bulk. By now, bulk metallic glasses have been produced in Mg, Ln, Zr, Fe, Pd-Cu, Pd-Fe, Ti and Ni- based alloys. Production of these glasses in bulk has opened avenue for their application in many areas where their excellent mechanical properties an corrosion resistance can be exploited. The transformation of the amorphous phase in these alloys to one or more crystalline phases, is an interesting phase transformation and can lead to formation of crystals in a variety of morphologies and a wide range of crystal sizes, including nanometer size crystals or nanocrystals. The bulk amorphous alloys exhibit higher fracture stress, combined with higher hardness and lower young's modulus than those of any crystalline alloy. The Zr- and Ti-based bulk amorphous alloy exhibit high bending and flexural strength values which are typically 2.0 to 2.5 time higher than those for crystalline counterparts. The composites of bulk metallic glass containing crystalline phases have been found to have special properties. This has been demonstrated in the case of composites of bulk metallic glass and tungsten wires wit the glass forming the matrix. Such a composite has a very high impact strength and is especially suitable for application as an armour penetrator in various types of shells used

  10. Oxide characterization and hydrogen behaviors of Zr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Kwon, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Oh, S. J.; Yim, B. J.; Son, S. B.; Yun, S. P.

    2006-03-01

    The work scope and contents of the research are as follows : basic properties of zirconium alloys, hydrogen pick-up mechanism of zirconium alloy, effects of hydride on the corrosion behaviors of zirconium alloys, estimation on stress of oxide layer in the zirconium alloy, microstructure and characteristic of oxide in pre-hydrided zirconium alloys

  11. Effect of Microstructure and Alloy Chemistry on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Precipitation-Hardened Ni-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, G. C.; Zhang, Z.; Sampath, D.; Morana, Roberto; Akid, R.; Preuss, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) has been studied in respect of precipitation size distributions in two nickel-based superalloys: Alloy 718 (UNS N07718) and Alloy 945X (UNS N09946). Quantitative microstructure analysis was carried out by the combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). While Alloy 718 is mainly strengthened by γ″, and therefore readily forms intergranular δ phase, Alloy 945X has been designed to avoid δ formation by reducing Nb levels providing high strength through a combination of γ' and γ″. Slow strain rate tensile tests were carried out for different microstructural conditions in air and after cathodic hydrogen (H) charging. HE sensitivity was determined based on loss of elongation due to the H uptake in comparison to elongation to failure in air. Results showed that both alloys exhibited an elevated sensitivity to HE. Fracture surfaces of the H precharged material showed quasi-cleavage and transgranular cracks in the H-affected region, while ductile failure was observed toward the center of the sample. The crack origins observed on the H precharged samples exhibited quasi-cleavage with slip traces at high magnification. The sensitivity is slightly reduced for Alloy 718, by coarsening γ″ and reducing the overall strength of the alloy. However, on further coarsening of γ″, which promotes continuous decoration of grain boundaries with δ phase, the embrittlement index rose again indicating a change of hydrogen embrittlement mechanism from hydrogen-enhanced local plasticity (HELP) to hydrogen-enhanced decohesion embrittlement (HEDE). In contrast, Alloy 945X displayed a strong correlation between strength, based on precipitation size and embrittlement index, due to the absence of any significant formation of δ phase for the investigated microstructures. For the given test parameters, Alloy 945X did not display any reduced sensitivity to HE compared with

  12. Nitriding behavior of Ni and Ni-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonovic, Matej

    2015-01-15

    Gaseous nitriding is a prominent thermochemical surface treatment process which can improve various properties of metallic materials such as mechanical, tribological and/or corrosion properties. This process is predominantly performed by applying NH{sub 3}+H{sub 2} containing gas atmospheres serving as the nitrogen donating medium at temperatures between 673 K and 873 K (400 C and 600 C). NH{sub 3} decomposes at the surface of the metallic specimen and nitrogen diffuses into the surface adjacent region of the specimen whereas hydrogen remains in the gas atmosphere. One of the most important parameters characterizing a gaseous nitriding process is the so-called nitriding potential (r{sub N}) which determines the chemical potential of nitrogen provided by the gas phase. The nitriding potential is defined as r{sub N} = p{sub NH{sub 3}}/p{sub H{sub 2}{sup 3/2}} where p{sub NH{sub 3}} and p{sub H{sub 2}} are the partial pressures of the NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} in the nitriding atmosphere. In contrast with nitriding of α-Fe where the nitriding potential is usually in the range between 0.01 and 1 atm{sup -1/2}, nitriding of Ni and Ni-based alloys requires employing nitriding potentials higher than 100 atm{sup -1/2} and even up to ∞ (nitriding in pure NH{sub 3} atmosphere). This behavior is compatible with decreased thermodynamic stability of the 3d-metal nitrides with increasing atomic number. Depending on the nitriding conditions (temperature, nitriding potential and treatment time), different phases are formed at the surface of the Ni-based alloys. By applying very high nitriding potential, formation of hexagonal Ni{sub 3}N at the surface of the specimen (known as external nitriding) leads to the development of a compound layer, which may improve tribological properties. Underneath the Ni{sub 3}N compound layer, two possibilities exist: (i) alloying element precipitation within the nitrided zone (known as internal nitriding) and/or (ii) development of metastable and

  13. In vitro corrosion of dental Au-based casting alloys in polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasusuki, Norio; Ida, Yusuke; Hirose, Yukito; Ochi, Morio; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion and tarnish behaviors of two Au-based casting alloys (ISO type 1 and type 4 Au alloys) and their constituent pure metals, Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine solution were examined. The two Au alloys actively corroded, and the main anodic reaction for both was dissolution of Au as AuI₂(-). The amount of Au released from the ISO type 1 Au alloy was significantly larger than that from the ISO type 4 Au alloy (Palloy exhibited higher susceptibility to tarnishing than the type 4 alloy. The corrosion forms of the two Au alloys were found to be completely different, i.e., the type 1 alloy exhibited the corrosion attack over the entire exposed surface with a little irregularity whereas the type 4 alloy exhibited typical intergranular corrosion, which was caused by local cells produced by segregation of Pd and Pt.

  14. Three dimensional atom probe study of Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Three dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) is applied to characterize the dissimilar metal joint which was welded between the Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and the low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B, with Alloy 152 filler metal. While there is some difficulty in preparing the specimen for the analysis, the 3D APT has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multicomponent metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. In this study, the procedure for 3D APT specimen preparation was established, and those for dissimilar metal weld interface were prepared near the fusion boundary by a focused ion beam. The result of the analysis in this study showed the precipitation of chromium carbides near the fusion boundary between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152.

  15. Three dimensional atom probe study of Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Three dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) is applied to characterize the dissimilar metal joint which was welded between the Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and the low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B, with Alloy 152 filler metal. While there is some difficulty in preparing the specimen for the analysis, the 3D APT has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multicomponent metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. In this study, the procedure for 3D APT specimen preparation was established, and those for dissimilar metal weld interface were prepared near the fusion boundary by a focused ion beam. The result of the analysis in this study showed the precipitation of chromium carbides near the fusion boundary between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152.

  16. Aqueous electrochemistry of precipitation-hardened nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, K.; Ballinger, R.; Prybylowski, J.; Hwang, I.S.

    1990-11-01

    An investigation has been conducted to explore the importance of local crack tip electrochemical processes in precipitation-hardened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys driven by galvanic couples between grain boundary precipitates and the local matrix. The electrochemical behavior of γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] has been determined as a function of titanium concentration, temperature, and solution pH. The electrochemical behavior of Ni-Cr-Fe solid solution alloys has been investigated as a function of chromium content for a series of 10 Fe-variable Cr (6--18%)-balance Ni alloys, temperature, and pH. The investigation was conducted in neutral and pH3 solutions over the temperature range 25--300 degree C. The results of the investigation show that the electrochemical behavior of these systems is a strong function of temperature and composition. This is especially true for the γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] system where a transition from active/passive behavior to purely active behavior and back again occurs over a narrow temperature range near 100 degree C. Behavior of this system was also found to be a strong function of titanium concentration. In all cases, the Ni 3 (Al,Ti) phase was active with respect to the matrix. The peak in activity near 100 degree C correlates well with accelerated crack growth in this temperature range, observed in nickel-base alloy X-750 heat treated to precipitate γ' on the grain boundaries. 20 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Tungsten wire-nickel base alloy composite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Moracz, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W-Hf-C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/square meters (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics.

  18. Investigation of the Precipitation Behavior in Aluminum Based Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna S.

    2015-11-30

    The transportation industries are constantly striving to achieve minimum weight to cut fuel consumption and improve overall performance. Different innovative design strategies have been placed and directed toward weight saving combined with good mechanical behavior. Among different materials, aluminum-based alloys play a key role in modern engineering and are widely used in construction components because of their light weight and superior mechanical properties. Introduction of different nano-structure features can improve the service and the physical properties of such alloys. For intelligent microstructure design in the complex Al-based alloy, it is important to gain a deep physical understanding of the correlation between the microstructure and macroscopic properties, and thus atom probe tomography with its exceptional capabilities of spatially resolution and quantitative chemical analyses is presented as a sophisticated analytical tool to elucidate the underlying process of precipitation phenomena in aluminum alloys. A complete study examining the influence of common industrial heat treatment on the precipitation kinetics and phase transformations of complex aluminum alloy is performed. The qualitative evaluation results of the precipitation kinetics and phase transformation as functions of the heat treatment conditions are translated to engineer a complex aluminum alloy. The study demonstrates the ability to construct a robust microstructure with an excellent hardness behavior by applying a low-energy-consumption, cost-effective method. The proposed strategy to engineer complex aluminum alloys is based on both mechanical strategy and intelligent microstructural design. An intelligent microstructural design requires an investigation of the different strengthen phases, such as T1 (Al2CuLi), θ′(Al2Cu), β′(Al3Zr) and δ′(Al3Li). Therefore, the early stage of phase decomposition is examined in different binary Al-Li and Al-Cu alloys together with different

  19. Interfacial bonding stabilizes rhodium and rhodium oxide nanoparticles on layered Nb oxide and Ta oxide supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Megan E; Binz, Jason M; Tanase, Mihaela; Shahri, Seyed Mehdi Kamali; Sharma, Renu; Rioux, Robert M; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2014-04-16

    Metal nanoparticles are commonly supported on metal oxides, but their utility as catalysts is limited by coarsening at high temperatures. Rhodium oxide and rhodium metal nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports are anomalously stable. To understand this, the nanoparticle-support interaction was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), and synchrotron X-ray absorption and scattering techniques. Nanosheets derived from the layered oxides KCa2Nb3O10, K4Nb6O17, and RbTaO3 were compared as supports to nanosheets of Na-TSM, a synthetic fluoromica (Na0.66Mg2.68(Si3.98Al0.02)O10.02F1.96), and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O. High surface area SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports were also used for comparison in the ITC experiments. A Born-Haber cycle analysis of ITC data revealed an exothermic interaction between Rh(OH)3 nanoparticles and the layered niobate and tantalate supports, with ΔH values in the range -32 kJ·mol(-1) Rh to -37 kJ·mol(-1) Rh. In contrast, the interaction enthalpy was positive with SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports. The strong interfacial bonding in the former case led to "reverse" ripening of micrometer-size Rh(OH)3, which dispersed as 0.5 to 2 nm particles on the niobate and tantalate supports. In contrast, particles grown on Na-TSM and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O nanosheets were larger and had a broad size distribution. ETEM, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analyses were used to study the growth of supported nanoparticles under oxidizing and reducing conditions, as well as the transformation from Rh(OH)3 to Rh nanoparticles. Interfacial covalent bonding, possibly strengthened by d-electron acid/base interactions, appear to stabilize Rh(OH)3, Rh2O3, and Rh nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports.

  20. Distribution of Rhodium in Mice Submitted to Treatment With the Adduct of Rhodium Propionate and Sodium Isonicotinate

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Aparecido Ribeiro; Najjar, Renato; de Oliveira, Elizabeth; Zyngier, Szulim Ber

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of rhodium in Balb/c mice following intraperitoneal (ip) administration of a solution of adduct of rhodium propionate and sodium isonicotinate has been investigated. The metal concentration was determined in blood and in the following organ tissues: brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, testes, and uterus/ovary, and the rhodium concentration was obtained by Inductively Coupled Argon Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The metal was detected in all organ tissues exami...

  1. CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2014-06-01

    ABSTRACT CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction Amira Alazmi Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major greenhouse gases and its emission is a significant threat to global economy and sustainability. Efficient CO2 conversion leads to utilization of CO2 as a carbon feedstock, but activating the most stable carbon-based molecule, CO2, is a challenging task. Electrochemical conversion of CO2 is considered to be the beneficial approach to generate carbon-containing fuels directly from CO2, especially when the electronic energy is derived from renewable energies, such as solar, wind, geo-thermal and tidal. To achieve this goal, the development of an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction is essential. In this thesis, studies on CuZn alloys with heat treatments at different temperatures have been evaluated as electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction. It was found that the catalytic activity of these electrodes was strongly dependent on the thermal oxidation temperature before their use for electrochemical measurements. The polycrystalline CuZn electrode without thermal treatment shows the Faradaic efficiency for CO formation of only 30% at applied potential ~−1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of ~−2.55 mA cm−2. In contrast, the reduction of oxide-based CuZn alloy electrode exhibits 65% Faradaic efficiency for CO at lower applied potential about −1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of −2.55 mA cm−2. Furthermore, stable activity was achieved over several hours of the reduction reaction at the modified electrodes. Based on electrokinetic studies, this improvement could be attributed to further stabilization of the CO2•− on the oxide-based Cu-Zn alloy surface.

  2. Diffusion of hydrogen interstitials in Zr based AB2 and mischmetal based AB5 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, N; Ravi, N; Ramaprabhu, S

    2005-01-01

    The Zr based AB 2 alloys ZrMnFe 0.5 Ni 0.5 , ZrMnFe 0.5 Co 0.5 and mischmetal (Mm) based AB 5 alloy MmNi 3.5 Al 0.5 Fe 0.5 Co 0.5 have been prepared and characterized by means of powder x-ray diffractograms. The hydrogen absorption kinetics of these alloys have been studied in the temperature and pressure ranges 450-650 0 C and 10-100 mbar respectively with a maximum H to host alloy formula unit ratio of 0.01, using a pressure reduction technique. The diffusion coefficient of the hydrogen interstitials has been determined from hydrogen absorption kinetics experiments. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the alloy content has been discussed. For Mm based MmNi 3.5 Al 0.5 Fe 0.5 Co 0.5 alloy, the diffusion coefficient is about an order of magnitude higher than that of the Zr based alloys

  3. Magnetic properties of fcc Ni-based transition metal alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 9 (2009), s. 1193-1196 ISSN 1862-5282 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 150; GA AV ČR IAA100100616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : transition metal alloys * Ni-based * pair exchange interactions * Curie temperatures * renormalized RPA Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2009

  4. Combined thermodynamic study of nickel-base alloys. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, C.R.; Meschter, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Achievements during this period are the following: (1) initiation of a high-temperature study of the Ni-Ta system using the galvanic cell technique, (2) emf study of high-temperature thermodynamics in the Ni-Mo system, (3) measured heat capacity data on ordered and disordered Ni 4 Mo, (4) heat capacities of Ni and disordered Ni 3 Fe, and (5) computer correlation of thermodynamic and phase diagram data in binary Ni-base alloys

  5. Thermal behaviour in dynamic recrystallisation. Application for iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkebir, A.; Kobylanski, A.

    1995-01-01

    A constitutive relationship for predicting the flow stress with dynamic recrystallization were proposed. The approach is based on a phenomenological formalism of the law θ-ε where θ correspond to the work-hardening rate at constant strain rate and temperature. The equations proposed were justified by the experimental data collected by hot compression test of low-alloy steels. The model can be used to estimate the critical strain for the onset of dynamic recrystallization. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic properties of fcc Ni-based transition metal alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 22 (2008), 224422/1-224422/8 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 150; GA AV ČR IAA100100616; GA ČR GA202/07/0456 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Ni-based alloys * magnetic properties * Curie temperatures Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  7. The prospects of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys in osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chorny

    2013-12-01

    various types of implants for osteosynthesis in traumatology and orthopedics. As the analysis of scientific papers over the past decade, the number of scientific articles devoted to the study of the properties of magnesium alloys and their effect on bone formation, as well as their use in osteosynthesis has grown significantly. Implants which are based on magnesium, may have several advantages over bioinert metal alloys, polymers, and bioceramics. They are not toxic, not carcinogenic, the mechanical properties of a structure close to the cortical bone, and may have osteoinductive and anti-bacterial action. Also, there is no need for a second surgical intervention. The main problems to be addressed, in our view, are as follows. 1. Need to examine the nature of -bone formation in the fracture in the presence of the implant based on magnesium alloy. 2. To examine the impact of products of magnesium degradation on the surrounding tissue and the body as a whole. 3. Loss of rigidity of the implant magnesium based alloy in the process of biodegradation.

  8. Effect of alloying elements on the stability of Ni2M in Alloy690 based upon thermodynamic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Toshiaki; Kuwano, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Naohiro

    2012-01-01

    Some researchers recently point out that Ni based alloys used in nuclear power plants have the ordering tendency, which is a potential to decrease mechanical properties within the expected lifetime of the plants. In the present study, authors evaluated the effect of 8 alloying elements on the ordering tendency in Alloy690 based upon thermodynamic calculation by Thermo-Calc. It is clarified that the additive amount of Fe, Cr, Ti and Si, particularly Fe and Cr, was influential for the stability of Ni 2 M, while that of Mn, Cu, B and C had almost no effect for that. Authors therefore designed the Ni 2 M stabilized alloy by no addition of Fe in Alloy690. Ni 2 M is estimated to be stable even at 773 K in the Ni 2 M stabilized alloy. The influence by long range ordering or precipitating of Ni 2 M in Alloy690 for mechanical properties or SCC susceptibility is expected to be clarified by the sample obtained in the present study. (author)

  9. Corrosion of iron-base alloys by lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A review of corrosion mechanisms operating in lithium-iron-base alloy systems is presented along with data obtained with thermal-convection loops of niobium-stabilized 2 1 / 4 percent Cr-1 percent Mo steel and types 304L and 321 stainless steels. A corrosion rate of 2.3 μm/year (0.09 mil/year) was obtained on the 2 1 / 4 percent Cr-1 percent Mo steel at 600 0 C. Considerably more mass transport of alloying constituents and a maximum corrosion rate of about 14 μm/year (0.55 mil/year) was obtained with the austenitic stainless steels. Results of metallography, x-ray fluorescence analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and weight-change data are presented and discussed

  10. High Frequency Vibration Based Fatigue Testing of Developmental Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holycross, Casey M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; George, Tommy J.; Tamirisakandala, Seshacharyulu; Russ, Stephan M.

    Many fatigue test methods have been previously developed to rapidly evaluate fatigue behavior. This increased test speed can come at some expense, since these methods may require non-standard specimen geometry or increased facility and equipment capability. One such method, developed by George et al, involves a base-excited plate specimen driven into a high frequency bending resonant mode. This resonant mode is of sufficient frequency (typically 1200 to 1700 Hertz) to accumulate 107 cycles in a few hours. One of the main limitations of this test method is that fatigue cracking is almost certainly guaranteed to be surface initiated at regions of high stress. This brings into question the validity of the fatigue test results, as compared to more traditional uniaxial, smooth-bar testing, since high stresses are subjecting only a small volume to fatigue damage. This limitation also brings into question the suitability of this method to screen developmental alloys, should their initiation life be governed by subsurface flaws. However, if applicable, the rapid generation of fatigue data using this method would facilitate faster design iterations, identifying more quickly, material and manufacturing process deficiencies. The developmental alloy used in this study was a powder metallurgy boron-modified Ti-6Al-4V, a new alloy currently being considered for gas turbine engine fan blades. Plate specimens were subjected to fully reversed bending fatigue. Results are compared with existing data from commercially available Ti-6Al-4V using both vibration based and more traditional fatigue test methods.

  11. Aluminium base amorphous and crystalline alloys with Fe impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Degmova, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium base alloys show remarkable mechanical properties, however their low thermal stability still limits the technological applications. Further improvement of mechanical properties can be reached by partial crystallization of amorphous alloys, which gives rise to nanostructured composites. Our work was focused on aluminium based alloys with Fe, Nb and V additions. Samples of nominal composition Al 90 Fe 7 Nb 3 and Al 94 Fe 2 V 4 were studied in amorphous state and after annealing up to 873 K. From Moessbauer spectra taken on the samples in amorphous state the value of f-factor was determined as well as corresponding Debye temperatures were calculated. Annealing at higher temperatures induced nano and microcrystalline crystallization. Moessbauer spectra of samples annealed up to 573 K are fitted only by distribution of quadrupole doublets corresponding to the amorphous state. An increase of annealing temperature leads to the structural transformation, which consists in growth of nanometer sized aluminium nuclei. This is partly reflected in Moessbauer parameters. After annealing at 673 K intermetallic phase Al 3 Fe and other Al-Fe phases are created. In this case Moessbauer spectra are fitted by quadrupole doublets. During annealing up to 873 K large grains of Fe-Al phases are created. (authors)

  12. Technical assessment of vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Harrod, D.L.; Ammon, R.L.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Svedberg, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A large data base has been compiled on vanadium-base alloys but the data base on any one alloy is quite limited. Great flexibility exists in the composition-microstructure-property relationship and this facilitates alloy optimization to meet diverse property requirements. Tensile properties and creep properties of existing alloys exceed likely requirements. Fatigue strength, including crack growth rate, is probably the most critical material property but no data exists for vanadium alloys. Swelling and irradiated ductility behavior look promising but require further evaluation. Vanadium alloy-liquid metal compatibility, particularly interstitial mass transfer, may be equally as critical as fatigue behavior; viability cannot be established with the existing data base. Fabricability must be given early consideration in alloys selection to guard against potentially serious problems in subsequent scale-up and production

  13. Analysis of iron-base alloys by low-wattage glow discharge emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagatsuma, K.; Hirokawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Several iron-base alloys were investigated by low-wattage glow discharge emission spectrometry. The emission intensity principally depended on the sputtering parameters of constituent elements in the alloy. However, in the case of chromium, stable and firm oxides formed on the surface influencing the yield of ejected atoms. This paper discusses the relation between the sputtering parameters in Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr, and Fe-Co alloys and their relative emission intensities. Additionally, quantitative analysis was performed for some ternary iron-base alloys and commercial stainless steels with the calibration factors of binary alloy systems

  14. Hydroformylation of methyl oleate catalyzed by rhodium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Ana Nery Furlan; Rosa, Ricardo Gomes da; Gregorio, Jose Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we describe the hydroformylation of methyl oleate catalyzed by several rhodium complexes. Parameters including total pressure, phosphorous/rhodium and CO/H 2 ratio, temperature and phosphorous ligands were scanned. Total conversion of the starting double bonds was achieved while maintaining excellent selectivity in aldehydes. (author)

  15. Cyclopentadiene-mediated hydride transfer from rhodium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, C L; Finster, O N L; Miller, A J M

    2016-07-12

    Attempts to generate a proposed rhodium hydride catalytic intermediate instead resulted in isolation of (Cp*H)Rh(bpy)Cl (1), a pentamethylcyclopentadiene complex, formed by C-H bond-forming reductive elimination from the fleeting rhodium hydride. The hydride transfer ability of diene 1 was explored through thermochemistry and hydride transfer reactions, including the reduction of NAD(+).

  16. Alloy 690 in PWR type reactors; Aleaciones base niquel en condiciones de primario de los reactores tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Serrano, M.

    2005-07-01

    Alloy 690, used as replacement of Alloy 600 for vessel head penetration (VHP) nozzles in PWR, coexists in the primary loop with other components of Alloy 600. Alloy 690 shows an excellent resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking, while Alloy 600 is very susceptible to this degradation mechanisms. This article analyse comparatively the PWSCC behaviour of both Ni-based alloys and associated weld metals 52/152 and 82/182. (Author)

  17. Effects of Alloying Elements on Room and High Temperature Tensile Properties of Al-Si Cu-Mg Base Alloys =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaldin, Loay

    In recent years, aluminum and aluminum alloys have been widely used in automotive and aerospace industries. Among the most commonly used cast aluminum alloys are those belonging to the Al-Si system. Due to their mechanical properties, light weight, excellent castability and corrosion resistance, these alloys are primarily used in engineering and in automotive applications. The more aluminum is used in the production of a vehicle, the less the weight of the vehicle, and the less fuel it consumes, thereby reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The principal alloying elements in Al-Si alloys, in addition to silicon, are magnesium and copper which, through the formation of Al2Cu and Mg2Si precipitates, improve the alloy strength via precipitation hardening following heat treatment. However, most Al-Si alloys are not suitable for high temperature applications because their tensile and fatigue strengths are not as high as desired in the temperature range 230-350°C, which are the temperatures that are often attained in automotive engine components under actual service conditions. The main challenge lies in the fact that the strength of heat-treatable cast aluminum alloys decreases at temperatures above 200°C. The strength of alloys under high temperature conditions is improved by obtaining a microstructure containing thermally stable and coarsening-resistant intermetallics, which may be achieved with the addition of Ni. Zr and Sc. Nickel leads to the formation of nickel aluminide Al3Ni and Al 9FeNi in the presence of iron, while zirconium forms Al3Zr. These intermetallics improve the high temperature strength of Al-Si alloys. Some interesting improvements have been achieved by modifying the composition of the base alloy with additions of Mn, resulting in an increase in strength and ductility at both room and high temperatures. Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys such as the 354 (Al-9wt%Si-1.8wt%Cu-0.5wt%Mg) alloys show a greater response to heat treatment as a

  18. Dinuclear ditertiary phosphite derivatives of rhodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meintjies, E.

    1981-08-01

    The overall objective of the research described in this thesis was the design, synthesis, characterization and chemistry of dinuclear complexes of rhodium in which the metal atoms are held in close proximity to each other. Complexes of this nature are of considerable interest owing, in part, to their potential as models for multicentred metal catalysts, as well as to the highly novel and unusual chemistry already discovered for a number of them. A survey of dinuclear complexes of rhodium containing carbonyl and group V donor ligands has been presented as a background introduction to the research reported in this thesis. The coordination behaviour of the diphosphazane ligands, (RO) 2 PN(R')P(OR) 2 (R=Ph or Me, R' = Et; R = Et or Pr/i, R' = Me), and the ditertiary phosphite ligand, (EtO) 2 POP(OEt) 2 , towards certain rhodium precursors has been investigated. A number of highly unusual neutral dinuclear complexes of rhodium, in which these ligands bridge-bond the two rhodium atoms, have been synthesized. Two types of monocarbonyl decarbonylation products are observed for compounds of the type, [Rh 2 Cl 2 (CO) 2 (μ-diphosphazane) 2 ]. 1 H and 31 P[ 1 H] n.m.r. spectral studies have been carried out with the object of establishing the nature of the bridging halogen ligands in the tricarbonyl species. Asymetric zerovalent dinuclear species of the type, [Rh 2 (CO) 3 -[μ-(RO) 2 PN(R')P(OR) 2 ] 2 ] (R = Ph or Me, R' = Et; R = Pr/i, R' = Me), are obtained. A single crystal X-ray analysis has been carried out. Homoleptic cationic species are obtained by reaction of the alkoxydiphosphazane ligands with [Rh(C 8 H 12 )(solvent)(n)] + under the appropriate reaction conditions. The solution and solid-state infrared spectra and the 31 P[ 1 H] n.m.r. spectra of all new compounds synthesized in this study are discussed in terms of possible structures for these compounds. Where appropriate, the n.m.r. spectral data are also discussed in terms of fluxional behaviour

  19. Metallic ion release from biocompatible cobalt-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Ivana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials, which are mainly used for the damaged hard tissue replacements, are materials with high strength, excellent toughness and good wear resistance. The disadvantages of metals as implant materials are their susceptibility to corrosion, the elastic modulus mismatch between metals and human hard tissues, relatively high density and metallic ion release which can cause serious health problems. The aim of this study was to examine metallic ion release from Co-Cr-Mo alloy in artificial saliva. In that purpose, alloy samples were immersed into artificial saliva with different pH values (4.0, 5.5 and 7.5. After a certain immersion period (1, 3 and 6 weeks the concentrations of released ions were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS. The research findings were used in order to define the dependence between the concentration of released metallic ions, artificial saliva pH values and immersion time. The determined released metallic ions concentrations were compared with literature data in order to describe and better understand the phenomenon of metallic ion release from the biocompatible cobalt-based alloy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. ON 174004

  20. My Experience with Ti-Ni-Based and Ti-Based Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    The present author has been studying shape memory alloys including Cu-Al-Ni, Ti-Ni-based, and Ni-free Ti-based alloys since 1979. This paper reviews the present author's research results for the latter two materials since 1981. The topics on the Ti-Ni-based alloys include the achievement of superelasticity in Ti-Ni alloys through understanding of the role of microstructures consisting of dislocations and precipitates, followed by the contribution to the development of application market of shape memory effect and superelasticity, characterization of the R-phase and monoclinic martensitic transformations, clarification of the basic characteristics of fatigue properties, development of sputter-deposited shape memory thin films and fabrication of prototypes of microactuators utilizing thin films, development of high temperature shape memory alloys, and so on. The topics of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory alloys include the characterization of the orthorhombic phase martensitic transformation and related shape memory effect and superelasticity, the effects of texture, omega phase and adding elements on the martensitic transformation and shape memory properties, clarification of the unique effects of oxygen addition to induce non-linear large elasticity, Invar effect and heating-induced martensitic transformation, and so on.

  1. Calculations of hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys: Influence of alloying elements and effect of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.; Jiang, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress on modeling hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys. The presence of hydrogen (H) can detrimentally affect the mechanical properties of many metals and alloys. To mitigate these detrimental effects requires fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics governing H pickup and hydride formation. In this work, we focus on H diffusion in Zr-based alloys by studying the effects of alloying elements and stress, factors that have been shown to strongly affect H pickup and hydride formation in nuclear fuel claddings. A recently developed accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method is used for the study. It is found that for the alloys considered here, H diffusivity depends weakly on composition, with negligible effect at high temperatures in the range of 600-1200 K. Therefore, the small variation in compositions of these alloys is likely not a major cause of the very different H pickup rates. In contrast, stress strongly affects H diffusivity. This effect needs to be considered for studying hydride formation and delayed hydride cracking.

  2. Calculations of hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys: Influence of alloying elements and effect of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jiang, C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress on modeling hydrogen diffusivity in Zr-based alloys. The presence of hydrogen (H) can detrimentally affect the mechanical properties of many metals and alloys. To mitigate these detrimental effects requires fundamental understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics governing H pickup and hydride formation. In this work, we focus on H diffusion in Zr-based alloys by studying the effects of alloying elements and stress, factors that have been shown to strongly affect H pickup and hydride formation in nuclear fuel claddings. A recently developed accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method is used for the study. It is found that for the alloys considered here, H diffusivity depends weakly on composition, with negligible effect at high temperatures in the range of 600-1200 K. Therefore, the small variation in compositions of these alloys is likely not a major cause of the very different H pickup rates. In contrast, stress strongly affects H diffusivity. This effect needs to be considered for studying hydride formation and delayed hydride cracking.

  3. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  4. Thermogravimetric study of reduction of oxides present in oxidized nickel-base alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbell, T. P.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon, hydrogen, and hydrogen plus carbon reduction of three oxidized nickel-base alloy powders (a solid solution strengthened alloy both with and without the gamma prime formers aluminum and titanium and the solid solution strengthened alloy NiCrAlY) were evaluated by thermogravimetry. Hydrogen and hydrogen plus carbon were completely effective in reducing an alloy containing chromium, columbium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. However, with aluminum and titanium present the reduction was limited to a weight loss of about 81 percent. Carbon alone was not effective in reducing any of the alloys, and none of the reducing conditions were effective for use with NiCrAlY.

  5. Local atomic order in nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartych, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using the 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, a local atomic order in nanocrystalline alloys of iron with Al, Ni, W and Mo has been determined. Alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying method. Analysis of Moessbauer spectra was performed on the basis of the local environment model in terms of Warren-Cowley parameters. It was shown that impurity atoms are not randomly distributed in the volume of the first and the second co-ordination spheres of 57 Fe nuclei and they form clusters

  6. Effects of thermal aging on microstructures of low alloy steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Jong Jin; Lee, Bong Ho; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the advanced instrumental analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution in the fusion boundary region between weld metal and low alloy steel in dissimilar metal welds. A representative dissimilar weld mock-up made of Alloy 690-Alloy 152-A533 Gr. B was fabricated and aged at 450 °C for 2750 h. The micro- and nano-scale characterization were conducted mainly near in a weld root region by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and three dimensional atom probe tomography. It was observed that the weld root was generally divided into several regions including dilution zone in the Ni-base alloy weld metal, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. A steep gradient was shown in the chemical composition profile across the interface between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152. The precipitation of carbides was also observed along and near the fusion boundary of as-welded and aged dissimilar metal joints. It was also found that the precipitation of Cr carbides was enhanced by the thermal aging near the fusion boundary

  7. Effects of thermal aging on microstructures of low alloy steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Jong Jin [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Ho [National Center for Nanomaterials Technology (NCNT), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the advanced instrumental analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution in the fusion boundary region between weld metal and low alloy steel in dissimilar metal welds. A representative dissimilar weld mock-up made of Alloy 690-Alloy 152-A533 Gr. B was fabricated and aged at 450 °C for 2750 h. The micro- and nano-scale characterization were conducted mainly near in a weld root region by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and three dimensional atom probe tomography. It was observed that the weld root was generally divided into several regions including dilution zone in the Ni-base alloy weld metal, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. A steep gradient was shown in the chemical composition profile across the interface between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152. The precipitation of carbides was also observed along and near the fusion boundary of as-welded and aged dissimilar metal joints. It was also found that the precipitation of Cr carbides was enhanced by the thermal aging near the fusion boundary.

  8. Effect of ternary alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical property of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.Y.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, S.K.; Ra, T.Y.; Kim, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical property at room temperature and at 1773 K of Nb-Si based refractory intermetallic alloys were investigated in terms of compression and fracture toughness test. Mo and V were chosen as ternary alloying elements because of their high melting points, atomic sizes smaller than Nb. Both ternary alloying elements were found to have a significant role in modifying the microstructure from dispersed structure to eutectic-like structure in Nb solid solution/Nb 5 Si 3 intermetallic composites. The 0.2% offset yield strength at room temperature increased with increasing content of ternary elements in Nb solid solution and volume fraction of Nb 5 Si 3 . At 1773 K, Mo addition has a positive role in increasing the yield strength. On the other hand, V addition has a role in decreasing the yield strength. The fracture toughness of ternary alloys was superior to binary alloys. Details will be discussed in correlation with ternary alloying, volume fraction of constituent phase, and the microstructure. (orig.)

  9. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern.

  10. High chromium nickel base alloys hot cracking susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirand, G.; Primault, C.; Robin, V.

    2014-01-01

    High Chromium nickel based alloys (FM52) have a higher ductility dip cracking sensitivity. New filler material with higher niobium and molybdenum content are developed to decrease the hot crack formation. The behavior of these materials is studied by coupling microstructural analyses and hot cracking test, PVR test. The metallurgical analyses illustrate an Nb and Mo enrichment of the inter-dendritic spaces of the new materials. A niobium high content (FM52MSS) induces the formation of primary carbide at the end of solidification. The PVR test reveal a solidification crack sensitivity of the new materials, and a lowest ductility dip cracking sensitivity for the filler material 52MSS. (authors)

  11. Study of internal oxidation kinetics of molybdenum base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushinskij, Yu.Yu.; Belyakov, B.G.; Belomyttsev, M.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    Metallographic and microdurometric method as well as new technique were used to study kinetics of internal oxidation (IO). It is shown that study of IO kinetics on the base of metallographic measurements of layers depth is not correct because it is related with insufficient sensitivity of the method. IO kinetics under conditions of formation of molybdenum oxide layer on saturated material surface as well as IO of alloy with high carbon content were investigated. Oxide film formation does not affect the IO kinetics; decarburization observed along with oxidation increases the apparent activation energy and K exponent on time dependence of diffusion layer depth

  12. Investigation on corrosion and wear behaviors of nanoparticles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiang; Tao Jie; Jiang Shuyun; Xu Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of amorphous SiO 2 particles in corrosion and wear resistance of Ni-based metal matrix composite alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer has been prepared by double glow plasma alloying on AISI 316L stainless steel surface, where Ni/amorphous nano-SiO 2 was firstly predeposited by brush plating. The composition and microstructure of the nano-SiO 2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer were analyzed by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The results indicated that the composite alloying layer consisted of γ-phase and amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles, and under alloying temperature (1000 deg. C) condition, the nano-SiO 2 particles were uniformly distributed in the alloying layer and still kept the amorphous structure. The corrosion resistance of composite alloying layer was investigated by an electrochemical method in 3.5%NaCl solution. Compared with single alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO 2 particles slightly decreased the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the passive films formed on the composite alloying consisted of Cr 2 O 3 , MoO 3 , SiO 2 and metallic Ni and Mo. The dry wear test results showed that the composite alloying layer had excellent friction-reduced property, and the wear weight loss of composite alloying layer was less than 60% of that of Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer

  13. Replacement of Co-base alloy for radiation exposure reduction in the primary system of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong Ho; Nyo, Kye Ho; Lee, Deok Hyun; Lim, Deok Jae; Ahn, Jin Keun; Kim, Sun Jin

    1996-01-01

    Of numerous Co-free alloys developed to replace Co-base stellite used in valve hardfacing material, two iron-base alloys of Armacor M and Tristelle 5183 and one nickel-base alloy of Nucalloy 488 were selected as candidate Co-free alloys, and Stellite 6 was also selected as a standard hardfacing material. These four alloys were welded on 316SS substrate using TIG welding method. The first corrosion test loop of KAERI simulating the water chemistry and operation condition of the primary system of PWR was designed and fabricated. Corrosion behaviors of the above four kinds of alloys were evaluated using this test loop under the condition of 300 deg C, 1500 psi. Microstructures of weldment of these alloys were observed to identify both matrix and secondary phase in each weldment. Hardnesses of weld deposit layer including HAZ and substrate were measured using micro-Vickers hardness tester. The status on the technology of Co-base alloy replacement in valve components was reviewed with respect to the classification of valves to be replaced, the development of Co-free alloys, the application of Co-free alloys and its experiences in foreign NPPs, and the Co reduction program in domestic NPPs and industries. 18 tabs., 20 figs., 22 refs. (Author)

  14. The development of additive manufacturing technique for nickel-base alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, Ahmad; Basuki, Arif

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-base alloys are an attractive alloy due to its excellent mechanical properties, a high resistance to creep deformation, corrosion, and oxidation. However, it is a hard task to control performance when casting or forging for this material. In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) process has been implemented to replace the conventional directional solidification process for the production of nickel-base alloys. Due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing process, AM is considered as a substitute technique for the existing. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the previous work related to the AM techniques for Ni-base alloys while highlighting current challenges and methods to solving them. The properties of conventionally manufactured Ni-base alloys are also compared with the AM fabricated alloys. The mechanical properties obtained from tension, hardness and fatigue test are included, along with discussions of the effect of post-treatment process. Recommendations for further work are also provided.

  15. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun-Jin [Oh-Sung Co. Ltd., Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  16. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min; Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook; Son, Hyun-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  17. TiAu based shape memory alloys for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadood, Abdul; Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko; Hosoda, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    TiAu (equiatomic) exhibits phase transformaion from B2 (ordered bcc) to thermo-elastic orthorhombic B19 martensite at about 875K and thus TiAu is categorized as high temperature shape memory alloy. In this study, recent research and developments related to TiAu based high temperature shape memory alloys will be discussed in the Introduction part. Then some results of our research group related to strengthening of TiAu based high temperature shape memory alloys will be presented. Potential of TiAu based shape memory alloys for high temperature shape memory materials applications will also be discussed

  18. Effect of Alloy 625 Buffer Layer on Hardfacing of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Using Nickel Base Hardfacing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C. R.; Albert, S. K.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Murugesan, S.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2016-04-01

    Dashpot piston, made up of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, is a part of diverse safety rod used for safe shutdown of a nuclear reactor. This component was hardfaced using nickel base AWS ER NiCr-B alloy and extensive cracking was experienced during direct deposition of this alloy on dashpot piston. Cracking reduced considerably and the component was successfully hardfaced by application of Inconel 625 as buffer layer prior to hardface deposition. Hence, a separate study was undertaken to investigate the role of buffer layer in reducing the cracking and on the microstructure of the hardfaced deposit. Results indicate that in the direct deposition of hardfacing alloy on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, both heat-affected zone (HAZ) formed and the deposit layer are hard making the thickness of the hard layer formed equal to combined thickness of both HAZ and deposit. This hard layer is unable to absorb thermal stresses resulting in the cracking of the deposit. By providing a buffer layer of Alloy 625 followed by a post-weld heat treatment, HAZ formed in the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is effectively tempered, and HAZ formed during the subsequent deposition of the hardfacing alloy over the Alloy 625 buffer layer is almost completely confined to Alloy 625, which does not harden. This reduces the cracking susceptibility of the deposit. Further, unlike in the case of direct deposition on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, dilution of the deposit by Ni-base buffer layer does not alter the hardness of the deposit and desired hardness on the deposit surface could be achieved even with lower thickness of the deposit. This gives an option for reducing the recommended thickness of the deposit, which can also reduce the risk of cracking.

  19. Relaxation of polarized nuclei in superconducting rhodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuuttila, T.A.; Tuoriniemi, J.T.; Lefmann, K.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates were measured in normal and superconducting (sc) rhodium with nuclear polarizations up to p = 0.55. This was sufficient to influence the sc state of Rh, whose T, and B-c, are exceptionally low. Because B-c ... is unchanged, the nuclear spin entropy was fully sustained across the sc transition. The relaxation in the sc state was slower at all temperatures without the coherence enhancement close to T-c. Nonzero nuclear polarization strongly reduced the difference between the relaxation rates in the sc and normal...

  20. Adhesion of rhodium films on metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, L.; Covarel, G.; Tuilier, M.-H.; Steiner, R.; Oelhafen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Rhodium coated metallic films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on metallic substrates. All films were elaborated in same conditions on copper, molybdenum and stainless steel. Adhesion strength tests were carried out by scratch test. The results reveal that the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate is influenced by the hardness of the substrate. Increase of deposition temperature improves the adhesion of the coating. In addition, pre-treatment of substrates by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc and the layer thickness have has some effects on the final adhesion strength

  1. Adhesion of rhodium films on metallic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marot, L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)], E-mail: laurent.marot@unibas.ch; Covarel, G.; Tuilier, M.-H. [Laboratoire Mecanique, Materiaux et Procedes de Fabrication, Pole STIC-SPI-Math 61 rue Albert Camus, Universite de Haute-Alsace, F-68093 - Mulhouse Cedex (France); Steiner, R.; Oelhafen, P. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-09-01

    Rhodium coated metallic films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on metallic substrates. All films were elaborated in same conditions on copper, molybdenum and stainless steel. Adhesion strength tests were carried out by scratch test. The results reveal that the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate is influenced by the hardness of the substrate. Increase of deposition temperature improves the adhesion of the coating. In addition, pre-treatment of substrates by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc and the layer thickness have has some effects on the final adhesion strength.

  2. The development of platinum-based alloys and their thermodynamic database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornish L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of quaternary platinum-based alloys have been demonstrated to exhibit the same two-phase structure as Ni-based superalloys and showed good mechanical properties. The properties of ternary alloys were a good indication that the quaternary alloys, with their better microstructure, will be even better. The quaternary alloy composition has been optimised at Pt84:Al11:Ru2:Cr3 for the best microstructure and hardness. Work has begun on establishing a thermodynamic database for Pt-Al-Ru-Cr alloys, and further work will be done to enhance the mechanical and oxidation properties of the alloys by adding small amounts of other elements to the base composition of Pt84:Al11:Ru2:Cr3.

  3. Corrosion behaviour of powder metallurgical and cast Al-Zn-Mg base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameljuk, A.V.; Neikov, O.D.; Krajnikov, A.V.; Milman, Yu.V.; Thompson, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of Al-Zn-Mg base alloys produced by powder metallurgy and casting has been studied using potentiodynamic polarisation in 0.3% and 3% NaCl solutions. The influence of alloy production route on microstructure has been examined by scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. An improvement in performance of powder metallurgy (PM) materials, compared with the cast alloy, was evident in solutions of low chloride concentration; less striking differences were revealed in high chloride concentration. Both powder metallurgy and cast alloys show two main types of precipitates, which were identified as Zn-Mg and Zr-Sc base intermetallic phases. The microstructure of the PM alloys is refined compared with the cast material, which assists understanding of the corrosion performance. The corrosion process commences with dissolution of the Zn-Mg base phases, with the relatively coarse phases present in the cast alloy showing ready development of corrosion

  4. γ' Precipitation Study of a Co-Ni-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locq, D.; Martin, M.; Ramusat, C.; Fossard, F.; Perrut, M.

    2018-05-01

    A Co-Ni-based alloy strengthened by γ'-(L12) precipitates was utilized to investigate the precipitation evolution after various cooling rates and several aging conditions. In this study, the precipitate size and volume fraction have been studied via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of the precipitation evolution was measured via microhardness tests. The cooling rate study shows a more sluggish γ' precipitation reaction compared to that observed in a Ni-based superalloy. Following a rapid cooling rate, the application of appropriate double aging treatments allows for the increase of the γ' volume fraction as well as the control of the size and distribution of the precipitates. The highest hardness values reach those measured on supersolvus cast and wrought Ni-based superalloys. The observed γ' precipitation behavior should have implications for the production, the heat treatment, the welding, or the additive manufacturing of this new class of high-temperature materials.

  5. Electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin rhodium nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Bao Lin; Ren-Yun; Sun Hou Qian; Chen Xiao Shuang; Zhao Ji Jun

    2003-01-01

    The structures of ultrathin rhodium nanowires are studied using empirical molecular dynamics simulations with a genetic algorithm. Helical multishell cylindrical and pentagonal packing structures are found. The electronic and magnetic properties of the rhodium nanowires are calculated using an spd tight-binding Hamiltonian in the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation. The average magnetic moment and electronic density of states are obtained. Our results indicate that the electronic and magnetic properties of the rhodium nanowires depend not only on the size of the wire but also on the atomic structure. In particular, centred pentagonal and hexagonal structures can be unusually ferromagnetic.

  6. Enantioselective rhodium/ruthenium photoredox catalysis en route to chiral 1,2-aminoalcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiajia; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2016-08-09

    A rhodium-based chiral Lewis acid catalyst combined with [Ru(bpy)3](PF6)2 as a photoredox sensitizer allows for the visible-light-activated redox coupling of α-silylamines with 2-acyl imidazoles to afford, after desilylation, 1,2-amino-alcohols in yields of 69-88% and with high enantioselectivity (54-99% ee). The reaction is proposed to proceed via an electron exchange between the α-silylamine (electron donor) and the rhodium-chelated 2-acyl imidazole (electron acceptor), followed by a stereocontrolled radical-radical reaction. Substrate scope and control experiments reveal that the trimethylsilyl group plays a crucial role in this reductive umpolung of the carbonyl group.

  7. Nano-structureal and nano-chemical analysis of Ni-based alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The dissimilar metal joints welded between Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B with Alloy 152 filler metal were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectrometry and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found that in the weld root region, the weld was divided into several regions including unmixed zone in Ni-base alloy, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. The result of nanostructural and nanochemical analyses in this study showed the non-homogeneous distribution of elements with higher Fe but lower Mn, Ni and Cr in A533 Gr. B compared with Alloy 152, and the precipitation of carbides near the fusion boundary.

  8. Nano-structureal and nano-chemical analysis of Ni-based alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The dissimilar metal joints welded between Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B with Alloy 152 filler metal were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectrometry and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found that in the weld root region, the weld was divided into several regions including unmixed zone in Ni-base alloy, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. The result of nanostructural and nanochemical analyses in this study showed the non-homogeneous distribution of elements with higher Fe but lower Mn, Ni and Cr in A533 Gr. B compared with Alloy 152, and the precipitation of carbides near the fusion boundary.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, V.A.; Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Chukin, A.V.; Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V.; Osipenko, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovich, V.A., E-mail: v.a.volkovich@urfu.ru [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F. [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Chukin, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry UD RAS, Ekaterinburg, 620137 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A.G. [JSC “State Scientific Centre - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors”, Dimitrovgrad, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  11. Self Passivating W-based Alloys as Plasma Facing Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.; Koeppl, S.; Bolt, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten (W) is presently the main candidate material for the plasma-facing protection of future fusion power reactors due to the low sputter erosion under bombardment by energetic D, T and He ions. Thus a W-based protection material may provide a wall erosion lifetime of the order of five years which is a pre-requisite for economic fusion reactor operation. A potential problem with the use of pure W in a fusion reactor is the formation of radioactive and highly volatile WO 3 compounds and their potential release under accidental conditions. A loss-of-coolant event in a He-cooled reactor would lead to a temperature rise to 1100 deg. C after approx. 10 to 30 days due to the nuclear decay heat of the in-vessel components. In such a situation additional accidental intense air ingress into the reactor vessel would lead to the formation of WO 3 and subsequent evaporation of radioactive (WO 3 ) x -clusters. The use of self passivating W alloys either as bulk material or as thick coating on the steel wall may be a passively safe alternative for the plasma-facing protection. The use of this material would eliminate the above mentioned concern related to pure W. To enable the formation of a protective film in oxidizing atmosphere which seals the tungsten surface from further oxidation, different elements have been investigated as corrosion protection additives. Therefore binary and ternary tungsten alloys were synthesised using magnetron sputtering. The oxidation behaviour of films deposited on inert substrates was measured with a thermo-balance set up under synthetic air at temperatures up to 1000 deg. C. Binary alloys of W-Si showed good self passivation properties by forming a SiO 2 film at the surface. The oxidation rate of a compound containing 11 wt.% Si was reduced by a factor of 10 2 compared to pure tungsten between 800 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Using ternary alloys the oxidation behaviour could be further improved. A compound of W

  12. The development of platinum-based alloys and their thermodynamic database

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish L.A.; Hohls J.; Hill P.J.; Prins S.; Süss R.; Compton D.N.

    2002-01-01

    A series of quaternary platinum-based alloys have been demonstrated to exhibit the same two-phase structure as Ni-based superalloys and showed good mechanical properties. The properties of ternary alloys were a good indication that the quaternary alloys, with their better microstructure, will be even better. The quaternary alloy composition has been optimised at Pt84:Al11:Ru2:Cr3 for the best microstructure and hardness. Work has begun on establishing a thermodynamic database for Pt-Al-Ru-Cr ...

  13. Corrosion mechanism of a Ni-based alloy in supercritical water: Impact of surface plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payet, Mickaël; Marchetti, Loïc; Tabarant, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dissolution of Ni and Fe cations occurs during corrosion of Ni-based alloys in SCW. • The nature of the oxide layer depends locally on the alloy microstructure. • The corrosion mechanism changes when cold-work increases leading to internal oxidation. - Abstract: Ni–Fe–Cr alloys are expected to be a candidate material for the generation IV nuclear reactors that use supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 °C and pressures of 25 MPa. The corrosion resistance of Alloy 690 in these extreme conditions was studied considering the surface finish of the alloy. The oxide scale could suffer from dissolution or from internal oxidation. The presence of a work-hardened zone reveals the competition between the selective oxidation of chromium with respect to the oxidation of nickel and iron. Finally, corrosion mechanisms for Ni based alloys are proposed considering the effects of plastically deformed surfaces and the dissolution.

  14. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of the nickel base alloy (Alloy 600) after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Stela Maria de Carvalho

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of microstructural and mechanical properties of cold rolled and heat treated alloys 600 made in Brazil were investigated. The recovery and recrystallization behavior as well as solubilization and aging have been studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and tensile testing have been carried out. The recovery process of the cold rolled alloy 600 occurred until 600 deg C and the recrystallization stage was situated between 600 and 850 deg C. The primary recrystallization temperature was obtained at 850 deg C after 1 hour (isochronal heat treatments). The aged alloy 600 shows carbide precipitation on grains bu with ductility maintenance. (author)

  15. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Krishnan, V. B.; Singh, J. D.; Woodruff, T. R.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed.

  16. Evaluation of different finish line designs in base metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghandeh R

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed according to the widespread application of base metal alloys"nand few articles published about the marginal integrity of restorations fabricated by these metals."nThree standard dies of a maxillary first premolar were prepared with a flat shoulder finish line in buccal"naspect and chamfer in palatal. One of them left with no change. On the buccal aspect of the second and"nthird dies 135?and 1607 bevel were added respectively"nUsing dual wax technique, nine wax patterns were formed on each die and casting procedure of selected"nnon precious alloy was performed by centrifugal method. Marginal gaps of each copping seated on dies"nwere measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM with X500 magnification. Measurements were"ndone on three areas of marked dies on buccal aspect. Measurement son palatal aspect was done on"nmarked midpalatal point as control."nResults and statistical analysis showed no significant difference among marginal gaps in lingual aspect."nBut on the buccal aspect there were statistically significant differences among the groups (P<0.001. Flat"nshoulder had the best marginal integrity (mean 4 micron. Shoulder with 160' bevel had the most marginal"ngap (mean 26.5 micron and shoulder with 1357 bevel was between two other groups (mean 15.7 micron.

  17. A Shape Memory Alloy Based Cryogenic Thermal Conduction Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, V.B.; Singh, J.D.; Woodruff, T.R.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Notardonato, W.U.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) can produce large strains when deformed (e.g., up to 8%). Heating results in a phase transformation and associated recovery of all the accumulated strain. This strain recovery can occur against large forces, resulting in their use as actuators. Thus an SMA element can integrate both sensory and actuation functions, by inherently sensing a change in temperature and actuating by undergoing a shape change as a result of a temperature-induced phase transformation. Two aspects of our work on cryogenic SMAs are addressed here. First - a shape memory alloy based cryogenic thermal conduction switch for operation between dewars of liquid methane and liquid oxygen in a common bulkhead arrangement is discussed. Such a switch integrates the sensor element and the actuator element and can be used to create a variable thermal sink to other cryogenic tanks for liquefaction, densification, and zero boil-off systems for advanced spaceport applications. Second - fabrication via arc-melting and subsequent materials testing of SMAs with cryogenic transformation temperatures for use in the aforementioned switch is discussed

  18. Machinability of nickel based alloys using electrical discharge machining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Adam; Gokul, A. K.; Bharani Dharan, M. P.; Jeevakarthikeyan, R. V. S.; Uthayakumar, M.; Thirumalai Kumaran, S.; Duraiselvam, M.

    2018-04-01

    The high temperature materials such as nickel based alloys and austenitic steel are frequently used for manufacturing critical aero engine turbine components. Literature on conventional and unconventional machining of steel materials is abundant over the past three decades. However the machining studies on superalloy is still a challenging task due to its inherent property and quality. Thus this material is difficult to be cut in conventional processes. Study on unconventional machining process for nickel alloys is focused in this proposed research. Inconel718 and Monel 400 are the two different candidate materials used for electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Investigation is to prepare a blind hole using copper electrode of 6mm diameter. Electrical parameters are varied to produce plasma spark for diffusion process and machining time is made constant to calculate the experimental results of both the material. Influence of process parameters on tool wear mechanism and material removal are considered from the proposed experimental design. While machining the tool has prone to discharge more materials due to production of high energy plasma spark and eddy current effect. The surface morphology of the machined surface were observed with high resolution FE SEM. Fused electrode found to be a spherical structure over the machined surface as clumps. Surface roughness were also measured with surface profile using profilometer. It is confirmed that there is no deviation and precise roundness of drilling is maintained.

  19. Irradiation induced precipitation in tungsten based, W-Re alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. K.; Wiffen, F. W.; Bentley, J.; Stiegler, J. O.

    1983-03-01

    Tungsten-base alloys containing 5, 11, and 25 pct Re were irradiated in the EBR-II reactor. Irradiation temperatures ranged from 600 to 1500 °C. All compositions were irradiated to fluences in the range 4.3 to 6.1 X 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), and three 25 pct Re samples were also irradiated to 3.7 X 1026 n/m2 at temperatures 700 to 900 °C. Postirradiation examination included measurement of electrical resistivity at room temperature and lower temperatures, X-ray diffraction, optical metallography, microprobe analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Irradiation induced resistivity decreases observed in most of the samples suggested second-phase precipitation. Complete results confirmed the precipitate formation in all samples, in disagreement with existing phase diagrams for the W-Re system. Electron diffraction showed the precipitates to be consistent with the cubic, Re-rich X-phase and inconsistent with the σ-phase. Large variations in precipitate morphology and distribution were observed between the different compositions and irradiation conditions. For the 5 and 11 pct Re-alloys, spherically symmetric strain fields surrounded the equiaxed precipitate particles, and were observed even where no particles were visible. These strain fields are believed to arise from local Re enrichment. Thermoelectric data show that the precipitation can lead to decalibration of W/Re thermocouples.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and properties of Ni based soft magnetic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhong; Ruan, Hui; Chen, Dengming; Li, Kejian; Guo, Donglin; Shao, Bin

    2018-04-20

    A Ni-based alloy was heat treated by changing the temperature and ambient atmosphere of the heat treatment. Morphology, crystal structure, and physical performance of the Ni-based alloy were characterized via SEM, XRD, TEM, and PPMS. Results show that due to the heat treatment process, the grain growth of the Ni-based alloy and the removal of impurities and defects are promoted. Both the orientation and stress caused by rolling are reduced. The permeability and saturation magnetization of the alloy are improved. The hysteresis loss and coercivity are decreased. Higher heat treatment temperature leads to increased improvement of permeability and saturation magnetization. Heat treatment in hydrogen is more conducive to the removal of impurities. At the same temperature, the magnetic performance of the heat-treated alloy in hydrogen is better than that of an alloy with heat treatment in vacuum. The Ni-based alloy shows an excellent magnetic performance on 1,373 K heat treatment in hydrogen atmosphere. In this process, the µ m , B s , P u , and H c of the obtained alloy are 427 mHm -1 , 509 mT, 0.866 Jm -3 , and 0.514 Am -1 , respectively. At the same time, the resistivity of alloy decreases and its thermal conductivity increases in response to heat treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Structural properties of small rhodium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Yee Yeen; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    We report a systematic study of the structural properties of rhodium clusters at the atomistic level. A novel global-minimum search algorithm, known as parallel tempering multicanonical basin hopping plus genetic algorithm (PTMBHGA), is used to obtain the geometrical structures with lowest minima at the semi-empirical level where Gupta potential is used to describe the atomic interaction among the rhodium atoms. These structures are then re-optimized at the density functional theory (DFT) level with exchange-correlation energy approximated by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The structures are optimized for different spin multiplicities. The ones with lowest energies will be taken as ground-state structures. In most cases, we observe only minor changes in the geometry and bond length of the clusters as a result of DFT-level re-optimization. Only in some limited cases, the initial geometries obtained from the PTMBHGA are modified by the re-optimization. The variation of structural properties, such as ground-state geometry, symmetry and binding energy, with respect to the cluster size is studied and agreed well with other results available in the literature.

  2. Mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao He; Wang Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The corrosion resistance of V-based phase is much lower than that of C14 Laves phase of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. - Abstract: In this work, the mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys were investigated systemically. Several key factors for example corrosion resistance, pulverization resistance and oxidation resistance were evaluated individually. The V-based solid solution phase has much lower anti-corrosion ability than C14 Laves phase in KOH solution, and the addition of Cr in V-Ti-based alloys can suppress the dissolution of the main hydrogen absorption elements of the V-based phase in the alkaline solution. During the charge/discharge cycling, the alloy particles crack or break into several pieces, which accelerates their corrosion/oxidation and increases the contact resistance of the alloy electrodes. Proper decreasing the Vickers hardness and enhancing the fracture toughness can increase the pulverization resistance of the alloy particles. The oxidation layer thickness on the alloy particle surface obviously increases during charge/discharge cycling. This deteriorates their electro-catalyst activation to the electrochemical reaction, and leads to a quick degradation. Therefore, enhancing the oxide resistance can obviously improve the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys.

  3. Rhodium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Borylation of Cyclic Alkenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Azusa; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    A rhodium-catalyzed dehydrogenative borylation of cyclic alkenes is described. This reaction provides direct access to cyclic 1-alkenylboronic acid pinacol esters, useful intermediates in organic synthesis. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling applications are also presented. PMID:20107646

  4. New technique for producing the alloys based on transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolukhanyan, S.K.; Aleksanyan, A.G.; Shekhtman, V.Sh.; Mantashyan, A.A.; Mayilyan, D.G.; Ter-Galstyan, O.P.

    2007-01-01

    In principle new technique was elaborated for obtaining the alloys of refractory metals by their hydrides compacting and following dehydrogenation. The elaborated technique is described. The conditions of alloys formation from different hydrides of appropriate metals was investigated in detail. The influence of the process parameters such as: chemical peculiarities, composition of source hydrides, phase transformation during dehydrogenation, etc. on the alloys formation were established. The binary and tertiary alloys of α and ω phases: Ti 0 .8Zr 0 .8; Ti 0 .66Zr 0 .33; Ti 0 .3Zr 0 .8; Ti 0 .2Zr 0 .8; Ti 0 .8Hf 0 .2; Ti 0 .6Hf 0 .4Ti 0 .66Zr 0 .23Hf 0 .11; etc were recieved. Using elaborated special hydride cycle, an earlier unknown effective process for formation of alloys of transition metals was realized. The dependence of final alloy structure on the composition of initial mixture and hydrogen content in source hydrides was established

  5. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2001-01-01

    Existing Dual Microstructure Heat Treat (DMHT) technology was successfully applied to Alloy 10, a high strength, nickel-base disk alloy, to produce a disk with a fine grain bore and coarse grain rim. Specimens were extracted from the DMHT disk and tested in tension, creep, fatigue, and crack growth using conditions pertinent to disk applications. These data were then compared with data from "traditional" subsolvus and supersolvus heat treatments for Alloy 10. The results showed the DMHT disk to have a high strength, fatigue resistant bore comparable to that of subsolvus Alloy 10. Further, creep resistance of the DMHT rim was comparable to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. Crack growth resistance in the DMHT rim, while better than that for subsolvus, was inferior to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. The slow cool at the end of the DMHT conversion and/or the subsolvus resolution step are thought to be responsible for degrading rim DMHT crack growth resistance.

  6. Study of superficial films and of electrochemical behaviour of some nickel base alloys and titanium base alloys in solution representation of granitic, argillaceous and salted ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quang, K.V.; Da Cunha Belo, M.; Benabed, M.S.; Bourelier, F.; Jallerat, N.; Pari, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of the stainless steels 304, 316 Ti, 25Cr-20Ni-Mo-Ti, nickel base alloys Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Ti and Ti-0.2% Pd alloy has been studied in the aerated or deaerated solutions at 20 0 C and 90 0 C whose compositions are representative of interstitial ground waters: granitic or clay waters or salt brine. The electrochemical techniques used are voltametry, polarization resistance and complexe impedance measurements. Electrochemical data show the respective influence of the parameters such as temperature, solution composition and dissolved oxygen, addition of soluble species chloride, fluoride, sulfide and carbonates, on which depend the corrosion current density, the passivation and the pitting potential. The inhibition efficiency of carbonate and bicarbonate activities against pitting corrosion is determined. In clay water at 90 0 C, Ti and Ti-Pd show very high passivation aptitude and a broad passive potential range. Alloying Pd increases cathodic overpotential and also transpassive potential. It makes the alloy less sensitive to the temperature effect. Optical Glow Discharge Spectra show three parts in the composition depth profiles of surface films on alloys. XPS and SIMS spectrometry analyses are also carried out. Electron microscopy observation shows that passive films formed on Ti and Ti-Pd alloy have amorphous structure. Analysis of the alloy constituents dissolved in solutions, by radioactivation in neutrons, gives the order of magnitude of the Ni base alloy corrosion rates in various media. It also points out the preferential dissolution of alloying iron and in certain cases of chromium

  7. Phases stability of shape memory alloys Cu based under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelaya, Maria Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on the relative phase stability of phases related by a martensitic transformation in copper based shape memory alloys were studied in this work.Different kind of particles and energies were employed in the irradiation experiments.The first kind of irradiation was performed with 2,6 MeV electrons, the second one with 170 keV and 300 keV Cu ions and the third one with swift heavy ions (Kr, Xe, Au) with energies between 200 and 600 MeV.Stabilization of the 18 R martensite in Cu-Zn-Al-Ni induced by electron irradiation was studied.The results were compared to those of the stabilization induced by quenching and ageing in the same alloy, and the ones obtained by irradiation in 18 R-Cu-Zn-Al alloys.The effects of Cu irradiation over b phase were analyzed with several electron microscopy techniques including: scanning electron microscopy (S E M), high resolution electron microscopy (H R E M), micro diffraction and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (E D S). Structural changes in Cu-Zn-Al b phase into a closed packed structure were induced by Cu ion implantation.The closed packed structures depend on the irradiation fluence.Based on these results, the interface between these structures (closed packed and b) and the stability of disordered phases were analyzed. It was also compared the evolution of long range order in the Cu-Zn-Al and in the Cu-Zn-Al-Ni b phase as a function of fluence.The evolution of the g phase was also compared. Both results were discussed in terms of the mobility of irradiation induced point defects.Finally, the effects induced by swift heavy ions in b phase and 18 R martensite were studied. The results of the irradiation in b phase were qualitatively similar to those produced by irradiation with lower energies. On the contrary, nano metric defects were found in the irradiated 18 R martensite.These defects were characterized by H R E M.The characteristic contrast of the defects was associated to a local change in the

  8. Technical assessment of niobium alloys data base for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pionke, L J; Davis, J W

    1979-08-01

    Refractory metals are one class of material to be developed in the Alloy Development For Irradiation Performance (ADIP) program recently initiated. A principal purpose of the assessment reported herein is to establish the existing data base for niobium alloys in order to help guide the work to be performed in the ADIP program. Major ADIP decisions include alloy selection/modification and irradiated/unirradiated material testing. This Assessment addressed the topics of: (1) niobium alloy development history and niobium metallurgy, (2) unirradiated mechanical properties, (3) irradiated properties, (4) corrosion, and (5) environmental effects.

  9. Hydrogen embrittlement considerations in niobium-base alloys for application in the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.T.; Hull, A.B.; Loomis, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ITER divertor will be subjected to hydrogen from aqueous corrosion by the coolant and by transfer from the plasma. Global hydrogen concentrations are one factor in assessing hydrogen embrittlement but local concentrations affected by source fluxes and thermotransport in thermal gradients are more important considerations. Global hydrogen concentrations is some corrosion- tested alloys will be presented and interpreted. The degradation of mechanical properties of Nb-base alloys due to hydrogen is a complex function of temperature, hydrogen concentration, stresses and alloy composition. The known tendencies for embrittlement and hydride formation in Nb alloys are reviewed

  10. Low in reactor creep Zr-base alloy tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Holt, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to zirconium alloy tubes especially for use in nuclear power reactors. More particularly it relates to quaternary 3.5 percent Sn, 1 percent Mo, 1 percent Nb, balance Zr alloy tubes which have been extruded, cold worked and heat treated to lower their dislocation density. In one embodiment the alloys are cold worked less than 5 percent and stress relieved to produce a low dislocation density and in another embodiment the alloys are cold worked up to about 50 percent and annealed to produce a very low dislocation density and also small equiaxed β grains

  11. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  12. Corrosion performance of new Zircaloy-2-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudling, P.; Mikes-Lindbaeck, M.; Lethinen, B.; Andren, H.O.; Stiller, K.

    1994-01-01

    A material development project was initiated to develop a new zirconium alloy, outside the ASTM specifications for Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4, with optimized hydriding and corrosion properties for both boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. A number of different alloys were manufactured. These alloys were long-term corrosion tested in autoclaves at 400 C in steam. Also, a 520 C/24 h steam test was carried out. The zirconium metal microstructure and the chemistry of precipitates were characterized by analytical electron microscopy. The metal matrix chemistry was determined by atom probe analysis. The paper describes the correlations between corrosion material performance and zirconium alloy microstructure

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel base alloys characterization and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarini, G.; Pinard-Legry, G.

    1988-01-01

    For many years, studies have been carried out in several laboratories to characterize the IGSCC (Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking) behaviour of nickel base alloys in aqueous environments. For their relative shortness, CERTs (Constant Extension Rate Tests) have been extensively used, especially at the Corrosion Department of the CEA. However, up to recently, the results obtained with this method remained qualitative. This paper presents a first approach to a quantitative interpretation of CERT results. The basic datum used is the crack trace depth distribution determined on a specimen section at the end of a CERT. It is shown that this information can be used for the calculation of initiation and growth parameters which quantitatively characterize IGSCC phenomenon. Moreover, the rationale proposed should lead to the determination of intrinsic cracking parameters, and so, to in-service behaviour prediction

  14. Nanocrystalline Al-based alloys - lightweight materials with attractive mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, J; Cieslak, G; Dimitrov, H; Krasnowski, M; Kulik, T

    2009-01-01

    In this study, several ways of bulk nanocrystalline Al-based alloys' production by high-pressure compaction of powders were explored. The effect of chemical composition and compaction parameters on the structure, quality and mechanical properties of the bulk samples was studied. Bulk nanocrystalline Al-Mm-Ni-(Fe,Co) alloys were prepared by ball-milling of amorphous ribbons followed by consolidation. The maximum microhardness (540 HV0.1) was achieved for the samples compacted at 275 deg. C under 7.7 GPa (which resulted in an amorphous bulk) and nanocrystallised at 235 deg. C for 20 min. Another group of the produced materials were bulk nanocrystalline Al-Si-(Ni,Fe)-Mm alloys obtained by ball-milling of nanocrystalline ribbons and consolidation. The hardness of these samples achieved the value five times higher (350HV) than that of commercial 4xxx series Al alloys. Nanocrystalline Al-based alloys were also prepared by mechanical alloying followed by hot-pressing. In this group of materials, there were Al-Fe alloys containing 50-85 at.% of Al and ternary or quaternary Al-Fe-(Ti, Si, Ni, Mg, B) alloys. Microhardness of these alloys was in the range of 613 - 1235 HV0.2, depending on the composition.

  15. Cu-based shape memory alloys with enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.Y.; Lam, C.W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Cu-based shape memory alloys were developed in the 1960s. They show excellent thermoelastic martensitic transformation. However the problems in mechanical properties and thermal instability have inhibited them from becoming promising engineering alloys. A new Cu-Zn-Al-Mn-Zr Cu-based shape memory alloy has been developed. With the addition of Mn and Zr, the martensitic transformation behaviour and the grain size ca be better controlled. The new alloys demonstrates good mechanical properties with ultimate tensile strenght and ductility, being 460 MPa and 9%, respectively. Experimental results revealed that the alloy has better thermal stability, i.e. martensite stabilisation is less serious. In ordinary Cu-Zn-Al alloys, martensite stabilisation usually occurs at room temperature. The new alloy shows better thermal stability even at elevated temperature (∝150 C, >A f =80 C). A limited small amount of martensite stabilisation was observed upon ageing of the direct quenched samples as well as the step quenched samples. This implies that the thermal stability of the new alloy is less dependent on the quenching procedure. Furthermore, such minor martensite stabilisation can be removed by subsequent suitable parent phase ageing. The new alloy is ideal for engineering applications because of its better thermal stability and better mechanical properties. (orig.)

  16. Corrosion resistance and electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation testing of some iron-base hardfacing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-01-01

    Hardfacing alloys are weld deposited on a base material to provide a wear resistant surface. Commercially available iron-base hardfacing alloys are being evaluated for replacement of cobalt-base alloys to reduce nuclear plant activation levels. Corrosion testing was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of several iron-base hardfacing alloys in highly oxygenated environments. The corrosion test results indicate that iron-base hardfacing alloys in the as-deposited condition have acceptable corrosion resistance when the chromium to carbon ratio is greater than 4. Tristelle 5183, with a high niobium (stabilizer) content, did not follow this trend due to precipitation of niobium-rich carbides instead of chromium-rich carbides. This result indicates that iron-base hardfacing alloys containing high stabilizer contents may possess good corrosion resistance with Cr:C < 4. NOREM 02, NOREM 01, and NoCo-M2 hardfacing alloys had acceptable corrosion resistance in the as-deposited and 885 C/4 hour heat treated condition, but rusting from sensitization was observed in the 621 C/6 hour heat treated condition. The feasibility of using an Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) test method, such as used for stainless steel, to detect sensitization in iron-base hardfacing alloys was evaluated. A single loop-EPR method was found to provide a more consistent measurement of sensitization than a double loop-EPR method. The high carbon content that is needed for a wear resistant hardfacing alloy produces a high volume fraction of chromium-rich carbides that are attacked during EPR testing. This results in inherently lower sensitivity for detection of a sensitized iron-base hardfacing alloy than stainless steel using conventional EPR test methods

  17. Study of oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr 65 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 has been studied in air environment at various temperatures in the temperature range 591–684 K using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The oxidation kinetics of the alloy in the amorphous phase obeys the parabolic rate law for oxidation ...

  18. An experimental study of the magnetic ordering in Pd-based Fe and Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, B.H.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of an investigation on the magnetic ordering phenomena in some Pd based alloys with small concentrations of magnetic impurities. It has been the object to explore the ordering mechanisms in these alloys which lead to various types of magnetism at low temperature. The experimental techniques used are described. (Auth.)

  19. Improvement of the performance of Mg-based alloy electrodes at ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.K.; Chen, J.; Sun, L.; Bradhurst, D.H.; Dou, S.X.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rechargeable batteries are finding increased application in modern communications, computers, and electric vehicles. The Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery has the best comprehensive properties. It is known that the important step to increase the energy density of Ni-MH battery is to improve the negative (metal hydride) electrode properties. Of all the hydrogen storage alloys studied previously, (the best know alloys are LaNi 5 , Mg 2 Ni, Ti 2 Ni , TiNi and Zr 2 Ni), the intermetallic compound Mg 2 Ni has the highest theoretical hydrogen storage capacity. The Mg 2 Ni-based hydrogen storage alloy is a promising material for increasing the negative electrode capacity of Ni-MH batteries because this alloy is superior to the LaNi 5 -system or the Zr-based alloys in materials cost and hydrogen absorption capacity. A serious disadvantage, however, is that the reactions of most magnesium based alloys with hydrogen require relatively high temperature (>300 deg C) and pressure (up to 10 atm) due to the slowness of the hydriding/dehydriding reactions. In this paper it is shown that with a combination of modifications to the alloy composition and methods of electrode preparation, magnesium-based alloys can be made into electrodes which will not only be useful at ambient temperatures but will have a useful cycle life and extremely high capacity

  20. Prospects for designing structural cast eutectic alloys on Al-Ce-Ni system base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, N.A.; Naumova, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The phase diagram of Al-Ce-Ni system is built for an aluminium corner at component concentration up to 16 mass %Ce and 8 mass%Ni. A ternary eutectic reaction is established at 12%Ce, 5%Ni and 626 deg C. The ternary eutectic alloy is similar in structure to rapidly cooled Al base alloys with transition metals. The possibility to design new cast alloys based on three-phase (Al)+NiAl 3 +CeAl 4 eutectics is under consideration. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu, Al-Sc and Al-Zr base alloys can be used as (Al) constituent of the eutectics. The new alloys may be considered as heat resistant ones due to the fact that no structural changes are observed in castings on heating up to 350 deg C. 18 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. The influence of rhodium burn-up on the sensitivity of rhodium self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, O.

    1980-01-01

    Depression and self-shielding coefficients are presented for thermal and epithermal neutron flux densities. Functions are shown describing the distribution of beta particle sources on the emitter cross section for 0 to 50% rhodium burnup. The values are calculated of detector sensitivity to thermal and epithermal neutron flux densities for the said burnup for main types of rhodium SPN detectors made by SODERN. (J.B.)

  2. Formation and Applications of Bulk Glassy Alloys in Late Transition Metal Base System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Shen Baolong

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent results of the formation, fundamental properties, workability and applications of late transition metal (LTM) base bulk glassy alloys (BGAs) developed since 1995. The BGAs were obtained in Fe-(Al,Ga)-(P,C,B,Si), Fe-(Cr,Mo)-(C,B), Fe-(Zr,Hf,Nb,Ta)-B, Fe-Ln-B(Ln=lanthanide metal), Fe-B-Si-Nb and Fe-Nd-Al for Fe-based alloys, Co-(Ta,Mo)-B and Co-B-Si-Nb for Co-based alloys, Ni-Nb-(Ti,Zr)-(Co,Ni) for Ni-based alloys, and Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf)-(Ni,Co) and Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf)-(Ag,Pd) for Cu-based alloys. These BGAs exhibit useful properties of high mechanical strength, large elastic elongation and high corrosion resistance. In addition, Fe- and Co-based glassy alloys have good soft magnetic properties which cannot be obtained for amorphous and crystalline type magnetic alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based BGAs have already been used in some application fields. These LTM base BGAs are promising as new metallic engineering materials

  3. Effects of Cr and Nb contents on the susceptibility of Alloy 600 type Ni-base alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in a simulated BWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Masatsune

    1995-01-01

    In order to discuss the effects of chromium and niobium contents on the susceptibility of Alloy 600 type nickel-base alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in the BWR primary coolant environment, a series of creviced bent-beam (CBB) tests were conducted in a high-temperature, high-purity water environment. Chromium, niobium, and titanium as alloying elements improved the resistivity to stress-corrosion cracking, whereas carbon enhanced the susceptibility to it. Alloy-chemistry-based correlations have been defined to predict the relative resistances of alloys to stress-corrosion cracking. A strong correlation was found, for several heats of alloys, between grain-boundary chromium depletion and the susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking

  4. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Boyi [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Zhu, Yong, E-mail: y.zhu@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Dao, Dzung Viet [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2017-06-15

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  5. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Boyi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  6. The corrosion behaviour of Zr3Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.V.; Wieler, R.

    1977-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of several zirconium-aluminum alloys with aluminum contents ranging from 7.6 to 9.6 wt% was examined in 300 deg C and 325 deg C water, 350 deg C and 400 deg C steam and in air and wet CO 2 at 325 deg C and 400 deg C. In the transformed alloys there are three phases present, αZr, Zr 2 Al and Zr 3 Al of which the αZr phase is the least corrosion resistant. The most important factor controlling the corrosion behaviour of these alloys was found to be the size, distribution and amount of the αZr phase in the transformed alloys, which in turn was dependent upon the microstructural scale of the untransformed alloys

  7. Creep-Rupture Behavior of Ni-Based Alloy Tube Bends for A-USC Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingledecker, John

    Advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) boiler designs will require the use of nickel-based alloys for superheaters and reheaters and thus tube bending will be required. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II PG-19 limits the amount of cold-strain for boiler tube bends for austenitic materials. In this summary and analysis of research conducted to date, a number of candidate nickel-based A-USC alloys were evaluated. These alloys include alloy 230, alloy 617, and Inconel 740/740H. Uniaxial creep and novel structural tests and corresponding post-test analysis, which included physical measurements, simplified analytical analysis, and detailed microscopy, showed that different damage mechanisms may operate based on test conditions, alloy, and cold-strain levels. Overall, creep strength and ductility were reduced in all the alloys, but the degree of degradation varied substantially. The results support the current cold-strain limits now incorporated in ASME for these alloys for long-term A-USC boiler service.

  8. Rhodium and Hafnium Influence on the Microstructure, Phase Composition, and Oxidation Resistance of Aluminide Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Maryana Zagula-Yavorska; Małgorzata Wierzbińska; Jan Sieniawski

    2017-01-01

    A 0.5 μm thick layer of rhodium was deposited on the CMSX 4 superalloy by the electroplating method. The rhodium-coated superalloy was hafnized and aluminized or only aluminized using the Chemical vapour deposition method. A comparison was made of the microstructure, phase composition, and oxidation resistance of three aluminide coatings: nonmodified (a), rhodium-modified (b), and rhodium- and hafnium-modified (c). All three coatings consisted of two layers: the additive layer and the interdi...

  9. Corrosion assessment and enhanced biocompatibility analysis of biodegradable magnesium-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Luis Enrique

    Magnesium alloys have raised immense interest to many researchers because of its evolution as a new third generation material. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium based alloys experience a natural phenomena to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosive activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, major concerns with such alloys are fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of an implant. In this investigation, three grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

  10. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  11. Ductile-phase toughening and fatigue crack growth in Nb3Al base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanamoorthy, R.; Hanada, S.

    1996-01-01

    Niobium aluminide (Nb 3 Al) base intermetallic compounds exhibit good high-temperature strength and creep properties and potential for applications above 1,200 C provided their inadequately low room-temperature ductility, fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior are improved. Addition of tantalum to Nb 3 Al base materials improves the high-temperature strength significantly and seems to be a potential alloying element. In the present study, room temperature fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior of tantalum alloyed Nb 3 Al base alloy prepared by ingot metallurgy are investigated

  12. Influence of alkali metal hydroxides on corrosion of Zr-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan

    1996-01-01

    The influence of group-1 alkali hydroxides on different Zr-based alloys have been carried out in static autoclaves at 350 deg C in pressurized water, conditioned in low(0.32 mmol), medium(4.3 mmol) and high(31.5 mmol) equimolar concentration of Li-, Na-, K-, Rb- and Cs-hydroxide. Two types of alloys have been investigated: Zr-Sn-(TRM, Transition metal) and Zr-Sn-Nb-(TRM, Transition metal). From the experiments the cation could be identified as the responsible species for corrosion of Zr alloy in alkalized water. The radius of the cation governs the accelerated corrosion in the pre-transition region of Zr alloy. Incorporation of alkali cation into the zirconium oxide lattice is probably the mechanism which allows the corrosion enhancement for Li and Na and the significant lower effect for the other bases. Nb containing alloys showed lower corrosion resistance than Zr-Sn-TRM alloys in all alkali solutions. Both types of alloys were corroded significantly more in LiOH and NaOH than in the other alkali environments. Lowest corrosive aggressiveness has been found for CsOH followed by KOH. Concluding from the corrosion behavior in the different alkali environments and taking into account the tendency to accelerate the corrosion of Zr alloys, CsOH and KOH are possible alternate alkali for PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) application. (author)

  13. Amorphization of Fe-based alloy via wet mechanical alloying assisted by PCA decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neamţu, B.V., E-mail: Bogdan.Neamtu@stm.utcluj.ro [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinaş, H.F.; Marinca, T.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Isnard, O. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, F-38042, Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 rue des martyrs, BP166, F-38042, Grenoble (France); Pană, O. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinaş, I. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Amorphization of Fe{sub 75}Si{sub 20}B{sub 5} (at.%) alloy has been attempted both by wet and dry mechanical alloying starting from a mixture of elemental powders. Powder amorphization was not achieved even after 140 hours of dry mechanical alloying. Using the same milling parameters, when wet mechanical alloying was used, the powder amorphization was achieved after 40 h of milling. Our assumption regarding the powder amorphization capability enhancement by contamination with carbon was proved by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements which revealed the presence of carbon in the chemical composition of the wet mechanically alloyed sample. Using shorter milling times and several process control agents (PCA) (ethanol, oleic acid and benzene) with different carbon content it was proved that the milling duration required for powder amorphization is linked to the carbon content of the PCA. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), thermomagnetic (TG) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements performed to the heated samples revealed the fact that, the crystallisation occurs at 488 °C, thus leading to the formation of Fe{sub 3}Si and Fe{sub 2}B. Thermogravimetry measurements performed under H{sub 2} atmosphere, showed the same amount of contamination with C, which is about 2.3 wt%, for the amorphous samples regardless of the type of PCA. Saturation magnetisation of the wet milled samples decreases upon increasing milling time. In the case of the amorphous samples wet milled with benzene up to 20 h and with oleic acid up to 30 h, the saturation magnetisation has roughly the same value, indicating the same degree of contamination. The XRD performed on the samples milled using the same parameters, revealed that powder amorphization can be achieved even via dry milling, just by adding the equivalent amount of elemental C calculated from the TG plots. This proves that in this system by considering the atomic species which can contaminate the powder, they can be

  14. Review of lithium iron-base alloy corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Selle, J.E.; Morris, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    An extensive literature search was conducted on the compatibility of ferrous alloys with lithium, with the emphasis on austenitic stainless steels. The information is summarized and is divided into two sections. The first section gives a brief summary and the second is an annotated bibliography. Comparisons of results are complicated by differences in lithium purity, alloy composition, alloy treatment, flow rates, and lithium handling procedures. For long-term application, austenitic stainless steels appear to be limited to about 500 0 C. While corrosion can probably not be decreased to zero, a considerable reduction to tolerable and predictable amounts appears possible

  15. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of laser-clad iron-based alloy on Al-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Z.; Wang, W.Y.; Wang, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Microstructure characterization is important for controlling the quality of laser cladding. In the present work, a detailed microstructure characterization by transmission electron microscopy was carried out on the iron-based alloy laser-clad on Al-Si alloy and an unambiguous identification of phases in the coating was accomplished. It was found that there is austenite, Cr 7 C 3 and Cr 23 C 6 in the clad region; α-Al, NiAl 3 , Fe 2 Al 5 and FeAl 2 in the interface region; and α-Al and silicon in the heat-affected region. A brief discussion was given for their existence based on both kinetic and thermodynamic principles

  16. Microstructure evolution and texture development in thermomechanically processed Mg-Li-Al based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Govind [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum (India); Shekhar, Rajiv; Balasubramaniam, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur (India)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermomechanical processing of novel LAT 971 and LATZ 9531 Mg-Al-Li based alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural deviation from the equilibrium phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disparity in texture of these alloys after hot-rolling (recrystallization and grain growth). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of alloying and phase distribution in affecting the texture/interplaner spacing. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of alloying and thermomechanical processing on the microstructure and texture evolution on the two Mg-Li-Al based alloys, namely Mg-9 wt% Li-7 wt% Al-1 wt% Sn (LAT971) and Mg-9 wt% Li-5 wt% Al-3 wt% Sn-1 wt% Zn (LATZ9531) has been elicited. Novel Mg-Li-Al based alloys were cast (induction melting under protective atmosphere) followed by hot rolling at {approx}573 K with a cumulative reduction of five. A contrary dual phase dendritic microstructure rich in {alpha}-Mg, instead of {beta}-Li phase predicted by equilibrium phase diagram of Mg-Li binary alloy was observed. Preferential presence of Mg-Li-Sn primary precipitates (size 4-10 {mu}m) within {alpha}-Mg phase and Mg-Li-Al secondary precipitates (<3 {mu}m) interspersed in {beta}-Li indicated their degree of dissolution during hot-rolling and homogenization in the dual phase matrix. Presence of Al, Sn and Zn alloying elements in the Mg-Li based alloy has resulted an unusual dual-phase microstructure, change in the lattice parameter, and intriguing texture evolution after hot-rolling of cast LAT 971 and LATZ9531 alloy. Strong texture was absent in the as-cast samples whereas texture development after hot-rolling revealed an increased activity of the non-basal (101{sup Macron }0) slip planes. The quantification of the grain average misorientation (less than 2 Degree-Sign ) using electron backscattered diffraction confirmed the presence of strain free grains in majority of the grains (fraction >0.75) after hot-rolling of Mg

  17. Self-positioned thin Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, K.; Sato, K.

    1986-01-01

    A self-positioned thin (SPOT) Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction is developed. In this junction, a 50-nm thick Pb-alloy base electrode is restricted within the junction region on an Nb underlayer using a self-alignment technique. The grain size reduction and the base electrode area restriction greatly improve thermal cycling stability, where the thermal cycling tests of 4000 proposed junctions (5 x 5 μm 2 ) showed no failures after 4000 cycles. In addition, the elimination of insulator layer stress on the Pb-alloy base electrode rectifies the problem of size effect on current density. The Nb underlayers also serve to isolate the Pb-alloy base electrodes from the resistors

  18. Alloy catalysts for fuel cell-based alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel, Mohammadreza Zamanzad

    Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attractive from both economic and environmental standpoints for generating renewable energy and powering vehicles and portable electronic devices. There is a great interest recently in developing DEFC systems. The cost and performance of the DEFCs are mainly controlled by the Pt-base catalysts used at each electrode. In addition to energy conversion, DEFC technology is commonly employed in the fuel-cell based breath alcohol sensors (BrAS). BrAS is a device commonly used to measure blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and enforce drinking and driving laws. The BrAS is non-invasive and has a fast respond time. However, one of the most important drawback of the commercially available BrAS is the very high loading of Pt employed. One well-known and cost effective method to reduce the Pt loading is developing Pt-alloy catalysts. Recent studies have shown that Pt-transition metal alloy catalysts enhanced the electroactivity while decreasing the required loadings of the Pt catalysts. In this thesis, carbon supported Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu electrocatalysts were synthesized by different methods and the effects of heat treatment and structural modification on the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability of these samples were thoroughly studied. Finally, the selected Pt-Mn and Pt-Cu samples with the highest EOR activity were examined in a prototype BrAS system and compared to the Pt/C and Pt 3Sn/C commercial electrocatalysts. Studies on the Pt-Mn catalysts produced with and without additives indicate that adding trisodium citrate (SC) to the impregnation solution improved the particle dispersion, decreased particle sizes and reduced the time required for heat treatment. Further studies show that the optimum weight ratio of SC to the metal loading in the impregnation solution was 2:1 and optimum results achieved at pH lower than 4. In addition, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate

  19. Investigation of the Precipitation Behavior in Aluminum Based Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna S.

    2015-01-01

    A complete study examining the influence of common industrial heat treatment on the precipitation kinetics and phase transformations of complex aluminum alloy is performed. The qualitative evaluation results of the precipitation

  20. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  1. Knowledge-based artificial neural network model to predict the properties of alpha+ beta titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, P. S. Noori; Rani, S. Devaki [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, HyderabadI (India)

    2016-08-15

    In view of emerging applications of alpha+beta titanium alloys in aerospace and defense, we have aimed to develop a Back propagation neural network (BPNN) model capable of predicting the properties of these alloys as functions of alloy composition and/or thermomechanical processing parameters. The optimized BPNN model architecture was based on the sigmoid transfer function and has one hidden layer with ten nodes. The BPNN model showed excellent predictability of five properties: Tensile strength (r: 0.96), yield strength (r: 0.93), beta transus (r: 0.96), specific heat capacity (r: 1.00) and density (r: 0.99). The developed BPNN model was in agreement with the experimental data in demonstrating the individual effects of alloying elements in modulating the above properties. This model can serve as the platform for the design and development of new alpha+beta titanium alloys in order to attain desired strength, density and specific heat capacity.

  2. Hydrogenation properties and microstructure of Ti-Mn-based alloys for hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masachika; Nakamura, Jin; Akiba, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Ti-Mn-based AB 2 -type alloys which are suitable for a hybrid hydrogen storage vessel have been synthesized and evaluated hydrogenation properties. As the third element V was added to Ti-Mn binary alloys. All the alloys synthesized in this work mainly consist of the C14 Laves and BCC phase. In the case of Ti0.5V0.5Mn alloy, the amounts of hydrogen absorption was 1.8 wt.% at 243 K under the atmosphere of 7 MPa H 2 , and the hydrogen desorption pressure was in the range of 0.2-0.4 MPa at 243 K. The hydrogen capacity of this alloy did not saturate under 7 MPa H 2 and seems to increase with hydrogen pressure up to 35 MPa that is estimated working pressure of the hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

  3. Atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC ternary, and quaternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Artur; Aabloo, Alvo; Klintenberg, Mattias; Stocks, Malcolm; Caro, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize some atomic-scale properties of Ni-based FCC multicomponent alloys. For this purpose, we use Monte Carlo method combined with density functional theory calculations to study short-range order (SRO), atomic displacements, electronic density of states, and magnetic moments in equimolar ternary NiCrCo, and quaternary NiCrCoFe alloys. According to our study, the salient features for the ternary alloy are a negative SRO parameter between Ni–Cr and a positive between Cr–Cr pairs as well as a weakly magnetic state. For the quaternary alloy we predict negative SRO parameter for Ni–Cr and Ni–Fe pairs and positive for Cr–Cr and Fe–Fe pairs. Atomic displacements for both ternary and quaternary alloys are negligible. In contrast to the ternary, the quaternary alloy shows a complex magnetic structure. The electronic structure of the ternary and quaternary alloys shows differences near the Fermi energy between a random solid solution and the predicted structure with SRO. Despite that, the calculated EXAFS spectra does not show enough contrast to discriminate between random and ordered structures. The predicted SRO has an impact on point-defect energetics, electron–phonon coupling and thermodynamic functions and thus, SRO should not be neglected when studying properties of these two alloys

  4. Damage structures in fission-neutron irradiated Ni-based alloys at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, K.; Shimomura, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The defects formed in Ni based (Ni-Si, Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe) alloys which were irradiated with fission-neutrons were examined by electron microscopy. Irradiations were carried out at 473 K and 573 K. In the 473 K irradiated specimens, a high density of large interstitial loops and small vacancy clusters with stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) were observed. The number densities of these two types of defects did not strongly depend on the amount of solute atoms in each alloy. The density of the loops in Ni-Si alloys was much higher than those in Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe alloys, while the density of SFT only slightly depended on the kind of solute. Also, the size of the loops depended on the kinds and amounts of solute. In 573 K irradiated Ni-Cu specimens, a high density of dislocation lines developed during the growth of interstitial loops. In Ni-Si alloys, the number density and size of the interstitial loops changed as a function of the amount of solute. Voids were formed in Ni-Cu alloys but scarcely formed in Ni-Si alloys. The number density of voids was one hundredth of that of SFT observed in 473 K irradiated Ni-Cu alloys. Possible formation processes of interstitial loops, SFT dislocation lines and voids are discussed.

  5. Damage structures in fission-neutron irradiated Ni-based alloys at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, K.; Shimomura, Y. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-01-01

    The defects formed in Ni based (Ni-Si, Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe) alloys which were irradiated with fission-neutrons were examined by electron microscopy. Irradiations were carried out at 473 K and 573 K. In the 473 K irradiated specimens, a high density of large interstitial loops and small vacancy clusters with stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) were observed. The number densities of these two types of defects did not strongly depend on the amount of solute atoms in each alloy. The density of the loops in Ni-Si alloys was much higher than those in Ni-Cu and Ni-Fe alloys, while the density of SFT only slightly depended on the kind of solute. Also, the size of the loops depended on the kinds and amounts of solute. In 573 K irradiated Ni-Cu specimens, a high density of dislocation lines developed during the growth of interstitial loops. In Ni-Si alloys, the number density and size of the interstitial loops changed as a function of the amount of solute. Voids were formed in Ni-Cu alloys but scarcely formed in Ni-Si alloys. The number density of voids was one hundredth of that of SFT observed in 473 K irradiated Ni-Cu alloys. Possible formation processes of interstitial loops, SFT, dislocation lines and voids are discussed. (orig.) 8 refs.

  6. The Importance of Rare-Earth Additions in Zr-Based AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of substitutions of rare earth (RE elements (Y, La, Ce, and Nd to the Zr-based AB2 multi-phase metal hydride (MH alloys on the structure, gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage, and electrochemical properties were studied and compared. Solubilities of the RE atoms in the main Laves phases (C14 and C15 are very low, and therefore the main contributions of the RE additives are through the formation of the RENi phase and change in TiNi phase abundance. Both the RENi and TiNi phases are found to facilitate the bulk diffusion of hydrogen but impede the surface reaction. The former is very effective in improving the activation behaviors. −40 °C performances of the Ce-doped alloys are slightly better than the Nd-doped alloys but not as good as those of the La-doped alloys, which gained the improvement through a different mechanism. While the improvement in ultra-low-temperature performance of the Ce-containing alloys can be associated with a larger amount of metallic Ni-clusters embedded in the surface oxide, the improvement in the La-containing alloys originates from the clean alloy/oxide interface as shown in an earlier transmission electron microscopy study. Overall, the substitution of 1 at% Ce to partially replace Zr gives the best electrochemical performances (capacity, rate, and activation and is recommended for all the AB2 MH alloys for electrochemical applications.

  7. Rhodium mediated bond activation: from synthesis to catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Hung-An [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    alcohols have been investigated as well. The proposed mechanism is based on the stochiometric reactions of the possible metal and organic intermediates. Primary amines, hypothesized to undergo a similar reaction pathway, have been verified to give dehydrogenative coupling product, imines. In the end, the well-developed neutral tridentate Tpm coordinates to the rhodium bis(ethylene) dimer in the presence of TlPF6 to give the cationic complex, [TpmRh(C2H4)2][PF6] (5.1). 5.1 serves as the first example of explicit determination of the solid state hapticity, evidenced by X-ray structure, among all the cationic TpmRM(C2H4)2+ (TpmR = Tpm, Tpm*, M = Rh, Ir) derivatives. The substitution chemistry of this compound has been studied by treating with soft and hard donors. The trimethylphosphine-sbustituted complex activates molecular hydrogen to give the dihydride compound.

  8. Elastic characteristics and microplastic deformation of amorphous alloys on iron base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol'dyaeva, G.P.; Zakharov, E.K.; Ovcharov, V.P.; Tret'yakov, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    Investigation results of elasticity and microplasticity properties (modulus of normal elasticity E, elasticity limit σsub(0.01) and yield limit σsub(0.2)) of three amorphous alloys on iron base Fe 80 B 20 , Fe 70 Cr 10 B 20 and Fe 70 Cr 5 Ni 5 B 20 are given. Amorphous band of the alloys is obtained using the method of melt hardening. It is shown that amorphous alloys on iron base possess high elasticity and yield limits and hardness and are very perspective for the use as spring materials

  9. Elastic characteristics and microplastic deformation of amorphous alloys on iron base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol' dyaeva, G.P.; Zakharov, E.K.; Ovcharov, V.P.; Tret' yakov, B.N. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Investigation results of elasticity and microplasticity properties (modulus of normal elasticity E, elasticity limit sigmasub(0.01) and yield limit sigmasub(0.2)) of three amorphous alloys on iron base Fe/sub 80/B/sub 20/, Fe/sub 70/Cr/sub 10/B/sub 20/ and Fe/sub 70/Cr/sub 5/Ni/sub 5/B/sub 20/ are given. Amorphous band of the alloys is obtained using the method of melt hardening. It is shown that amorphous alloys on iron base possess high elasticity and yield limits and hardness and are very perspective for the use as spring materials.

  10. Inconel type resistive alloys based on ultrahigh purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsarin, K.A.; Matsarin, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The new nickel high-ohm alloys (ρ = 1.2-1.4 μOhm · m), containing the W, Al, Mo alloying elements in the quantity, not exceeding their solubility in a solid solution, are developed on the basis of the Inconel-type standard alloy. The optical composition of the alloy was determined by the results of the alloy was determined by the results of the electric resistance measurement and technological effectiveness indices (relative to the pressure and workable metal yield). The following optimal component concentrations were established: 14-17 %Cr; 10-12 %Fe; 0.5-1.0 %Cu; 1.0-1.5 %Mn; 0.1-0.2 %C; 0.4-0.6 %Si; 0.5-3.0 %W; 5-16 %Mo; 0.5-2.0 %Al; the remainder - Ni. The new alloys are recommended as materials for resistive elements of direct-glow cathode nodes of low capacity electron tubes [ru

  11. Liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys as electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1981-06-01

    The article reviews the theory of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys, within the framework of linear screening theory for the electron-ion interactions. (author)

  12. Microstructural characterisation of friction stir welding joints of mild steel to Ni-based alloy 625

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), P.O. Box 6192, Campinas, SP (Brazil); University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramirez, A.J., E-mail: ramirezlondono.1@osu.edu [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), P.O. Box 6192, Campinas, SP (Brazil); University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University — OSU, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, 6-mm-thick mild steel and Ni-based alloy 625 plates were friction stir welded using a tool rotational speed of 300 rpm and a travel speed of 100 mm·min{sup −1}. A microstructural characterisation of the dissimilar butt joint was performed using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XEDS). Six different weld zones were found. In the steel, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) was divided into three zones and was composed of ferrite, pearlite colonies with different morphologies, degenerated regions of pearlite and allotriomorphic and Widmanstätten ferrite. The stir zone (SZ) of the steel showed a coarse microstructure consisting of allotriomorphic and Widmanstätten ferrite, degenerate pearlite and MA constituents. In the Ni-based alloy 625, the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) showed deformed grains and redistribution of precipitates. In the SZ, the high deformation and temperature produced a recrystallised microstructure, as well as fracture and redistribution of MC precipitates. The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates, present in the base material, were also redistributed in the stir zone of the Ni-based alloy. TMAZ in the steel and HAZ in the Ni-based alloy could not be identified. The main restorative mechanisms were discontinuous dynamic recrystallisation in the steel, and discontinuous and continuous dynamic recrystallisation in the Ni-based alloy. The interface region between the steel and the Ni-based alloy showed a fcc microstructure with NbC carbides and an average length of 2.0 μm. - Highlights: • Comprehensive microstructural characterisation of dissimilar joints of mild steel to Ni-based alloy • Friction stir welding of joints of mild steel to Ni-based alloy 625 produces sound welds. • The interface region showed deformed and recrystallised fcc grains with NbC carbides and a length of 2.0 μm.

  13. Effect of alloying on elastic properties of ZrN based transition metal nitride alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2014-01-01

    We report the effect of composition and metal sublattice substitutional element on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of ternary transition metal nitrides Zr1-xMxN with M=Al, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, W and Mo. The analysis of the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio provides insights regarding the mechanical behavior of Zr1-xMxN. We predict that ternary alloys are more ductile compared to their parent binary compounds. The revealed trend in the mechanical behavior might help for experimentalists on the ability of tuning the mechanical properties during the alloying process by varying the concentration of the transition metal. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effect of alloying on elastic properties of ZrN based transition metal nitride alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    We report the effect of composition and metal sublattice substitutional element on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of ternary transition metal nitrides Zr1-xMxN with M=Al, Ti, Hf, V, Nb, W and Mo. The analysis of the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young\\'s modulus, and Poisson\\'s ratio provides insights regarding the mechanical behavior of Zr1-xMxN. We predict that ternary alloys are more ductile compared to their parent binary compounds. The revealed trend in the mechanical behavior might help for experimentalists on the ability of tuning the mechanical properties during the alloying process by varying the concentration of the transition metal. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Oxidation influence on crystallisation in iron-based amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloriant, T.; Surinach, S.; Munoz, J.S.; Baro, M.D. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Inoue, A. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2001-07-01

    The partially crystalline iron-based nanophase composites elaborated by rapid solidification techniques are very attractive for their excellent soft magnetic properties and their potential for industrial applications. In these nanocomposite materials a control of both the structure (size, shape and distribution of the nanoparticles in the amorphous matrix) and the kinetic behaviour (nucleation and growth mechanism) is essential in order to obtain the best properties and to be able to produce them at the industrial scale. Our group has been working in this research area for a long time and the investigation presented here is the result of an international collaboration. This study deals with the effect of cobalt addition in Fe-Nb-B melt-spun amorphous alloys on the devitrification/crystallisation processes induced by thermal treatments and characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermomagnetic analysis (TMG) and transmission electron microscopy observations (TEM). The transformation sequences, from the initial amorphous phase to the fully crystallised final state, were carried out using different annealing experiments (under vacuum and in air) and have revealed a strong influence of the environmental atmosphere during devitrification. It is shown that oxidation can greatly affect the crystallisation behaviour as a result of the high metastable state of the initial amorphous phase. The results and observations of this phenomenon will be presented. (orig.)

  16. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)-Based Launch Lock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2014-01-01

    Most NASA missions require the use of a launch lock for securing moving components during the launch or securing the payload before release. A launch lock is a device used to prevent unwanted motion and secure the controlled components. The current launch locks are based on pyrotechnic, electro mechanically or NiTi driven pin pullers and they are mostly one time use mechanisms that are usually bulky and involve a relatively high mass. Generally, the use of piezoelectric actuation provides high precession nanometer accuracy but it relies on friction to generate displacement. During launch, the generated vibrations can release the normal force between the actuator components allowing shaft's free motion which could result in damage to the actuated structures or instruments. This problem is common to other linear actuators that consist of a ball screw mechanism. The authors are exploring the development of a novel launch lock mechanism that is activated by a shape memory alloy (SMA) material ring, a rigid element and an SMA ring holding flexure. The proposed design and analytical model will be described and discussed in this paper.

  17. FEATURES OF SPHEROIDIZING MODIFICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH MASTER ALLOYS BASED ON COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of efficiency of modification process for ductile iron is topically, thereby increasing its mechanical and operational properties. For these purposes, in practice, various magnesium containing alloys are used, including «heavy» ones on the basis of Copper and Nickel. The analysis has shown that the application of bulk inoculating alloys based on copper basis were not effectively due to long dissolution period. From this point of view, the interest is high-speed casting, allowing the production of inoculating alloys in the form of strips – chips that are characterized by a low dissolution time and low piroeffekt. The aim of this work is to study the features of structure formation in nodular cast iron using different spheroidizing alloys based on copper. Studies have shown that the transition from the use of briquetted form alloys based on copper and magnesium to the «chips-inoculating alloys» allowed increasing the efficiency of the spheroidizing process. Further improvement in the quality of ductile iron can be achieved by the use in «chip-inoculating alloys» additives of nanosized yttrium oxide powder. 

  18. Block copolymer lithography of rhodium nanoparticles for high temperature electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David A; Hao, Yong; Li, Changyi; Goodwin, David G; Haile, Sossina M

    2013-06-25

    We present a method for forming ordered rhodium nanostructures on a solid support. The approach makes use of a block copolymer to create and assemble rhodium chloride nanoparticles from solution onto a surface; subsequent plasma and thermal processing are employed to remove the polymer and fully convert the nanostructures to metallic rhodium. Films cast from a solution of the triblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) dissolved in toluene with rhodium(III) chloride hydrate were capable of producing a monolayer of rhodium nanoparticles of uniform size and interparticle spacing. The nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The electrocatalytic performance of the nanoparticles was investigated with AC impedance spectroscopy. We observed that the addition of the particles to a model solid oxide fuel cell anode provided up to a 14-fold improvement in the anode activity as evidenced by a decrease in the AC impedance resistance. Examination of the anode after electrochemical measurement revealed that the basic morphology and distribution of the particles were preserved.

  19. Effect of Al and Y2O3 on Mechanical Properties in Mechanically Alloyed Nanograin Ni-Based Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Seok; Kim, Il-Ho

    2015-08-01

    The effects of aluminum and Y2O3 on the mechanical properties in nano grain Ni-based alloys have been investigated. The test specimens are prepared by mechanical alloying at an Ar atmosphere. The addition of Y2O3 and Al may cause an increase in the tensile strength at room temperature, 400 °C and 600 °C. However, it was confirmed that the increase of tensile strength at room temperature and 400 °C was predominantly caused by addition of Y2O3, while that at 600 °C was mainly due to addition of Al. These results can be attributed to the dispersion strengthening of Y2O3, preventing the formation of Cr2O3 and the change of fracture mode at 600 °C by the addition of Al.

  20. The role of Si and Ca on new wrought Mg-Zn-Mn based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hamu, G.; Eliezer, D.; Shin, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of new wrought magnesium alloys for automotive industry has increased in recent years due to their high potential as structural materials for low density and high strength/weight ratio demands. However, the poor mechanical properties of the magnesium alloys have led to search a new kind of magnesium alloys for better strength and ductility. Magnesium alloys show strong susceptibility to localized corrosion in chlorides solutions due to their inhomogeneous microstructure. The existence of intermetallics in the microstructure of magnesium alloys might represent initiation sites for localized corrosion. This is due to the formation of galvanic couples between the intermetallics and the surrounding matrix. The main objective of this research is to investigate the corrosion behavior of new magnesium alloys; Mg-Zn-Mn-Si-Ca (ZSMX) alloys. The ZSM6X1 + YCa alloys were prepared by using hot extrusion method. AC and DC polarization tests were carried out on the extruded rods, which contain different amounts of silicon or calcium. The potential difference in air between different phases and the matrix was examined using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). The phases present in the alloys have been identified by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Four different phases were found, i.e. intermetallics containing Si-Mn, Mg-Si, Mg-Zn and Mg-Si-Ca phase. All phases exhibited higher potential differences relative to magnesium matrix indicating a cathodic behavior. The potential difference revealed significant dependence on the chemical composition of the phases. Based on the results obtained from the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy, the cathodic phases are effective sites for the initiation of localized corrosion in Mg-Zn-Mn-Si-Ca alloys

  1. Ductile Bulk Aluminum-Based Alloy with Good Glass-Forming Ability and High Strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-Chao, Zhuo; Shu-Jie, Pang; Hui, Wang; Tao, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Based on a new approach for designing glassy alloy compositions, bulk Al-based alloys with good glass-forming ability (GFA) are synthesized. The cast Al 86 Si 0.5 Ni 4.06 Co 2.94 Y 6 Sc 0.5 rod with a diameter of 1 mm shows almost fully amorphous structure besides about 5% fcc-Al nucleated in the center of the rod. The bulk alloy with high Al concentration exhibits an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.18 GPa and maximum strength of 1.27 GPa as well as an obvious plastic strain of about 2.4% during compressive deformation. This light Al-based alloy with good GFA and mechanical properties is promising as a new high specific strength material with good deformability. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  2. Hydrogen storage in binary and ternary Mg-based alloys. A comprehensive experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Harrower, C.T.; Haagsma, J.; Zahiri, B.; Luber, E.J.; Ophus, C.; Miltin, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Poirier, E.; Fritzsche, H. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on hydrogen sorption properties of cosputtered 1.5 micrometer thick Mg-based films with Al, Fe and Ti as alloying elements. We show that ternary Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys in particular display remarkable sorption behavior: at 200 C, the films are capable of absorbing 4-6 wt.% hydrogen in seconds, and desorbing in minutes. Furthermore, this sorption behavior is stable for over 100 ab- and desorption cycles for Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys. No degradation in capacity or kinetics is observed. Based on these observations, some general design principles for Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are suggested. For Mg-Fe-Ti, encouraging preliminary results on multilayered systems are also presented. (orig.)

  3. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Li

    Full Text Available Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20–110 μm. With the decrease of particle size, a transformation from typical dendrite solidification structure to fine cell microstructure occurs. The surface of the spheroidized powder is coated by a layer of oxides consisting mainly of TiO2 and Nb2O5. Probabilities of sinter-neck formation and particle coalescence increases with increasing sintering temperature. Porous skeleton with relatively homogeneous pore distribution and open pore channel is formed after vacuum sintering at 1700 °C, and the porosity is 32%. The sintering kinetic analysis indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism during sintering process. Keywords: Powder metallurgy, Nb-Ti based alloy, Porous material, Mechanical alloying, Plasma spheroidizing, Solidification microstructure

  4. Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, F; Shahria Alam, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (−62 °C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%. (paper)

  5. Thermodynamic properties of some gallium-based binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awe, O.E.; Odusote, Y.A.; Akinlade, O.; Hussain, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the concentration dependence of the free energy of mixing, concentration-concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit, the chemical short-range order parameter, the enthalpy and entropy of mixing of Ga-Zn, Ga-Mg and Al-Ga binary alloys at different temperatures using a quasi-chemical approximation for compound forming binary alloys and that for simple regular alloys. From the study of the thermodynamic quantities, we observed that thermodynamic properties of Ga-Zn and Al-Ga exhibit positive deviations from Raoultian behaviour, while Ga-Mg exhibits negative deviation. Hence, this study reveals that both Ga-Zn and Al-Ga are segregating systems, while chemical order exists in Ga-Mg alloy in the whole concentration range. Furthermore, our investigation indicate that Al-Ga binary alloy have a tendency to exhibit ideal mixture behaviour in the concentration range 0≤c Al ≤0.30 and 0.7≤c Al ≤1

  6. Hot corrosion studies on nickel-based alloys containing silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.W.; Simkovich, G.

    1976-01-01

    Alloys of Ni--Cr, Ni--Si and Ni--Cr--Si were oxidized and ''hot corroded'' in pure oxygen at 1000 0 C. In the oxidation experiments it was found that small amounts of either chromium or silicon in nickel increased the oxidation rates in comparison to pure nickel in accord with Wagner's parabolic oxidation theory. At high concentrations of the alloying elements the oxidation rates decreased due to the formation of oxide phases other than nickel oxide in the scale. Hot corrosion experiments were conducted on both binary and ternary alloys by oxidizing samples coated with 1.0 mg/cm 2 of Na 2 SO 4 in oxygen at 1000 0 C. In general it was found that high chromium and high silicon alloys displayed excellent resistance to the hot corrosion process gaining or losing less than 0.5 mg/cm 2 in 1800 min at temperature. Microprobe and x-ray diffraction studies of the alloy and the scale indicate that amorphous SiO 2 probably formed to aid in retarding both the oxidation and the hot corrosion process

  7. Creep and creep rupture properties of unalloyed vanadium and solid-solution-strengthened vanadium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, T.; Iwao, N.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, R.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and creep rupture properties of vanadium and vanadium-base alloys were studied at 700 and 1000 0 C. The alloys were vanadium-base binary alloys containing about 5 - 21 at.% Al, Ti, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo or Fe, three V-20wt.%Nb-base ternary alloys containing 5 or 10 wt.% Al, Cr or Mo, V-10wt.%Ta-10wt.%Al and V-25wt.%Cr-0.8wt.%Zr. The creep rupture stress of the binary alloys, except the V-Al and V-Ti alloys, increased linearly with increasing concentration of the alloying elements. The V-Nb alloy had the best properties with respect to the rupture stress and creep rate at 700 0 C and the rupture stress at 1000 0 C, but the V-Mo alloy appeared likely to have better creep properties at longer times and higher temperatures. Of the five ternary alloys, V-20wt.%Nb-5wt.%Cr and V-20wt.%Nb-10wt.%Mo showed the best creep properties. The creep properties of these two alloys were compared with those of other vanadium alloys and of type 316 stainless steel. (Auth.)

  8. Antagonizing STAT3 dimerization with a rhodium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dik-Lung; Liu, Li-Juan; Leung, Ka-Ho; Chen, Yen-Ting; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Wang, Hui-Min David; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2014-08-25

    Kinetically inert metal complexes have arisen as promising alternatives to existing platinum and ruthenium chemotherapeutics. Reported herein, to our knowledge, is the first example of a substitutionally inert, Group 9 organometallic compound as a direct inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) dimerization. From a series of cyclometalated rhodium(III) and iridium(III) complexes, a rhodium(III) complex emerged as a potent inhibitor of STAT3 that targeted the SH2 domain and inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and dimerization. Significantly, the complex exhibited potent anti-tumor activities in an in vivo mouse xenograft model of melanoma. This study demonstrates that rhodium complexes may be developed as effective STAT3 inhibitors with potent anti-tumor activity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Chemical Posttranslational Modification with Designed Rhodium(II) Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S C; Minus, M B; Ball, Z T

    2016-01-01

    Natural enzymes use molecular recognition to perform exquisitely selective transformations on nucleic acids, proteins, and natural products. Rhodium(II) catalysts mimic this selectivity, using molecular recognition to allow selective modification of proteins with a variety of functionalized diazo reagents. The rhodium catalysts and the diazo reactivity have been successfully applied to a variety of protein folds, the chemistry succeeds in complex environments such as cell lysate, and a simple protein blot method accurately assesses modification efficiency. The studies with rhodium catalysts provide a new tool to study and probe protein-binding events, as well as a new synthetic approach to protein conjugates for medical, biochemical, or materials applications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of Fe-Mn-Si and Ti-Ni based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenin, G.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to analyse and discuss some recent advances in shape memory and pseudoelastic properties of different alloys. Experimental work in connection with theoretical ones will be reviewed. The first part is devoted to the microstructural origin of shape memory properties of Fe-Mn-Si based alloys (γ-ε transformation); the second part is a synthetic analysis of the effects of thermomechanical treatments on shape memory and pseudoelastic effects in Ti-Ni alloys, with some focus on the behaviour of the R phase introduced. (orig.)

  11. Investigations of carbon diffusion and carbide formation in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Bongartz, K.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Nickel, H.

    1989-11-01

    The present thesis describes the carburization behaviour of nickel based alloys in heavily carburizing environments. The mechanisms of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in NiCr alloys with and without ternary additions of iron, cobalt or molybdenum have been investigated. Using the results of carburization experiments, a mathematical model which describes carbon diffusion and carbide formation, was developed. The simulation of the carburization process was carried out by an iterative calculation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in the alloy. An accurate description of the carbon profiles as a function of time became possible by using a finite-difference calculation. (orig.) [de

  12. Vanadium-based alloy hydrides for heat pumps, compressors, and isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libowitz, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    A series of body-centered cubic (b.c.c.) solid solution alloys have been developed which appears to be unusually suitable for several applications involving metal hydrides. It is normally very difficult to induce the body-centered cubic metals, Nb, V, and Ta, to react with hydrogen; in bulk form the reaction will simply not occur at room temperature. Alloys containing Nb exhibited very large hysteresis effects on hydride formation and thus are not suitable for most applications. However, the V-Ti based alloys showed relatively little hysteresis, and because of their unusual thermodynamic properties offer significant advantages for the specific applications discussed below. (orig./HB)

  13. Long-life fatigue test results for two nickel-base structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowbray, D.F.; Giaquinto, E.V.; Mehringer, F.J.

    1978-11-01

    The results are reported of fatigue tests on two nickel--base alloys, hot-cold-worked and stress-relieved nickel--chrome--iron Alloy 600 and mill-annealed nickel--chrome--moly--iron Alloy 625 in which S-N data were obtained in the life range of 10 6 to 10 10 cycles. The tests were conducted in air at 600 0 F, in the reversed membrane loading mode, at a frequency of approx. 1850 Hz. An electromagnetic, closed loop servo-controlled machine was built to perform the tests. A description of the machine is given

  14. Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, A.R.

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy

  15. An overview of advanced high-strength nickel-base alloys for LWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybylowski, J.; Ballinger, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the behavior of high strength nickel base alloys used in light water reactor (LWR) applications. Emphasis is placed on understanding the fundamental mechanisms controlling crack propagation in these environments. To provide a foundation for this survey, general mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement are first reviewed. The behavior of high strength nickel base alloys in LWR environments, as well as in other relevant environments is then reviewed. Suggested mechanisms of crack propagation are discussed. Alternate alloys and microstructural modifications that may result in improved behavior are presented. It is now clear that, at temperatures near 100C, alloy X-750, the predominant high strength nickel base alloy used today in LWR applications, is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. A review of published data from hydrogen embrittlement studies of nickel base superalloys during electrolytic charging and in hydrogen sulfide/brine solutions suggests that other nickel base superalloys are available possessing resistance to hydrogen embrittlement superior to that of alloy X-750. Available results of tests in gaseous hydrogen suggest that reduced grain boundary precipitation and a fine distribution of intragranular precipitates that act as irreversible hydrogen traps is the optimum microstructure for hydrogen embrittlement resistance. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Biological effects of simple changes in functionality on rhodium metalloinsertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Alyson G.; Komor, Alexis C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is crucial to ensuring the fidelity of the genome. The inability to correct single base mismatches leads to elevated mutation rates and carcinogenesis. Using metalloinsertors–bulky metal complexes that bind with high specificity to mismatched sites in the DNA duplex–our laboratory has adopted a new chemotherapeutic strategy through the selective targeting of MMR-deficient cells, that is, those that have a propensity for cancerous transformation. Rhodium metalloinsertors display inhibitory effects selectively in cells that are deficient in the MMR machinery, consistent with this strategy. However, a highly sensitive structure–function relationship is emerging with the development of new complexes that highlights the importance of subcellular localization. We have found that small structural modifications, for example a hydroxyl versus a methyl functional group, can yield profound differences in biological function. Despite similar binding affinities and selectivities for DNA mismatches, only one metalloinsertor shows selective inhibition of cellular proliferation in MMR-deficient versus -proficient cells. Studies of whole-cell, nuclear and mitochondrial uptake reveal that this selectivity depends upon targeting DNA mismatches in the cell nucleus. PMID:23776288

  17. Knowledge and method base for shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welp, E.G.; Breidert, J. [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Engineering Design, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    It is often impossible for design engineers to decide whether it is possible to use shape memory alloys (SMA) for a particular task. In case of a decision to use SMA for product development, design engineers normally do not know in detail how to proceed in a correct and beneficial way. In order to support design engineers who have no previous knowledge about SMA and to assist in the transfer of results from basic research to industrial practice, an essential knowledge and method base has been developed. Through carefully conducted literature studies and patent analysis material and design information could be collected. All information is implemented into a computer supported knowledge and method base that provides design information with a particular focus on the conceptual and embodiment design phase. The knowledge and method base contains solution principles and data about effects, material and manufacturing as well as design guidelines and calculation methods for dimensioning and optimization. A browser-based user interface ensures that design engineers have immediate access to the latest version of the knowledge and method base. In order to ensure a user friendly application, an evaluation with several test users has been carried out. Reactions of design engineers from the industrial sector underline the need for support related to knowledge on SMA. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fuer Konstrukteure ist es haeufig schwierig zu entscheiden, ob sich der Einsatz von Formgedaechtnislegierungen (FGL) fuer eine bestimmte Aufgabe eignet. Fuer den Fall, dass FGL fuer die Produktentwicklung genutzt werden sollen, besitzen Ingenieure zumeist nur unzureichende Detailkenntnisse, um Formgedaechtnislegierungen richtig und in vorteilhafter Weise anwenden zu koennen. Zur Unterstuetzung von Konstrukteuren, die ueber kein Vorwissen und keine Erfahrungen zu FGL verfuegen und zum Transfer von Forschungsergebnissen in die industrielle Praxis, ist eine

  18. Heat treatment effect on ductility of nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnakov, K.K.; Khasin, G.A.; Danilov, V.F.; Oshchepkov, B.V.; Listkova, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Causes of low ductility of the KhN75MBTYu and KhN78T alloys were studied along with the heat treatment effects. Samples were tested at 20, 900, 1100, 1200 deg C. Large amount of inclusions was found in intercrystalline fractures of the above low-ductile alloys. The inclusions of two types took place: (α-Al 2 O 3 , FeO(Cr 2 O 3 xAl 2 O 3 )) dendrite-like ones and large-size laminated SiO 2 , FeO,(CrFe) 2 O 3 inclusions situated as separate colonies. Heat treatment of the alloys does not increase high-temperature impact strength and steel ductility. The heating above 1000 deg C leads to a partial dissolution and coagulation of film inclusions which results in an impact strength increase at room temperature

  19. Superconducting pinning in BCC niobium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.

    1981-01-01

    The structure dependence of critical current density J/sub c/ in superconducting alloys Nb--Zr and Nb--Ti was studied by means of x-ray analysis and tensile test. Experimental results indicate that, in the absence of second phase particles, annealing increases J/sub c/ in deformed alloys due to rearrangement of dislocations into cell structure and the cell walls are effective pinning centers for magnetic flux. In the precipitation process of second phase particles, new dislocations are formed due to the relaxation of coherent stress field. These new dislocations increases the dislocation density and the flux pinning ability of the cell walls, which in turn lead to a further increase of J/sub c/. The mechanism that causes precipitates to increase the current-carrying ability in Nb--Zr and Nb--Ti alloys is therefore the same as that of cold-work deformation

  20. Wetting of refractory metals with copper base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, E.F.; Kostikov, V.I.; Chepelenko, V.N.; Batov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect is studied of phosphorus upon the wetting of molybdenum, niobium and tantalum by an alloy of the system copper-silver (10%) as a function of contact time and phosphorus concentration. Experiments have been conducted in vacuum of 5x10 -4 mm Hg at 900 deg C. It is established that the introduction of phosphorus into a copper-silver alloy improves the wetting of molybdenum, niobium and tantalum. Formation of intermetallic compounds on the alloy-refractory metal interface can be avoided by adjusting the time of contact of the solder with molybdenum, niobium and tantalum. As a solder with 2.9% phosphorus spreads well over copper, it is suggested to use said solder for brazing copper and the investigated refractory metals in items intended for service at temperatures of up to 600 deg C

  1. Alloy Development, Processing and Characterization of Devitrified Titanium Base Microcrystalline Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    1.5m wide by injecting the molten alloy onto a rotating copper ’. disk through the orifice at the bottom of the copper crucible under inert gas...icrocrystalline forms [10, 271. 7his technique adopts the combination of a water-cooled cold copper crucible with an arc heating scheme that uses non-consumable...are malted in the cold copper crucible and spun in an inert gas atmosphere. he ribbon produced has a uniform thickness of 20 to SOgm. 5’ -7 -. -F -i

  2. Swelling in neutron irradiated nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Bell, W.L.

    1972-01-01

    Inconel 625, Incoloy 800 and Hastelloy X were neutron irradiated at 500 to 700 0 C. It was found that of the three alloys investigated, Inconel 625 offers the greatest swelling resistance. The superior swelling resistance of Inconel 625 relative to that of Hastelloy-X is probably related to differences in the concentrations of the minor rather than major alloy constituents, and can involve (a) enhanced recombination of defects in the Inconel 625 and (b) preferential attraction of vacancies to incoherent precipitates. (U.S.)

  3. Martensitic transformation in Co-based ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopeček, Jaromír; Yokaichiya, F.; Laufek, F.; Jarošová, Markéta; Jurek, Karel; Drahokoupil, Jan; Sedláková-Ignácová, Silvia; Molnár, Peter; Heczko, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 475-477 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/0702; GA ČR GAP107/10/0824; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : microstructure * shape memory alloys * neutron diffraction * cobalt alloys Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  4. Mechanical strenght and niobium and niobium-base alloys substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.; Andrade, A.H.P. de

    1986-01-01

    Niobium and some of its alloys have been used in several fields of technological applications such as the aerospace, chemical and nuclear industries. This is due to its excelent mechanical stringth at high temperatures and reasonable ductility at low temperatures. In this work, we review the main features of the relationship mechanical strength - substructure in niobium and its alloys, taking into account the presence of impurities, the influence of initial thermal and thermo - mechanical treatments as well as the irradiation by energetic particles. (Author) [pt

  5. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  6. Nickel-base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Hirano; Kenji, Hirano; Masayuki, Watando; Takahiro, Arakawa; Minoru, Maeda

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel-base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause. The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions. By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding. Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel. Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than 350 HV. (author)

  7. Determination of trace impurities in iron-based alloy using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Waheed, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2000-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed and applied to investigate 40 major, minor, and trace impurities in iron-based alloy. A comparison of RNAA and INAA indicated a significant improvement in the detection limits. The extensive use of these alloys in the heavy mechanical industry, manufacturing of aircraft engines, nuclear applications, medical devices and chemical equipment requires their precise characterization. The concentration of iron in the iron-based alloy was found to be 86.7%, whereas Ca, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, V and W were the other constituents of the alloy, which constituted to around 12.89%. The rest of the elements were present in minor or trace levels. Most of the rare earth elements were also present in trace amounts. (orig.)

  8. Advanced Class of FML on the Base Al-Li Alloy 1441 with Lower Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Senatorova, O. G.; Lukina, N. F.

    Structure, composition, properties combination of specimens and components, a number of technological parameters for production of advanced FML based on high-modulus Al-Li 1441 alloy (E 79 GPa) with reduced density (d 2.6 g/m3) and optimized adhesive prepreg reinforced with high-strength high-modulus VMP glass fibres are described. Service life 1441 alloy provides the possibility of manufacture of thin sheets (up to 0.3 mm), clad and unclad. Moreover, some experience on the usage of 1441 T1, T11 sheets and shapes in Be 200 and Be 103 aircraft was accumulated. The class of FML materials based on Al-Li alloy provide an 5% improvement in weight efficiency and stiffness of skin structures as compared with those made from FML with conventional Al-Cu-Mg (2024T3 a.o.) and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7475T76 a.o.) alloys.

  9. Supercritical water corrosion of high Cr steels and Ni-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Sung; Han, Chang Hee; Hwang, Seong Sik

    2004-01-01

    High Cr steels (9 to 12% Cr) have been widely used for high temperature high pressure components in fossil power plants. Recently the concept of SCWR (supercritical water-cooled reactor) has aroused a keen interest as one of the next generation (Generation IV) reactors. Consequently Ni-base (or high Ni) alloys as well as high Cr steels that have already many experiences in the field are among the potential candidate alloys for the cladding or reactor internals. Tentative inlet and outlet temperatures of the anticipated SCWR are 280 and 510 .deg. C respectively. Among many candidate alloys there are austenitic stainless steels, Ni base alloys, ODS alloys as well as high Cr steels. In this study the corrosion behavior of the high Cr steels and Ni base (or high Ni) alloys in the supercritical water were investigated. The corrosion behavior of the unirradiated base metals could be used in the near future as a guideline for the out-of-pile or in-pile corrosion evaluation tests

  10. Quality assurance when surface welding nickel-based alloys; Qualitaetssicherung bei der Auftragsschweissung von Nickelbasislackierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metschke, J. [Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The cladding of evaporator heat exchanger surfaces in refuse incineration boilers with alloy 625 can effectively protect against the corrosive wear of the basic tube if the described rules concerning the pre-treatment, processing, quality control and after-care are observed. This statement is supported by the positive experience with this alloy at the Schwandorf refuse-fired power plant over a period of eight years now. Since the maximum service temperature is limited to 420 C, alloy 625 is only suitable for protecting superheater pipes subject to certain conditions. Long-term experience with alternative nickel-based alloys (alloy 622, alloy 686 and others) are not yet available. (orig.) [German] Die Schweissplattierung von Verdampferwaermetauscherflaechen in Muellverbrennungskesseln mit Alloy 625 kann einen wirksamen Schutz gegen den korrosiven Verschleiss des Grundrohres darstellen, wenn die vorstehenden Regeln ueber Vorbehandlung, Verarbeitung, Qualitaetskontrolle und laufende Nachsorgearbeiten beachtet werden. Diese Aussage wird durch die positiven Erfahrungen mit dieser Legierung im Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf ueber einen Zeitraum von nunmehr acht Jahren gestuetzt. (orig.)

  11. Strain ageing and yield plateau phenomena in γ-TiAl based alloys containing boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.T.; Bate, P.S.; Botten, R.R.; Lipsitt, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest over the past few years in γ-TiAl based alloys since they offer a combination of low density and useful mechanical properties at temperatures higher than those possible with conventional titanium alloys. However, there are still serious limitations to their use in engineering components due to their limited ductility and fracture toughness. Much of the recent work has been focused on improving the room temperature ductility of these materials, and a significant part of the work has been involved with studying the effects of thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) and alloying. One of the alloying additions which has received much attention is boron. Addition of boron (≥0.5 at.%) leads to refined as-cast grain structures and can increase the strength and ductility of these alloys. If boron does segregate to grain boundaries, it would be expected that segregation would also occur at dislocations, which can result in solute locking and yield point phenomena. Nakano and Umakoshi's results show some signs of this, with regions of distinct upward curvature in stress-strain curves for boron-containing material, although the flow stress was always increasing with strain. Evidence of strain ageing in TiAl alloys containing boron has also been reported by Wheeler et al., and the work reported here also suggests that boron can act to produce solute locking of glide dislocations in a different class of near γ-TiAl alloys

  12. Mechanical properties of molybdenum alloyed liquid phase-sintered tungsten-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P.B.; German, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tungsten-based composites are fabricated from mixed elemental powders using liquid phase sintering, usually with a nickel-iron matrix. During sintering, the tungsten undergoes grain growth, leading to microstructure coarsening that lowers strength but increases ductility. Often the desire is to increase strength at the sacrifice of ductility, and historically, this has been performed by postsintering deformation. There has been considerable research on alloying to adjust the as-sintered mechanical properties to match those of swaged alloys. Prior reports cover many additions, seemingly including much of the periodic table. Unfortunately, many of the modified alloys proved disappointing, largely due to degraded strength at the tungsten-matrix interface. Of these modified alloys, the molybdenum-containing systems exhibit a promising combination of properties, cost, and processing ease. For example, the 82W-8Mo-7Ni-3Fe alloy gives a yield strength that is 34% higher than the equivalent 90W-7Ni-3Fe alloy (from 535 to 715 MPa) but with a 33% decrease in fracture elongation (from 30 to 20% elongation). This article reports on experiments geared to promoting improved properties in the W-Mo-Ni-Fe alloys. However, unlike the prior research which maintained a constant Ni + Fe content and varied the W:Mo ratio, this study considers the Mo:(Ni + Fe) ratio effect for 82, 90, and 93 wt pct W

  13. Localized electrochemical corrosion of nickel-based alloys. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Oyeleye, O.; Davidson, M.; Dudek, D.; Hatton, T.A.; Tester, J.W.; Helling, R.K.; Erickson, J.C.

    1986-09-01

    The technique of monitoring open-circuit potential over time to study pitting corrosion of Alloy 600 was demonstrated at 95 0 C. Chloride ion and oxygen levels were varied to determine the conditions required for pit initiation and propagation at 25 0 C and 95 0 C. Without applied potential pitting was not observed at 25 0 C in solutions of up to 2.6 M NaCl. At 95 0 C pit initiation occurred above 0.22 M NaCl for a nitrogen sparged system, 0.042 M NaCl for a contaminated air sparged system and 0.059 M for an O 2 sparged system. At 95 0 C initiation followed by propagation was observed at 0.22 M, 0.12 M and 0.11 M NaCl for the N 2 , air and O 2 sparged systems, respectively. A theoretical model, using a hemispherical pit geometry and transport based on the Nernst-Einstein equation, was developed to predict changes in ion concentration, current and pit size. For a pit with an initial radius of 100 A, a fixed potential difference of 0.5 V and constant ionic diffusivities on the order of 10 -5 , cm 2 /sec, the model predicts that the solution within the pit will become saturated with metal chloride within 2 x 10 -7 seconds. The current density increases exponentially with time and reaches a maximum value of 7.2 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at the point of saturation

  14. Snapshot analysis for rhodium fixed incore detector using BEACON methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyoon Ho; Choi, Yu Sun; Lee, Eun Ki; Park, Moon Ghu; Morita, Toshio; Heibel, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to process the rhodium detector data of the Yonggwang nuclear unit 4 cycle 5 core for the measured power distribution by using the BEACON methodology. Rhodium snapshots of the YGN 4 cycle 5 have been analyzed by both BEACON/SPINOVA and CECOR to compare the results of both codes. By analyzing a large number of snapshots obtained during normal plant operation. Reviewing the results of this analysis, the BEACON/SPNOVA can be used for the snapshot analysis of Korean Standard Nuclear Power (KSNP) plants

  15. Rhodium-catalyzed regioselective olefination directed by a carboxylic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Satoshi; Hirano, Koji; Satoh, Tetsuya; Miura, Masahiro

    2011-05-06

    The ortho-olefination of benzoic acids can be achieved effectively through rhodium-catalyzed oxidative coupling with alkenes. The carboxylic group is readily removable to allow ortho-olefination/decarboxylation in one pot. α,β-Unsaturated carboxylic acids such as methacrylic acid also undergo the olefination at the β-position. Under the rhodium catalysis, the cine-olefination of heteroarene carboxylic acids such as thiophene-2-carboxylic acid proceeds smoothly accompanied by decarboxylation to selectively produce the corresponding vinylheteroarene derivatives. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Initial Stages in the Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation of Primary Alcohols in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J.; Monsted, L.; Monsted, O.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of the catalytic HID exchange in primary alcohol substrates derived from aldopentoses, promoted by a macrocyclic rhodium(III) complex, has been shown to occur by a reversible redox reaction that gives aldehyde and a rhodium hydride complex. Hydride exchange in the latter complex...... promotes the introduction of solvent hydrogen in the primary alcohol formed by the reverse reaction. The hydride complex has been crystallographically characterized as a trifluoromethanesulfonate salt that contains the trans-[Rh(cycb)(H)(OH2)](2+) (cycb = rac-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1......,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) cation. The hydride complex is stable for extended periods of time in acidic solution in the absence of oxidants. In basic solutions a series of base-catalyzed reactions take place to yield ultimately the same mixture of [Rh(cycb)(OH)(2)](+) isomers as produced by base hydrolysis of the trans...

  17. Basic research for alloy design of Nb-base alloys as ultra high temperature structural materials; Chokoon kozoyo niobuki gokin no gokin sekkei no tame no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, E [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yoshimi, K; Hanada, S [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an influence of additional elements on the high temperature deformation behavior of Nb-base solid solution alloys. Highly concentrated solid solution single crystals of Nb-Ta and Nb-Mo alloys were prepared. Compression test and strain rate sudden change test were conducted in the vacuum at temperatures ranging from 77 to 1773 K, to determine the strain rate sensitivity index. Yield stress of the Nb-Ta alloy was similar to that of Nb alloy at temperatures over 0.3{times}T{sub M}, where T{sub M} is fusing point of Nb. While, the yield stress increased with increasing the impurity oxygen concentration at temperatures below 0.3{times}T{sub M}. The yield stress became much higher than that of Nb alloy. The strain rate sensitivity index showed positive values in the whole temperature range. On the other hand, the yield stress of Nb-Mo alloy was higher than that of Nb alloy in the whole temperature range, and increased with increasing the Mo concentration. The strain rate sensitivity index showed negative values at the temperature range from 0.3{times}T{sub M} to 0.4{times}T{sub M}. It was found that serration occurred often for Nb-40Mo alloys. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Experimental demonstration of H∞ filter performance for dynamic compensation of rhodium neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon-Ghu; Choi, Yu-Sun; Lee, Kwang-Dae

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental demonstration of the theoretical result of the previous work on LMI (linear matrix inequality) based H ∞ filter for time-delay compensation of self-powered neutron detectors. The filter gains are optimized in the sense of noise attenuation level of H ∞ setting. By introducing bounded real lemma, the conventional algebraic Riccati inequalities are converted into linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, the filter design problem is solved via the convex optimization framework using LMIs. The experimental measurements of rhodium detector signal from a research reactor show that the predicted theoretical filter performance is verified by showing successful reconstruction of the reference power signal

  19. Progress with alloy 33 (UNS R20033), a new corrosion resistant chromium-based austenitic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Heubner, U.; Eichenhofer, K.W.; Renner, M.

    1996-01-01

    Alloy 33 (UNS R20033), a new chromium-based corrosion resistant austenitic material with nominally (wt. %) 33 Cr, 32 Fe, 31 Ni, 1.6 Mo, 0.6 Cu, 0.4 N has been introduced to the market in 1995. This paper provides new data on this alloy with respect to mechanical properties, formability, weldability, sensitization characteristics and corrosion behavior. Mechanical properties of weldments including ductility have been established, and match well with those of wrought plate material, without any degradation of ISO V-notch impact toughness in the heat affected zone. When aged up to 8 hours between 600 C and 1,000 C the alloy is not sensitized when tested in boiling azeotropic nitric acid (Huey test). Under field test conditions alloy 33 shows excellent resistance to corrosion in flowing 96--98.5% H 2 SO 4 at 135 C--140 C and flowing 99.1% H 2 SO 4 at 150 C. Alloy 33 has also been tested with some success in 96% H 2 SO 4 with nitrosyl additions at 240 C. In nitric acid alloy 33 is corrosion resistant up to 85% HNO 3 and 75 C or even more. Alloy 33 is also corrosion resistant in 1 mol. HCl at 40 C and in NaOH/NaOCl-solutions. In artificial seawater the pitting potential remains unchanged up to 75 C and is still well above the seawater's redox potential at 95 C. Alloy 33 can be easily manufactured into all product forms required. The new data provided support the multipurpose character of alloy 33 to cope successfully with many requirements of the Chemical Process Industry, the Oil and Gas Industry and the Refinery Industry

  20. Nickel-base alloy forgings for advanced high temperature power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donth, B.; Diwo, A.; Blaes, N.; Bokelmann, D. [Saarschmiede GmbH Freiformschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The strong efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions lead to the demand for improved thermal efficiency of coal fired power plants. An increased thermal efficiency can be realised by higher steam temperatures and pressures in the boiler and the turbine. The European development aims for steam temperatures of 700 C which requires the development and use of new materials and also associated process technology for large components. Temperatures of 700 C and above are too high for the application of ferritic steels and therefore only Nickel-Base Alloys can fulfill the required material properties. In particular the Nickel-Base Alloy A617 is the most candidate alloy on which was focused the investigation and development in several German and European programs during the last 10 years. The goal is to verify and improve the attainable material properties and ultrasonic detectability of large Alloy 617 forgings for turbine rotors and boiler parts. For many years Saarschmiede has been manufacturing nickel and cobalt alloys and is participating the research programs by developing the manufacturing routes for large turbine rotor forgings up to a maximum diameter of 1000 mm as well as for forged tubes and valve parts for the boiler side. The experiences in manufacturing and testing of very large forgings made from nickel base alloys for 700 C steam power plants are reported. (orig.)

  1. Undercooling and demixing of copper-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbe, M.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of materials science research under microgravity conditions immiscible alloys have been an interesting subject. New possibilities to investigate such systems are offered by containerless processing techniques. Of particular interest is the ternary system Cu-Fe-Co, and its...

  2. Fracture behavior of nickel-based alloys in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.J.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-08-01

    The cracking resistance of Alloy 600, Alloy 690 and their welds, EN82H and EN52, was characterized by conducting J{sub IC} tests in air and hydrogenated water. All test materials displayed excellent toughness in air and high temperature water, but Alloy 690 and the two welds were severely embrittled in low temperature water. In 54 C water with 150 cc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O, J{sub IC} values were typically 70% to 95% lower than their air counterparts. The toughness degradation was associated with a fracture mechanism transition from microvoid coalescence to intergranular fracture. Comparison of the cracking response in water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that susceptibility to low temperature cracking is due to hydrogen embrittlement of grain boundaries. The effects of water temperature, hydrogen content and loading rate on low temperature crack propagation were studied. In addition, testing of specimens containing natural weld defects and as-machined notches was performed to determine if low temperature cracking can initiate at these features. Unlike the other materials, Alloy 600 is not susceptible to low temperature cracking as the toughness in 54 C water remained high and a microvoid coalescence mechanism was operative in both air and water.

  3. CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2014-01-01

    , especially when the electronic energy is derived from renewable energies, such as solar, wind, geo-thermal and tidal. To achieve this goal, the development of an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction is essential. In this thesis, studies on CuZn alloys

  4. Rhodium enalcarbenoids: direct synthesis of indoles by rhodium(II)-catalyzed [4+2] benzannulation of pyrroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawande, Sudam Ganpat; Kanchupalli, Vinaykumar; Kalepu, Jagadeesh; Chennamsetti, Haribabu; Lad, Bapurao Sudam; Katukojvala, Sreenivas

    2014-04-14

    Disclosed herein is the design of an unprecedented electrophilic rhodium enalcarbenoid which results from rhodium(II)-catalyzed decomposition of a new class of enaldiazo compounds. The synthetic utility of these enalcarbenoids has been successfully demonstrated in the first transition-metal-catalyzed [4+2] benzannulation of pyrroles, thus leading to substituted indoles. The new benzannulation has been applied to the efficient synthesis of the natural product leiocarpone as well as a potent adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein inhibitor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mechanical properties of Fe3Al-based alloys with addition of carbon, niobium and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengrong; Liu Wenxi

    2006-01-01

    Several Fe 3 Al-based iron aluminides with the addition of alloying elements carbon, niobium and titanium were produced by vacuum induction melting (VIM) and hot spinning forging. Analytic techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used in studying the microstructure and fracture manner of these alloys. The results show that due to the addition of alloying elements, the superlattice dislocations tend towards multiple slipping, leaving behind on their slip plane ribbons of square-shaped slip-induced antiphase boundaries. The elongation of Fe 3 Al in tension at room temperature increased to about 10% by the addition of suitable alloying elements, the usage of thermo-mechanical processing that has the function of refining grains and substructures, and subsequent annealing

  6. Computational design of precipitation-strengthened titanium-nickel-based shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Matthew D.

    Motivated by performance requirements of future medical stent applications, experimental research addresses the design of novel TiNi-based, superelastic shape-memory alloys employing nanoscale precipitation strengthening to minimize accommodation slip for cyclic stability and to increase output stress capability for smaller devices. Using a thermodynamic database describing the B2 and L21 phases in the Al-Ni-Ti-Zr system, Thermo-Calc software was used to assist modeling the evolution of phase composition during 600°C isothermal evolution of coherent L21 Heusler phase precipitation from supersaturated TiNi-based B2 phase matrix in an alloy experimentally characterized by atomic-scale Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP) microanalysis. Based on measured evolution of the alloy hardness (under conditions stable against martensitic transformation) a model for the combined effects of solid solution strengthening and precipitation strengthening was calibrated, and the optimum particle size for efficient strengthening was identified. Thermodynamic modeling of the evolution of measured phase fractions and compositions identified the interfacial capillary energy enabling thermodynamic design of alloy microstructure with the optimal strengthening particle size. Extension of alloy designs to incorporate Pt and Pd for reducing Ni content, enhancing radiopacity, and improving manufacturability were considered using measured Pt and Pd B2/L2 1 partitioning coefficients. After determining that Pt partitioning greatly increases interphase misfit, full attention was devoted to Pd alloy designs. A quantitative approach to radiopacity was employed using mass attenuation as a metric. Radiopacity improvements were also qualitatively observed using x-ray fluoroscopy. Transformation temperatures were experimentally measured as a function of Al and Pd content. Redlich-Kister polynomial modeling was utilized for the dependence of transformation reversion Af temperature on B2 matrix phase

  7. Cobalt-based orthopaedic alloys: Relationship between forming route, microstructure and tribological performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Bhairav [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Favaro, Gregory [CSM Instruments SA, Rue de la Gare 4, Galileo Center, CH-2034 Peseux (Switzerland); Inam, Fawad [Advanced Composite Training and Development Centre and School of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Glyndwr University, Mold Road, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Reece, Michael J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science and Nanoforce Technology Ltd, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Angadji, Arash [Orthopaedic Research UK, Furlong House, 10a Chandos Street, London W1G 9DQ (United Kingdom); Bonfield, William [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Huang, Jie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The average longevity of hip replacement devices is approximately 10-15 years, which generally depends on many factors. But for younger generation patients this would mean that revisions may be required at some stage in order to maintain functional activity. Therefore, research is required to increase the longevity to around 25-30 years; a target that was initially set by John Charnley. The main issues related to metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement devices are the high wear rates when malpositioned and the release of metallic ions into the blood stream and surrounding tissues. Work is required to reduce the wear rates and limit the amount of metallic ions being leached out of the current MoM materials, to be able to produce an ideal hip replacement material. The most commonly used MoM material is the cobalt-based alloys, more specifically ASTM F75, due to their excellent wear and corrosion resistance. They are either fabricated using the cast or wrought method, however powder processing of these alloys has been shown to improve the properties. One powder processing technique used is spark plasma sintering, which utilises electric current Joule heating to produce high heating rates to sinter powders to form an alloy. Two conventionally manufactured alloys (ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537) and a spark plasma sintered (SPS) alloy were evaluated for their microstructure, hardness, tribological performance and the release of metallic content. The SPS alloy with oxides and not carbides in its microstructure had the higher hardness, which resulted in the lowest wear and friction coefficient, with lower amounts of chromium and molybdenum detected from the wear debris compared to the ASTM F75 and ASTM F1537. In addition the wear debris size and size distribution of the SPS alloy generated were considerably small, indicating a material that exhibits excellent performance and more favourable compared to the current conventional cobalt based alloys used in orthopaedics. - Highlights

  8. Identification of a rhodium(iii) complex as a Wee1 inhibitor against TP53-mutated triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guan-Jun; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Ko, Chung-Nga; Wong, Suk-Yu; Vellaisamy, Kasipandi; Ye, Min; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2018-03-06

    The rhodium(iii) complex 1 was identified as a potent Wee1 inhibitor in vitro and in cellulo. It decreased Wee1 activity and unscheduled mitotic entry, and induced cell damage and death in TP53-mutated triple-negative breast cancer cells. 1 represents a promising scaffold for further development of more potent metal-based Wee1 antagonists.

  9. Effects of composition on the order-disorder transformation in Ni-Cr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marucco, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Ni-Cr based alloys undergo an ordering transformation, due to the formation of an ordered Ni 2 Cr phase, which causes a lattice contraction and it is responsisble for ''negative creep'' or excessive stresses in constrained components. A short-range ordered (SRO) structure develops in the matrix phase after solution treatment and at early stages of ageing, which can transform to a long-range ordered (LRO) structure, depending on the alloy composition and on time and temperature of ageing, upon prolonged annealing below the critical temperature. In stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr alloy LRO forms in a few hours, but in off-stoichiometric alloys the transformation kinetics are very sluggish and LRO takes several tens of thousands of hours to form, when it forms. The ordering behaviours of stoichiometric Ni 2 Cr and Ni 3 Cr were studied by means of isothermal treatments in the temperature range 450-600degC for different ageing times up to 30 000 h, followed by lattice parameter measurements by X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. Similar studies performed on a series of ternary Ni-Cr-Fe alloys revealed the dependence of the degree of order on Cr concentration and a markedly delaying influence of Fe on the ordering kinetics. Finally, long-term microstructural stability of some commercial Ni-Cr based alloys, widely used for high temperature applications, have been studied: the ordering behaviour and associated microstructural changes are discussed in this paper

  10. Influence of alkali metal hydroxides on corrosion of Zr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Ruhmann, H.; Garzarolli, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this study the influence of group-1 alkali hydroxides on different zirconium based alloys has been evaluated. The experiments have been carried out in small stainless steel autoclaves at 350 deg. C in pressurized 17 MPa water, with in low (0.32 mmol), medium (4.3 mmol) and high (31.5 mmol) equimolar concentrations of Li-, Na-, K-, Rb- and Cs-Hydroxides. Two types of alloys have been investigated: Zr-Sn-(Transition metal) and Zr-Sn-Nb-(Transition metal). The corrosion behaviour was evaluated from weight gain measurements. From the experiments the cation could be identified as the responsible species for zirconium alloy corrosion in alkalized water. The radius of the cation governs the corrosion behaviour in the pre accelerated region of zircaloy corrosion. Incorporating of alkali cations into the zirconium oxide lattice is probably the mechanism which allows the corrosion enhancement for Li and Na and the significantly lower effect for the other bases. Nb containing alloys show lower corrosion resistance than alloys from the Zr-Sn-TRM system in all alkali solutions. Both types of alloys corrode significantly more in LiOH and NaOH than in the other alkali environments. Lowest corrosive aggressiveness has been found for CsOH followed by KOH. Concluding from the corrosion behaviour in the different alkali environments and taking into account the tendency to promote accelerate corrosion, CsOH and KOH are possible alternate alkalis for PWR application. (author). 17 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Pack cementation diffusion coatings for Fe-base and refractory alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1998-03-10

    With the aid of computer-assisted calculations of the equilibrium vapor pressures in halide-activated cementation packs, processing conditions have been identified and experimentally verified for the codeposition of two or more alloying elements in a diffusion coating on a variety of steels and refractory metal alloys. A new comprehensive theory to treat the multi-component thermodynamic equilibria in the gas phase for several coexisting solid phases was developed and used. Many different processes to deposit various types of coatings on several types of steels were developed: Cr-Si codeposition for low- or medium-carbon steels, Cr-Al codeposition on low-carbon steels to yield either a Kanthal-type composition (Fe-25Cr-4Al in wt.%) or else a (Fe, Cr){sub 3}Al surface composition. An Fe{sub 3}Al substrate was aluminized to achieve an FeAl surface composition, and boron was also added to ductilize the coating. The developmental Cr-lean ORNL alloys with exceptional creep resistance were Cr-Al coated to achieve excellent oxidation resistance. Alloy wires of Ni-base were aluminized to provide an average composition of Ni{sub 3}Al for use as welding rods. Several different refractory metal alloys based on Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb have been silicided, also with germanium additions, to provide excellent oxidation resistance. A couple of developmental Cr-Zr alloys were similarly coated and tested.

  12. Ambient-temperature high damping capacity in TiPd-based martensitic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Dezhen; Zhou, Yumei; Ding, Xiangdong; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Lookman, Turab; Sun, Jun; Ren, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have attracted considerable attention for their high damping capacities. Here we investigate the damping behavior of Ti 50 (Pd 50−x D x ) SMAs (D=Fe, Co, Mn, V) by dynamic mechanical analysis. We find that these alloys show remarkably similar damping behavior. There exists a sharp damping peak associated with the B2–B19 martensitic transformation and a high damping plateau (Q −1 ~0.02–0.05) over a wide ambient-temperature range (220–420 K) due to the hysteretic twin boundary motion. After doping hydrogen into the above alloys, a new relaxation-type damping peak appears in the martensite phase over 270–360 K. Such a peak is considered to originate from the interaction of hydrogen atoms with twin boundaries and the corresponding damping capacity (Q −1 ~0.05–0.09) is enhanced by roughly twice that of the damping plateau for each alloy. Moreover, the relaxation peaks are at higher temperatures for the TiPd-based alloys (270–370 K) than for the TiNi-based alloys (190–260 K). We discuss the influence of hydrogen diffusion, mobility of twin boundaries and hydrogen–twin boundary interaction on the temperature range of the relaxation peak. Our results suggest that a martensite, with appropriate values for twinning shear and hydrogen doping level, provides a route towards developing high damping SMAs for applications in desired temperature ranges

  13. Fabrication and study of double sintered TiNi-based porous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergey, Anikeev; Valentina, Hodorenko; Timofey, Chekalkin; Victor, Gunther; Ji-hoon, Kang; Ji-soon, Kim

    2017-05-01

    Double-sintered porous TiNi-based alloys were fabricated and their structural characteristics and physico-mechanical properties were investigated. A fabrication technology of powder mixtures is elaborated in this article. Sintering conditions were chosen experimentally to ensure good structure and properties. The porous alloys were synthesized by solid-state double diffusion sintering (DDS) of Ti-Ni powder and prepare to obtain dense, crack-free, and homogeneous samples. The Ti-Ni compound sintered at various temperatures was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Phase composition of the sintered alloys was determined by x-ray diffraction. Analysis of the data confirmed the morphology and structural parameters. Mechanical and physical properties of the sintered alloys were evaluated. DDS at 1250 °C was found to be optimal to produce porous samples with a porosity of 56% and mean pore size of 90 μm. Pore size distribution was unimodal within the narrow range of values. The alloys present enhanced strength and ductility, owing to both the homogeneity of the macrostructure and relative elasticity of the bulk, which is hardened by the Ni-rich precipitates. These results suggest the possibility to manufacture porous TiNi-based alloys for application as a new class of dental implants.

  14. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X. [Univ of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Centre for Superconducting and Electronic Materials

    1996-12-31

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg{sub 2}Ni; (2) by composite of Mg{sub 2}Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg{sub 2}Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  15. Compatibility between vandium-base alloys and flowing lithium: Partitioning of hydrogen at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.B.; Chopra, O.K.; Loomis, B.; Smith, D.

    1989-12-01

    A major concern in fusion reactor design is possible hydrogen-isotope-induced embrittlement of structural alloys in the neutron environment expected in these reactors. Hydrogen fractionation occurs between lithium and various refractory metals according to a temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, K H , that is defined as the ration of the hydrogen concentration in the metallic specimen to that in the liquid lithium. In the present work, K H was determined for pure vanadium and several binary and ternary alloys, and the commercial Vanstar 7. Hydrogen distribution studies were performed in an austenitic steel forced-circulation lithium loop. Equilibrium concentrations of hydrogen in vanadium-base alloys exposed to flowing lithium at temperatures of 350 to 550 degree C were measured by inert gas fusion techniques and residual gas analysis. Thermodynamic calculations are consistent with the effect of chromium and titanium in the alloys on the resultant hydrogen fractionation. Experimental and calculated results indicate that K H values are very low; i.e., the hydrogen concentrations in the lithium-equilibrated vanadium-base alloy specimens are about two orders of magnitude lower than those in the lithium. Because of this low distribution coefficient, embrittlement of vanadium alloys by hydrogen in lithium would not be expected. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Correlation Between Superheated Liquid Fragility And Onset Temperature Of Crystallization For Al-Based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous alloys or metallic glasses have attracted significant interest in the materials science and engineering communities due to their unique physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The viscous flow of amorphous alloys exhibiting high strain rate sensitivity and homogeneous deformation is considered to be an important characteristic in thermoplastic forming processes performed within the supercooled liquid region because it allows superplastic-like deformation behavior. Here, the correlation between the superheated liquid fragility, and the onset temperature of crystallization for Al-based alloys, is investigated. The activation energy for viscous flow of the liquid is also investigated. There is a negative correlation between the parameter of superheated liquid fragility and the onset temperature of crystallization in the same Al-based alloy system. The activation energy decreases as the onset temperature of crystallization increases. This indicates that the stability of a superheated liquid can affect the thermal stability of the amorphous alloy. It also means that a liquid with a large superheated liquid fragility, when rapidly solidified, forms an amorphous alloy with a low thermal stability.

  17. Magnesium-based hydrogen alloy anodes for a nickel metal hydrides secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, N.; Luan, B.; Zhao, H.J.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive work has been carried out in our group to try utilizing magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys as a low cost and high performance anode materials for Ni-MH battery. It was found that the modified Mg 2 Ni alloy anodes were able to be charged-discharged effectively in a KOH aqueous solution at ambient temperature. The discharge capacity and cycle have been substantially improved in four ways: (1) by partial substitution of La, Ti, V, Zr, Ca for Mg and Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Si, Y, Mn for Ni in Mg 2 Ni; (2) by composite of Mg 2 Ni with another hydrogen storage alloys; (3) by room-temperature surface microencapsulation and, (4) by ultrasound treatment of alloy powders. A discharge capacity of 170 mAh/g has been obtained from the modified Mg 2 Ni-type alloy electrode, and the cycle life has exceeded 350 cycles. The high rate dischargeability was also significantly improved by the modification. It was concluded that magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloys would become promising anode materials for Ni- MH secondary battery with further improvement of discharge capacity and cycling performance

  18. Influence of alkali metal hydroxides on corrosion of Zr-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y H [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Dae Jun (Korea, Republic of); Ruhmann, H; Garzarolli, F [Siemens-KWU, Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    In this study the influence of group-1 alkali hydroxides on different zirconium based alloys has been evaluated. The experiments have been carried out in small stainless steel autoclaves at 350 deg. C in pressurized 17 MPa water, with in low (0.32 mmol), medium (4.3 mmol) and high (31.5 mmol) equimolar concentrations of Li-, Na-, K-, Rb- and Cs-Hydroxides. Two types of alloys have been investigated: Zr-Sn-(Transition metal) and Zr-Sn-Nb-(Transition metal). The corrosion behaviour was evaluated from weight gain measurements. From the experiments the cation could be identified as the responsible species for zirconium alloy corrosion in alkalized water. The radius of the cation governs the corrosion behaviour in the pre accelerated region of zircaloy corrosion. Incorporating of alkali cations into the zirconium oxide lattice is probably the mechanism which allows the corrosion enhancement for Li and Na and the significantly lower effect for the other bases. Nb containing alloys show lower corrosion resistance than alloys from the Zr-Sn-TRM system in all alkali solutions. Both types of alloys corrode significantly more in LiOH and NaOH than in the other alkali environments. Lowest corrosive aggressiveness has been found for CsOH followed by KOH. Concluding from the corrosion behaviour in the different alkali environments and taking into account the tendency to promote accelerate corrosion, CsOH and KOH are possible alternate alkalis for PWR application. (author). 17 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs.

  19. Straining electrode behavior and corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys in high temperature acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    Repassivation behavior and IGA resistance of nickel base alloys containing 0∼30 wt% chromium was investigated in high temperature acid sulfate solution. (1) The repassivation rate was increased with increasing chromium content. And so the amounts of charge caused by the metal dissolution were decreased with increasing chromium content. (2) Mill-annealed Alloy 600 suffered IGA at low pH environment below about 3.5 at the fixed potentials above the corrosion potential in 10%Na 2 SO 4 +H 2 SO 4 solution at 598K. On the other hand, thermally-treated Alloy 690 was hard to occur IGA at low pH environments which mill-annealed Alloy 600 occurred IGA. (3) It was considered that the reason, why nickel base alloys containing high chromium content such as Alloy 690 (60%Ni-30%Cr-10%Fe) had high IGA/SCC resistance in high temperature acidic solution containing sulfate ion, is due to both the promotion of the repassivation and the suppression of the film dissolution by the formation of the dense chromium oxide film

  20. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra, E-mail: aleja311@berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Monte Carlo calculations were performed on numerous lithium ternary alloys. • Elements with high neutron multiplication performed well with low absorbers. • Enriching lithium decreases minimum lithium concentration of alloys by 60% or more. • Alloys that performed well neutronically were selected for activation calculations. • Alloys activated, except LiBaBi, do not pose major environmental or safety concerns. - Abstract: An attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as Pb, Sn, and Sr, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as Pb and Bi. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium with {sup 6}Li significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR

  1. Fatigue properties of MA 6000E, a gamma-prime strengthened ODS alloy. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ni-base alloy for gas turbine blade applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Merrick, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    MA 6000E is a corrosion resistant, gamma-prime strengthened ODS alloy under development for advanced turbine blade applications. The high temperature, 1093 C, rupture strength is superior to conventional nickel-base alloys. This paper addresses the fatigue behavior of the alloy. Excellent properties are exhibited in low and high cycle fatigue and also thermal fatigue. This is attributed to a unique combination of microstructural features, i.e., a fine distribution of dispersed oxides and other nonmetallics, and the highly elongated grain structure which advantageously modify the deformation characteristics and crack initiation and propagation modes from that characteristic of conventional gamma-prime hardened superalloys.

  2. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extraction of fission product rhodium from nitric acid solutions. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorski, B.; Beer, M.; Russ, L.

    1988-01-01

    The extraction of noble metals from nitric acid solutions represents one problem of separating valueable substances from nuclear wastes in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Results of distribution experiments demonstrate the possibility of solvent extraction of rhodium using tertiary amines in presence of nitrite. Even short mixing times realize high distribution coefficients allowing quantitative separation from aqueous solutions. (author)

  4. Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of aryl phosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Bathoju Chandra; Kim, Sunggak

    2013-09-25

    Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H olefination of aryl phosphonic esters is reported for the first time. In this mild and efficient process, the phosphonic ester group is utilized successfully as a new directing group. In addition, mono-olefination for aryl phosphonates is observed using a phosphonic diamide directing group.

  5. Thermophysical properties of some liquid binary Mg-based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plevachuk Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some structure-sensitive thermophysical properties, namely, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of liquid binary alloys Al33.3Mg66.7, Mg47.6Zn52.4 and Mg33.3Zn66.7 (all in wt.%, as the most promising cast alloys to fabricate components for cars, aircraft and other complex engineering products, were investigated. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power were measured in a wide temperature range by the four-point contact method. The thermal conductivity was measured by the steady-state concentric cylinder method. The obtained results are compared with literature experimental and calculated data.

  6. Fracture of niobium-base silicide coated alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, A.D.; Zotov, Yu.P.; Ivashchenko, O.V.; Kushnareva, N.P.; Yarosh, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanical properties and character of fracture of Nb-W-Mo-Zr-C alloy composition with complex by composition and structure silicide coating under different states of stage-by-stage coating are studied. Structural features, character of fracture from ductile to quasibrittle transcrystalline one and, respectively, the composition plasticity level are defined by interrelation of fracture processes in coating, matrix plastic flow and possibility and way of stress relaxation on their boundary

  7. The mode of stress corrosion cracking in Ni-base alloys in high temperature water containing lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.S.; Kim, H.P.; Lee, D.H.; Kim, U.C.; Kim, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The mode of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Ni-base alloys in high temperature aqueous solutions containing lead was studied using C-rings and slow strain rate testing (SSRT). The lead concentration, pH and the heat treatment condition of the materials were varied. TEM work was carried out to observe the dislocation behavior in thermally treated (TT) and mill annealed (MA) materials. As a result of the C-ring test in 1M NaOH+5000 ppm lead solution, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) was found in Alloy 600MA, whereas transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) was found in Alloy 600TT and Alloy 690TT. In most solutions used, the SCC resistance increased in the sequence Alloy 600MA, Alloy 600TT and Alloy 690TT. The number of cracks that was observed in alloy 690TT was less than in Alloy 600TT. However, the maximum crack length in Alloy 690TT was much longer than in Alloy 600TT. As a result of the SSRT, at a nominal strain rate of 1 x 10 -7 /s, it was found that 100 ppm lead accelerated the SCC in Alloy 600MA (0.01%C) in pH 10 at 340 C. IGSCC was found in a 100 ppm lead condition, and some TGSCC was detected on the fracture surface of Alloy 600MA cracked in the 10000 ppm lead solution. The mode of cracking for Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 changed from IGSCC to TGSCC with increasing grain boundary carbide content in the material and lead concentration in the solution. IGSCC seemed to be retarded by stress relaxation around the grain boundaries, and TGSCC in the TT materials seemed to be a result of the crack blunting at grain boundary carbides and the enhanced Ni dissolution with an increase of the lead concentration. (orig.)

  8. Thermodynamic Tuning of Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Lu, Yanshan; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mg-based hydrides are one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, slow kinetics and stable thermodynamics hinder their practical application. In contrast to the substantial progress in the enhancement of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamic tuning is still a great challenge for Mg-based alloys. At present, the main strategies to alter the thermodynamics of Mg/MgH2 are alloying, nanostructuring, and changing the reaction pathway. Using these approaches, thermodynamic tuning has been achieved to some extent, but it is still far from that required for practical application. In this article, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Based on the current progress, finding reversible systems with high hydrogen capacity and effectively tailored reaction enthalpy offers a promising route for tuning the thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys. PMID:28788353

  9. Computational studies of physical properties of Nb-Si based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Lizhi [Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro, TN (United States)

    2015-04-16

    The overall goal is to provide physical properties data supplementing experiments for thermodynamic modeling and other simulations such as phase filed simulation for microstructure and continuum simulations for mechanical properties. These predictive computational modeling and simulations may yield insights that can be used to guide materials design, processing, and manufacture. Ultimately, they may lead to usable Nb-Si based alloy which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. The main objectives of the proposed projects are: (1) developing a first principles method based supercell approach for calculating thermodynamic and mechanic properties of ordered crystals and disordered lattices including solid solution; (2) application of the supercell approach to Nb-Si base alloy to compute physical properties data that can be used for thermodynamic modeling and other simulations to guide the optimal design of Nb-Si based alloy.

  10. Atomic scale properties of magnetic Mn-based alloys probed by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Mn-based alloys are characterized by a wealth of properties, which are of interest both from fundamental physics point of view and particularly attractive for different applications in modern technology: from magnetic storage to sensing and spin-based electronics. The possibility to tune their magnetic properties through post-growth thermal processes and/or stoichiometry engineering is highly important in order to target different applications (i.e. Mn$_{x}$Ga) or to increase their Curie temperature above room temperature (i.e. off-stoichiometric MnSi). In this project, the Mössbauer effect will be applied at $^{57}$Fe sites following implantation of radioactive $^{57}$Mn, to probe the micro-structure and magnetism of Mn-based alloys on the atomic-scale. The proposed experimental plan is devoted to establish a direct correlation between the local structure and bulk magnetism (and other physical properties) of Mn-based alloys.

  11. A novel method for producing magnesium based hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.; Matthews, J.; Barlow, R.; Almamouri, M.M.; Speight, J.D.; Harris, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional melt casting techniques for producing Mg 2 Ni often result in no stoichiometric compositions due to the excess Mg which is added to the melt in order to counterbalance sublimation during processing. In this work a vapour phase process known as Low Pressure Pack Sublimation (LPPS) has been used to coat Ni substrates with Mg at 460-600 o C producing layers of single phase Mg 2 Ni. Ni substrates coated to date include powder, foils and wire. Using Ni-Fe substrates it has also been demonstrated that Fe can be distributed through the Mg 2 Ni alloy layer which could have a beneficial effect on the hydrogen storage characteristics. The alloy layers formed have been characterised by XRD and SEM equipped with EDX analysis. Hydrogen storage properties have been evaluated using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyser (IGA). LPPS avoids most of the sintering of powder particles during processing which is observed in other vapour phase techniques while producing a stoichiometric composition of Mg 2 Ni. It is also a simple, low cost technique for producing these alloys. (author)

  12. The electrochemical behaviour of various non-precious Ni and Co based alloys in artificial saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareci D.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Five non-precious Ni-Co based alloys were analyzed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. The correlation between the amount of the elements Cr, Mo, V and the corrosion behaviour, expressed by the PREN (pitting resistance equivalent number index in the case of the allied steels, was extended for Ni-Cr and Co-Cr dental alloys characterization. Open circuit potential, corrosion current densities, as a measure of the corrosion rate, and main parameters of the corrosion process were evaluated from linear and cyclic polarization curves, for five Ni-Cr or Co-Cr alloys in an Afnor type artificial saliva. The maintenance times of the alloy in the corrosive medium influence the corrosion rate; the corrosion current values decrease with the maintenance time due to their passivation in solution. The microscopic analysis of the alloy surfaces shows that this passivation in solution does not modify the corrosion type. The alloys with PREN 32.9 are susceptible of localized corrosion.

  13. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Julian Fernandez, C. E-mail: dejulian@padova.infm.it; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D' Acapito, F

    2001-04-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} (0{<=}x{<=}1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy.

  14. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Julian Fernandez, C.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D'Acapito, F.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu 50 Ni 50 nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu 60 Ni 40 bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co x Ni 1-x (0≤x≤1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10 16 ions/cm 2 total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy

  15. Formation and crystallization kinetics of Nd-Fe-B-based bulk amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Ge, Hongliang; Zhang, Pengyue; Li, Dongyun; Wang, Zisheng [China Jiliang University, Magnetism Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    In order to improve the glass-forming ability (GFA) of Nd-Fe-B ternary alloys to obtain fully amorphous bulk Nd-Fe-B-based alloy, the effects of Mo and Y doping on GFA of the alloys were investigated. It was found that the substitution of Mo for Fe and Y for Nd enhanced the GFA of the Nd-Y-Fe-Mo-B alloys. It was also revealed that the GFA of the samples was optimized by 4 at.% Mo doping and increased with theYcontent. The fully amorphous structures were all formed in the Nd{sub 6-x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} (x =1-5) alloy rods with 1.5 mm-diameter. After subsequent crystallization, the devitrified Nd{sub 3}Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} alloy rod exhibited a uniform distribution of grains with a coercivity of 364.1 kA/m. The crystallization behavior of Nd{sub 3}Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} BMG was investigated in isothermal situation. The Avrami exponent n determined by JAM plot is lower than 2.5, implying that the crystallization is mainly governed by a growth of particles with decreasing nucleation rate. (orig.)

  16. Rhodium trichloride as a homogeneous catalyst for isotopic hydrogen exchange. Comparison with heterogeneous rhodium in the deuteriation of aromatic compounds and alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, M R; Garnett, J L; Gregor, I K; Hannan, W; Hoa, K; Long, M A [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia)

    1975-12-03

    The use of rhodium trichloride as a homogeneous catalyst for the exchange of aromatic compounds and alkanes is described; comparison of the results with corresponding data from heterogeneous rhodium metal and other homogeneous systems, e.g., platinum and iridium, supports the proposal that specific type of ..pi..-complex mechanisms are common to all such exchange systems.

  17. Room temperature synthesis of Ni-based alloy nanoparticles by radiolysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Berry, Donald T.; Lu, Ping; Leung, Kevin; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Huang, Jian Yu; Zhang, Zhenyuan

    2009-09-01

    Room temperature radiolysis, density functional theory, and various nanoscale characterization methods were used to synthesize and fully describe Ni-based alloy nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized at room temperature. These complementary methods provide a strong basis in understanding and describing metastable phase regimes of alloy NPs whose reaction formation is determined by kinetic rather than thermodynamic reaction processes. Four series of NPs, (Ag-Ni, Pd-Ni, Co-Ni, and W-Ni) were analyzed and characterized by a variety of methods, including UV-vis, TEM/HRTEM, HAADF-STEM and EFTEM mapping. In the first focus of research, AgNi and PdNi were studied. Different ratios of Ag{sub x}- Ni{sub 1-x} alloy NPs and Pd{sub 0.5}- Ni{sub 0.5} alloy NP were prepared using a high dose rate from gamma irradiation. Images from high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) show that the Ag-Ni NPs are not core-shell structure but are homogeneous alloys in composition. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) maps show the homogeneity of the metals in each alloy NP. Of particular interest are the normally immiscible Ag-Ni NPs. All evidence confirmed that homogeneous Ag-Ni and Pd-Ni alloy NPs presented here were successfully synthesized by high dose rate radiolytic methodology. A mechanism is provided to explain the homogeneous formation of the alloy NPs. Furthermore, studies of Pd-Ni NPs by in situ TEM (with heated stage) shows the ability to sinter these NPs at temperatures below 800 C. In the second set of work, CoNi and WNi superalloy NPs were attempted at 50/50 concentration ratios using high dose rates from gamma irradiation. Preliminary results on synthesis and characterization have been completed and are presented. As with the earlier alloy NPs, no evidence of core-shell NP formation occurs. Microscopy results seem to indicate alloying occurred with the CoNi alloys. However, there appears to be incomplete reduction of the Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to form the W

  18. Structure of Rhodium in an Ultradispersed Rhodium/Alumina Catalyst as Studied by EXAFS and Other Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Blik, H.F.J. van 't; Zon, J.B.A.D. van; Huizinga, T.; Vis, J.C.; Prins, R.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of rhodium in an ultradispersed 0.57 wt % Rh/y-Al,O, catalyst before and after CO adsorption was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance (ESR), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), CO infrared

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of multiphase NiAl-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pank, D. R.; Koss, D. A.; Nathal, M. V.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-prime phase on the deformation behavior and fracture resistance of melt-spun ribbons and consolidated bulk specimens of a series of Nial-based alloys with Co and Hf additions has been examined. The morphology, location, and volume fraction of the gamma-prime phase are significant factors in enhancing the fracture resistance of the normally brittle NiAl-based alloys. In particular, the results indicate that a continuous-grain-boundary film of gamma-prime can impart limited room-temperature ductility regardless of whether B2 or L10 NiAl is present. Guidelines for microstructure control in multiphase NiAl-based alloys are also presented.

  20. Resistivity and Passivity Characterization of Ni-Base Glassy Alloys in NaOH Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah M. Emran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistivity and passivation behavior of two Ni-base bulk metallic glasses, with the nominal composition of Ni70Cr21Si0.5B0.5P8C ≤ 0.1Co ≤ 1Fe ≤ 1 (VZ1 and Ni72.65Cr7.3-Si6.7B2.15C ≤ 0.06Fe8.2Mo3 (VZ2, in various concentrations of NaOH solutions were studied. The investigations involved cyclic polarization (CP, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM methods. Cyclic polarization measurements showed spontaneous passivation for both Ni-base glassy alloys at all alkaline concentrations, due to the presence of chromium as an alloying element that formed an oxide film on the alloy surface. The EIS analysis showed that the passive layers grown on the two Ni-base glassy alloy surfaces are formed by a double oxide layer structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM examinations of the electrode surface showed Cr, Ni, Fe, and O rich corrosion products that reduced the extent of corrosion damage. Atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging technique was used to evaluate the topographic and morphologic features of surface layers formed on the surface of the alloys.

  1. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Weijun, E-mail: weijun.he@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zheng, Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Xin, Renlong, E-mail: rlxin@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Qing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-02-27

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  2. Hydrogen storage in binary and ternary Mg-based alloys: A comprehensive experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Harrower, C.T.; Haagsma, J.; Zahiri, B.; Luber, E.J.; Ophus, C.; Mitlin, D. [Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta and National Research Council Canada, National Institute for Nanotechnology, T6G 2V4, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Poirier, E.; Fritzsche, H. [National Research Council Canada, SIMS, Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    This study focused on hydrogen sorption properties of 1.5 {mu}m thick Mg-based films with Al, Fe and Ti as alloying elements. The binary alloys are used to establish as baseline case for the ternary Mg-Al-Ti, Mg-Fe-Ti and Mg-Al-Fe compositions. We show that the ternary alloys in particular display remarkable sorption behavior: at 200 C the films are capable of absorbing 4-6 wt% hydrogen in seconds, and desorbing in minutes. Furthermore, this sorption behavior is stable over cycling for the Mg-Al-Ti and Mg-Fe-Ti alloys. Even after 100 absorption/desorption cycles, no degradation in capacity or kinetics is observed. For Mg-Al-Fe, the properties are clearly worse compared to the other ternary combinations. These differences are explained by considering the properties of all the different phases present during cycling in terms of their hydrogen affinity and catalytic activity. Based on these considerations, some general design principles for Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are suggested. (author)

  3. The strengthening mechanism of a nickel-based alloy after laser shock processing at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinghong; Zhou, Liucheng; He, Weifeng; He, Guangyu; Wang, Xuede; Nie, Xiangfan; Wang, Bo; Luo, Sihai; Li, Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the strengthening mechanism of laser shock processing (LSP) at high temperatures in the K417 nickel-based alloy. Using a laser-induced shock wave, residual compressive stresses and nanocrystals with a length of 30–200 nm and a thickness of 1 μm are produced on the surface of the nickel-based alloy K417. When the K417 alloy is subjected to heat treatment at 900 °C after LSP, most of the residual compressive stress relaxes while the microhardness retains good thermal stability; the nanocrystalline surface has not obviously grown after the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, which shows a comparatively good thermal stability. There are several reasons for the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline surface, such as the low value of cold hardening of LSP, extreme high-density defects and the grain boundary pinning of an impure element. The results of the vibration fatigue experiments show that the fatigue strength of K417 alloy is enhanced and improved from 110 to 285 MPa after LSP. After the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, the fatigue strength is 225 MPa; the heat treatment has not significantly reduced the reinforcement effect. The feature of the LSP strengthening mechanism of nickel-based alloy at a high temperature is the co-working effect of the nanocrystalline surface and the residual compressive stress after thermal relaxation. (paper)

  4. Microstructure-based modeling of tensile deformation of a friction stir welded AZ31 Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weijun; Zheng, Li; Xin, Renlong; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behaviors of friction stir welded (FSWed) Mg alloys are topics under investigation. The microstructure and texture of a FSWed Mg alloy were characterized by electron back scattered diffraction. Four characteristic sub-zones with different orientations in the FSWed Mg alloy joint were identified. The texture distribution across the stir zones and transition zone were obviously inhomogeneous. For comparison, four sub-regions in the base material were also characterized. Based on the experimental microstructure and texture, a crystal plasticity finite element model was developed to represent the friction stir welded Mg alloy. Simulations were carried out to study the effect of texture variation on the deformation behaviors during transverse tension. Compared with the base material case, strong macroscopic strain localization was observed for the FSWed joint case after transverse tension. Strain localization may have contributed to the decayed elongation of the FSWed joint in the transverse tension. Texture variation in the thermal-mechanical affected zone did not change the deformation mechanism in the stir zones, while it did decrease the strain localization, thus assuming to improve the elongation of the friction stir welded Mg alloy.

  5. Correlation between the Stereochemistry and Bioactivity in Octahedral Rhodium Prolinato Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Rajathees; Martin, Elisabeth K; Dörr, Markus; Harms, Klaus; Casini, Angela; Meggers, Eric

    2015-08-17

    Controlling the relative and absolute configuration of octahedral metal complexes constitutes a key challenge that needs to be overcome in order to fully exploit the structural properties of octahedral metal complexes for applications in the fields of catalysis, materials sciences, and life sciences. Herein, we describe the application of a proline-based chiral tridentate ligand to decisively control the coordination mode of an octahedral rhodium(III) complex. We demonstrate the mirror-like relationship of synthesized enantiomers and differences between diastereomers. Further, we demonstrate, using the established pyridocarbazole pharmacophore ligand as part of the organometallic complexes, the importance of the relative and absolute stereochemistry at the metal toward chiral environments like protein kinases. Protein kinase profiling and inhibition data confirm that the proline-based enantiopure rhodium(III) complexes, despite having all of the same constitution, differ strongly in their selectivity properties despite their unmistakably mutual origin. Moreover, two exemplary compounds have been shown to induce different toxic effects in an ex vivo rat liver model.

  6. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  7. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br, E-mail: mrmartin@usp.br [Laboratorio de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco (LabRisco/POLI/USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: ayabe@ipen.br, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixiera@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  8. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2017-01-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  9. Novel Zn-based alloys for biodegradable stent applications: Design, development and in vitro degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaed, E; Sikora-Jasinska, M; Mostaed, A; Loffredo, S; Demir, A G; Previtali, B; Mantovani, D; Beanland, R; Vedani, M

    2016-07-01

    The search for a degradable metal simultaneously showing mechanical properties equal or higher to that of stainless steel and uniform degradation is still an open challenge. Several magnesium-based alloys have been studied, but their degradation rate has proved to be too fast and rarely homogeneous. Fe-based alloys show appropriate mechanical properties but very low degradation rate. In the present work, four novel Zn-Mg and two Zn-Al binary alloys were investigated as potential biodegradable materials for stent applications. The alloys were developed by casting process and homogenized at 350°C for 48h followed by hot extrusion at 250°C. Tube extrusion was performed at 300°C to produce tubes with outer/inner diameter of 4/1.5mm as precursors for biodegradable stents. Corrosion tests were performed using Hanks׳ modified solution. Extruded alloys exhibited slightly superior corrosion resistance and slower degradation rate than those of their cast counterparts, but all had corrosion rates roughly half that of a standard purity Mg control. Hot extrusion of Zn-Mg alloys shifted the corrosion regime from localized pitting to more uniform erosion, mainly due to the refinement of second phase particles. Zn-0.5Mg is the most promising material for stent applications with a good combination of strength, ductility, strain hardening exponent and an appropriate rate of loss of mechanical integrity during degradation. An EBSD analysis in the vicinity of the laser cut Zn-0.5Mg tube found no grain coarsening or texture modification confirming that, after laser cutting, the grain size and texture orientation of the final stent remains unchanged. This work shows the potential for Zn alloys to be considered for stent applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on rhodium up to 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditroi, F.; Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Hermanne, A.; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Excitation function measurement of deuteron induced reactions on rhodium up to 40 MeV. → Model code calculations with EMPIRE, ALICE and TALYS. → Integral production yield calculation. → Thin layer activation (TLA) with the produced isotopes. - Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions of the 103 Rh(d,x) 100,101,103 Pd, 100g,101m,101g,102m,102g Rh and 103g Ru reactions were determined up to 40 MeV. Cross-sections were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. Excitation functions of the contributing reactions were calculated using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes. From the measured cross-section data integral production yields were calculated and compared with experimental integral yield data reported in the literature. From the measured cross-sections and previous data, activation curves were deduced to support thin layer activation (TLA) on rhodium and Rh containing alloys.

  11. Local Electric Field Effects on Rhodium-Porphyrin and NHC-Gold Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0023 (NII) - Local Electric Field Effects on Rhodium -Porphyrin and NHC-Gold Catalysts MATTHEW KANAN LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIV...Effects on Rhodium -Porphyrin and NHC-Gold Catalysts Principal Investigator: Matthew W. Kanan Project Publications: 1. “An Electric Field–Induced Change...Stanford University Grant/Contract Title The full title of the funded effort. (NII)-Local Electric Field Effects on Rhodium -Porphyrin and NHC-Gold

  12. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector's lifetime for korean standard nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Choon Sung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Park, Jong Ho; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, S. L.

    2005-01-01

    A method to estimate the relative sensitivity of a self-powered rhodium detector for an upcoming cycle is developed by combining the rhodium depletion data from a nuclear design with the site measurement data. This method can be used both by nuclear power plant designers and by site staffs of Korean standard nuclear power plants for determining which rhodium detectors should be replaced during overhauls

  13. Influence of aluminium content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of zinc-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.K.; Patwardhan, A.K.; Yegneswaran, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Attention has been focussed on the influence of Al content on the physical, mechanical and sliding wear properties of Zn-based alloys. Aspects studied include microstructure, density, electrical conductivity, hardness, tensile strength and elongation as well as sliding wear response of the alloys. Microstructural features of the alloys showed the presence of primary α, eutectic/eutectoid α + η (depending on whether the alloy was hypereutectic/hypereutectoid with regard to the concentration of Al) along with the meta stable ε phase. The study suggests that it is possible to design and develop Zn-based alloys with a wide range of concentration of Al. The alloys in turn attain different combinations of physical, mechanical and wear properties which could suit a variety of engineering applications. Increasing the Al content in the alloy system proves beneficial within limits. In other words, there exists an optimum quantity of Al which could reap its advantage to the maximum extent. This of course varies with reference to a specific property of the alloy(s). The changing response of the alloys has been explained in terms of their microstructural features and the effects produced as a result of the test conditions maintained while characterizing the specimens. (orig.)

  14. Hydrogen Induced Intergranular Cracking of Nickel-Base Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    alloys are discussed. Experimental The steel used in the present investigation is a fully bainitic 2 1/4 Cr-lMo pressure vessel steel , ASTM A542 Class 3...Appendix A describes recent experiments performed in order to study the influence of plastic deformation on hydrogen transport in a 214 Cr-lMo steel (8...PLASTIC DEFORMATION ON HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN 2 1/4 Cr-lMo STEEL M. Kurkela, G.S. Frankel, and R.M. Latanision Department of Materials Science and

  15. Preparation and characterization of aluminum based alloy - mica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.A.; Shamim, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, six pallets each of 2.0 cm dia and 0.5 cm thickness were prepared by powder metallurgy; half of them also contained 1% mica-powder to form a composite. Inclusion of mica resulted in a decreased density and an increased porosity of the sample. Brinell hardness was found to be 21% less for the composite than for the pure alloy. Micro-graphs of different areas of the sample show uniform distribution of mica particles and avoids around them. (author)

  16. Using the PSCPCSP computer software for optimization of the composition of industrial alloys and development of new high-temperature nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtishchev, V. V.

    1995-11-01

    Using computer programs some foreign firms have developed new deformable and castable high-temperature nickel-base alloys such as IN, Rene, Mar-M, Udimet, TRW, TM, TMS, TUT, with equiaxial, columnar, and single-crystal structures for manufacturing functional and nozzle blades and other parts of the hot duct of transport and stationary gas-turbine installations (GTI). Similar investigations have been carried out in Russia. This paper presents examples of the use of the PSCPCSP computer software for a quantitative analysis of structural und phase characteristics and properties of industrial alloys with change (within the grade range) in the concentrations of the alloying elements for optimizing the composition of the alloys and regimes of their heat treatment.

  17. Liquid-liquid extraction/separation of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) from acidic chloride solutions using tri-iso-octylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Young, E-mail: jinlee@kigam.re.kr [Metals Recovery Department, Minerals Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gahangno, Yuesong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Rajesh Kumar, J., E-mail: rajeshkumarphd@rediffmail.com [Metals Recovery Department, Minerals Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gahangno, Yuesong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon-Soo; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Sung [Metals Recovery Department, Minerals Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gahangno, Yuesong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-30

    Liquid-liquid extraction/separation of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) from acidic chloride solutions was carried out using tri-iso-octylamine (Alamine 308) as an extractant diluted in kerosene. The percentage extraction of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) increased with increase in acid concentration up to 8 mol L{sup -1}. However, at 10 mol L{sup -1} HCl concentration, the extraction behavior was reversed, indicating the solvation type mechanism during extraction. The quantitative extraction of {approx}98% platinum(IV) and 36% rhodium(III) was achieved with 0.01 mol L{sup -1} Alamine 308. The highest separation factor (S.F. = 184.7) of platinum(IV) and rhodium(III) was achieved with 0.01 mol L{sup -1} Alamine 308 at 1.0 mol L{sup -1} of hydrochloric acid concentration. Alkaline metal salts like sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium thiocyanate, lithium chloride, lithium nitrate, potassium chloride and potassium thiocyanate used for the salting-out effect. LiCl proved as best salt for the extraction of platinum(IV). Temperature effect demonstrates that the extraction process is exothermic. Hydrochloric acid and thiourea mixture proved to be better stripping reagents when compared with other mineral acids and bases.

  18. A new high-strength iron base austenitic alloy with good toughness and corrosion resistance (GE-EPRI alloy-TTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, S.

    1989-01-01

    A new high strength, iron based, austenitic alloy has been successfully developed by GE-EPRI to satisfy the strength and corrosion resistance requirements of large retaining rings for high capacity generators (>840Mw). This new alloy is a modified version of the EPRI alloy-T developed by the University of California, Berkeley, in an earlier EPRI program. It is age hardenable and has the nominal composition (weight %): 34.5 Ni, 5Cr, 3Ti, 1Nb, 1Ta, 1Mo, .5Al, .3V, .01B. This composition was selected based on detailed metallurgical and processing studies on modified versions of alloy-T. These studies helped establish the optimum processing conditions for the new alloy and enabled the successful scale-up production of three large (50-52 inch dia) test rings from a 5,000 lb VIM-VAR billet. The rings were metallurgically sound and exhibited yield strength capabilities in the range 145 to 220 ksi depending on the extent of hot/cold work induced. The test rings met or exceeded all the property goals. The above alloy can provide a good combination of strength, toughness and corrosion resistance and, through an suitable modification of chemistry or processing conditions, could be a viable candidate for high strength LWR internal applications. 3 figs

  19. Fabrication and nano-imprintabilities of Zr-, Pd- and Cu-based glassy alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Saidoh, Noriko; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of investigating nano-imprintability of glassy alloys in a film form, Zr 49 Al 11 Ni 8 Cu 32 , Pd 39 Cu 29 Ni 13 P 19 and Cu 38 Zr 47 Al 9 Ag 6 glassy alloy thin films were fabricated on Si substrate by a magnetron sputtering method. These films exhibit a very smooth surface, a distinct glass transition phenomenon and a large supercooled liquid region of about 80 K, which are suitable for imprinting materials. Moreover, thermal nano-imprintability of these obtained films is demonstrated by using a dot array mold with a dot diameter of 90 nm. Surface observations revealed that periodic nano-hole arrays with a hole diameter of 90 nm were successfully imprinted on the surface of these films. Among them, Pd-based glassy alloy thin film indicated more precise pattern imprintability, namely, flatter residual surface plane and sharper hole edge. It is said that these glassy alloy thin films, especially Pd-based glassy alloy thin film, are one of the promising materials for fabricating micro-machines and nano-devices by thermal imprinting.

  20. Shape recovery characteristics of biaxially prestrained Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Naoi, H.; Yasuda, H.; Maruyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy has already been used practically for steel pipe joints. In most of the applications including the steel pipe joints, it is possible to estimate the reduction of diameter from the experimental data of the shape recovery after uniaxial stretching of the alloy materials. However, studies on shape recovery effects after biaxial stretching are important for the extensive applications of the alloy. In this study, we investigated the shape recovery strain after uniaxial and biaxial stretching and the microstructures of the alloy in order to see the effects of uniaxial and biaxial prestrain on the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Amounts of shape recovery strain in the biaxially prestrained specimens are smaller than those in the uniaxially prestrained specimens. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that reverse transformations of stress-induced martensitic ε-phase are prevented by slip bands formed at the same time in the biaxially prestrained specimens, but not in the uniaxially prestrained specimens. The technological data and interpretations presented in this study should be useful in forming design guidelines for promoting the extensive applications of Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy

  1. Thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of heat treatment and deformation processing on the microstructures and properties of γ-TiAl based alloys produced by ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques were examined. The alloy selected for this work is the second generation γ-TiAl based alloy -- Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at %). Homogenization of I/M samples was performed at a variety of temperatures, followed by hot working by isothermal forging. P/M samples were prepared from gas atomized powders, consolidated by both HIP and extrusion and some of the HIPed material was then hot worked by isothermal forging. The effects of processing, heat treatment and hot working on the microstructures and properties will be discussed

  2. Multi-step wrought processing of TiAl-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1997-04-01

    Wrought processing will likely be needed for fabrication of a variety of TiAl-based alloy structural components. Laboratory and development work has usually relied on one-step forging to produce test material. Attempts to scale-up TiAl-based alloy processing has indicated that multi-step wrought processing is necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine potential multi-step processing routes, such as two-step isothermal forging and extrusion + isothermal forging. The effects of processing (I/M versus P/M), intermediate recrystallization heat treatments and processing route on the tensile and creep properties of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr alloys were examined. The results of the testing were then compared to samples from the same heats of materials processed by one-step routes. Finally, by evaluating the effect of processing on microstructure and properties, optimized and potentially lower cost processing routes could be identified

  3. Fabrication of polymer-alloy based on polytetrafluoroethylene by radiation-crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, A.; Asano, S.; Hyunga, T.; Ichizuri, S.; Washio, M.

    2003-01-01

    Perfluoropolymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), tetrafluoroethylene co-perfluoroalkylvinylether (PFA) and tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene (FFP) have been classified to be a typical polymer of radiation-induced degradation. However, we confirmed that the crosslinking of PTFE, PFA and FEP proceed by irradiation under selective condition where oxygen-free and high temperature above the melting temperature of them. In this study, fabrication of polymer-alloy based on PTFE has been demonstrated by radiation-crosslinking techniques. The polymer alloy, which was PTFE fine powder contained with other polymeric materials, was obtained by electron beams irradiation under oxygen-free atmosphere. Characterization of polymer-alloy based on PTFE has been studied by various measurements such as solid state 19F- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (DSC, TGA)

  4. Au-Ge based Candidate Alloys for High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure and microhard......Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure...... was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The distribution of phases played a relatively more crucial role in determining the ductility of the bulk solder alloy. In the present work it was found that among the low melting point metals, the addition of Sb to the Au-Ge eutectic would...

  5. On the use of titanium hydride for powder injection moulding of titanium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrenoo-Morelli, E.; Bidaux, J.-E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Titanium and titanium-based alloys are excellent materials for a number of engineering applications because of their high strength, lightweight, good corrosion resistance, non magnetic characteristic and biocompatibility. The current processing steps are usually costly, and there is a growing demand for net-shape solutions for manufacturing parts of increasing complexity. Powder injection moulding is becoming a competitive alternative, thanks to the advances in production of good quality base-powders, binders and sintering facilities. Titanium hydride powders, have the attractiveness of being less reactive than fine titanium powders, easier to handle, and cheaper. This paper summarizes recent advances on PIM of titanium and titanium alloys from TiH2 powders, including shape-memory NiTi alloys. (author)

  6. Phonon structures of GaN-based random semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Chen, Xiaobin; Li, Gang; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Accurate modeling of thermal properties is strikingly important for developing next-generation electronics with high performance. Many thermal properties are closely related to phonon dispersions, such as sound velocity. However, random substituted semiconductor alloys AxB1-x usually lack translational symmetry, and simulation with periodic boundary conditions often requires large supercells, which makes phonon dispersion highly folded and hardly comparable with experimental results. Here, we adopt a large supercell with randomly distributed A and B atoms to investigate substitution effect on the phonon dispersions of semiconductor alloys systematically by using phonon unfolding method [F. Zheng, P. Zhang, Comput. Mater. Sci. 125, 218 (2016)]. The results reveal the extent to which phonon band characteristics in (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) are preserved or lost at different compositions and q points. Generally, most characteristics of phonon dispersions can be preserved with indium substitution of gallium in GaN, while substitution of nitrogen with phosphorus strongly perturbs the phonon dispersion of GaN, showing a rapid disintegration of the Bloch characteristics of optical modes and introducing localized impurity modes. In addition, the sound velocities of both (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) display a nearly linear behavior as a function of substitution compositions. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80481-0.

  7. Effect of chromium and phosphorus on the physical properties of iron and titanium-based amorphous metallic alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, S.; Rameshan, R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous iron and titanium-based alloys containing various amounts of chromium, phosphorus, and boron exhibit high corrosion resistance. Some physical properties of Fe and Ti-based metallic alloy films deposited on a glass substrate by a dc-magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, stress analysis, SEM, XRD, SIMS, electron microprobe, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques.

  8. Ion flotation of rhodium(III) and palladium(II) with anionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X C

    1991-03-01

    The ion flotation of rhodium(III) and palladium(II) with some anionic surfactants has been investigated. Two flotation procedures are proposed for the separation of some platinum metals, based on differences in the kinetic properties of the chloro-complexes of rhodium(III), palladium(II) and platinum(IV). The first involves the selective flotation of Rh(H(2)O)(3+)(6) from PdCl(2-)(4) and PtCl(2-)(6) in dilute hydrochloric acid with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). After precipitation of the hydroxide and redissolution in dilute acid, the Rh(III) is converted into Rh(H(2)O)(3+)(6), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) remaining as PdCl(2-)(4) and PtCl(2-)(6) respectively, and separation is achieved by floating the Rh(H(2)O)(3+)(6) with SDBS. The second is for separation of Pd(II). Prior to flotation, the solution of PdCl(2-)(4) and PtCl(2-)(6) is heated with ammonium acetate to convert PdCl(2-)(4) into Pd(NH(3))(2+)(4). The chloro-complex of Pt(IV) is unaffected. The complex cation, Pd(NH(3))(2+)(4), is then selectively floated with SDBS. The procedures are fast, simple and do not require expensive reagents and apparatus.

  9. Rhodium-catalysed syn-carboamination of alkenes via a transient directing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piou, Tiffany; Rovis, Tomislav

    2015-11-05

    Alkenes are the most ubiquitous prochiral functional groups--those that can be converted from achiral to chiral in a single step--that are accessible to synthetic chemists. For this reason, difunctionalization reactions of alkenes (whereby two functional groups are added to the same double bond) are particularly important, as they can be used to produce highly complex molecular architectures. Stereoselective oxidation reactions, including dihydroxylation, aminohydroxylation and halogenation, are well established methods for functionalizing alkenes. However, the intermolecular incorporation of both carbon- and nitrogen-based functionalities stereoselectively across an alkene has not been reported. Here we describe the rhodium-catalysed carboamination of alkenes at the same (syn) face of a double bond, initiated by a carbon-hydrogen activation event that uses enoxyphthalimides as the source of both the carbon and the nitrogen functionalities. The reaction methodology allows for the intermolecular, stereospecific formation of one carbon-carbon and one carbon-nitrogen bond across an alkene, which is, to our knowledge, unprecedented. The reaction design involves the in situ generation of a bidentate directing group and the use of a new cyclopentadienyl ligand to control the reactivity of rhodium. The results provide a new way of synthesizing functionalized alkenes, and should lead to the convergent and stereoselective assembly of amine-containing acyclic molecules.

  10. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    control tool was proved in two foundries. The method can also correctly predict the onset of fading. The corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys was measured in two solutions having different hydrogen activities, pH 6 and pH8, and compared with the base alloys. Potentiodynamic polarization and long term weight loss experiments were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance. Cu-Zn alloys were evaluated for dezincification. In general, the grain refined alloys performed marginally better than the base alloys.

  11. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2002-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic aircraft will require nickel-base disk alloys that can be used at temperatures in excess of 1300 F. Smaller turbine engines, with higher rotational speeds, also require disk alloys with high strength. To address these challenges, NASA funded a series of disk programs in the 1990's. Under these initiatives, Honeywell and Allison focused their attention on Alloy 10, a high-strength, nickel-base disk alloy developed by Honeywell for application in the small turbine engines used in regional jet aircraft. Since tensile, creep, and fatigue properties are strongly influenced by alloy grain size, the effect of heat treatment on grain size and the attendant properties were studied in detail. It was observed that a fine grain microstructure offered the best tensile and fatigue properties, whereas a coarse grain microstructure offered the best creep resistance at high temperatures. Therefore, a disk with a dual microstructure, consisting of a fine-grained bore and a coarse-grained rim, should have a high potential for optimal performance. Under NASA's Ultra-Safe Propulsion Project and Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, a disk program was initiated at the NASA Glenn Research Center to assess the feasibility of using Alloy 10 to produce a dual-microstructure disk. The objectives of this program were twofold. First, existing dual-microstructure heat treatment (DMHT) technology would be applied and refined as necessary for Alloy 10 to yield the desired grain structure in full-scale forgings appropriate for use in regional gas turbine engines. Second, key mechanical properties from the bore and rim of a DMHT Alloy 10 disk would be measured and compared with conventional heat treatments to assess the benefits of DMHT technology. At Wyman Gordon and Honeywell, an active-cooling DMHT process was used to convert four full-scale Alloy 10 disks to a dual-grain microstructure. The resulting microstructures are illustrated in the

  12. RF plasma nitriding of severely deformed iron-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferkel, H.; Glatzer, M.; Estrin, Y.; Valiev, R.Z.; Blawert, C.; Mordike, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of severe plastic deformation by cold high pressure torsion (HPT) on radio frequency (RF) plasma nitriding of pure iron, as well as St2K50 and X5CrNi1810 steels was investigated. Nitriding was carried out for 3 h in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 10 -5 bar and temperatures of 350 and 400 deg. C. Nitrided specimens were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and micro hardness measurements. It was found that HPT enhances the effect of nitriding leading almost to doubling of the thickness of the nitrided layer for pure iron and the high alloyed steel. The largest increase in hardness was observed when HPT was combined with RF plasma nitriding at 350 deg. C. In the case of pure iron, the X-ray diffraction spectra showed the formation of ε and γ' nitrides in the compound layer, with a preferential formation of γ' at the expense of the α-phase at the higher nitriding temperature. The corresponding surface hardness was up to 950 HV0.01. While the HPT-processed St2K50 exhibits both nitride phases after nitriding at 350 deg. C, only the γ'-phase was observed after nitriding at 400 deg. C. A surface hardness of up to 1050 HV0.01 was measured for this steel. The high alloyed steel X5CrNi1810 exhibited the highest increase in surface hardness when HPT was combined with nitriding at 350 deg. C. The surface hardness of this steel was greater than 1400 HV0.025. The XRD analyses indicate the formation of the expanded austenite (S-phase) in the surface layer as a result of RF plasma nitriding. Furthermore, after HPT X5CrNi1810 was transformed completely into deformation martensite which did not transform back to austenite under thermochemical treatment. However, in the case of nitriding of the HPT-processed high alloyed steel at 400 deg. C, the formation of the S-phase was less pronounced. In view of the observed XRD peak broadening, the formation of nitrides, such as e.g. CrN, cannot be ruled out

  13. Evaluation of mechanically alloyed Cu-based powders as filler alloy for brazing tungsten to a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, J. de, E-mail: javier.deprado@urjc.es; Sánchez, M.; Ureña, A.

    2017-07-15

    80Cu-20Ti powders were evaluated for their use as filler alloy for high temperature brazing of tungsten to a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (Eurofer), and its application for the first wall of the DEMO fusion reactor. The use of alloyed powders has not been widely considered for brazing purposes and could improve the operational brazeability of the studied system due to its narrower melting range, determined by DTA analysis, which enhances the spreading capabilities of the filler. Ti contained in the filler composition acts as an activator element, reacting and forming several interfacial layers at the Eurofer-braze, which enhances the wettability properties and chemical interaction at the brazing interface. Brazing thermal cycle also activated the diffusion phenomena, which mainly affected to the Eurofer alloying elements causing in it a softening band of approximately 400 μm of thickness. However, this softening effect did not degrade the shear strength of the brazed joints (94 ± 23 MPa), because failure during testing was always located at the tungsten-braze interface. - Highlights: •W-Eurofer brazed joints, manufactured using Cu-based mechanically alloyed powders as filler is proposed. •The benefits derivate from the alloyed composition could improve the operational brazeability of the studied system. •Tested pre-alloyed fillers have a more homogeneous melting stage which enhances its spreading and flowing capabilities. •This behaviour could lead to work with higher heating rates and lower brazing temperatures.

  14. Investigation of phase stability of novel equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn based-high entropy alloy prepared by mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Vinay Kumar; Sanyal, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the structural and phase stability analysis of equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn High entropy alloy (HEA) systems prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) method. In this research effort some 1287 alloy combinations were extensively studied to arrive at most favourable combination. FeCoNiCuZn based alloy system was selected on the basis of physiochemical parameters such as enthalpy of mixing (ΔHmix), entropy of mixing (ΔSmix), atomic size difference (ΔX) and valence electron concentration (VEC) such that it fulfils the formation criteria of stable multi component high entropy alloy system. In this context, we have investigated the effect of novel alloying addition in view of microstructure and phase formation aspect. XRD plots of the MA samples shows the formation of stable solid solution with FCC (Face Cantered Cubic) after 20 hr of milling time and no indication of any amorphous or intermetallic phase formation. Our results are in good agreement with calculation and analysis done on the basis of physiochemical parameters during selection of constituent elements of HEA.

  15. Experimental Studies on Al (5.7% Zn) Alloy based Hybrid MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprakash, Y. M.; Ramu, H. C.; Chiranjivee; Kumar, Roushan; Kumar, Deepak

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, an attempt is made to disperse SiC (20-25 microns) and Gr (15-20 microns) in the aluminium alloy having Zn, Mg and coper as major alloying elements. The composite is further subjected to mechanical testing to determine various properties like hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance. The alloy and composite samples were tested in the un heat treated conditions. All the tests were done at the laboratory conditions as per ASTM standards. The Pin-On-Disc tribometer is used to test the two-body abrasive sliding wear behaviour in dry conditions. The wear pattern is analysed by the optical images of worn surface taken in an inverted metallurgical microscope. The calculated density is found to be reducing as the SiC and Gr quantity is increased in the base alloy. The as cast Al alloy was found to be having highest hardness. The introduction of SiC tend to increase the hardness and UTS, since Gr is also introduced simultaneously which tends to reduce the hardness and UTS of composite. The composite having highest quantity of Gr showed superior wear resistance which is mainly because the Gr particulates provide an inbuilt lubricating properties to composite. The analysis of images of worn surface showed the abrasive and delamination pattern of wear. The composites developed in the present work can be used in the automobile and aerospace parts that are light in weight and require self-lubricating properties to enhance the wear resistance.

  16. Hydrogen absorption/desorption properties in the TiCrV based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three different Ti-based alloys with bcc structure and Laves phase were studied. The TiCr1.1V0.9, TiCr1.1V0.45Nb0.45 and TiCr1.1V0.9 + 4%Zr7Ni10 alloys were melted in arc furnace under argon atmosphere. The hydrogen absorption capacity was measured by using aparatus type Sievert's. Crystal structures, and the lattice parameters were determined by using X-ray diffraction, XRD. Microestructural analysis was performed by scanning electron microscope, SEM and electron dispersive X-ray, EDS. The hydrogen storage capacity attained a value of 3.6 wt. (% for TiCr1.1V0.9 alloy in a time of 9 minutes, 3.3 wt. (% for TiCr1.1V0.45Nb0.45 alloy in a time of 7 minutes and 3.6 wt. (% TiCr1.1V0.9 + 4%Zr7Ni10 with an increase of the hydrogen absorption kinetics attained in 2 minutes. This indicates that the addition of Nb and 4%Zr7Ni10 to the TiCrV alloy acts as catalysts to accelerate the hydrogen absorption kinetics.

  17. Effect of irradiation damage and helium on the swelling and structure of vanadium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    Swelling behavior and microstructural evolution of V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti, and V-Ti-Si alloys were investigated after irradiation at 420--600C up to 114 dpa. The alloys exhibited swelling maxima between 30 and 80 dpa and swelling decreased on irradiation to higher dpa. This is in contrast to the monotonically increasing swelling of binary alloys that contain Fe, Ni, Cr, Mo, W, and Si. Precipitation of dense Ti 5 Si 3 promotes good resistance to swelling of the Ti-containing alloys and it was concluded that Ti of >3 wt.% and 400--1000 wppm Si are necessary to effectively suppress swelling. Swelling was minimal in V-4Cr-4Ti, identified as the most promising alloy based on good mechanical properties and superior resistance to irradiation embrittlement. V-20Ti doped with B exhibited somewhat higher swelling because of He generation. Lithium atoms, generated from transmutation of 10 B, formed γ-LiV 2 O 5 precipitates and did not seem to produce undesirable effects on mechanical properties

  18. Effect of similar elements on improving glass-forming ability of La-Ce-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Li Ran; Pang Shujie

    2009-01-01

    To date the effect of unlike component elements on glass-forming ability (GFA) of alloys have been studied extensively, and it is generally recognized that the main consisting elements of the alloys with high GFA usually have large difference in atomic size and atomic interaction (large negative heat of mixing) among them. In our recent work, a series of rare earth metal-based alloy compositions with superior GFA were found through the approach of coexistence of similar constituent elements. The quinary (La 0.5 Ce 0.5 ) 65 Al 10 (Co 0.6 Cu 0.4 ) 25 bulk metallic glass (BMG) in a rod form with a diameter up to 32 mm was synthesized by tilt-pour casting, for which the glass-forming ability is significantly higher than that for ternary Ln-Al-TM alloys (Ln = La or Ce; TM = Co or Cu) with critical diameters for glass-formation of several millimeters. We suggest that the strong frustration of crystallization by utilizing the coexistence of La-Ce and Co-Cu to complicate competing crystalline phases is helpful to construct BMG component with superior GFA. The results of our present work indicate that similar elements (elements with similar atomic size and chemical properties) have significant effect on GFA of alloys.

  19. Structural investigations of mechanical properties of Al based rapidly solidified alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakoese, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rapid solidification processing (RSP) involves exceptionally high cooling rates. → We correlate the microstructure of the intermetallic Al 3 Fe, Al 2 Cu and Al 3 Ni phases with the cooling rate. → The solidification rate is high enough to retain most of alloying elements in the Al matrix. → The rapid solidification has effect on the phase constitution. -- Abstract: In this study, Al based Al-3 wt.%Fe, Al-3 wt.%Cu and Al-3 wt.%Ni alloys were prepared by conventional casting. They were further processed using the melt-spinning technique and characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the Vickers microhardness tester. The rapidly solidified (RS) binary alloys were composed of supersaturated α-Al solid solution and finely dispersed intermetallic phases. Experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of RS alloys were enhanced, which can be attributed to significant changes in the microstructure. RS samples were measured using a microhardness test device. The dependence of microhardness H V on the solidification rate (V) was analysed. These results showed that with the increasing values of V, the values of H V increased. The enthalpies of fusion for the same alloys were determined by DSC.

  20. Zr - based alloys as hydride electrodes in Ni-MH batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biris, A.R.; Biris, A.S.; Misan, I.; Lupu, D.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen storage alloys, MH, are already used in Ni-MH alkaline batteries conquering an important share of the rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery market. This remarkable success is due not only to the replacement of the toxic material, cadmium, by metal hydrides but also to an increased specific energy, which makes them attractive for electric vehicles. Many research groups are concerned in the improvement of the hydride electrode characteristics: hydrogen storage capacity, high-rate discharge ability, increased cycle life. These properties can be modified by substitution of the base components of a given alloy. A comparison of two types of alloys suitable for MH electrodes LaNi 5 able to store 1.36 w/o hydrogen with Zr(Ti)-Ni alloys of the AB 2 Laves phase type structure showed that the latter could absorb higher amounts of hydrogen. We report part of studies on Zr-V-Cr-Ni of the 15 C type Laves phase structure using our original procedure for pasted electrodes. The substitution of Cr for V atoms in ZrV 0.5 Ni 1 . 5 did not increase the discharge capacity. However, it proved to have a remarkable effect on the discharge capacity C at low temperatures. C at - 12 deg. C as compared to 20 deg.C increases up to ∼ 65 % for Cr containing alloys. (authors)

  1. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qijun; Zhang, Lin; Wei, Dongbin; Ren, Shubin; Qu, Xuanhui

    Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20-110 μm. With the decrease of particle size, a transformation from typical dendrite solidification structure to fine cell microstructure occurs. The surface of the spheroidized powder is coated by a layer of oxides consisting mainly of TiO2 and Nb2O5. Probabilities of sinter-neck formation and particle coalescence increases with increasing sintering temperature. Porous skeleton with relatively homogeneous pore distribution and open pore channel is formed after vacuum sintering at 1700 °C, and the porosity is 32%. The sintering kinetic analysis indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism during sintering process.

  2. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetto, L; Ambat, Rajan; Davenport, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin Wlms of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very eVective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines......: • a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, • a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer–metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidiWcation in Wrst steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces....

  3. Formation of electrically insulating coatings on aluminided vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3-5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. Reaction of the aluminide layer with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium provides a means of developing an in-situ electrical insulator coating on the surface of the alloys. The electrical resistivity of A1N coatings on aluminided V and V-20 wt.% Ti was determined in-situ

  4. Ultra-precision machining induced phase decomposition at surface of Zn-Al based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To, S.; Zhu, Y.H.; Lee, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructural changes and phase transformation of an ultra-precision machined Zn-Al based alloy were examined using X-ray diffraction and back-scattered electron microscopy techniques. Decomposition of the Zn-rich η phase and the related changes in crystal orientation was detected at the surface of the ultra-precision machined alloy specimen. The effects of the machining parameters, such as cutting speed and depth of cut, on the phase decomposition were discussed in comparison with the tensile and rolling induced microstrucutural changes and phase decomposition

  5. Room-Temperature Deformation and Martensitic Transformation of Two Co-Cr-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Huang, D.; Gao, J.; Ren, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Deformation of two Co-Cr alloys was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Both alloys show stress-induced martensite transformation, which is affected by phase stabilities and transformation strains. Crystal structure of WC in Co-20Cr-15W-10Ni is identified. Compared with other phases present, it is elastically isotropic, exhibits high strength, and can elastically withstand strains exceeding 1 pct. Texture change during phase transformation is explained based on the crystal orientation relationship between γ- and ɛ-phases.

  6. Chemical durability and degradation mechanisms of HT9 based alloy waste forms with variable Zr content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-30

    In Corrosion studies were undertaken on alloy waste forms that can result from advanced electrometallurgical processing techniques to better classify their durability and degradation mechanisms. The waste forms were based on the RAW3-(URe) composition, consisting primarily of HT9 steel and other elemental additions to simulate nuclear fuel reprocessing byproducts. The solution conditions of the corrosion studies were taken from an electrochemical testing protocol, and meant to simulate conditions in a repository. The alloys durability was examined in alkaline and acidic brines.

  7. Low cycle fatigue life of two nickel-base casting alloys in a hydrogen environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of low cycle fatigue tests on alloy Mar-M-246 and Inconel 713 are presented. Based on the limited data, it was concluded that the Mar-M-246 material had a cyclic life in hydrogen that averaged three times higher than the alloy 713LC material for similar strain ranges. The hydrogen environment reduced life for both materials. The life reduction was more than an order of magnitude for the 713LC material. Porosity content of the cast specimens was as expected and was an important factor governing low cycle fatigue life

  8. Corrosion and oxidation of vanadium-base alloys in helium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The increase in weight of unalloyed V and V-5Ti, V-15Cr and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys at 725, 825 and 925 K was determined for exposure times ranging up to 1000 hours in He containing H 2 and/or H 2 O impurity. The microhardness of the specimens in a transverse section was also determined after exposure for 1000 hours. These results were utilized to discuss the consequences of the selection of certain radiation-damage resistant, V-base alloys for structural materials applications in a fusion reactor

  9. Evolution of precipitate in nickel-base alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Luo, Fengfeng; Ma, Shuli; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a nickel-base superalloy whose strength derives from γ′(Ni 3 (Al,Ti)) and γ″(Ni 3 Nb) precipitates. The evolution of the precipitates in alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature were examined via transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated superlattice spots disappeared after argon ion irradiation, which showing that the ordered structure of the γ′ and γ″ precipitates became disordered. The size of the precipitates became smaller with the irradiation dose increasing at 290 °C

  10. New high strength technologically ecological and expedient economically advantageous alloys on Fe-C base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, B.V.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents framework a part of by now obtained results of the authors studies in the period 1967(68) - 2002 about possibilities for obtaining new high-strength and wear resistant cast alloys on, Fe-C base (complex alloyed steels and cast irons of different systems with different structure, reflected in over 125 articles, 15 inventions (patents) and other scientific studies. The paper includes summarized results and discussion. Key words: new austenite steels and cast irons, mechanical characteristics, wear resistance. (Original)

  11. Anodic solubility and electrochemical machining of hard alloys on the base of chromium and titanium carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, A D; Klepikov, A N; Malofeeva, A N; Moroz, I I

    1985-01-01

    The regularities of anodic behaviour and electrochemical machining (ECM) of the samples of three materials with the following compositions: 25% of Cr/sub 3/C/sub 2/, 15% of Ni, 70% of TiC, 25% of Ni, 5% of Cr, 70% of TiC, 15% of Ni, 15% of Mo are investigated. It is shown that the electrochemical method is applicable to hard alloys machining on the base of chromium and titanium carbides, the machining of which mechanically meets serious difficulties. The alloys machining rate by a mobile cathode constitutes about 0.5 mm/min.

  12. Chromium depletion on the surface of nickel based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dille, E.R.; McDonald, J.L.; Berry, P.

    1988-01-01

    Successful selection of corrosion resistant materials for flue gas desuflurization applications is tricky business at best. Most simulated, accelerated, concentrated corrosion tests try to rank materials to known corrosive condition. If you check the actual data, occasionally you find anomalies such as highly corrosion resistant materials performing below what was expected, while the rest of the group is performing normally. In the field the authors have observed similar results with few acceptable explanations. Recently the authors have found numerous cases of Ni/Cr/Mo alloys with a surface analysis below the ASTM specified range for the element chromium. These surface analysis have been done with a portable X-ray Fluorescent Instrument with the initial results confirmed by an independent laboratory

  13. Bubble formation upon crystallization of high nitrogen iron base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svyazhin, A.G.; Sivka, E.; Skuza, Z.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into the conditions of nitrogen bubble formation during crystallization of unalloyed iron, alloys of Fe-O, Fe-O-S systems, steels 1Kh13, 0Kh18N9 and a two-phase Fe-11%Cr-1%Mo-0.2%V steel. It is revealed that the amount of bubbles in a high nitrogen steel casting increases with a degree of nitrogen supersaturation and decreases with a cooling rate growth and with a rise of surfactant concentration in the metal. In sound castings a nitrogen content can be increased due to a cooling rate growth, nitrogen dilution with inert gas, an increase of nitrogen pressure during crystallization as well as due to the introduction of such surfactants as sulphur, selenium, tellurium, tin [ru

  14. Hydrogen-plasticity interactions in nickel and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.

    2004-03-01

    We evaluate the different contributions of the hydrogen-dislocation interactions to the plasticity of fcc materials in order to feed predictive models of stress corrosion cracking. Static strain ageing experiments are used to quantify the hardening contribution of solute drag by dislocations to the flow stress. We demonstrate the role of hydrogen transport by dislocations on the fracture mechanism. We model the influence of the screening of the elastic field of dislocations by hydrogen on elementary plasticity mechanisms and we conclude that the decrease of the cross slip ability arises from the combined action of elastic and core effects. The testing of single crystals shows that the major effect is on the cross slip mechanism. Tensile tests on polycrystals enlighten the diversity of macroscopic responses observed in alloys. (author)

  15. Antimony Influence on Shape of Eutectic Silicium in Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid AI-Si alloys are usually given special treatments before they are cast to obtain finer or modified matrix and eutectic structures, leading to improved properties. For many years, sodium additions to hypoeutectic and eutectic AI-Si melts have been recognized as the most effective method of modifying the eutectic morphology, although most of the group IA or IIA elements have significant effects on the eutectic structure. Unfortunately, many of these approaches also have associated several founding difficulties, such as fading, forming dross in presence of certain alloying elements, reduced fluidity, etc. ln recent years, antimony additions to AI-Si castings have attracted considerable attention as an alternative method of refining the eutectic structure. Such additions eliminate many of the difficulties listed above and provide permanent (i.e. non-fading refining ability. In this paper, the authors summarize work on antimony treatment of Al-Si based alloys.

  16. Nb-Based Nb-Al-Fe Alloys: Solidification Behavior and High-Temperature Phase Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Frank; Philips, Noah

    2018-03-01

    High-melting Nb-based alloys hold significant promise for the development of novel high-temperature materials for structural applications. In order to understand the effect of alloying elements Al and Fe, the Nb-rich part of the ternary Nb-Al-Fe system was investigated. A series of Nb-rich ternary alloys were synthesized from high-purity Nb, Al, and Fe metals by arc melting. Solidification paths were identified and the liquidus surface of the Nb corner of the ternary system was established by analysis of the as-melted microstructures and thermal analysis. Complementary analysis of heat-treated samples yielded isothermal sections at 1723 K and 1873 K (1450 °C and 1600 °C).

  17. Development of aluminide coatings on vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, D.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3/5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed V and V-20 wt.% Ti capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. After each test, the capsules were opened and the samples were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyzed by electron-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Hardness of the coating layers and bulk alloys was determined by microidentation techniques. The nature of the coatings, i.e., surface coverage, thickness, and composition, varied with exposure time and temperature, solute concentration in lithium, and alloy composition. Solute elements that yielded adherent coatings on various substrates can provide a means of developing in-situ electrical insulator coatings by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium

  18. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezha Ahmad Agha

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  19. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Agha, Nezha; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  20. Influence of ecologically friendly cores on surface quality of castings based on magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lichý

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructional materials as Al - alloys can be replaced by other materials with high strength to low mass density ratio, e.g. Mg-alloys. In order to pre-casting of holes and cavities cores based on pure inorganic salt can be applied due to easy cleaning of even geometrically complex pre-cast holes. This technology is applied mainly for gravity and low-pressure casting technology. This contribution is aimed at studying of mutual interaction of the Mg-alloy and the salt core. Experiments were focused on surface quality; macro- and microstructure of testing casting samples determination. Metallographic analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM with X-ray energy-dispersion superficial and spot microanalysis (EDAX were employed.

  1. Microstructures and mechanical properties of two-phase alloys based on NbCr{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.C.; Kotula, P.G.; Cady, C.M.; Mauro, M.E.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    A two-phase, NbCrTi alloy (bcc + C15 Laves phase) has been developed using several alloy design methodologies. In efforts to understand processing-microstructure-property relationships, different processing routes were employed. The resulting microstructures and mechanical properties are discussed and compared. Plasma arc melted (PAM) samples served to establish baseline, as-cast properties. In addition, a novel processing technique, involving decomposition of a supersaturated and metastable precursor phase during hot isostatic pressing (HIP), was used to produce a refined, equilibrium two-phase microstructure. Quasi-static compression tests as a function of temperature were performed on both alloy types. Different deformation mechanisms were encountered based upon temperature and microstructure.

  2. Application of feal intermetallic phase matrix based alloys in the turbine components of a turbocharger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cebulski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a possible application of the state-of-the-art alloys based on the FeAl intermetallic phases as materials for the manufacture of heat-proof turbine components in an automobile turbocharger. The research was aimed at determining the resistance to corrosion of Fe40Al5CrTiB alloy in a gaseous environment containing 9 % O2 + 0,2 % HCl + 0,08 % SO2 + N2. First the kinetics of corrosion processes for the considered alloy were determined at the temperatures of 900 °C, 1 000 °C and 1 100 °C, which was followed by validation under operating conditions. To do so, the tests were carried out over a distance of 20 000 km. The last stage involved examination of the surfaces after the test drive. The obtained results are the basis for further research in this field.

  3. Vanadium Influence on Iron Based Intermetallic Phases in AlSi6Cu4 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Negative effect of iron in Al-Si alloys mostly refers with iron based intermetallic phases, especially Al5FeSi phases. These phases are present in platelet-like forms, which sharp edges are considered as main cracks initiators and also as contributors of porosity formation. In recent times, addition of some elements, for example Mn, Co, Cr, Ni, V, is used to reduce influence of iron. Influence of vanadium in aluminium AlSi6Cu4 alloy with intentionally increased iron content is presented in this article. Vanadium amount has been graduated and chemical composition of alloy has been analysed by spectral analysis. Vanadium influence on microstructural changes was evaluated by microstructural analysis and some of intermetallic particles were reviewed by EDX analysis.

  4. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Ni-base Alloys in Sulfur Containing Solutions at 340 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Sung Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Sulfur has been identified as one of the major impurities introduced into the secondary water of pressurized water-reactors (PWRs). Sulfur can originate from various sources, such as resin sources, feed water, cooling water in-leakage, and condenser leaks. Many authors have investigated effects of reduced sulfur in a wide pH range with or without additives. The presence of reduced sulfur species on the surfaces of pulled tubes having stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was also identified. In present work, SCC tests were conducted to investigate effects of reduced sulfur species on the SCC behavior of Ni-base Alloys. The Alloy 690 TT showed the most SCC resistant, regardless of the sulfur species. The Cr content and heat treatments of alloys appeared the increase in the SCC resistance.

  5. Micromechanics-Based Damage Analysis of Fracture in Ti5553 Alloy with Application to Bolted Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettaieb, Mohamed Ben; Van Hoof, Thibaut; Minnebo, Hans; Pardoen, Thomas; Dufour, Philippe; Jacques, Pascal J.; Habraken, Anne Marie

    2015-03-01

    A physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in the full range of stress triaxiality. This lower ductility originates from a higher volume fraction of damage sites. By proper heat treatment, the fracture strain of Ti5553 increases by almost a factor of two, as a result of a larger damage nucleation stress. This result proves the potential for further optimization of the damage resistance of the Ti5553 alloy. The damage model is combined with an elastoviscoplastic law in order to predict failure in a wide range of loading conditions. In particular, a specific application involving bolted sectors is addressed in order to determine the potential of replacing the Ti-6Al-4V by the Ti5553 alloy.

  6. Creep resistance in a new alloy based on Fe3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    Iron aluminide alloys based on the composition Fe 3 Al are receiving considerable attention as structural materials for applications at high temperatures in view of their excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion as well as reasonable mechanical properties. Recently, problems associated with poor ductility at room temperature have been alleviated by small additions of Cr and by microstructure control, as well by as the realization that the low ductility is, in part, extrinsic behavior due to environmental attack. These materials suffer also from a loss of their good strength at temperatures above about 600 C, and recent attention has led also to the development of creep resistant alloys. The present report considers a new alloy developed for improved creep resistance which shows also good oxidation and erosion resistance. Effort has been devoted to an examination of the dislocation structures that characterize deformation, both cold and hot, during fast tensile straining as well as during creep testing

  7. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  8. ZnO-based semiconductors studied by Raman spectroscopy. Semimagnetic alloying, doping, and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumm, Marcel

    2009-07-01

    ZnO-based semiconductors were studied by Raman spectroscopy and complementary methods (e.g. XRD, EPS) with focus on semimagnetic alloying with transition metal ions, doping (especially p-type doping with nitrogen as acceptor), and nanostructures (especially wet-chemically synthesized nanoparticles). (orig.)

  9. Intragranular nucleation sites of massive gamma grains in a TiAl-based alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Suhash Ranjan; Bouzy, E.; Hazotte, A.

    2007-01-01

    Massive gamma grains were generated in a TiAl-based alloy through ice-water quenching from the alpha domain. Apart from those located along alpha(2)/alpha(2) grain boundaries, a few massive gamma grains were detected inside the alpha(2) grains. Some of these intragranular grains were revealed...

  10. Laser cladding of Zr-based coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based coating made of Zr powder was fabricated on AZ91D magnesium alloy by laser cladding. The microstructure of the coating was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM techniques. The wear resistance of the coating was evaluated under dry ...

  11. Laser cladding of Zr-based coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Hubei Key Laboratory of Hydroelectric Machinery Design & Maintenance, ... To improve the wear and corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy, Zr-based coating made of ... process that lead to inflammatory cascades which reduce bio- ... tions regarding their application as protective films on load- ... Experimental.

  12. Performance Comparison of Steam-Based and Chromate Conversion Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 6060

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oxide layers generated on aluminum alloy 6060(UNS A96060) using a steam-based process were compared with conventional chromate and chromate-phosphate conversion coatings. Chemical composition and microstructure of the conversion coatings were investigated and their corrosion perfor...

  13. Development of elastic properties of Cu-based shape memory alloys during martensitic transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Václav; Landa, Michal; Šittner, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 115, - (2004), s. 363 ISSN 1155-4339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Cu-based shape memory alloy s * elastic properties * elastic constants * modelling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.294, year: 2004

  14. Tungsten determination in heat resistant nickel-base-alloys by the method of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorczyk, S.; Wycislik, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of atomic absorption was developed. It allows for the tungsten to be determined in heatresistant nickel-base-alloys within the range 0.01 to 7%. It consists in precipitating tungsten acid in the presence of alkaloids with its following decomposition by hydrofluoric acid in the teflon bomb. (author)

  15. Quaternary alloys based on II-VI semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tomashyk, Vasyl

    2014-01-01

    Systems Based on ZnSSystems Based on ZnSeSystems Based on ZnTeSystems Based on CdSSystems Based on CdSeSystems Based on CdTeSystems Based on HgSSystems Based on HgSeSystems Based on HgTeIndexReferences appear at the end of each chapter.

  16. Ternary alloys based on II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tomashyk, Vasyl; Shcherbak, Larysa

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria in the Systems Based on ZnSSystems Based on ZnSeSystems Based on ZnTeSystems Based on CdSSystem Based on CdSeSystem Based on CdTeSystems Based on HgSSystems Based on HgSeSystems Based on HgTeIndexReferences appear at the end of each chapter.

  17. Ambient-temperature high damping capacity in TiPd-based martensitic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dezhen [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhou, Yumei, E-mail: zhouyumei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ding, Xiangdong [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Otsuka, Kazuhiro [Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan); Lookman, Turab [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sun, Jun [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ren, Xiaobing [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-04-24

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have attracted considerable attention for their high damping capacities. Here we investigate the damping behavior of Ti{sub 50}(Pd{sub 50−x}D{sub x}) SMAs (D=Fe, Co, Mn, V) by dynamic mechanical analysis. We find that these alloys show remarkably similar damping behavior. There exists a sharp damping peak associated with the B2–B19 martensitic transformation and a high damping plateau (Q{sup −1}~0.02–0.05) over a wide ambient-temperature range (220–420 K) due to the hysteretic twin boundary motion. After doping hydrogen into the above alloys, a new relaxation-type damping peak appears in the martensite phase over 270–360 K. Such a peak is considered to originate from the interaction of hydrogen atoms with twin boundaries and the corresponding damping capacity (Q{sup −1}~0.05–0.09) is enhanced by roughly twice that of the damping plateau for each alloy. Moreover, the relaxation peaks are at higher temperatures for the TiPd-based alloys (270–370 K) than for the TiNi-based alloys (190–260 K). We discuss the influence of hydrogen diffusion, mobility of twin boundaries and hydrogen–twin boundary interaction on the temperature range of the relaxation peak. Our results suggest that a martensite, with appropriate values for twinning shear and hydrogen doping level, provides a route towards developing high damping SMAs for applications in desired temperature ranges.

  18. Activation of heterogenised rhodium carbonylation catalyst infrared spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurrell, M S

    1977-01-01

    In a study related to heterogeneous versions of homogeneous catalysts active in carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid, the catalyst consisted of 1Vertical Bar3< rhodium as rhodium trichloride supported on 13X zeolite and evacuated at 437/sup 0/K. Contacting the catalyst with carbon monoxide caused two bands, at 2025 and 2095 cm/sup -1/, to appear. Contact with a mixture of carbon monoxide and methyl iodide (the usual promoter) caused bands at 2085, 1710, 1440, and 1370 cm/sup -1/ to appear; the first two correspond to the bands at 2062 and 1711 cm/sup -1/ in homogeneous catalysts attributed to the formation of Rh(CH/sup 3/CO)(CO)X/sup 2/I/sup -/. Spectra.

  19. Effects of metallurgical factors on stress corrosion cracking of Ni-base alloys in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, T.; Sasaguri, N.; Onimura, K.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel-base Alloy 600 is the principal material used for the steam generator tubes of PWRs. Generally, this alloy has been proven to be satisfactory for this application, however when it is subjected to extremely high stress level in PWR primary water, it may suffer from stress corrosion cracking. The authors have systematically studied the effects of test temperature and such metallurgical factors as cold working, chemical composition and heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water, and also on that of Alloy 690 which is a promising material for the tubes and may provide improved crrosion resistance for steam generators. The test materials, the stress corrosion cracking test and the test results are reported. When the test temperature was raise, the stress corrosion cracking of the nickel-base alloys was accelerated. The time of stress corrosion cracking occurrence decreased with increasing applied stress, and it occurred at the stress level higher than the 0.2 % offset proof stress of Alloy 600. In Alloy 690, stress corrosion cracking was not observed at such stress level. Cold worked Alloy 600 showed higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking than the annealed alloy. (Kako, I.)

  20. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2013-09-01

    In Russia, R&D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF-BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80М-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80МТY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80МТW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and ЕМ-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. If the redox state the fuel salt is characterized by uranium ratio [U(IV)]/[U(III)] uranium intermetallic compounds and alloys with nickel and molybdenum. This leads to spontaneous behavior of alloy formation processes on the specimens' surface and further diffusion of uranium deep into the metallic phase. As consequence of this films of intermetallic compounds and alloys of nickel, molybdenum, tungsten with uranium are formed on the alloys specimens' surface, and intergranular corrosion does not take place. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 4-20 the potentials of uranium

  1. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Marcella Lemos Brettas; Peixoto, Raphael C A; Joanitti, Graziela A; Oliveira, Ricardo G S; Telles, Luis A M; Miranda-Vilela, Ana L; Bocca, Anamélia L; Vianna, Leonora M S; da Silva, Izabel C R; de Souza, Aparecido R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Báo, Sônia N

    2013-02-16

    Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments' toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Regarding the treatments' toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of maghemite

  2. Surface treatments for controlling corrosion rate of biodegradable Mg and Mg-based alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M S; Hall, Colin; Murphy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Due to their excellent biodegradability characteristics, Mg and Mg-based alloys have become an emerging material in biomedical implants, notably for repair of bone as well as coronary arterial stents. However, the main problem with Mg-based alloys is their rapid corrosion in aggressive environments such as human bodily fluids. Previously, many approaches such as control of alloying materials, composition and surface treatments, have been attempted to regulate the corrosion rate. This article presents a comprehensive review of recent research focusing on surface treatment techniques utilised to control the corrosion rate and surface integrity of Mg-based alloys in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Surface treatments generally involve the controlled deposition of thin film coatings using various coating processes, and mechanical surfacing such as machining, deep rolling or low plasticity burnishing. The aim is to either make a protective thin layer of a material or to change the micro-structure and mechanical properties at the surface and sub-surface levels, which will prevent rapid corrosion and thus delay the degradation of the alloys. We have organised the review of past works on coatings by categorising the coatings into two classes—conversion and deposition coatings—while works on mechanical treatments are reviewed based on the tool-based processes which affect the sub-surface microstructure and mechanical properties of the material. Various types of coatings and their processing techniques under two classes of coating and mechanical treatment approaches have been analysed and discussed to investigate their impact on the corrosion performance, biomechanical integrity, biocompatibility and cell viability. Potential challenges and future directions in designing and developing the improved biodegradable Mg/Mg-based alloy implants were addressed and discussed. The literature reveals that no solutions are yet complete and hence new and innovative approaches

  3. Surface treatments for controlling corrosion rate of biodegradable Mg and Mg-based alloy implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M S; Hall, Colin; Murphy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Due to their excellent biodegradability characteristics, Mg and Mg-based alloys have become an emerging material in biomedical implants, notably for repair of bone as well as coronary arterial stents. However, the main problem with Mg-based alloys is their rapid corrosion in aggressive environments such as human bodily fluids. Previously, many approaches such as control of alloying materials, composition and surface treatments, have been attempted to regulate the corrosion rate. This article presents a comprehensive review of recent research focusing on surface treatment techniques utilised to control the corrosion rate and surface integrity of Mg-based alloys in both in vitro and in vivo environments. Surface treatments generally involve the controlled deposition of thin film coatings using various coating processes, and mechanical surfacing such as machining, deep rolling or low plasticity burnishing. The aim is to either make a protective thin layer of a material or to change the micro-structure and mechanical properties at the surface and sub-surface levels, which will prevent rapid corrosion and thus delay the degradation of the alloys. We have organised the review of past works on coatings by categorising the coatings into two classes—conversion and deposition coatings—while works on mechanical treatments are reviewed based on the tool-based processes which affect the sub-surface microstructure and mechanical properties of the material. Various types of coatings and their processing techniques under two classes of coating and mechanical treatment approaches have been analysed and discussed to investigate their impact on the corrosion performance, biomechanical integrity, biocompatibility and cell viability. Potential challenges and future directions in designing and developing the improved biodegradable Mg/Mg-based alloy implants were addressed and discussed. The literature reveals that no solutions are yet complete and hence new and innovative approaches

  4. Bioenvironmental aspects of europium and rhodium: a selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Talmage, S.S.; Fielden, J.M.; Daniel, E.W.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography of 428 abstracted references represents a summary of the domestic and foreign literature relevant to the biological and environmental aspects of europium and rhodium. The collected data are organized by current NAEG interests - research highlighting inventory and distribution of the radionulcides, ecological studies covering terrestrial and aquatic systems, and biological studies in both man and animals. Studies that focus directly on research conducted at specific sites (e.g., the Nevada Test Site) are emphasized throughout the bibliography

  5. Diphosphinoazine Rhodium(I) and Iridium(I) Complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pošta, Martin; Čermák, Jan; Vojtíšek, P.; Císařová, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2006), s. 197-206 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/01/0554; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/99/M037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : diphosphinoazines * rhodium complexes * iridium complexes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2006

  6. Arylation of Rhodium(II) Azavinyl Carbenes with Boronic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Nicklas; Worrell, Brady T.; Chuprakov, Stepan; Velaparthi, Subash; Fokin, Valery V.

    2013-01-01

    A highly efficient and stereoselective arylation of in situ generated azavinyl carbenes affording 2,2-diaryl enamines at ambient temperatures has been developed. These transition metal carbenes are directly produced from readily available and stable 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles in the presence of a rhodium carboxylate catalyst. In several cases, the enamines generated in this reaction can be cyclized into substituted indoles employing copper catalysts. PMID:22913576

  7. Rhodium(II)-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of troponoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murarka, Sandip; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Merten, Christian; Daniliuc, Constantin-G; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-06-22

    We report a rhodium(II)-catalyzed highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the carbonyl moiety of tropone and carbonyl ylides to afford troponoids in good to high yields with excellent enantioselectivity. We demonstrate that α-diazoketone-derived carbonyl ylides, in contrast to carbonyl ylides derived from diazodiketoesters, undergo [6+3] cycloaddition reactions with tropone to yield the corresponding bridged heterocycles with excellent stereoselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Room temperature deformation of in-situ grown quasicrystals embedded in Al-based cast alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Markoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An Al-based cast alloy containing Mn, Be and Cu has been chosen to investigate the room temperature deformation behavior of QC particles embedded in Al-matrix. Using LOM, SEM (equipped with EDS, conventional TEM with SAED and controlled tensile and compression tests, the deformation response of AlMn2Be2Cu2 cast alloy at room temperature has been examined. Alloy consisted of Al-based matrix, primary particles and eutectic icosahedral quasicrystalline (QC i-phase and traces of Θ-Al2Cu and Al10Mn3. Tensile and compression specimens were used for evaluation of mechanical response and behavior of QC i-phase articles embedded in Al-cast alloy. It has been established that embedded QC i-phase particles undergo plastic deformation along with the Al-based matrix even under severe deformation and have the response resembling that of the metallic materials by formation of typical cup-and-cone feature prior to failure. So, we can conclude that QC i-phase has the ability to undergo plastic deformation along with the Al-matrix to greater extent contrary to e.g. intermetallics such as Θ-Al2Cu for instance.

  9. Multimodal Nanoscale Characterization of Transformation and Deformation Mechanisms in Several Nickel Titanium Based Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalena, Lee

    The development of viable high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) demands a coordinated multimodal characterization effort linking nanoscale crystal structure to macroscale thermomechanical properties. In this work, several high performance NiTi-based shape memory alloys are comprehensively explored with the goal of gaining insight into the complex transformation and deformation mechanisms responsible for their remarkable behavior. Through precise control of alloying and aging parameters, microstructures are optimized to enhance properties such as high-temperature strength and stability. These are crucial requirements for the development of advanced applications such as actuators and adaptive components that operate in demanding automotive and aerospace environments. An array of NiTiHf and NiTiAu alloys are at the core of this effort, offering the possibility of increased capability over traditional pneumatic and hydraulic systems, while simultaneously reducing weight and energy requirements. NiTi-20Hf alloys exhibit a favorable balance of properties, including high strength, stability, and work output at temperatures in excess of 150 °C. The raw material cost of Hf is also much lower compared with Pt, Pd, and Au containing counterparts. Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and synchrotron X-ray characterization techniques are used to explore unusual nanoscale effects of precipitate-matrix interactions, coherency strain, and dislocation activity in these alloys. Novel use of the 4D STEM strain mapping technique is used to quantify strain fields associated with precipitates, which are being coupled with new phase field modeling approaches to particle/defect interactions. Volume fractions of nanoscale precipitates are measured using STEM-based tomography techniques, atom probe tomography, and synchrotron diffraction of bulk samples. Plastic deformation of the HTSMA austenite phase is shown to occur through B2 type slip for the first time

  10. Rhodium coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Oelhafen, P.; Covarel, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for ITER plasma diagnostics. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular, its reflectivity, due to erosion of the surface by charge exchange neutrals or deposition of impurities will influence the quality and reliability of the detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium appears as an attractive material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 μm were produced on different substrates of interest (Mo, stainless steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness and crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch tests demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with substrate hardness. Detailed optical characterizations of Rh-coated mirrors as well as results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in the TEXTOR tokamak are presented in this paper

  11. Scalar Relativistic Study of the Structure of Rhodium Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Edwards

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rhodium acetate, related rhodium carboxylates, and rhodium amide complexes are powerful catalysts for carbene chemistry. They readily promote the decomposition of diazo compounds and transfer the resulting carbene to a variety of substrates. There have been several quantum chemistry studies of these compounds, particularly of the acetate. These have all used non-relativistic methods, and all have shown optimized Rh-Rh bond lengths significantly longer than the experimental value. In this study we have surveyed several scalar relativistic DFT methods using Gaussian, Slater, and numerical basis functions (in DGAUSS, ADF, and DMOL3. Several combinations of exchange-correlation functionals with relativistic and non-relativistic effective core potentials (ECP were investigated, as were non-relativistic and all electron scalar relativistic methods. The combination of the PW91 exchange and PW91 correlation functional with the Christiansen-Ermler ECP gave the best results: 2.3918 Å compared to the experimental value of 2.3855±0.0005 Å.

  12. Ni-Cr based dental alloys; Ni release, corrosion and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reclaru, L., E-mail: lucien.reclaru@pxgroup.com [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Unger, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, C.J. [Institute for Pathology, REPAIR Lab, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, D-55101 Mainz (Germany); Susz, C.; Eschler, P.-Y.; Zuercher, M.-H. [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Antoniac, I. [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Luethy, H. [Institute of Dental Materials Science and Technology, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 3, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    In the last years the dental alloy market has undergone dramatic changes for reasons of economy and biocompatibility. Nickel based alloys have become widely used substitute for the much more expensive precious metal alloys. In Europe the prevalence of nickel allergy is 10-15% for female adults and 1-3% for male adults. Despite the restrictions imposed by the EU for the protection of the general population in contact dermatitis, the use of Ni-Cr dental alloys is on the increase. Some questions have to be faced regarding the safety risk of nickel contained in dental alloys. We have collected based on many EU markets, 8 Ni-Cr dental alloys. Microstructure characterization, corrosion resistance (generalized, crevice and pitting) in saliva and the quantities of cations released in particular nickel and CrVI have been evaluated. We have applied non parametric classification tests (Kendall rank correlation) for all chemical results. Also cytotoxicity tests and an evaluation specific to TNF-alpha have been conducted. According to the obtained results, it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak but that nickel release was high. The quantities of nickel released are higher than the limits imposed in the EU concerning contact with the skin or piercing. Surprisingly the biological tests did not show any cytotoxic effect on Hela and L929 cells or any change in TNF-alpha expression in monocytic cells. The alloys did not show any proinflammatory response in endothelial cells as demonstrated by the absence of ICAM-1 induction. We note therefore that there is really no direct relationship between the in vitro biological evaluation tests and the physico-chemical characterization of these dental alloys. Clinical and epidemiological studies are required to clarify these aspects. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nickel released was higher than the limits imposed in EU in contact with the skin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No direct relationship between the

  13. Design of lead-free candidate alloys for high-temperature soldering based on the Au–Sn system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hald, John

    2010-01-01

    of the Au–Sn binary system were explored in this work. Furthermore, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and microhardness of these promising Au–Sn based ternary alloys were investigated. For this purpose, the candidate alloys were aged at a lower temperature, 150°C for up to 1week...

  14. On the nature of the variation of martensitic transformation hysteresis and SME characteristics in Fe-Ni-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, Yu.N.; Monastyrsky, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the various investigations, both by the authors and other works, concerning with the martensitic transformation and SME in Fe-Ni-base alloys. The thermal hysteresis dependence on the alloying elements and thermal treatments are surveyed. The contribution and effect on SME characteristics of widely used alloying elements such as Ti, Nb, Ni, Al, Co, Ta and peculiarities of thermal treatment are discussed. It is noted the main goal of these treatments is to reduce the symmetry of transformation by the ordering or precipitation of a fine coherent phase. The physical principles of transformation hysteresis manipulation in Fe-base alloys is discussed and it concluded that the thermal cycling behavior of Fe-base alloys is very complex and is not clearly understood at present. On the other hand, it is pointed out that thermal cycling is an effective method for control and improvement of SME in these alloys. It is concluded that Fe-base alloys are highly evolved shape memory materials-having a wide working range, good workability and are relatively cheap. In addition, the properties are easily controlled by suitably alloying, aging and thermal cycling. (orig.)

  15. First-principles investigations of iron-based alloys and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Krista Renee

    Fundamental understanding of the complex interactions governing structure-property relationships in iron-based alloys is necessary to advance ferrous metallurgy. Two key components of alloy design are carbide formation and stabilization and controlling the active deformation mechanism. Following a first-principles methodology, understanding on the electronic level of these components has been gained for predictive modeling of alloys. Transition metal carbides have long played an important role in alloy design, though the complexity of their interactions with the ferrous matrix is not well understood. Bulk, surface, and interface properties of vanadium carbide, VCx, were calculated to provide insight for the carbide formation and stability. Carbon vacancy defects are shown to stabilize the bulk carbide due to increased V-V bonding in addition to localized increased V-C bond strength. The VCx (100) surface energy is minimized when carbon vacancies are at least two layers from the surface. Further, the Fe/VC interface is stabilized through maintaining stoichiometry at the Fe/VC interface. Intrinsic and unstable stacking fault energy, gammaisf and gamma usf respectively, were explicitly calculated in nonmagnetic fcc Fe-X systems for X = Al, Si, P, S, and the 3d and 4d transition elements. A parabolic relationship is observed in gamma isf across the transition metals with minimums observed for Mn and Tc in the 3d and 4d periods, respectively. Mn is the only alloying addition that was shown to decrease gamma isf in fcc Fe at the given concentration. The effect of alloying on gammausf also has a parabolic relationship, with all additions decreasing gammaisf yielding maximums for Fe and Rh.

  16. Microstructure of rapidly solidified Nb-based pre-alloyed powders for additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yueling; Jia, Lina, E-mail: jialina@buaa.edu.cn; Kong, Bin; Zhang, Shengnan; Zhang, Fengxiang; Zhang, Hu

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Sphere shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by PREP. • An oxide layer with a thickness of 9.39 nm was generated on the powder surface. • The main phases of the pre-alloyed powders were Nbss and Cr{sub 2}Nb. • SDAS increased and microhardness decreased with the increase of powder size. • Microstructure of powders evolved into large grains from dendrite structures after HT. - Abstract: For powder-based additive manufacturing, sphere-shaped Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si pre-alloyed powders were prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP). The microstructure, surface oxidation and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders were systematically investigated. Results showed that the main phases were Nb solid solution (Nbss) and Cr{sub 2}Nb. The Cr{sub 2}Nb phases were further determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fine dendrite structures were observed in the as-fabricated pre-alloyed powders, which transformed to large grains after heat treatment (HT) at 1450 °C for 3 h. With the increase of powder size, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) increased and the microhardness (HV) decreased. A clean powder surface free of oxide particles was obtained by PREP and an oxide layer with 9.39 nm in thickness was generated on the powder surface. Compared with Cr- and Nb-oxides, more Ti-oxides were formed on outmost powder surface with a higher content of Ti (up to 47.86 at.%). The differences upon the microstructure and microhardness of the pre-alloyed powders with different sizes were discussed.

  17. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  18. Nickel-based materials and high-alloy, special stainless steels. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubner, U.; Brill, U.; Hoffmann, T.; Jasner, M.; Kirchheiner, R.; Koecher, R.; Richter, H.; Rockel, M.; White, F.

    1993-01-01

    The book is intended as a source of information on nickel-based materials and special stainless steels and apart from the up-to-date materials data presents information on recent developments and knowledge gained, so that it may be a valuable aid to materials engineers looking for cost-effective resolutions of their materials problems in the chemical process industry, power plant operation, and high-temperature applications. The book presents eight individual contributions entitled as follows: (1) Nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels. - Materials survey and data sheets (Ulrich Heubner). (2) Corrosion of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels (Manfred Rockel). (3) Welding of nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels (Theo Hoffmann). (4) High-temperature resistant materials (Ulrich Brill). (5) Application and processing of nickel-base materials in the chemical process industry and in pollution abatement equipment (Reiner Koecher). (6) Selected examples of applications of nickel-base materials in chemical plant (Manfred Jasner, Frederick White). (7) Applications of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels in power plant. (8) The use of nickel-base alloys and stainless steels in pollution abatement processes (R. Kirchheiner). (orig./MM). 151 figs., 226 refs [de

  19. Grain Refinement of Al-Si-Fe-Cu-Zn-Mn Based Alloy by Al-Ti-B Alloy and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Yong-Ho; Jung, Chang-Gi; Lee, Sang-Chan; Lee, Seong-Hee; Son, Hyeon-Taek

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effects of Al-5.0wt%Ti-1.0wt%B addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-extruded Al-0.15wt%Si-0.2wt%Fe-0.3wt%Cu-0.15wt%Zn-0.9wt%Mn based alloys. The Aluminum alloy melt was held at 800 °C and then poured into a mould at 200 °C. Aluminum alloys were hot-extruded into a rod that was 12 mm in thickness with a reduction ratio of 38:1. AlTiB addition to Al-0.15Si-0.2Fe-0.3Cu-0.15Zn-0.9Mn based alloys resulted in the formation of Al3Ti and TiB2 intermetallic compounds and grain refinement. With increasing of addition AlTiB, ultimate tensile strength increased from 93.38 to 99.02 to 100.01 MPa. The tensile strength of the as-extruded alloys was improved due to the formation of intermetallic compounds and grain refinement.

  20. In vitro and in vivo corrosion evaluation of nickel-chromium- and copper-aluminum-based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, O F; Miranda, W G; Muench, A

    2000-09-01

    The low resistance to corrosion is the major problem related to the use of copper-aluminum alloys. This in vitro and in vivo study evaluated the corrosion of 2 copper-aluminum alloys (Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Zn) compared with a nickel-chromium alloy. For the in vitro test, specimens were immersed in the following 3 corrosion solutions: artificial saliva, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 1.0% sodium sulfide. For the in vivo test, specimens were embedded in complete dentures, so that one surface was left exposed. The 3 testing sites were (1) close to the oral mucosa (partial self-cleaning site), (2) surface exposed to the oral cavity (self-cleaning site), and (3) specimen bottom surface exposed to the saliva by means of a tunnel-shaped perforation (non-self-cleaning site). Almost no corrosion occurred with the nickel-chromium alloy, for either the in vitro or in vivo test. On the other hand, the 2 copper-aluminum-based alloys exhibited high corrosion in the sulfide solution. These same alloys also underwent high corrosion in non-self-cleaning sites for the in vivo test, although minimal attack was observed in self-cleaning sites. The nickel-chromium alloy presented high resistance to corrosion. Both copper-aluminum alloys showed considerable corrosion in the sulfide solution and clinically in the non-self-cleaning site. However, in self-cleaning sites these 2 alloys did not show substantial corrosion.

  1. Phase transformations in TiAl based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghal, Slim; Thomas, Marc; Naka, Shigehisa; Finel, Alphonse; Couret, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of a fully lamellar Ti 49 Al 47 Cr 2 Nb 2 alloy have been investigated in different annealed conditions by quantitative transmission electron microscopy. Statistical analyses have yielded clear information about the γ-γ interfaces, the respective orientation groups of the γ phase, and the distribution of orientational variants. From the results, three sequences of lamellar transformation have been identified with decreasing temperature: (1) a high-temperature heterogeneous transformation characterized by the nucleation of isolated primary γ lamellae mostly belonging to the same orientation group and having locally the same order; (2) a low-temperature homogeneous transformation in the ordered α 2 phase characterized by the formation of a fine lamellar structure with an even distribution of the orientation groups and a random ordering of γ lamellae; and (3) a coherent interfacial transformation at the α 2 /γ interfaces characterized by the nucleation of ultra-fine twin related lamellae. Finally, the driving forces for these various transformations as well as the nucleation mechanisms of γ lamellae involved in these transformations are discussed

  2. Electrochemical behavior of rhodium(III) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, M.; Venkatesan, K.A. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Srinivasan, T.G. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)], E-mail: tgs@igcar.gov.in

    2008-02-15

    Electrochemical behavior of rhodium(III) chloride in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was investigated by various electrochemical transient techniques at glassy carbon working electrode at different temperatures (343-373 K). Cyclic voltammogram of rhodium(III) in bmimCl consisted of a surge in reduction current occurring at a potential of -0.48 V (vs. Pd) is due to the reduction of Rh(III) to metallic rhodium and a very small oxidation wave occurring at -0.1 V. Increase of scan rate increases the peak current and remarkably shifts the cathodic peak potential (E{sub p}{sup c1}) in negative direction indicating the irreversibility of electroreduction of rhodium(III). The diffusion coefficient of rhodium(III) in bmimCl ({approx}10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s) was determined and the energy of activation ({approx}25 kJ/mol) was deduced from cyclic voltammograms at various temperatures. The cathodic ({tau}{sub r}) and anodic ({tau}{sub o}) transition times were measured from chronopotential transients and the ratio {tau}{sub o}/{tau}{sub r} was found to be 1:7. Electrowinning of rhodium from bmimCl medium results in a deposition of metallic rhodium with lower (20-25%) Faradaic efficiency. A separation factor of rhodium from co-existing noble metal fission product palladium in bmimCl was determined during electrodeposition.

  3. Energetic driving force of H spillover between rhodium and titania surfaces : a DFT view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradie, J.; Gracia, J.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen spillover from a rhodium particle, over the most stable (111) surface, to a TiO2 rutile support occurs at low hydrogen coverage because the adsorption energy of H atoms at low hydrogen coverage on rutile is larger than that on rhodium. H diffuses over the support with an activation barrier

  4. The isomerization of allylrhodium intermediates in the rhodium-catalyzed nucleophilic allylation of cyclic imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Hamish B; Lam, Hon Wai

    2014-10-20

    Allylrhodium species generated from potassium allyltrifluoroborates can undergo isomerization by 1,4-rhodium(I) migration to give more complex isomers, which then react with cyclic imines to provide products with up to three new stereochemical elements. High enantioselectivities are obtained using chiral diene-rhodium complexes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. "On-water" rhodium-catalysed hydroformylation for the production of linear alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diebolt, O.H.; Müller, Christian; Vogt, D.

    2012-01-01

    Optimisation of the reaction conditions for the rhodium-catalysed aldehyde hydrogenation under hydroformylation conditions showed that water used as co-solvent enhances both rate and selectivity towards primary alcohols. One-pot hydroformylation–hydrogenation using rhodium as the only transition

  6. Thermal cooling effects in the microstructure and properties of cast cobalt-base biomedical alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Valer, Vladimir

    Joint replacement prosthesis is widely used in the biomedical field to provide a solution for dysfunctional human body joints. The demand for orthopedic knee and hip implants motivate scientists and manufacturers to develop novel materials or to increase the life of service and efficiency of current materials. Cobalt-base alloys have been investigated by various researchers for biomedical implantations. When these alloys contain Chromium, Molybdenum, and Carbon, they exhibit good tribological and mechanical properties, as well as excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. In this study, the microstructure of cast Co-Cr-Mo-C alloy is purposely modified by inducing rapid solidification through fusion welding processes and solution annealing heat treatment (quenched in water at room temperature. In particular the effect of high cooling rates on the athermal phase transformation FCC(gamma)↔HCP(epsilon) on the alloy hardness and corrosion resistance is investigated. The Co-alloy microstructures were characterized using metallography and microscopy techniques. It was found that the as cast sample typically dendritic with dendritic grain sizes of approximately 150 microm and containing Cr-rich coarse carbide precipitates along the interdendritic boundaries. Solution annealing gives rise to a refined microstructure with grain size of 30 microm, common among Co-Cr-Mo alloys after heat treating. Alternatively, an ultrafine grain structure (between 2 and 10 microm) was developed in the fusion zone for specimens melted using Laser and TIG welding methods. When laser surface modification treatments were implemented, the developed solidification microstructure shifted from dendritic to a fine cellular morphology, with possible nanoscale carbide precipitates along the cellular boundaries. In turn, the solidified regions exhibited high hardness values (461.5HV), which exceeds by almost 110 points from the alloy in the as-cast condition. The amount of developed athermal

  7. Designing magnetic compensated states in tetragonal Mn{sub 3}Ge-based Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Yurong; Xu, Guizhou, E-mail: gzxu@njust.edu.cn; Hu, Fang; Gong, Yuanyuan; Liu, Er; Peng, Guo; Xu, Feng, E-mail: xufeng@njust.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic compensated materials attracted much interests due to the observed large exchange bias and large coercivity, and also their potential applications in the antiferromagnetic spintronics with merit of no stray field. In this work, by using ab-initio studies, we designed several Ni (Pd, Pt) doped Mn{sub 3}Ge-based D0{sub 22}-type tetragonal Heusler alloys with fully compensated states. Theoretically, we find the total moment change is asymmetric across the compensation point (at ~x=0.3) in Mn{sub 3-x}Y{sub x}Ge (Y=Ni, Pd, Pt). In addition, an uncommon discontinuous jump is observed across the critical zero-moment point, indicating that some non-trivial properties may emerge at this point. Further electronic analyses of these compensated alloys reveal high spin polarizations at the Fermi level, which is advantageous for spin transfer torque applications. - Highlights: • Several new fully compensated magnetic states are identified in Mn{sub 3}Ge-based tetragonal alloys. • The magnetic moment changes are asymmetric upon Ni, Pd and Pt substitution. • Discontinuous jumps exist across the compensated points. • The three compensated alloys possess large spin polarizations.

  8. Optical modeling of nickel-base alloys oxidized in pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, A. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France); Foucault, M.; Calonne, O. [Areva ANP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l' industrie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Finot, E., E-mail: Eric.Finot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France)

    2012-10-01

    The knowledge of the aging process involved in the primary water of pressurized water reactor entails investigating a mixed growth mechanism in the corrosion of nickel-base alloys. A mixed growth induces an anionic inner oxide and a cationic diffusion parallel to a dissolution-precipitation process forms the outer zone. The in situ monitoring of the oxidation kinetics requires the modeling of the oxide layer stratification with the full knowledge of the optical constants related to each component. Here, we report the dielectric constants of the alloys 600 and 690 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry and fitted to a Drude-Lorentz model. A robust optical stratification model was determined using focused ion beam cross-section of thin foils examined by transmission electron microscopy. Dielectric constants of the inner oxide layer depleted in chromium were assimilated to those of the nickel thin film. The optical constants of both the spinels and extern layer were determined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic ellipsometry of Ni-base alloy oxidation in pressurized water reactor Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements of the dielectric constants of the alloys Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical simulation of the mixed oxidation process using a three stack model Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scattered crystallites cationic outer layer; linear Ni-gradient bottom layer Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the refractive index of the spinel and the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers.

  9. A study of electron beam welding of Mo based TZM alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.P.; Krishnamurthy, N.

    2013-12-01

    Mo based TZM alloy is one of the most promising refractory alloy having several unique high temperature properties suitable for structural applications in the new generation advanced nuclear reactors. However, this alloy easily picks up interstitial impurities such as N 2 , H 2 and C from air during welding due to its reactive nature. High melting point of TZM alloy also restricts use of conventional welding technique for welding. Hence, Electron beam welding (EBW) technique with its deep penetration power to produce narrow heat affected zones under high vacuum was employed to overcome the above welding constraints by conducting a systematic study using both processes of bead on plate and butt joint configuration. Uniform and defect free weld joints were produced. Weld joints were subjected to optical characterization, chemical homogeneity analysis and microhardness profile study across the width of welds. Improved grain structure with equiaxed grains was obtained in the weld zone as compared to fibrous base structure. Original chemical composition was retained in the weld zone. The detailed results are described in this report. (author)

  10. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Dewidar, Montasser; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2012-11-01

    The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

  11. Shape-Memory Effect and Pseudoelasticity in Fe-Mn-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Roca, P.; Baruj, A.; Sade, M.

    2017-03-01

    Several Fe-based alloys are being considered as potential candidates for applications which require shape-memory behavior or superelastic properties. The possibility of using fabrication methods which are well known in the steel industry is very attractive and encourages a large amount of research in the field. In the present article, Fe-Mn-based alloys are mainly addressed. On the one hand, attention is paid to the shape-memory effect where the alloys contain (a) a maximum amount of Mn up to around 30 wt%, (b) several possible substitutional elements like Si, Cr, Ni, Co, and Nb and (c) some possible interstitial elements like C. On the other hand, superelastic alloys are analyzed, mainly the Fe-Mn-Al-Ni system discovered a few years ago. The most noticeable properties resulting from the martensitic transformations which are responsible for the mentioned properties, i.e., the fcc-hcp in the first case and the bcc-fcc in the latter are discussed. Selected potential applications are also analyzed.

  12. Fatigue Strength Estimation Based on Local Mechanical Properties for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittima Sillapasa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: σa (R = −1 = 1.68 HV (σa is in MPa and HV has no unit. It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints.

  13. Alloying effect on K shell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections and yields in Ti-Ni based shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Alım

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available K shell X-ray fluorescence cross-sections (σKα, σKβ and σK, and K shell fluorescence yields (ωK of Ti, Ni both in pure metals and in different alloy compositions (TixNi1-x; x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 were measured by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF technique. The samples were excited by 22.69 keV X-rays from a 10 mCi Cd-109 radioactive point source and K X rays emitted by samples were counted by a high resolution Si(Li solid-state detector coupled to a 4 K multichannel analyzer (MCA. The alloying effects on the X-ray fluorescence (XRF parameters of Ti-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs were investigated. It is clearly observed that alloying effect causes to change in K shell XRF parameter values in Ti-Ni based SMAs for different compositions of x. Also, the present investigation makes it possible to perform reliable interpretation of experimental σKα, σKβ and ωK values for Ti and Ni in SMAs and can also provide quantitative information about the changes of K shell X-ray fluorescence cross sections and fluorescence yields of these metals with alloy composition. Keywords: Alloying effect, XRF, K X-ray fluorescence cross-section, K shell fluorescence yield, Shape memory alloy

  14. Advancement of Compositional and Microstructural Design of Intermetallic γ-TiAl Based Alloys Determined by Atom Probe Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; Clemens, Helmut; Mayer, Svea

    2016-01-01

    Advanced intermetallic alloys based on the γ-TiAl phase have become widely regarded as most promising candidates to replace heavier Ni-base superalloys as materials for high-temperature structural components, due to their facilitating properties of high creep and oxidation resistance in combination with a low density. Particularly, recently developed alloying concepts based on a β-solidification pathway, such as the so-called TNM alloy, which are already incorporated in aircraft engines, have emerged offering the advantage of being processible using near-conventional methods and the option to attain balanced mechanical properties via subsequent heat-treatment. Development trends for the improvement of alloying concepts, especially dealing with issues regarding alloying element distribution, nano-scale phase characterization, phase stability, and phase formation mechanisms demand the utilization of high-resolution techniques, mainly due to the multi-phase nature of advanced TiAl alloys. Atom probe tomography (APT) offers unique possibilities of characterizing chemical compositions with a high spatial resolution and has, therefore, been widely used in recent years with the aim of understanding the materials constitution and appearing basic phenomena on the atomic scale and applying these findings to alloy development. This review, thus, aims at summarizing scientific works regarding the application of atom probe tomography towards the understanding and further development of intermetallic TiAl alloys. PMID:28773880

  15. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, B; Zhang, X; Chen, Y Z; Chen, C X; Wang, H T; Liu, F

    2016-08-09

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy.

  16. Alloying effects of refractory elements in the dislocation of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The alloying effects of W, Cr and Re in the [100] (010 edge dislocation cores (EDC of Ni-based single crystal superalloys are investigated using first-principles based on the density functional theory (DFT. The binding energy, Mulliken orbital population, density of states, charge density and radial distribution functions are discussed, respectively. It is clearly demonstrated that the addition of refractory elements improves the stability of the EDC systems. In addition, they can form tougher bonds with their nearest neighbour (NN Ni atoms, which enhance the mechanical properties of the Ni-based single crystal superalloys. Through comparative analysis, Cr-doped system has lower binding energy, and Cr atom has evident effect to improve the systemic stability. However, Re atom has the stronger alloying effect in Ni-based single crystal superalloys, much more effectively hindering dislocation motion than W and Cr atoms.

  17. Fragility of superheated melts and glass-forming ability in Pr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Q.G.; Zhou, J.K.; Zheng, H.X.; Li, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic viscosity (η) of superheated melts, thermal properties (T x , T m , T L ) and X-ray diffraction analysis on the Pr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG) are reported and discussed. A new refined concept, the superheated fragility defined as M' = E S δ x /k B , has been developed based on common solidification theory and the Arrhenius equation. The interrelationship between this kind of fragility and the glass-forming ability (GFA) is elaborated on and evaluated in Pr-based BMG and Al-based amorphous ribbon alloys. Using viscosity data of superheated melts, it is shown, theoretically and experimentally, that the fragility parameter M' may be used as a GFA indicator for metallic alloys

  18. Beyond Ni-based superalloys: Development of CoRe-based alloys for gas turbine applications at very high temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukherji, D.; Roesler, J.; Strunz, Pavel; Gilles, R.; Schumacher, G.; Piegert, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 9 (2011), s. 1125-1132 ISSN 1862-5282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Co-base alloy * Rhenium * Electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2011

  19. The effect of addition of various elements on properties of NiTi-based shape memory alloys for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kök, Mediha; Ateş, Gonca

    2017-04-01

    In biomedical applications, NiTi and NiTi-based alloys that show their shape memory effects at body temperature are preferred. In this study, the purpose is to produce NiTi and NiTi-based alloys with various chemical rates and electron concentrations and to examine their various physical properties. N45Ti55, Ni45Ti50Cr2.5Cu2.5, Ni48Ti51X (X=Mn, Sn, Co) alloys were produced in an arc melter furnace in this study. After the homogenization of these alloys, the martensitic phase transformation temperatures were determined with differential-scanner calorimeter. The transformation temperature was found to be below the 37 ° C (body temperature) in Ni45Ti50Cr2.5Cu2.5, Ni48Ti51X (X=Mn, Co) alloys; and the transformation temperature of the N45Ti55, Ni48Ti51Sn alloys was found to be over 37 ° C . Then, the micro and crystal structure analyses of the alloys were made, and it was determined that Ni45Ti50Cr2.5Cu2.5, Ni48Ti51X (X=Mn, Co) alloys, which were in austenite phase at room temperature, included B2 (NiTi) phase and Ti2Ni precipitation phase, and the alloys that were in the martensite phase at room temperature included B19ı (NiTi) phase and Ti2Ni phase. The common phase in both alloy groups is the Ti2Ni phase, and this type of phase is generally seen in NiTi alloys that are rich in titanium (Ti-rich).

  20. Corrosion behavior of Nb-based and Mo-based super heat-resisting alloys in liquid Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, J.; Kano, S.; Morinaga, M.

    1998-07-01

    Research on structural materials which will be utilized even in the severe environment of high-temperature liquid alkali metals has been promoted in order to develop the frontiers of materials techniques. The super-heat resisting alloys which are based on refractory metals, Nb and Mo, are aimed as promising materials used in such an environment. The corrosion resistance in liquid Li and the mechanical properties such as creep and tensile strengths at high temperatures are important for these structural materials. On the basis of many experiments and analyses of these properties at 1473 K, the material design of Nb-based and Mo-based alloys has been carried out successfully. In this report, all the previous experimental results of corrosion tests in liquid Li were summarized systematically for Nb-based and Mo-based alloys. The corrosion mechanism was proposed on the basis of a series of analyses, in particular, focussing on the deposition mechanism of corrosion products on the surface and also on the initiation and growth mechanism of cracks on the corroded surface of Nb-based alloys. The principal results are as follows. (1) For the deposition mechanism, a reaction took place first between dissolved metallic elements and nitrogen which existed as an impurity in liquid Li and then corrosion products (nitrides) precipitated on the metal surface. Subsequently, another reaction took place between dissolved metallic elements in liquid Li, and corrosion products (intermetallic compounds) precipitated on the metal surface. The composition of deposited corrosion products could be predicted on the basis of the deposition mechanism. (2) For the crack initiation mechanism, the chemical potential diagrams were utilized in order to understand the formation of Li-M-O ternary oxides which caused cracks to be formed on the corroded surface. Consequently, it was evident that not only the concentration of the dissolved oxygen in the alloy but also the concentration of Li which

  1. Ni nanotube array-based electrodes by electrochemical alloying and de-alloying for efficient water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xue; Wang, Jianying; Ji, Lvlv; Lv, Yaokang; Chen, Zuofeng

    2018-05-17

    The design of cost-efficient earth-abundant catalysts with superior performance for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is extremely important for future renewable energy production. Herein, we report a facile strategy for constructing Ni nanotube arrays (NTAs) on a Ni foam (NF) substrate through cathodic deposition of NiCu alloy followed by anodic stripping of metallic Cu. Based on Ni NTAs, the as-prepared NiSe2 NTA electrode by NiSe2 electrodeposition and the NiFeOx NTA electrode by dipping in Fe3+ solution exhibit excellent HER and OER performance in alkaline conditions. In these systems, Ni NTAs act as a binder-free multifunctional inner layer to support the electrocatalysts, offer a large specific surface area and serve as a fast electron transport pathway. Moreover, an alkaline electrolyzer has been constructed using NiFeOx NTAs as the anode and NiSe2 NTAs as the cathode, which only demands a cell voltage of 1.78 V to deliver a water-splitting current density of 500 mA cm-2, and demonstrates remarkable stability during long-term electrolysis. This work provides an attractive method for the design and fabrication of nanotube array-based catalyst electrodes for highly efficient water-splitting.

  2. Sn-Sb-Se based binary and ternary alloys for phase change memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyung-Min

    2008-10-28

    In this work, the effect of replacing Ge by Sn and Te by Se was studied for a systematic understanding and prediction of new potential candidates for phase change random access memories applications. The temperature dependence of the electrical/structural properties and crystallization kinetics of the Sn-Se based binary and Sn-Sb-Se based ternary alloys were determined and compared with those of the GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te system. The temperature dependence of electrical and structural properties were investigated by van der Pauw measurements, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry. By varying the heating rate, the Kissinger analysis has been used to determine the combined activation barrier for crystallization. To screen the kinetics of crystallization, a static laser tester was employed. In case of binary alloys of the type Sn{sub x}Se{sub 1-x}, the most interesting candidate is SnSe{sub 2} since it crystallizes into a single crystalline phase and has high electrical contrast and reasonably high activation energy for crystallization. In addition, the SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloy system also might be sufficient for data retention due to their higher transition temperature and activation energy for crystallization in comparison to GeTe-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Furthermore, SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloys have a higher crystalline resistivity. The desired rapid crystallization speed can be obtained for Sn{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 5} and Sn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 7} alloys. (orig.)

  3. Tantalum-based multilayer coating on cobalt alloys in total hip and knee replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagna, C., E-mail: cristina.balagna@polito.it [Institute of Materials Engineering and Physics, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24,10129 Torino (Italy); Faga, M.G. [Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali Ceramici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino (Italy); Spriano, S. [Institute of Materials Engineering and Physics, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24,10129 Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys are widely used in total hip and knee joint replacement, due to high mechanical properties and resistance to wear and corrosion. They are able to form efficient artificial joints by means of coupling metal-on-polymer or metal-on-metal contacts. However, a high concentration of stress and direct friction between surfaces leads to the formation of polyethylene wear debris and the release of toxic metal ions into the human body, limiting, as a consequence, the lifetime of implants. The aim of this research is a surface modification of CoCrMo alloys in order to improve their biocompatibility and to decrease the release of metal ions and polyethylene debris. Thermal treatment in molten salts was the process employed for the deposition of tantalum-enriched coating. Tantalum and its compounds are considered biocompatible materials with low ion release and high corrosion resistance. Three different CoCrMo alloys were processed as substrates. An adherent coating of about 1 {mu}m of thickness, with a multilayer structure consisting of two tantalum carbides and metallic tantalum was deposited. The substrates and modified layers were characterized by means of structural, chemical and morphological analysis. Moreover nanoindentation, scratch and tribological tests were carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the substrates and coating. The hardness of the coated samples increases more than double than the untreated alloys meanwhile the presence of the coating reduced the wear volume and rate of about one order of magnitude. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal treatment in molten salts deposits a Ta-based coating on Co-based alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating is composed by one or two tantalum carbides and/or metallic tantalum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating structure depends on thermal temperature and substrates carbon content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating is able to

  4. Development of silicide coating over molybdenum based refractory alloy and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.P.; Banerjee, S.; Sharma, I.G.; Suri, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum based refractory alloys are potential candidate materials for structural applications in high temperature compact nuclear reactors and fusion reactors. However, these alloys being highly susceptible to oxidation in air or oxygen at elevated temperature, undergoes severe losses from highly volatile molybdenum trioxide species. Present investigation, therefore, examines the feasibility of development of silicide type of coating over molybdenum base TZM alloy shape (Mo > 99 wt.%) using pack cementation coating technique. TZM alloy was synthesized in this laboratory from oxide intermediates of MoO 2 , TiO 2 and ZrO 2 in presence of requisite amount of carbon, by alumino-thermic reduction smelting technique. The arc melted and homogenized samples of TZM alloy substrate was then embedded in the chosen and intimately mixed pack composition consisting of inert matrix (Al 2 O 3 ), coating powder (Si) and activator (NH 4 Cl) taken in the judicious proportion. The sealed charge packs contained in an alumina crucible were heated at temperatures of 1000 o C for 8-16 h heating cycle to develop the coating. The coating phase was confirmed to be of made of MoSi 2 by XRD analysis. The morphology of the coating was studied by SEM characterization. It had revealed that the coating was diffusion bonded where Si from coating diffused inward and Mo from TZM substrate diffused outward to form the coating. The coating was found to be resistant to oxidation when tested in air up to 1200 o C. A maximum 100 μm of coating thickness was achieved on each side of the substrate.

  5. Salvaging of service exposed cast alloy 625 cracker tubes of ammonia based Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Misra, B.; Mahajan, M.P.; Mittra, J.; Sundararaman, M.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    In ammonia based heavy water plants, cracking of ammonia vapour, enriched in deuterium is carried out inside a cracker tube, packed with catalyst. These cracker tubes are made of alloy 625 (either wrought or cast) having dimensions of about 12.5 metres long, 88 mm outer diameter and 7.9 mm wall thickness. Seventy such tubes are housed in a typical ammonia cracker unit. The anticipated design life of such tube is 1,00,000 hrs. when operated at 720 degC based on creep as main degradation mechanism. Presently, these tubes are being operated at 680 degC skin temperature. Alloy 625 tubes are costly and normally not manufactured in India and are being imported. The cast alloy 625 cracker tubes have outlived their design life of 100,000 hrs. Therefore it has been decided to salvage the cast cracker tubes and extend the life further as it had already been done for wrought tubes. Similar to the earlier attempt of resolutionising of wrought alloy 625 tubes, efforts are in progress to salvage these cast tubes. In this study, cast tubes samples were subjected to solution-annealing treatment at two different temperatures, 1100degC and 1160degC respectively for two hrs. Mechanical properties along with the microstructure of the samples, which were resolutionized at 1160degC were comparable with that of virgin material. The 12.5 metres long cast alloy 625 cracker tubes will also be shortly solution-annealed in a specially designed resistance heating furnace after completing some more tests. (author)

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel base alloys in PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerre, C.; Chaumun, E.; Crepin, J.; De Curieres, I.; Duhamel, C.; Heripre, E.; Herms, E.; Laghoutaris, P.; Molins, R.; Sennour, M.; Vaillant, F.

    2013-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of nickel base alloys and associated weld metals in primary water is one of the major concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWR). Since the 90's, highly cold-worked stainless steels (non-sensitized) were also found to be susceptible to SCC in PWR primary water ([1], [2], [3]). In the context of the life extension of pressurized water reactors, laboratory studies are performed in order to evaluate the SCC behaviour of components made of nickel base alloys and of stainless steels. Some examples of these laboratory studies performed at CEA will be given in the talk. This presentation deals with both initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks. The aims of these studies is, on one hand, to obtain more data regarding initiation time or crack growth rate and, one the other hand, to improve our knowledge of the SCC mechanisms. The aim of these approaches is to model SCC and to predict components life duration. Crack growth rate (CGR) tests on Alloy 82 with and without post weld heat treatment are performed in PWR primary water (Figure 1). The heat treatment seems to be highly beneficial by decreasing the CGR. This result could be explained by the effect of thermal treatment on the grain boundary nano-scopic precipitation in Alloy 82 [4]. The susceptibility to SCC of cold worked austenitic stainless steels is also studied. It is shown that for a given cold-working procedure, SCC susceptibility increases with increasing cold-work ([2], [5]). Despite the fact that the SCC behaviour of Alloy 600 has been widely studied for many years, recent laboratory experiments and analysis ([6], [7], [8]) showed that oxygen diffusion is not a rate-limiting step in the SCC mechanism and that chromium diffusion in the bulk close the crack tip could be a key parameter. (authors)

  7. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla [Departmentt of Bionano System Engineering, College of Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Advanced wind power system research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Dewidar, Montasser [Department of Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Energy Engineering, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Lim, Jae Kyoo, E-mail: jklim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Advanced wind power system research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion behavior of magnesium for orthopedic applications is extremely poor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solvent (DCM, THF and DMF) had a strong effect on the coatings performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg bar alloy coated with PVAc/DCM layers provided an excellent bonding strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treated samples indicated significant damping for the degradation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytocompatibility on MC3T3 cells of the PVAc/DCM samples revealed a good behavior. - Abstract: The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might

  8. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Dewidar, Montasser; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The corrosion behavior of magnesium for orthopedic applications is extremely poor. ► The solvent (DCM, THF and DMF) had a strong effect on the coatings performance. ► Mg bar alloy coated with PVAc/DCM layers provided an excellent bonding strength. ► Treated samples indicated significant damping for the degradation rate. ► Cytocompatibility on MC3T3 cells of the PVAc/DCM samples revealed a good behavior. - Abstract: The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc–solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

  9. High temperature oxidation and electrochemical investigations on nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obigodi-Ndjeng, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined high-temperature oxidation behavior of different Ni-base alloys. In addition, electrochemical characterization of the alloy's corrosion behavior was carried out, including comparison of the properties of native passive films grown at room temperature and high temperature oxide scales. PWA 1483 (single-crystalline Ni-base superalloy) and model alloys Ni-Cr-X (where X is either Co or Al) were oxidized at 800 and 900 C in air for different time periods. The superalloy showed the best oxidation behavior at both temperatures, which might be due to the fact that the oxidation growth function is subparabolic for the model alloys and parabolic for the superalloy at 800 C. At higher temperatures, changes in the kinetics are induced, as the oxides grow faster, thus only PWA 1483 growth follows the parabolic law. Different scales in a typical sandwich form were detected, with the inner layer comprised of mostly Cr 2 O 3 , the middle layer was mixture of different oxides and spinels, depending on the alloying elements, and the oxide at the interface oxygen/oxide was found to be NiO. The influence of sample preparation could also be shown, as rougher surfaces change the oxidation kinetics from parabolic and subparabolic for polished samples to linear. The influence of moisture on the oxidation behavior of the 2 nd generation single crystal Ni-base superalloys (PWA 1484, PWA 1487, CMSX 4, Rene N5 and Rene N5+) was studied at 1000 C after 100 h oxidation period. It was found that the moisture increased the oxidation rate and mostly the transient oxides growth rate. The water vapor content in air also influenced the behavior of these alloys, as they showed a higher mass gain in air + 30% water vapor than in air + 10% water vapor. The alloys PWA 1484 and CMSX 4 showed respectively the worst and best behavior in all the studied atmospheres. The addition of reactive elements, such as Yttrium, Hafnium and Lanthanum is likely to enhance the oxidation behavior of PWA

  10. Growth Stresses in Thermally Grown Oxides on Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, Luke H.; Laux, Britta; He, Ming Y.; Hovis, David; Heuer, Arthur H.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-03-01

    Growth stresses that develop in α-Al2O3 scale that form during isothermal oxidation of three Ni-based single crystal alloys have been studied to elucidate their role in coating and substrate degradation at elevated temperatures. Piezospectroscopy measurements at room temperature indicate large room temperature compressive stresses in the oxides formed at 1255 K or 1366 K (982 °C or 1093 °C) on the alloys, ranging from a high of 4.8 GPa for René N4 at 1366 K (1093 °C) to a low of 3.8 GPa for René N5 at 1255 K (982 °C). Finite element modeling of each of these systems to account for differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of the oxide and substrate indicates growth strains in the range from 0.21 to 0.44 pct at the oxidation temperature, which is an order of magnitude higher than the growth strains measured in the oxides on intermetallic coatings that are typically applied to these superalloys. The magnitudes of the growth strains do not scale with the parabolic oxidation rate constants measured for the alloys. Significant spatial inhomogeneities in the growth stresses were observed, due to (i) the presence of dendritic segregation and (ii) large carbides in the material that locally disrupts the structure of the oxide scale. The implications of these observations for failure during cyclic oxidation, fatigue cycling, and alloy design are considered.

  11. Ignition characteristics of the nickel-based alloy UNS N07001 in pressurized oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransford, J. W.; Billiard, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The development of ignition and combustion in pressurized oxygen atmospheres was studied for the nickel-based alloy UNS N07001. Ignition of the alloy was achieved by heating the top surface of a cylindrical specimen with a continuous-wave CO2 laser. Two heating procedures were used. In the first, laser power was adjusted to maintain an approximately linear increase in surface temperature. In the second, laser power was periodically increased until autoheating (self-heating) was established. It was found that the alloy would autoheat to combustion from temperatures below the solidus temperature. In addition, the alloy had a tendency to develop combustion zones (hot spots) at high oxygen pressures when the incremental (step) heating test mode was used. Unique points on the temperature-time curves that describe certain events are defined and the temperatures at which these events occur are given for the oxygen pressure range of 1.72 to 13.8 MPa (250 to 2000 psia).

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of ordering transformations in Ni-Mo-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.D.

    2004-01-01

    The quenched in state of short range order (SRO) in binary Ni-Mo alloys is characterized by intensity maxima at {1 (1/2) 0} and equivalent positions in the reciprocal space. Ternary addition of a small amount of Al to the binary alloy, on the other hand, leads to a state of SRO that gives rise to intensity maxima at {1 0 0} and equivalent, in addition to {1 (1/2) 0} and equivalent, positions in the selected area electron diffraction patterns. Different geometric patterns of streaks of diffuse intensity, joining the SRO maxima with the superlattice positions of the emerging long range ordered (LRO) structures or in some cases between the superlattice positions of different LRO structures, are observed during the SRO-to-LRO transitions in the Ni-Mo-based and other 1 (1/2) 0 alloys. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out here in order to shed some light on the atomic structures of the SRO and the SRO-to-LRO transition states in these alloys

  13. Electrode characteristics of the (Mm)Ni 5-based hydrogen storage alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong Soo; Choi, Seung Jun; Chang, Min Ho; Choi, Jeon; Park, Choong Nyun [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    The MmNi-based alloy electrode was studied for use a negative electrode in Ni-MH battery. Alloys with MmNi{sub 5}-{sub x} M{sub x}(M=Co,Al,Mn) composition were synthesized, and their electrode characteristics of activation rate, temperature dependence, electrode capacity and cycle life were investigated. With increasing Al content and decreasing Mn content in the alloys, the discharge capacity increased while the cycle life decreased. As x in MmNi{sub 5}-{sub x} M{sub x} increased from 1.5 to 2.0, decreasing the Ni content, the discharge capacity, the low temperature property and the rate capability decreased. However its cycle life was improved. Increasing Co content resulted in a prolonged cycle life and decrease of high rate discharge capacity. It can be concluded that the most promising alloy in view of discharge capacity and cycle life is MmNi{sub 3}.5 Co{sub 0}.7 Al{sub 0}.5 Mn{sub 0}.3. (author). 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Tribological properties of Al 7075 alloy based composites strengthened with Al2O3 fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wear resistance of 7075 aluminium alloy based composite materials reinforced with Al2O3 Saffil fibres was investigated. The measurementsof wear were performed applying the pin-on-disc method at dry friction conditions with the gray iron counterpart. The effects ofpressure of composite samples on the counterpart made of gray iron and the orientation of fibers in relation to the friction surface on wear rate were determined. The materials were produced by squeeze casting method where 80-90% porous ceramic preform were infiltrated.After T6 heat treatment hardness increased about 50-60% both for unreinforced alloy and composites containing strengthening Saffilfibres. Wear resistance of composite materials in relation to the unreinforced 7075 alloy was slightly worse at lower pressure of 0.8 MPa. Under higher pressure of 1.2 MPa wear resistance of unreinforced 7075 alloy was even better whereas no effect of orientation of fibers on wear in composite materials was observed. Additionally, significant wear of counterface in the presence of debris with fragmented Al2O3 fibres as abrasives was observed. Wear resistance improvement of composite materials was obtained when with alumina Saffil fibres Carbon C fibres in the preforms were applied.

  15. Simultaneous study of sputtering and secondary ion emission of binary Fe-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riadel, M.M.; Nenadovic, T.; Perovic, B.

    1976-01-01

    The sputtering and secondary ion emission of binary Fe-based alloys of simple phase diagrams have been studied simultaneously. A series FeNi and FeCr alloys in the concentration range of 0-100% have been bombarded by 4 keV Kr + ions in a secondary ion mass spectrometer. The composition of the secondary ions has been analysed and also a fraction of the sputtered material has been collected and analysed by electron microprobe. The surface topography of the etched samples has been studied by scanning electron microscope. The relative sputtering coefficients of the metals have been determined, and the preferential sputtering of the alloying component of lower S have been proved. The etching pictures of samples are in correlation with the sputtering rates. Also the degree of secondary ionization has been calculated from the simultaneously measured ion emission and sputtering data. α + shows the change in the concentration range of the melting point minimum. This fact emphasizes the connection between the physico-chemical properties of alloys and their secondary emission process. From the dependence of the emitted homo- and hetero-cluster ions, conclusions could be shown concerning the production mechanism of small metallic aggregates

  16. Self-passivating bulk tungsten-based alloys manufactured by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Lindig, S.; Koch, F.; Iturriza, I.; García-Rosales, C.

    2011-12-01

    Self-passivating tungsten-based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, which is at present the main candidate material for the first wall armour of future fusion reactors. WC10Si10 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) in a Planetary mill and subsequent hot isostatic pressing (HIP), achieving densities above 95%. Different MA conditions were studied. After MA under optimized conditions, a core with heterogeneous microstructure was found in larger powder particles, resulting in the presence of some large W grains after HIP. Nevertheless, the obtained microstructure is significantly refined compared to previous work. First MA trials were also performed on the Si-free system WCr12Ti2.5. In this case a very homogeneous structure inside the powder particles was obtained, and a majority ternary metastable bcc phase was found, indicating that almost complete alloying occurred. Therefore, a very fine and homogeneous microstructure can be expected after HIP in future work.

  17. Creep Rupture Properties for Base and Weld Metals of Alloy 617

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Gon; Kim, Min-Hwan; Park, Jae-Young; Ekaputra, I. M. W.

    2015-01-01

    The allowable deformation in the welds is also restricted to half the deformation permitted for the base metal, since the ductility of the welds at elevated temperatures is generally low. For a design use, the data of the tensile and creep properties for Alloy 617 WM should be sufficiently provided, and in particular, to develop a design code of Alloy 617 WM. However, the data for the WM are very rare and limited until now, although the data for the BM are available in the ASME draft code case, which was suspended at the end of the 1980s owing to a lack of support and interes. In this report, the creep data for Alloy 617 WM, which was fabricated by a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) procedure, were obtained by a series of creep tests at 800 .deg. C, and the creep properties of the WM were compared with those of the BM. The high-temperature creep properties for Alloy 617 WM, fabricated by a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) procedure, were investigated by a series of creep tests with different stress levels at 800 .deg. C, and the creep test data for the WM were compared with those of the BM. From the results, it was found that the WM had a slightly longer creep rupture life and lower creep rate than the BM, and a particularly lower rupture elongation. The lower creep rate in the WM was due to the lower rupture elongation than the BM

  18. Self-passivating bulk tungsten-based alloys manufactured by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Ruiz, P; Ordás, N; Iturriza, I; García-Rosales, C; Lindig, S; Koch, F

    2011-01-01

    Self-passivating tungsten-based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, which is at present the main candidate material for the first wall armour of future fusion reactors. WC10Si10 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) in a Planetary mill and subsequent hot isostatic pressing (HIP), achieving densities above 95%. Different MA conditions were studied. After MA under optimized conditions, a core with heterogeneous microstructure was found in larger powder particles, resulting in the presence of some large W grains after HIP. Nevertheless, the obtained microstructure is significantly refined compared to previous work. First MA trials were also performed on the Si-free system WCr12Ti2.5. In this case a very homogeneous structure inside the powder particles was obtained, and a majority ternary metastable bcc phase was found, indicating that almost complete alloying occurred. Therefore, a very fine and homogeneous microstructure can be expected after HIP in future work.

  19. Effects in Mg-Zn-based alloys strengthened by quasicrystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlček, M; Čížek, J; Lukáč, F; Melikhova, O; Hruška, P; Procházka, I; Vlach, M; Stulíková, I; Smola, B; Jäger, A

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium Mg-based alloys are promising lightweight structural materials for automotive, aerospace and biomedical applications. Recently Mg-Zn-Y system attracted a great attention due to a stable icosahedral phase (I-phase) with quasicrystalline structure which is formed in these alloys. Positron lifetime spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction were used to study thermal stability of I-phase and precipitation effects in Mg-Zn-Y and Mg- Zn-Al alloys. All alloys containing quasicrystalline I-phase exhibit misfit defects characterized by positron lifetime of ∼ 300 ps. These defects are associated with the interfaces between I- phase particles and Mg matrix. The quasicrystalline I-phase particles were found to be stable up to temperatures as high as ∼ 370°C. The W-phase is more stable and melts at ∼ 420°C. Concentration of defects associated with I-phase decreases after annealing at temperatures above ∼ 300°C. (paper)

  20. Free Rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate magnetic carriers as potential strategies for breast cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2(H2cit)4) has significant antitumor, cytotoxic, and cytostatic activity on Ehrlich ascite tumor. Although toxic to normal cells, its lower toxicity when compared to carboxylate analogues of rhodium (II) indicates Rh2(H2cit)4 as a promising agent for chemotherapy. Nevertheless, few studies have been performed to explore this potential. Superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIOs) represent an attractive platform as carriers in drug delivery systems (DDS) because they can present greater specificity to tumor cells than normal cells. Thus, the association between Rh2(H2cit)4 and SPIOs can represent a strategy to enhance the former's therapeutic action. In this work, we report the cytotoxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate (Rh2(H2cit)4) and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles or magnetoliposomes, used as drug delivery systems, on both normal and carcinoma breast cell cultures. Results Treatment with free Rh2(H2cit)4 induced cytotoxicity that was dependent on dose, time, and cell line. The IC50 values showed that this effect was more intense on breast normal cells (MCF-10A) than on breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 and 4T1). However, the treatment with 50 μM Rh2(H2cit)4-loaded maghemite nanoparticles (Magh-Rh2(H2cit)4) and Rh2(H2cit)4-loaded magnetoliposomes (Lip-Magh-Rh2(H2cit)4) induced a higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 and 4T1 than on MCF-10A (p rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles and magnetoliposomes induced more specific cytotoxicity on breast carcinoma cells than on breast normal cells, which is the opposite of the results observed with free Rh2(H2cit)4 treatment. Thus, magnetic nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as carriers in Rh2(H2cit)4 delivery systems, since they can act preferentially in tumor cells. Therefore, these nanopaticulate systems may be explored as a potential tool for chemotherapy drug development. PMID:21443799

  1. Synthesis and characterization of supported Pt and Pt alloys nanoparticles used for the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutsopoulos, Sotiris; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    pressure in the temperature range of 250–700 °C. The effect of doping the active metal with rhodium and palladium was also studied. The catalytic activities of the supported catalysts were found to follow the order Pt–Pd/CPG > Pt–Rh/CPG > Pt/CPG. A significant synergistic effect of the Pt–Pd alloy...

  2. An Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Study of Rhodium-Oxygen Bonds in a Highly Dispersed Rhodium/Aluminum Oxide Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Zon, J.B.A.D. van; Blik, H.F.J. van 't; Visser, G.J.; Prins, R.; Mansour, A.N.; Sayers, D.E.; Short, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of in situ EXAFS measurements on a 2.4 wt % Rh/A120, catalyst, reduced at 473 K after calcination at 623 K, shows the presence of two different rhodium-oxygen bonds (viz. 2.05 and 2.68 A). The oxygen neighbors of rhodium at a distance of 2.05 A disappear after reduction at 673 K. The

  3. Corrosion Mechanisms in Brazed Al-Base Alloy Sandwich Structures as a Function of Braze Alloy and Process Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    concerns. These braze alloys use a high Si content to produce a low melting Al-Si near eutectic alloy. The recommended 11 brazing temperature for A A...each successive dip enhancing the 21 high temperature Si enrichment outside of the braze gap and decreasing the Si content within the braze gap.6...Nevertheless equilibrium phases should be considered as a reference point for grain boundaries after high temperature brazing . Recent literature [22

  4. Microstructural evolutions and mechanical behaviour of the nickel based alloys 617 and 230 at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomette, S.

    2009-11-01

    High Temperature Reactors (HTR), is one of the innovative nuclear reactor designed to be inherently safer than previous generation and to produce minimal waste. The most critical metallic component in that type of reactor is the Intermediate Heat exchanger (IHX). The constraints imposed by the conception and the severe operational conditions (high temperature of 850 C to 950 C, lifetime of 20,000 h) have guided the IHX material selection toward two solid solution nickel base alloys, the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230. Inconel 617 is the primary candidate alloy thanks to its good high temperature mechanical and corrosion properties and the large data base developed in previous programs. However, its high cobalt content has to be considered as an issue (nuclear activation). The more recent alloy Haynes 230, in which most of the cobalt has been replaced by tungsten, present characteristics similar to the 617 alloy. The objective of this thesis is to study the high temperature mechanical behaviour of both alloys in relation with their microstructural evolutions. The as received microstructural observations have revealed primary carbides (M 6 C). Most of this precipitates are evenly distributed in the materials. Few M 23 C 6 secondary carbides are observed in both alloys in the as received state. Thermal ageing treatments at 850 C lead to an important M 23 C 6 precipitation on slip lines and at grain boundaries. The size of this carbides increases and their number decreases with increasing ageing duration. The intragranular precipitation of secondary carbides at 950 C is more limited and the intergranular evolution more important than at 850 C. The microstructural observations and the hardness evolution of both alloys show that the main microstructural evolutions occur before 1,000 h at both studied temperatures. The mechanical properties of the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230 have been studied using tensile, creep, fatigue and relaxation-fatigue tests. Particularly, the

  5. Nickel, palladium and rhodium induced IFN-gamma and IL-10 production as assessed by in vitro ELISpot-analysis in contact dermatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensoli Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attempts to diminish nickel use in most industrial products have led to an increasing utilization of alternative metal compounds for destinations such as the alloys used in orthopaedics, jewellery and dentistry. The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the potential for an allergic response to nickel, palladium and rhodium on the basis of antigen-specific induction of inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, and to characterize, according to the cytokine profiles, the nature of simultaneous positive patch tests elicited in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from 40 patients with different patch test results were kept in short term cultures in the presence of optimized concentrations of NiSO4 × 6H2O, PdCl2 and Rh(CH3COO2. The production of IFN-γ and IL-10 elicited by metal compounds were analyzed by the ELISpot assay. Results We found a specific IFN-γ response by PBMC upon in vitro stimulation with nickel or palladium in well recognized allergic individuals. All controls with a negative patch test to a metal salt showed an in vitro IL-10 response and not IFN-γ production when challenged with the same compound. Interestingly, all subjects with positive patch test to both nickel and palladium (group 3 showed an in vitro response characterized by the release of IFN-γ after nickel stimulation and production of IL-10 in response to palladium. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that the different cytokine profiles elicited in vitro reflect different immune responses which may lead to the control of the allergic responses or to symptomatic allergic contact dermatitis. The development of sensitive and specific in vitro assays based on the determination of the cytokine profiles in response to contact allergens may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications and may prove extremely useful in complementing the diagnostic limits of traditional patch testing.

  6. Nickel, palladium and rhodium induced IFN-gamma and IL-10 production as assessed by in vitro ELISpot-analysis in contact dermatitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordignon, Valentina; Palamara, Francesca; Cordiali-Fei, Paola; Vento, Antonella; Aiello, Arianna; Picardo, Mauro; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Cristaudo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent attempts to diminish nickel use in most industrial products have led to an increasing utilization of alternative metal compounds for destinations such as the alloys used in orthopaedics, jewellery and dentistry. The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the potential for an allergic response to nickel, palladium and rhodium on the basis of antigen-specific induction of inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, and to characterize, according to the cytokine profiles, the nature of simultaneous positive patch tests elicited in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 40 patients with different patch test results were kept in short term cultures in the presence of optimized concentrations of NiSO4 × 6H2O, PdCl2 and Rh(CH3COO)2. The production of IFN-γ and IL-10 elicited by metal compounds were analyzed by the ELISpot assay. Results We found a specific IFN-γ response by PBMC upon in vitro stimulation with nickel or palladium in well recognized allergic individuals. All controls with a negative patch test to a metal salt showed an in vitro IL-10 response and not IFN-γ production when challenged with the same compound. Interestingly, all subjects with positive patch test to both nickel and palladium (group 3) showed an in vitro response characterized by the release of IFN-γ after nickel stimulation and production of IL-10 in response to palladium. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that the different cytokine profiles elicited in vitro reflect different immune responses which may lead to the control of the allergic responses or to symptomatic allergic contact dermatitis. The development of sensitive and specific in vitro assays based on the determination of the cytokine profiles in response to contact allergens may have important diagnostic and prognostic implications and may prove extremely useful in complementing the diagnostic limits of traditional patch testing. PMID:18482439

  7. Characterization of fabricated cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: mr.bafandeh@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharahkhani, Raziyeh; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    In this work, cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20 wt% NBG were prepared and their bioactivity after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 to 4 weeks was studied. Scanning electron microscopy images of two- step sintered composites revealed relatively dense microstructure. The results showed that density of composite samples decreased with increase in NBG amount. The microstructure analysis as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed that small amount of calcium phosphate phases precipitates on the surface of composite samples after 1 week immersion in SBF. After 2 weeks immersion, considerable amounts of cauliflower-like shaped precipitations were seen on the surface of the composites. Based on EDX analysis, these precipitations were composed mainly from Ca, P and Si. The observed bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of immersed composites samples for 4 weeks in SBF, were characteristic bands of hydroxyapatite. Therefore it is possible to form hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of composite samples during immersion in SBF. The results indicated that prepared composites unlike cobalt-based alloy are bioactive, promising their possibility for implant applications. - Highlights: • Co-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20 wt% NBG were prepared. • In order to study their bioactivity, composite samples were immersed in SBF solution for 1 to 4 weeks. • Immersion in SBF accompanied with precipitation of hydroxyapatite on surface of samples. • Prepared composite samples unlike cobalt-based alloy were bioactive.

  8. Characterization of fabricated cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza; Gharahkhani, Raziyeh; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this work, cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20 wt% NBG were prepared and their bioactivity after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 to 4 weeks was studied. Scanning electron microscopy images of two- step sintered composites revealed relatively dense microstructure. The results showed that density of composite samples decreased with increase in NBG amount. The microstructure analysis as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed that small amount of calcium phosphate phases precipitates on the surface of composite samples after 1 week immersion in SBF. After 2 weeks immersion, considerable amounts of cauliflower-like shaped precipitations were seen on the surface of the composites. Based on EDX analysis, these precipitations were composed mainly from Ca, P and Si. The observed bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of immersed composites samples for 4 weeks in SBF, were characteristic bands of hydroxyapatite. Therefore it is possible to form hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of composite samples during immersion in SBF. The results indicated that prepared composites unlike cobalt-based alloy are bioactive, promising their possibility for implant applications. - Highlights: • Co-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20 wt% NBG were prepared. • In order to study their bioactivity, composite samples were immersed in SBF solution for 1 to 4 weeks. • Immersion in SBF accompanied with precipitation of hydroxyapatite on surface of samples. • Prepared composite samples unlike cobalt-based alloy were bioactive.

  9. Multi-scale Modelling of bcc-Fe Based Alloys for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malerba, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    , advanced techniques to fit interatomic potentials consistent with thermodynamics are proposed and the results of their application to the mentioned alloys are presented. Next, the development of advanced methods, based on the use of artificial intelligence, to improve both the physical reliability and the computational efficiency of kinetic Monte Carlo codes for the study of point-defect clustering and phase changes beyond the scale of MD, is reported. These recent progresses bear the promise of being able, in the near future, of producing reliable tools for the description of the microstructure evolution of realistic model alloys under irradiation. (author)

  10. Improving precipitation hardening behavior of Mg−Zn based alloys with Ce−Ca microalloying additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langelier, B., E-mail: langelb@mcmaster.ca [Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Waterloo, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, L8S 4L8 (Canada); Korinek, A. [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, L8S 4L8 (Canada); Donnadieu, P. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Esmaeili, S. [Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Waterloo, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    The precipitation hardening behavior of newly developed Mg−Zn−Ca−Ce alloys, with modified texture and improved ductility, is studied to delineate the microstructural characteristics that lead to effective hardening upon ageing treatments. Advanced electron microscopy and atom probe techniques are used to analyze the structural characteristics in relevance to the hardening potential. It has been found that the formation of a new basal precipitate phase, which evolves from a single atomic layer GP zone, and is finely distributed in both under-aged and peak-aged microstructures, has a significant impact in the improvement of the hardening response compared with the base Mg−Zn alloys. It has also been found that the β′{sub 1} rod precipitates, commonly formed during ageing treatments of Mg−Zn alloys, have their size and distribution significantly refined in the Ca−Ce containing alloys. The role of alloy chemistry in the formation of the fine basal plate GP zones and the refinement in β′{sub 1} precipitation and their relationships to the hardening behavior are discussed. It is proposed that Ca microalloying governs the formation of the GP zones and the enhancement of hardening, particularly in the under-aged conditions, but that this is aided by a beneficial effect from Ce. - Highlights: • Ce−Ca microalloying additions improve hardening in Mg−Zn, over Ce or Ca alone. • Improved hardening is due to refined β′{sub 1} rods, and fine basal plate precipitates. • Atom probe tomography identifies Ca in both β′{sub 1} and the fine basal plates. • The fine basal plates originate as ordered monolayer GP zones with 1:1 Zn:Ca (at.%). • With ageing GP zones become more Zn-rich and transform to the fine basal plates.

  11. Interfacial reactions between sapphire and Ag–Cu–Ti-based active braze alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Majed; Knowles, Kevin M.; Mallinson, Phillip M.; Fernie, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial reactions between two commercially available Ag–Cu–Ti-based active braze alloys and sapphire have been studied. In separate experiments, Ag–35.3Cu–1.8Ti wt.% and Ag–26.7Cu–4.5Ti wt.% alloys have been sandwiched between pieces of R-plane orientated sapphire and heated in argon to temperatures between 750 and 900 °C for 1 min. The phases at the Ag–Cu–Ti/sapphire interfaces have been studied using selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Gradual and subtle changes at the Ag–Cu–Ti/sapphire interfaces were observed as a function of temperature, along with the formation of a transient phase that permitted wetting of the sapphire. Unequivocal evidence is shown that when the active braze alloys melt, titanium first migrates to the sapphire and reacts to dissolve up to ∼33 at.% oxygen, forming a nanometre-size polycrystalline layer with a chemical composition of Ti 2 O 1–x (x ≪ 1). Ti 3 Cu 3 O particles subsequently nucleate behind the Ti 2 O 1–x layer and grow to become a continuous micrometre-size layer, replacing the Ti 2 O 1–x layer. Finally at 845 °C, a nanometre-size γ-TiO layer forms on the sapphire to leave a typical interfacial structure of Ag–Cu/Ti 3 Cu 3 O/γ-TiO/sapphire consistent with that seen in samples of polycrystalline alumina joined to itself with these active braze alloys. These experimental observations have been used to establish a definitive bonding mechanism for the joining of sapphire with Ag–Cu alloys activated by small amounts of titanium.

  12. AB INITIO Modeling of Thermomechanical Properties of Mo-Based Alloys for Fossil Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim

    2013-12-31

    In this final scientific/technical report covering the period of 3.5 years started on July 1, 2011, we report the accomplishments on the study of thermo-mechanical properties of Mo-based intermetallic compounds under NETL support. These include computational method development, physical properties investigation of Mo-based compounds and alloys. The main focus is on the mechanical and thermo mechanical properties at high temperature since these are the most crucial properties for their potential applications. In particular, recent development of applying ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD) simulations to the T1 (Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}) and T2 (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}) phases are highlighted for alloy design in further improving their properties.

  13. Effect of surface treatments on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, Masaru; Kaneda, Junya; Tamako, Hiroaki; Hato, Hisamitsu; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    Effect of surface treatment on SCC susceptibility of Ni base alloys was investigated. Cracks were observed in all grinding specimens in a creviced bent beam (CBB) test. On the other hand, no cracks occurred in shot peening (SP), water jet peening (WJP) specimens. It was indicated that these surface treatments effectively reduced the SCC susceptibility of nickel-base alloys. As a result of a residual stress test, the surface of specimens with grinding had high tensile residual stress. However, SP and WJP improved surface residual stress to compressive stress. The depth of the compressive effect of WJP was almost the same as that of SP. However, the surface hardness of WJP specimens differed from that of SP and it was found that WJP had less impact on surface hardening. This difference was consistent with their surface microstructures. The surface of SP specimens had clearly the deformation region, but the surface of WJP specimens was localized. (author)

  14. A life evaluation under creep-fatigue-environment interaction of Ni-base wrought alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Masaki; Ohtomo, Akira; Itoh, Mitsuyoshi

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine a failure criteria under cyclic loading and affective environment for HTGR systems, a series of strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests were carried out at HTGR maximum gas temperatures in air, in vacuum and in HTGR helium environments on two nickel-base wrought alloys, namely Inconel 617 and Hastelloy XR. This paper first describes the creep-fatigue-environment properties of these alloys followed by a proposal of an evaluation method of creep-fatigue-environment interaction based on the experimental data to define the more reasonable design criteria, which is a modification of the linear damage summation rule. Second, the creep-fatigue properties of Hastelloy XR at 900 deg C and the result evaluated by this proposed method are shown. This criterion is successfully applied to the life prediction at 900 deg C. In addition, the creep-fatigue properties of Hastelloy XR-II are discussed. (author)

  15. Bifunctional rhodium intercalator conjugates as mismatch-directing DNA alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzschneider, Ulrich; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2004-07-21

    A conjugate of a DNA mismatch-specific rhodium intercalator, containing the bulky chrysenediimine ligand, and an aniline mustard has been prepared, and targeting of mismatches in DNA by this conjugate has been examined. The preferential alkylation of mismatched over fully matched DNA is found by a mobility shift assay at concentrations where untethered organic mustards show little reaction. The binding site of the Rh intercalator was determined by DNA photocleavage, and the position of covalent modification was established on the basis of the enhanced depurination associated with N-alkylation. The site-selective alkylation at mismatched DNA renders these conjugates useful tools for the covalent tagging of DNA base pair mismatches and new chemotherapeutic design.

  16. Rhodium Nanoparticle-mesoporous Silicon Nanowire Nanohybrids for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection with High Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiqian; Chang, Hucheng; Zhu, Weiqin; Xu, Chenlong; Feng, Xinjian

    2015-01-01

    Developing nanostructured electrocatalysts, with low overpotential, high selectivity and activity has fundamental and technical importance in many fields. We report here rhodium nanoparticle and mesoporous silicon nanowire (RhNP@mSiNW) hybrids for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection with high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. By employing electrodes that loaded with RhNP@mSiNW nanohybrids, interference caused from both many electroactive substances and dissolved oxygen were eliminated by electrochemical assaying at an optimal potential of +75 mV. Furthermore, the electrodes exhibited a high detection sensitivity of 0.53 μA/mM and fast response (< 5 s). This high-performance nanohybrid electrocatalyst has great potential for future practical application in various oxidase-base biosensors. PMID:25588953

  17. Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Rhodium and Platinum Catalysts Used in Hydrosilylation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Zielinski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A group of imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids has been synthetized, and their ability to dissolve and activate the catalysts used in hydrosilylation reaction of 1-octane and 1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyltrisiloxane was investigated. An organometallic catalyst as well as inorganic complexes of platinum and rhodium dissolved in ionic liquids were used, forming liquid solutions not miscible with the substrates or with the products of the reaction. The results show that application of such a simple biphasic catalytic system enables reuse of ionic liquid phase with catalysts in multiple reaction cycles reducing the costs and decreasing the amount of catalyst needed per mole of product.

  18. Point defects behavior in beta Cu-based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.; Somoza, A.

    1999-01-01

    A summary of positron annihilation spectroscopy data relating to the point defect behavior after quenching and to thermal equilibrium in β-phase Cu-based shape memory alloys Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Be is presented. Particular attention is given to the initial concentration of quenched-in vacancies as a function of the quenching temperature, migration of the retained point defects with aging temperature and time, and the vacancy formation and migration energies. (orig.)

  19. Chemical interaction of the In-Ga eutectic with Al and Al-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenikhin, M.V.; Bubnov, A.V.; Duplyakin, V.K.; Nizovskij, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical interaction of the indium-gallium eutectic with Al and Al-base alloys is studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and electron microscopy. Experimental data are presented that shed light on the reaction mechanism and the diffusion processes responsible for the subsequent disintegration of the material and its dissolution in water. Mechanical tests show that the activation of aluminum leads to a transition from plastic to brittle fracture [ru

  20. Acoustic recognition of stress induced martensitic transformations in Cu-based shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Václav; Landa, Michal; Šittner, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 112, - (2003), s. 593-596 ISSN 1155-4339 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048107; GA ČR GA106/01/0396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : shape memory alloys(SMA) * Cu-based SMA * Martensitic phase transformation * acoustic emission Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.319, year: 2003