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Sample records for rhizopus arrhizus ethyl

  1. Species boundaries and nomenclature of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus arrhizus (Mucorales, Mucoromycotina) is the prevalent opportunist worldwide among the mucoralean species causing human infections. On the other hand the species has been used since ancient times to ferment African and Asian traditional foods and condiments based on ground soybeans. As

  2. Biosorption of zinc (II) by Rhizopus arrhizus: equilibrium and kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in light of the Lagergren equation and the process followed a second order rate kinetics. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, ... All the isotherms provided the best correlation for zinc (II) onto the R. arrhizus.

  3. Differentiation of clinically relevant Mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Kolecka, Anna; Versteeg, Matthijs; de Hoog, Sybren G; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS for reliable identification of the two most frequently occurring clinical species of Rhizopus, namely Rhizopus arrhizus with its two varieties, arrhizus and delemar, and Rhizopus microsporus. The test-set comprised 38 isolates of clinical and environmental origin previously identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of rDNA. Multi-locus sequence data targeting three gene markers (ITS, ACT, TEF ) showed two monophylic clades for Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus (bootstrap values of 99 %). Cluster analysis confirmed the presence of two distinct clades within Rhizopus arrhizus representing its varieties arrhizus and delemar. The MALDI Biotyper 3.0 Microflex LT platform (Bruker Daltonics) was used to confirm the distinction between Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus and the presence of two varieties within the species Rhizopus arrhizus. An in-house database of 30 reference main spectra (MSPs) was initially tested for correctness using commercially available databases of Bruker Daltonics. By challenging the database with the same strains of which an in-house database was created, automatic identification runs confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS is able to recognize the strains at the variety level. Based on principal component analysis, two MSP dendrograms were created and showed concordance with the multi-locus tree; thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a useful tool for diagnostics of mucoralean species.

  4. Differentiation of Clinically Relevant mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, S.; Kolecka, A.; Versteeg, Matthijs; de Hoog, Sybren G; Boekhout, Teun

    This study addresses the usefulness of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for reliable identification of the two most frequently occuring clinical species of Rhizopus, namely R. arrhizus with its two varieties arrhizus and delemar and R.

  5. Preparation of hydrolytic liquid from dried distiller's grains with solubles and fumaric acid fermentation by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Yue, Xuemin; Jin, Yuhan; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    Fumaric acid production from lignocellulosic materials is an alternative chemicals production system. This work investigated the suitable conditions for hydrolysis of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). The hydrolytic liquid was subsequently used for the production of fumaric acid. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, the most suitable concentration of H 2 SO 4 (2%), hydrolysis temperature (120 °C), hydrolysis time (100min) and solid/liquid ratio (1:10) were obtained. The yield of monosaccharides reached 258 mg/g DDGS and 15.88 g/L glucose, 7.53 g/L xylose and 2.35 g/L arabinose were obtained in unprocessed hydrolytic liquid. The furfural inhibitor in the hydrolytic liquid was also detected and the yield of it was reducing progressively in the pretreatment process. The ferment ability of the hydrolytic liquid from DDGS was tested through the process of fumaric acid production by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13. The unprocessed hydrolytic liquid was not appropriate for the fermentation process. The yield of fumaric acid from the concentrated processed hydrolytic liquid reached 18.93 g/L, which was close to the yield of fermenting 80 g/L glucose. This result indicated that the commonly used carbon resource glucose could to some extent be replaced by processed hydrolytic liquid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of α-amylase by solid state fermentation by Rhizopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... However, only a few strains of fungi and bacteria meet the criteria for production of ... amylase production, but solid-state fermentation (SSF) is emerging as a ..... synthesis of lactic acid in R. oryzae and Rhizopus arrhizus using ...

  7. Phylogenetic and Phylogenomic Definition of Rhizopus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P. Gryganskyi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenomic approaches have the potential to improve confidence about the inter-relationships of species in the order Mucorales within the fungal tree of life. Rhizopus species are especially important as plant and animal pathogens and bioindustrial fermenters for food and metabolite production. A dataset of 192 orthologous genes was used to construct a phylogenetic tree of 21 Rhizopus strains, classified into four species isolated from habitats of industrial, medical and environmental importance. The phylogeny indicates that the genus Rhizopus consists of three major clades, with R. microsporus as the basal species and the sister lineage to R. stolonifer and two closely related species R. arrhizus and R. delemar. A comparative analysis of the mating type locus across Rhizopus reveals that its structure is flexible even between different species in the same genus, but shows similarities between Rhizopus and other mucoralean fungi. The topology of single-gene phylogenies built for two genes involved in mating is similar to the phylogenomic tree. Comparison of the total length of the genome assemblies showed that genome size varies by as much as threefold within a species and is driven by changes in transposable element copy numbers and genome duplications.

  8. Effect of Meadowsweet Flower Extract-Pullulan Coatings on Rhizopus Rot Development and Postharvest Quality of Cold-Stored Red Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Synowiec

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF. Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%–75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  9. Rhizopus in Kalanchoë

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 is door PPO-glastuinbouw onderzoek gedaan aan Rhizopus stolonifer in Kalanchoë ( verslag PPO 533). Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek en na gesprekken met de begeleidingscommissie en telers van Kalanchoë moerplanten is de conclusie getrokken dat vooral grote schommelingen in watergehalte van

  10. Radiation resistance of Rhizopus stolonifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbertse, P.J.; Du Toit, T.L.; Van der Merwe, L.J.; Koekemoer, M.L.; Eilers, I.M.I.

    1983-01-01

    A problem encountered with the irradiation of food is that certain micro-organisms are highly resistant to gamma rays. This includes the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer, associated with most fruits. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (NUCOR) has found that a combination of radiation and mild heat treatment reduces the radiation dose necessary to kill 90% of R. stolonifer by approximately half. Treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes or at 55 degrees Celsius for five minutes is sufficient. The article discusses the mechanism of radiation resistance in R. stolonifer and the way in which heating affects this resistance

  11. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    reduction data and the specific growth rate constant value was calculated as 0.082 and the ... Key words: Hexavalent chromium, Rhizopus Oryzae, leather tanning, Monod and Haldane models. ... composition; Glucose 1 g; K2HPO4 0.5 g; NaCl 0.5 g; MgCl2 1.0 g; ... ficantly, because of the inhibitor role of high concentration.

  12. Rhizopus Soft Rot on Lily Caused by Rhizopus oryzae in Korea

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    Soo-Sang Hahm

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus soft rot of lily (Lilium longiflorum caused by Rhizopus oryzae was observed in the experimental field in Taean Lily Experiment Station in Korea, 2012. The typical symptoms were water-soaked lesions on bottom stem and leaf rot. The lesion rapidly expanded and the plant was softened totally. The fungus grew vigorously at an optimum temperature (25oC and brownish colony and black sporangia were formed on potato dextrose agar medium. Sporangiophores formed on end of sporangia were sub-globose, brownish and 6-10 μm in size. Sporangia were globose, blackish and 87-116 μm in size. Sporangiospores were irregularly oval and sub-globose, brownish 4-8 μm in size. On the basis of mycological characteristics, analyzing sequences of internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, and pathogenicity test on host plants, the causal fungus was identified as R. oryzae. This is the first report of Rhizopus soft rot on lily caused by R. oryzae in Korea.

  13. Synthesis and Fungicidal activity of some sulphide derivatives of O-Ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeokparia, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Monosulphides of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur dichloride, while the corresponding disulphides were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur monochloride. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier-transform infrared, and /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. In vitro fungicidal assay of these sulphides against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer showed that they had Greater fungicidal activity than their parent carbamates. The synthesized sulphides were more active towards A. Niger and A. flavus. Unlike the parent carbamates, the type of substituents attached to the aromatic nucleus of these sulphides had little or no effect on their fungicidal activity as there was insignificant variation in the fungicidal activity of the monosulphide and the disulphide derivatives of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates. (author)

  14. Screening of allyl alcohol resistant mutant of Rhizopus oryzae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol is a main by-product in the fermentation broth of Rhizopus oryzae during the production of high-optical purity L-lactic acid. By screening the lower activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) mutant, thus decreasing the flux of pyruvic acid to ethanol may be a virtual method for increasing the conversion rate of glucose ...

  15. Biosorptive removal of Hg(II) ions by Rhizopus oligosporus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, corn processing wastewater was used as a new low-cost substrate to produce Rhizopus oligosporus. Dried biomass of R. oligosporus was evaluated as a biosorbent for treatment of synthetically contaminated waters with Hg(II) ions. The biosorption process was carried out in a batch process and the effects of ...

  16. Secretory expression of Rhizopus oryzae α-amylase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kluyveromyces lactis is a non-conventional yeast species extensively used in the expression of heterologous genes. In this study, a genetically modified K. lactis with high-level expression of α- amylase from Rhizopus oryzae was obtained, which could successfully hydrolyze and use starch for growth very well. Shake flask ...

  17. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae | Sukumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of Rhizopus oryzae to reduce Cr6+ was evaluated in batch microcosms. The optimum pH of R. oryzae growth was between 6.0 and 7.0. The maximum chromium reduction efficiency of 91.15% and biomass growth was achieved at a pH of 7, temperature of 37°C, with an initial Cr6+ concentration of 400 ppm and ...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  19. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinnokulasi Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLIKAH ANA ESTIKOMAH

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A. 2010. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkaan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi Rhizopus oryzae. Bioteknologi 7: 55-62. Keju merupakan makanan hasil fermentasi dari susu yang proses fermentasinya dilakukan oleh bakteri asam laktat maupun jamur. Rhizopus oryzae diketahui mampu menghasilkan asam laktat, protease, dan lipase. Perubahan cita rasa dan tekstur keju terjadi selama pemeraman keju. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi R. oryzae melalui pemeraman. Pemeraman dilakukan dengan variasi waktu (7, 14 hari dan suhu (5ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC. Penelitian ini terdiri dua tahap, yaitu pembuataan keju mentah diikuti pemeraman keju mentah tersebut. Keju penelitian dianalisis nilai pH, kadar lemak, kadar protein, kadar asam amino dan diidentifikasi mikrobanya. Data hasil penellitian dianalisis dengan uji siidik ragam (ANAVA, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan uji berjarak ganda Duncan (DMRT pada taraf signifikansi 5%. Data hasil tingkat kesukaan dianalisis dengan statistik nonparametrik uji Fridman yang dilanjutkaan dengan Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT pada taraf sigifikansi 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keju peram yang disukai panelis adalah keju peram pada suhu 15ºC selama 14 hari. Kondisi pemeraman berpengaruh terhadap nilai pH, kadar lemak,, kadar proteinn dan tidak berpengaruh pada kadar asam amino. Kualitas keju peram terbaik terdapat pada kondisi suhu 15°C selama 14 hari, memiliki nilai pH 4,40, kadar protein tertinggi yaitu sebesar 99,78%, dan kadar lemak sebesar 35,02%. Hasil identifikasi mikroba pada keju mentah dan keju peram meliputi Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, dan Aspergillus sp.

  20. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  1. Characterization of two thermostable inulinases from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two inulinases (Inu2 and Inu3 were purified from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710 by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 columns. The molecular weight of Inu2 and Inu3 were determined to be 76 and 30 kDa, respectively. Inu2 and Inu3 had the same pH optimum at 5.0, temperature optimum at 50 and 60 °C, and thermal stability up to 60 and 70 °C for 1 h, respectively. Inu2 and Inu3 had low km values (0.93 and 0.70 mM, respectively indicating the high affinity toward inulin. Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+ and EDTA did not significantly influence the enzyme activity. Ni2+, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Co2+ showed a partial inhibitory effect, and Hg2+ had a strong inhibitory effect. p-Chloromercuribenzoate had a partial inhibitory effect on Inu2. From these findings, R. oligosporus inulinases can be beneficial enzymes for industrial enzymatic production of high fructose syrup.

  2. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Rosário; Santos, Cledir; Pereira, Pablo; Cruz-Morais, Júlio; Lima, Nelson

    2017-12-14

    In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae . The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a) use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b) degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg - ¹ d - ¹. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide.

  3. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar lipase Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiarsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing commercial interest in enzymatic production of biologically active component, because there are a number of well-known advantages compared to chemical synthesis. One of the most valuable synthetic features of enzyme is their ability to discriminate between enantiomers of racemic substrates. Lipase have become of great interest to the chemical industries wing their usefulness in both hydrolytic and synthesis reactions. The aim of this work was to study the production of lipase by Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137, and determine the crude lipase preparation characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined by titrimetric method toward oil-arabic gum emultion as a substrate. The strain produced lipase at appreciable lipolytic when cultivated for 72 hours in medium containing 3% glucose and 1% olive oil. Our data suggest that the strain produced lipase since the exponential phase of its growth. Lipase with optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at late stationary phase. The optimum condition for lipolytic activity measurement were pH of 7.5 and temperature 37oC, the crude enzyme had a specific activity 20.2 unit/ mg protein, the Vmax was 15.1 mol/ min and KM was 12.5 mg/ ml. The crude enzyme retained 79.9%, 68.0% and 52.6% of its lipolytic activity, when incubated for 90 minutes at temperature of 40, 50, and 60oC respectively.

  4. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Jiali; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove 241 Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting 241 Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb 241 Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of 241 Am was removed from 241 Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of 241 Am. At this time, the total adsorption of 241 Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed 241 Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO 3

  5. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosário Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg−1 d−1. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide.

  6. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. 584.200 Section 584.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  7. The Production of Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil Using Rhizopus oryzae Whole Cell Biocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalye, Sneha Kishor

    accumulation of 15.6 g (dry cell wt)/L. A reduction in dynamic viscosity of the reaction mixture from 47.3 centipoise to 30.6 centipoise was observed. The impact of moisture addition to the reaction mixture and use of ethanol as acylating agent on R.oryzae BSP fatty acid alkyl ester production was also tested. The presence of 10 wt % moisture in the reaction system had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) on the transesterification reaction with ethanol unlike methanol. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentration tripled from 39.3 to 129.1 g/L when moisture was added during transesterification .When oil to acyl acceptor ratio was increased from 1:3 and 1:6 to determine effect of excess alcohol on conversion, an ester conversion of 128.1 g/L for methanol and 129.1 g/L for ethanol were observed. Use of excess amount of acylating agent had a significant adverse effect (p ≤ 0.05) on the overall FAAE production due to deactivation of lipases on contact with large amounts of insoluble alcohol in the oil phase of the reaction. The effect of short chain alcohols on the enzymatic transesterification of cottonseed oil using freeze dried Rhizopus oryzae biomass was examined with and without water addition using methanol, ethanol, 1-Propanol and 1-Butanol at various molar ratios. 1- Butanol in the absence of water resulted in a significantly higher (p . 0.1) conversion of cottonseed oil to 12.5 % fatty acid butyl esters (FABEs). Addition of 10 % water to the reaction mixture significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.1) conversion. No significant difference (p > 0.1) between the conversions was observed for time points after 24 h for a 72 h reaction. 1- Butanol in ratios higher than 3:1 to cottonseed oil had a significant impact (p ≤ 0.1) on conversion. Increasing the amount of biomass used during the reaction lead to significantly higher conversion (p ≤ 0.1). The highest conversion of 27.9 % was observed for the transesterification reaction between cottonseed oil and 1-Butanol, in a 1:6 molar ratio, in

  8. Eco-friendly methodology for efficient synthesis and scale-up of 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate using Rhizopus oryzae lipase and its biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Jahan, Firdaus; Kameswaran, Karthikeya; Mahajan, Richi V; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lipase-mediated synthesis of phenolic acid esters is a green and economical alternative to current chemical methods. Octyl methoxycinnamate, an important UVB-absorbing compound, was synthesized by the esterification of p-methoxycinnamic acid with 2-ethyl hexanol using Rhizopus oryzae lipase. A molar ratio of 1:2 of p-methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethyl hexanol was found to give an optimum yield using cyclo-octane (50 ml) as reaction solvent, at a temperature of 45 °C, and 750 U of lipase, resulting in a yield of 91.3 % in 96 h. This reaction was successfully scaled up to 400-ml reaction size where 88.6 %bioconversion was achieved. The synthesized compound was found to have superior antioxidant activity as compared to ascorbic acid. The synthesized compound also exhibited good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aures, Candida albicans (yeast), Aspergillus niger, Alternaria solani, and Fussarium oxysporum by well diffusion method in terms of zone of inhibitions (in mm).

  9. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhizopus stolonifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid AbdelRahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs has become a necessary field of applied science. Biological method for synthesis of AgNPs by Rhizopus stolonifer aqueous mycelial extract was used. The AgNPs were identified by UV–visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR. The presence of surface plasmon band around 420 nm indicates AgNPs formation. The characteristic of the AgNPs within the face-centered cubic (fcc structure are indicated by the peaks of the X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern corresponding to (111, (200 and (220 planes. Spherical, mono-dispersed and stable AgNPs with diameter around 9.47 nm were prepared and affirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR shows peaks at 1426 and 1684 cm−1 that affirm the presence of coat covering protein the AgNPs which is known as capping proteins. Parameter optimization showed the smallest size of AgNPs (2.86 ± 0.3 nm was obtained with 10−2 M AgNO3 at 40 °C. The present study provides the proof that the molecules within aqueous mycelial extract of R. stolonifer facilitate synthesis of AgNPs and highlight on value-added from R. stolonifer for cost effectiveness. Also, eco-friendly medical and nanotechnology-based industries could also be provided. Size of prepared AgNPs could be controlled by temperature and AgNO3 concentration. Further studies are required to study effect of more parameters on size and morphology of AgNPs as this will help in the control of large scale production of biogenic AgNPs.

  10. Ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells.......Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells....

  11. Evaluation of Rhizopus oligosporus in nursery pig diets on growth performance and nutrient digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thin stillage leftover from ethanol production contains biodegradable organic compounds and sufficient micronutrients that are ideal for fungal cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus (RO). This fungus removes about 60% of the organic material, including the suspended solids and even more of some sp...

  12. Possible pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection in a previously healthy child after a near-drowning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Magdalena M; Lippmann, Norman; Kobelt, Louise; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Ritter, Lutz; Kiess, Wieland; Siekmeyer, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on a previously healthy 17-month-old boy who developed pulmonary mucormycosis after a near-drowning incident in a goose pond. The patient survived without neurological sequelae and recovered, under treatment with amphotericin B, from the rare and often invasive fungal infection with Rhizopus spp., usually occurring in immunodeficient patients.

  13. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  14. An unusual ulcer: A case of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Gardiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycoses are high-mortality infections feared by clinicians worldwide. They predominantly affect immunocompromised hosts and are associated with a spectrum of disease. We describe a case of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a patient with multiple risk factors cured with complete surgical excision and a short course of antifungal therapy.

  15. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Eduard; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of

  16. FERMENTASI BUNGKIL KOPRA DENGAN Rhizopus sp. DAN PEMANFAATANNYA DALAM PAKAN PEMBESARAN IKAN BANDENG DI TAMBAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bungkil kopra (BK hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. memiliki kandungan protein yang lebih tinggi dan lemak yang lebih rendah dibandingkan yang tidak difermentasi, sehingga memiliki potensi dan perlu dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan ikan-ikan herbivora-omnivora seperti ikan bandeng. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati pemanfaatan bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan untuk pembesaran ikan bandeng di tambak. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan empat petak tambak masing-masing berukuran 2.500 m2/petak. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah yuwana ikan bandeng berukuran awal rata-rata 10 g/ekor yang ditebar dengan kepadatan 1.500 ekor/petak, dan diaplikasikan pakan uji pada saat ikan berukuran rata-rata 65 g. Pakan uji yang digunakan adalah pakan buatan yang berbahan baku utama (A tepung bungkil kopra tanpa fermentasi, dan (B tepung bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan spesifik ikan, rasio konversi pakan, dan sintasan ikan tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 di antara kedua perlakuan. Namun ikan yang diberi pakan uji B memiliki produksi yang lebih tinggi (P<0,05 daripada yang diberi pakan uji A. Bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan ikan bandeng.

  17. Ethyl diazoacetate synthesis in flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle M. E. Delville

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl diazoacetate is a versatile compound in organic chemistry and frequently used on lab scale. Its highly explosive nature, however, severely limits its use in industrial processes. The in-line coupling of microreactor synthesis and separation technology enables the synthesis of this compound in an inherently safe manner, thereby making it available on demand in sufficient quantities. Ethyl diazoacetate was prepared in a biphasic mixture comprising an aqueous solution of glycine ethyl ester, sodium nitrite and dichloromethane. Optimization of the reaction was focused on decreasing the residence time with the smallest amount of sodium nitrite possible. With these boundary conditions, a production yield of 20 g EDA day−1 was achieved using a microreactor with an internal volume of 100 μL. Straightforward scale-up or scale-out of microreactor technology renders this method viable for industrial application.

  18. Comparative study on the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly against Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghim Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection. Rhizopus oryzae is major cause of mucormycosis in humans. This disease is the most common form of the acute fungal infection with rapid progress. Iranian Propolis extract and Royal jelly are honey bee products which have been used by human over the past centuries in traditional medicine. In this study the effects of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly were investigated against Rhizopus oryzae and Candida albicans. Methods: The used method in this study was microdilution. To perform it, the prepared dilutions of Royal jelly and alcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis were added to tubes containing Sabouraud dextrose broth culture media except to control group and then Rhizopus oryzae suspension was added to all microtubes. In the next stage, microtubes were maintained in incubator at 25oC for 48 hours and then 10 ml of the content of each microtube was transferred to Sabouraud dextrose agar media. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the agents were calculated. Results: In this study, the MIC and MFC of Iranian Propolis alcoholic extract on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml and the MFC of Royal jelly on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 100 ± 34 and 133 ± 46 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicate that Propolis might be used as an ideal combination for the treatment of fungal infections like Rhizopus oryzae. However, clinical studies are needed to confirm the effects of these drugs.

  19. KINETIC STUDY OF PALMITIC ACID ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY Rhizopus oryzae RESTING CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONH J MÉNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, a kinetic model for the biocatalytic synthesis of esters using Rhizopus oryzae resting cells is proposed. The kinetic study has been made in a range of 30-50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The Influence of operating variables, water content, pH, amount of mycelium was studied. Different values of temperature, initial mycelium concentration and acid/alcohol molar ratio were tested. Initial rates were estimated from the slope of the concentration of palmitic acid, or their corresponding ester at conversions of less than 10%, versus time and reported as mmol l-1 min -1. The values of kinetic constants were computed using the freeware program SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Key words: bound lipase, esterification, fungal resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, palmitic acid, propanol. RESUMEN En el presente estudio, un modelo cinético para la síntesis de esteres usando Rhizopus oryzae resting cells es propuesto. El estudio cinético fue realizado en un rango de temperatura de 30-50 ºC a presión atmosférica reducida. La influencia de las variables de operación tales como temperatura, pH y contenido de agua fueron estudiadas. Diferentes valores de concentración de micelio y relación molar de ácido/alcohol son ensayadas, Las velocidades iníciales se estimaron de la curva de concentración de acido palmítico, y su correspondiente conversión a ester en menos del 10%, frente a tiempo y reportadas en mmol I-1 min -1. Los valores de las constantes cinéticas fueron calculados usando el programa freeware SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Palabras clave: Lipasas, esterificación, resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, acido palmítico, propanol.

  20. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called ?China wood oil? is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through differ...

  1. Self-induction system for cellulase production by cellobiose produced from glucose in Rhizopus stolonifer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingying; Tang, Bin; Du, Guocheng

    2017-01-01

    Cellulolytic fungi have evolved a sophisticated genetic regulatory network of cellulase synthesis to adapt to the natural environment. Even in the absence of lignocellulose, it still secretes low levels of ?constitutive? cellulase for standby application. However, the mechanisms of this constitutive expression remain incompletely understood. Here we identified a cellobiose synthetase (CBS) from Rhizopus stolonifer, which has the capacity to catalyse the synthesis of cellobiose from uridine di...

  2. Biosynthesis of tannase and gallic acid from tannin rich substrates by Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus foetidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Gargi; Banerjee, Rintu

    2004-01-01

    Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrates for production of tannase and gallic acid was carried out using two fungal cultures, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). The tannin rich substrates included powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and Caesalpinia digyna pod cover powder. The different environmental parameters for the maximum production of tannase and gallic acid were optimized through media engineering. The highest yield of tannase and gallic acid was obtained after 60 h in case of Rhizopus oryzae and after 72 h by Aspergillus foetidus with 3 ml of induced inoculum. The optimum initial pH of the fermentation was found to be 4.5 in case of Rhizopus oryzae and 5.0 for Aspergillus foetidus. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. Collectively, the data reveal the potential of the modified solid-state fermentation process for the production of tannase and gallic acid from tannin-rich substrates with R. oryzae and A. foetidus.

  3. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  4. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and... Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether containing...

  5. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  6. Effect of Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation on Kenaf-Based Polylactic Acid’s Monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf biomass is the potential as raw materials used to produce polylactic acid's monomer which is lactic acid via fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Kenaf biomass' structure is complex due to its lignin and cellulose content. This matter had encouraged it to undergo pre- treatment process as the initial step before fermentation process can be done. In this paper, kenaf biomass was treated with dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4 to hydrolyze the cellulose content in it as well as to convert the cellulose into glucose- a carbon source for Rhizopus to grow. Then, the fermentation process was carried out in shake flask for 3 days at pH 6. Several conditions for fermentation process had been chosen which were 25oC at 150 rpm, 25 oC at 200 rpm, 37 oC at 150 rpm and 37oC at 200 rpm. In this fermentation process, 0.471 g/L, 0.428 g/L, 0.444 g/L and 0.38 g/L of lactic acid was produced respectively. Sample at 25oC at 200 rpm produced maximum amount of lactic acid compared to others.ABSTRAK: Biojisim kenaf berpotensi sebagai bahan mentah dalam penghasilan monomer asid polylactic (poliester alifatik termoplastik diterbitkan daripada sumber boleh diperbaharu seperti kanji jagung yang merupakan asid laktik menerusi penapaian oleh Rhizopus oryzae (sejenis fungus yang hidup dalam jirim organik yang telah mati. Struktur biojisim kenaf adalah kompleks disebabkan kandungan lignin dan selulosanya. Hal ini menyebabkan ia perlu melalui proses pra-rawatan sebagai langkah awal sebelum proses penapaian dijalankan. Dalam kertas ini, biojirim kenaf dirawat dengan asid sulfurik (H2SO4 yang dicairkan untuk menghidrolisis kandungan selulosa di dalamnya di samping menukar selulosa menjadi glukosa - sumber karbon bagi tumbesaran Rhizopus. Kemudian, proses penapaian dijalankan di dalam kelalang goncang selama 3 hari pada pH 6. Beberapa ciri proses penapaian telah dipilih iaitu 25 oC pada 150 rpm, 25 oC pada 200 rpm, 37 oC pada 150 rpm dan 37 oC pada 200 rpm. Dalam proses penapaian

  7. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  8. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  9. Inhibition of lipases from Chromobacterium viscosum and Rhizopus oryzae by tetrahydrolipstatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, A P; Haalck, L; Spener, F

    1998-01-15

    Tetrahydrolipstatin is known as an inhibitor for pancreatic lipase but not for microbial lipases. In this paper we demonstrate that in the presence of water-insoluble substrates like tributyrin or olive oil, tetrahydrolipstatin inhibits the lipases of Chromobacterium viscosum and Rhizopus oryzae, although with different potency. In contrast to porcine pancreatic lipase, which forms an irreversible and covalent enzyme-inhibitor complex with tetrahydrolipstatin, the inhibition of the microbial lipases is reversible as the inhibitor can be removed from the enzyme-inhibitor complex by solvent extraction. Moreover, after inhibition of Chromobacterium viscosum lipase tetrahydrolipstatin remains chemically unchanged.

  10. Production of extracellular lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus in a stirred fermentor

    OpenAIRE

    Iftikhar, Tehreema; Niaz, Mubashir; Zia, Muhammad Anjum; Haq, Ikram ul

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the kinetics of submerged extracellular lipases fermentation by both wild and mutant strains of Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus in a laboratory scale stirred fermentor. Other parameters studied were inoculum size, pH, agitation and rate of aeration. It was found that the growth and lipases production was increased gradually and reached its maximum 9.07± 0.42ª U mL-1 (W) and 42.49 ± 3.91ª U mL-1 (M) after 30h of fermentation for both wild and mutant s...

  11. Effect of Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation on Kenaf-Based Polylactic Acid’s Monomer

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir; Mohd Adlan Mustafa Kamalbahrin; Nurhafizah Mohamad; Hazleen Anuar; Maizirwan Mel; and Rashidi Othman

    2011-01-01

    Kenaf biomass is the potential as raw materials used to produce polylactic acid's monomer which is lactic acid via fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Kenaf biomass' structure is complex due to its lignin and cellulose content. This matter had encouraged it to undergo pre- treatment process as the initial step before fermentation process can be done. In this paper, kenaf biomass was treated with dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) to hydrolyze the cellulose content in it as well as to convert the cell...

  12. Proteolysis in tempeh-type products obtained with Rhizopus and Aspergillus strains from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Wikiera, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Tempeh is a food product obtained from legumes by means of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. Our previous research proved that mixed-culture inoculum may also be successfully applied. The objective of present research was to study the proteolytic activity of R. microsporus var. chinensis and A. oryzae during tempeh-type fermentation of grass pea seeds, and the effect of inoculum composition on the protein level and in vitro protein bioavailability in products. Fermentation substrate were soaked and cooked grass pea seeds. Material was mixed with single- or mixed-culture inoculum, and incubated in perforated plastic bags at 30°C for 32 hrs. In the products, the proteolytic activity (pH 3, 5 and 7), glucosamine, total protein and free amino acids levels, as well as protein in vitro bioavailability and degree of protein hydrolysis were obtained. The significant correlation was found between glucosamine content and proteolytic activity in grass pea seeds fermented with Rhizopus or Aspergillus. The activities of Rhizopus proteases were higher than Aspergillus ones, which corresponded with the degree of seed protein hydrolysis. Both strains showed the highest activity of protease at pH 3. Tempeh made with pure culture of Rhizopus had 37% protein of 69% in-vitro bioavailability. Mixed-culture fermentation improved nutritional parameters of products only when the dose of Aspergillus spores in the inoculum was equal and lower than that of Rhizopus. This process resulted in higher in-vitro bioavailability of protein, slightly more efficient protein hydrolysis and higher level of free amino acids, as compared to standard tempeh. The activity of A. oryzae in tempeh-type fermentation is beneficial as long as it does not dominate the activity and/or growth of Rhizopus strain.

  13. Pyogenic liver abscess and peritonitis due to Rhizopus oryzae in a child with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgic, Buket; Bukulmez, Aysegul; Sari, Sinan

    2011-06-01

    Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by symmetric palmoplantar keratodermatitis and severe periodontal destruction. Mutations in the cathepsin C gene (CTSC) have recently been detected in PLS. Immune dysregulation, due to a mutation in CTSC, increases the risk of pyogenic infections in PLS patients. A child with PLS is presented here with liver abscesses and peritonitis caused by Rhizopus oryzae. His liver abscess and peritonitis were cured with amphotericin B without surgical care. This is the first case in the literature liver abscess due to Rhizopus oryzae in a child with PLS.

  14. Evaluasi Perlakuan Pendahuluan Menggunakan Kalsium Hidroksida untuk Biokonversi Jerami Padi Menjadi L-Asam Laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 (Evaluation of Lime Pretreatment for Bioconversion of Rice Straw to L-Lactic Acid by Rhizopus Oryzae AT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhina Aprilia Nurani Widyahapsari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L-lactic acid can be used as a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a biodegradable biomaterial commonly used for biodegradable plastics. Lactic acid can be produced from lignocelluloses materials such as rice straw. Rice straw is composed of cellulose and hemicellulose that can be hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar by cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes then converted to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. As most cellulose and hemicellulose present in lignocellulose biomass are not readily accessible for these enzyme, pretreatment is required to alter the structure of lignocellulose substrates. This research aimed to investigate the effect of lime pretreatment on rice straw bioconversion to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae AT3. Rice straw was pretreated with lime (Ca(OH2 at 85 °C for 16 hours. Unpretreated and pretreated rice straw were hydrolyzed using crude enzyme that produced by Trichoderma reesei Pk1J2. Enzyme production was carried out by solid state fermentation using rice straw and rice brand as substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out in flasks. Each flask was added with unpretreated or pretreated rice straw, buffer citrate solution and crude enzyme then hydrolyzed for 0-96 hours. Hydrolysate was fermented by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 for 0-6 days by using adsorbed carrier solid-state fermentation method with polyurethane foam as inert support material. Lime pretreatment at 85 °C for 16 hour led to significant solubilisation of lignin and hemicellulose. It involved lignocellulose structure modified that enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and resulted higher reducing sugars than unpretreated rice straw. The high reducing sugars was not related to high lactic acid yields. Fermentation of pretreated rice straw hydrolysate by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 did not only produce L-lactic acid but also other compound. On the other hand, fermentation of unpretreated rice straw hydrolysate only produced L-lactic acid.   ABSTRAK Polimerisasi asam

  15. Characterization of ethyl cellulose polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnaj, Tazin; Ahmed, Salah U; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) polymer was characterized for its property before considering the interactions with the plasicizer. Ethocel Std.10 FP Premium from Dow chemical company USA was tested for its solubility, morphology and thermal properties. Seven percentage of EC solution in ethanol was found to be the right viscosity used to prepare the film. The EC polymer and EC film without any plasticizers showed almost identical thermal behavior, but in X-ray diffraction showed different arrangements of crystallites and amorphous region. Dynamic mechanical analysis of film showed that without a plasticizer, EC film was not flexible and had very low elongation with high applied force. The aim of the work was to avoid using the commercially available EC dispersions Surelease® and Aquacoat®; both already have additives on it. Instead, Ethocel EC polymer (powder) was characterized in our laboratory in order to find out the properties of polymer before considering the interactions of the polymer with various plasticizers.

  16. Identification of prenylated pterocarpans and other isoflavonoids in Rhizopus spp. elicited soya bean seedlings by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Vincken, J.P.; Bohin, M.C.; Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoalexins from soya are mainly characterised as prenylated pterocarpans, the glyceollins. Extracts of non-soaked and soaked soya beans, as well as that of soya seedlings, grown in the presence of Rhizopus microsporus var. oryzae, were screened for the presence of prenylated flavonoids with a

  17. Kinetic properties of two Rhizopus exo-polygalacturonase enzymes hydrolyzing galacturonic acid oligomers using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetic characteristics of two Rhizopus oryzae exo-polygalacturonases acting on galacturonic acid oligomers (GalpA) were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). RPG15 hydrolyzing (GalpA)2 demonstrated a Km of 55 uM and kcat of 10.3 s^-1^ while RPG16 was shown to have greater af...

  18. Producing biodiesel from cotton seed oil using Rhizopus oryzae ATTC #34612 whole cell biocatalysts: Culture media and cultivation period optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of culture medium composition and cultivation time on biodiesel production by Rhizopus oryzae ATCC #34612 whole cell catalysts, immobilized on novel rigid polyethylene biomass supports, was investigated. Supplementation of the medium with carbon sources led to higher lipase activity and i...

  19. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Goenuel; Turabik, Meral

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 deg. C and 3.0, 25 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature

  20. Development of a system for integrative and stable transformation of the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae by Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Salim, K.; Ragas, P.; Ram, A.F.J.; Kudla, B.; Jarry, B.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    Two transformation systems, based on the use of CaCl2/PEG and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, respectively, were developed for the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae. Irrespective of the selection marker used, a pyr4 marker derived from R. niveus or a dominant amdS+ marker from Aspergillus nidulans, and

  1. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Sloothaak, Jasper; Heck, van Ruben; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; Graaff, de Leo H.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the

  2. Fob1 and Fob2 proteins are virulence determinants of Rhizopus oryzae via facilitating iron uptake from ferrioxamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialysis patients with chronic renal failure receiving deferoxamine for treating iron overload are uniquely predisposed for mucormycosis. Although not secreted by Mucorales, previous studies established that Rhizopus species utilize iron from ferrioxamine (iron-rich form of deferoxamine). Here we de...

  3. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  4. The lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Prayudi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the effect of peptone concentration (2,5% or 5%, inoculum concentration (0,1%, 0,5% or 1% and incubation period (0 – 96 hours, interval 12 hours on the lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6. Fermentation was done using the basal medium from Samad and the lipolytic activity on olive oil substrate was measured employing titration method with 0,05M NaOH. Lipolytic activity is expressed as unit/ml and one unit is defined as 1 Ωmol fatty acid liberated per minute. Results show that optimum lipolytic activity was obtained from 1 % inoculum, 5% peptone after 72 hours incubation period.

  5. Cloning and heterologous expression of the antibiotic peptide (ABP) genes from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Osamu; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Tominaga, Mihoko; Nakayama, Tasuku; Koseki, Takuya; Fujita, Akiko; Akita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We carried out protein sequencing of purified Antibiotic Peptide (ABP), and cloned two genes encoding this peptide as abp1 and abp2, from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631. Both genes contain an almost identical 231-bp segment, with only 3 nucleotide substitutions, encoding a 77 amino acid peptide. The abp gene product comprises a 28 amino acid signal sequence and a 49 amino acid mature peptide. Northern blot analysis showed that at least one of the abp genes is transcribed in R. oligosporus NBRC 8631. A truncated form of abp1 encoding only the mature peptide was fused with the alpha-factor signal peptide and engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris SMD1168H. Culture broth of the recombinant Pichia displayed ABP activity against Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 after induction of heterologous gene expression. This result indicates that mature ABP formed the active structure without the aid of other factors from R. oligosporus, and was secreted.

  6. KAJIAN PENGARUH KONSENTRASI Rhizopus sp. SEBAGAI AGEN PENGIKIS PROTEIN TERHADAP MUTU KULIT IKAN GURAMI TERSAMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratri Nur Hayati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the effect of protease activity of Rhizopus sp. as a bating agent on the tanned carp leather quality, and their use for commercial leather products. The study was designed with a completely randomized design with four treatment, namely: the concentration of protease from Rhizopus sp. 0.5% (a1, 1.0% (a2, 1.5% (a3 and palkobat 1.0% (a4/control with 3 replications. Parameters were observed that is (1 protease activity of Rhizopus sp and palcobat; (2 Thickness (mm, tensile strength (N/cm2, tear strength (N/cm, elongation (%, enervation (mm, shrinkage temperature (ºC, fat/oil content (% of tanned leather; and (3 level of consumer acceptance (% and added valuead of comercial leather product. The data of tanned leather quality is then compared with SNI 06-4586-1998 concenring freshwater snake skin leather and chrome Burk’s Bay (1996 on the raw material quality leather products. The test results of protease activity of Rhizopus sp. = 7.97 mg/50mg/ jam and palkobat = 13.62 mg/50 mg/hour. The results of the analysis of tanned leather carp qulity sample from each treatment and comparison with the SNI as follows: (1 Thickness: 0.41 (a1, 0.38 (a2, 0.43 (a3, 0.41mm (a4 and ≥ 0.22 (SNI 06-4586-1998. Tensile strength: 1682.67; 1818.17; 1195.57; 1670.55 and 1,000N/cm2 (SNI. Tear strength: 314.87; 310.95; 332.06; 462.22, and 150.00 N/cm (SNI. Elongation: 93.33; 62.67; 56.67; 97.33, and <30.00% (SNI. Enervation: 1.87; 2.20; 1.63, 2.49, and ≥ 2.0 mm (Burk’s Bay, 1996. Shrinkage temperature: 74.00; 95.33; 96.33; 97.33, and ≥ 70.33ºC (SNI. The fat/oil content: 7.84; 8.17; 5.25; 8.49, and 2.00 to 6.00% (SNI. All treatments were tested has met the SNI quality, except elongation and fat/oil content. The level of consumer acceptance of the Oval HP Cover that is (1 aspects of the display (76.67% like and 23.33% dislike, (2 the use of convenience (66.67% like and 33.33% dislike , and (3 price (63.33% accepted and 23.67 reject. The

  7. Low Lactose Milk Production of Soybean by Fermentation Technique Using Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Salahudin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an important food for baby that contains lactose. Normally, a baby could produce lactase enzyme that digest lactose, but in the diarrhea case lactose could not be digested. So, Low Lactose Milk is needed. Low Lactose Milk usually produced from rice or almonds that have low protein. Soybean (Glycine max is the commodity with rich of protein and also contains raffinose and stachyose, which can lead flatulence. Raffinose and stachyose could be reduced by Rhizopus oryzae at tempe process from lamtoro beans.  So the aim in this research is to know the optimum time of soybean fermentation with R. oryzae to reduce stachyiose  and raffinose. The research was done with innoculation of R. oryzae isolate in the soybeans fermentation for 72 hours. N index, raffinose and stachyose level was tested. The result shows that optimum fermentation time is 48 hour and using 5% skim milk as filler.

  8. Rhizopus oryzae - Ancient microbial resource with importance in modern food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño-Hernández, Liliana; Ramírez-Toro, Cristina; Ruiz, Héctor A; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Aguilar-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2017-09-18

    Filamentous fungi are microorganisms widely known for their diverse biochemical features. Fungi can efficiently invade a wide variety of substrates under operational conditions producing numerous bioproducts of interest, such as enzymes, organic acids, aromatic compounds and colorants. An additional interesting characteristic of some fungi is their safety classification for different uses, which guarantees that the bioproducts obtained from them do not contain any toxic component deleterious to humans. Rhizopus oryzae is among this group of fungi and is classified as a GRAS filamentous fungus, commonly used for production of some oriental traditional foods. It is mainly recognized as a good producer of lactic acid; however, its potential for other biotechnological processes is under study. This review analyzes and discusses the current scientific and technical contributions which may maximize the potential of R. oryzae as a producer of different compounds of industrial interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.; Liu, Z.L.

    2008-01-01

    -added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the......-isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency...... of substrate utilization and enhanced production of L-(+)-lactic acid from corncob hydrolysate. It increased L-(+)-lactic acid final concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity more than twofold compared with its parental strain. The optimized growth and fermentation conditions for Strain HZS6 were...

  10. Growth Simulation and Discrimination of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a rapid and nondestructive method to model the growth and discrimination of spoilage fungi, like Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum, based on hyperspectral imaging system (HIS. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to measure the spectral response of fungi inoculated on potato dextrose agar plates and stored at 28°C and 85% RH. The fungi were analyzed every 12 h over two days during growth, and optimal simulation models were built based on HIS parameters. The results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2 of simulation models for testing datasets were 0.7223 to 0.9914, and the sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE were in a range of 2.03-53.40×10(-4 and 0.011-0.756, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HIS parameters and colony forming units of fungi were high from 0.887 to 0.957. In addition, fungi species was discriminated by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA, with the classification accuracy of 97.5% for the test dataset at 36 h. The application of this method in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum inoculated in peaches, demonstrating that the HIS technique was effective for simulation of fungal infection in real food. This paper supplied a new technique and useful information for further study into modeling the growth of fungi and detecting fruit spoilage caused by fungi based on HIS.

  11. Solid acid catalysed formation of ethyl levulinate and ethyl glucopyranoside from mono- and disaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalised SBA-15 (SO3H-SBA-15), sulfated zirconia and beta, Y, ZSM-5 and mordenite zeolite catalysts have been applied for the dehydration of sugars to ethyl levulinate and ethyl-D-glucopyranoside (EDGP) using ethanol as solvent and reactant. The SO3H-SBA-15 catalyst showed...

  12. Damage to Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae Hyphae by Oxidative and Nonoxidative Microbicidal Products of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Richard D.; Clark, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Our previous studies established that human neutrophils could damage and probably kill hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae in vitro, primarily by oxygen-dependent mechanisms active at the cell surface. These studies were extended, again quantitating hyphal damage by reduction in uptake of 14C-labeled uracil or glutamine. Neither A. fumigatus nor R. oryzae hyphae were damaged by neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, confirming the importance of oxidative...

  13. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Odoni, Dorett I.; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Sloothaak, Jasper; van Heck, Ruben G.A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; de Graaff, Leo H.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the knowledge about fumarate accumulation in R. delemar. To this end, we combined a transcriptomics and proteomics approach to identify key metabolic pathways involved in fumarate production in R. delemar, and ...

  14. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND RHIZOPUS SP . BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF PRICKLY PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMIRES CARVALHO DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prickly palm cactus husk was used as a solid - state fermentation support substrate for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. A Box - Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of water activity, fermentation time and temperature on endoglucanase and total cellulase production. Response Surface Methodology showed that optimum conditions for endoglucanase production were achieved at after 70.35 h of fermentation at 29.56°C and a water activity of 0.875 for Aspergillus niger and after 68.12 h at 30.41°C for Rhizopus sp. Optimum conditions for total cellulase production were achieved after 74.27 h of fermentation at 31.22°C for Aspergillus niger and after 72.48 h and 27.86°C for Rhizopus sp . Water activity had a significant effect on Aspergillus niger endoglucanase production only. In industrial applications, enzymatic characterization is important for optimizing variables such as temperature and pH. In this study we showed that endoglucanase and total cellulase had a high level of thermostability and pH stability in all the enzymatic extracts. Enzymatic deactivation kinetic experiments indicated that the enzymes remained active after the freezing of the crude extract. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative for the production of thermostable enzymes.

  15. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-02-21

    Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called "China wood oil" is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through different heterologous expression strategies and fermentation techniques, the highest expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae reached 1334 U/mL in Pichia pastoris, which is still not optimistic for industry applications. The prosequence of lipases from Rhizopus sp. is very important for the folding and secretion of an active lipase. A chimeric lipase from R. oryzae was constructed by replacing the prosequence with that from the R. chinensis lipase and expressed in P. pastoris. The maximum activity of the chimera reached 4050 U/mL, which was 11 fold higher than that of the parent. The properties of the chimera were studied. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil, which achieved higher FAME yield compared with the free chimeric lipase, non-chimeric lipase and mature lipase. By response surface methodology, three variables, water content, methanol to tung oil molar ratio and enzyme dosage were proved to be crucial parameters for biosynthesis of FAME and the FAME yield reached 91.9±2.5% at the optimized conditions by adding 5.66 wt.% of the initial water based on oil weight, 3.88 of methanol to tung oil molar ratio and 13.24 wt.% of enzyme concentration based on oil weight at 40°C. This is the first report on improving the expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae by replacing prosequences. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil. Using tung oil as non-edible raw material and a chimeric lipase

  16. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled ethyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new efficient method of synthesis of ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C), based on the Ba 14 CO 3 and dry hydrogen chloride as starting materials has been developed and described. Addition of the hydrogen chloride to ethylene (1,2- 14 C), obtained from Ba 14 CO 3 , has been carried out in the presence of the AlCl 3 as catalyst. The outlined method leads to ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C) of high specific activity. The radiochemical yield of the reaction based on the activity of barium carbonate used was 72%. (author)

  17. Purification and Characterisation of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Rhizopus micro sporus var. tuberosus

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    Shuli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular fibrinolytic enzyme from Rhizopus microsporus var. tuberosus was purified and characterised. The microorganism was isolated in a distillery from daqu, a fermentative agent used in the production of Chinese liquor and vinegar at diff erent temperatures. The fibrinolytic enzyme was partially purifi ed by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, DEAE Sepharose® Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the fi brinolytic enzyme was estimated to be 24.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme showed optimal activity at pH=7.0 and 37 °C by fibrin plate method. It showed stronger resistance to the inhibition by trypsin and was stable at 37 °C retaining 96.1 % residual activity aft er 4 h of incubation. The fibrinolytic activity of the enzyme was enhanced by Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. Conversely, Zn2+ and Cu2+ partly inhibited enzymatic activity. Using fibrin plate method, we found that the enzyme not only degrades fibrin directly, but also activates plasminogen into plasmin to degrade fibrin. The results indicate that the pure enzyme has a potential in dissolving blood clot, and the possibility for application in the treatment of thrombosis.

  18. Extra-cellular isoamylase production by Rhizopus oryzae in solid-state fermentation of agro wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnita Ghosh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular isoamylase was produced by Rhizopus oryzae PR7 in solid-state fermentations of various agro wastes, among which millet, oat, tapioca, and arum (Colocasia esculenta showed promising results. The highest amount of enzyme production was obtained after 72 h of growth at 28°C. The optimum pH for enzyme production was - 8.0. Among the various additives tested, enzyme production increased with ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and also with cysteine, GSH, and DTT. The enzyme synthesis was reduced in the presence of thiol inhibitors like Cu2+ and pCMB. The surfactants like Tween-40, Tween-80 and Triton X-100 helped in enhancing the enzyme activity. The production could be further increased by using the combinations of substrates. The ability to produce high amount of isoamylase within a relatively very short period and the capability of degrading wastes could make the strain suitable for commercial production of the enzyme.

  19. Protein concentrations of sweet soysauces from Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus fermentation without moromi fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy sauce was produce from soybean that fermented with koji/tempeh fungi and thenfermented under salt solution or moromi fermentation. The objectives of this experiment was to compare of protein (total and soluble content of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation to the sweet soysauce with moromi fermentation one. The total and soluble proteins of sweet soy sauces that produce from soybean without moromi fermentation were higher that sweet soy sauces that produce with moromi fermentation. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation was 8.2% and meet to the highest quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oryzae without moromi fermentation was 4.1% and meet to the medium quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard.

  20. Protein enrichment of brewery spent grain from Rhizopus oligosporus by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo, Marianny Silva; de Paula, Fernanda Gomes; da Silva, Flávio Alves; Vendruscolo, Francielo

    2016-07-01

    Brewery spent grain represents approximately 85 % of total by-products generated in a brewery. Consisting of carbohydrates, fiber, minerals and low amounts of protein, the use of brewery spent grain is limited to the feeding of ruminants; however, its potential use should be investigated. The reuse of this by-product using microorganisms by solid-state fermentation process as the case of protein enrichment by single-cell protein incorporation is an alternative to ensure sustainability and generate commercially interesting products. In this context, the aim of this study was to grow Rhizopus oligosporus in brewery spent grain under different initial moisture contents and nitrogen sources to increase the protein content of the fermented material. After 7 days of fermentation, increase of 2-4 times in the crude protein and soluble protein content was verified, respectively, compared to unfermented brewery spent grain. The kinetics of protein enrichment demonstrated the possibility of application of this technique, which can be a great alternative for use in diets for animals.

  1. Kinetics Study of Extracellular Detergent Stable Alkaline Protease from Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareena Mushtaq

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extracellular alkaline protease was produced from Rhizopus oryzae in submerged fermentation using dairy waste (whey as a substrate. Fermentation kinetics was studied and various parameters were optimized. The strain produced maximum protease at initial medium pH of 6.0 medium depth of 26 mm, inoculum size of 2% at incubation temperature of 35ºC for 168 h of fermentation. Alkaline protease was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by sephadex G-100 chromatography. The molecular mass of alkaline protease was 69 kDa determined by 10% SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature of alkaline protease was 9.0 and 40ºC, respectively. Metal profile of the enzyme showed that the enzyme was non-metallic in nature. The Km , Kcat , Vmax and Kcat/Km values of purified protease were 7.0 mg/mL, 3.8 x102S-1, 54.30 µmol/min and 54.28 s-1mg -1.mL respectively, using casein as substrate. The purified alkaline protease had stability with commercial detergents.

  2. Construction of the yeast whole-cell Rhizopus oryzae lipase biocatalyst with high activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-ling; Guo, Qin; Wang, Rui-zhi; Xu, Juan; Zhou, Chen-wei; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2011-07-01

    Surface display is effectively utilized to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Codon optimization has been proven to be effective in maximizing production of heterologous proteins in yeast. Here, the cDNA sequence of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) was optimized and synthesized according to the codon bias of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and based on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface display system with α-agglutinin as an anchor, recombinant yeast displaying fully codon-optimized ROL with high activity was successfully constructed. Compared with the wild-type ROL-displaying yeast, the activity of the codon-optimized ROL yeast whole-cell biocatalyst (25 U/g dried cells) was 12.8-fold higher in a hydrolysis reaction using p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) as the substrate. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to combine the techniques of yeast surface display and codon optimization for whole-cell biocatalyst construction. Consequently, the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst was constructed with high activity. The optimum pH and temperature for the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst were pH 7.0 and 40 °C. Furthermore, this whole-cell biocatalyst was applied to the hydrolysis of tributyrin and the resulted conversion of butyric acid reached 96.91% after 144 h.

  3. Production of extracellular lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus in a stirred fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehreema Iftikhar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the kinetics of submerged extracellular lipases fermentation by both wild and mutant strains of Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus in a laboratory scale stirred fermentor. Other parameters studied were inoculum size, pH, agitation and rate of aeration. It was found that the growth and lipases production was increased gradually and reached its maximum 9.07± 0.42ª U mL-1 (W and 42.49 ± 3.91ª U mL-1 (M after 30h of fermentation for both wild and mutant strain. There is overall increase of 109% (W and 124% (M in the production of extracellular lipases as compared to shake flask. Another significant finding of the present study is that the fermentation period is reduced to 30 h in case of wild and 23 h in case of mutant from 48 h in shake flask studies. The specific productivity of mutant strain (qp = 377.3 U/g cells/h was several folds higher than wild strain. The specific production rate and growth coefficient revealed the hyperproducibility of extracellular lipases using mutant IIB-63NTG-7.

  4. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae potentiates activity of posaconazole and itraconazole via apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA and benzohydroxamate (BHAM, inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ and itraconazole (ICZ against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents.

  5. Chitosan production by psychrotolerant Rhizopus oryzae in non-sterile open fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-01

    A new chitosan producing fungus was locally isolated from soil samples collected around Erzurum, Turkey and identified as Rhizopus oryzae PAS 17 (GenBank accession number KU318422.1). Cultivation in low cost non-sterile conditions was achieved by exploiting its ability to grow at low temperature and pH, thus, undesired microbial contamination could be eliminated when appropriate culture conditions (incubation temperature as 15°C and initial pH of the medium as 4.5) were selected. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). An OA layout of L16 (4(5)) was constructed with five most influensive factors at four levels on chitosan production like, carbon source (molasses), metal ion (Mg(2+)), inoculum amount, agitation speed and incubation time. The optimal combinations of factors (molasses, 70ml/l; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.5g/l; inoculum, 6.7×10(6) spores/disc; agitation speed, 150rpm and incubation time, 8days) obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the results revealed the increment of chitosan and biomass yields of 14.45 and 8.58 folds from its unoptimized condition, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yonghong; Yang Yingge; Zheng Zhiming; Li Wen; Wang Peng; Yao Liming; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N + implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ∼ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38 deg. C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  8. Mutation induced enhanced biosynthesis of lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, T.; Ikram-ul-Haq; Niaz, M.; Abbas, S.Q.; Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, I.; Lee, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes the isolation, identification and screening of fugal strain Rhizopus oligosporus (var. microsporus) for the production of extracellular lipases. One hundred and sixty seven cultures of fungi were isolated from different environments such as soil, air, milk, pickle, oily bread, decayed fruits and vegetables by serial dilution method. The strains were initially selected qualitatively on Tween 80-Agar plates and were shifted to the slants of PDA for maintenance and storage at 4 deg. C. Quantitative screening for extracellular lipase production by isolated strains was carried out in shake flasks and the most potent strain producing 3.20 +- 0.003 U mL/sup -1/ of enzyme was selected. The strain was then identified on the basis of standard morphological measurements and was assigned the code IIB-63. The selected strain was then subjected to physical (UV and Gamma radiations) and chemical mutagenic (MNNG/NTG, NA, EtBr) treatments in order to improve its lipolytic potential. During the treatment, mutants were qualitatively and quantitatively selected and IIB-63 NTG-7 was found to be the mutant showing highest lipases production (10.37 +- 0.06a U mL/sup -1/) with a zone size of 12.3 mm on Luria-Bertani-tributyrin agar plates. This mutant showed an overall 325% increase in activity over its parent strain for the production of extracellular lipase. (author)

  9. Biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana lipids through transesterification catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) was produced from saponifiable lipids (SLs) extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass using methanolysis catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae intracellular lipase. SLs were firstly extracted with ethanol to obtain 31 wt% pure SLs. But this low SL purity also gave a low biodiesel conversion (58%). This conversion increased up to 80% using SLs purified by crystallization in acetone (95 wt% purity). Polar lipids play an important role in decreasing the reaction velocity - using SLs extracted with hexane, which have lower polar lipid content (37.4% versus 49.0% using ethanol), we obtained higher reaction velocities and less FAME conversion decrease when the same lipase batch was reused. 83% of SLs were transformed to biodiesel using a 70 wt% lipase/SL ratio, 11:1 methanol/SL molar ratio, 10 mL t-butanol/g SLs after 72 h. The FAME conversion decreased to 71% after catalyzing three reactions with the same lipase batch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials, containers...

  12. Optimization of xylanase production by Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae through solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Behnam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Xylan is the main hemicellulosic polymer in a number of lignocelluloses which can be hydrolyzed by xylanolytic enzymes. One of the main ways for enzymes production is solid state fermentation (SSF. The ability of three fungal strains (Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae for xylanase production on wheat bran by SSF was investigated. Materials and methods: The effects of cultivation temperature, medium moisture content, and cultivation time on the enzyme production were investigated. Experiments were designed with an orthogonal central composite design on three variables using response surface methodology (RSM. Analysis of variance was applied and the enzyme production was expressed with a mathematical equation as a function of the three factors. The optimum operating conditions for the enzyme production was obtained. Results: For xylanase production by M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae the optimum temperatures were 40.0, 43.4 and 43.4ºC respectively. These values were 49.8, 54.2 and 71.8% for moisture percent and 51.3, 53.2 and 53.5 h for cultivation time. The highest enzyme activities per g of dry substrate (gds were 43.1, 43.8 and 25.9 U/gds for M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae respectively. Discussion and conclusion: All the fungi were able to produce xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was predicted by M. indicus and M. hiemalis at similar optimum conditions, while R. oryzae produced relatively lower xylanase activity even at the best condition. 

  13. The Role of Aquaporins in pH-Dependent Germination of Rhizopus delemar Spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidhar Turgeman

    Full Text Available Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination. Two putative candidate aquaporin-encoding genes-RdAQP1 and RdAQP2-were identified in the R. delemar genome. Both presented the conserved NPA motif and six-transmembrane domain topology. Expressing RdAQP1 and RdAQP2 in Arabidopsis protoplasts increased the cells' osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf compared to controls, indicating their role as water channels. A decrease in R. delemar aquaporin activity with increasing external pH suggested pH regulation of these proteins. Substitution of two histidine (His residues, positioned on two loops facing the outer side of the cell, with alanine eliminated the pH sensing resulting in similar Pf values under acidic and basic conditions. Since hydration is critical for spore switching from the resting to activate state, we suggest that pH regulation of the aquaporins can regulate the initial phase of R. delemar spore germination, followed by germ-tube elongation and host-tissue infection.

  14. Structure, function, and phylogeny of the mating locus in the Rhizopus oryzae complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P Gryganskyi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhizopus oryzae species complex is a group of zygomycete fungi that are common, cosmopolitan saprotrophs. Some strains are used beneficially for production of Asian fermented foods but they can also act as opportunistic human pathogens. Although R. oryzae reportedly has a heterothallic (+/- mating system, most strains have not been observed to undergo sexual reproduction and the genetic structure of its mating locus has not been characterized. Here we report on the mating behavior and genetic structure of the mating locus for 54 isolates of the R. oryzae complex. All 54 strains have a mating locus similar in overall organization to Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina, Zygomycota. In all of these fungi, the minus (- allele features the SexM high mobility group (HMG gene flanked by an RNA helicase gene and a TP transporter gene (TPT. Within the R. oryzae complex, the plus (+ mating allele includes an inserted region that codes for a BTB/POZ domain gene and the SexP HMG gene. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, including the mating loci (HMG, TPT, RNA helicase, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA, RPB2, and LDH genes, identified two distinct groups of strains. These correspond to previously described sibling species R. oryzae sensu stricto and R. delemar. Within each species, discordant gene phylogenies among multiple loci suggest an outcrossing population structure. The hypothesis of random-mating is also supported by a 50:50 ratio of plus and minus mating types in both cryptic species. When crossed with tester strains of the opposite mating type, most isolates of R. delemar failed to produce zygospores, while isolates of R. oryzae produced sterile zygospores. In spite of the reluctance of most strains to mate in vitro, the conserved sex locus structure and evidence for outcrossing suggest that a normal sexual cycle occurs in both species.

  15. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  16. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S

    2016-03-01

    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorett I. Odoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the knowledge about fumarate accumulation in R. delemar. To this end, we combined a transcriptomics and proteomics approach to identify key metabolic pathways involved in fumarate production in R. delemar, and propose that a substantial part of the fumarate accumulated in R. delemar during nitrogen starvation results from the urea cycle due to amino acid catabolism.

  18. The effect of different phosphate ion concentrations and ph of the phosphate buffer on lipase bioproduction by rhizopus oligosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.; Ali, S.; Awan, U.F.; Javed, W.; Mirza, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present investigation, we report the effect of phosphate ion concentration and different ph of the phosphate buffer (as diluent) on lipase bioproduction by Rhizopus oligosporus. For this purpose, solid state fermentation was employed. Different agricultural by-products such as wheat bran, rice husk, almond meal, soybean meal and sunflower meal were used as substrate. The maximum lipase activity (72.60 U/g) was observed with the almond meal. Addition of phosphate ions (K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/) influenced the lipase production. The ph of the phosphate buffer (7.0) was found to be effective for higher yield of lipase. (author)

  19. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  20. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  1. Identification of prenylated pterocarpans and other isoflavonoids in Rhizopus spp. elicited soya bean seedlings by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Bohin, Maxime C; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-01-15

    Phytoalexins from soya are mainly characterised as prenylated pterocarpans, the glyceollins. Extracts of non-soaked and soaked soya beans, as well as that of soya seedlings, grown in the presence of Rhizopus microsporus var. oryzae, were screened for the presence of prenylated flavonoids with a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based screening method. The glyceollins I-III and glyceollidins I-II, belonging to the isoflavonoid subclass of the pterocarpans, were tentatively assigned. The formation of these prenylated pterocarpans was accompanied by that of other prenylated isoflavonoids of the subclasses of the isoflavones and the coumestans. It was estimated that approx. 40% of the total isoflavonoid content in Rhizopus-challenged soya bean seedlings were prenylated pterocarpans, whereas 7% comprised prenylated isoflavones and prenylated coumestans. The site of prenylation (A-ring or B-ring) of the prenylated isoflavones was tentatively annotated using positive-ion mode MS by comparing the (1,3) A(+) retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fragments of prenylated and non-prenylated isoflavones. Furthermore, the fragmentation pathways of the five pterocarpans in negative-ion (NI) mode were proposed, which involved the cleavage of the C-ring and/or D-ring. The absence of the ring-closed prenyl (pyran or furan) gave exclusively -H(2) O(x,y) RDA fragments, whereas its presence gave predominantly the common RDA fragments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Production of Cellulases by Rhizopus stolonifer from Glucose-Containing Media Based on the Regulation of Transcriptional Regulator CRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingyiing; Tang, Bin; Du, Guocheng

    2017-03-28

    Carbon catabolite repression is a crucial regulation mechanism in microorganisms, but its characteristic in Rhizopus is still unclear. We extracted a carbon regulation gene, cre , that encoded a carbon catabolite repressor protein (CRE) from Rhizopus stolonifer TP-02, and studied the regulation of CRE by real-time qPCR. CRE responded to glucose in a certain range, where it could significantly regulate part of the cellulase genes ( eg, bg, and cbh2 ) without cbh1 . In the comparison of the response of cre and four cellulase genes to carboxymethylcellulose sodium and a simple carbon source (lactose), the effect of CRE was only related to the concentration of reducing sugars. By regulating the reducing sugars to range from 0.4% to 0.6%, a glucose-containing medium with lactose as the inducer could effectively induce cellulases without the repression of CRE. This regulation method could potentially reduce the cost of enzymes produced in industries and provide a possible solution to achieve the large-scale synthesis of cellulases.

  3. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-05-03

    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  4. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Werlang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no

  5. [Intravenous ethyl alcohol in metabolic resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolini, G; Lipartiti, T; Zaffiri, O; Musso, L; Belloni, G P

    1980-11-01

    Intravenously administered ethyl alcohol may be effective as analgesic and hypotensive peripheric vasoactive drug. In the Intensive Care Departments parenteral ethanol administration is infrequent because no "sure dosage" can be suggested in adults and children. Liver, kidney and C.N.S. diseases can worsen; foetopathy can follow. Drug-ethanol interaction may be particularly important for some patients admitted in Intensive Care Departments. Often the potential caloric support cannot be fully utilized ("empty" calories) and seldom hyperventilation, hyperlactacidemia and impaired protein synthesis can follow.

  6. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  7. Biotransformation and Production from Hansenula Anomala to Natural Ethyl Phenylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl phenylacetate can be widely applied in many industries, such as food, medicines, cosmetics and medicinal herbs. At the moment, the production of natural ethyl phenylacetate is very limited. However, the biotransformation production of natural ethyl phenylacetate has an very extensive application prospect. This paper is written by taking the phenylacetic acid tolerance and the esterifying enzyme activity as the two indexes for screening the HA14 strain of hansenula anomala mutagenic which is regarded as the microorganism of ethyl phenylacetate production through biotransformation. By optimizing the production condition of phenylacetic acid and the esterification condition of ethyl phenylacetate, the production of ethyl phenylacetate accomplished through biotransformation within 72 hours can reach 864mg/L which is 171% of that of the initial bacterial strain.

  8. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  9. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the number...

  10. Going the distance with ethyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    If all had gone according to plan, ethyl alcohol would be in the driver's seat now, cruising down the highway and getting ready to speed into high gear. Instead, this renewable fuel, chemical reagent and solvent is navigating a complex obstacle course, watching warily for sharp turns and mixed signals. Globally, the supply and demand for all grades of ethyl alcohol is awry. Production of industrial-grade material is running at full throttle and prices are going up. Much of the upheaval over ethanol can be traced to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) of the Clean Air Act. Under ROS, 15% of oxygenates used in gasoline sold this year was to be derived from a renewable source. Next month, that percentage was to have been doubled to 30%. Enticed by projections of upwards of 2 billion gal/yr of fermentation alcohol to comply with ROS, producers rushed to expand capacity. But to the producers' dismay, EPA was forced to backpedal on ROS. When representatives of the petroleum industry filed suit and won a stay, EPA rescinded its ROS regulation and ethanol producers were left in the lurch. High prices for corn is also putting the squeeze on inventories of industrial alcohol. Synthetic ethanol production, from ethylene for example, is booming, however. This paper discusses the ethanol market factors

  11. The combustion kinetics of the lignocellulosic biofuel, ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Manik Kumer; Howard, Mí cheá l Sé amus; Zhang, Yingjia; Djebbi, Khalil; Capriolo, Gianluca; Farooq, Aamir; Curran, Henry J.; Dooley, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Ethyl levulinate (Ethyl 4-oxopentanoate) is a liquid molecule at ambient temperature, comprising of ketone and ethyl ester functionalities and is one of the prominent liquid fuel candidates that may be easily obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. The combustion kinetics of ethyl levulinate have been investigated. Shock tube and rapid compression machine apparatuses are utilised to acquire gas phase ignition delay measurements of 0.5% ethyl levulinate/O2 mixtures at ϕ = 1.0 and ϕ = 0.5 at ∼ 10 atm over the temperature range 1000–1400 K. Ethyl levulinate is observed not to ignite at temperatures lower than ∼1040 K in the rapid compression machine. The shock tube and rapid compression machine data are closely consistent and show ethyl levulinate ignition delay to exhibit an Arrhenius dependence to temperature. These measurements are explained by the construction and analysis of a detailed chemical kinetic model. The kinetic model is completed by establishing thermochemical-kinetic analogies to 2-butanone, for the ethyl levulinate ketone functionality, and to ethyl propanoate for the ethyl ester functionality. The so constructed model is observed to describe the shock tube data very accurately, but computes the rapid compression machine data set to a lesser but still applicable fidelity. Analysis of the model suggests the autooxidation mechanism of ethyl levulinate to be entirely dominated by the propensity for the ethyl ester functionality to unimolecularly decompose to form levulinic acid and ethylene. The subsequent reaction kinetics of these species is shown to dictate the overall rate of the global combustion reaction. This model is then use to estimate the Research and Motored Octane Numbers of ethyl levulinate to be ≥97.7 and ≥ 93, respectively. With this analysis ethyl levulinate would be best suited as a gasoline fuel component, rather than as a diesel fuel as suggested in the literature. Indeed it may be considered to be useful as an

  12. The combustion kinetics of the lignocellulosic biofuel, ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Manik Kumer

    2018-04-04

    Ethyl levulinate (Ethyl 4-oxopentanoate) is a liquid molecule at ambient temperature, comprising of ketone and ethyl ester functionalities and is one of the prominent liquid fuel candidates that may be easily obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. The combustion kinetics of ethyl levulinate have been investigated. Shock tube and rapid compression machine apparatuses are utilised to acquire gas phase ignition delay measurements of 0.5% ethyl levulinate/O2 mixtures at ϕ = 1.0 and ϕ = 0.5 at ∼ 10 atm over the temperature range 1000–1400 K. Ethyl levulinate is observed not to ignite at temperatures lower than ∼1040 K in the rapid compression machine. The shock tube and rapid compression machine data are closely consistent and show ethyl levulinate ignition delay to exhibit an Arrhenius dependence to temperature. These measurements are explained by the construction and analysis of a detailed chemical kinetic model. The kinetic model is completed by establishing thermochemical-kinetic analogies to 2-butanone, for the ethyl levulinate ketone functionality, and to ethyl propanoate for the ethyl ester functionality. The so constructed model is observed to describe the shock tube data very accurately, but computes the rapid compression machine data set to a lesser but still applicable fidelity. Analysis of the model suggests the autooxidation mechanism of ethyl levulinate to be entirely dominated by the propensity for the ethyl ester functionality to unimolecularly decompose to form levulinic acid and ethylene. The subsequent reaction kinetics of these species is shown to dictate the overall rate of the global combustion reaction. This model is then use to estimate the Research and Motored Octane Numbers of ethyl levulinate to be ≥97.7 and ≥ 93, respectively. With this analysis ethyl levulinate would be best suited as a gasoline fuel component, rather than as a diesel fuel as suggested in the literature. Indeed it may be considered to be useful as an

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation with Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth performance, blood profile, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits in broilers exposed to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of additives has recently been part of strategies to deal with the detrimental effects of heat stress (HS on the performance and carcass traits in broiler chicks. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the fungi Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth, blood profile, intestinal microbial population and carcass traits in broiler chicks subjected to HS. R. oryzae and C. crassa are filamentous fungi isolated from the ileum of indigenous Indonesian chickens which exhibited probiotic and antioxidant properties. Two hundred and forty 21-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into six groups, including birds reared under normal temperature (28 ± 2 °C (CONT, birds reared under HS conditions (35 ± 2 °C (HS-CONT, birds reared under HS and provided with commercial anti-stress formula (HS-VIT, birds reared under HS and provided with R. oryzae (HS-RO, birds reared under HS and provided with C. crassa (HS-CC and birds reared under HS and provided with rice bran (HS-RB. Body weight gain was highest (P < 0. 01 and lowest (P < 0. 01 in CONT and HS-CONT birds, respectively. The heart was heavier (P < 0. 05 in CONT than in HS-CONT and HS-VIT birds. CONT birds had heavier duodenum (P < 0. 05 and jejunum (P < 0. 01 than other birds. Eosinophils was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CC than in other birds. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CONT than in CONT, HS-VIT and HS-CC birds. Total triglyceride was highest (P < 0. 05 and lowest (P < 0. 05 in HS-RB and HS-RO birds, respectively. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CONT than in other HS birds. Total protein was lowest and highest (P < 0. 05 in CONT and HS-CONT birds, respectively. Albumin was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CONT and HS-VIT than in HS-RO birds. Globulin was lower (P < 0. 05 in CONT than in HS

  14. Rhizopus oryzae hyphae are damaged by human natural killer (NK) cells, but suppress NK cell mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stanislaw; Tramsen, Lars; Perkhofer, Susanne; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Hanisch, Mitra; Röger, Frauke; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koehl, Ulrike; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Mucormycosis has a high mortality and is increasingly diagnosed in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In this setting, there is a growing interest to restore host defense to combat infections by adoptively transferring donor-derived immunocompetent cells. Natural killer (NK) cells exhibit antitumor and antiinfective activity, but the interaction with Mucormycetes is unknown. Our data demonstrate that both unstimulated and IL-2 prestimulated human NK cells damage Rhizopus oryzae hyphae, but do not affect resting conidia. The damage of the fungus is mediated, at least in part, by perforin. R. oryzae hyphae decrease the secretion of immunoregulatory molecules by NK cells, such as IFN-γ and RANTES, indicating an immunosuppressive effect of the fungus. Our data indicate that NK cells exhibit activity against Mucormycetes and future research should evaluate NK cells as a potential tool for adoptive immunotherapy in HSCT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and optimization of pectinase enzyme production one of useful industrial enzyme in Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    akram songol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pectinase enzyme is one of the most important industrial enzymes which isolated from a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria and filamentous fungi. This enzyme has been usually used in the fruit and textile industry. In this study, the isolation and optimization of pectinase-producing fungi on decaying rotten fruits were studied. Materials and methods: Isolation and screening of pectinase producing fungi performed through plate culture on pectin medium and staining with Lugol's iodine solution. The best strains were identified by ITS1, 4 sequencing as Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum. The enzyme production was optimized by application of the five factorial design, each at three levels. These factors are carbon sources (whey, glucose and stevia, ammonium sulfate, manganese sulfate, temperature, and pH. Pectinase concentration was measured by the Miller method. Results: The results indicate that optimum condition for enzyme production for three fungi strains was obtained at 32 °C, pH = 6, 3g / L manganese sulfate, 2.75g / L of ammonium sulfate and 10g / L of each carbon source. The best experiment in obtaining the optimum enzyme contained 1.328 mg / ml of glucose for Aspergillus niger 1.284 and 1.039 mg / ml of whey for Rhizopus oryzae and Penicilium chrysogenum. Molecular weight of enzyme was about 40 and 37 kDa which was obtained by SDS- PAGE. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that three strains could grow in a wide range of carbon source, pH and temperature, which could be a good candidate for industrial application.

  16. Fob1 and Fob2 Proteins Are Virulence Determinants of Rhizopus oryzae via Facilitating Iron Uptake from Ferrioxamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfu Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis patients with chronic renal failure receiving deferoxamine for treating iron overload are uniquely predisposed for mucormycosis, which is most often caused by Rhizopus oryzae. Although the deferoxamine siderophore is not secreted by Mucorales, previous studies established that Rhizopus species utilize iron from ferrioxamine (iron-rich form of deferoxamine. Here we determined that the CBS domain proteins of Fob1 and Fob2 act as receptors on the cell surface of R. oryzae during iron uptake from ferrioxamine. Fob1 and Fob2 cell surface expression was induced in the presence of ferrioxamine and bound radiolabeled ferrioxamine. A R. oryzae strain with targeted reduced Fob1/Fob2 expression was impaired for iron uptake, germinating, and growing on medium with ferrioxamine as the sole source of iron. This strain also exhibited reduced virulence in a deferoxamine-treated, but not the diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA, mouse model of mucormycosis. The mechanism by which R. oryzae obtains iron from ferrioxamine involves the reductase/permease uptake system since the growth on ferrioxamine supplemented medium is associated with elevated reductase activity and the use of the ferrous chelator bathophenanthroline disulfonate abrogates iron uptake and growth on medium supplemented with ferrioxamine as a sole source of iron. Finally, R. oryzae mutants with reduced copies of the high affinity iron permease (FTR1 or with decreased FTR1 expression had an impaired iron uptake from ferrioxamine in vitro and reduced virulence in the deferoxamine-treated mouse model of mucormycosis. These two receptors appear to be conserved in Mucorales, and can be the subject of future novel therapy to maintain the use of deferoxamine for treating iron-overload.

  17. 2,6-Bis(9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 2,6-bis(ethyl-9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone has been synthesized by condensation of 9-ethylcarbazole-3-aldehyde and cyclohexanone in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  18. Cyclohexenones Through Addition of Ethyl Acetoacetate to 3-Aryl-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chalcone derivatives 3a–i containing a thiophene ring were prepared by the condensation of 1-(thiophen-3-yl)ethanone with aromatic aldehydes in excellent yields. The Michael addition of ethyl acetoacetate 4 to chalcone derivatives 3a–i resulted in the formation of nine novel ethyl 6-aryl ...

  19. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO fatty acid ethyl ester ... obtained in the range of 56−88%and a second order quadratic polynomial regression model that established the ... Transesterification is a chemical.

  20. PENGGUNAAN PROTEASE ASPERGILLUS sp. DAN RHIZOPUS sp. DENGAN KONSENTRASI YANG BERBEDA DALAM TAHAPAN UNHAIRING TERHADAP KUALITAS FISIK DAN LIMBAH CAIR PADA PENYAMAKAN KULIT DOMBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Syafie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas proteolitik yang dihasilkan jamur Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. dalam tahapan unhairing (buang rambut pada proses penyamakan kulit domba serta pengaruh penggunaan dengan konsentrasi berbeda, terhadap kuat tarik, kemuluran, suhu kerut, dan kualitas limbah (pH, BOD, dan COD. Materi yang digunakan yaitu 15 lembar kulit domba awetan garam dibagi 2 bagian sepanjang garis lurus punggung sehingga diperoleh 30 lembar kulit, kulit dibagi secara acak menjadi 10 kelompok. Perlakuan terdiri dari dua belas kombinasi yaitu protease dari Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp. serta gabungan antara Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. dengan konsentrasi protease 2% (P1, 2,5% (P2, 3% (P3, dan sebagai kontrol P0. Proses unhairing secara konvensional menggunakan bahan kimia Na2S (3% dan kapur Ca(OH2 6% dengan 3 ulangan. Sampel air limbah setelah proses unhairing diambil dan dibawa ke laboratorium untuk uji kualitas. Kulit diproses lebih lanjut menjadi kulit samak glazed. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial 3 x 4, apabila berbeda nyata dilakukan uji banding dengan uji Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Hasil uji aktivitas proteolitik paling tinggi adalah gabungan antara protease dari Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. yaitu sebesar 1.079,17 μM/ml/menit, sedangkan protease Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. masing-masing memiliki aktivitas proteolitik sebesar 542,96 μM/ml/menit dan 392,89 μM/ml/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan protease dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda dapat memberikan efek yang positif terhadap kualitas fisik dan limbah cair proses unhairing kulit domba. Konsentrasi protease 2,5% dan 3% dapat meningkatkan nilai kuat tarik dan suhu kerut kulit domba serta menghasilkan kulit yang bersih tanpa ada rambut yang menempel dan struktur serabut kolagen terbuka. Perlakuan protease sangat potensial karena dapat menekan angka BOD dan COD limbah

  1. Photoisomerization of ethyl ferulate: A solution phase transient absorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbury, Michael D.; Baker, Lewis A.; Rodrigues, Natércia D. N.; Quan, Wen-Dong; Stavros, Vasilios G.

    2017-04-01

    Ethyl ferulate (ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate) is currently used as a sunscreening agent in commercial sunscreen blends. Recent time-resolved gas-phase measurements have demonstrated that it possesses long-lived (>ns) electronic excited states, counterintuitive to what one might anticipate for an effective sunscreening agent. In the present work, the photodynamics of ethyl ferulate in cyclohexane, are explored using time-resolved transient electronic absorption spectroscopy, upon photoexcitation to the 11ππ∗ and 21ππ∗ states. We demonstrate that ethyl ferulate undergoes efficient non-radiative decay to repopulate the electronic ground state, mediated by trans-cis isomerization. These results strongly suggest that even mild perturbations induced by a non-polar solvent, as may be found in a closer-to-market sunscreen blend, may contribute to our understanding of ethyl ferulate's role as a sunscreening agent.

  2. Rhizopus-associated soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent air-conditioning technician after a road traffic accident: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada B. Rabie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rhinocerebral or sinopulmonary mucromycosis is a well-recognized human fungal infection found among immunocompromised and diabetic patients. However, the infection is rare among immunocompetent hosts. We are reporting the case of an adult immunocompetent male patient working as an air-conditioning technician. The patient was a victim of a road traffic accident (RTA and sustained multiple fractures in the proximal part of the left tibia, distal femur, and scapula. Two weeks postoperatively, Rhizopus microspores were isolated from an infected traumatic wound over the distal femur. Surgical debridement was performed, and the patient was started on amphotericin B. Occupational exposure history and workplace environmental sanitation are crucial for the prevention of this potentially fatal yet preventable infection. Keywords: Rhizopus, Immunocompetent, Air conditioning

  3. Caffeine degradation by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column bioreactor using coffee husk as substrate Degradação de cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas usando casca de café como substrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Vanessa Tagliari

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Various microorganisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi can degrade caffeine. There are few publications about caffeine degradation pathway in filamentous fungi, mainly by solid-state fermentation (SSF. Studies were carried out on degradation of caffeine and their metabolites by filamentous fungi in SSF using coffee husk as substrate. The purpose of this work was to investigate the caffeine degradation pathway by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column fermenter and to compare this degradation metabolism with glass flasks fermentation. The methylxanthines were quantified by HPLC analysis. The experiments were realized with the optimized conditions in previous experiments: pH 6.5, 28ºC, inoculation rate 10(6 spores/g substrate, aeration rate 60 mL/min and initial moisture 73%. Under these conditions, after 72 hous of fermentation was achieved only 0.19% of caffeine and 0.014% of theophylline in the coffee husk. The strain proved to be able for caffeine and theophylline degradation by SSF in packed bed column bioreactor.Diversos microrganismos incluindo bactérias, fungos e leveduras são capazes de assimilar a cafeína de meios sintéticos ou de resíduos de café. Existem poucos trabalhos sobre a via de degradação da cafeína em fungos filamentosos, principalmente por fermentação no estado sólido (FES. Estudos de degradação da cafeína por fungos filamentosos em FES usando casca de café como substrato vêm sendo realizados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a via de degradação da cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas aeradas e comparar este metabolismo de degradação com o da fermentação em frascos de vidro. As metilxantinas foram quantificadas por análises em HPLC. Os experimentos foram realizados com as condições otimizadas previamente: pH 6,5, 28ºC, 10(6 espores/g substrato, vazão de ar 60 mL/min e 73% de umidade inicial. Após 90 horas de fermentação, 65% da cafeína foi reduzida, resultando 0

  4. Ethyl pyruvate protects colonic anastomosis from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, B; Karabeyoglu, M; Huner, T; Canbay, E; Eroglu, A; Yildirim, O; Dolapci, M; Bilgihan, A; Cengiz, O

    2009-03-01

    Ethyl pyruvate is a simple derivative in Ca(+2)- and K(+)-containing balanced salt solution of pyruvate to avoid the problems associated with the instability of pyruvate in solution. It has been shown to ameliorate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in many organs. It has also been shown that I/R injury delays the healing of colonic anastomosis. In this study, the effect of ethyl pyruvate on the healing of colon anastomosis and anastomotic strength after I/R injury was investigated. Anastomosis of the colon was performed in 32 adult male Wistar albino rats divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals: (1) sham-operated control group (group 1); (2) 30 minutes of intestinal I/R by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (group 2); (3) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 3), ethyl pyruvate was administered as a 50-mg/kg/d single dose; and (4) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 4), ethyl pyruvate administration was repeatedly (every 6 hours) at the same dose (50 mg/kg). On the fifth postoperative day, animals were killed. Perianastomotic tissue hydroxyproline contents and anastomotic bursting pressures were measured in all groups. When the anastomotic bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline contents were compared, it was found that they were decreased in group 2 when compared with groups 1, 3, and 4 (P .05). Ethyl pyruvate significantly prevents the delaying effect of I/R injury on anastomotic strength and healing independent from doses of administration.

  5. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  6. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  7. Purification and characterization of an extracellular lipase from a thermophilic Rhizopus oryzae strain isolated from palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiol; Jonzo; Rugani; Druet; Sarda; Comeau

    2000-03-01

    We have isolated a lipolytic strain from palm fruit that was identified as a Rhizopus oryzae. Culture conditions were optimized and highest lipase production amounting to 120 U/ml was achieved after 4 days of cultivation. The extracellular lipase was purified 1200-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, sulphopropyl-Sepharose chromatography, Sephadex G 75 gel filtration and a second sulphopropyl-Sepharose chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 8800 U/mg. The lipolytic enzyme has a molecular mass of 32 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The enzyme exhibited a single band in active polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and its isoelectric point was 7.6. Analysis of Rhizopus oryzae lipase by RP-HPLC confirmed the homogeneity of the enzyme preparation. Determination of the N-terminal sequence over 19 amino acid residues showed a high homology with lipases of the same genus. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was 7.5. Lipase was stable in the pH range from 4.5 to 7.5. The optimum temperature for lipase activity was 35 degrees C and about 65% of its activity was retained after incubation at 45 degrees C for 30 min. The lipolytic enzyme was inhibited by Triton X100, SDS, and metal ions such as Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Fe(2+). Lipase activity against triolein was enhanced by sodium cholate or taurocholate. The purified lipase had a preference for the hydrolysis of saturated fatty acid chains (C(8)-C(18)) and a 1, 3-position specificity. It showed a good stability in organic solvents and especially in long chain-fatty alcohol. The enzyme poorly hydrolyzed triacylglycerols containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and appeared as a suitable biocatalyst for selective esterification of sardine free fatty acids with hexanol as substrate. About 76% of sardine free fatty acids were esterified after 30 h reaction whereas 90% of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was recovered in the unesterified fatty acids.

  8. Influence of prohexadione-calcium, trinexapac-ethyl and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethyl (TNE) and hexaconazole (HX) on lodging and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway of rice cultivar, Hwayeongbyeo. It was observed that these novel synthetic growth retardants suppressed lodging of rice under field conditions through ...

  9. Novel recombinant ethyl ferulate esterase from Burkholderia multivorans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, KJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of bacterial isolates with specific ferulic acid (FA) esterase activity and cloning of a gene encoding activity. A micro-organism with ethyl ferulate hydrolysing (EFH) activity was isolated by culture enrichment...

  10. Substoichiometric determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Polaiah, B.; Rangamannar, B.

    1989-01-01

    A substoichiometric radiochemical method was developed for the determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate. The selenium ethyl xanthate complex formed was extracted into chloroform from borate buffer at pH 5. The effect of foreign ions on the extraction was studied. Microgram quantities of selenium could be conveniently determined with a fair degree of accuracy. The method was successfully applied for the determination of selenium content in food stuffs such as 'Jaggery' and 'Wheat powder'. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  11. High-Level Expression of Pro-Form Lipase from Rhizopus oryzae in Pichia pastoris and Its Purification and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding Rhizopus oryzae lipase containing prosequence (ProROL was cloned into the pPICZαA and electrotransformed into the Pichia pastoris X-33 strain. The lipase was functionally expressed and secreted in Pichia pastoris with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. The maximum lipase activity of recombinant lipase (rProROL was 21,000 U/mL, which was obtained in a fed-batch cultivation after 168 h induction with methanol in a 50-L bioreactor. After fermentation, the supernatant was concentrated by ultrafiltration with a 10 kDa cut off membrane and purified with ion exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. The optimum pH and temperature of the rProROL were pH 9.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The lipase was stable from pH 4.0 to 9.0 and from 25 to 55 °C. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+. The lipase showed high activity toward triglyceride-Tripalmitin (C16:0 and triglyceride-Trilaurin (C12:0.

  12. Antioxidant activity of raw, cooked and Rhizopus oligosporus fermented beans of Canavalia of coastal sand dunes of Southwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveditha, Vedavyas R; Sridhar, Kandikere R

    2014-11-01

    The raw and processed (cooked and cooked + solid-state fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus) split beans of two landraces of coastal sand dune wild legumes (Canavalia cathartica and Canavalia maritima) of the southwest coast of India were examined for bioactive compounds (total phenolics, tannins and vitamin C) and antioxidant potential (total antioxidant activity, ferrous-ion chelating capacity, DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and reducing activity). One-way ANOVA revealed significant elevation of bioactive compounds as well as antioxidant activities in fermented beans compared to raw and cooked beans in both legumes (p beans of both legumes were significantly lowest compared to raw and cooked beans (p beans of C. cathartica, while total antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of fermented beans of C. maritima were clustered. The present study demonstrated that split beans of coastal sand dune Canavalia fermented by R. oligosporus endowed with high bioactive principles as well as antioxidant potential and thus serve as future nutraceutical source.

  13. Lead Biosorption by Self-Immobilized Rhizopus nigricans Pellets in a Laboratory Scale Packed Bed Column: Mathematical Model and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Kogej

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solution on a self-immobilized Rhizopus nigricans biomass has been studied. Experiments were performed in a laboratory scale packed bed column at different liquid flow rates and biosorbent bed heights. Recorded experimental breakthrough curves were compared to those predicted by a mathematical model, which was developed to simulate a packed bed biosorption process by a soft, self-immobilized fungal biosorbent. In the range of examined experimental conditions, the biomass characteristics such as pellet porosity and biosorption capacity substantially affected the predicted response curve. General correlations for the estimation of the intra-pellet effective diffusivity, the external mass transfer coefficient, as well as axial dispersion were successfully applied in this biological system with specific mechanical properties. Under the experimental conditions, mass transfer is controlled by the external film resistance, while the intra-pellet mass transfer resistance, as well as the effect of axial dispersion, can be neglected. A new parameter α, the fraction of active biomass, with an average value of α=0.7, was introduced to take into account the specific biomass characteristics, and consequently the observed non-ideal liquid flow through the bed of fungal pellets.

  14. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil and vegetables (jojoba which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C, the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL, the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters.

  15. One-pot conjugated linoleic acid production from castor oil by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaskheli, Abid Ali; Talpur, Farah Naz; Cebeci Aydin, Aysun; Jawaid, Sana; Surhio, Muhammad Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2017-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted as novel type of fatty acids having unusual health-promoting properties such as anticarcinogenic and antiobesitic effects. The present work employed castor oil as substrate for one-pot production of CLA using washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and lipases as catalysts. Among the screened lipases, the lipase Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) greatly assisted resting cells to produce CLA. Mass spectral analysis of the product showed that two major isomers of CLA were produced in the reaction mixture i.e. cis-9, trans-11 56.55% and trans-10, cis-12 43.45%. Optimum factors for CLA synthesis were found as substrate concentration (8 mg/mL), pH (6.5), washed cell concentration (12% w/v), and incubation time of 20 h. Hence, the combination of ROL with L. plantarum offers one pot production of CLA selectively using castor oil as a cost-effective substrate.

  16. The impact of Rhizopus oryzae cultivation on rice bran: Gamma-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarolo, Kelly Cristina; Denardi de Souza, Taiana; Collazzo, Carolina Carvalho; Badiale Furlong, Eliana; Souza Soares, Leonor Almeida de

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the solid state cultivation (SSC) time of rice bran by Rhizopus oryzae on γ-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties. Gamma-oryzanol was extracted with organic solvents and its extracts were characterized by GC-FID and HPLC-UV. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by DPPH and ABTS + assays, β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and reduction of oxidation in lipid system. The biomass showed the γ-oryzanol recovery increased by 51.5% (20.52mg/g), and 5.7% in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The γ-oryzanol major components changing in their profile. The γ-oryzanol extract from biomass (72h) showed the greatest DPPH inhibition (59.0%), while 90.5% inhibition of oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and 30% reduction of the indicators of oxidation in olive oil was observed in the one cultivated at 96h, these behaviors were confirmed by PCA analyses. SSC provides an increase in the γ-oryzanol recovery followed by improving of the functional properties of rice bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antifungal Activity of Colistin against Mucorales Species In Vitro and in a Murine Model of Rhizopus oryzae Pulmonary Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Lewis, Russell E.; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2010-01-01

    In immunosuppressed hosts, mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection with few treatment options. We studied the activity of colistin (polymyxin E) against Mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection. Colistin exhibited fungicidal activity in vitro against Mucorales spores and mycelia. At the colistin MIC, initial R. oryzae hyphal damage was followed by rapid regrowth; however, regrowth was prevented by combining colistin with a subinhibitory concentration of amphotericin B. Using electron microscopy and FM4-64 staining, we demonstrated that colistin disrupts R. oryzae cytoplasmic and vacuolar membranes, resulting in the leakage of intracellular contents. The prophylactic intranasal treatment of immunosuppressed mice with colistimethate significantly reduced the mortality rate and pulmonary fungal burden resulting from inhalational challenge with R. oryzae spores, whereas intraperitoneal colistimethate treatment had no effect. We conclude that colistin has modest in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activity against Mucorales spp. Further studies are warranted to assess the use of this drug in the prevention and treatment of mucormycosis. PMID:19858263

  18. Antifungal activity of colistin against mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of Rhizopus oryzae pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Lewis, Russell E; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2010-01-01

    In immunosuppressed hosts, mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection with few treatment options. We studied the activity of colistin (polymyxin E) against Mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection. Colistin exhibited fungicidal activity in vitro against Mucorales spores and mycelia. At the colistin MIC, initial R. oryzae hyphal damage was followed by rapid regrowth; however, regrowth was prevented by combining colistin with a subinhibitory concentration of amphotericin B. Using electron microscopy and FM4-64 staining, we demonstrated that colistin disrupts R. oryzae cytoplasmic and vacuolar membranes, resulting in the leakage of intracellular contents. The prophylactic intranasal treatment of immunosuppressed mice with colistimethate significantly reduced the mortality rate and pulmonary fungal burden resulting from inhalational challenge with R. oryzae spores, whereas intraperitoneal colistimethate treatment had no effect. We conclude that colistin has modest in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activity against Mucorales spp. Further studies are warranted to assess the use of this drug in the prevention and treatment of mucormycosis.

  19. Optimization of lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae in 3-L airlift bioreactor using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneeboon, Thanapoom; Vanichsriratana, Wirat; Pomchaitaward, Chaiyaporn; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2010-05-01

    The influence of two key environmental factors, pH and oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), was evaluated on the lactic acid production as the main answer and, on the size of cell pellets of the fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae KPS106, as second dependant answer by response surface methodology using a central composite design. The results of the analysis of variance and modeling demonstrated that pH and k(L)a had a significant effect on lactic acid production by this strain. However, no interaction was observed between these two experimental factors. pH and k(L)a had no significant influence on the pellet size. Optimal pH and k(L)a of the fermentation medium for lactic acid production from response surface analysis was 5.85 and of 3.6 h(-1), respectively. The predicted and experimental lactic acid maximal values were 75.4 and 72.0 g/l, respectively, with pellets of an average of 2.54 +/- 0.41 mm. Five repeated batches in series were conducted with a mean lactic acid production of 77.54 g/l. The productivity was increased from 0.75 in the first batch to 0.99 g/l h in the last fifth batch.

  20. Cosmeceutical potentials and bioactive compounds of rice bran fermented with single and mix culture of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Lelamurni Abd Razak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, rice bran, one of the most abundant agricultural by-products in Malaysia, was fermented with single and mixed cultures of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae. The fermented rice bran extracts were tested for their functional properties and compared to the non-fermented counterparts. Antioxidant activities as well as phenolics and organic acid contents were evaluated. Skincare-related functionalities were also tested by evaluating tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities. Tyrosinase inhibition activity, measured to determine the anti-pigmentation effect of extracts, was found to be the highest in the extract of rice bran fermented with A. oryzae (56.18% compared to other extracts. In determining the anti-aging effect of fermented rice bran extracts, the same extract showed the highest elastase inhibition activity with a value of 60.52%. Antioxidant activities were found to be highest in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. The results of phenolic and organic acid content were varied; the major phenolic acid detected was ferulic acid with a value of 43.19 μg/ml in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. On the other hand, citric acid was the major organic acid detected, with the highest content found in the same extract (214.6 mg/g. The results of this study suggest that the fermented rice bran extracts may have the potential to be further exploited as ingredients in cosmetics as well as in antioxidant-rich products.

  1. Extraction, Separation, and Purification of Blueberry Anthocyanin Using Ethyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry contains many substances that are important to the human body and can prevent cardiovascular diseases, protect the retina, and soften blood vessels. Anthocyanin, which is extracted from blueberry, can activate the retina, strengthen vision, reduce serum cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein, and protect cell nucleus tissues from radical oxidation; hence, blueberry is of importance to scientists from different countries. In this study, anthocyanin was extracted and separated from blueberry using ethyl alcohol to investigate the effects of factors, such as ethyl alcohol volume ratio on anthocyanin extraction and separation technologies. The extracting solution was then purified using the macroreticular resin purification method to investigate the effects of ethyl alcohol concentration and eluent dosage on anthocyanin extraction during purification. The research results demonstrated that 60 % ethyl alcohol volume fraction, 1 : 10 mass ratio of solid to liquid, and 60 °C ultrasonic temperature were the best conditions for anthocyanin extraction. The best purification conditions were 95 % ethyl alcohol, which had been acidized by 0.3 % hydrochloric acid and 70 ml of eluent. This work provides a reference for the application of ethyl alcohol in anthocyanin extraction.

  2. Icosapent ethyl: a review of its use in severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther S; McCormack, Paul L

    2014-12-01

    Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa®) is a high-purity ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that is de-esterified to EPA following oral administration. Both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that have been associated with triglyceride (TG)-lowering. However, DHA has been associated with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Icosapent ethyl contains ≥96 % of the EPA ethyl ester, does not contain DHA, and is approved in the USA for use as an adjunct to diet to lower TG levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L]) hypertriglyceridemia. In a pivotal phase III trial, oral icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly decreased the placebo-corrected median TG levels by 33.1 %. It did not increase LDL-C, had favorable effects on other lipid parameters, and had a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo. Therefore, icosapent ethyl is an effective and well-tolerated agent for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia in adults.

  3. Experimental study of the density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Stephan, M.; Safarov, J.; Kul, I.; Nocke, J.; Abdulagatov, I.M.; Hassel, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Density of the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. ► Viscosity of the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. ► Thermodynamic properties of ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. ► Equation of state of ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. - Abstract: Density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate [EMIM][EtSO 4 ] have been measured over the temperature range from (283.15 to 413.15) K and at pressures up to 140 MPa and in the temperature range from (283.15 to 373.15) K at 0.1 MPa, respectively. The expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and viscosity measurements at the 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k = 2 is estimated to be (0.01 to 0.08)%, 0.1%, 15 mK, and 0.35%, respectively. The measurements were carried out with an Anton–Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter and a fully automated SVM 3000 Anton–Paar rotational Stabinger viscometer. The vibration-tube densimeter was calibrated using various reference fluids, double-distilled water, methanol, toluene, and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empiric equation of state for [EMIM][EtSO 4 ] has been developed using the measured (p, ρ, T) data. This equation was used to calculate the various thermodynamic properties of the IL and for compare with measured properties (speed of sound and enthalpy). Theoretically based Arrhenius–Andrade and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher type equations were use to describe of the temperature dependence of measured viscosities for [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. All measured properties were detailed compared with the reported data by other author.

  4. Supercritical antisolvent co-precipitation of rifampicin and ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerafi, Rania; Swanepoel, Andri; Crampon, Christelle; Kalombo, Lonji; Labuschagne, Philip; Badens, Elisabeth; Masmoudi, Yasmine

    2017-05-01

    Rifampicin-loaded submicron-sized particles were prepared through supercritical anti-solvent process using ethyl cellulose as polymeric encapsulating excipient. Ethyl acetate and a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (70/30 and 85/15) were used as solvents for both drug and polymeric excipient. When ethyl acetate was used, rifampicin was crystallized separately without being embedded within the ethyl cellulose matrix while by using the ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide mixture, reduced crystallinity of the active ingredient was observed and a simultaneous precipitation of ethyl cellulose and drug was achieved. The effect of solvent/CO 2 molar ratio and polymer/drug mass ratio on the co-precipitates morphology and drug loading was investigated. Using the solvent mixture, co-precipitates with particle sizes ranging between 190 and 230nm were obtained with drug loading and drug precipitation yield from respectively 8.5 to 38.5 and 42.4 to 77.2% when decreasing the ethyl cellulose/rifampicin ratio. Results show that the solvent nature and the initial drug concentrations affect morphology and drug precipitation yield of the formulations. In vitro dissolution studies revealed that the release profile of rifampicin was sustained when co-precipitation was carried out with the solvent mixture. It was demonstrated that the drug to polymer ratio influenced amorphous content of the SAS co-precipitates. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and infrared spectra revealed that there is neither interaction between rifampicin and the polymer nor degradation of rifampicin during co-precipitation. In addition, stability stress tests on SAS co-precipitates were carried out at 75% relative humidity and room temperature in order to evaluate their physical stability. SAS co-precipitates were X-ray amorphous and remained stable after 6months of storage. The SAS co-precipitation process using a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide demonstrates that this strategy can

  5. Two unique ligand-binding clamps of Rhizopus oryzae starch binding domain for helical structure disruption of amylose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available The N-terminal starch binding domain of Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (RoSBD has a high binding affinity for raw starch. RoSBD has two ligand-binding sites, each containing a ligand-binding clamp: a polyN clamp residing near binding site I is unique in that it is expressed in only three members of carbohydrate binding module family 21 (CBM21 members, and a Y32/F58 clamp located at binding site II is conserved in several CBMs. Here we characterized different roles of these sites in the binding of insoluble and soluble starches using an amylose-iodine complex assay, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural bioinformatics. RoSBD induced the release of iodine from the amylose helical cavity and disrupted the helical structure of amylose type III, thereby significantly diminishing the thickness and length of the amylose type III fibrils. A point mutation in the critical ligand-binding residues of sites I and II, however, reduced both the binding affinity and amylose helix disruption. This is the first molecular model for structure disruption of the amylose helix by a non-hydrolytic CBM21 member. RoSBD apparently twists the helical amylose strands apart to expose more ligand surface for further SBD binding. Repeating the process triggers the relaxation and unwinding of amylose helices to generate thinner and shorter amylose fibrils, which are more susceptible to hydrolysis by glucoamylase. This model aids in understanding the natural roles of CBMs in protein-glycan interactions and contributes to potential molecular engineering of CBMs.

  6. Study of energetic-particle-irradiation induced biological effect on Rhizopus oryzae through synchrotron-FTIR micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Qi, Zeming; Huang, Qing; Wei, Xiaoli; Ke, Zhigang; Fang, Yusheng; Tian, Yangchao; Yu, Zengliang

    2013-01-01

    Energetic particles exist ubiquitously and cause varied biological effects such as DNA strand breaks, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, cell apoptosis or death. An emerging biotechnology based on ion-beam technique has been developed to serve as an effective tool for mutation breeding of crops and microbes. In order to improve the effectiveness of ion-beam biotechnology for mutation breeding, it is indispensible to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems which is still elusive. A new trend is to conduct more comprehensive research which is based on micro-scaled observation of the changes of the cellular structures and compositions under the interactions. For this purpose, advanced synchrotron FTIR (s-FTIR) microscopy was employed to monitor the cellular changes of single fungal hyphae under irradiation of α-particles from 241Am. Intracellular contents of ROS, MDA, GSSG/GSH and activities of CAT and SOD were measured via biochemical assay. Ion-irradiation on Rhizopus oryzae causes localized vacuolation, autolysis of cell wall and membrane, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and conformational changes of proteins, which have been clearly revealed by the s-FTIR microspectroscopy. The different changes of cell viability, SOD and CAT activities can be explained by the ROS-involved chemical reactions. Evidently, the elevated level of ROS in hyphal cells upon irradiation plays the key role in the caused biological effect. This study demonstrates that s-FTIR microspectroscopy is an effective tool to study the damage of fungal hyphae caused by ionizing radiation and it facilitates the exploit of the mechanism for the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems.

  7. Determination of volatile components in fermented soybean prepared by a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus

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    Chukeatirote, E.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented soybeans are traditional foods widely consumed in many countries (i.e., Natto in Japan, Jang in Korea, Kinema in India, Douichi in China, and Thua Nao in Thailand. In this study, an attempt was made with an expectation to improve the fermentation process using a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus. Initially, the raw soybeans were washed, sterilized by autoclaving, and inoculated with two inocula; for this, three different ratios between B. subtilis and R. oligosporus used were 100:0, 50:50, and 0:100. The fermentation was then carried out at 30°C for 3 days. The volatile compounds in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products were determined by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS and extracted using a solid phase microextraction (SPME technique. In total, 165 compounds were identified in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products. For the non-fermented products, the predominant volatile compounds were alcohols (25.81%, aldehydes (13.64%, acids and esters (7.57%, furans (6.13% and ketones (0.88%. In contrast, the major volatiles compounds presented in the fermented soybeans were as follows: i The treatment of 100:0 consisted of acids and esters (35.89%, alcohols (14.55%, aldehydes (8.72%, ketones (4.97%, pyrazines (4.87%, and furans (4.22%; ii 50:50 comprised of acids and esters (55.62%, alcohols (16.22%, aldehydes (7.80%, pyrazine (3.65%, ketones (2.55%, furans (1.67%, and aromatic compounds (1.46%; and iii 0:100 included acids and esters (66.50%, alcohols (15.44%, aldehydes (2.59%, ketones (2.72%, furans (1.89%, aromatic compounds (1.80%, pyrazines (1.35%, and sulphur containing compounds (0.24% respectively.

  8. Density, viscosity, and saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhixian; Jiang, Haiming; Li, Ling; Wang, Hongxing; Qiu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Density of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and its thermal expansion coefficient was determined. • Viscosity of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and fitted to the Andrade equation. • Saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate was reported. • The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the molar evaporation enthalpy of ethyl trifluoroacetate. - Abstract: The properties of ethyl trifluoroacetate (CF 3 COOCH 2 CH 3 ) were measured as a function of temperature: density (278.08 to 322.50) K, viscosity (293.45 to 334.32) K, saturated vapor pressure (293.35 to 335.65) K. The density data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial equation, and the viscosity data were regressed to the Andrade equation. The correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of equations for density and viscosity are 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The correlation between saturated vapor pressures and temperatures was achieved with a maximum absolute relative deviation of 0.142%. In addition, the molar evaporation enthalpy in the range of T = (293.35 to 335.65) K was estimated by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation

  9. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY OF CREOSOTE BUSH EXTRACTS (LARREA TRIDENTATA ON THE INHIBITION OF POSTHARVEST FUNGI: PENICILLIUM POLONICUM, ASPERGILLUS NIGER, RHIZOPUS ORYZAE Y ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Peñuelas-Rubio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos vegetales deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con diclorometano, etanol, metanol y agua, sobre el crecimiento radial in vitro de cuatro hongos fitopatógenos, los cuales primeramente fueron identificados en género y especie empleando claves taxonómicas y técnicas moleculares. Para los bioensayosin vitrose aplicaron diseños completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones en cada hongo, utilizando las concentraciones: 0, 250, 500 y 750 ppm paraAlternaria sp.; 0, 2000, 2500 y 3000 paraAspergillus sp.; 0, 1500, 1750 y 2000 paraPenicillium sp. y 0, 150, 200 y 250 ppm paraRhizopus sp. Cada tratamiento tuvo tres repeticiones. El análisis molecular determinó la especie tenuissima paraAlternaria,nigerparaApergillus,polonicumparaPenicilliumyoryzaeparaRhizopus. En cuanto a las pruebasin vitro, se determinaron inhibiciones del 100% para tres de los hongos en estudio:Alternaria tenuissimacon extracto EtOH a 750 ppm;Aspergillus nigercon extracto DCM a 3000 ppm yRhizopus oryzaea partir de 150 ppm y 250 ppm de los extractos DCM y EtOH respectivamente. Se presentó una inhibición del 82% a 2000 ppm paraPenicillium polonicum. Se concluye que a pesar de las diferencias en susceptibilidad entre las especies fúngicas, los extractos deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con etanol y dicloromentano son efectivos para el control de los hongos fitopatógenos bajo estudioin vitro.

  10. Stimulation with lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shivashni S; Virassamy, Balaji; Halliday, Catriona; Clancy, Leighton; Chen, Sharon; Meyer, Wieland; Sorrell, Tania C; Gottlieb, David J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. We previously published a method to expand Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cells for clinical cell therapy. In the present study, we investigated expansion of T cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal T-cell product. Fungal strains selected were those frequently observed in the clinical hematology setting and included Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Lomentospora/Scedosporium. Four T-cell cultures specific to each fungus were established. We selected lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae to expand panfungal T cells. Allelic restriction of anti-fungal activity was determined through the use of specific major histocompatibility complex class II-blocking antibodies. Individual T-cell cultures specific to each fungus could be expanded in vitro, generating predominantly CD4(+) T cells of which 8% to 20% were fungus-specific. We successfully expanded panfungal T cells from the peripheral blood (n = 8) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-primed stem cell products (n = 3) of normal donors by using a combination of lysates from Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae. Anti-fungal activity was mediated through human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR alleles and was maintained when antigen-presenting cells from partially HLA-DRB1-matched donors were used to stimulate T cells. We demonstrate a method to manufacture panfungal T-cell products with specificity against a range of clinical fungal pathogens by use of the blood and stem cells of healthy donors as the starting material. The safety and efficacy of these products will need to be tested clinically. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estudio de la producción heteróloga de una lipasa del hongo Rhizopus oryzae en la levadura metilotrófica Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano González, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El trabajo recoge los principales aspectos de la producción recombinante de una lipasa del hongo Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) expresada en la levadura Pichia pastoris. El sistema de expresión empleado está basado en la utilización del promotor de la alcohol oxidasa (PAOX1) de la levadura y, por lo tanto es dependiente de la utilización de metanol como substrato inductor. El trabajo recoge una serie de estudios de producción en ...

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of the ethyl radical-water complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Finney, Brian A; Laufer, Allan H; Anglada, Josep M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2016-10-14

    An ab initio investigation has been employed to determine the structural and spectroscopic parameters, such as rotational constants, vibrational frequencies, vertical excitation energies, and the stability of the ethyl-water complex. The ethyl-water complex has a binding energy of 1.15 kcal⋅mol -1 . The interaction takes place between the hydrogen of water and the unpaired electron of the radical. This interaction is found to produce a red shift in the OH stretching bands of water of ca. 84 cm -1 , and a shift of all UV absorption bands to higher energies.

  13. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  14. Silver nanoparticle production by Rhizopus stolonifer and its antibacterial activity against extended spectrum β-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Afreen; Rathod, Vandana; Ranganath, E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Silver nanoparticle production by using Rhizopus stolonifer. → Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against extended spectrum β-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae. → Synergistic effect of antibiotics with silver nanoparticles towards ESBL-strains. → Characterization of silver nanoparticles made by UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Abstract: This report focuses on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer and its antimicrobial activity. Research in nanotechnology highlights the possibility of green chemistry pathways to produce technologically important nanomaterials. Characterization of newly synthesized silver nanoparticles was made by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). TEM micrograph revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 3 and 20 nm. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed excellent antibacterial activity against ESBL-strains which includes E. coli, Proteus. sp. and Klebsiella sp.

  15. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

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    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  16. Influence of the Oil Pequi in the Growth Mycelial and Sporulation of Colletotrichum Musae and Growth Micelial Of Rhizopus sp. in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mendes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae and soft rot caused by Rhizopus sp are post-harvest diseases that influenced quality of exported fruits. To control these diseases fungicides are used, but in light of these waste products in the fruit and the environment, alternative control methods such as using biofungicides have been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pequi oil on mycelia growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum musae and mycelia growth of Rhizopus sp. in vitro. The oil was added in aliquots of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50L in the center of Petri dishes containing approximately 15mL of Potato-Dextrose-ar (PDA and distributed over the surface of the medium with Drigalskys handle. After 24 hours, a disc of 8mm diameter from mycelium of fungi was peaked to the center of the plates. As a control, were used Petri dishes containing only PDA. Five replicates were used for each aliquot. After analysis, it was concluded that the pequi oil is ineffective for controlling these pathogens because induced mycelium growth and sporulation.Key Words: Phytopathogens, alternative control, anthracnose, soft rot

  17. Silver nanoparticle production by Rhizopus stolonifer and its antibacterial activity against extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Afreen [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Rathod, Vandana, E-mail: drvandanarathod@rediffmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Ranganath, E. [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Silver nanoparticle production by using Rhizopus stolonifer. {yields} Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae. {yields} Synergistic effect of antibiotics with silver nanoparticles towards ESBL-strains. {yields} Characterization of silver nanoparticles made by UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Abstract: This report focuses on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer and its antimicrobial activity. Research in nanotechnology highlights the possibility of green chemistry pathways to produce technologically important nanomaterials. Characterization of newly synthesized silver nanoparticles was made by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). TEM micrograph revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 3 and 20 nm. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed excellent antibacterial activity against ESBL-strains which includes E. coli, Proteus. sp. and Klebsiella sp.

  18. Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solution, shipyard wastewater, and landfill leachate by modified Rhizopus oryzae biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Behrouz; Foroutan, Rauf; Ahmadi, Bahram; Sadeghzadeh, Farzaneh; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution, shipyard wastewater, and sanitary landfill leachate using an alkaline-modified Rhizopus oryzae biomass. According to the Fourier transform infrared test, different functional groups like O–H, N–H, C=O, and P–O were detected in the bioadsorbent. The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed that CaO, P2O3, and SO3 oxides have the highest content in the bioadsorbent. The surface area of modified Rhizopus oryzae was obtained as 20.32 m2 g‑1. The effect of initial pH, temperature, contact time, and bioadsorbent dose on the metals removal was discussed. At optimal conditions, maximum Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal was obtained 95.66% and 94.55%, respectively. Freundlich model was well- accurately described the equilibrium data. Among four studied models, the pseudo-second-order was better able to describe the kinetic behavior of the bioadsorption process. The amount of enthalpy, free energy of Gibbs, and entropy parameters indicated that the bioadsorption process of studied heavy metals is negative, exothermic, and spontaneous. The amount of heavy metals in a shipyard wastewater and sanitary landfill leachate was significantly decreased by using the developed bioadsorbent.

  19. The influence of inoculum composition on selected bioactive and nutritional parameters of grass pea tempeh obtained by mixed-culture fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus oryzae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzynska-Janiszewska, A; Stodolak, B; Dulinski, R; Mickowska, B

    2012-04-01

    Tempeh is a popular Indonesian product obtained from legume seeds by solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. The aim of this research was to study the effect of simultaneous mixed-culture fermentation of grass pea seeds on selected parameters of products as compared to traditional tempeh. The inoculum contained different ratios of Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus oryzae spores. The simultaneous fermentation of grass pea seeds with inoculum consisting of 1.2 × 10(6) R. oligosporus and 0.6 × 10(6) A. oryzae spores (per 60 g of seeds) resulted in a product of improved quality, as compared with traditionally made tempeh (obtained after inoculation with 1.2 × 10(6) R. oligosporus spores), at the same fermentation time. This product had radical scavenging ability 70% higher than the one obtained with pure R. oligosporus culture and contained 2.23 g/kg dm of soluble phenols. The thiamin and riboflavin levels were above three (340 µg/g dm) and two (50.50 µg/g dm) folds higher than in traditionally made tempeh, respectively. The product had 65% in vitro bioavailability of proteins and 33% in vitro bioavailability of sugars. It also contained 40% less 3-N-oxalyl-L-2, 3-diaminopropionic acid (0.074 g/kg dm), as compared to traditional tempeh.

  20. Bio-synthesis and hydrolysis of ethyl phenylacetate and ethyl 2-phenylpropionate in organic solvent by lyophilized mycelia Biossíntese e hidrólise de fenilacetato de etila e 2-fenilpropionato de etila em solvente orgânico por meio de micélios liofilizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torre

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To select the best biocatalysts for ethanol acylations with phenylacetic and 2-phenylpropionic acids, lyophilized mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae CBS 10207, A. oryzae MIM, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 11207, R. oryzae CBS 39134, R. oryzae CBS 26028 and R. oryzae CBS 32847 were tested in this study. The carboxylesterase activities of A. oryzae MIM and R. oryzae 11207, which revealed to be the best biocatalysts, were investigated either in 0.1 M phosphate buffer or in n-heptane to catalyze the hydrolysis or the synthesis of ethyl esters of these acids, respectively. A. oryzae proved more effective than R. oryzae, probably due to more favorable microenvironment conditions and thermodynamic scenario. The results in terms of product formation and substrate consumption versus time were used to estimate the maximum conversion yields, the equilibrium constants and the times needed to reach half maximum conversion, thus providing sufficient information about these equilibria.Micélios liofilizados de Aspergillus oryzae CBS 10207, A. oryzae MIM, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 11207, R. oryzae CBS 39134, R. oryzae CBS 26028 e R. oryzae CBS 32847 foram testados neste estudo com vista à seleção do melhor biocatalisador para efetuar a acilação de etanol com ácidos fenilacético e 2-fenilpropiônico. As atividades carboxilesterásicas de A. oryzae MIM e R. oryzae 11207, que resultaram ser os melhores biocatalisadores, foram investigadas tanto em tampão fosfato 0,1 M como em n-heptano para catalisar a hidrólise ou a síntese dos ésteres etílicos destes ácidos. A. oryzae pareceu ser mais eficaz que R. oryzae, provavelmente devido a condições micro-ambientais e a um cenário termodinâmico mais favoráveis. Os resultados obtidos em termos de formação do produto e consumo dos substratos em função do tempo foram usados para a estimativa dos rendimentos de conversão máximos, as constantes de equilíbrio e os tempos necessários para alcançar metade da conversão m

  1. Transcriptional response of P. pastoris in fed-batch cultivations to Rhizopus oryzae lipase production reveals UPR induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero Francisco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of transcriptional levels of the genes involved in protein synthesis and secretion is a key factor to understand the host organism's responses to recombinant protein production, as well as their interaction with the cultivation conditions. Novel techniques such as the sandwich hybridization allow monitoring quantitatively the dynamic changes of specific RNAs. In this study, the transcriptional levels of some genes related to the unfolded protein response (UPR and central metabolism of Pichia pastoris were analysed during batch and fed-batch cultivations using an X-33-derived strain expressing a Rhizopus oryzae lipase under control of the formaldehyde dehydrogenase promoter (FLD1, namely the alcohol oxidase gene AOX1, the formaldehyde dehydrogenase FLD1, the protein disulfide isomerase PDI, the KAR2 gene coding for the BiP chaperone, the 26S rRNA and the R. oryzae lipase gene ROL. Results The transcriptional levels of the selected set of genes were first analysed in P. pastoris cells growing in shake flask cultures containing different carbon and nitrogen sources combinations, glycerol + ammonium, methanol + methylamine and sorbitol + methylamine. The transcriptional levels of the AOX1 and FLD1 genes were coherent with the known regulatory mechanism of C1 substrates in P. pastoris, whereas ROL induction lead to the up-regulation of KAR2 and PDI transcriptional levels, thus suggesting that ROL overexpression triggers the UPR. This was further confirmed in fed-batch cultivations performed at different growth rates. Transcriptional levels of the analysed set of genes were generally higher at higher growth rates. Nevertheless, when ROL was overexpressed in a strain having the UPR constitutively activated, significantly lower relative induction levels of these marker genes were detected. Conclusion The bead-based sandwich hybridization assay has shown its potential as a reliable instrument for quantification of

  2. The production of corn kernel miso based on rice-koji fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ratnaningrum

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of corn kernel as raw material to produce miso fermented by rice-koji containing Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus has been investigated. The optimization was conducted on two important factors in miso production namely mold composition in rice-koji and salt concentration. The mold composition was prepared by inoculating the spores of 2% A. oryzae, 2% R. oligosporus, and 2% the mixture of both in a ratio of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2 (v/v into different rice media. The mold composition was optimized to produce rice-koji with high α-amylase and protease activity. Different NaCl concentrations of 10%, 15%, and 20% were subjected to optimization process and added to each mixture after five days of fermentation. The salt concentration was also optimized to produce corn kernel miso with high glucose and high dissolved protein concentration. The result showed that rice-koji containing A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 had the highest α-amylase and protease activity of 0.42 U/mL and 0.45 U/mL respectively. In addition, the presence of 10% NaCl in corn kernel miso fermented by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 exhibited the highest glucose and dissolved protein concentration of 0.64 mg/mL and 8.80 mg/mL respectively. The optimized corn kernel miso by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 with 10% NaCl was subjected to nutrient content analysis and compared to the result before the corn kernel was fermented. The nutrient content analysis showed nutrient enhancement after corn kernel was fermented and transformed into a miso. Glucose, dissolved protein, and fat content increased 6.74, 1.34, 7.63 times respectively. This study concludes corn kernel could be utilized to produce a novel corn kernel miso for dietary diversification and for improving nutritional and health status.

  3. Attraction of Mosquitoes to Diethyl Methylbenzamide and Ethyl Hexanediol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    tant to the biting midges Culicoides pulicaris that 8% ethyl acetate was attractant to the Linn. and Culicoides puncticoUis Becker (Cera- vinegar fly...Drosoph- finding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culcidae): a review. ila melanogaster Meigen to the products of ferment - Bull. Entomol. Res. 70:525-532. ing banana

  4. Supercritical antisolvent co-precipitation of rifampicin and ethyl cellulose

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Djerafi, R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available . Using the solvent mixture, co-precipitates with particle sizes ranging between 190 and 230 nm were obtained with drug loading and drug precipitation yield from respectively 8.5 to 38.5 and 42.4 to 77.2% when decreasing the ethyl cellulose...

  5. Effects of ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Vitex simplicifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five rats each, and daily ...

  6. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  7. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis in Human Leukemia U937 Cells by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species. C-H Kang, S-H Kang, S-H Boo, S-Y Park, D-O Moon, G-Y Kim ...

  8. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  9. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod; Alabbad, Mohammed; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored

  10. short communication reaction of ethyl acetoacetate and 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    starting materials. Thus, we describe in this paper a facile procedure for the synthesis of 9- phenyl-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-ones involving the reaction of ethyl acetoacetate and chalcones derived from the condensation of salicylaldehyde and acetophenone derivatives. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS. The conditions for the ...

  11. Effects of Piliostigma thonningii ethyl acetate leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent research findings extol the medicinal significance of the different parts of Piliostigma thonningii. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of its ethyl acetate leaf extract against AlCl3-induced hepatocellular derangement in mature male rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (mean weight, 207 ± 11.01g) were ...

  12. Catalytic Synthesis of Ethyl Ester From Some Common Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalytic conversion of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) was carried out by homogeneous and heterogeneous transesterification of melon seed, shea butter and neem seed oils using NaOH, KOH and 5wt%CaO/Al2O3 catalyst systems respectively. Oil content of the seeds from n-hexane or hot water extract ranged ...

  13. Ethyl ester purpurine-18 from Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Giulietti, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    The phaeophorbide ethyl ester named Purpurine-18 and the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were obtained by chromatographic procedures from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Gossypium mustelinum. The structure of these compound was determined by NMR, IR and mass spectra data analysis. This is the first occurrence of this compound in Angiosperm. (author)

  14. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    In this study, the role of the ethyl alcohol extract of H. fusiforme (EAHF) in the induction of apoptosis in ... closely related to the induction of apoptosis via the downregulation of IAP family members such as IAP-. 1, IAP-2 ... induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells through ... Total cell extracts were prepared using PRO-.

  15. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and ...

  16. Radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate on nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Clinical Laboratory, The 5th People's Hospital of Ji'nan, Ji'nan ... Purpose: To investigate the radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate (ETF) on naso-pharyngeal ... malignant solid tumors of head and neck which ... Excess irradiation could result in severe side .... protein bands were probed with corresponding.

  17. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  18. Effects of pesticide (Chlorpyrifos Ethyl) on the fingerlings of catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity bioassay of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos ethyl on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus was evaluated to determine its effect on the survival, body morphology and the lethal concentration (LC50). Following a preliminary bioassay in mg/l concentration which showed 100% mortality, fish were ...

  19. Stress response in medically important Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Paul, Saikat; Shivaprakash, M Rudramurthy; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2016-10-01

    Mucorales are saprobes, ubiquitously distributed and able to infect a heterogeneous population of human hosts. The fungi require robust stress responses to survive in human host. We tested the growth of Mucorales in the presence of different abiotic stress. Eight pathogenic species of Mucorales, including Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Apophysomyces elegans, Licthemia corymbifera, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Mucor racemosus, were exposed to different stress inducers: osmotic (sodium chloride and d-sorbitol), oxidative (hydrogen peroxide and menadione), pH, cell wall and metal ions (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg). Wide variation in stress responses was noted: R. arrhizus showed maximum resistance to both osmotic and oxidative stresses, whereas R. pusillus and M. indicus were relatively sensitive. Rhizopus arrhizus and R. microsporus showed maximum resistance to alkaline pH, whereas C. bertholletiae, L. corymbifera, M. racemosus and A. elegans were resistant to acidic pH. Maximum tolerance was noted in R. microsporus to Cu, R. microsporus and R. arrhizus to Fe and C. bertholletiae to Zn. In contrast, L. corymbifera, A. elegans and M. indicus were sensitive to Cu, Zn and Fe respectively. In conclusion, R. arrhizus showed high stress tolerance in comparison to other species of Mucorales, and this could be the possible reason for high pathogenic potential of this fungi. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. 10.99 Section 10.99 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Provisions Ethyl Alcohol § 10.99 Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. (a) If claim is made...

  1. Rhizopus stolonifer exhibits dimorphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... C. O. Omoifo. Department of ... stolonifer could utilize glucose for growth, this study examined the effect ... H54Ar meter balance and added to the beaker. The pH was .... This work was done at the MTCC-1, Institute of Microbial. Technology ... Mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis. J. Appl.

  2. Micellar phase boundaries under the influence of ethyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Denis E.

    2016-01-01

    The Compton spectrum quenching technique is used to monitor the effect of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) additions on phase boundaries in two systems. In toluenic solutions of the nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, EtOH shifts the boundary separating the first clear phase from the first turbid phase to higher water:surfactant ratios. In a commonly used scintillant, Ultima Gold AB, the critical micelle concentration is not shifted. The molecular interactions behind the observations and implications for liquid scintillation counting are discussed. - Highlights: • Compton spectrum quenching technique applied to find micellar phase boundaries. • Toluenic Triton X-100 and Ultima Gold AB investigated. • Ethyl alcohol affects phase boundaries in Triton X-100, not in Ultima Gold AB. • Phase boundary observations discussed in terms of relevant molecular interactions.

  3. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH 3 CH 2 SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH 3 CH 2 SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH 3 SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL

  4. Contact dermatitis to ethyl-cyanoacrylate-containing glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, D V

    1987-10-01

    3 patients with contact dermatitis to an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue are presented. Although reactions to cyanoacrylate glues are considered rare, more widespread use of these products by nail salons is likely to be associated with an increased incidence of positive reactions. All 3 of our patients came into contact with the glue during "nail wrapping". In this process, ethyl cyanoacrylate or another "instant glue" is used to adhere glue-impregnated silk or linen to the nail plate which is then filed to shape the nail. This procedure creates fine acrylic-containing dust which may facilitate an allergic response. Fine particulate matter may be transferred to other distant cutaneous sites, such as the eyelids, resulting in more widespread cutaneous eruptions. Dermatologists in areas where nail wrapping is becoming more fashionable are advised to be alert to potential cyanoacrylate glue allergies which present as periungual eczema which may be associated with eyelid dermatitis and features of nummular dermatitis particularly over the dorsal hand.

  5. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopía y Bioespectroscopía, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología CAB, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T., E-mail: lucie.kolesnikova@uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: brittany.gordon@ncf.edu, E-mail: shipman@ncf.edu [Division of Natural Sciences, New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL 34243 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL.

  6. 3-Chloro-2-ethyl-6-nitro-2H-indazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mokhtar Mohamed Abdelahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H8ClN3O2, the orientation of the ethyl substituent is partly determined by an intramolecular C—H...Cl hydrogen bond. The indazole moiety is slightly folded with an angle of 0.70 (8° between the five- and six-membered rings. In the crystal, molecules pack in layers parallel to [100] through C—H...π(ring and N...;O...π(ring interactions.

  7. Synthesis of new radiotracers based of Ethyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, Donia

    2008-01-01

    The in vivo study of a biochemical or physiological process requires the synthesis of specific radiotracers but also the targeting of these compounds so that they can reach their target tissue. Methodologies original synthesis associated with radioisotopes used, the quantities and chemical forms often have to be available developed. The chemistry of metal complexes booming, we were able to use the ethyl ester combined with technetium, forming a stable radiotracer. Finally, a counting of radioactivity in different rat's organs completed our study. (Author)

  8. Chemical study of ethyl Acetate fraction of Picrasma Javanica Bl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hainil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available N-1 main compound from ethyl acetate fraction of kayu pahit bark (Picrasma Javanica B1 has been isolated and characterized with colom chromatography and continued with preparative chromatography. According to analized from spectrum data used ultraviolet (UV spectroscopy, infra red (IR, 1H RMI (Resonansi Magnet Inti, 13 C RMI, Massa , COSY (Correlated Spectroscopy, HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation, HMBC ( Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation and literature study showed that the compound of isolation was javanicin A.

  9. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  10. Rhizopus-associated soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent air-conditioning technician after a road traffic accident: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Nada B; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O

    2012-03-01

    Rhinocerebral or sinopulmonary mucromycosis is a well-recognized human fungal infection found among immunocompromised and diabetic patients. However, the infection is rare among immunocompetent hosts. We are reporting the case of an adult immunocompetent male patient working as an air-conditioning technician. The patient was a victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and sustained multiple fractures in the proximal part of the left tibia, distal femur, and scapula. Two weeks postoperatively, Rhizopus microspores were isolated from an infected traumatic wound over the distal femur. Surgical debridement was performed, and the patient was started on amphotericin B. Occupational exposure history and workplace environmental sanitation are crucial for the prevention of this potentially fatal yet preventable infection. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Fermentation Without Neutralisation of Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RK02 by Low-Energy Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wen; Wang Tao; Yang Yingge; Liu Dan; Fan Yonghong; Wang Dongmei; Yang Qian; Yao Jianming; Zheng Zhiming; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    In order to get an industrial strain which can yield a high concentration of lactic acid for ISPR (in situ product removal), the original strain Rhizopus oryzae RE3303 was mutated by low-energy ion beam implantation. A mutant RK02 was screened, and the factors such as the substrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum size, seed age, aeration and temperature that affect the production of lactic acid were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of L(+)-lactic acid reached 34.85 g/L after 30 h shake-flask cultivation without adding any neutralisation (5% Glucose added), which was a 146% increase in lactic acid production after ion implantation compared with the original strain. It was also shown that RK02 can be used in ISPR to reduce the number of times of separation.

  12. Analysis and interpretation of specific ethanol metabolites, ethyl sulfate, and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent for the quantitative measurement of regional alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm J; Langford, Katherine H; Mørland, Jørg; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of urinary metabolites in sewage streams and the subsequent estimation of consumption rates of the parent compounds have previously been demonstrated for pharmaceuticals and narcotics. Ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide are excreted in urine following the ingestion of alcohol, and are useful biomarkers for the identification of acute alcohol consumption. This study reports a novel ion-exchange-mediated chromatographic method for the quantitative measurement of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent, and presents a novel calculation method for the purposes of relating the resulting sewage concentrations with rates of alcohol consumption in the region. A total of 100 sewage samples covering a 25-day period were collected from a treatment plant servicing approximately 500,000 people, and analyzed for levels of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide. The resulting data were then used to estimate combined alcohol consumption rates for the region, and the results were compared with alcohol related sales statistics for the same region. Ethyl glucuronide was found to be unstable in sewage effluent. Ethyl sulfate was stable and measurable in all samples at concentrations ranging from 16 to 246 nM. The highest concentrations of the alcohol biomarker were observed during weekend periods. Sixty one percent of the total mass of ethyl sulfate in sewage effluent corresponds to alcohol consumption on Friday and Saturday. Sales statistics for alcohol show that consumption in the region is approximately 6,750 kg/d. The quantity of ethyl sulfate passing through the sewage system is consistent with consumption of 4,900 to 7,800 kg/d.   Sewage epidemiology assessments of ethyl sulfate can provide accurate estimates of community alcohol consumption, and detailed examination of the kinetics of this biomarker in sewage streams can also identify time-dependent trends in alcohol consumption patterns. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Rhinocerebral zygomycosis in a diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Alves da Cunha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhinocerebral zygomycosis is the most frequent form of fungal infection caused by members of the Zygomycetes class. A fatal case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus (oryzae arrhizus with histopathological and mycological diagnosis is reported in a diabetic patient.

  14. Phase diagram measurements by Heat-flux DSC and thermodynamic calculations of the mixture of the Esters Ethyl undecanoate (C13H26O2) and Ethyl tridecanoate (C15H30O2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaftenaar, H.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this report a phase diagram is determined by heat flux DSC of the binary mixture Ethyl undecanoate and Ethyl tridecanoate. Our hypothesis for equilibrium phase behaviour is that the components Ethyl undecanoate and Ethyl tridecanoate do have the same crystal form and they have restricted

  15. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  16. MMT promises: how the Ethyl Corporation beat the federal ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The manganese-based MMT has been blended in gasoline fuel sold in Canada for almost 20 years. Invoking environmental health and consumer protection grounds, the federal government moved to prohibit the importation and inter-provincial trade of MMT in June 1997. Ethyl Corporation of Richmond, Virginia, the sole producers of MMT, claimed discriminatory treatment under NAFTA and sought $ 250 million in damages as compensation for alleged 'expropriation' of the company's investment interests. A stunning reversal of the Canadian government's decision occurred one year later. Canada agreed to pay Ethyl Corporation $ 13 million (representing legal fees and lost profits) and agreed to rescind the legislation and admit publicly that the use of MMT poses no environmental risk. The reversal was the result of the little-known Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT), a federal-provincial government agreement, intended to reduce 'non-tariff' barriers to inter-provincial trade and create greater economic union. The AIT is modelled on NAFTA and the Uruguay-round GATT, and treats relations between the Canadian provinces as if they were relations among sovereign states. In cases of conflict, provinces are entitled to seek resolution of complaints before dispute resolution panels. Some of the provinces voiced objection to the MMT legislation and Alberta, supported by three other provinces, filed an AIT complaint against the federal government for prohibiting the inter-provincial trade of MMT. The AIT dispute panel upheld Alberta's complaint. The decision was hailed as a 'triumph of principle over bad science'. It was an unmitigated success for Ethyl Corporation, and a humiliating defeat for the federal government. In this author's view, the MMT story is a clear example of yet another instrument by which corporate power can limit the capacity of democratically elected governments to act on behalf of the public good

  17. Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.

  18. Degradation of ethyl alcohol on niobium hydraxide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'eva, M.A.; Maslova, E.S.; Artem'ev, Yu.M.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of niobium hydroxide were prepared from niobium(5) chloride solutions in anhydrous ethanol. Niobium hydroxide groups were applied on the surface of dispersed silica-airsilogel. Pulse microcatalytic method was used to reveal, that synthesized hydroxide catalysed ethanol decomposition at 573 K only along the direction of dehydration with formation of ethylene. Ethylene was also the main product of alcohol degradation on applied samples, and procedure of dehydration reactions was noticeable. Spectra of temperature programmed surface reactions demonstrate the similarity of acidic surface properties of these two types of samples. Hydroxide compounds of niobium and bismuth were tested for correlation. They were active during ethyl alcohol dehydrogenation

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation with Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth performance, blood profile, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits in broilers exposed to heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sugiharto; T. Yudiarti; I. Isroli; E. Widiastuti; F. D. Putra

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplementation of additives has recently been part of strategies to deal with the detrimental effects of heat stress (HS) on the performance and carcass traits in broiler chicks. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the fungi Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth, blood profile, intestinal microbial population and carcass traits in broiler chicks subjected to HS. R. oryzae and C. crassa are filamentous fungi isolated from...

  20. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S., E-mail: sparimyur@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV–Vis–NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV–Vis–NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV–Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  1. On the high-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed; Giri, Binod; Szőri, Milá n; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of ethyl levulinate (EL) was studied behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1015-1325K and pressures of 750-1650Torr. The reaction progress was followed by measuring ethylene mole fraction using CO2 gas laser absorption near 10.532 μm. The rate coefficients for the unimolecular dissociation of EL were extracted from the initial slope method and further ascertained by using a complete kinetic model. Our data exhibited no discernible pressure dependence under the current experimental conditions. To rationalize our results further, high-level quantum chemical and master equation calculations were employed to calculate the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that unimolecular dissociation of EL involves simultaneous 1,5-hydrogen shift of the β-hydrogen to the carbonyl group, rupture of the O-C ester bond and formation of the π-bond (C α -C β ). Our results present evidences that the C2H4 elimination from EL occurs in a concerted manner. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental and theoretical study of the thermal unimolecular dissociation of ethyl levulinate. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  2. On the high-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2016-09-20

    The pyrolysis of ethyl levulinate (EL) was studied behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1015-1325K and pressures of 750-1650Torr. The reaction progress was followed by measuring ethylene mole fraction using CO2 gas laser absorption near 10.532 μm. The rate coefficients for the unimolecular dissociation of EL were extracted from the initial slope method and further ascertained by using a complete kinetic model. Our data exhibited no discernible pressure dependence under the current experimental conditions. To rationalize our results further, high-level quantum chemical and master equation calculations were employed to calculate the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that unimolecular dissociation of EL involves simultaneous 1,5-hydrogen shift of the β-hydrogen to the carbonyl group, rupture of the O-C ester bond and formation of the π-bond (C α -C β ). Our results present evidences that the C2H4 elimination from EL occurs in a concerted manner. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental and theoretical study of the thermal unimolecular dissociation of ethyl levulinate. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  3. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. [[Page 82321

  4. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and molecular docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Mallika [Department of Chemistry, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India); Mishra, Rashmi; Agarwala, Paban K. [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Ojha, Himanshu, E-mail: himanshu.drdo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Bhawna [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Anju; Kukreti, Shrikant [Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • ITC study showed binding of ethyl pyruvate with BSA with high binding affinity. • Ethyl pyruvate binding caused conformation alteration of BSA. • Fluorescence quenching mechanism is static in nature. • Electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces involved in binding. • Docking confirmed role of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces. - Abstract: Various in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential role of ethyl pyruvate. Bio-distribution of drugs is significantly influenced by the drug-serum protein binding. Therefore, the binding mechanism of the ethyl pyruvate with bovine serum albumin was investigated using UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking techniques. Absorption and fluorescence quenching studies indicated the binding of ethyl pyruvate with protein. Circular dichroism spectra of bovine serum albumin confirmed significant change in the conformation of protein upon binding. Thermodynamic data confirmed that ethyl pyruvate binds to bovine serum albumin at the two different sites with high affinity. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin involves hydrogen bonding, van der Waal and hydrophobic interactions. Further, docking studies indicated that ethyl pyruvate could bind significantly at the three binding sites. The results will definitely contribute to the development of ethyl pyruvate as drug.

  5. Development of 68Ga ethyl cysteinate dimer for PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alireza Mirzaei; Jalilian, A.R.; Gholamali Shabani; Ashraf Fakhari; Mehdi Akhlaghi; Davood Beiki

    2016-01-01

    In this work development of 68 Ga-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 68 Ga-ECD) a 68 Ga tracer for possible cerebral blood flow based on 99m Tc ECD homolog is reported. 68 Ga-ECD was prepared using generator-based 68 GaCl 3 and ECD at optimized conditions. Quality control, stability, partition co-efficient and the biodistribution of the tracer (by tissue counting and PET/CT in rats) was studied. Significant metabolism of the lipophilic tracer into water soluble metabolite(s) led to urinary excretion of the tracer, un-comparable to that of homologous 99m Tc-compound. Cardiac uptake of the complex suggests formation of a possible lipophil cationic complex and/or metabolite. (author)

  6. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  7. Reactions of ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Espenson, H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-03

    Methylrhenium trioxide (CH{sub 3}ReO{sub 3} or MTO) has found wise use in catalysis, including the epoxidation and metathesis of olefins, aldehyde olefination, and oxygen transfer. Extensive reports have now appeared in the area of MTO-catalyzed substrate oxidations with hydrogen peroxide. Certain catalytic applications of MTO for organic reactions that do not utilize peroxide have now been realized. In particular, a catalytic amount of MTO with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) will convert aromatic imines to aziridines and convert aldehydes and ketones to epoxides. The aziridine preparation proceeds in high yields under anaerobic conditions more conveniently than with existing methods. Compounds with a three-membered heterocyclic ring can be obtained with the EDA/MTO catalytic system. Aromatic imines undergo cycloaddition reactions to give aziridines under mild conditions.

  8. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod

    2016-10-09

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored by detecting CH near 10.532 μm using CO gas laser absorption. In addition, G3//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and master equation calculations were performed to assess the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that CH elimination occurs via a six-centered retro-ene transition state. Our measured rate data are close to the high-pressure limit and showed no discernable temperature fall off.

  9. The Production of Benzaldehyde by Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 in a Solid State Fermentation (SSF System of Soy Bean Meal: Rice Husks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 for the production of benzaldehyde, a bitter cherry almond flavour was performed using soya bean meal and rice husks as the substrates. The identification of R. oligosporus USM R1 was performed based on the observation made under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimum conditions for the SSF in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask system were 40% (v/w water content, substrate particle size of 0.7 mm; inoculum size of 1 x 10^5 spores/g substrate; incubation temperature of 30C; substrate amount of 7 g and the ratio of soy bean meal: rice husks of 50:50%. A maximum benzaldehyde production was obtained when the substrate was agitated after 48 hour for a 96 hour fermentation time. The highest benzaldehyde production obtained after 96 hour cultivation was 5.47 mg g-1 substrate. The supplementation of carbon and nitrogen sources in the substrate mixture revealed an enhancement in the growth and benzyldehyde production. A maximum production of benzaldehyde was obtained with the supplementation of L-phenylalanine, a precursor for benzaldehyde biosynthesis which gave 38.69 mg benzaldehyde/g substrate. This is approximately 6-folds higher compared to the substrates without the supplementation of L-phenylalanine.

  10. Enhanced production of raw starch degrading enzyme using agro-industrial waste mixtures by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus for raw cassava chip saccharification in ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakarnpaiboon, Srisakul; Srisuk, Nantana; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Sakai, Kenji; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, solid-state fermentation for the production of raw starch degrading enzyme was investigated by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus TISTR 3531 using a combination of agro-industrial wastes as substrates. The obtained crude enzyme was applied for hydrolysis of raw cassava starch and chips at low temperature and subjected to nonsterile ethanol production using raw cassava chips. The agro-industrial waste ratio was optimized using a simplex axial mixture design. The results showed that the substrate mixture consisting of rice bran:corncob:cassava bagasse at 8 g:10 g:2 g yielded the highest enzyme production of 201.6 U/g dry solid. The optimized condition for solid-state fermentation was found as 65% initial moisture content, 35°C, initial pH of 6.0, and 5 × 10 6 spores/mL inoculum, which gave the highest enzyme activity of 389.5 U/g dry solid. The enzyme showed high efficiency on saccharification of raw cassava starch and chips with synergistic activities of commercial α-amylase at 50°C, which promotes low-temperature bioethanol production. A high ethanol concentration of 102.2 g/L with 78% fermentation efficiency was achieved from modified simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cofermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate of 300 g raw cassava chips/L with cane molasses.

  11. Biocatalytic Behaviour of Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in the 1,3-Selective Ethanolysis of Sunflower Oil to Obtain a Biofuel Similar to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt % support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively. Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  12. Biosorption of Cr(VI) in Aqueous Solution using Microorganisms: Comparison of the Use of Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus firmus, and Trichoderma viride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Anna; Mahardini, Putri; Prasetyawan, Sasangka; Roosdiana, Anna

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the study of biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was conducted using Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus firmus, and Trichoderma viride as microorganisms that can absorb Cr(VI). The research is focused on determination of optimum conditions including pH, the number of R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride (inoculums), and initial concentrations of Cr(VI) used. Optimum pH was obtained at pH 5, 4.5 and 6, for biosorption of Cr(VI) with R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride, respectively, in the capacity of 45.3%, 24.5%, and 90.3%. The highest amount of Cr(VI) adsorbed for biosorption with R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride, were 55.4%, 18.5%, and 74.5%, respectively, using 6-mL inoculums. The equilibrium concentrations achieved for R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride were 60 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, and 40 mg/mL, with the amount of Cr(VI) adsorbed were 32.4%, 28.2%, and 89.3%, respectively. The adsorption capacity for R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride were 45.3 mg/1×106 colonies, 36.2 mg/1×106 cells, and 77.8 mg/1×106 colonies, respectively. Overall, the biosorbents effectivity order in the biosorption process of Cr(VI) are T. viride > R. oryzae > B. firmus.

  13. [State of Fungal Lipases of Rhizopus microsporus, Penicillium sp. and Oospora lactis in Border Layers Water-Solid Phase and Factors Affecting Catalytic Properties of Enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, Kh T; Davranov, K; Rakhimov, M M

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that a change in the catalytic activity of fungal lipases synthesized by Rhizopus microsporus, Penicillium sp. and Oospora lactis and their ability to absorb on different sorbents depended on the nature of groups on the solid phase surface in the model systems water: lipid and water: solid phase. Thus, the stability of Penicillium sp. lipases increased 85% in the presence ofsorsilen or DEAE-cellulose, and 55% of their initial activity respectively was preserved. In the presence of silica gel and CM-cellulose, a decreased rate of lipid hydrolysis by Pseudomonas sp. enzymes was observed in water medium, and the hydrolysis rate increased by 2.4 and 1.5 times respectively in the presence of aminoaerosil and polykefamid. In an aqueous-alcohol medium, aminoaerosil and polykefamid decreased the rate of substrate hydrolysis by more than 30 times. The addition of aerosil to aqueous and aqueous-alcohol media resulted in an increase in the hydrolysis rate by 1.2-1.3 times. Sorsilen stabilized Penicillium sp. lipase activity at 40, 45, 50 and 55 degrees C. Either stabilization or inactivation of lipases was observed depending on the pH of the medium and the nature of chemical groups localized on the surface of solid phase. The synthetizing activity of lipases also changed depending on the conditions.

  14. Omics-based approaches reveal phospholipids remodeling of Rhizopus oryzae responding to furfural stress for fumaric acid-production from xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinrong; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Jiao; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2016-12-01

    In order to relieve the toxicity of furfural on Rhizopus oryzae fermentation, the molecular mechanism of R. oryzae responding to furfural stress for fumaric acid-production was investigated by omics-based approaches. In metabolomics analysis, 29 metabolites including amino acid, sugars, polyols and fatty acids showed significant changes for maintaining the basic cell metabolism at the cost of lowering fumaric acid production. To further uncover the survival mechanism, lipidomics was carried out, revealing that phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and polyunsaturated acyl chains might be closely correlated with R. oryzae's adapting to furfural stress. Based on the above omics analysis, lecithin, inositol and soybean oil were exogenously supplemented separately with an optimized concentration in the presence of furfural, which increased fumaric acid titer from 5.78g/L to 10.03g/L, 10.05g/L and 12.13g/L (increased by 73.5%, 73.8% and 110%, respectively). These findings provide a methodological guidance for hemicellulose-fumaric acid development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antifungal effect of phenolic extract of fermented rice bran with Rhizopus oryzae and its potential use in loaf bread shelf life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardi-Souza, Taiana; Luz, Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana; Meca, Giuseppe

    2018-03-30

    In this study the antifungal potential of a phenolic extract obtained from rice bran fermented with Rhizopus oryzae CECT 7560 and its application in the elaboration of bread was assessed. Eighteen compounds with antifungal potential were identified by LC-ESI-qTOF-MS in the extract: organic acids, gallates and gallotannins, flavonoids, ellagic acid and benzophenone derivatives. The extract was active against strains of Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 390 to 3100 µg mL -1 and minimum fungicidal concentration variable from 780 to 6300 µg mL -1 . The strains that were most sensitive to the phenolic extract were F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, P. roqueforti, P. expansum and A. niger. The phenolic extract added at 5 and 1 g kg -1 concentrations in the preparation of bread loaves contaminated with P. expansum produced a reduction of 0.6 and 0.7 log CFU g -1 . The bread loaves treated with calcium propionate and 10 g kg -1 of the phenolic extract evidenced an improvement in their shelf lives of 3 days. The phenolic extract assessed in this study could be considered as an alternative for inhibiting toxigenic fungi and as a substitute for synthetic compounds in food preservation. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. An optimized fed-batch culture strategy integrated with a one-step fermentation improves L-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongqian; Sun, Xiaolong; Zhu, Huayue; Jiang, Ru; Luo, Xi; Yin, Longfei

    2018-05-21

    In previous work, we proposed a novel modified one-step fermentation fed-batch strategy to efficiently generate L-lactic acid (L-LA) using Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, to further enhance efficiency of L-LA production through one-step fermentation in fed-batch cultures, we systematically investigated the initial peptone- and glucose-feeding approaches, including different initial peptone and glucose concentrations and maintained residual glucose levels. Based on the results of this study, culturing R. oryzae with initial peptone and glucose concentrations of 3.0 and 50.0 g/l, respectively, using a fed-batch strategy is an effective approach of producing L-LA through one-step fermentation. Changing the residual glucose had no obvious effect on the generation of L-LA. We determined the maximum LA production and productivity to be 162 g/l and 6.23 g/(l·h), respectively, during the acid production stage. Compared to our previous work, there was almost no change in L-LA production or yield; however, the productivity of L-LA increased by 14.3%.

  17. Response surface optimization for the transesterification of karanja oil using immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae in n-hexane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Devanesan; Rajendran, Aravindan; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri [Annamalai University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-03-15

    Non-edible oils represent one of the most viable alternative feed stocks for the production of large volumes of biodiesel at cheaper cost in tropical countries. The objective of the present study is to investigate the ability of the immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 262 to catalyze the biodiesel production from karanja oil in n-hexane system. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, such as molar ratio of oil to alcohol, reaction temperature and reaction time on percentage biodiesel (methyl esters) yield. Transesterification was performed in shake flasks containing immobilized cells in the reaction mixture with 10% oil weight of n-hexane. The quadratic effects of molar ratio of oil to alcohol and reaction time proved to be the significant at 1% and 5% levels, respectively. The optimum synthesis conditions were found to be: molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:2.73, reaction temperature 41.39 C and reaction time 73.97 h. Biodiesel yield (methyl ester) was 75.98 (wt.%) under the optimal conditions and the subsequent verification experiments with biodiesel yield of 78.0 (wt.%) confirmed the validity of the proposed model. (orig.)

  18. Role of N-terminal 28-amino-acid region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in directing proteins to secretory pathway of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Shinji; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Shindo, Naoki; Numata, Takao; Yamaji, Hideki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2008-07-01

    To develop a new approach for improving heterologous protein production in Aspergillus oryzae, we focused on the functional role of the N-terminal region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL). Several N-terminal deletion variants of ROL were expressed in A. oryzae. Interestingly, a segment of 28 amino acids from the C-terminal region of the propeptide (N28) was found to be critical for secretion of ROL into the culture medium. To further investigate the role of N28, the ROL secretory process was visualized in vivo using ROL-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins. In cells producing ROL with N28, fluorescence observations showed that the fusion proteins are transported through endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, and cell wall, which is one of the typical secretory processes in a eukaryotic cell. Because the expression of the mature ROL-GFP fusion protein induced fluorescence accumulation without its translocation into the ER, N28 is considered to play a crucial role in protein transport. When N28 was inserted between the secretion signal and GFP, fluorescence observations showed that GFP, which is originally a cytoplasmic protein, was efficiently translocated into the ER of A. oryzae, resulting in an enhanced secretion of mature GFP after proteolytic cleavage of N28. These findings suggest that N28 facilitates protein translocation into ER and can be a promising candidate for improving heterologous protein production in A. oryzae.

  19. Correlation and prediction of mixing thermodynamic properties of ester-containing systems: Ester + alkane and ester + ester binary systems and the ternary dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Noelia; Fernández, Luís; Ortega, Juan; Toledo, Francisco J.; Wisniak, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excess enthalpies and volumes were measured for ester–ester–alkane. ► Mixing behaviour for ester–ester, ester–alkane and ester–ester–alkane are analyzed. ► Correlations with a new polynomial model reproduce well the mixing properties. ► UNIFAC predictions for h E result acceptable excluding the ester–ester mixtures. - Abstract: Excess thermodynamic properties V m E and H m E , have been measured for the ternary mixture dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate and for the corresponding binaries dodecane + ethyl pentanoate, dodecane + ethyl ethanoate, ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate at 298.15 K. All mixtures show endothermic and expansive effects. Experimental results are correlated with a suitable equation whose final form for the excess ternary quantity M E contains the particular contributions of the three binaries (i–j) and a last term corresponding to the ternary, all of them obtained considering fourth-order interactions. The fit goodness for all mixtures is good and comparable to others equations taken from the literature. In this work the dissolution model for the binaries and ternary is analyzed with a special attention to ester–ester binaries whose behaviour is discussed. The application of the UNIFAC group contribution model to estimate the H m E yields acceptable results for the binaries (with the exception of ester–ester) and for the ternary mixture.

  20. Synthesis, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of 3- Ethyl-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4(3H)-ones and evaluate them for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The compounds, 3-ethyl-2-substituted amino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones, were synthesized by reacting the amino group of 3-ethyl-2-hydrazino ...

  1. Biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl by Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong; Wang, Saige; Shi, Nan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2018-04-15

    The application of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl has a lasting toxic effect on some succession crops. Here, a bacterium capable of utilizing chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole source of nitrogen was isolated from the contaminated soil and was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1, and its detoxification and degradation of the herbicide were then examined. The biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was significantly accelerated with increasing concentration (1-10mg/l) and temperature (20-40°C). The optimal pH for the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was pH 7.0. A pathway for the biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was proposed, in which it could be first converted into 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine and an intermediate product by the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge and then transformed into saccharin via hydrolysis and amidation. The plant height and fresh weight of corn that had been incubated in nutrient solution containing 0.2mg/l of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly recovered to 83.9% and 83.1% compared with those in the uninoculated control, although the root growth inhibition of chlorimuron-ethyl could not be alleviated after inoculation for 14 d. The results indicate that the isolate CE-1 is a promising bacterial resource for the biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential susceptibility of rats and guinea pigs to the ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Ravensberg, L.C.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the ototoxic effects of volatile ethyl benzene in guinea pigs and rats. Rats showed deteriorated auditory thresholds in the mid-frequency range, based on electrocochleography, after 550-ppm ethyl benzene (8 h/day, 5 days). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss was

  3. Simultaneous exposure to ethyl benzene and noise : synergistic effects on outer hair cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects on hearing of simultaneous exposure to the ototoxic organic solvent ethyl benzene and broad-band noise were evaluated in rats. The effects of three ethyl benzene concentrations (0, 300 or 400 ppm) and three noise levels (95 or 105 dBlin SPL or background noise at 65 dBlin SPL) and all

  4. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J-C

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 , through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 10 15 cm -2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 10 15 cm -2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH 3 OCOH, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, CH 3 OCH 3 , CH 3 OH, and CH 3 CH 2 OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N (CH 3 OCH 3 )/ N (tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion.

  6. Icosapent ethyl for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Fares,1 Carl J Lavie,2,3 James J DiNicolantonio,4 James H O'Keefe,5 Richard V Milani2 1Department of Hospital Medicine, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, 2Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA, 4Mid America Heart Institute at Saint Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, MO, 5Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri–Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA Abstract: Hypertriglyceridemia is a highly prevalent lipid abnormality and it is associated with atherosclerosis, with a growing body of evidence linking elevated triglycerides (TGs with cardiovascular disease. The current major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA combination, lowers serum TGs while often increasing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Icosapent ethyl is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with a 96% pure ethyl ester of EPA that has been recently approved for lowering TG levels in patients with very high TGs (≥500 mg/dL, and it does so without significantly affecting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acid therapy for dyslipidemias will be discussed, including the potential pros and cons of EPA alone versus the more common and readily available EPA/DHA combination therapy. Keywords: triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  7. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after sustained exposure to an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-03-01

    To assess the degree of ethanol absorption and subsequent formation of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) following sustained application of hand sanitizer, 11 volunteers cleansed their hands with Purell(™) hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) every 5 min for 10 h on three consecutive days. Urine specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each day of the study, and on the morning of the fourth day. Urinary creatinine, ethanol, EtG, and EtS concentrations were measured. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (73 and 37 ng/mL). None of the pre-study specimens had detectable ethanol. The maximum EtG and EtS concentrations over the course of the study were 2001 and 84 ng/mL, respectively, and nearly all EtG- and EtS-positive urine specimens were collected at the conclusion of the individual study days. Only two specimens had detectable EtG at the beginning of any study day (96 and 139 ng/mL), and only one specimen had detectable EtS at the beginning of a study day (64 ng/mL), in addition to the two with detectable EtS prior to the study. Creatinine-adjusted maximum EtG and EtS concentrations were 1998 and 94 μg/g creatinine, respectively. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG concentrations, currently accepted EtG cutoffs do not distinguish between ethanol consumption and incidental exposures, particularly when urine specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanolcontaining hand sanitizer. Our data suggest that EtS may be an important complementary biomarker in distinguishing ethanol consumption from dermal exposure.

  8. 9-Hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl Lactone: A New Sesquiterpene Isolated from the Tropical Marine Sponge Dysidea arenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karuso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A new sesquiterpene, 9-hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl lactone, has been isolated from a New Caledonian Dysidea arenaria, along with three known compounds. The possible incorporation of the ethyl ether from the extraction solvent is discussed.

  9. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.-E; Zhou, Q.-X.

    2006-01-01

    Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

  10. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  12. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2015-01-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  13. Effect of hydrolysis enzymatic process of corn using protease crude (Rhizopus oligosporus-C1) to produce corn hydrolisate rich folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-11-01

    Corn hydrolyzate (Zea mays L) as a functional food fortificant derived from natural folic acid has been evaluated through a hydrolysis process using protease enzyme Rhizopus oligosporus strain C1. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on two types of corn; yellow and white pearl variety corn, at concentration of protease enzyme (rough) 0.025; 0.125; and 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) with a hydrolysis time of 24 h at 30 °C, and pH 5.0. The results showed that the concentration of protease enzymes can increase the folic acid to the optimum condition, from the beginning to the end of the process time. Folic acid optimization of hydrolysis results in each corn was at the concentration of protease enzyme 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) in white corn and yellow corn at 24 hours hydrolysis, with folic acid composition, 283.56 µg/mL and 412.52 µg/mL, 1.07 and 1.04 mg/mL of soluble proteins, proteolytic activity 2.09 and 2.06 U/mL, total solids of 21.74 and 17.85%, total sugars of 0.56 and 2.22 mg/mL, and reducing sugar 91.72 and 48.47 mg/mL. In this condition, the increase of optimum folic acid for white corn was 33.57% and for yellow corn was 71.60% after hydrolysis.

  14. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of a Thermotolerant Phytase Produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus Biofilm on an Inert Support Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Carbon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-06-01

    The Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm was able to produce increased levels of an extracellular thermotolerant phytase using polyethylene and viscose as an inert support in both modified NBRIP medium and modified Khanna medium containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. The enzyme production was strictly regulated by the phosphorus content with optimal production at 0.5 mM of sodium phytate and KH2PO4. The extracellular phytase, RMPhy1, was purified 4.18-fold with 4.78 % recovery using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. A single protein band with a molecular mass of 35.4 kDa was obtained when the samples were subjected to 10 % SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature for activity was 55 °C and the optimum pH was 4.5. R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase exhibited high stability at 30 and 40 °C with a half-life of 115 min at 60 °C. The enzyme activity increased in the presence of Ca (2+) and was inhibited by Zn(2+), arsenate, and sodium phosphate. Phytase demonstrated high substrate specificity for sodium phytate with K m = 0.72 mM and V max = 94.55 U/mg of protein and for p-NPP with K m = 0.04 mM and V max = 106.38 U/mg of protein. The enzyme also hydrolyzed ATP, AMPc, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and UDPG. This is the first report on phytase characterization delivered with biofilm technology. The properties of the enzyme account for its high potential for use in biotechnology and the possibility of application in different industrial sectors as feed in the future.

  16. Ethyl alcohol: high risk toxin for human healt socially accepted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Téllez Mosquera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most widely used drugs in World wide so it is in Colombia too. The United Nations Organization (UN report on substance abuse 2004, esteem that 2.6000 millions of persons used alcohol occasional, habitual, abuse or addictive way. In Colombia, RUMBOS, the presidential office for drugs addictions esteem that 89.7 % of the students in universities were habitual consumer of alcohol. Alcohol is the first psicoactivas substances use for people than after use illegal substances. When ethyl alcohol is used in permanent and frequent way produced acute and chronic adverses effect on the health. The long run alcohol abusers has adverse effect in the nutricions, neurological, hepatic and teratogenic. The neurological, gastrointestinal, endocrine and acid-base equilibrium area affected in acute ways principally. The social aspects in quite important too alcohol has been related to interfamiliar violence, traffic accidents and violence in general. The high incidence in use and consumption, its toxic effect over human health, its negative social effect and the fact that it´s a legal and social accept substance made alcohol and real public health problem. Its necessary to say "be careful with alcohol in general"

  17. Infrared laser transient absorption spectroscopy of the ethyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, T.J.; Johnson, P.M.; Jin, P.; Oatis, S.

    1996-01-01

    The observation and analysis of the high resolution spectrum of the CH 2 rocking fundamental of the ethyl radical, C 2 H 5 , at wavelengths close to 18.9 μm is reported. The band origin is found to be at 528.1 cm -1 . The spectrum shows evidence for a very low barrier to internal rotation, or torsion, in this species. A simple model Hamiltonian, based on an assumed structure with G 12 symmetry, qualitatively reproduces the observations and implies a torsional barrier of approximately 20 cm -1 in both the zero point and excited vibrational states. The Hamiltonian cannot reproduce the observations to the level of the experimental accuracy and the importance of several neglected terms is tested and discussed. The observed torsional splittings imply that, within the confines of the model, the a-inertial and internal rotation axes in the molecule are coincident to within 1 degree. In addition to their intrinsic interest, the spectra will be useful for future state resolved studies of the kinetics of chemical reactions involving the radical. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Membrane Separation of 2-Ethyl Hexyl Amine/1-Decene

    KAUST Repository

    Bawareth, Bander

    2012-12-01

    1-Decene is a valuable product in linear alpha olefins plants that is contaminated with 2-EHA (2-ethyl hexyl amine). Using organic solvent nanofiltration membranes for this separation is quite challengeable. A membrane has to be a chemically stable in this environment with reasonable and stable separation factor. This paper shows that Teflon AF 2400 and cellulose acetate produced interesting results in 1-decene/2-EHA separation. The separation factor of Teflon AF 2400 is 3 with a stable permeance of 1.1x10-2 L/(m2·h·bar). Likewise, cellulose acetate gave 2-EHA/1-decene separation factor of 2 with a lower permeance of 3.67x10-3 L/(m2·h·bar). A series of hydrophilic membranes were tested but they did not give any separation due to high degree of swelling of 2-EHA with these polymers. The large swelling causes the membrane to lose its diffusivity selectivity because of an increase in the polymer\\'s chain mobility.

  19. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  20. Molecular dosimetry of the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeland, A.A. van; Aaron, C.S.; Mohn, G.R.; Hung, C.Y.; Brockman, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Extending previous work with E. coli and mammalian cells in culture, forward-mutation frequencies induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were quantitatively compared in Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under standardized conditions. Concomitantly, the actual dose to DNA was measured by determining the amount of radioactivity bound to DNA after treatment with tritium-labeled EMS. After exposure to EMS (2.5-50 mM), alkylation levels in N. crassa and S. cerevisiae were similar to those previously determined in E. coli and cultured mammalian cells. Consistently, there was a slightly less than proportional increase of the DNA alkylation level with the exposure concentration of the mutagen. Forward mutagenesis induced in yeast and N. crassa showed exponential kinetics with exponents of 1.5 and 2.6, respectively. These results are similar to those previously reported with E. coli, which differed from the results with cultured mammalian cells, where a linear dose-effect relationship between exposure and genetic effect was observed. These differences may reflect differences in the fate of EMS-induced adducts by cellular DNA repair systems, but are not due to initial differences in DNA alkylation levels. The fate and persistence of specific DNA adducts potentially responsible for pre-mutagenic changes are under investigation. (orig.)

  1. Determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, D.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water samples were developed. Concentrations in the milligram-per-liter range were determined by injecting an aqueous sample into the analysis system through an injection port, trapping the organics on Tenax-GC at room temperature, and thermally desorbing the organics into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector for analysis. Concentrations in the microgram-per-liter range were determined by sweeping the headspace vapors over a water sample at 50C, trapping on Tenax-GC, and thermally desorbing the organics into the gas chromatograph. The precision for two operators of the milligram-per-liter concentration procedure, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was generally less than 2 percent for concentrations ranging from 16 to 160 milligrams per liter. The precision from two operators of the microgram-per-liter concentration procedure was between 2 and 4 percent for concentrations of 20 and 60 micrograms per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  3. Alkylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.H.; Lawley, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The ethyl phosphotriester of thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine, dTp((Et) dT, was identified as a product from the reaction of DNA with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Enzymic degradation to yield alkyl phosphotriesters from DNA alkylated by this carcinogen, and by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulphate and ethyl methanesulphonate was studied quantitatively, and the relative yields of the triesters dTp(Alk)dT were determined. The relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group dTpdT to each of the four carcinogens was thus obtained, and compared with that of DNA overall, or with that of the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. The results are related to steric factors, and the electrophilic character of each carcinogen. (author)

  4. Vapour pressures and osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate with alcohols at T = 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, Noelia; Gonzalez, Begona; Dominguez, Angeles; Macedo, Eugenia A.

    2009-01-01

    Osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) and the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate were determined at T = 323.15 K. Vapour pressure and activity coefficients of the studied systems were calculated from experimental data. The extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, and the modified NRTL model (MNRTL) were used to correlate the experimental data, obtaining standard deviations lower than 0.012 and 0.031, respectively. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy of the studied binary mixtures were calculated from the parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model of Archer.

  5. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  6. The synthesis of 5-[1-11C]ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of [ 11 C]phenobarbital, [ 11 C]pentobarbital and[ 11 C]amobarbital labelled in the 5-[1- 11 C]ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO 2 Et) 2 [R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with [1- 11 C]ethyl iodide prepared from [ 11 C]carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-[1- 11 C]ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-[1- 11 C]ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from [ 11 C] carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) [ 11 C]carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author)

  7. A Theoretical Analysis of the Reaction Between Ethyl and Molecular Oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, James A; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Robertson, Struan H

    2000-01-01

    Using a combination of electronic-structure theory, variational transition-state theory, and solutions to the time-dependent master equation, we have studied the kinetics of the reaction between ethyl...

  8. Solid–liquid phase equilibrium and dissolution properties of ethyl vanillin in pure solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Jingkang; Zhou, Yanan; Guo, Nannan; Liu, Qi; Zong, Shuyi; Bao, Ying; Hao, Hongxun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of ethyl vanillin in eight pure solvents were determined by a static analytical method. • The experimental solubility data of ethyl vanillin were correlated and analyzed by four thermodynamic models. • Dissolution thermodynamic properties of ethyl vanillin were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of ethyl vanillin (EVA) in eight pure solvents were determined in different temperature ranges from (273.15 to 318.15) K by a static analytical method. In the temperature ranges investigated, it was found that the solubility of EVA in all the selected solvents increased with the rising of temperature. Furthermore, four thermodynamic models were used to correlate the experimental solubility data and the calculation results showed that selected models can be used to correlate the solubility data with satisfactory accuracy. Finally, the dissolution thermodynamic properties, including dissolution Gibbs energy, dissolution enthalpy and dissolution entropy of EVA in the eight selected solvents were calculated.

  9. Characterization of [8-ethyl]-chlorophyll c3 from Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Susana; Zapata, Manuel; Garrido, José L; Vaz, Belén

    2012-06-04

    We report herein the isolation and complete characterization of a member of the chlorophyll c family, designated as [8-ethyl]-chlorophyll c(3) ([8-ethyl]-chl c(3)). Structural elucidation of this pigment rested on the analysis of mono- and bidimensional NMR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and ESI-MS data, and the configuration at the 13(2) position on chiral HPLC analysis.

  10. Biofiltration of high loads of ethyl acetate in the presence of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshusses, M; Johnson, C T; Leson, G

    1999-08-01

    To date, biofilters have been used primarily to control dilute, usually odorous, off-gases with relatively low volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations (elimination capacities for ethyl acetate were typically in the range of 200 g m-3 hr-1. Despite the presence of toluene degraders, the removal of toluene was inhibited by high loads of ethyl acetate. Several byproducts, particularly ethanol, were formed. Short-term dry-out and temperature excursions resulted in reduced performance.

  11. Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate on bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, M.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Industrial Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate (dodecanoic acid ethyl ester) as a representative model compound of vegetable oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite support material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, NiW, PtNiW) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the metal loading and reducibility influence product selectivity as well as deactivation behavior of catalyst samples. (orig.)

  12. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen’s Road, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Kisiel, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikøw 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L. [National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.-S., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl in aqueous solution using titania nanoparticulate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Kumar, J. Praveen; Srivastava, A.R.; Singh, Beer

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl (o,o-diethyl o-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate), a well known surrogate of chemical warfare agents, in aqueous solution was studied by using titania nanoparticulate film. Reaction followed pseudo first order behaviour. Photolytic degradation reaction of paraoxon-ethyl demonstrated relatively low rate with a value of rate constant of 2.5 × 10 −3 min −1 . Whereas, degradation reaction in the presence of titania nanoparticulate film and UV light displayed enhanced rate with a value of rate constant of 6.9 × 10 −3 min −1 due to photocatalysis. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed the formation of p-nitrophenol, o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, o-ethyl, diphosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, dimerized product of o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide due to photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl. It indicates that, photocatalytic degradation reaction begins with destruction of P–O–C bonds. Subsequently, P, C atoms were found to be oxidized gradually, and contributed to its photocatalytic degradation. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of titania nanoparticles by sol–gel method. ► Fabrication of titania nanoparticulate film by dip coating. ► Paraoxon ethyl degradation reactions followed pseudo first order behaviour. ► Paraoxon-ethyl degraded to non toxic compounds like CO 2 , acetaldehyde, and nitrophenol.

  14. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES FOR 1-ETHYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM n-ALKYL SULFATES: POSSIBLE EVIDENCE OF GROTTHUSS MECHANISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Garabal, S.; Vila, J.; Rilo, E.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Segade, L.; Tojo, E.; Verdía, P.; Varela, L.M.; Cabeza, O.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the temperature and the lengthening of the linear alkyl chain of the anion in the transport physical properties of the pure ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium n-alkyl sulphate (being n = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8). Density, viscosity and electrical conductivities were measured at atmospheric pressure in a wide temperature range. In the bibliography, data existed for these magnitudes for all ionic liquids studied but none of these had information about the electrical conductivity of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium n-alkyl sulfate whith n = 0, 4, 6 and 8. The experimental results show clearly 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulphate cannot be considered part of the 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium n-alkyl sulphate family because of its hydrogen bonding ability. Results of density and viscosity behave as expected. However, in the case of the electrical conductivity due to the lack of alkyl chain in the hydrogen sulfate we expected to get extreme values but in practise, we obtained intermediate values between 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium butyl sulphate and 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexyl sulphate. This suggests that a Grotthus mechanism exists as result of a protonic current in addition to ionic conductivity, being Waldeńs plot consistent with this idea.

  15. Behaviour of solid phase ethyl cyanide in simulated conditions of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier-Tamburelli, I.; Toumi, A.; Piétri, N.; Chiavassa, T.

    2018-01-01

    In order to simulate different altitudes in the atmosphere of Titan, we investigated using infrared spectrometry and mass spectrometry the photochemistry of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) ices at different temperatures. Heating experiments of the solid phase until complete desorption showed up three phase transitions with a first one appearing to be approximately at the temperature of Titan's surface (94 K), measured by the Huygens probe. Ethyl cyanide, whose presence has been suggested in solid phase in Titan, can be considered as another nitrile for photochemical models of the Titan atmosphere after our first study (Toumi et al., 2016) concerning vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN). The desorption energy of ethyl cyanide has been calculated to be 36.75 ( ± 0.55) kJ mol-1 using IRTF and mass spectroscopical techniques. High energetic photolysis (λ > 120 nm) have been performed and we identified ethyl isocyanide, vinyl cyanide, cyanoacetylene, ethylene, acetylene, cyanhydric acid and a methylketenimine form as photoproducts from ethyl cyanide. The branching ratios of the primary products were determined at characteristic temperatures of Titan thanks to the value of the νCN stretching band strength of ethyl cyanide that has been calculated to be 4.12 × 10-18 cm molecule-1. We also report here for the first time the values of the photodissociation cross sections of C2H5CN for different temperatures.

  16. Topical ethyl chloride fine spray. Does it have any antimicrobial activity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, K.; Bowker, K.; Reynolds, R.; Bradley, M

    2006-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether ethyl chloride fine spray (Cryogesic[reg]) has antimicrobial activity. Material and methods: Blood agar plates supplemented with 5% horse blood were inoculated with five different organisms, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The plates were assessed for growth inhibition at 24 and 48 h by the microbiologist and compared with the non-sprayed control plates. Results: The model showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in bacterial count for the plates treated with fine ethyl chloride spray. The estimate of the percentage of bacteria remaining after spraying with ethyl chloride was 42.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of 35.9-50.9%. There was no evidence that the effect of ethyl chloride fine spray was different for the different organisms (p = 0.49). Conclusion: The use of ethyl chloride shows bacterial count reduction but the clinical implication of this needs to be determined. The authors postulate that any statistically significant reduction can only be helpful in reducing the infection rates. This coupled with the already proven local anaesthetic effects of ethyl chloride will make it an important tool for procedures like arthrocentesis and venepunctures.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl in aqueous solution using titania nanoparticulate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Kumar, J. Praveen; Srivastava, A.R.; Singh, Beer

    2012-06-30

    Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl (o,o-diethyl o-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate), a well known surrogate of chemical warfare agents, in aqueous solution was studied by using titania nanoparticulate film. Reaction followed pseudo first order behaviour. Photolytic degradation reaction of paraoxon-ethyl demonstrated relatively low rate with a value of rate constant of 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1}. Whereas, degradation reaction in the presence of titania nanoparticulate film and UV light displayed enhanced rate with a value of rate constant of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} due to photocatalysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the formation of p-nitrophenol, o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, o-ethyl, diphosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, dimerized product of o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide due to photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl. It indicates that, photocatalytic degradation reaction begins with destruction of P-O-C bonds. Subsequently, P, C atoms were found to be oxidized gradually, and contributed to its photocatalytic degradation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of titania nanoparticles by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of titania nanoparticulate film by dip coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon ethyl degradation reactions followed pseudo first order behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon-ethyl degraded to non toxic compounds like CO{sub 2}, acetaldehyde, and nitrophenol.

  18. Topical ethyl chloride fine spray. Does it have any antimicrobial activity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, K.; Bowker, K.; Reynolds, R.; Bradley, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether ethyl chloride fine spray (Cryogesic[reg]) has antimicrobial activity. Material and methods: Blood agar plates supplemented with 5% horse blood were inoculated with five different organisms, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The plates were assessed for growth inhibition at 24 and 48 h by the microbiologist and compared with the non-sprayed control plates. Results: The model showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in bacterial count for the plates treated with fine ethyl chloride spray. The estimate of the percentage of bacteria remaining after spraying with ethyl chloride was 42.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of 35.9-50.9%. There was no evidence that the effect of ethyl chloride fine spray was different for the different organisms (p = 0.49). Conclusion: The use of ethyl chloride shows bacterial count reduction but the clinical implication of this needs to be determined. The authors postulate that any statistically significant reduction can only be helpful in reducing the infection rates. This coupled with the already proven local anaesthetic effects of ethyl chloride will make it an important tool for procedures like arthrocentesis and venepunctures

  19. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure (R)- and (S)-2-sulfanylpropanoic acids (‘thiolactic acid’) from ethyl (S)-lactate using pig liver esterase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Robert P.; Kellogg, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    The methanesulfonates of optically pure ethyl (S)-lactate or ethyl (R)-2-chloropropanoate 5, obtained with inversion of configuration from ethyl (S)-lactate on treatment with SOCl2, can be substituted by caesium thiolates with inversion of configuration to yield (R) and (S) ethyl

  20. SYNTHESIS OF ENANTIOMERICALLY PURE (R)-2-SULFANYLPROPANOIC AND (S)-2-SULFANYLPROPANOIC ACIDS (THIOLACTIC ACID) FROM ETHYL (S)-LACTATE USING PIG-LIVER ESTERASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOF, RP; KELLOGG, RM

    1995-01-01

    The methanesulfonates of optically pure ethyl (S)-lactate or ethyl (R)-2-chloropropanoate 5, obtained with inversion of configuration from ethyl (S)-lactate on treatment with SOCl2, can be substituted by caesium thiolates with inversion of configuration to yield (R) and (S) ethyl

  1. Rapid screening for human-pathogenic Mucorales using rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, S; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. Early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and appropriate therapy. In this study, rolling circle amplification (RCA) is introduced as a sensitive, specific and reproducible isothermal DNA amplification technique for rapid molecular identification of six of the most virulent species (Rhizopus microsporus, R. arrhizus var. arrhizus, R. arrhizus var. delemar, Mucor irregularis, Mucor circinelloides, Lichtheimia ramosa, Lichtheimia corymbifera). DNAs of target species were successfully amplified, with no cross reactivity between species. RCA can be considered as a rapid detection method with high specificity and sensitivity, suitable for large screening. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether: a toxicological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    A number of oxygenated compounds (oxygenates) are available for use in gasoline to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions, reduce the aromatic compound content, and avoid the use of organo-lead compounds, while maintaining high octane numbers. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is one such compound. The current use of ETBE in gasoline or petrol is modest but increasing, with consequently similar trends in the potential for human exposure. Inhalation is the most likely mode of exposure, with about 30% of inhaled ETBE being retained by the lungs and distributed around the body. Following cessation of exposure, the blood concentration of ETBE falls rapidly, largely as a result of its metabolism to tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) and acetaldehyde. TBA may be further metabolized, first to 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and then to 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, the two dominant metabolites found in urine of volunteers and rats. The rapid oxidation of acetaldehyde suggests that its blood concentration is unlikely to rise above normal as a result of human exposure to sources of ETBE. Single-dose toxicity tests show that ETBE has low toxicity and is essentially nonirritant to eyes and skin; it did not cause sensitization in a maximization test in guinea pigs. Neurological effects have been observed only at very high exposure concentrations. There is evidence for an effect of ETBE on the kidney of rats. Increases in kidney weight were seen in both sexes, but protein droplet accumulation (with alpha(2u)-globulin involvement) and sustained increases in cell proliferation occurred only in males. In liver, centrilobular necrosis was induced in mice, but not rats, after exposure by inhalation, although this lesion was reported in some rats exposed to very high oral doses of ETBE. The proportion of liver cells engaged in S-phase DNA synthesis was increased in mice of both sexes exposed by inhalation. ETBE has no specific effects on reproduction, development, or genetic material. Carcinogenicity studies

  3. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a pivotal clinical problem occurring in many clinical conditions such as transplantation, trauma, and hepatic failure after hemorrhagic shock. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Ethyl pyruvate, a stable and simple lipophilic ester, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect of ethyl pyruvate on hepatic I/R injury and regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. Methods. Three doses of ethyl pyruvate (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg were administered 1 h before a model of segmental (70% hepatic warm ischemia was established in Balb/c mice. All serum and liver tissues were obtained at three different time points (4 h, 8 h, and 16 h. Results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and pathological features were significantly ameliorated by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play an important role in the regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, was also obviously decreased by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate inhibited the HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusion. Our results showed that ethyl pyruvate might attenuate to hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, mediated partly through downregulation of HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the competitive interaction with Beclin-1 of HMGB1.

  4. Copper(II) catalysis in cyanide conversion into ethyl carbamate in spirits and relevant reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, M; Boscolo, M; Franco, D W

    2001-06-01

    The role of copper(II) species in the oxidation of inorganic cyanide to cyanate and in the conversion of cyanate or urea into ethyl carbamate was investigated. The oxidation process has been shown to be independent from the dissolved oxygen. Elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy have shown the formation of a mixed copper carbonate/hydroxide in the process of oxidation of cyanide to cyanate in water/ethanol. The complexation to Cu(II) of cyanate formed upon cyanide oxidation makes the former more susceptible to nucleophilic attack from ethanol, with conversion into ethyl carbamate. Comparatively, urea has a minor role with respect to cyanide in the formation of ethyl carbamate. Therefore, the urea present in some samples of Brazilian sugar cane spirit (cachaça) has been shown to have almost no influence on the ethyl carbamate content of cachaças, which comes essentially from cyanide. Fe(II,III) affords results similar to those found with Cu(II). Some suggestions are presented to avoid ethyl carbamate formation in spirits during distillation.

  5. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  6. Assessment of Ethyl Carbamate Contamination in Cachaça (Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. Bortoletto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cachaça is a sugar cane spirit produced in Brazil. Ethyl carbamate (EC, a potential carcinogenic compound, may be present in cachaça above the limit established by law. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of ethyl carbamate in cachaças recently produced in Brazil in order to verify their compliance with the law. The concentration of ethyl carbamate was determined in 376 samples of cachaça through gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS. The mean value of ethyl carbamate in the cachaças analyzed was 145 µg/L, and 24% of them were not in compliancy with the law (EC < 210 µg/L. However, compared to previous studies, advances have been observed regarding the adjustment of cachaças to the legal limit. Cachaças produced in large distilleries through continuous column distillation presented a mean value of 200 µg/L of ethyl carbamate. Cachaças produced in small distilleries using pot still distillation presented a mean content of 74 µg/L. Small producers have been more engaged in using good manufacturing practices to guarantee the quality of cachaças.

  7. Hydrogenation of ethyl acetate on Re/γ-A12O3 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minachev, K.M.; Avaev, V.I.; Ryashentseva, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the catalytic properties of 5% Re/gamma-A1 2 O 3 contact in the hydrogenation reaction of ethyl acetate (EA). To clarify the paths of formation of the by products, experiments were also carried out with ethanol under the conditions of hydrogenation of EA. It is shown that the main product of the hydrogenation of EA is ethanol. In addition, Et 2 O, water, and traces of acetaldehyde were found in the catalyzate. In the range of conditions studied, the maximal conversion of ethyl acetate into ethanol is 49%. Increase in the temperature and molar ratio, and also decrease in pressure leads to a decrease in the selectivity of hydrogenation of ethyl acetate into ethanol. Byproducts of the hydrogenation of ethyl acetate - diethyl ether and hydrocarbons - are formed not only as a result of dehydration of ethanol on gamma-A1 2 O 3 , but also directly from ethyl acetate (diethyl ether) and also by the hydrogenolysis of the C-O bond in ethanol on rhenium (hydrocarbons)

  8. Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ- induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg. Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

  9. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair: a promising way for retrospective detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Yegles, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The retrospective detection of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is an important part of the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. A promising way to solve this problem can be the determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) or/and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair of the mothers. In this article, the present state in analytical determination and interpretation of FAEE and EtG concentrations in hair are reviewed. Both FAEE and EtG are minor metabolites of ethanol and as direct alcohol markers very specific for alcohol. They are durably deposited in hair, which enables taking advantage of the long diagnostic time window of this sample material. In the last years, specific and sensitive methods for determination of both alcohol markers in hair were developed. Headspace solid phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy after hair extraction with an n-heptane/dimethylsulfoxide mixture proved to be a favorable technique for determination of four characteristic FAEE (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate). EtG is extracted from hair by water and analyzed either by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with negative chemical ionization after cleanup with solid phase extraction and derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride or by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-mass spectroscopy. The detection limits of the single FAEE as well as of EtG are in the range of 1 to 10 pg/mg. FAEE as well as EtG were determined in a larger number of hair samples of teetotalers, social drinkers, patients in alcohol withdrawal treatment, and death cases with previous known heavy drinking. From the results, the following criteria were derived: strict abstinence is excluded or improbable at C FAEE >0.2 ng/mg or C EtG >7 pg/mg. Moderate social drinkers should have C FAEE alcohol abuse is probable. Until now, there has been no evaluation in context of FAS diagnosis; however, a successful application for this purpose

  10. Novel one-pot process for the synthesis of ethyl 2-imino-4-methyl-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyzaei Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile one-pot two-step process for the synthesis of ethyl 2-imino-4-methyl-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxylates via the cyclocondensation of ethyl 2-thiocyanatoacetoacetate with a variety of hydrazine and hydrazide derivatives has been developed. Ethyl 2-thiocyanatoacetoacetate itself has been synthesized as intermediate from the reaction of ethyl 2-chloroacetoacetate with potassium thiocyanate (KSCN. The molecular structures of these newly synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data.

  11. Solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jie-Ping; Yang, Dan; Xu, Xiao-Kang; Guo, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubilities of daidzin were measured in various solvents. • The solubility data were correlated by three models. • The thermodynamic properties of the dissolution process were also determined. - Abstract: The solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method from T = (283.2 to 323.2) K at atmosphere pressure. The results show that at higher temperature more daidzin dissolves, and moreover, the solubility increases with the ethyl alcohol mole fraction increase in the (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents. The experimental solubility values were correlated by a simplified thermodynamic equation, λh equation and modified Apelblat equation. Based on the solubility of daidzin, the enthalpy and entropy of solution were also evaluated by van’t Hoff equation. The results illustrated that the dissolution process of daidzin is endothermic and entropy driven

  12. Microalgae wet extraction using N-ethyl butylamine for fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Du

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered a promising feedstock for the production of food ingredients, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and biofuels. The energy intensity of drying and cell breaking of algae and solvent recovery afterwards hindered the route of algae biorefinery. In this work the influences of freeze drying and cell breaking to the extraction efficiency of crude lipid yield and fatty acid yield were investigated. Results showed that drying and cell breaking are not necessary for N-ethyl butylamine extraction, because good yields were obtained without. Crude lipid yield and fatty acid yield using N-ethyl butylamine were comparable with Bligh & Dyer extraction, making N-ethyl butylamine a candidate for further development of an energy efficient lipid extraction technology for non-broken microalgae. Keywords: Microalgae, Lipids, Extraction, Switchable solvent, Secondary amine

  13. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of soybean oil into ethyl esters. The process resulted in a maximum yield of 91.8% after 30 minutes of reaction. The process variables alcohol to oil ratio and catalyst to oil ratio were statistically significant regarding the yield of ethyl esters. The optimal operating condition was obtained applying an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 10.2 and a catalyst to oil weight ratio of 0.0035.

  14. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  15. Crystal structure of the tetragonal polymorph of bis(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrabromidocadmate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Đorđević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Both unique Cd atoms in the tetragonal polymorph of bis(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrabromidocadmate, (C6H11N22[CdBr4], occupy special positions (site symmetry -4. The crystal structure consists of isolated tetrahedral [CdBr4]2− anions which are surrounded by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. The methyl and ethyl side chains of the cations show positional disorder in a 0.590 (11:0.410 (11 ratio. In the crystal, (C6H11N2+ cations display three weak C—H...Br hydrogen-bond interactions through the imidazolium ring H atoms with the Br− ligands of the surrounding complex anions. The alkyl groups of the side chains are not involved in hydrogen bonding.

  16. Direct Conversion of Cellulose into Ethyl Lactate in Supercritical Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lisha; Yang, Xiaokun; Tian, Elli; Lin, Hongfei

    2016-01-08

    Biomass-derived ethyl lactate is a green solvent with a growing market as the replacement for petroleum-derived toxic organic solvents. Here we report, for the first time, the production of ethyl lactate directly from cellulose with the mesoporous Zr-SBA-15 silicate catalyst in a supercritical mixture of ethanol and water. The relatively strong Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst, as well as the surface hydrophobicity, were beneficial to the reaction and led to synergy during consecutive reactions, such as depolymerization, retro-aldol condensation, and esterification. Under the optimum reaction conditions, ∼33 % yield of ethyl lactate was produced from cellulose with the Zr-SBA-15 catalyst at 260 °C in supercritical 95:5 (w/w) ethanol/water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  18. Efeitos do trinexapac-ethyl sobre o crescimento e florescimento da grama-batatais Effects of trinexapac-ethyl on the growth and flowering of the bahiagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de doses do trinexapac-ethyl, bem como dos intervalos de aplicação após o corte no crescimento vegetativo e florescimento da grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum, na redução de cortes e na melhoria da qualidade do gramado. O ensaio foi conduzido no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa-MG, entre os meses de dezembro de 1998 e março de 1999, em gramado estabelecido. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 13 tratamentos e quatro repetições, distribuídos em esquema fatorial (6 x 2 + 1, com seis doses de trinexapac-ethyl (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; e 1,25 kg ha-1, aplicadas aos dois e cinco dias após o corte do gramado, e uma testemunha com cortes a cada três semanas. Foram efetuadas avaliações a três, seis, nove e doze semanas após o corte, para produção de biomassa seca total, altura e número de inflorescências. Verificou-se, para todas as características avaliadas, relação direta entre o aumento da dose do regulador de crescimento trinexapac-ethyl e o período de controle do crescimento vegetativo e do florescimento, evitando-se, com isso, cortes no gramado pelo período de até 12 semanas com a aplicação de 0,75 kg ha-1. Não se constatou efeito da época de aplicação e também de doses do trinexapac-ethyl sobre a coloração do gramado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of doses and application intervals of trinexapac-ethyl on the vegetative growth and flowering of bahiagrass, to reduce clips and improve lawn quality. The experiment was conducted on the campus of the Federal University of Viçosa, in Viçosa-MG - Brazil, from December 1998 to March 1999, in an established lawn. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 13 treatments and four repetitions, distributed in a factorial scheme (6 x 2 + 1, with six doses of trinexapac-ethyl (0.00; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75; 1.00 and 1.25 kg ha-1

  19. Extraction of lanthanides and actinides (III) by DI-2 ethyl dithiophosphoric acid and DI-2 ethyl hexyl monothiophosphoric acid. Structure of the complexes in the organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattee, D.; Musikas, C.; Faure, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1986-09-01

    To operate a trivalent actinide-lanthanide (III) group chemical separation from low pH nitric solutions we studied the extractive properties of the di-2 ethyl hexyl dithiophosphoric acid (HDEHDTP); this bidentate ligand which possesses a sulfur donor atom is a good extractant of soft acids. We so expect a better selectivity for the actinides (III) extraction. We also have investigated extractive properties of di-2 ethyl hexyl monothiophosphoric acid (HDEHTP) for trivalent actinides and lanthanides; HDEHDTP is a bidentate ligand with one oxygen donor atom and so is a better extractant for hard acids like actinides and lanthanides (III); but its selectivity is weak. The addition of TBP (tri-n butyl phosphate) to HDEHDTP deals to strong synergistic organic complexes with a great selectivity for Am(III). We explicited this phenomenon. When the metal is macroconcentrated the organic complexes aggregate and form inverted micelles

  20. Evaluation Lactogenic Activity of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. M.; Kustiyah, L.; Hanafi, M.; Iwansyah, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the lactogenic property of ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) leaves and to identify the compounds that responsibility as ‘milk booster’ using LC- MS approach. Lactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with commercial milk booster (AF), ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA), water extraction of torbangun (AQ) and kaempferol (KP). The feed was given orally every two days and starting from Day 2 after giving birth until Day 28. The performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. The level of prolactin serum was determined by ELISA methods. Histopathological analysis of mammary gland, liver, intestines and kidney tissues was carried out. Moreover, in order to profiling and identification of compounds of ethyl acetate fraction, ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-ESI-MS) in the positive-ion mode was performed. The ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA) was induced milk production about 17%, and AF 22% and KP 51% compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the EA was not significantly stimulate the synthesis of serum prolactin at Day 14 and Day 28 (p>0.05). Administration of EA did not cause any signs or symptoms of toxicity. In addition, a total of ten compounds was identified by UPLC-QTOF-ESI/MS in the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves of C. amboinicus, mostly phenolic compounds, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, such as: digiprolatone, and kaempferol-3-7-O-di-rhamnopyranoside. The present study reveals the ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves and its bioactive compounds has the potency as a remedy for stimulating and improving milk production.

  1. Randomized controlled trial of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in Huntington disease: the TREND-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid, improves the motor features of Huntington disease. Six-month multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by a 6-month open-label phase without disclosing initial treatment assignments. Forty-one research sites in the United States and Canada. Three hundred sixteen adults with Huntington disease, enriched for a population with shorter trinucleotide (cytosine-adenine-guanine) repeat length expansions. Random assignment to placebo or ethyl-EPA, 1 g twice a day, followed by open-label treatment with ethyl-EPA. Six-month change in the Total Motor Score 4 component of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale analyzed for all research participants and those with shorter cytosine-adenine-guanine repeat length expansions (<45). At 6 months, the Total Motor Score 4 point change for patients receiving ethyl-EPA did not differ from that for those receiving placebo. No differences were found in measures of function, cognition, or global impression. Before public disclosure of the 6-month placebo-controlled results, 192 individuals completed the open-label phase. The Total Motor Score 4 change did not worsen for those who received active treatment for 12 continuous months compared with those who received active treatment for only 6 months (2.0-point worsening; P=.02). Ethyl-EPA was not beneficial in patients with Huntington disease during 6 months of placebo-controlled evaluation. Clinical Trial Registry clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00146211.

  2. Fast detoxication of 2-chloro ethyl ethyl sulfide by p-type Ag_2O semiconductor nanoparticle-loaded Al_2O_3-based supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Meng-Wei; Kuo, Dong-Hau

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Detoxication of CWA surrogate of 2-chloro ethyl ethyl sulfide is investigated. • A small amount of Ag_2O on Al_2O_3-base support is sufficient to degrade 2-CEES. • Detoxication conversion >82% in 15 min is achieved for >2.5% Ag_2O/Na_2SiO_3/Al_2O_3. • Na_2SiO_3 modified Al_2O_3 to have the valley-like line pattern for depositing Ag_2O. • 2-CEES oxidation is initiated from the dominant electronic holes in p-type Ag_2O. - Abstract: p-type Ag_2O semiconductor nanoparticle-loaded Al_2O_3 or Na_2SiO_3/Al_2O_3 powders used for detoxicating the surrogate of sulfur mustard of 2-chloro ethyl ethyl sulfide (C_2H_5SCH_2CH_2Cl, 2-CEES) were investigated. Different amounts of Ag_2O and Na_2SiO_3 on catalyst supports were evaluated. Gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC–PFPD) and gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) were used to monitor and identify the catalytic reactions, together with reaction products analysis. The GC analyses showed that the decontamination of 2-CEES in isopropanol solvent for 15 min was above 82% efficiency for the 0.5% Na_2SiO_3/Al_2O_3 support deposited with a Ag_2O content above 2.5%. 2-(ethylthio)ethanol and 2-(ethylthio)ethanoic acid were identified as the major products after catalytic reactions. The electronic holes dominating in p-type Ag_2O is proposed to provide the key component and to initiate the catalytic reactions. The electronic hole-based detoxication mechanism is proposed.

  3. Conducting polymers of octanoic acid 2-thiophen-3-yl-ethyl ester and their electrochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurlu, Pinar; Cirpan, Ali; Toppare, Levent

    2005-01-01

    Octanoic acid 2-thiophen-3-yl-ethyl ester was synthesized via the reaction of 3-thiophene ethanol with octanoyl chloride. The resulting monomer was electrochemically homopolymerized in the presence of tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate as the supporting electrolyte, in the acetonitrile/borontrifluoride ethyl ether solvent system. The resulting polymer was characterized using various experimental techniques. Spectroelectrochemistry analysis of the homopolymer reflects electronic transitions at 434, ∼800 and ∼1100 nm, revealing π-π* transition, polaron and bipolaron band formation, respectively, leading to esthetically pleasing color changes between transmissive yellow and blue, with reasonable switching times

  4. Microstructural characterization of a novel methyl acrylate-ethyl acrylate copolymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, M.; Castano, V.M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Mexico (Mexico); Molina, J.P.; Vazquez, F. [Facultad de Quimica UAEMex, Paseo Tollocan esq. Paseo Colon, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A number of different compositions of a novel methyl acrylate-ethyl acrylate copolymer were prepared by emulsion polymerization with potassium persulfate as initiator. The compositions synthesized were: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 on weight of methyl acrylate/ethyl acrylate at different temperatures and concentrations of initiators. The effect of other conditions were also studied. The samples were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. It was found that the size of aggregates and dispersion on sizes are controlled by the synthesis conditions, result partially supported by light scattering. (Author)

  5. Microstructural characterization of a novel methyl acrylate-ethyl acrylate copolymer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, M.; Castano, V.M.; Molina, J.P.; Vazquez, F.

    1998-01-01

    A number of different compositions of a novel methyl acrylate-ethyl acrylate copolymer were prepared by emulsion polymerization with potassium persulfate as initiator. The compositions synthesized were: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 on weight of methyl acrylate/ethyl acrylate at different temperatures and concentrations of initiators. The effect of other conditions were also studied. The samples were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. It was found that the size of aggregates and dispersion on sizes are controlled by the synthesis conditions, result partially supported by light scattering. (Author)

  6. (Z-Ethyl 3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyano-3-(2,6-difluorobenzamidoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoyan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C19H13ClF2N2O3, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-ethyl 3-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyanoacrylate and 2,6-difluorobenzoyl chloride. The dihedral angle between the chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene rings is 37.0 (1°. The ethyl group is disordered over two positions [occupancies = 0.52 (2:0.48 (2]. In addition to intramolecular N—H...O and N—H...F hydrogen bonds, the crystal packing shows the molecules to be connected by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  7. A New Phenyl Ethyl Glycoside from the Twigs of Acer tegmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seonju; Lee, Hwa Young; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Nanyoung; Cho, Seung Hun; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2015-07-01

    One new phenyl ethyl glycoside, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 --> 6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoide (1) and 11 known compounds (2-12) were isolated from the twigs of Acer tegmentosum. Compound 6 showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory activity against the LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells with tNO production of 25.0 ± 2.5 μM and TNF-α concentration of 617.6 ± 47.1 pg/mL at 30 μM.

  8. Ethyl 4-chloro-2′-fluoro-3-hydroxy-5-methylbiphenyl-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adeel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H14ClFO3, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two benzene rings is 71.50 (5°. Due to an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the hydroxy group and the carbonyl O atom of the ethyl ester group, the ethyl ester group lies within the ring plane. The crystal structure is consolidated by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...F interactions.

  9. Ethyl carbamate levels in wine and spirits from markets in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y P; Dong, B; Qin, Z S; Yang, N J; Lu, Y; Yang, L X; Chang, F Q; Wu, Y N

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) in wine, grain spirits and wine sauce (145 samples) was analysed using solid-phase extraction and stable isotope dilution GC/MS. Samples were obtained from markets in eight areas (Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Xingtai and Cangzhou) of Hebei Province, China. The method had a limit of detection of 2 µg kg⁻¹, with recoveries varying from 95.7 to 102% and RSD ranging 2.3-5.6%. The average concentrations of ethyl carbamate in wines, grain spirits and wine sauce were 14.7 (wines.

  10. Comparative substoichiometric extraction of cadmium with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Rangamannar, B.

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of the extractability of cadmium with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates into chloroform and a mixture of 1:4 pyridine and ethyl acetate from pH 1-7 buffers and sodium formate media, respectively, has been carried out employing an accurate and highly sensitive substoichiometric radiochemical method. The effect of foreign ions on the extractability was studied. The method developed was utilized for the determination of cadmium content in standard as well as in geological water samples. (author) 4 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.61 Section 63.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air...

  12. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  13. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be safely...

  14. Multicomponent Synthesis of a N-Protected Alpha-Amino Ester: Ethyl 2-((4-Methoxyphenyl)Amino)-3-Phenylpropanoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Erwan; Pignon, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment describes the preparation of a N-protected phenylalanine ethyl ester by a zinc-mediated Mannich-like multicomponent reaction between benzyl bromide, "p"-anisidine, and ethyl glyoxylate. The one-step reaction involves the in situ metallation of benzyl bromide into a benzylzinc reagent and its addition onto imine (Barbier…

  15. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  16. Microbial community dynamics during the bioremediation process of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  17. Microbial Community Dynamics during the Bioremediation Process of Chlorimuron-Ethyl-Contaminated Soil by Hansschlegelia sp. Strain CHL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ. PMID:25689050

  18. Mucorales (Zygomycotina da Mata Atlântica da Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba, Santo André, SP Mucorales (Zygomycotina of the Atlantic Rainforest in the "Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba", Santo André, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Helena Schoenlein-Crusius

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Treze táxons de Mucorales (Zygomycotina, distribuídos num total de 266 registros, foram isolados de folhas de Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Müll. Arg. colocadas em ambientes terrestre e aquático, e de amostras de solo e de água de riacho, coletadas mensalmente, de julho de 1988 a maio de 1990 na Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba, no município de Santo André, SP. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores números de registro de ocorrência foram Mucor hiemalis Wehmer (78 registros, Mucor circinelloides van Tieghem f. janssenii (Ledner Schipper (42 registros e Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer (30 registros. Cinqüenta por cento dos Mucorales encontrados na região são constituídos por espécies que estão sendo citadas pela primeira vez para a Mata Atlântica: Mucor hiemalis Wehmer f. silvaticus (Hagem Schipper, Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer, Rhizopus oligosporus Fischer, Rhizopus oryzae (Went. & Prinsen Geerlings, Zygorhynchus japonicus Vuill. e Zygorhynchns macrocarpus Ling-Young.Thirteen taxa of Mucorales (Zygomycotina, distributed in 266 occurrences were isolated from leaves of Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Müll. Arg. disposed in the terrestrial and aquatic environment, and of soil and stream water samples, monthly taken from July of 1988 to May of 1990, in the "Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba", in the municipality of Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil. Mucor hiemalis Wehmer (78 records, Mucor circinelloides van Tieghem f. janssenii (Ledner Schipper (42 records and Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer (30 records were the most frequent species. Fifty percent of the Mucorales found are formed by species that are mentioned for the first time in the Atlantic Rainforest: Mucor hiemalis Wehmer f. silvaticus (Hagem Schipper, Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer, Rhizopus oligosporus Fischer, Rhizopus oryzae (Went. & Prinsen Geerlings, Zygorhynchus japonicus Vuill. and Zygorhynchus macrocarpus Ling-Young.

  19. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...... were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Markedly higher levels of ethyl paraben compared to butyl paraben were found in all fluids and tissues. Both ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal plasma, livers, and whole-body tissues from fetus seemed to be saturated after dosing...

  20. Primary study of ethyl cellulose nanofiber for oxygen-enrichment membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl cellulose is widely used for oxygen-enrichment membrane, however, its nanofiber membrane was rarely developed though it behaves more excellent performance. This paper gives a preliminary study to produce oxygen-enrichment membrane by bubbfil spinning.

  1. Alcohol consumption and synthesis of ethyl esters of fatty acids in adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björntorp, P; Depergola, G; Sjöberg, C; Pettersson-Kymmer, U.; Hallgren, P; Boström, K; Helander, K G; Seidell, J

    1990-01-01

    Ethyl esters of fatty acids (EEFA) have been found to be formed during ethanol metabolism. Human adipose tissue contains high concentrations of free fatty acids, the substrate for EEFA synthesis, and might therefore be a tissue with great potential for EEFA formation. In order to explore their

  2. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Mumammad Aliyu

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy.

  3. Thermodynamic properties of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, Andrey V.; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Voitkevich, Olga V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat capacities and phase transition enthalpies for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were measured. • Enthalpy of formation for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole was determined. • Vapor pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were found from Knudsen measurements. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the parameters of phase transitions of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (1ET) were studied between 5 and 370 K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic properties of the 1ET in the condensed state were obtained over the range of 0–370 K. Saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 1ET in the temperature ranges from 313 to 344 K and its enthalpy of sublimation were measured by the Knudsen effusion method. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 1ET at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 1ET was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in excellent agreement with the experimental value

  4. Thermodynamic properties of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, Andrey V., E-mail: blokhin@bsu.by; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Voitkevich, Olga V.

    2013-08-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat capacities and phase transition enthalpies for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were measured. • Enthalpy of formation for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole was determined. • Vapor pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were found from Knudsen measurements. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the parameters of phase transitions of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (1ET) were studied between 5 and 370 K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic properties of the 1ET in the condensed state were obtained over the range of 0–370 K. Saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 1ET in the temperature ranges from 313 to 344 K and its enthalpy of sublimation were measured by the Knudsen effusion method. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 1ET at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 1ET was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in excellent agreement with the experimental value.

  5. Electrospun water-stable zein/ethyl cellulose composite nanofiber and its drug release properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hangyi; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Guohui [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China); Qiu, Yuyu [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China); Laboratory of Natural Medicine, Wuxi Medical School, Jiangnan University (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China)

    2017-05-01

    A simple and cost-effective way to prepare water-stable zein-based nanofibers for potential drug delivery was presented in this article. Corn protein zein was co-electrospun with hydrophobic ethyl cellulose. Indomethacin, as a model drug, was incorporated in situ into the composite nanofibers. Scanning electron microscopy and element mapping revealed the morphologies of drug-loaded nanofibers and drug distribution, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the physical blending among the components. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction demonstrated the physical state of drug and polymers in the nanofiber matrix. The composite nanofibers showed a sustained diffusion-controlled release according to the results of in vitro dissolution tests. - Highlights: • A simple, non-toxic and cost-effective way to improve water stability of zein nanofibers was proposed. • Electrospun zein/ethyl cellulose nanofibers with improved water stability and mechanical strength were prepared. • Indomethacin was homogeneously distributed in the zein/ethyl cellulose nanofibers with no aggregation or cluster. • The zein/ethyl cellulose nanofibers presented a sustained drug release profile, following Fickican diffusion mechanism.

  6. Comparative Study Between Ethylbenzene Disproportionation Reaction and its Ethylation Reaction with Ethanol over ZSM-5

    KAUST Repository

    Tukur, N. M.

    2009-06-23

    Ethylation of ethylbenzene with ethanol has been studied over ZSM-5 catalyst in a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The feed molar ratio of ethylbenzene:ethanol is 1:1. The study was carried out at 350, 400, 450, and 500°C for reaction times of 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, and 15 s. Comparisons are made between the results of the ethylbenzene ethylation reaction with that of ethylbenzene disproportionation reaction earlier reported. The effect of reaction conditions on ethylbenzene reactivity, p-diethylbenzene selectivity, total diethylbenzene (DEB) isomers selectivity, p-DEB-to-m-DEB ratio, benzene-to-DEB molar ratio, and benzene selectivity, are reported. Benzene selectivity is about 10 times more in the EB disproportion reaction as compared to its ethylation reaction with ethanol at 350°C. In addition, the results showed a p-DEB/m-DEB ratio for the EB ethylation reaction varying between 1.2-1.7, which is greater than the equilibrium values. Increase in temperature shifts the alkylation/dealkylation equilibrium towards dealkylation, thereby decreasing conversion and selectivity to DEB. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

  7. 77 FR 75859 - Pyraflufen-Ethyl; Extension of Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... residues of pyraflufen-ethyl in or on cattle, meat byproducts; goat, meat byproducts; horse, meat... on: Cattle, meat byproducts; goat, meat byproducts; horse, meat byproducts; sheep, meat byproducts..., goat, horse and sheep meat byproducts, and milk are ``safe'' and can be extended. V. Conclusion...

  8. Evaluating the ethyl-acetate fraction of crude methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ointment formulations of the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude methanol leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum was in this study evaluated for wound healing activities in rat using the excision wound model. The air-dried and pulversied leaves were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus to obtain the ...

  9. Solubility of carbon dioxide in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuluth, M.A.M.; Mota Martinez, M.T.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the use of ionic liquids (ILs) for gas separation processes has attracted much attention because of the high solubility of different gaseous species in ILs. This contribution presents new experimental measurements of the carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility in the IL 1-ethyl-3 methylimidazolium

  10. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel 3-[1-(3-nitrophenyl)-ethyl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syntheses of novel 3-[1-(3-nitrophenyl)-ethyl]-1-(indole-1-yl) substituted aryl/alkyl phosphinoyl/thiophosphinoyl/selenophosphinoyl-1H-indole derivatives were accomplished in two steps. The synthetic route involves the cyclisation of equimolar quantities of 3-[1H-3-indolyl(3-nitrophenyl)methyl]-1H-indole with dichlorophenyl ...

  11. The synthesis of 5-(1- sup 11 C)ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of ({sup 11}C)phenobarbital, ({sup 11}C)pentobarbital and({sup 11}C)amobarbital labelled in the 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO{sub 2}Et){sub 2} R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with (1-{sup 11}C)ethyl iodide prepared from ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from ({sup 11}C) carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author).

  12. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

  13. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... the statutory requirement that the Commission make such determinations. Section 423(c) of the Tax...

  14. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of determination. SUMMARY: Section 423(c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, as amended (19 U.S.C...

  15. Optimisation of the enantioselective biocatalytic hydrolysis of naproxen ethyl ester using ChiroCLEC-CR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2004-03-04

    Full Text Available In a biocatalytic reaction the immobilized lipase ChiroCLEC-CR enantioselectively hydrolysed a naproxen ethyl ester racemate, yielding (S)-naproxen with an enantiomeric excess of more than 98%, an enantiomeric ratio (E) of more than 100...

  16. A new method for the extraction of Au(III) with ethyl thioacetoacetate into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.Z.; Turel, Z.R.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed for rapid and selective extraction of Au(III) with ethyl thioacetoacetate (HETAcAc) into chloroform at pH 4. The effect of various parameters on the extraction coefficient values were studied. The substoichiometry of the extracted species of 1:3 was obtained by slope ratio and substoichiometric extraction method, respectively. (author)

  17. A Study of the Hepatic Tolerance of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In this study, the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract of Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redhead (Rubiaceae) on the tissue and metabolic integrity of rabbit liver was evaluated. Methods: Thirty rabbits (divided equally between male and female) were randomly distributed into five (5) groups of six (6) ...

  18. ENZYMATIC PRODUCTION OF ETHYL OLEATE ESTER USING A LIPASE FROM CANDIDA ANTARCTICA B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sampaio Neta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are biocatalysts of great importance in different areas, being able to catalyze reactions in aqueous or organic media. Furthermore, these enzymes are capable of using several substrates being stable in a wide range of pH and temperatures. Lipases promote the esterification between fatty acids and ethanol producing oleate esters. The aim of this work is to produce ethyl oleate ester by enzymatic esterification of oleic acid with ethanol. A lipase from Candida antarctica type B was used at a temperature of 55 °C. The reaction was conducted using oleic acid, sodium sulfate anhydrous, lipase and ethanol, with a ratio of oleic acid (0.03 mol or 10 ml, lipase (0.1 mol or 0.01 g, sodium sulfate anhydrous (5 g and ethanol 99 % (100 ml. Several reaction times were studied, namely 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C and Infrared spectra confirmed the production of ethyl oleate ester for the studied conditions. The highest ethyl oleate production yield was obtained for 96 hours reaction time. Ethyl oleate esters have been reported to possess interesting applications in several industrial fields, such as food, aromatics, cosmetics, detergents, flavors and pharmaceuticals.

  19. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  20. Ethyl benzene-induced ototoxicity in rats : a dose-dependent mild-frequency hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Baretta, A.B.; Muijser, H.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Rats were exposed to ethyl benzene at 0, 300, 400 and 550 ppm for 8 hours/day for 5 consecutive days. Three to six weeks after the exposure, auditory function was tested by measuring compound action potentials (CAP) in the frequency range of 1-24 kHz and 2f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) was released for external peer review in June 2017. EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the ETB...

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) released the draft Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). Consistent with the 2013 IRIS Enhancements, draft IRIS assessments are released prior to e...

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (External Review Draft, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, EPA released the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) for public comment and discussion. The draft assessment was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent ...

  5. Preparation of Methacrylate End-functionalized Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) Macromonomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, C.; Becer, C.R.; Baumgaertel, A.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Three methods for the functionalization of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx) oligomers with a methacrylate or methacrylamide unit are compared to identify the best suitable route to obtain such macromolecules. In the first method, a functional initiator, namely methacryloyl chloride, was used for the

  6. Iron modified titanium–hafnium binary oxides as catalysts in total oxidation of ethyl acetate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsoncheva, T.; Ivanova, R.; Henych, Jiří; Velinov, N.; Kormunda, M.; Dimitrov, M.; Paneva, D.; Slušná, Michaela; Mitov, I.; Štengl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, JUN (2016), s. 14-19 ISSN 1566-7367 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Titania–hafnia binary oxide s * Iron modifications * Support effect * Ethyl acetate oxydation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.330, year: 2016

  7. The direct transformation of ethanol to ethyl acetate over Cu/SiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cu/SiO2 catalysts that contain copper phyllosilicate, were successfully ... of attention because both components are simple, non- .... bate on a Micromeritics ASAP 2010 system at liquid- ... The reactor was. Page 3. Direct transformation of ethanol to ethyl acetate. 1015 connected to gas chromatography using a six-port high.

  8. Liver damage caused by hepatitis C viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%. The aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by HCV in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol. Methods. The research included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection supported by the misuse of ethyl alcohol, as well. The diagnosis of C infection hepatitis was proved using the ELISA test and PCR method. Results. The results of the study showed the liver damage by both HCV infection and ethyl alcohol, which was verified by the presence of biochemical changes and patohystological processing of the patients (liver biopsy and prosection. Patohystological changes were at the level of liver cirrhosis and carcinoma (2 patients. There was a signficant difference between the two subgroups (p < 0.001 regarding the examined values γ-GT, PLT and PTV. The basic therapeutic procedure was to introduce this category of patients into alcohol abstinence, and, in a few patients, to apply the antivirus therapy, as well. Conclusion. Based on the number of the examined patients (n = 15, we could conclude that a prolonged ethyl alcohol misuse with the presence of HCV infection was in a correlation with the liver disease progression.

  9. Kombinasi Calcitriol dan Ethynil Ethyl Estradiol Meningkatkan Ekskresi Kalsium Urin dan Risiko Urolitiasis pada Tikus Ovariektomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiningsih Hartiningsih

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high excretion of calcium (Ca in the urine can trigger the formation of urolith. Estrogen and calcitriol decrease urinary Ca excretion. This study aims to examine the combination of calcitriol and ethinyl ethyl estradiol against Ca urinary excretion and urolithiasis risk of ovariectomized rats. Twentyfive female Wistar rats eight weeks old were divided into five groups: i normal control (NK; ii ovariectomized control (OVK; iii ovariectomized + calcitriol (OVD; iv ovariectomized + ethinyl ethyl estradiol (OVE; and v ovariectomized + combination calcitriol and ethinyl ethyl estradiol (OVDE. Seven weeks post-ovariectomy, each rat was put in an individual metabolic cage for the study of Ca balance. At day 4 to 7 of the study, residual feed, urine, and feces were collected daily for Ca analysis. At day 8, the rats were euthanized, the left kidney were collected for histopathological examination. The results showed that combination of calcitriol and ethinyl ethyl estradiol in OVDE rats caused Ca intake and Ca intestinal absorption significantly higher, and urinary Ca excretion tended to be higher although not significantly different compared to OVK rats. Calcium excretion in OVK rat urine was higher compared to the NK rats. The kidney histopathological changes of OVK rats were not different from the NK rats. Histopathological examination of the OVDE group kidney showed protein deposition in the capsular of Bowman’s capsule and proximal tubules, atrophy of the proximal tubules, and necrosis, respectively. It is concluded that the combination of calcitriol with ethinyl ethyl estradiol in ovariectomized rats increased urinary Ca excretion and increased the risk of urolithiasis. ABSTRAK Tingginya ekskresi kalsium (Ca dalam urin dapat menjadi pemicu terbentuknya urolit. Estrogen dan calcitriol menurunkan ekskresi Ca urin. Penelitian ini dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengkaji kombinasi calcitriol dan ethynil ethyl estradiol terhadap ekskresi Ca dalam urin

  10. Transesterification of Vegetable Oils with Ethanol and Characterization of the Key Fuel Properties of Ethyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamoulis Stournas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 – 1.5%, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 – 12:1, and the reaction temperature (35 – 90 °C were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt, and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage.

  11. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Ethyl Levulinate Oxidation in a Jet-Stirred Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jui-Yang

    2017-06-01

    A jet-stirred reactor was designed and constructed in the Clean Combustion Research Center (CCRC) at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST); was validated with n-heptane, iso-octane oxidation and cyclohexene pyrolysis. Different configurations of the setup have been tested to achieve good agreement with results from the literature. Test results of the reactor indicated that installation of a pumping system at the downstream side in the experimental apparatus was necessary to avoid the reoccurrence of reactions in the sampling probe. Experiments in ethyl levulinate oxidation were conducted in the reactor under several equivalence ratios, from 600 to 1000 K, 1 bar and 2 s residence time. Oxygenated species detected included methyl vinyl ketone, levulinic acid and ethyl acrylate. Ethylene, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide were further quantified with a gas chromatography, coupled with a flame ionization detector and a thermal conductivity detector. The ethyl levulinate chemical kinetic model was first developed by Dr. Stephen Dooley, Trinity College Dublin, and simulated under the same conditions, using the Perfect-Stirred Reactor code in Chemkin software. In comparing the simulation results with experimental data, some discrepancies were noted; predictions of ethylene production were not well matched. The kinetic model was improved by updating several classes of reactions: unimolecular decomposition, H-abstraction, C-C and C-O beta-scissions of fuel radicals. The updated model was then compared again with experimental results and good agreement was achieved, proving that the concerted eliminated reaction is crucial for the kinetic mechanism formulation of ethyl levulinate. In addition, primary reaction pathways and sensitivity analysis were performed to describe the role of molecular structure in combustion (800 and 1000 K for ethyl levulinate oxidation in the jet-stirred reactor).

  12. Effect of Trinexapac-Ethyl and Traffic Stress on Physiological and Morphological Characteristics of Wheat Grass(Agropyron desertorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sheikh Mohamadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of trinexapac ethyl concentrations (0, 250 and 500 g/h and traffic stress (traffic and non traffic treatments on wheat grass physiological and morphological traits, an experiment was conducted on research farm of Isfahan University of Technology in 2011 - 2012 as factorial in completely randomized designs with three replications. The studied traits involved plant height and plant density, shoot dry weight and fresh weights, tillering, chlorophyll level, roots and shoot dissolved carbohydrates. Results showed that Trinexapac ethyl reduced plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of cut parts significantly. Application of 250 and 500 g/h Trinexapac ethyl decreased plant height by 21.23 percent and 31.85 percent respectively. Application of Trinexapac ethyl improved plant height, tillering and chlorophyll level. In contrast, chlorophyll level was decreased substantially under traffic treatment and this treatment did not affect wheat grass density and tillering significantly. Under 500 g/h Trinexapac ethyl treatment, tillering was increased by 36 percent compared with under control condition one. Results showed that Trinexapac ethyl application and traffic increased dissolved carbohydrates of root and shoot significantly. As a result, it was found that wheat grass is a traffic resistant plant and it seems that the use of Trinexapac ethyl increases plant resistance to traffic stress

  13. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G P; Karthikeyan, M; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  14. Two new Ni(II) supramolecular complexes based on ethyl isonicotinate and ethyl nicotinate for removal of acid blue 92 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Marie, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Two new luminescent supramolecular complexes (SC); [Ni(EIN)4(NCS)2] SC1 and [Ni2(EN)8(NCS)4] SC2, (EIN = ethyl isonicotinate, EN = ethyl nicotinate), have been synthesized by self-assembly method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra, PXRD, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Both SC1 and SC2 are monoclinic crystals however, they have different asymmetric units. Ni(II) atoms in both SC are isostructural and have similar hexa-coordinate environment. The structures of SC1 and SC2 consist of parallel polymeric 1D-chains, extended in two and three dimensional supramolecular frameworks by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. SC1 and SC2 are luminescent materials which can be used in applications as molecular sensing systems. SC1 and SC2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts for degradation of acid blue 92 (AB-92) under sun light irradiation. The fluorescence measurements of terephthalic acid technique as a probe molecule were used to determine the •OH radicals. Also the radicals trapping experiments using isopropanol alcohol (IPA) as radical scavenger were discussed. In addition a mechanism of degradation was proposed and discussed.

  15. Atypical growth, abonormal mitosis and polyploidy induced by ethyl-mercury-chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostoff, D

    1940-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the effect of ethyl mercury chloride upon the atypical growths of plants. Seeds of peas, flax, rye, and wheat were treated with 2% ethyl mercury chloride. The fungicide suppressed the development of the seedlings. Cytological studies revealed that the fungicide had also significantly affected the procedure of mitosis in most of the treated seedlings. The chromosomes did not become arranged into a proper equatorial plate when the nucleus membrane and the nucleolei disappeared, but occupied a position similar to that which they had during the prophase. The chromosomes split, then the centromeres divided so that from each one chromosome, two chromosomes originated, situated side by side without polar separation, chiefly due to the absence of normal achromatic figures. Thus, chromosome division without cell division takes place.

  16. Genome-wide comparison of ultraviolet and ethyl methanesulphonate mutagenesis methods for the brown alga Ectocarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Olivier; Peters, Akira F; Coelho, Susana M; Cock, J Mark

    2015-12-01

    Ectocarpus has emerged as a model organism for the brown algae and a broad range of genetic and genomic resources are being generated for this species. The aim of the work presented here was to evaluate two mutagenesis protocols based on ultraviolet irradiation and ethyl methanesulphonate treatment using genome resequencing to measure the number, type and distribution of mutations generated by the two methods. Ultraviolet irradiation generated a greater number of genetic lesions than ethyl methanesulphonate treatment, with more than 400 mutations being detected in the genome of the mutagenised individual. This study therefore confirms that the ultraviolet mutagenesis protocol is suitable for approaches that require a high density of mutations, such as saturation mutagenesis or Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental redetermination of the gas-phase enthalpy of formation of ethyl 2-thiophenecarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of ethyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate was derived from the remeasured standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry and the standard molar enthalpy of vaporization, at T = 298.15 K, remeasured by Calvet microcalorimetry. Combining these two values, the following enthalpy of formation in the gas phase, at T = 298.15 K, was then derived for ethyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate: −(277.7 ± 2.9) kJ · mol −1 . The calculated gas-phase enthalpy of formation of the title compound, through the G3(MP2)//B3LYP approach was found to be 278.9 kJ · mol −1 , in excellent agreement with the experimental measured value

  18. Hyperfine interactions of a muoniated ethyl radical in supercritical CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormier, Philip; Taylor, Becky [Department of Chemistry, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, E4L 1G8 (Canada); Ghandi, Khashayar, E-mail: kghandi@mta.c [Department of Chemistry, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, E4L 1G8 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    A muoniated ethyl radical was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide. The muon and the proton hyperfine coupling constants were measured over temperatures ranging from 305 to 475 K, and a density range from 0.2 to 0.7 (g cm{sup -3}). A decrease was found in the muon hyperfine coupling constants as a function of the density, which can be attributed to the interaction between the CO{sub 2} molecule and the p-orbital of the ethyl radical. The changes to the alpha-proton and beta-proton hyperfine coupling constants with density are attributed to changes in the overall geometry in the formed radical. This system was modeled using quantum calculations.

  19. Hyperfine interactions of a muoniated ethyl radical in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Philip; Taylor, Becky; Ghandi, Khashayar

    2009-01-01

    A muoniated ethyl radical was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide. The muon and the proton hyperfine coupling constants were measured over temperatures ranging from 305 to 475 K, and a density range from 0.2 to 0.7 (g cm -3 ). A decrease was found in the muon hyperfine coupling constants as a function of the density, which can be attributed to the interaction between the CO 2 molecule and the p-orbital of the ethyl radical. The changes to the α-proton and β-proton hyperfine coupling constants with density are attributed to changes in the overall geometry in the formed radical. This system was modeled using quantum calculations.

  20. Effects of Ultrasound Irradiation on the Preparation of Ethyl Cellulose Nanocapsules Containing Spirooxazine Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Volmajer Valh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the influence of low frequency, high intensity ultrasonic irradiation on the characteristics (average size, polydispersity index of ethyl cellulose nanocapsules encapsulating a photochromic dye. Photochromic nanocapsules were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The acoustic densities entering the system were systematically studied with respect to their abilities to modify and reduce the average sizes and polydispersity indexes of the nanocapsules. Scanning electron microscope, confocal laser microscope, and dynamic light scattering were utilised to characterise the structure, shape, size, and polydispersity of ethyl cellulose photochromic nanocapsules. We were able to tailor the size of the photochromic nanocapsules simply by varying the acoustic densities entering the system. At an acoustic density of 1.5 W/mL and 60 s of continuous irradiation, we were able to prepare an almost monodispersed population of the nanocapsules with an average size of 193 nm.

  1. Ibuprofen Release from Poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate Nanoparticles Prepared by Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Balleño

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen-loaded poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles were prepared by semicontinuous heterophase polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate in the presence of ibuprofen; different surfactant concentration, pH, and temperature were used. Particle size was measured by quasi-light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, while the amount of drug released was determined by UV spectroscopy. Nanoparticles with diameters between 10 and 58 nm, loaded with ibuprofen, were obtained. The smallest particles and the higher drug loading were obtained at the highest pH tested. The analysis of the release data showed that the drug release profiles correspond to the Weibull model. Moreover, it was found that most of the ibuprofen is released within the first 80–120 min; initially the release rate is slow, but then it increases to finally decrease. This behavior contrasts with the reported burst of drug concentration in the plasma after oral administration of IB.

  2. Optimization of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME for Monitoring Occupational Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Analytical methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs in different samples need extraction of compounds, by applying hazardous solvents. Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME is a solvent-free equilibrium extraction method, in which proper calibration can allow quantitative determinations of VOCs at a very good sensitivity without the use of any organic solvent. VOCs are generally present in urine only at trace levels, therefore, a sensitive procedure is needed for their trace determinations. Throughout this study, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME was followed by GC-FID for ethyl benzene in spiked urine was optimized.Methods: In this study, the parameters influencing SPME and gas chromatography of ethyl benzene, including extraction time, temperature, desorption temperature, desorption time, salt addition, sample pH, sample volume and sample agitation were investigated. Results: Extraction procedure was performed at 30°C for 6 min, using 0.2 gml-1 of NaCl in the sample solution. The sample volume and sample pH were optimized at 5 ml and 7 (neutral pH, respectively. Desorption of the ethyl benzene was carried out for 60 sec. at 250°C. The method was also validated with three different spiked urine samples and illustrated an appropriate reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. During this investigation, parameters of accuracy, linearity, and detection limits of the procedure were also evaluated.Conclusion: The developed method of HS- SPME-GC-FID proved to be a simple, convenient, and practical procedure, and was successfully used for measuring of ethyl benzene in spiked urine.

  3. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,S.; Mazzone,L. C. A.; Santos,F. F. P.; Cruz,M. G. A.; Fernandes,F. A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel) from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of so...

  4. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxi; Zhang, Minna; Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Sun, Baoshan

    2018-05-03

    Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers), are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) and (⁻)-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (⁻)-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(⁻)-epicatechin/acetaldehyde), and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  5. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers, are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside and (–-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (–-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(–-epicatechin/acetaldehyde, and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  6. 9-Ethyl-2,3-dihydro-9H-carbazol-4(1H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sriman Narayanan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C28H30N2O2, the cyclohexene ring system adopts a sofa conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...O interactions between methyl H atoms of the ethyl substituents and the O atoms of carbonyl groups of adjacent molecules, and by an intermolecular carbonyl–carbonyl interactions [3.207 (2 Å

  7. Conformational properties of biocompatible poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)s in phosphate buffered saline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gubarev, A. S.; Monnery, B. D.; Lezov, A. A.; Sedláček, Ondřej; Tsvetkov, N. V.; Hoogenboom, R.; Filippov, Sergey K.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 17 (2018), s. 2232-2237 ISSN 1759-9954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00973S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) FWO-17-05 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : equilibrium rigidity * poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) * thermosensitivity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 5.375, year: 2016

  8. Overmodulation Control in the Optimization of a H-PDLC Device with Ethyl Eosin as Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortuño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a H-PDLC device is improved by means of a two-step method. First, component optimization—initiator system, crosslinker, and cosolvent—enables the diffraction efficiency of the hologram to be maximized. Second, the use of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in combination with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone prevents the overmodulation in photopolymers containing ethyl eosin.

  9. Titania and zirconia binary oxides as catalysts for total oxidation of ethyl acetate and methanol decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsoncheva, T.; Mileva, A.; Issa, G.; Dimitrov, M.; Kovacheva, D.; Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, M.; Scotti, N.; Slušná, Michaela; Tolasz, Jakub; Štengl, Václav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2018), s. 2540-2550 ISSN 2213-3437 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) BAS-17-13 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Effect of preparation procedure * Ethyl acetate oxidation * Methanol decomposition * Titania-zirconia binary oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry

  10. An Expeditious Stereoselective Synthesis of (−)-Pinidinone from Ethyl Acetoacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodar, Kongara; Jun, Jong-Gab

    2016-01-01

    An expeditious stereoselective synthesis of a naturally occurring 2,6-disubstituted piperidine alkaloid, (−)-pinidinone, has been accomplished with an overall yield of 31% in total eight steps. The synthesis involves ethyl acetoacetate as the starting material and the stereoselective α-aminoallylation of aldehyde with (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide, allyl bromide, and indium and Grubbs' olefin cross-metathesis as the pivotal steps.

  11. Ethyl cellulose microcapsules for protecting and controlled release of folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertmanakit, Satit; Praphairaksit, Nalena; Chiangthong, Worawadee; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose microcapsules were developed for use as a drug-delivery device for protecting folic acid from release and degradation in the undesirable environmental conditions of the stomach, whilst allowing its release in the intestinal tract to make it available for absorption. The controlled release folic acid-loaded ethyl cellulose microcapsules were prepared by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation using a mixed solvent system, consisting of a 9:1 (v/v) ratio of acetone:methanol and light liquid paraffin as the dispersed and continuous phase. Span 80 was used as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microcapsules had a spherical shape. However, the particulate properties and in vitro release profile depended on the concentrations of the ethyl cellulose, Span 80 emulsifier, sucrose (pore inducer), and folic acid. The average diameter of the microcapsules increased from 300 to 448 microm, whilst the folic acid release rate decreased from 52% to 40%, as the ethyl cellulose concentration was increased from 2.5% to 7.5% (w/v). Increasing the Span 80 concentration from 1% to 4% (v/v) decreased the average diameter of microcapsules from 300 to 141 microm and increased the folic acid release rate from 52% to 79%. The addition of 2.5-7.5% (w/v) of sucrose improved the folic acid release from the microcapsules. The entrapment efficiency was improved from 64% to 88% when the initial folic acid concentration was increased from 1 to 3 mg/ml.

  12. Synthesis, Structural and Antioxidant Studies of Some Novel N-Ethyl Phthalimide Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraju, Siddegowda; Win, Yip-Foo; Tan, Weng Kang; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    A series of N-ethyl phthalimide esters 4(a-n) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Further, the molecular structure of majority of compounds were analysed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray analysis revealed the importance of substituents on the crystal stability and molecular packing. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP and CUPRAC methods. Few of them have shown good antioxidant activity. PMID:25742494

  13. Accurate spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide isotopologues: a route toward their astrophysical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzzarini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, " Giacomo Ciamician," Università diBologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Institsuto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Domínguez-Gómez, R. [Doctora Vinculada IEM-CSIC, Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Cátedra de Química, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Carvajal, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Unidad Asociada IEM-CSIC-U.Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Hochlaf, M. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Al-Mogren, M. Mogren, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it, E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: rosa.dominguez@upm.es, E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: majdi.hochlaf@u-pem.fr, E-mail: mmogren@ksu.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-11-20

    Using state-of-the-art computational methodologies, we predict a set of reliable rotational and torsional parameters for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide monosubstituted isotopologues. This includes rotational, quartic, and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, torsional levels, and torsional splittings. The accuracy of the present data was assessed from a comparison to the available experimental data. Generally, our computed parameters should help in the characterization and the identification of these organo-sulfur molecules in laboratory settings and in the interstellar medium.

  14. Ethylic or methylic route to soybean biodiesel? Tracking environmental answers through life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejos Altamirano, Carlos Alberto; Yokoyama, Lídia; Medeiros, José Luiz de; Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia de

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle of biodiesel using alternative transesterification routes is analyzed. • Bioethanol can potentially decrease CO_2 emissions of methanol biodiesel. • Contrarily, equivalent CO_2 emissions are retained and renewability is reduced. • Water footprint increases from 37.12 (methanol) to 44.88 m"3/GJ biodiesel (ethanol). • Energy efficiency is reduced from 79.37% (methanol) to 75.19 (ethanol %). - Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced by transesterification of triacylglicerides (TAG) contained in vegetable oils and animal fats, to yield alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin. Methanol is the main transesterification agent employed resulting in FAME (fatty acid methyl esters), which is primarily obtained from natural gas reforming (fossil source). Substitution of methanol by ethanol produces FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) and has the potential to render biodiesel a fully renewable fuel. Although renewability is a significant driving force for the proposed alcohol replacement, environmental performance of the alternative transesterification is questioned. The answer is herein sought through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the two production chains. The study tracks CO_2 emissions, energy efficiency, water and resources consumption, and environmental impacts (Acidification Potential – AP, Global Warming Potential – GWP, Eutrophication Potential – EP, and Human Toxicity Potential – TP). The boundaries of the biodiesel production chains extend from the extraction of raw-materials to its final use as transportation fuel in buses, applied to the Brazilian scenario. Results show that substitution of the methylic route with the ethylic route does not attribute significant environmental benefits. Furthermore, the ethylic route presents competitive advantages only in the category of GWP, and exhibits inferior performance in the remaining evaluated impact categories. Finally, a greater consumption of water and energy

  15. Effects of lactate and acetate on the determination of serum ethyl glucuronide by CZE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázková, Michaela; Caslavska, J.; Thormann, W.; Křivánková, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 23 (2006), s. 4772-4778 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2106; GA AV ČR IAA4031401; GA AV ČR IAA400310609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : acetate * CZE * ethyl glucuronide Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.101, year: 2006

  16. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Substituted Ethyl 2-(Quinolin-4-yl-propanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Substituted 4-hydroxyquinolines were synthesized from anilines and diethyl 2-(ethoxymethylenemalonate by the Gould-Jacobs reaction via cyclization of the intermediate anilinomethylenemalonate followed by hydrolysis and decarboxylation. The 4-hydroxyquinolines reacted with phosphorous oxychloride to form 4-chloroquinolines, which reacted on heating with diethyl sodiomethylmalonate in DMF to yield moderate yields of substituted ethyl 2-(quinolin-4-ylpropanoates, many of which showed potent antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori.

  17. Preparation of N(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidyl-methyl)2-methoxy-4-iodo-125I-5-ethyl sulfonyl benzamide: a radioligand for the radioimmunoassay of sulpiride-related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, M.T.; Pradelles, P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of 125 I labelling with a higher specific radioactivity of N(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidyl-methyl)2-methoxy-5-ethyl sulfonyl benzamide, a potent biological analogue for sulpiride is described. The incorporation of iodine in the molecule was achieved by the substitution of aromatic amino groups via the diazo compound. Binding and immunological parameters of iodinated and tritiated tracers were compared. (author)

  18. Biodegradation of ethyl acetate in radioactive liquid organic waste by bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Sakata, Solange K.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria H.; Marumo, Julio T.; Dutra, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab -scale hot cell, known as CELESTE located at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's and part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored at the Waste Management Laboratory. Among various types of radioactive waste generated, the organic liquid represents a major problem for its management, because it can not be directly solidified with cement. The objective of this work is to develop a pretreatment methodology to degrade the ethyl acetate present in organic liquid waste so that it can subsequently be immobilized in cement. This work was divided into two parts: selection and adaptation of three bacterial communities for growth in medium containing ethyl acetate and degradation experiments of ethyl acetate present in radioactive organic liquid waste. The results showed that from bacterial communities the highest biodegradation level observed was 77%. (author)

  19. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  20. Synthesis of sulfur-containing lubricant additives on the basis of fatty acid ethyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii S. Bodachivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals an energy-, resource- and eco-friendly method for preparation of sulfur-containing lubricant additives via interaction of fatty acid ethyl esters of rapeseed oil with elemental sulfur. The structure of synthesized compounds under various reactants ratio (5–50 wt.% of sulfur, duration (30–240 min and temperature of the process (160–215°С was investigated using various analytical techniques. According to the established data, aside from addition to double bonds, the side reaction of hydrogen substitution at α-methylene groups near these bonds occurs and induces the formation of conjugated systems and chromophoric sulfur-rich derivatives. Also, we found that increase of process duration evokes growth of polysulfane chains, in contrast to the raise of temperature, which leads to the formation of sulfur-containing heterocycles and hydrogen sulfide, as a result of elimination. Influence of accelerators on sulfurization of fatty acid ethyl esters was also examined. The most effective among them are mixtures of zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate with zinc oxide or stearic acid, which soften synthesis conditions and doubly decrease duration of the high-temperature stage. In addition, sulfur-containing compositions of ethyl esters and α-olefins, vulcanized esters by benzoyl peroxide, nonylphenols and zinc dinonylphenyldithiophosphate were designed. The study identified that lithium lubricant with sulfurized vulcanized esters provides improved tribological properties, in comparison with base lubricant or lubricant with the non-modified product.

  1. Study of the Transformation of the Oil of Used Soya in Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sarracent-López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of vegetable oils in food processing brings harmful health effects and on the other hand needs a complex treatment to discard without affecting the environment. Transformed into methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids and glycerin by transesterification with the corresponding alcohol, can be a suitable method for treatment. It was investigated residual soybean oil from a producer of fried foods and ethanol. It is known that with this spirit the transformation process presents difficulties not listed with methanol, but at the same time does not bring the drawbacks of the latter, for toxicity and acquisition, and that since it is a derivative of the domestic sugar industry does not constitute a raw material import. We experimented with ethanol 80 %, 85 % and 90 % purity and worked 35 ºC and 50 ºC. Final yields of ethyl esters, are low compared with those obtained for similar processes with methanol, 85 % being the highest yield obtained under the conditions of the process. An assessment of costs was conducted to produce 1L of ethyl esters in the laboratory, the expenses of 0,56 pesos/L.

  2. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshabah Tabassum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue.

  3. Biofiltration of odours - industrial pilot to treat methyl ethyl ketone and toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, L.; Elsie, K.

    2002-01-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone and toluene in the off-gases of a plant producing polyvinyl chloride sheeting for the automotive industry and swimming pools caused frequent odour complaints from the neighbourhood. A pilot project was developed to investigate the removal of the compounds under actual operating conditions by passing part of the exhaust through a compost-based, three-stage biofilter. It was determined over the 156 days of operation that the removal efficiencies of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene averaged 73% and 49%, respectively. It was also shown that shutdowns and disruptions of the laminating process for short and extended periods did not affect the biofilter performance. Addition of 100g/L solution of KNO 3 as a nitrogen source did not improve the performance. Carbon dioxide concentration data and the presence of an average microbial population of 52 million colony forming units per gram provided evidence that biological degradation played a significant role in the reduction of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene in the off-gases of the laminator. (author)

  4. ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF UNRIPE PULP OF CARICA PAPAYA IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Rocha Magareth Athayde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unripe Carica papaya fruits were extracted with methanol in Soxhlet apparatus and later with a liquid-liquid extraction with the aim of identifying and quantifying secondary metabolite fraction of this plant. Quercetin and β-sitosterol have been isolated from the fruit and the quantities detected were 120.2±0.16 mg/g (dry fruit and 279.1±0.09mg/g respectively. In addition, the extracts were evaluated in vivo for their effects on activities of some antioxidant enzymes which includes Glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Glutathione reductase (GR, Glutathione transferase (GST, Catalase (CAT and metabolizing enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH in mice treated orally with a daily dose of extracts (100mg/kg for 7 days. Results showed that ethyl acetate fraction caused significant increase(p<0.05 in the activities of GR, GPx, GST, and G6PDH. Significant decrease (p<0.05 in GPx activity was observed in kidney following administration of ethyl acetate fraction. It is likely that quercetin and β-sitosterol may be responsible for the antioxidant potential demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction from unripe fruit.

  5. Vasodilatory effects and underlying mechanisms of the ethyl acetate extracts from Gastrodia elata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rong; Wang, Ting; Si, Xiaoqin; Jia, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lili; Yuan, Yan; Lin, Qing; Yang, Cui

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ethyl acetate extracts of Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB) on vascular tone and the mechanisms involved. GEB was extracted with 95% EtOH followed by a further extraction with ethyl acetate. The effects of GEB and its ingredients on the isometric tensions of the aortic rings from rats were measured. The ethyl acetate extract of GEB induced a vasodilatory effect on rat aorta, which was partially dependent on endothelium. Four chemical compounds isolated from GEB were identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DB), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (HB), 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (MA), and 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl methane (DM), respectively. All of these compounds induced vasodilatations, which were dependent on the endothelium to different degrees. After pretreatment with N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, or methylene blue, the vasodilatations induced by DB, HB, and MA were significantly decreased. In addition, the contractions of the rat aortic rings due to Ca 2+ influx and intracellular Ca 2+ release were also inhibited by DM. Furthermore, the administration of DB significantly enhanced the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and the activities of the endothelial NO synthase in aorta and in endothelial cells. Thus, GEB may play an important role in the amelioration of hypertension by modulating vascular tones.

  6. Lipid Effects of Icosapent Ethyl in Women with Diabetes Mellitus and Persistent High Triglycerides on Statin Treatment: ANCHOR Trial Subanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Eliot A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Guyton, John R; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A; Mosca, Lori

    2018-03-27

    High triglycerides (TG) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are stronger predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women than in men, but few randomized, controlled clinical trials have investigated lipid-lowering interventions in women and none have reported results specifically in women with high TG and DM2. Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa) is pure prescription eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester approved at 4 g/day as an adjunct to diet to reduce TG ≥500 mg/dL. The 12-week ANCHOR trial randomized 702 statin-treated patients (73% with DM; 39% women) at increased CVD risk with TG 200-499 mg/dL despite controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 40-99 mg/dL) to receive icosapent ethyl 2 g/day, 4 g/day, or placebo. This post hoc analysis included 146 women with DM2 (97% white, mean age 62 years) randomized to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (n = 74) or placebo (n = 72). Icosapent ethyl significantly reduced TG (-21.5%; p women with DM2 at high CVD risk with persistently high TG on statins, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day reduced potentially atherogenic parameters with safety and tolerability comparable to placebo. Potential CVD benefits of icosapent ethyl are being tested in ∼8000 men and women at high CVD risk with high TG on statins in the ongoing Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl - Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) cardiovascular (CV) outcome trial.

  7. A facile synthesis of sodium 3-[1-[sup 14]C]-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi [Kotobuki Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Nagano (Japan). Research Labs.; Okazaki, Mitsuo [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Applied Biology

    1994-01-01

    Sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate 1, a new therapeutic agent for stomatitis, pharyngitis and ophthalmia was labelled with carbon-14 in the ethyl group attached to the azulene ring for use in metabolic studies. [sup 14]C-labelled 1 with a specific activity of 1.98 GBq/mmol was prepared in four steps in 39.3% overall chemical yield from [1-[sup 14]C]acetic acid sodium salt. (Author).

  8. Sequence distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along duplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Brock; Guza, Rebecca; Zhao, Jianwei; Li, Zhong-ze; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2007-10-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the major metabolite of ethanol and may be responsible for an increased gastrointestinal cancer risk associated with alcohol beverage consumption. Furthermore, AA is one of the most abundant carcinogens in tobacco smoke and induces tumors of the respiratory tract in laboratory animals. AA binding to DNA induces Schiff base adducts at the exocyclic amino group of dG, N2-ethylidene-dG, which are reversible on the nucleoside level but can be stabilized by reduction to N2-ethyl-dG. Mutagenesis studies in the HPRT reporter gene and in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have revealed the ability of AA to induce G-->A transitions and A-->T transversions, as well as frameshift and splice mutations. AA-induced point mutations are most prominent at 5'-AGG-3' trinucleotides, possibly a result of sequence specific adduct formation, mispairing, and/or repair. However, DNA sequence preferences for the formation of acetaldehyde adducts have not been previously examined. In the present work, we employed a stable isotope labeling-HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS approach developed in our laboratory to analyze the distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing two prominent lung cancer mutational "hotspots" and their surrounding DNA sequences. 1,7,NH 2-(15)N-2-(13)C-dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes derived from the K-ras protooncogene and the p53 tumor suppressor gene, followed by AA treatment and NaBH 3CN reduction to convert N2-ethylidene-dG to N2-ethyl-dG. Capillary HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS was used to quantify N2-ethyl-dG adducts originating from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled guanine nucleobases and to map adduct formation along DNA duplexes. We found that the formation of N2-ethyl-dG adducts was only weakly affected by the local sequence context and was slightly increased in the presence of 5-methylcytosine within CG dinucleotides. These results are in contrast with sequence

  9. Possible interferences of mercury sulfur compounds with ethylated and methylated mercury species using HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, R.D.; Nitschke, F.; Falter, R.

    2003-01-01

    The HPLC-ICP-MS coupling technique is able to separate and detect methyl, ethyl and inorganic mercury isotopes specifically. An identification of ethyl mercury(+) is not possible when the widely used sodium tetraethylborate derivatisation method in combination with GC-AFS/AAS or ICP-MS techniques is performed because it contains ethyl groups. An unidentified compound with the same retention time as ethyl mercury was found in the HPLC chromatograms of industrial sewage samples and humic-rich soils of microcosm experiments after applying water vapour distillation. We also observed such unidentified peaks in samples of heavily contaminated sites in Eastern Germany, separated by HPLC fractionation only. In the experiments described, different mercury sulfur adducts were synthesised and tested for their retention times in the HPLC-ICP-MS system. It was found that the compound CH 3 -S-Hg + showed the same retention time as the ethyl mercury standard. It is therefore possible that ethyl mercury detected in chromatography by comparison of the retention time could also be due to an adduct of a sulfur compound and a mercury species. CH 3 -S-Hg + should be tested in other chromatographic mercury speciation methods for this effect. This work can also be regarded as a contribution to the discussion of artificially occurring methyl mercury in sediments during sample preparation. (orig.)

  10. Impact of two ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate, on Saccharomyces cerevisiae: metabolic, physiologic, and morphological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Nasir; Husson, Eric; Jacquard, Cédric; Wewetzer, Sandra; Büchs, Jochen; Sarazin, Catherine; Gosselin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as suitable candidates for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment prior enzymatic saccharification and, obviously, for second-generation bioethanol production. However, several reports showed toxic or inhibitory effects of residual ILs on microorganisms, plants, and animal cells which could affect a subsequent enzymatic saccharification and fermentation process. In this context, the impact of two hydrophilic imidazolium-based ILs already used in lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment was investigated: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate [Emim][MeO(H)PO2]. Their effects were assessed on the model yeast for ethanolic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown in a culture medium containing glucose as carbon source and various IL concentrations. Classical fermentation parameters were followed: growth, glucose consumption and ethanol production, and two original factors: the respiratory status with the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) and carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR) of yeasts which were monitored online by respiratory activity monitoring systems (RAMOS). In addition, yeast morphology was characterized by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The addition of ILs to the growth medium inhibited the OTR and switched the metabolism from respiration (conversion of glucose into biomass) to fermentation (conversion of glucose to ethanol). This behavior could be observed at low IL concentrations (≤5% IL) while above there is no significant growth or ethanol production. The presence of IL in the growth medium also induced changes of yeast morphology, which exhibited wrinkled, softened, and holed shapes. Both ILs showed the same effects, but [Emim][MeO(H)PO2] was more biocompatible than [Emim][OAc] and could be better tolerated by S. cerevisiae. These two imidazolium-derived ILs were appropriate candidates for useful pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in the

  11. Purification and properties of a novel quizalofop-p-ethyl-hydrolyzing esterase involved in quizalofop-p-ethyl degradation by Pseudomonas sp. J-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Mengya; Li, Jie; Wang, Guangli; Liu, Yuan

    2017-05-10

    Quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE) is a post-emergence herbicide that effectively controls grass weeds and is often detected in the environment. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of QPE degradation in the environment remains unclear. In this study, a highly effective QPE-degrading bacterial strain J-2 was isolated from acclimated activated sludge and identified as a Pseudomonas sp., containing the QPE breakdown metabolite quizalofop acid (QA) identified by Liquid Chromatography-Ion Trap-Mass Spectrometry (LC-IT-MS n ) analysis. A novel QPE hydrolase esterase-encoding gene qpeH was cloned from strain J-2 and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The specific activity of recombinant QpeH was 198.9 ± 2.7 U mg -1 for QPE with K m and K cat values of 41.3 ± 3.6 μM and 127.3 ± 4.5 s -1 . The optimal pH and temperature for the recombinant QpeH were 8.0 and 30 °C, respectively and the enzyme was activated by Ca 2+ , Cd 2+ , Li + , Fe 3+ and Co 2+ and inhibited by Ni 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ag + , DEPC, SDS, Tween 80, Triton X, β-mercaptoethanol, PMSF, and pCMB. In addition, the catalytic efficiency of QpeH toward different AOPP herbicides in descending order was as follows: fenoxaprop-P-ethyl > quizalofop-P-tefuryl > QPE > haloxyfop-P-methyl > cyhalofopbutyl > clodinafop-propargyl. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment, the identified enzyme QpeH, was clustered with esterase family V, suggesting a new member of this family because of its low similarity of amino acid sequence with esterases reported previously.

  12. Commercial Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) Testing is Not Vulnerable to Incidental Alcohol Exposure in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondersma, Steven J; Beatty, Jessica R; Rosano, Thomas G; Strickler, Ronald C; Graham, Amy E; Sokol, Robert J

    2016-01-02

    Ethyl Glucoronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) have shown promise as biomarkers for alcohol and may be sensitive enough for use with pregnant women in whom even low-level alcohol use is important. However, there have been reports of over-sensitivity of EtG and EtS to incidental exposure to sources such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Further, few studies have evaluated these biomarkers among pregnant women, in whom the dynamics of these metabolites may differ. This study evaluated whether commercial EtG-EtS testing was vulnerable to high levels of environmental exposure to alcohol in pregnant women. Two separate samples of five nurses-one pregnant and the other postpartum, all of whom reported high levels of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use-provided urine samples before and 4-8 hours after rinsing with alcohol-based mouthwash and using hand sanitizer. The five pregnant nurses provided urine samples before, during, and after an 8-hour nursing shift, during which they repeatedly cleansed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer (mean 33.8 uses). The five postpartum nurses used hand sanitizer repeatedly between baseline and follow-up urine samples. No urine samples were positive for EtG-EtS at baseline or follow-up, despite use of mouthwash and-in the pregnant sample-heavy use of hand sanitizer (mean of 33.8 uses) throughout the 8-hour shift. Current, commercially available EtG-EtS testing does not appear vulnerable to even heavy exposure to incidental sources of alcohol among pregnant and postpartum women.

  13. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modelling for the system (CO2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschi, Priscilla S.; Mafra, Marcos R.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ethyl palmitate and biodiesel comparison in a pressure–composition diagram for the systems (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + biodiesel), at different temperatures. Highlights: ► We measured VLE, LLE, and VLLE for the system (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol). ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► Phase envelope of (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate) is different that (CO 2 + soybean oil biodiesel). ► The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR–WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} and ternary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} systems at high pressures. There is currently great interest in biodiesel production processes involving supercritical and/or pressurized solvents, such as non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalysed biodiesel production. Also, supercritical CO 2 can offer an interesting alternative for glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step in a water-free process. In this context, the main goal of this work was to investigate the phase behaviour of binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , a pure constituent of biodiesel ethyl palmitate and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The CO 2 mole fraction ranged from 0.5033 to 0.9913 for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} system and from 0.4436 to 0.9712 for ternary system {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} system with ethyl ester to ethanol molar ratios of (1:6), (1:3), and (1:1). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL) phase transitions were observed. The experimental data sets were successfully modeled using the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals

  14. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of ethanol and ethyl ecetate extracts of Candi Banana (Musa paradisiaca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeliocattleya, R. A.; Estiasih, T.; Griselda, G.; Muchlisyiyah, J.

    2018-03-01

    Banana has various benefits for health. One local variety of banana is candi banana (Musa paradisiaca). The aim of this research was to study the content of the bioactive compounds of phenolics, flavonoids, tannin, carotenoids and the antioxidant activity of extract ethanol and ethyl acetate of candi banana. Powdered candi banana was extracted using ethanol and ethyl acetate in an ultrasonic bath. The results showed that the content of phenolics, flavonoids, tannin and carotenoids in ethanol extract were 58.76 ± 3.19 mg/kg, 416.08 ± 18.79 mg/kg, 209.83 ± 15.87 mg/kg and 74.55 ± 4.31 mg/kg, respectively. The content of phenolics, flavonoids, tannin and carotenoids in ethyl acetate extract were 0.83 ± 0.12 mg/kg, 4.31 ± 0.66 mg/kg, 49.97 ± 2.43 mg/kg and 304.40 ± 16.62 mg/kg. While the antioxidant activity (IC50) of ethanol extract and ethyl acetate were 3374.13 ± 123.46 ppm and 40318.19 ± 1014.90 ppm. This research showed that type of solvents of ethanol and ethyl acetate affected the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of candi banana. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extract was higher than that of ethyl acetate extract. It showed that ethanol was a better solvent than ethyl acetate to extract bioactive compounds in candi banana.

  16. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalaiswamy Balasubramanian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg produced a significant (P<0.001 fall in fasting blood glucose level, TBARS, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  17. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga inhibits angiogenesis through tyrosine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Ekowati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Many tumors express on their receptor tyrosine kinases vascular endothelial growth factor activity associated with angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis through reduction of tyrosine kinase activity is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The present study aimed to determine the mechanism and potency of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC isolated from Kaempferia galanga as angiogenesis inhibitor. Methods A laboratory experimental study was conducted using chorio-allantoic membranes (CAMs of nine-day old chicken eggs induced by 60ng basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC potency was determined at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and compared with celecoxib 60 mg as reference drug and one negative bFGF-induced control group. Neovascularization and endothelial cell count in CAM blood vessels were evaluated. To predict the antiangiogenic mechanism of EPMC, a docking study was performed with the Molegro Virtual Docker program on tyrosine kinase as receptor (PDB 1XKK. Results Angiogenesis stimulation by bFGF was prevented significantly (p<0.05 by EPMC at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and this activity was dose dependent. Molecular docking showed interaction between EPMC functional groups and tyrosine kinase amino acids at Met766, Met793, Thr854, Thr790, Gln791 and Ala743. There was an association between EPMC antiangiogenic activity and docking study results. Conclusions Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate is a potential new angiogenesis inhibitor through interaction with tyrosine kinase. EPMC could be a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.

  18. Sample preparation method for the combined extraction of ethyl glucuronide and drugs of abuse in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ulf; Briellmann, Thomas; Scheurer, Eva; Dussy, Franz

    2018-04-01

    Often in hair analysis, a small hair sample is available while the analysis of a multitude of structurally diverse substances with different concentration ranges is demanded. The analysis of the different substances often requires different sample preparation methods, increasing the amount of required hair sample. When segmental hair analysis is necessary, the amount of hair sample needed is further increased. Therefore, the required sample amount for a full analysis can quickly exceed what is available. To combat this problem, a method for the combined hair sample preparation using a single extraction procedure for analysis of ethyl glucuronide with liquid chromatography-multistage fragmentation mass spectrometry/multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MS 3 /MRM) and common drugs of abuse with LC-MRM was developed. The combined sample preparation is achieved by separating ethyl glucuronide from the drugs of abuse into separate extracts by fractionation in the solid-phase extraction step during sample clean-up. A full validation for all substances for the parameters selectivity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and recovery was successfully completed. The following drugs of abuse were included in the method: Amphetamine; methamphetamine; 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA); 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDE); morphine; 6-monoacetylmorphine; codeine; acetylcodeine; cocaine; benzoylecgonine; norcocaine; cocaethylene; methadone; 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and methylphenidate. In conclusion, as only 1 sample preparation is needed with 1 aliquot of hair, the presented sample preparation allows an optimal analysis of both ethyl glucuronide and of the drugs of abuse, even when the sample amount is a limiting factor. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Decaffeination process characteristic of Robusta coffee in single column reactor using ethyl acetate solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumers drink coffee not as nutrition source, but as refreshment drink. For coffee consumers who have high tolerance for caffeine, coffee may warm up and refresh their bodies. High caffeine content in coffee beans may cause several complaints to consumers who are susceptible to caffeine. One of the efforts, for coffee market expansion is product diversification to decaffeinated coffee. Decaffeination process is one of process to reduce caffeine content from agricultural products. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in collaboration with Bogor Agricultural University has developed a single column reactor for coffee beans decaffeination. The aim of this research is to study process characteristic of coffee decaffeination in single column reactor using ethyl acetate (C4H8O2 solvent. Treatments applicated in the research were time and temperature process. Temperature treatment were 50—60OC, 60—70OC, 70—80OC, 80—90OC and 90—100OC. Time treatment were 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h, and 12 h Size of Robusta coffee beans used were less than 5.5 mm (A4, between 5.5 mm and 6.5 mm (A3, between 6.5 mm and 7.5 mm (A2, and more than 7.5 mm (A1. The result showed that decaffeination process with ethyl acetate solvent will be faster when its temperature was higher and smaller bean size. For bean size less than 5,5 mm, decaffeination process by 10% ethyl acetat can be done 8—10 hours in 90—100OC solvent temperature or 12 hours in 60—70OC solvent temperature for 0.3% caffein content. Organoleptic test showed that 90—100OC temperature solvent treatment decreased coffee flavor, which aroma, bitterness and body values were 1.9 each . Key words : Coffee, caffeine, decaffeination, quality, single column.

  20. Quizalofop-p-ethyl-induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Lemna minor and Lemna gibba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganlar, Zeynep B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the herbicide, quizalofop-p-ethyl, on pigment contents (total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid), antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD)] activities, lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde: MDA) and DNA profiles were investigated in Lemna gibba and Lemna minor. Laboratory-acclimatized plants were treated with quizalofop-p-ethyl at 31.375, 62.75, 125 and 250 mg L(-1) for 24 and 96 h. It was determined that quizalofop-p-ethyl affected both the physiological status and the DNA profiles of L. gibba and L. minor. The photosynthetic pigments of L. gibba were more sensitive to the herbicide than were those of L. minor at both treatment times. SOD and POD activities were elevated in both plants at 24 h. However at 96 h, SOD activity decreased in L. minor and had irregular changes in L. gibba.. Significant increases in the amounts of MDA were observed in L. gibba, whereas the levels of this compound decreased in L. minor at 24 and 96 h. Polymorphism in DNA profiles was determined using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Four primers were used for scoring (appearance and disappearance of DNA polymorphic bands), and equally weighted maximum parsimony analyses were performed. Fewer differences were observed at 24 h, and more new bands were observed at 96 h in L. gibba. The RAPD profiles of L. minor produced by all of the primers were slightly less affected by the herbicide treatment than were those of L. gibba.

  1. Amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as new crystallization reagents for lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, amino acids and amino-acid derivatives have been applied in various fields of protein chemistry. The potential use of amino acids and their derivatives as new precipitating agents is described. Several amino acids and their derivatives are prominent additives in the field of protein chemistry. This study reports the use of charged amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as precipitants in protein crystallization, using hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model. A discussion of the crystallization of HEWL using these reagents as precipitating agents is given

  2. Ethyl malonate amides: a diketo acid offspring fragment for HIV integrase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Katarzyna; Mazur, Pawel; Bak, Andrzej; Laine, Elodie; Tchertanov, Luba; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2011-08-15

    While searching for new HIV integrase inhibitors we discovered that some ethyl malonate amides (EMA) are active against this enzyme. Surprisingly, the main function can only very rarely be found among the reported drug candidates. We synthesised a series of compounds in order to establish and analyse the structure-activity relationship. The similarity to the important classes of HIV integrase inhibitors as well as the synthetic availability of the different targets including this pharmacophore makes EMA compounds an interesting object of investigations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperature influence on mixing properties of {ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) + gasoline additives}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Olmos, R.; Iglesias, M.

    2007-01-01

    The densities and ultrasonic velocity of {ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) + (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, isooctane, tert-butyl alcohol, and ethanol)} over the temperature range (288.15 to 323.15) K and atmospheric pressure, have been measured over the whole concentration range. The experimental excess volumes and deviation of isentropic compressibilities data have been analysed in terms of different theoretical models. The gathered data improve open literature related to gasoline additives, and help to understand the ETBE volumetric and acoustic trend into different chemical environment

  4. Synchrotron Photoionization Investigation of the Oxidation of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfough, Matthew; Yao, Rong; Ng, Martin; Catani, Katherine; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-02-23

    The oxidation of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), a widely used fuel oxygenated additive, is investigated using Cl atoms as initiators in the presence of oxygen. The reaction is carried out at 293, 550, and 700 K. Reaction products are probed by a multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer coupled with the synchrotron radiation produced at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Products are identified on the basis of mass-to-charge ratio, ionization energies, and shape of photoionization spectra. Reaction pathways are proposed together with detected primary products.

  5. Optimization of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME for Monitoring Occupational Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heidari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Analytical methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs in different samples need extraction of compounds, by applying hazardous solvents. Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME is a solvent-free equilibrium extraction method, in which proper calibration can allow quantitative determinations of VOCs at a very good sensitivity without the use of any organic solvent. VOCs are generally present in urine only at trace levels, therefore, a sensitive procedure is needed for their trace determinations. Throughout this study, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME was followed by GC-FID for ethyl benzene in spiked urine was optimized.

    Methods: In this study, the parameters influencing SPME and gas chromatography of ethyl benzene, including extraction time, temperature, desorption temperature, desorption time, salt addition, sample pH, sample volume and sample agitation were investigated.

    Results: Extraction procedure was performed at 30°C for 6 min, using 0.2 gml-1 of NaCl in the sample solution. The sample volume and sample pH were optimized at 5 ml and 7 (neutral pH, respectively. Desorption of the ethyl benzene was carried out for 60 sec. at 250°C. The method was also validated with three different spiked urine samples and illustrated an appropriate reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. During this investigation, parameters of accuracy, linearity, and detection limits of the procedure were also evaluated.

    Conclusion: The developed method of HS- SPME-GC-FID proved to be a simple, convenient, and practical procedure, and was successfully used for measuring of ethyl benzene in spiked urine.

  6. Determination of Partial Molar Volumes of EPA and DHA Ethyl Esters in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The use of supercritical-fluid chromatography for determining partial molar volumes of ethyl esters of cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and cis -4,7,10,13,16,19- docosa-hexaenoic acid (DHA) in supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and discussed. Partial molar volumes of EPA and DHA esters are obtained from the variation of the retention properties with the density of mobile phase at 313.15 K, 323.15 K, 333.15 K and in the pressure range from 9 MPa to 21 MPa.

  7. Deptermination of Partial Molar Volumes of EPA and DHA Ethyl Esters in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeiHUANG; XianDaWANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    The use of supercritical-fluid shromatogrphy for determining partial molar volumes of ethyl esters of cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosa-hexaenoic acid(DHA) in supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and discussed. Partial molar volumes of EPA and DHA esters are obtained from the variation of the retention properties with the density of mobile phase at 313.15K,323.15K,333.15K and in the pressure range from 9 MPa to 21 MPa.

  8. Meiotic anomalies induced by γ-rays and ethyl methanesulphonate treatments in pearl millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxmi, V.; Singh, R.B.; Singh, B.D.; Singh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Seven inbreds, viz. Tif-23A, 23D 2 A, Tif-238, 23D 2 B, K560, Bil3B and J104 and 3 commercial hybrids, viz. HB1, HB3 and HB5, of pearl millet were treated with γ-rays (10,20, 30kr) and/or ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6%). PMC's of plants from mutagen treated populations showed chromatin bridges, laggards, fragments, cytomixis, tripolar division, inversion, micronuclei and unequal chromosome distributions were more fragment than other anomalies. γ-Rays were more effective than EMS or the combination treatments in inducing cytological anomalies. (author)

  9. Use of ethyl-α-isonitrosoacetoacetate in the rapid estimation and radiochemical separation of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, A.D.; Haldar, B.C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of ethyl-α-isonitrosoacetoacetate in the rapid estimation and radiochemical separation of gold is reported. As low as 5.00 mg of Au can be estimated with an accuracy better than 1%. Decontamination values against platinum metals and other metals usually associated with Au are greater than 10 5 . Isotopes and results are tabulated. The time required for radiochemical separation is around 20 min and the recovery of Au is better than 80%. γ-activities were measured with a single channel analyser and NaI(Tl) detector. β-activities were counted on a thin end-window type GM counter. (T.I.)

  10. Polymorphic ethyl alcohol as a model system for the quantitative study of glassy behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H E; Schober, H; Gonzalez, M A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Bermejo, F J; Fayos, R; Dawidowski, J [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, M A; Vieira, S [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The nearly universal transport and dynamical properties of amorphous materials or glasses are investigated. Reasonably successful phenomenological models have been developed to account for these properties as well as the behaviour near the glass-transition, but quantitative microscopic models have had limited success. One hindrance to these investigations has been the lack of a material which exhibits glass-like properties in more than one phase at a given temperature. This report presents results of neutron-scattering experiments for one such material ordinary ethyl alcohol, which promises to be a model system for future investigations of glassy behaviour. (author). 8 refs.

  11. Extraction and separation studies of uranium(VI) with tris-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaramurthi, N.M.; Desai, G.S.; Shinde, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    A solvent extraction method is proposed for the extraction and separation of uranium from salicylate media using tris-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate dissolved in xylene as an extractant. The optimum conditions were evaluated from a critical study of pH, salicylate concentration, extractant concentration, period of equilibration and diluent. The method permits the separation of uranium from thorium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, copper, vanadium and chromium from binary mixtures and is applicable to the analysis of uranium in synthetic samples. The method is precise, accurate, fast and selective. (author) 5 refs.; 2 tabs

  12. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  13. Evaluation and Characterization of Biodiesels Obtained Through Ethylic or Methylic Transesterification of Tryacylglicerides in Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Queiroz Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was devoted to the transesterification of corn oil either with methyl or ethyl alcohol and to the characterization of the biodiesels (composed by FAME—fatty acid methyl esters—or FAEE—fatty acid ethyl esters, respectively produced. As an initial hypothesis, it was argued whether or not the two alcohols, both with short molecular chains, would impart significant differences to the chemical characteristics of the two biodiesels from corn oil. The most common properties of the biodiesels were evaluated by determining corresponding parameters for acid value, peroxide value, water content, oxidative stability, free and total glycerin, kinematic viscosity at 40 ℃ and density at 20 ℃, for both chemical routes, FAME and FAEE. In general, values were found to be well within the recommended limits for commercial biodiesel, in accordance with the Brazilian, European and American standard recommendations, except only for the oxidative stability. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.08 mg KOH/g; peroxide index, 23.77 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 3.10 h; water content, 297.1 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.092 %; free glycerin, 0.009 %; viscosity, 4.05 mm2/s and density, 878.7 kg/m. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.11 mg/ KOH; peroxide index, 22.39 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 2.13 h; water content, 264.8 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.25 %; free glycerin, 0.02 %; viscosity, 4.37 mm2/s and density, 874.0 kg/m. From a direct inspection of chemical data for the two products prepared via the two chemical routes, it can be drawn that values of the physical and chemical parameters for both, methyl and ethyl biodiesels, are essentially similar, except for the oxidative stability. However, the oxidative stability can be suitably adjusted by adding an anti-oxidizing agent to the ethyl biodiesel medium. The two biodiesels are thus promising alternatives to fully replace or to be admixed to the mineral diesel. Relatively to the pure petrol

  14. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and ethyl methanesulhonate in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Basudeo

    1986-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit dose of a mutagen while mutagenic efficiency gives the proportion of mutations in relation to other associated undesirable biological effects such as gross chromosomal aberrations, lethality and sterility induced by the mutagen in question (Konzak, et al., 1965). The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its mutagenic effectiveness but also on its mutagenic efficiency. The efficiency and effectiveness of ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) in relation to gamma rays in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss] was studied. (author)

  15. 2{sup -}Ethyl-furanoflavone derivatives from the stems of Cassia fistula and their cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue-Mei, Gao; Xiang-Zhong, Huang; Li-Ying, Yang; Li-Dan, Shu; Gan-Peng, Li, E-mail: ganpeng_li@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources, State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan University of Nationalities, Yunnan (China); Yan-Qiong, Shen; Qiu-Fen, Hu, E-mail: huqiufena@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources, State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan University of Nationalities, Yunnan (China); Key Laboratory of Tobacco Chemistry of Yunnan Province, Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science, Yunnan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Two new 2{sup -}ethyl-furanoflavones named fistulaflavones A and B together with six known furanoflavones were isolated from the stems of Cassia fistula. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D, 2D NMR and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) techniques, and comparison with literature data. All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines. One of the compounds showed potent cytotoxicity against SHSY5Y and MCF7 cells with IC{sub 50} values of 2.7 and 2.6 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -1}, respectively (author)

  16. Possible Using of Tetra Bromo Phenolphthalein Ethyl Ester as a Liquid Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, A.M.; Faheem, E.; Moniem, Sh.A.; El Ahdal, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous Solution of pH indicator Tetrabromo phenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPE) containing of chloral hydrate was studied for using as a liquid dosimeter. The useful measuring range was found to be of (0.5-2 kGy) depending on concentration of both dye and chloral hydrate added. The dosimeter has good stability before and after irradiation under different storage conditions. Comparison study between direct irradiation of TBPE containing chloral hydrate and back titration of TBPE through irradiation of chloral hydrate was investigated.

  17. Comparative substoichiometric extraction of zinc with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Rangamannar, P.

    1995-01-01

    The comparative extractability of zinc with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, and benzyl xanthates from the pH range of 3.5-9.0 into chloroform has been studied, employing a sensitive and rapid substoichiometric radiochemical method. The extent of reproducibility was tested in each case. The effect of associated ions on the extraction was studied. The amount of zinc present in the standard solutions was determined employing each xanthate separately. The zinc content present in geological water samples in and around Tirupati was determined by the method developed and compared with the values obtained by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14 th . At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  19. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from

  20. Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton T. Souza

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from Caulerpa racemosa. This seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. The n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. In the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. In the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%, n-butanolic phase (35.12%, chloroformic phase (32.70% and indomethacin (32.06% were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. In the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43% and indomethacin (47.83% inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. Based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.

  1. The safe operation zone of the spark ignition engine working with dual renewable supplemented fuels (hydrogen+ethyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2001-04-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NOx emission while increasing the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. An equation has been derived from experimental data to specify the least quantity of ethyl alcohol blended with gasoline and satisfying constant NOx emission when hydrogen is added. A chart limiting the safe operation zone of the engine fueled with dual renewable supplemented fuel, (hydrogen and ethyl alcohol) has been produced. The safe zone provides lower NOx and CO emission, lower s.f.c. and higher brake power compared to an equivalent gasoline engine. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  2. GC-MS and FI-IR analysis of the bio-oil with addition of ethyl acetate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le eZhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different mass fractions (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% of ethyl acetate were added to bio-oil for improving its storage stability during storage at 40℃ for 35d. For different bio-oils during storage, physical properties were characterized and chemical components were determined by GC-MS and FT-IR. The results of properties characterization showed that, addition of ethyl acetate could instantly lower bio-oil viscosity, water content, and dramatically decrease the rate of aging. pH value of bio-oil can be instantly improved by adding ethyl acetate. GC-MS results revealed that addition of various content of ethyl acetate into bio-oil and its storage at 40℃ for 35d could both lead to disappearance of previous compounds and generation of new compounds. FT-IR results showed that addition of various content of ethyl acetate into bio-oils and its storage at 40℃ for 35d could slightly change the wavenumbers of substantial functional groups in bio-oils.

  3. Colorimetric determination of uranium using ammonium thiocyanate in a medium of ethyl acetate, acetone and water; Dosage colorimetrique de l'uranium par le thiocyanate d'ammonium en milieu acetate d'ethyle-acetone-eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucleux, M; Dessapt, P

    1959-04-01

    The method consists of colorimetrically analyzing uranium using ammonium sulfo-cyanide in the solvent phase. The optimum conditions for extracting uranium by ethyl acetate have been studied. A precise colorimetric method was established which depends on the extracted phase and on the behavior of the ethyl acetate-acetone medium. (author) [French] La methode consiste a doser l'uranium par colorimetrie au sulfocyanure d'ammonium en phase solvant. Les meilleures conditions d'extraction de l'uranium par l'acetate d'ethyle ont ete etudiees. Une colorimetrie precise a ete mise au point en fonction de l'acidite de la phase extraite et du comportement du milieu acetate d'ethyleacetone. (auteur)

  4. (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the binary systems {l_brace}water + glycerol{r_brace} and {l_brace}ethanol + glycerol, ethyl stearate, and ethyl palmitate{r_brace} at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Renata; Santos, Priscilla G. dos; Mafra, Marcos R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Corazza, Marcos L., E-mail: corazza@ufpr.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measured VLE for the binary system {l_brace}ethyl stearate and palmitate + ethanol{r_brace}. > The boiling temperatures were obtained using Othmer-type ebuliometer. > The experimental data were modeled using NRTL, UNIQUAC, and UNIFAC models. - Abstract: This work reports the experimental measurements {l_brace}(vapor + liquid) equilibrium{r_brace} for the systems {l_brace}water(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl stearate(2){r_brace}, and {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl palmitate(2){r_brace}. Boiling temperatures were measured using an Othmer-type ebulliometer over a pressure range of 14 kPa to 96 kPa. The experimental data were well correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The performance of the UNIFAC-Dortmund model in relation to predicting the phase equilibrium of the systems was also studied.

  5. Nonaqueous gel for the transdermal delivery of a DTPA penta-ethyl ester prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Pacyniak, Erik K; Kagel, John R; Braun, Brenda A; Zamboni, William C; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid penta-ethyl ester, designated as C2E5, was successfully incorporated into a nonaqueous gel for transdermal delivery. The thermal and rheological properties of a formulation containing 40% C2E5, 20% ethyl cellulose, and 40% Miglyol 840® prepared using the solvent evaporation method demonstrated that the gel had acceptable content uniformity and flow properties. In vitro studies showed that C2E5 was steadily released from the gel at a rate suitable for transdermal delivery. Topical application of the gel at a 200 mg C2E5/kg dose level in rats achieved significantly higher plasma exposures of several active metabolites compared with neat C2E5 oil at the same dose level. The results suggest that transdermal delivery of a chelator prodrug is an effective radionuclide decorporation strategy by delivering chelators to the circulation with a pharmacokinetic profile that is more consistent with the biokinetic profile of transuranic elements in contaminated individuals.

  6. A comparative study of the chemical kinetics of methyl and ethyl propanoate

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2014-10-01

    High temperature pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH3) and ethyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH2CH3) was studied behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1250-1750 K and pressure of 1.5 atm. Species time-histories were recorded for CO, CO2, C2H4, and H2O using laser absorption methods over a test time of 1 ms. Pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (MP) appears to be faster than that of ethyl propanoate (EP) under the present experimental conditions, where CO and CO 2 reach their plateau values faster for MP at a specific temperature and fuel concentration. Higher plateau values are reached for CO in case of MP while the CO2 levels are similar for the two ester fuels. Ethylene production is larger for EP due to the presence of six-centered ring elimination reaction that produces ethylene and propanoic acid. Very little H2O is produced during MP pyrolysis in contrast with appreciable H2O production from EP. Sensitivity and rate-of-production analyses were carried out to identify key reactions that affect the measured species profiles. Previous kinetic mechanisms of Yang et al. (2011) [1,2] and Metcalf et al. (2009, 2007) [3,4] were used as base models and then refined to propose a new MP/EP pyrolysis mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimum conditions of the synthesis of zeolite A by the direct hydrolysis of ethyl orthosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, R; Toki, K

    1975-11-01

    Synthesis of various types of zeolites has been reported using as a starting material silica sols, gels, silicates or silicate minerals, all of which are polymers of silicic acid. In this study Zeolite A was synthesized from ethyl orthosilicate which was probably a monomer at the beginning of hydrolysis. Optimum conditions of synthesis and factors which influence the formation of Zeolite A were examined. Ethyl orthosilicate was directly hydrolyzed by sodium aluminate solution in the presence of excess sodium hydroxide. After ultrasonic and mechanical stirring for an hour at 70/sup 0/C, the solution was kept in the air bath at 70/sup 0/C under atmospheric pressure for 48 approximately 120 hours. Zeolite A with high purity and crystallinity was obtained in a good yield from the starting mixture with the composition of 2 approximately 4.5 Na/sub 2/O . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ . 0.5 approximately 2 SiO/sub 2/ . 200 approximately 400 H/sub 2/O. Present method was effective for the synthesis of Zeolite A in the lower molar ratios of SiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as compared with the ordinary methods using silica or silicates. The species formed were also investigated by the optical, x-ray diffraction, DTA, TGA, IR and chemical methods.

  8. Submillimeter wave spectroscopy of ethyl isocyanide and its searches in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Tercero, B.; Guillemin, J. C.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Cernicharo, J.

    2018-02-01

    Context. About 40 cyanide compounds have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only 3 examples of organic isocyanide compounds were observed in this medium. Ethyl isocyanide is one of the best candidates for possible detection. Aim. To date, measurements of rotational spectra are limited to 40 GHz. The extrapolation of the prediction in the millimeter wave domain is inaccurate and does not permit an unambiguous detection. Methods: The rotational spectra were reinvestigated from 0.15 to 1 THz. Using the new prediction, we searched for the compound ethyl isocyanide in Orion KL and Sgr B2. Results: We newly assigned 2906 transitions and fitted these new data with those from previous studies, reaching quantum numbers up to J = 103 and Ka = 30. The asymmetric top Hamiltonian proposed by Watson in the Ir representation was used for the analysis, and both reductions A and S were tested. The search for CH3CH2NC in Sgr B2 (IRAM 30m) and Orion KL (IRAM 30m, ALMA Science Verification) result in a non-detection; upper limits to the column density were derived. Tables S1-S4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A44

  9. Theoretical Study of the Kinetics of the Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction of Ethyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Ajibade Adejoro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The products of the gas-phase elimination of ethyl chloride are hydrogen chloride and ethane. Using AM1, MNDO and PM3 Hamiltonians of quantum mechanical computer code called MOPAC, a procedure for the kinetics and computation of the Arrhenius parameters for the pyrolytic elimination reaction of ethyl chloride was devised in order to evaluate the predictive ability of the three Hamiltonians used. The first-order rate coefficient for the three Hamiltonians are 1.15x10-8s-1, 4.55x10-15s-1 and 5.36x10-4s-1 for AM1, MNDO and PM3 respectively. The results obtained showed that the rate constant for the computed Arrhenius parameters compare well with the experimental values in the literature, thus showing that the computational procedure adequately simulates experimental results; also the semi-empirical AMI calculation has the best predictive ability with experiment followed by PM3 while MNDO has the least.

  10. Exploration of ethyl anthranilate-loaded monolithic matrix-type prophylactic polymeric patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johirul Islam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Compromised stability of pharmaceutical formulations loaded with volatiles is a serious problem associated with devices designed to deliver volatile compounds. The present study has been focused to evaluate the stability potential of matrix-type polymeric patches composed of volatile ethyl anthranilate for prophylaxis against vector-borne diseases. Ethyl anthranilate-loaded matrix-type polymeric patches were fabricated by solvent evaporation method on an impermeable backing membrane and attached to temporary release liners. Stability testing of the polymeric patches was performed as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines for 6 months under accelerated conditions. In addition, the quantification of residual solvents was also performed as per the ICH guidelines. After conducting the stability studies for 6 months, the optimized patches showed the best possible results with respect to uniformity of drug content, physical appearance, and other analytical parameters. Furthermore, the amount of residual solvent was found well below the accepted limit. Thus, the present report outlined the analytical parameters to be evaluated to ensure the stability of a certain devices consisting of volatile compounds.

  11. Effects on wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  12. Effects of wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California USA rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  13. Spectroscopic Investigations and DFT Calculations on 3-(Diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental vibrational frequencies of 3-(diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2 were investigated. The experimental Laser-Raman spectrum (4000–100 cm−1 and FT-IR spectrum (4000–400 cm−1 of the newly synthesized compound were recorded in the solid phase. Both the theoretical vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles have for the first time been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP and DFT/M06-2X quantum chemical methods with the 6-311++G(d,p basis set using Gaussian 03 software. The vibrational frequencies were assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED analysis using VEDA 4 software. The calculated vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding reported experimental data. Also, the energies of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, and other related molecular energies for 3-(diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2 have been investigated using the same computational methods.

  14. Thermal decomposition synthesis of nanorods bismuth sulphide from bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Nurul Hidayah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Silong, Sidik; Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed; Tan, Kar-Ban; Chang, Sook-Keng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate was used as single source precursor. • No surfactant was used in the preparation of Bi_2S_3 nanorods. • Pure phase orthorhombic Bi_2S_3 is obtained. • Bismuth sulphide with an average atomic ratio of Bi:S close to 2:3 is obtained. - Abstract: Nanorods of bismuth sulphide were prepared by thermal decomposition of bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate at different calcination duration. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that at 400 °C, the precursor was fully decomposed to orthorhombic bismuth sulphide after 2 h of calcination. Besides, calcination duration does not affect the existence of Bi_2S_3 phase. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses reveal that Bi_2S_3 nanorods with an average width ranging from 29–36 nm were obtained. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the atomic ratio of Bi and S close to 2:3, giving a possible composition of Bi_2S_3. Direct band gap energy of Bi_2S_3 decreases from 1.83 eV to 1.54 eV as calcination time increases.

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Littorina littorea and Galatea paradoxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Sheringham Borquaye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment is a vital resource for bioprospecting pharmacologically important natural products. Molluscs are known to harbour compounds with antimicrobial, antitumor and antioxidant activities. This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate and methanol tissue extracts of two molluscs, Littorina littorea (L. littorea and Galatea paradoxa (G. paradoxa. Agar diffusion and broth dilution assays were used to test for antimicrobial activity against nine microbes. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Extracts of both molluscs showed significant activity against all the bacteria strains tested but were inactive towards the fungus. The best antibacterial activity was recorded by methanol extract of L. littorea towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In comparison to ethyl acetate extracts, methanol extracts were more efficient in scavenging the DPPH radical. Methanol extracts of L. littorea had an IC50 of 0.37 mg/mL which was closer to that of the standard ascorbic acid drug (0.0048 mg/mL than any of the other extracts. The findings of this work indicate that the tissue extracts of L. littorea and G. paradoxa are promising sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that can be utilized for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  16. The influence of temperature on the polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate from the vapor phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Algaier, Dana [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    The polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate fumes from surface bound initiators is an important step in many novel and mature technologies. Understanding the effect of temperature on the rate of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) (PECA) growth and its molecular weight during its polymerization from the vapor phase from surface bound initiators provides insight into the important mechanistic aspects that impact the polymerizations success. In these studies, it is shown that the amount of PECA formed during the polymerization of ECA from a latent fingerprint increases with decreasing temperature, while the polymer molecular weight varies little. This is interpreted to be the result of the loosening of the ion pair that initiates the polymer chain growth and resides on the end of the growing polymer chain with decreasing temperature. Comparison of temperature effects and counter-ion studies show that in both cases loosening the ion pair results in the formation of more polymer with similar molecular weight, verifying this interpretation. These results further suggest that lowering the temperature may be an effective method to optimize anionic vapor phase polymerizations, including the improvement of the quality of aged latent prints and preliminary results are presented that substantiate this prediction.

  17. CARBON CRYOGEL MICROSPHERE FOR ETHYL LEVULINATE PRODUCTION: EFFECT OF CARBONIZATION TEMPERATURE AND TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUZAKKIR M. ZAINOL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The side products of biomass and bio-fuel industry have shown potential in producing carbon catalyst. The carbon cryogel was synthesized from ligninfurfural mixture based on the following details: 1.0 of lignin to furfural (L/F ratio, 1.0 of lignin to water (L/W ratio, and 8M of acid concentration. The lignin-furfural sol-gel mixture, initially prepared via polycondensation reaction at 90 °C for 30 min, was followed by freeze drying and carbonization process. Effects of carbonization temperature and time were investigated on the total acidity and surface area of the carbon cryogel. Furthermore, the effects of these parameters were studied on the ethyl levulinate yield through esterification reaction of levulinic acid in ethanol. The esterification reaction was conducted at reflux temperature, 10 h of reaction time, 19 molar ratio of ethanol to levulinic acid, and 15.0 wt.% carbon cryogel loading. Based on the carbonization temperature and time studies, the carbon cryogel carbonized at 500 °C and 4 h exhibited good performance as solid acid catalyst. Large total surface area and acidity significantly influenced the catalytic activity of carbon cryogel with 80.0 wt.% yield of ethyl levulinate. Thus, carbon cryogel is highly potential as acid catalyst for the esterification of levulinic acid with ethanol.

  18. Electron spin resonance study on γ-ray-induced ethyl radical in ethane hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeya, Kei; Nango, Kouhei; Sugahara, Takeshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari; Tani, Atsushi; Ito, Hironori; Okada, Michio; Kasai, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies have been performed to investigate radicals induced in ethane hydrate irradiated by γ-rays at 77K. Two ESR spectra are observed and identified as the induced ethyl radical (g=2.0031±0.0005, A α sub(perpendicular)=2.2±0.1mT, A α sub(parallel)=2.5±0.1mT, A β =2.7±0.1mT) and induced atomic hydrogen (g=2.0026±0.0005, A=50.5±0.1mT). From the results of ESR analysis and gas mass spectroscopy, it is concluded that the ethyl radical decays into butane by dimerization in the first-order reaction in the temperature region of 250-265K. The activation energy of the decay reaction is 73.1±6.3kJ/mol, which is near the dissociation enthalpy change of ethane hydrate to liquid water and gaseous ethane. This finding implies that ethane hydrate does not dissociate into ice but supercooled water in the present temperature region, similar to the dissociation of methane hydrate in our previous study. (author)

  19. [Study on chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Myricaria bracteata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yi; Cui, Baosong; Li, Shuai

    2011-04-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Myricaria bracteata. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by chromatographic techniques, and their structures were identified by physical characters and spectroscopic analysis. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate portion of the 95% ethanolic extract of Myricaria bracteata, and identified as myricarin (1), myricarin B (2), 3alpha-hydroxytaraxer-14-en-28-oic acid (3), myricadiol (4), trans-ferulic acid 22-hydroxydocosanoic acid ester (5), docosyl-3, 4-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate (6), dillenetin (7), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (8), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-7, 3'-dimethoxyflavone (9), methyl 3, 5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (10), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acid (11), sinapaldehyde (12), vanillin (13), syringaldehyde (14), 3, 3', 4'-trimethoxyellagic acid (15), methyl p-hyroxybenzoate (16). Compounds 5, 6, 12-16 were isolated from the genus Myricaria for the fist time, all of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the fist time, except for 8 and 9.

  20. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. A comparative study of the chemical kinetics of methyl and ethyl propanoate

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir; Davidson, D.F.; Hanson, R.K.; Westbrook, C.K.

    2014-01-01

    High temperature pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH3) and ethyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH2CH3) was studied behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1250-1750 K and pressure of 1.5 atm. Species time-histories were recorded for CO, CO2, C2H4, and H2O using laser absorption methods over a test time of 1 ms. Pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (MP) appears to be faster than that of ethyl propanoate (EP) under the present experimental conditions, where CO and CO 2 reach their plateau values faster for MP at a specific temperature and fuel concentration. Higher plateau values are reached for CO in case of MP while the CO2 levels are similar for the two ester fuels. Ethylene production is larger for EP due to the presence of six-centered ring elimination reaction that produces ethylene and propanoic acid. Very little H2O is produced during MP pyrolysis in contrast with appreciable H2O production from EP. Sensitivity and rate-of-production analyses were carried out to identify key reactions that affect the measured species profiles. Previous kinetic mechanisms of Yang et al. (2011) [1,2] and Metcalf et al. (2009, 2007) [3,4] were used as base models and then refined to propose a new MP/EP pyrolysis mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION AND ASTROPHYSICAL DETECTION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED STATES OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, A. M.; Bermudez, C.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Area de Quimica-Fisica, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada del CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, A.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Pearson, J. C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Padadena, CA 91109 (United States); Marcelino, N., E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: cbermu@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: John.C.Pearson@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: nmarceli@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Ethyl cyanide, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, is an important interstellar molecule with a very dense rotational-vibrational spectrum. On the basis of new laboratory data in the range of 17-605 GHz and ab initio calculations, two new vibrational states, {nu}{sub 12} and {nu}{sub 20}, have been detected in molecular clouds of Orion. Laboratory data consist of Stark spectroscopy (17-110 GHz) and frequency-modulated spectrometers (GEM laboratory in Valladolid: 17-170, 270-360 GHz; Toyama: 26-200 GHz; Emory: 200-240 GHz; Ohio State: 258-368 GHz; and JPL: 270-318, 395-605 GHz). More than 700 distinct lines of each species were measured in J up to 71 and in K{sub a} up to 25. The states were fitted with Watson's S-reduction Hamiltonian. The two new states have been identified in the interstellar medium toward the Orion Nebula (Orion KL). The ground state, the isotopologues of CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, and the vibrationally excited states have been fitted to obtain column densities and to derive vibrational temperatures. All together, ethyl cyanide is responsible for more than 2000 lines in the observed frequency range of 80-280 GHz.

  3. Kinetic α secondary deuterium isotope effects for O-ethyl S-phenyl benzaldehyde acetal hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, J.P.; Cordes, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of hydrolysis of O-ethyl S-phenyl benzaldehyde acetal at 25 0 C in 20% dioxane--80% water is independent of pH over the range pH6-12; k/sub obsd/ = 1.9 x 10 -7 s -1 . Under more acidic conditions, the rate increases linearly with the activity of the hydrated proton; k 2 = 2.95 x 10 -2 M -1 s -1 . The kinetic α secondary deuterium isotope effect for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of O-ethyl S-phenyl benzaldehyde acetal, measured at 25 0 C in 20% aqueous dioxane containing 0.05 M HCl, is k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.038 +- 0.008, a value consistent with a transition state in which the C--S bond is stretched rather little. In contrast, the corresponding isotope effect for the pH-independent hydrolysis of this substrate, measured at 42.5 0 C in 20% dioxane, is 1.13 +- 0.02, a value consistent with complete C--S bond cleavage in the transition state and rate-determining diffusion apart of the ion-pair formed as the initial intermediate, in accord with the suggestion of Jensen and Jencks. 1 figure, 4 tables

  4. Determination of mole fractions of ethyl-cellulose-containing monomers by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-05

    Three samples of ethyl cellulose (EC) with different degrees of substitution (DS)-0.51, 1.41, and 2.28-were prepared by a slurry method using ethyl bromide as the etherification reagent. 1 H- 13 C HSQC and HSQC-TOCSY NMR spectral analysis allowed for complete assignment of the 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts, respectively, of eight anhydroglucose units (AGUs) comprising EC chains-un-, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, and 2,3,6-tri-substituted AGUs. In addition, the lineshape of the quantitative 13 C NMR spectra of the three EC samples provided change in the mole fractions of these AGUs against DS, making it possible to estimate the reaction mechanism for the production of EC, elucidating reactivities of the hydroxyl groups at the 2, 3, and 6 positions of cellulose and interactions between the substituent groups within the same AGU and vicinal AGUs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced bioreduction synthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroybutanoate by alkalic salt pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ganggang; Di, Junhua; Ma, Cuiluan; Wang, Dajing; Wang, Chu; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Pengqi; Zhu, Jun; He, Yucai

    2018-08-01

    In this study, biomass-hydrolysate was used for enhancing the bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE). Firstly, dilute alkalic salt pretreatment was attempted to pretreat bamboo shoot shell (BSS). It was found that enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 20-50 g/L BSS pretreated with dilute alkalic salts (0.4% Na 2 CO 3 , 0.032% Na 2 S) at 7.5% sulfidity by autoclaving at 110 °C for 40 min gave sugar yields at 59.9%-73.5%. Moreover, linear relationships were corrected on solid recovery-total delignification-sugar yield. In BSS-hydrolysates, xylose and glucose could promote the reductase activity of recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13. Compared with glucose, hydrolysate could increase the reductase activity by 1.35-folds. Furthermore, the cyclohexane-hydrolysate (10:90, v/v) biphasic media containing ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, 40 mM) and l-glutamine (150 mM) was built for the effective biosynthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(R)-CHBE] (94.6% yield) from 500 mM COBE. In conclusion, this strategy has high potential for the effective biosynthesis of (R)-CHBE (>99% e.e.). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat release and engine performance effects of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Andre Valente; Velasquez, Jose Antonio; Milanez, Luiz Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The engine performance impact of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel was analyzed employing heat release analysis, in-cylinder exergy balances and dynamometric tests. Blends with concentrations of up to 30% of soybean oil ethyl ester in volume were used in steady-state experiments conducted in a high speed turbocharged direct injection engine. Modifications in fuel heat value, fuel-air equivalence ratio and combustion temperature were found to govern the impact resulting from the addition of biodiesel on engine performance. For the analyzed fuels, the 20% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake thermal efficiency, while the 10% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake power and sfc (specific fuel consumption). In relation to mineral diesel and in full load conditions, an average increase of 4.16% was observed in brake thermal efficiency with B20 blend. In the same conditions, an average gain of 1.15% in brake power and a reduction of 1.73% in sfc was observed with B10 blend.

  7. Degradation of ethyl mercaptan and its major intermediate diethyl disulfide by Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangqian; Wu, Chao; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Li, Wei; Chen, Jianmeng; Chen, Dongzhi

    2015-04-01

    A Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2 that is able to efficiently metabolize ethyl mercaptan (EM) into diethyl disulfide (DEDS) through enzymatic oxidation was isolated from the activated sludge of a pharmaceutical wastewater plant. One hundred percent removal of 113.5 mg L(-1) EM and 110.3 mg L(-1) DEDS were obtained within 14 and 32 h, respectively. A putative EM degradation pathway that involved the catabolism via DEDS was proposed, which indicated DEDS were further mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2), bacterial cells, and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) through the transformation of element sulfur and ethyl aldehyde. Degradation kinetics for EM and DEDS with different initial concentrations by strain WL2 were evaluated using Haldane-Andrews model with maximum specific degradation rates of 3.13 and 1.33 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, and maximum degradation rate constants of 0.522 and 0.175 h(-1) using pseudo-first-order kinetic model were obtained. Results obtained that aerobic degradation of EM by strain WL2 was more efficient than those from previous studies. Substrate range studies of strain WL2 demonstrated its ability to degrade several mercaptans, disulfides, aldehydes, and methanol. All the results obtained highlight the potential of strain WL2 for the use in the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs).

  8. Study of the rearrangement of N-alkylaniline to p-aminoalkylbencene. I. N-ethyl-l-14C-aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molera, M. J.; Gamboa, J. M.; Val Cob, M. del

    1961-01-01

    The rearrangement of N-ethylaniline to p-aminoethylbenzene has been studied over the temperature range 200-300 degree centigrade using different catalysts: Cl 2 Co, Cl 2 Zn, Cl 2 Ni, Cl 3 Al, Cl 2 Cd and Br H.N-ethyl-1- 1 4C-aniline has been synthesized from ethyl-1- 1 4C-iodide and aniline and its rearrangement to p-aminoethyl-benzene proves that the ethyl group does not rearrange itself during the reaction. A scheme for the degradation of both the N-ethyl-1- 1 4C aniline and the p-aminoethylbenzene produces is described. (Author) 14 refs

  9. Sterol Composition of Clinically Relevant Mucorales and Changes Resulting from Posaconazole Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Neugebauer, Thomas; Zill, Patrizia; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Bracher, Franz; Binder, Ulrike

    2018-05-19

    Mucorales are fungi with increasing importance in the clinics. Infections take a rapidly progressive course resulting in high mortality rates. The ergosterol biosynthesis pathway and sterol composition are of interest, since they are targeted by currently applied antifungal drugs. Nevertheless, Mucorales often exhibit resistance to these drugs, resulting in therapeutic failure. Here, sterol patterns of six clinically relevant Mucorales ( Lichtheimia corymbifera , Lichtheimia ramosa , Mucor circinelloides , Rhizomucor pusillus , Rhizopus arrhizus , and Rhizopus microsporus ) were analysed in a targeted metabolomics fashion after derivatization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the effect of posaconazole (POS) treatment on the sterol pattern of R. arrhizus was evaluated. Overall, fifteen different sterols were detected with species dependent variations in the total and relative sterol amount. Sterol analysis from R. arrhizus hyphae confronted with sublethal concentrations of posaconazole revealed the accumulation of 14-methylergosta-8,24-diene-3,6-diol, which is a toxic sterol that was previously only detected in yeasts. Sterol content and composition were further compared to the well-characterized pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus . This work contributes to a better understanding of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway of Mucorales, which is essential to improve antifungal efficacy, the identification of targets for novel drug design, and to investigate the combinatorial effects of drugs targeting this pathway.

  10. Termination of DNA synthesis in vitro at apurinic sites but not at ethyl adducts of the template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, M.L.; Deutsch, J.F.; Yamaura, I.; Cavalieri, L.F.; Rosenberg, B.H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of DNA lesions produced by the carcinogenic alkylating agents ethylnitrosourea and diethylsulfate on the extent of DNA synthesis have been studied in a system utilizing circular single-stranded phi X174 DNA as template and a 392-base restriction fragment as primer with E. coli polymerase I (Klenow fragment). Apurinic sites produced by loss of unstable ethylated bases from the template terminate DNA synthesis at the first such site encountered, but ethyl adducts at most, if not all, locations permit readthrough. 22 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  11. Conformationally superarmed S-ethyl glycosyl donors as effective building blocks for chemoselective oligosaccharide synthesis in one pot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Mithila D.; Yasomanee, Jagodige P.; Rath, Nigam P.

    2017-01-01

    A new series of superarmed glycosyl donors has been investigated. It was demonstrated that the S-ethyl leaving group allows for high reactivity, which is much higher than that of equally equipped S-phenyl glycosyl donors that were previously investigated by our groups. The superarmed S......-ethyl glycosyl donors equipped with a 2-O-benzoyl group gave complete β-stereoselectivity. Utility of the new glycosyl donors has been demonstrated in a one-pot one-addition oligosaccharide synthesis with all of the reaction components present from the beginning...

  12. Extremely decreased release of prostaglandin E-like activity from chopped lung of ethyl linolenate-supplemented rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Fjalland, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three groups of weanling male rats were reared on a fat-free diet for 13 weeks. One group received only the fat-free diet (FF rats), the other 2 groups received the fat-free diet and a daily supplement of 2 energy% ethyl linoleate ([n-6] rats), or 2 energy% ethyl linolenate ([n-3] rats). The chop......). The chopped lung preparation was used to illustrate an in vitro prostaglandin formation. PGE-like activity was quantified on rat stomach strip. The release of PGE-like activity expressed as ng PGE-equivalent per g lung tissue (mean±SD) was 23±7,...

  13. Synthesis of high specific activity [ethyl-1,2-3H]-labeled chlorpyrifos oxon and diazoxon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nanjing; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Casida, John E

    2000-01-01

    [Ethyl-1,2-3H] Chlorpyrifos oxon and [ethyl-1,2-3H] diazoxon were synthesized at a specific activity of 79 and 58 Ci/mmol, respectively, by catalytic tritiation of the corresponding monovinyl analogs over Pd/C. Direct evidence is provided that the high specific activity results from isotope exchange of the terminal vinylic protons prior to saturation of the double bond. This radiosynthesis procedure is applicable to the toxicologically-important oxon metabolites of many commercial O-O-diethyl phosphorothioate pesticides

  14. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC......Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...

  15. Relation between ethyl alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Iraqi dates, pure sugar solution, and the amount of inoculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, N.D.; Al-Talibi, A.A.; Abboud, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was initiated to investigate the production of ethyl alcohol using Zahdi data extraction and pure sugar (sucrose) solutions in different concentrations as media and S. cerevisiae as a starter. Through this investigation the following facts have been found: 0.5% ammonium phosphate as a source of nutrient was satisfactory, date extraction of 25% and inoculum of 12% gave the highest yield of ethyl alcohol; however 15% of pure sucose solution gave the maximum yield with a slight difference when compared with 20%; increasing the inoculum shortened the time of fermentation with no effect on inhibitory phenomenon; the rate of alcohol production was associated with the rate of yeast proliferation.

  16. Ultrasound-Guided 50% Ethyl Alcohol Injection for Patients With Malleolar and Olecranon Bursitis: A Prospective Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Seong; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effect of ultrasound-guided ethyl alcohol injection on malleolar and olecranon synovial proliferative bursitis. Methods Twenty-four patients received ultrasound-guided 50% diluted ethyl alcohol injection at the site of synovial proliferative bursitis after aspiration of the free fluid. Results Swelling and symptoms significantly decreased in 13 of the 24 patients without any complications. Eleven patients had partial improvement in swelling and symptoms. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided alcohol injection could be an alternative therapeutic option before surgery in patients with chronic intractable malleolar and olecranon synovial proliferative bursitis. PMID:27152282

  17. Miscibility of ethyl cellulose/copolyamide6/66/1010 blends by viscometry and refractive index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuzhen; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Gao, Sulian; Xing, Zhiying

    2011-04-01

    The miscibility of ethyl cellulose (EC)/copolyamide6/66/1010 (PA-130) in formic acid is studied by viscometry and refractive index techniques at 25°C. Using viscosity data, the criteria Δ b, Δ b', Δ[η]m, interaction parameter μ, β and thermodynamic parameter α are calculated. These investigations indicate that blend of EC/PA-130 is miscible when the ethyl cellulose content is more than 50 wt % in the blend. Further the result was also confirmed by refractive index measurements.

  18. STABILITY OF EMULSIFIER-FREE EMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE/ BUTYL ACRYLATE/SODIUM MONO(ETHYL POLYOXYETHYLENE) MALEATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-gen Zhang; Zhi-xue Weng; Zhi-ming Huang; Zu-ren Pan

    1999-01-01

    A series of new water-soluble bifunctional comonomers having both carboxyl and alkyl polyoxyethylene groups, such as sodium mono(ethyl polyoxyethylene) maleate (ZE series) with various molecular weights of polyoxyethylene ethyl ether, were synthesized and characterized. The effects of the structural factor, the amount and feeding mode of the comonomers, the initiator concentration and polymerization temperature on the stability of emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) in the presence of a small amount of ZE with potassium persulfate as initiator were investigated. Stable, almost monodispersed MMA/BA/ZE emulsifier-free latex particles were prepared.

  19. Effect of Trinexapac-ethyl on Increased Resistance to Drought Stress in Wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad hossein sheikh mohamadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought is one of the most detrimental abiotic stresses for turfgrass growth across a wide range of geographic locations. Most cool-season grass species are not well adapted to extended periods of drought, particularly during summer months. Decline in turf quality caused by drought stress is a major concern in turfgrass culture. Therefore, developing management practices for improving drought resistance of turfgrasses has become essential in arid and semi-arid regions, especially during water use restriction. One strategy to improve plant drought resistance is to promote drought avoidance by reducing water loss during drought, which may be achieved by slowing growth rate of shoots and lowering leaf area canopy to reduce demand for water. Application of growth regulators is one of the methods for increasing resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Trinexapac-ethyl (TE is one of the most widely used PGRs in the management of cool-season and warm-season turfgrass species. TE absorbed quickly by foliage and slow cell elongation through inhibiting of converting one form of gibberellic acid (GA20 to another (GA1. Most studies conducted under non-stressed conditions found that TE application increased chlorophyll content, turf quality, turf density and reduced shoot extension rate. We hypothesized that TE may influence plant tolerance to drought stress. Limited available data─ as reported in the above referred studies─ suggest that TE application may be beneficial for plant tolerance to stresses, but the effectiveness varies with turfgrass species, dose and duration of TE treatment, and type of stress. The main aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of Trinexapac-ethyl on increased resistance to drought stress in wheatgrass. Materials and Methods: Wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum L. was used in this study. This study was conducted in field conditions at Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.. Wheatgrass

  20. Influence of ethyl-trinexapac on 15N accumulation and distribution and on highland rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rita de Cassia Felix; Crusciol, Carlos Alexandre Costa; Alvarez, Angela Cristina Camarim; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Rodrigues, Joao Domingos

    2007-01-01

    The high rice grain yields ensured by sprinkler irrigation have encouraged the use of higher fertilizer doses, mainly the nitrogen fertilizers. However, an improper management of nitrogen fertilization may result in plant lodging. Application of plant regulators may redirect assimilates to grain production while limiting the vegetative growth. This study aimed to: evaluate the influence of the growth regulator Ethyl-trinexapac on plant growth parameters and on 15 N accumulation and distribution in the whole plant and plant components, and determine the contribution of nitrogen taken up in different developmental stages in panicle formation, yield components and rice yield. The experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of application or not of a plant growth regulator (0 and 200 g active ingredient ha-1 of ethyl-trinexapac) at four plant development stages (beginning to end of tillering; end of tillering and flower differentiation; flower differentiation to flowering; flowering until physiological maturation). The experimental design was arranged in random blocks, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replications. The plants were placed in a group of 48 pots. In a group of 24 pots with nutrient solution containing 15 NH 4 SO 4 , plants were collected and separated in parts in the beginning of each pre-established plant development stage and at the end of each stage. In a second group (24 pots), pre-labeled plants were left to grow in nutrient solution with 14 NH 4 SO 4 and harvested at the end of each cycle in order to access 15 N redistribution.. The growth regulator reduced plant height and 15 N accumulation in the panicle and promoted redistribution of the absorbed 15 N, and increased accumulated 15 N in root, stem+sheats and leaves. The contribution of absorbed 15 N to panicle formation in each stage increased with the plant development, though in a lower proportion in the presence of the growth regulator

  1. Binary and ternary LLE data of the system (ethylbenzene + styrene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate) and binary VLE data of the system (styrene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongmans, Mark T.G.; Schuur, Boelo; Haan, André B. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► LLE data have been measured for the system {ethylbenzene + styrene + [EMIM][SCN]}. ► VLE was determined for the system {styrene + [EMIM][SCN]} at vacuum conditions. ► All experimental data were correlated well with the NRTL model. ► [EMIM][SCN] has a much larger selectivity than the benchmark solvent sulfolane. - Abstract: The distillation of close boiling mixtures may be improved by adding a proper affinity solvent, and thereby creating an extractive distillation process. An example of a close boiling mixture that may be separated by extractive distillation is the mixture ethylbenzene/styrene. The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([EMIM][SCN]) is a promising solvent to separate ethylbenzene and styrene by extractive distillation. In this study, (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data have been measured for the binary system (styrene + [EMIM][SCN]) over the pressure range of (3 to 20) kPa and binary and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data of the system (ethylbenzene + styrene + [EMIM][SCN]) at temperatures (313.2, 333.2 and 353.2) K. Due to the low solubility of ethylbenzene in [EMIM][SCN], it was not possible to measure accurately VLE data of the binary system (ethylbenzene + [EMIM][SCN]) and of the ternary system (ethylbenzene + styrene + [EMIM][SCN]) using the ebulliometer. Because previous work showed that the LLE selectivity is a good measure for the selectivity in VLE, we determined the selectivity with LLE. The selectivity of [EMIM][SCN] to styrene in LLE measurements ranges from 2.1 at high styrene raffinate purity to 2.6 at high ethylbenzene raffinate purity. The NRTL model can properly describe the experimental results. The rRMSD in temperature, pressure and mole fraction for the binary VLE data are respectively (0.1, 0.12 and 0.13)%. The rRMSD is only 0.7% in mole fraction for the LLE data.

  2. Improved HPLC assay for S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioate (WR-2721) in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swynnerton, N.F.; McGovern, E.P.; Nino, J.A.; Mangold, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An HPLC assay is presented for the detection and quantitation of the radioprotective drug S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioate (WR-2721, ethiofos) present in plasma. Improved selectivity and a 40-fold increase in sensitivity have been demonstrated over the method previously reported by this laboratory. Using precolumn derivatization with fluorescamine and S-3-(4-aminobutylamino)propyl phosphorothioate (WR-80855, a homolog of WR-2721) as the internal standard, drug levels of 0.05 to 1000 μg/mL were determined with excellent precision. Detector response was linear over the entire range. The assay uses 150 μL of plasma and requires a total chromatography time of about 50 minutes. The method was found suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in a preliminary experiment with a beagle dog in which no interferences due to plasma constituents or drug metabolites were observed

  3. Formation by yeast of 2-furanmethanethiol and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate aroma compounds in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Two aroma compounds of volatile thiols, 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM) and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate (ET2MP), were formed in five types of Japanese soy sauce during fermentation by yeast. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP in the soy sauce samples increased during alcoholic fermentation. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP were higher in the soy sauce fermented by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii than in that fermented by Candida versatilis. The enantiomers of ET2MP were separated by gas chromatography in a capillary column. The average enantiomeric ratio of ET2MP in the soy sauce was approximately 1:1. 2FM was formed by yeast in a medium prepared from cysteine and furfural, and cysteine is considered the key precursor of 2FM by yeast in soy sauce.

  4. Production of BSA-poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles as a coating material that improves wetting property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Evans, K; Biswas, A

    2013-07-01

    Alkyl cyanoacrylates have long been used for the synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles. In the involved polymerization reaction, hydroxyl ions derived from dissociation of water have been used as an initiator. In the current research, an animal protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules were utilized as initiator for the polymerization. Following this reaction scheme, hydrophobic poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate)s were covalently bound to BSA, which is hydrophilic. Therefore, the resultant copolymer was amphiphilic in nature, and formed nanoparticles in the reaction medium. The suspension containing these nanoparticles showed an excellent coating capability on the surface of hydrophobic materials. A simple spray coating changed the wetting property of the material instantly and dramatically. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Flotation of uranium values using di (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ajoy Kumar; Padmanabhan, N.P.H.; Sridhar, U.; Krishna Rao, N.

    1998-01-01

    The use of solvent extractants for mineral flotation, especially for difficult-to-float minerals, is gaining importance as they are highly selective to specific metal ions and form strong and stable complexes mostly by chelation. Studies carried out with di(2 ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) (an organic solvent used in the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid) as collector for flotation of uranium minerals from ore samples of Domiasiat, Meghalaya and Jaduguda, Bihar have yielded encouraging results. Although flotation of uranium minerals using other solvent extractants like tributyl phosphoric acid (TBP) has been studied, the uraninite-D2EHPA system has not been tested so far. This technical note puts on record the findings of the preliminary studies carried out. (author)

  6. Optical luminescence studies of the ethyl xanthate adsorption layer on the surface of sphalerite minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoran, R; Todoran, D; Szakács, Zs

    2016-01-05

    In this work we propose optical luminescence measurements as a method to evaluate the kinetics of adsorption processes. Measurement of the intensity of the integral optical radiation obtained from the mineral-xanthate interface layer, stimulated with a monochromatic pulsating optical signal, as a function of time were made. The luminescence radiation was obtained from the thin interface layer formed at the separation surface between the sphalerite natural mineral and potassium ethyl xanthate solution, for different solution concentrations and pH-es at the constant industry standard temperature. This method enabled us to determine the time to achieve dynamic equilibrium in the formation of the interface layer of approximately 20min, gaining information on the adsorption kinetics in the case of xanthate on mineral surface and leading to the optimization of the industrial froth flotation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enrichment, isolation and characterization of fungi tolerant to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, S.W.; Reddy, A. P.; Gladden, J. M.; Guo, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B. A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.

    2010-12-15

    This work aims to characterize microbial tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), ionic liquid that has emerged as a novel biomass pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Enrichment experiments performed using inocula treated with [C2mim][OAc] under solid and liquid cultivation yielded fungal populationsdominated by Aspergilli. Ionic liquid-tolerant Aspergillus isolates from these enrichments were capable of growing in a radial plate growth assay in the presence of 10% [C2mim][OAc]. When a [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus strain was grown in the presence of switchgrass, endoglucanases and xylanases were secreted that retained residual enzymatic activity in the presence of 20% [C2mim][OAc]. The results of the study suggest tolerance to ionic liquids is a general property of Aspergilli. Tolerance to an industrially important ionic liquid was discovered in a fungal genera that is widely used in biotechnology, including biomass deconstruction.

  8. Dielectric and conformational studies of hydrogen bonded 2-ethoxyethanol and ethyl methyl ketone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattebahadur, Kanchan. L.; Deshmukh, S. D.; Mohod, A. G.; Undre, P. B.; Patil, S. S.; Khirade, P. W.

    2018-05-01

    The Dielectric constant, density and refractive index of binary mixture of 2-ethoxy ethanol (2-EE) with ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) including those of the pure liquids were measured for 11 concentrations at 25°C temperature. The experimental data is used to calculate the Excess molar volume, Excess dielectric constant, Kirkwood correlation factor and Bruggemann factor. The excess parameters results were fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation to derive its fitting coefficient. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the mixture has been discussed to yield information about solute solvent interaction. The Bruggeman plot shows a deviation from linearity. The FT-IR spectra of pure and their binary mixtures are also studied.

  9. [Questions on the first operation with ethyl ether as anaesthetic by Dr. Peter Parker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q

    2017-01-28

    Ethyl ether was the first accepted effective general anaesthetic. It was introduced into China by an America missionary, Dr. Peter Parker. This was one of the historical events of medical communication between China and the West. In the records of the first operation with ether, however, Dr. Parker unusually omitted the patient's medical record number and the date of the operation, while those of other operations with ether anesthetics were all available. This was very unusual for a doctor like Peter Parker who always recorded every important case in detail in the hospital reports. It seems that he deliberately rather than carelessly omitted the information for some reasons. Based on the analysis of Parker's reports, a conclusion is made that the anesthetic effect of the case was actually ineffective. Furthermore, possible answers to this are outlined and question by discussion based on the situation that Parker faced in the late Qing era.

  10. Thermal decomposition of lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) solid complexes from ethyl ene diamine tetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercadante, A.

    1991-01-01

    Solid state compounds of lanthanides (III) and yttrium derived from ethyl ene diamine tetraacetic acid were prepared from respective basic carbonates, that were neutralized with EDTA stoichiometry quantities. Complexometry with EDTA, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction have been used in the study of these compounds. The results of complexometry with EDTA as well as TG and DTA curves bed to the stoichiometry of these compounds the following general formula is obeyed: H[Ln(EDTA]. n H 2 O. X-ray powder patterns of these compounds permitted to establish two isomorphous series. The DTA ant TG curves allowed us to study the dehydration process, the thermal stability and thermal decomposition of these compounds. (C.G.C.)

  11. Cytogenetical effects of gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate in brinjal (Solanum melongena L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeerak, N.A. (Kashmir Univ., Srinagar (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1991-12-01

    Relative effects of differential and combined treatments of gamma rays, and ethyl methanesulphonate on the meiosis and on pollen and seed fertility in M{sub 1} generation of a local brinjal cultivar of Kashmir valley (Solanum melongena var. Local Long) were studied. Radiations and combined treatments were more efficient in inducing meiotic abnormalities than EMS treatments. However combined treatments and EMS treatments induced greater pollen and seed sterility than radiations. Radiation induced sterility might be the result of chromosomal aberrations which in turn were dose dependent while sterility induced by EMS might be attributed to cryptic deletions and specific gene mutations. A dose dependent increase in chiasma frequency was observed with all single and combination treatments. (author).

  12. Adsorption of ethyl acetate onto modified clays and its regeneration with supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cavalcante

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified clays were used to remove ethyl acetate from aqueous solutions. These clays were regenerated using supercritical CO2. Structural changes in the montmorillonite clay after treatment with quaternary amines were studied. The surface properties of the modified clay changed from highly hydrophilic to highly organophilic. The clay was regenerated by percolation of a stream of CO2 through the porous montmorillonite matrix. Different pressures and temperatures were employed, resulting in different fluid conditions (gas, liquid, and supercritical. The experimental data was fitted with a simplified model. The best desorption result was found under supercritical conditions. A crossover effect was observed. The capacity of the modified clay as a pollutant attenuator remained almost unchanged after a regeneration cycle.

  13. Mixed monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and ethyl palmitate at the air/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gzyl, Barbara [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: gzyl@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Paluch, Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-06-30

    The behaviour of monolayers containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and ethyl palmitate and their mixtures at different molar fraction, using surface pressure-molecular area results, was investigated. The negative deviation from additivity of the mean molecular areas as a function of the mixture composition indicates the miscibility. The miscibility was confirmed by applying the two-dimensional phase rule, since the collapse pressure values vary with the composition of the mixtures. Also the free energy of mixing {delta}G{sub mix} and the excess free energy of mixing {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} were determined. The negative values of {delta}G{sub mix} and {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} indicate that the mixed monolayers are thermodynamically more stable compared to the pure ones and that the compounds in the two dimensional state experience mainly attractive interactions.

  14. (Tris{2-[(5-hydroxypyridin-2-yl-κNmethylideneimino-κN]ethyl}aminezinc dinitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksym Seredyuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the complex cation of the title compound, [Zn(C24H27N7O3](NO32, the tripodal tris{[2-(5-hydroxypyridin-2-ylmethylideneimino]ethyl}amine ligand is coordinated to the Zn atom through the three pyridine and three imino N atoms. The coordination sphere of the Zn atom is based on an octahedron with a significant distortion towards trigonal prismatic, the twist angle being 45.58 (9°. The crystal packing is formed by L and D antipodes arranged in layers disposed parallel to the b axis. Strong O—H...O hydrogen bonding exists between the hydroxy groups of the ligand and the nitrate anion.

  15. Molecular interactions in ethyl acetate-chlorobenzene binary solution: Dielectric, spectroscopic studies and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, N. K.; Kumbharkhane, A. C.; Joshi, Y. S.; Mahendraprabu, A.; Shanmugam, R.; Elangovan, A.; Arivazhagan, G.

    2017-05-01

    Dielectric studies using Time Domain Reflectometry method has been carried out on the binary solution of Ethyl acetate (EA) with Chlorobenzene (CBZ) over the entire composition range. Spectroscopic (FTIR and 13C NMR) signatures of neat EA, CBZ and their equimolar binary solution have also been recorded. The results of the spectroscopic studies favour the presence of (CBZ) Csbnd H ⋯ Odbnd C (EA), (EA) methylene Csbnd H ⋯ π electrons (CBZ) and (EA) methyl Csbnd H ⋯ Cl (CBZ) contacts which have been validated using quantum chemical calculations. Dimerization of CBZ has been identified. Presence of β-clusters has been identified in all the solutions. Although EA and CBZ molecules have nearly equal molar volumes, CBZ molecules experience larger hindrance for the rotation than EA molecules. Very small excess dielectric constant (εE) values may be correlated with weak heteromolecular forces and/or closed heteromolecular association.

  16. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz; Mehl, Marco; Lokachari, Nitin; Nilsson, Elna J.K.; Konnov, Alexander A.; Wagnon, Scott W.; Pitz, William J.; Curran, Henry J.; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  17. [Chemical Constituents from Ethyl Acetate Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; He, Cui-xia; Chen, Xue-xiang; Ye, Shu-min; Peng, Shan; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Psidium guajava leaves. The constituents were separated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (1), phytyl-acetate (2), cubenol (3), eucalyptin (4), n-docosanoic acid-p-hydroxy-phenethylol ester (5),8-methyl-5,7- dihydroxy-flavonone (6), 6-methyl-5,7-dihydroxy-flavonone (7), betulinic acid (8), carnosol (9), quercetin (10), and 2,4,6-tirhydroxy- 3,5-dimethyl-diphenylketone-4-O-(6'"-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside (11). Compounds 1-9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  18. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2017-12-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  19. Distribution of methyl and ethyl adducts following alkylation with monofunctional alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, D T

    1990-07-01

    Alkylating agents, because of their ability to react directly with DNA either in vitro or in vivo, or following metabolic activation as in the case of the dialkylnitrosamines, have been used extensively in studying the mechanisms of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Their occurrence is widespread in the environment and human exposure from natural and pollutant sources is universal. Since most of these chemicals show varying degrees of both carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, and exhibit compound-specific binding patterns, they provide an excellent model for studying molecular dosimetry. Molecular dosimetry defines dose as the number of adducts bound per macromolecule and relates the binding of these adducts to the human mutagenic or carcinogenic response. This review complies DNA alkylation data for both methylating and ethylating agents in a variety of systems and discusses the role these alkylation products plays in molecular mutagenesis.

  20. Enzymatic Transesterification of Ethyl Ferulate with Fish Oil and Its Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Glasius, Marianne; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    formation of feruloyl fish oil products as well when appropriate amount of glycerol was present in the reaction. Therefore, the addition of equivalent molar amount of glycerol to EF was decided for the practical optimization of the system. The mutual effects of temperature (40 to 70 oC), reaction time (1......The enzymatic transesterification of ethyl ferulate (EF) with cod liver fish oil was investigated with Novozym 435 as catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the synthesis system for production of feruloyl fish oil in industry. The modified HPLC method...... to 5 days), enzyme load (2 to 20 %) and substrate amount ratio of fish oil/EF (1 to 5) were thus studied with assistance of response surface methodology (RSM) for the purpose of maximizing the formation towards feruloyl fish oil. The models were well fitted and verified. The optimized conditions were...

  1. Inhalation but not transdermal resorption of hand sanitizer ethanol causes positive ethyl glucuronide findings in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Torsten; Schröfel, Stefanie; Güssregen, Brunhilde; Stemmerich, Karsten

    2014-04-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine is considered a specific marker of recent ethanol consumption. There is an ongoing debate about whether inhalation or transdermal resorption of sanitizer ethanol is the underlying cause for positive EtG findings after hand disinfection. Desderman(®) pure (Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt) with 78.2g 96% (v/v) ethanol/100g and approx. 10% 2-propanol was used for multiple hand disinfection without and under an exhauster. Simulating a common working day in a clinic, 5 co-workers of our lab used the sanitizer 32 fold within 8h and 2 persons were merely exposed to the sanitizer vapor but without any dermal sanitizer contact. Any additional ethanol intake or exposition was reliably excluded. Spot urine was collected at baseline, after 1, 2, 4, 6 … 14, and finally 24h after the first sanitizer use. A validated LC-MS/MS was used for MRM and MS(3) of EtG and qualitative analyses of ethyl sulfate and 2-propyl glucuronide. Multiple hand disinfection caused positive EtG findings of up to 2.1mg/L or 1.7mg/g creatinine in 4 out of 5 test persons and even of 0.6mg/L or 0.8mg/g for 2 controls which were merely exposed to the sanitizer vapor but without any sanitizer contact. EtG results between the clinical (0.5mg/g) and the forensic (0.1mg/g) cut-off were obtained even 6h after the last sanitizer exposition. An exhauster prevented the sanitizer vapor inhalation and reduced the EtG excretion to mostly below the detection limit of 0.02mg/g. The maximum value was 0.09mg/g. Ethyl sulfate and 2-propyl glucuronide (2-PpG) were detectable only in the EtG positive samples. 2-PpG is a metabolite of 2-propanol, which is quite frequently used in disinfectants. Thus, the detection of this substance can be used in cases of odd EtG results as an indicator of (unintended) sanitizer exposition. Ethanol from hand sanitizers is predominantly incorporated by the respiratory tract but not via the skin. It can cause a distinct ethyl glucuronide excretion and thus

  2. Exploring unimolecular dissociation kinetics of ethyl dibromide through electronic structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulvi, Nitin R.; Patel, Priyanka; Badani, Purav M.

    2018-04-01

    Pathway for dissociation of multihalogenated alkyls is observed to be competitive between molecular and atomic elimination products. Factors such as molecular structure, temperature and pressure are known to influence the same. Hence present work is focussed to explore mechanism and kinetics of atomic (Br) and molecular (HBr and Br2) elimination upon pyrolysis of 1,1- and 1,2-ethyl dibromide (EDB). For this purpose, electronic structure calculations were performed at DFT and CCSD(T) level of theory. In addition to concerted mechanism, an alternate energetically efficient isomerisation pathway has been exploited for molecular elimination. Energy calculations are further complimented by detailed kinetic investigation, over wide range of temperature and pressure, using suitable models like Canonical Transition State Theory, Statistical Adiabatic Channel Model and Troe's formalism. Our calculations suggest high branching ratio for dehydrohalogentation reaction, from both isomers of EDB. Fall off curve depicts good agreement between theoretically estimated and experimentally reported values.

  3. Leaching of Oil from Tuna Fish Liver by Using Solvent of Methyl-Ethyl Ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.

  4. Identification of a powerful aroma compound in munster and camembert cheeses: ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourabié, Alain M; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal; Saint-Eve, Anne; Landaud, Sophie

    2008-06-25

    With the view to investigate the presence of thiols in cheese, the use of different methods of preparation and extraction with an organomercuric compound ( p-hydroxymercuribenzoate) enabled the isolation of a new compound. The analysis of cheese extracts by gas chromatography coupled with pulse flame photometry, mass spectrometry, and olfactometry detections led to the identification of ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate in Munster and Camembert cheeses. This compound, described at low concentrations as having pleasant, fruity, grapy, rhubarb, and empyreumatic characters, has previously been reported in wine and Concord grape but was never mentioned before in cheese. A possible route for the formation of this compound in relation with the catabolism of sulfur amino acids is proposed.

  5. Ethyl 2,6-Dimethoxybenzoate: Synthesis, Spectroscopic and X-ray Crystallographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. White

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The acid catalyzed esterification of 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid (1 in the presence of absolute ethanol afforded ethyl 2, 6-dimethoxybenzoate (2. The structure of the resulting compound was supported by spectroscopic data and unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The title compound crystallized in the triclinic space group P ī with unit cell parameters a = 8.5518(3 Å, b = 10.8826(8 Å, c = 11.9939(6 Å, α = 101.273(5°, β = 98.287(3°, γ = 94.092(4°, V = 1077.54(10 Å3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.296 Mg/m3, F(000 = 448 and μ = 0.098 mm−1. Compound (2 crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit with similar conformations.

  6. Synthesis of New Functionalized Indoles Based on Ethyl Indol-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T. A. Boraei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful alkylations of the nitrogen of ethyl indol-2-carboxylate were carried out using aq. KOH in acetone. The respective N-alkylated acids could be obtained without separating the N-alkylated esters by increasing the amount of KOH and water. The use of NaOMe in methanol led to transesterification instead of the alkylation, while the use of NaOEt led to low yields of the N-alkylated acids. Hydrazinolysis of the ester gave indol-2-carbohydrazide which then was allowed to react with different aromatic aldehydes and ketones in ethanol catalyzed by acetic acid. Indol-2-thiosemicarbazide was used in a heterocyclization reaction to form thiazoles. The new structures were confirmed using NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray single crystal analysis.

  7. Effect of ethyl-, methyl- and hydroxyethyl-nitrosourea on the mouse testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakberg, E.F.; Crosthwait, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid male 101 x C3HF/sub 1/ mice were given intraperitoneal injections of methyl-, ethyl- and hydroxyethyl-nitrosourea and killed 3-16 days later. All compounds were similar in that all differentiating spermatogonia from type A/sub 1/ to early type B were killed by 50 mg/kg and higher doses of ENU and by 75 mg/kg MNU. Cells exposed to leptotene to 100 and 250 mg/kg ENU and 455 mg/kg HENU showed a delayed response with degeneration in pachytene 5 days later. Labeling prior to exposure to ENU indicated that the effect of stage of the mitotic cycle on sensitivity to cell killing is less marked than for radiation. This may be the explanation for the s-shaped mutation induction curve obtained with ENU in contrast to the humped dose-response curve observed for radiation.

  8. Chromosomal break points in irradiated and ethyl methane sulphonate treated leucocytes of patients with Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeja, T.C.; Chandra, N.; Marimuthu, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Frequencies of chromosomal damage in the peripheral leucocytes of patients with Down syndrome, on exposure to gamma rays (2Gy) or ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS, 1 x 10 -4 M), were assessed. Analysis of break points in the chromosomes of irradiated cells revealed a non-random occurrence. Six of the break points observed in EMS-treated cells were found to overlap with those recorded in irradiated cells. Thirteen break points observed were found to correlate with the location of cancer-specific break points and four of these coincided with the bands where oncogenes have been located. Two break points were localised to the same bands as that of known heritable fragile sites. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Description of Phaseolus vulgaris L. aborting embryos from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenized plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM and cotyledons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to those observed in wild-type samples. Mutant embryos show also hyperhydricity and contain low amount of chlorophyll. Genetic analyses of F1, F2 and F3 populations from the crosses carried out between the mutagenized plants with aborting embryos and the wild-type plants indicated that the embryo abortion phenotype is maternally inherited and controlled by a single recessive gene. These Phaseolus mutant plants with aborting embryos constitute a valuable material for plant embryogenesis studies.

  10. Analysis of the different zones of glow discharge of ethyl alcohol (C2H6O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C; Reyes, P G; Mulia, J; Castillo, F; Martínez, H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the emission spectroscopy of ethyl alcohol in some regions, also is determine the result elements of the glow discharge, the spectrums were observed in a range of 200 at 1100 nm in the different zones inside of the tube at different distances of 20 and 30 cm. The elements are: in anode region C 6 H 5 (483.02 nm), CHO (519.56 nm) and H 2 (560.47 nm), in the positive column CO 2 + (315.52 y 337.00 nm), O + (357.48 nm), CH + (380.61 nm) and CO + (399.73 nm); in the cathode region we observed O + (391.19 nm), CHOCHO (428.00 nm), CO + (471.12 nm) and H 2 (656.52 nm). C 6 H 5 , CHO y H 2 species occurring in all regions analyzed varying the glow discharge emission intensity.

  11. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  12. Chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark and fruits of Dichrostachys cinerea and the roots of Parkia bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fotie

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Dichrostachys cinerea and the roots of Parkia bicolor have been evaluated. Ethyl acetate extracts have been investigated, studies that led to a series of known compounds, amongst which many are reported here for the very first time from both the species.

  13. Molecular dosimetry of DNA damage caused by alkylation. I. Single-strand breaks induced by ethylating agents in cultured mammalian cells in relation to survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbondandolo, A.; Dogliotti, E.; Lohman, P.H.M.; Berends, F.

    1982-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with ethylating agents. DNA lesions giving rise to single-strand breaks (ssb) or alkali-labile sites were measured by centrifugation in alkaline sucrose gradients after lysis in alkali. 4 agents with different tendencies to ethylate preferentially

  14. Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on mice sperm parameters in phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Ali Akbar; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Malekinjad, Hassan; Mardani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on sperm quality parameters, testosterone level and malondialdehyde (MDA) in phenylhydrazine (PHZ) treated mice. For this purpose, 32 NMRI mice with the age range of 8 to 10 weeks, weight average 26.0 ± 2.0 g, were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (1) received normal saline (0. 1 mL per day) by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Group 2 (PHZ group) was treated with initial dose of PHZ (8 mg 100 g(-1), IP) followed by 6 mg 100 g(-1) , IP every 48 hr. Group 3, (Group PHZ+EP) received PHZ (according to the previous prescription) with EP (40 mg kg(-1), daily, IP). Ethyl pyruvate group (4) received only EP (40 mg kg(-1), daily, IP). Treatment period was 35 days. After euthanasia, sperms from caudal region of epididymis were collected and the total mean sperm count, sperm viability, motility and morphology were determined. Testis tissue MDA and serum testosterone levels of all experimental groups were also evaluated. A considerable reduction in mean percentage of number, natural morphology of sperm, sperm motility and viability and serum testosterone concentration besides DNA injury increment among mice treating with PHZ in comparison with control group were observed. However, in PHZ+EP group the above mentioned parameters were improved. This study showed that PHZ caused induction of toxicity on sperm parameters and reduction of testosterone as well as the increment of MDA level and EP as an antioxidant could reduce destructive effects of PHZ on sperm parameters, testosterone level and lipid peroxidation.

  15. A novel collector 2-ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid: Flotation performance and adsorption mechanism to ilmenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haifeng; Zhong, Hong; Tang, Qing; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Guangyi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: EHHA's synthesis route, flotation performance and coadsorption molecule–ion mechanism to ilmenite. - Highlights: • 2-Ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid (EHHA) was synthesized and characterized. • EHHA showed stronger affinity to ilmenite. • EHHA might chemisorb onto ilmenite surfaces by form of five-membered chelates. • EHHA might adsorb onto ilmenite surfaces through molecule–ion coadsorption model. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel collector, 2-ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid (EHHA) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, "1H NMR, "1"3C NMR and mass spectra. The flotation performance and adsorption mechanism of EHHA to ilmenite were investigated by micro-flotation tests, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, FTIR spectra, zeta potential and solution chemistry analyses. The micro-flotation results indicated that EHHA exhibited superior flotation performance compared to isooctyl hydroximic acid (IOHA) and octyl hydroxamic acid (OHA), and floated out 84.03% ilmenite at pH 8.0 with 250 mg/L dosage. The analyses of FTIR spectra and zeta potential demonstrated that EHHA might chemisorb onto ilmenite surfaces by form of five-membered chelates. The solution chemistry analyses further inferred that at pH 6.3–10.5, both Fe and Ti species on ilmenite surfaces could chelate EHHA. DFT calculation results implied EHHA owned the strongest affinity to ilmenite among the three C_8 hydroximic acids. To discern the sharply improving floatability of ilmenite at pH 8–10, a schematic co-adsorption molecule–ion model of EHHA on ilmenite surfaces was suggested.

  16. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL★,★★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm−2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 1015 cm−2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. PMID:26869726

  17. Simulating structure and dynamics in small droplets of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Martin; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the structure and dynamics of small ionic liquid droplets in gas phase, we performed a DFT-based ab initio molecular dynamics study of several 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate clusters in vacuum as well as a bulk phase simulation. We introduce an unbiased criterion for average droplet diameter and density. By extrapolation of the droplet densities, we predict the experimental bulk phase density with a deviation of only a few percent. The hydrogen bond geometry between cations and anions is very similar in droplets and bulk, but the hydrogen bond dynamics is significantly slower in the droplets, becoming slower with increasing system size, with hydrogen bond lifetimes up to 2000 ps. From a normal mode analysis of the trajectories, we identify the modes of the ring proton C-H stretching, which are strongly affected by hydrogen bonding. From analyzing these, we find that the hydrogen bond becomes weaker with increasing system size. The cations possess an increased concentration inside the clusters, whereas the anions show an excess concentration on the outside. Almost all anions point towards the droplet center with their carboxylic groups. Ring stacking is found to be a very important structural motif in the droplets (as in the bulk), but side chain interactions are only of minor importance. By using Voronoi tessellation, we define the exposed droplet surface and find that it consists mainly of hydrogen atoms from the cation's and anion's methyl and ethyl groups. Polar atoms are rarely found on the surface, such that the droplets appear completely hydrophobic on the outside.

  18. Rapid syntheses of dehydrodiferulates via biomimetic radical coupling reactions of ethyl ferulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fachuang; Wei, Liping; Azarpira, Ali; Ralph, John

    2012-08-29

    Dehydrodimerization of ferulates in grass cell walls provides a pathway toward cross-linking polysaccharide chains limiting the digestibility of carbohydrates by ruminant bacteria and in general affecting the utilization of grass as a renewable bioresource. Analysis of dehydrodiferulates (henceforth termed diferulates) in plant cell walls is useful in the evaluation of the quality of dairy forages as animal feeds. Therefore, there has been considerable demand for quantities of diferulates as standards for such analyses. Described here are syntheses of diferulates from ethyl ferulate via biomimetic radical coupling reactions using the copper(II)-tetramethylethylenediamine [CuCl(OH)-TMEDA] complex as oxidant or catalyst. Although CuCl(OH)-TMEDA oxidation of ethyl ferulate in acetonitrile produced mixtures composed of 8-O-4-, 8-5-, 8-8- (cyclic and noncyclic), and 5-5-coupled diferulates, a catalyzed oxidation using CuCl(OH)-TMEDA as catalyst and oxygen as an oxidant resulted in better overall yields of such diferulates. Flash chromatographic fractionation allowed isolation of 8-8- and 5-5-coupled diferulates. 8-5-Diferulate coeluted with 8-O-4-diferulate but was separated from it via crystallization; the 8-O-4 diferulate left in the mother solution was isolated by rechromatography following a simple tetrabutylammonium fluoride treatment that converted 8-5-diferulate to another useful diferulate, 8-5-(noncyclic) diferulate. Therefore, six of the nine (5-5, 8-O-4, 8-5-c, 8-5-nc, 8-5-dc, 8-8-c, 8-8-nc, 8-8-THF, 4-O-5) diferulic acids that have to date been found in the alkaline hydrolysates of plant cell walls can be readily synthesized by the CuCl(OH)-TMEDA catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling reaction and subsequent saponification described here.

  19. In vitro activity of kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction against Malassezia species isolated from seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, E; Saeidi, M; Marashi, M A; Moafi, A; Mahmoodi, V; Zeinolabedini Zamani, M

    2016-12-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent superficial dermatitis in which Malassezia species play an important role. There are different Malassezia species, which have been recently reported to be resistant to common antifungals. Natural sources can be useful alternatives to reduce the emergence of this resistance. Kombucha tea is believed to have potential antimicrobial properties. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction (KEAF) against Malassezia species obtained from the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. A total of 23 clinical isolates were identified by direct microscopic examination and Tween assimilation, and then confirmed by DNA sequencing of ITS regions for Malassezia species. Kombucha tea was fractionated using ethyl acetate (1:2 v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay was used to evaluate the anti- Malssezia activity of KEAF at three concentrations of 10, 40, and 80 mg/mL. The results of the DNA sequence analysis indicated that M. furfur (39.13%) was the predominant species, followed by M. globosa (30.43%), M. sloofie (13.04%), M. sympodialis (13.04%), and M. restricta (4.34%), respectively. Furthermore, KEAF showed inhibitory activity against Malassezia species. Accordingly, KEAF had the lowest and highest MIC value against M. sloofie and M. restricta , respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the extract was equivalent to that of ketoconazole at 4.8 µg/mL. The findings of the current study highlighted the antifungal properties of KEAF. Therefore, this extract can be promoted as complementary medicine for the treatment of the infections caused by Malassezia .

  20. The influence of ethanol containing cosmetics on ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Ferreira, Liliane; Binz, Tina; Yegles, Michel

    2012-05-10

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-volatile, direct metabolites of ethanol have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of social and chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Previous investigations have shown that the regular use of hair-care products with high alcohol content lead to an increase of FAEE concentration and consequently gave false-positive results for the determination of FAEE in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of a long-term hair treatment with EtOH containing lotion, on the EtG concentrations in hair. In this study 7 volunteer subjects (classified as either rare, social or heavy drinkers) treated the right side of their scalp every day during a one or two month period with a commercial hair tonic (Seborin), which contains 44.0% ethanol (vol%). Collection of hair specimens from both sides of the scalp was done one day before hair treatment, one week and one month after treatment (for 5 subjects also after two months of treatment). A hair segment of 3 centimeters (cm) was cut and then washed with water and acetone, and then pulverized. EtG was quantified by GC/MS after pulverization and 2h of ultrasonication in water, extraction by solid phase extraction using Oasis MAX columns and derivatization with HFBA. Measurements were done in negative chemical ionization mode using EtG-D5 as internal standard. Comparison of EtG concentration in the treated and in the non-treated hair specimens did not show any increase at the different dates of collection for the 7 subjects. In conclusion, these results show that there is no indication for an increase of EtG after use of ethanol containing hair cosmetics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incineration of oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Experimental study and kinetic modeling of the oxidation of methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol in methane flames; Incineration de composes organiques volatils oxygenes. Etude experimentale et modelisation cinetique de l'oxydation de la methyl ethyl cetone, de l'acetate d'ethyle et du butan-2-ol dans des flammes de methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decottignies, V

    2000-12-01

    This work deals with the low pressure (0.05 atm) degradation of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs): methyl-ethyl-ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol, in premixed stoichiometric laminar methane flames seeded with 1 to 3% of each VOC. Molar fraction profiles of species have been obtained using microprobe sampling coupled with a gas chromatography and a mass spectroscopy analysis. Temperature profiles have been obtained using the covered thermocouple technique in the presence of the microprobe. The addition of a VOC in the initial reagents mixture leads to an increase of the quantity of intermediate hydrocarbon compounds and in particular of some soot precursor species. The degradation of VOCs leads to the formation of oxygenated intermediates like methanol, dimethyl-ether, acetaldehyde, propanal, acetone and vinyl acetate, the type of VOC having an effect on the quantities produced. The degradation of a VOC can lead to the formation of more toxic or polluting compounds (methyl vinyl ketone, acetic acid and acrolein) than the VOC itself. In the conditions of the study, the intermediate compounds are totally destructed inside the reactional area of the flame front and are no more present in the burnt gases. Sub-mechanisms of VOC oxidation have been developed using experimental observations and the most recent recommendations of the literature. These sub-mechanisms comprise 49 species involved in 241 elementary reactions. Their validation has been performed by comparing the experiment with the kinetic modeling on the molar fraction profiles of the detected species. Experimental data are well reproduced by the model for most species. The addition of a VOC inside the initial reagents mixture creates an important reactivity increase, in particular in the case of butan-2-ol seeded flames. The analysis of reactional ways has permitted to draw out the main reactions responsible for the degradation of the 3 VOCs and the ways of formation and consumption of the

  2. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...

  3. Multi-component titanium–copper–cobalt- and niobium nanostructured oxides as catalysts for ethyl acetate oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsoncheva, T.; Henych, Jiří; Ivanova, R.; Kovacheva, D.; Štengl, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2 (2015), s. 397-408 ISSN 1878-5190 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Copper and cobalt oxides * Effect of support * Ethyl acetate combustion * Multicomponent oxides * Titania doped with niobium Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.265, year: 2015

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Ethyl Acetate the Extract of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) Against Bacterial Spoilage in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Adriani, G. R.; Munawaroh, H.

    2017-04-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) contains compounds that have potential as antibacterial agent. Antibacterial compounds produced noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) can inhibit bacterial growth. This study was conducted to test the antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of noni fruit (M. citrifolia L.) against spoilage bacterial in fish. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Enterobacter aerogenes isolates and examine antibacterial phytochemical profile. Extraction of noni compounds was done by maceration, followed by partition with ethyl acetate to obtain the soluble and insoluble ethyl acetate fraction. Previews result show that the ethyl acetate extract had very strong activity. Extraction process continued by separation and isolation used preparative thin layer chromatography method, so that obtained five isolates and mark them as A, B, C, D and E. Antibacterial activity assay performed on isolates A, B, C, D, and E with 20 and 30% concentration. The test results showed that isolates A could not be inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B, C, D, and E has antibacterial activity with weak to strong inhibition. Isolate B had the greatest inhibition activity against the B. cereus, whereas isolates E had the greatest inhibition activity against P. aeroginosa. MIC (Minimum Inhibitor Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) test result showed that MIC and MBC values could not be determined. Analysis of compounds by TLC showed that isolate B suspected contains coumarin or flavonoids compounds that have antibacterial activity.

  5. Suzuki coupling reactions catalyzed by poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available InIn this work, it was investigated to use of poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in the Suzuki reaction between phenylboronic acid and aryl halides in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were isolated and re-used several times with low loss of activity.

  6. A green approach to ethyl acetate: Quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Gaofeng; Chen, Tao; He, Lipeng; Pinnau, Ingo; Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters

  7. Ethyl ester purpurine-18 from Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae);Feoforbideo (etoxi-purpurina-18) isolado de Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim, E-mail: taniasarmento@dq.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica; Giulietti, Ana Maria [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2010-07-01

    The phaeophorbide ethyl ester named Purpurine-18 and the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were obtained by chromatographic procedures from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Gossypium mustelinum. The structure of these compound was determined by NMR, IR and mass spectra data analysis. This is the first occurrence of this compound in Angiosperm. (author)

  8. N-[2-(maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide, a molecule for radiohalogenation of proteins and peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Jensen, Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this work a new coupling reagent, N-[2-(maleimido)ethyl]-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzamide, for radiohalogenation has been synthesized and characterized. The reagent is intended to either be attached to reduced disulfide bridges of proteins (making the halogenation site-specific) or to free termin...

  9. A green approach to ethyl acetate: Quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Gaofeng

    2012-11-07

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters or hydrogen acceptors (see scheme). © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Real-time in vitro dissolution of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single ethyl cellulose coated extrudates studied by UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Larsen, Crilles Casper

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single extrudates by UV imaging and to explore the technique as a visualization tool for detecting film coating defects on extrudates coated with a thin ethyl cellulose layer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid ext...

  11. Ethyl Acetate Synthesis by Coupling of Fixed-bed Reactor and Reactive Distillation Column—Process Integration Aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smejkal, Q.; Kolena, J.; Hanika, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 154, 1-3 (2009), s. 236-240 ISSN 1385-8947. [International Conference on Chemical Reactors - CHEMREACTOR -18 /18./. Malta, 23.09.2008-03.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ethyl acetate * esterification * reactive distillation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2009

  12. Analysis of ethyl glucuronide in human serum by capillary electrophoresis with sample self-stacking and indirect detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila; Caslavska, J.; Malášková, Hana; Gebauer, Petr; Thormann, W.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1081, č. 1 (2005), s. 2-8 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ethyl glucuronide * capillary electrophoresis * serum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2005

  13. Optimization of CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide catalysts for ethyl acetate combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dimitrov, M.; Ivanova, R.; Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Kovacheva, D.; Tsoncheva, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2015), s. 323-329 ISSN 0324-1130 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : nanosized CeO2-ZrO2 * mixed oxide phase * ethyl acetate combustion Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.229, year: 2015

  14. Synthesis of the Commercial Fragrance Compound Ethyl 6-Acetoxyhexanoate: A Multistep Ester Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, James V.; Hirakis, Sophia P.

    2017-01-01

    This synthesis of ethyl 6-acetoxyhexanoate (Berryflor) is designed as an experiment for use in a second-year organic chemistry course focusing on the synthesis and reaction of esters. The compound is described as having a raspberry-like odor with jasmine and anise aspects. A two-step procedure for its synthesis beginning with inexpensive…

  15. Study on the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on mouse models of sepsis-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ti Dongdong; Deng Zihui; Xue Hui; Wang Luhuan; Lin Ji; Yan Guangtao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective role of ethyl pyruvate on mouse models of lung injury from sepsis. Methods: Mouse sepsis models were established by cecal ligation-perforation. Four enzyme parameters related to synthesis of free radicals in lung homogenized fluids namely malonaldehyde (MDA), pyruvate acid, lactic acid and total anti-oxidative capacity (TAOC) were determined with spectrophotometry, and serum leptin levels were detected with radioimmunoassay at 3, 6, 9, 12h after operation in these models. Half of the models were treated with intraperitoneal injection of ethyl pyruvate (EP) (75mg/kg). Results: In the models treated with ethyl pyruvate injection, the activity of malonaldehyde, pyruvate acid, lactic acid and total anti-oxidative capacity were affected to certain extent, at some time frames but the results were not unanimously inhibitive or promotive. Serum leptin levels in EP injection models at 6h and 12h after sepsis were significantly higher than those in non-treated models. Conclusion: Ethyl pyruvate perhaps exerted its protective effect on sepsis-induced lung injury through increase of leptin levels in the models. (authors)

  16. Ethyl Pyruvate Emerges as a Safe and Fast Acting Agent against Trypanosoma brucei by Targeting Pyruvate Kinase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet Worku

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT also called sleeping sickness is an infectious disease in humans caused by an extracellular protozoan parasite. The disease, if left untreated, results in 100% mortality. Currently available drugs are full of severe drawbacks and fail to escape the fast development of trypanosoma resistance. Due to similarities in cell metabolism between cancerous tumors and trypanosoma cells, some of the current registered drugs against HAT have also been tested in cancer chemotherapy. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the simple ester, ethyl pyruvate, comprises such properties.The current study covers the efficacy and corresponding target evaluation of ethyl pyruvate on T. brucei cell lines using a combination of biochemical techniques including cell proliferation assays, enzyme kinetics, phasecontrast microscopic video imaging and ex vivo toxicity tests. We have shown that ethyl pyruvate effectively kills trypanosomes most probably by net ATP depletion through inhibition of pyruvate kinase (Ki = 3.0±0.29 mM. The potential of ethyl pyruvate as a trypanocidal compound is also strengthened by its fast acting property, killing cells within three hours post exposure. This has been demonstrated using video imaging of live cells as well as concentration and time dependency experiments. Most importantly, ethyl pyruvate produces minimal side effects in human red cells and is known to easily cross the blood-brain-barrier. This makes it a promising candidate for effective treatment of the two clinical stages of sleeping sickness. Trypanosome drug-resistance tests indicate irreversible cell death and a low incidence of resistance development under experimental conditions.Our results present ethyl pyruvate as a safe and fast acting trypanocidal compound and show that it inhibits the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Competitive inhibition of this enzyme was found to cause ATP depletion and cell death. Due to its ability to easily cross

  17. Phase equilibria and the thermodynamic properties of methyl and ethyl esters of carboxylic acids. 1. Methyl n-butanoate and ethyl propanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonova, Luba E.; Varushchenko, Raisa M.; Druzhinina, Anna I.; Polyakova, Olga V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Heat capacities, fusion properties of CH 3 OC(O)C 3 H 7 measured by adiabatic calorimetry. ► The temperature dependence of vapour pressure determined by comparative ebulliometry. ► The thermodynamic functions derived from experiment and calculated by DFT method. ► Extending vapour pressure of moderate interval to entire region of liquid. ► An increment of the entropy of carbonyl group was defined from experimental data. - Abstract: The heat capacity of methyl n-butanoate in crystalline and liquid states was measured by vacuum adiabatic calorimetry over the temperature range from (8 to 372) K. The triple point temperature, the enthalpy and entropy of fusion, and the purity of the sample were determined. The saturated vapour pressure and the boiling temperatures were determined by comparative ebulliometry in the “atmospheric” pressure range 10.8 ⩽ (p/kPa) ⩽ 99.6. The normal boiling temperature, T n.b , and the enthalpy of vaporization at T = 298.15 K and T n.b were derived. The thermodynamic functions (absolute entropy and changes of the enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy) were derived for the solid and liquid states in the temperature range studied and for the ideal gas state at T = 298.15 K. The ideal gas heat capacities and the absolute entropies of methyl n-butanoate (MeBu) and ethyl propanoate (EtPr) were calculated by statistical thermodynamics on the basis of the molecular constants determined by the use of density functional theory on the B3LYP level. The experimental vapour pressure of MeBu and EtPr of moderate temperature intervals, Δ exp T = (59/65) K, were extended to the entire range of the liquids, Δ liq T = (364.7/345.7) K by the methods of the corresponding states law and simultaneous treatment of the pT-parameters and low-temperature heat capacities of the ideal gas and liquid, respectively. An additive contribution of the carbonyl group CO–(C, O) connected with C and O atoms was determined for calculation of the

  18. Alkylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Relative reactivity of the phosphodiester site thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, D H; Lawley, P D

    1978-01-01

    1. The ethyl phosphotriester of thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine, dTp(Et)dT, was identified as a product from reaction of DNA with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, by procedures parallel to those reported previously for the methyl homologue produced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. 2. Enzymic degradation to yield alkyl phosphotriesters from DNA alkylated by these carcinogens and by dimethyl sulphate and ethyl methanesulphonate was studied quantitatively, and the relative yields of the triesters dTp(Alk)dT were determined. The relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group dTpdT to each of the four carcinogens was thus obtained, and compared with that of DNA overall, or with that of the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. Relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group was lowest towards dimethyl sulphate, the least electrophilic of the reagents used, and was highest towards N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, the most electrophilic reagent. 3. The nature of the alkyl group transferred also influenced reactivity of the phosphodiester site, since this site was relatively more reactive towards ethylation than would be predicted simply from the known Swain-Scott s values of the alkylating agents. It was therefore suggested that the steric accessibility of the weakly nucleophilic phosphodiester group on the outside of the DNA macromolecule favours its reaction with ethylating, as opposed to methylating, reagents. 4. Taking a value of the Swain-Scott nucleophilicity (n) of 2.5 for an average DNA nucleotide unit [Walles & Ehrenberg (1969) Acta Chem. Scand. 23, 1080-1084], a value of n of about 1 for the phosphodiester group was deduced, and this value was found to be 2-3 units less than that for the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. 5. The reactivity of DNA overall was markedly high towards the alkylnitrosoureas, despite their relatively low s values. This was ascribed to an electrostatic factor that favoured reaction of the negatively charged polymer with alkyldiazonium cation intermediates. PMID:208508

  19. Spontaneous inflammatory pain model from a mouse line with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tsung-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis was used to induce a point mutation in C57BL/6 J mice. Pain-related phenotype screening was performed in 915 G3 mice. We report the detection of a heritable recessive mutant in meiotic recombinant N1F1 mice that caused an abnormal pain sensitivity phenotype with spontaneous skin inflammation in the paws and ears. Methods We investigated abnormal sensory processing, neuronal peptides, and behavioral responses after the induction of autoinflammatory disease. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers and polymerase chain reaction product sequencing were used to identify the mutation site. Results All affected mice developed paw inflammation at 4–8 weeks. Histological examinations revealed hyperplasia of the epidermis in the inflamed paws and increased macrophage expression in the spleen and paw tissues. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive response thresholds were reduced in the affected mice. Locomotor activity was decreased in affected mice with inflamed hindpaws, and this reduction was attributable to the avoidance of contact of the affected paw with the floor. Motor strength and daily activity in the home cage in the affected mice did not show any significant changes. Although Fos immunoreactivity was normal in the dorsal horn of affected mice, calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity significantly increased in the deep layer of the dorsal horn. The number of microglia increased in the spinal cord, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex in affected mice, and the proliferation of microglia was maintained for a couple of months. Two hundred eighty-five SNP markers were used to reveal the affected gene locus, which was found on the distal part of chromosome 18. A point mutation was detected at A to G in exon 8 of the pstpip2 gene, resulting in a conserved tyrosine residue at amino acid 180 replaced by cysteine (Y180 C. Conclusions The data provide definitive evidence that a mutation

  20. Introduction of sample tubes with sodium azide as a preservative for ethyl glucuronide in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbühl, Marc; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct alcohol marker, which is widely used for clinical and forensic applications, mainly for abstinence control. However, the instability of EtG in urine against bacterial degradation or the post-collectional synthesis of EtG in contaminated samples may cause false interpretation of EtG results in urine samples. This study evaluates the potential of sodium azide in tubes used for urine collection to hinder degradation of ethyl glucuronide by bacterial metabolism taking place during growth of bacterial colonies. The tubes are part of a commercial oral fluid collection device. The sampling system was tested with different gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species previously observed in urinary tract infections, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterecoccus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition of bacterial growth by sodium azide, resulting in lower numbers of colony forming units compared to control samples, was observed for all tested bacterial species. To test the prevention of EtG degradation by the predominant pathogen in urinary tract infection, sterile-filtered urine and deficient medium were spiked with EtG, and inoculated with E. coli prior to incubation for 4 days at 37 °C in tubes with and without sodium azide. Samples were collected every 24 hours, during four consecutive days, whereby the colony forming units (CFU) were counted on Columbia blood agar plates, and EtG was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. As expected, EtG degradation was observed when standard polypropylene tubes were used for the storage of contaminated samples. However, urine specimens collected in sodium azide tubes showed no or very limited bacterial growth and no EtG degradation. As a conclusion, sodium azide is useful to reduce bacterial growth of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It inhibits the degradation of EtG by E. coli and can be used for