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Sample records for rhizoma chuanxiong rhizome

  1. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Da Chuanxiong Formula: A Famous Herb Pair Composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Rhizoma for Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jinming; Hong, Yanlong; Feng, Yi; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Chronic headache such as migraine and nervous headache has become one of the most common locations of pain and one of the most difficult diseases to recover due to its numerous causes and inconvenience to keep acesodyne administration for a long time. However, there are a series of treatment theories and herbal formulas for this disease in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in which Da Chuanxiong formula (DCXF), a herb pair composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR), Chuanxiong in Chinese, and Gas...

  2. Fingerprinting analysis of Rhizoma chuanxiong of commercial types using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hai-Lin; Deng, An-Jun; Du, Guan-Hua; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2009-06-01

    The (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) fingerprints of fractionated non-polar extracts (control substance for a plant drug (CSPD) A) from Rhizoma chuanxiong, the rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., of seven specimens from different sources were measured on Fourier Transform (FT)-NMR spectrometer and assigned by comparing them with the (1)H NMR spectra of the isolated pure compounds. The (1)H NMR fingerprints showed exclusively characteristic resonance signals of the major special constituents of the plant. Although the differences in the relative intensity of the (1)H NMR signals due to a discrepancy in the ratio of the major constituents among these samples could be confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, the general features of the (1)H NMR fingerprint established for an authentic sample of the rhizomes of L. chuanxiong exhibited exclusive data from those special compounds and can be used for authenticating L. Chuanxiong species.

  3. Fingerprinting Analysis of Rhizoma Chuanxiong of Commercial Types using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Lin Qin; An-Jun Deng; Guan-Hua Du; Peng Wang; Jin-Lan Zhang; Zhi-Hong Li

    2009-01-01

    The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) fingerprints of fractionated non-polar extracts (control substance for a plant drug (CSPD) A) from Rhizoma chuanxiong, the rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., of seven specimens from different sources were measured on Fourier Transform (FT)-NMR spectrometer and assigned by comparing them with the 1H NMR spectra of the isolated pure compounds. The 1H NMR fingerprints showed exclusively characteristic resonance signals of the major special constituents of the plant. Although the differences in the relative intensity of the 1H NMR signals due to a discrepancy in the ratio of the major constituents among these samples could be confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, the general features of the 1H NMR fingerprint established for an authentic sample of the rhizomes of L. chuanxiong exhibited exclusive data from those special compounds and can be used for authenticating L. Chuanxiong species.

  4. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Da Chuanxiong Formula: A Famous Herb Pair Composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Rhizoma for Headache

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    Lu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic headache such as migraine and nervous headache has become one of the most common locations of pain and one of the most difficult diseases to recover due to its numerous causes and inconvenience to keep acesodyne administration for a long time. However, there are a series of treatment theories and herbal formulas for this disease in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, in which Da Chuanxiong formula (DCXF, a herb pair composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR, Chuanxiong in Chinese, and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR called as Tianma in China, is a greatly classic representative. This formula has been used for headaches via dispelling wind pathogen and dissipating blood stasis for many years in TCM. In recent years, the efficiency and representativeness of DCXF have garnered many researchers’ attention. To reveal the compatibility mechanism and develop innovative Chinese herb, herein ethnopharmacological relevance, chemical characters, and pharmacological actions of DCXF are detailed. It is expected to give a comprehensive interpretation of DCXF, namely, Chuanxiong Tianma herb pair (CTHP, to inherit the essence of herb pair and innovate drug delivery system of this prescription.

  5. [Effects of Chemical Fertilizers and Organic Fertilizer on Yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong Rhizome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin; Chen, Xing-fu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Jie; Peng, Shi-ming

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of different N, P, K and organic fertilizer (OF) on yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome, in order to provide the theoretical foundation for the establishment of standardization cultivation techniques. The field plot experiments used Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome which planted in Pengshan as material, and were studied by the four factors and five levels with quadratic regression rotation-orthogonal combination design. According to the data obtained, a function model which could predict the fertilization and yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome accurately was established. The model analysis showed that the yields of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly influenced by the N, P, K and OF applications. Among these factors, the order of increase rates by the fertilizers was K > OF > N > P; The effect of interaction between N and K, N and OF, K and OF on the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly different. High levels of N and P, N and organic fertilizer, K and organic fertilizer were conducive to improve the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. The results showed that the optimal fertilizer application rates of N was 148.20 - 172.28 kg/hm2, P was 511.92 - 599.40 kg/hm2, K was 249.70 - 282.37 kg/hm2, and OF was 940.00 - 1 104.00 kg/hm2. N, P, K and OF obviously affect the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. K and OF can significantly increase the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. Thus it is suggested that properly high mount of K and OF and appropriate increasing N are two favorable factors for cultivating Ligusticum chuanxiong.

  6. Identification and comparative quantification of bio-active phthalides in essential oils from si-wu-tang, fo-shou-san, radix angelica and rhizoma chuanxiong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Min; Yu, Sheng; Hua, Yongqing; Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shulan; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yin; Ding, Anwei

    2010-01-15

    Phthalides are important bio-active constituents in Si-Wu-Tang and Fo-Shou-San, two commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) combined prescriptions mainly derived from Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. In this paper, the contents of eight phthalides, including Z-ligustilide, E-ligustilide, Z-butylenephthalide, E-butylene-phthalide, 3-butylphthalide, neocnidilide and senkyunolide A were determined or estimated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed GC-MS was a simple, rapid, and high sensitive method for analyzing phthalides in Si-Wu-Tang, Fo-Shou-San, Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong, and the extractable contents of each phthalides including Z-ligustilide, E-ligustilide, Z-butylenephthalide, etc. varied after Radix Angelica, Rhizoma Chuanxiong were combined into a formulation, such as Si-Wu-Tang and Fo-Shou-San. Furthermore, inhibition activity of essential oils from Si-Wu-Tang, Fo-Shou-San, Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong on uterine contraction was tested in an in vitro assay, and the results showed that the activity of the essential oil is higher as the content of the phthalides increase, which demonstrated that phthalides are possibly main active components inhibiting mice uterine contraction in vitro. All of the results suggested that comparative analysis of chemical components and pharmacological activities of each herb and formula is possibly helpful to elucidate the active components in traditional Chinese medicine, and to reveal the compatibility mechanism of TCM formulae.

  7. Ultrasonic extraction, antioxidant and anticancer activities of novel polysaccharides from Chuanxiong rhizome.

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    Hu, Jie; Jia, Xuejing; Fang, Xiaobin; Li, Peng; He, Chengwei; Chen, Meiwan

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology was employed to prepare Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort polysaccharide. Single factor test and orthogonal experimental design were used to optimize the extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions consisted of ultrasonic temperature of 80°C, ultrasonic time of 40 min and water to raw material ratio of 30 mL/g. Three novel polysaccharides fractions, LCX0, LCX1 and LCX2, were isolated and purified from the crude polysaccharides using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The molecular weight and monosaccharide composition of three LCX polysaccharides fractions were analyzed with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and HPLC analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the antioxidant and in vitro anticancer activities of the polysaccharides were investigated. Compared with LCX0, LCX2 and LCX1 showed relative higher antioxidant activity and inhibitory activity to the growth of HepG2, SMMC7721, A549 and HCT-116 cells. It is suggested that the novel polysaccharides from rhizome of L. chuanxiong could be promising bioactive macromolecules for biomedical use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Purification and Partial Structural Characterization of a Complement Fixating Polysaccharide from Rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong

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    Yuan-Feng Zou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong is an effective medical plant, which has been extensively applied for centuries in migraine and cardiovascular diseases treatment in China. Polysaccharides from this plant have been shown to have interesting bioactivities, but previous studies have only been performed on the neutral polysaccharides. In this study, LCP-I-I, a pectic polysaccharide fraction, was obtained from the 100 °C water extracts of L. chuangxiong rhizomes and purified by diethylaminethyl (DEAE sepharose anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Monosaccharide analysis and linkage determination in addition to Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometer and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrum, indicated that LCP-I-I is a typical pectic polysaccharide, with homo-galacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan type I regions and arabinogalactan type I and type II (AG-I/AG-II side chains. LCP-I-I exhibited potent complement fixation activity, ICH50 of 26.3 ± 2.2 µg/mL, and thus has potential as a natural immunomodulator.

  9. Analysis of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and its active components by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yizhen; Lv, Beiran; Wang, Jingjuan; Liu, Yang; Sun, Suqin; Xiao, Yao; Lu, Lina; Xiang, Li; Yang, Yanfang; Qu, Lei; Meng, Qinghong

    2016-01-15

    As complicated mixture systems, active components of Chuanxiong Rhizoma are very difficult to identify and discriminate. In this paper, the macroscopic IR fingerprint method including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR), was applied to study and identify Chuanxiong raw materials and its different segmented production of HPD-100 macroporous resin. Chuanxiong Rhizoma is rich in sucrose. In the FT-IR spectra, water eluate is more similar to sucrose than the powder and the decoction. Their second derivative spectra amplified the differences and revealed the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands and combined with the correlation coefficient, concluding that 50% ethanol eluate had more ligustilide than other eluates. Finally, it can be found from 2DCOS-IR spectra that proteins were extracted by ethanol from Chuanxiong decoction by HPD-100 macroporous resin. It was demonstrated that the above three-step infrared spectroscopy could be applicable for quick, non-destructive and effective analysis and identification of very complicated and similar mixture systems of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of six active components by a single standard to determine multicomponents combined with fingerprint analysis for the quality control of Rhizoma Chuanxiong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yufei; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-04-01

    To control the quality of Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detection was developed for the quantitative analysis of six active ingredients using a single standard to determine multi-components and chemical fingerprint analysis for the first time. The separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column by gradient elution with methanol and aqueous phase (containing 0.5% glacial acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The UV wavelength was set at 274 nm. This assay was fully validated with respect to precision, repeatability, and accuracy. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9994) within test ranges. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were lower than 0.01 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation for repeatability and the intermediate precision of six analytes were less than 1.6 and 2.5%, respectively, the overall recovery was 96.1-103.1%. In addition, fingerprint chromatography using hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis was performed to differentiate and classify the samples. The method described here could provide a more comprehensive and reasonable scientific assessment of the quality of Rhizoma Chuanxiong. Therefore, the strategy is feasible, credible, and is easily and effectively adapted for evaluating the quality control of Rhizoma Chuanxiong. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Correlation between Platelet Gelsolin and Platelet Activation Level in Acute Myocardial Infarction Rats and Intervention Effect of Effective Components of Chuanxiong Rhizome and Red Peony Root

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    Yue Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological role of platelet gelsolin in platelet activation of acute myocardial infarction is not defined. In order to provide a potential new antiplatelet target for Chinese medicine and to elucidate the contribution of Xiongshao capsule, the effective components of Chuanxiong rhizome and red peony root, in this study, we randomly allocated Sprague Dawley rats to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation or sham surgery and different drug prophylaxis as control. We found that gelsolin is highly expressed in platelet rich plasma and lowly expressed in platelet poor plasma, accompanied by the high platelet activation level in model rats; plasma actin filaments and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of platelet calcium ion increased and plasma vitamin D binding protein decreased in model rats. Xiongshao capsule could inhibit the gelsolin expression in platelet rich plasma and ischemic heart tissue simultaneously and reduce the level of plasma F-actin and MFI of platelet calcium ion. Our study concludes that platelet gelsolin is an important contributor to platelet activation, and platelet gelsolin inhibition may form a novel target for antiplatelet therapy. Xiongshao capsule may be a promising Chinese medicine drug for antiplatelet and aspirin-like cardioprotection effect.

  12. A modified multiscale peak alignment method combined with trilinear decomposition to study the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes by HS-SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Yan, Pan; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Tian-Biao; Hong, Liang

    2018-03-15

    Head Space/Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to determine the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Facing co-eluting peaks in k samples, a trilinear structure was reconstructed to obtain the second-order advantage. The retention time (RT) shift with multi-channel detection signals for different samples has been vital in maintaining the trilinear structure, thus a modified multiscale peak alignment (mMSPA) method was proposed in this paper. The peak position and peak width of representative ion profile were firstly detected by mMSPA using Continuous Wavelet Transform with Haar wavelet as the mother wavelet (Haar CWT). Then, the raw shift was confirmed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) cross correlation calculation. To obtain the optimal shift, Haar CWT was again used to detect the subtle deviations and be amalgamated in calculation. Here, to ensure there is no peaks shape alternation, the alignment was performed in local domains of data matrices, and all data points in the peak zone were moved via linear interpolation in non-peak parts. Finally, chemical components of interest in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes were analyzed by HS-SPME-GCMS and mMSPA-alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) resolution. As a result, the concentration variation between herbs and their pharmaceutical products can provide a scientific basic for the quality standard establishment of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Assay of Tetramethylpyrazine in Szechwan Lovage Rhizome and Cnidium Rhizome by HPLC-DAD-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yuan-lin; Jin, Yu-qing; Yao, Yi-xin; Lin, Mao-yi; Wei, Bo-ping; Jiang, Wei-dong; Lu, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    To quantity the amount of tetramethylpyrazine in Szechwan Lovage Rhizome (Chuanxiong, the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., CX) and Cnidium Rhizome(Japanese Chuanxiong, the rhizome of Cnidium officinale Makino, JCX) for quality assessment. An HPLC-DAD-MS technique was employed to detect tetramethylpyrazine in 27 CX and 10 JCX samples. Tetramethylpyrazine was separated on a Waters Symmetry C,, column (250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase was methanol-acetonitrile-water(27: 1: 72) at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL/min. The column temperature was 35 °C. DAD detection wavelength was 280 nm, while electrospray ionization detector was set at positive mode to collect MS spectrum. In the total of 37 herb samples, 11 samples were found to contain tetramethylpyrazine with the mean amount of 2. 19 µg/g(n = 11). 6 of 27 CX samples and 5 of 10 JCX sample were found the existence of tetramethylpyrazine with the amount of 0. 60 - 11. 75 µg and 0. 61 - 3. 05 µg/g,respectively. The correlation was not found between tetramethylpyrazine and the cultivation area, morphological character, processing or storage method for CX and JCX samples. It was possible that tetramethylpyrazine resulted from the microbes in soil. The developed method is accurate to quantify tetramethylpyrazine in CX and JCX herbs. Both the two herbs indeed contain tetramethylpyrazine, but it is not suitable to be a chemical marker to assess the quality of CX and JCX owing to low content.

  14. Chuanxiong preparations for preventing stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunzhe; Zeng, Xiaoxi; Wu, Taixiang

    2010-01-20

    Stroke is a major healthcare problem and is one of the leading causes of death and serious long-term disability. Prevention of stroke is considered an important strategy. Chuanxiong is traditionally used in China in the treatment and prevention of stroke. In recent years, Chinese researchers have developed new patented Chuanxiong preparations. To assess the effects and safety of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke in high-risk adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2008), EMBASE (1980 to March 2008), AMED (1985 to March 2008), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1975 to March 2008), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1994 to March 2008), and the VIP Database (1989 to March 2008). Trials registers were searched for ongoing studies. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying the effects of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke were included. Three reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and two reviewers independently extracted data. Authors of identified RCTs were telephoned to confirm the randomisation procedure. Outcomes assessed included: stroke, composite cardiovascular outcomes, changes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular haemodynamic indices and adverse events. Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for dichotomous variables and mean differences for continuous outcomes. Three RCTs (5042 participants) were included. One higher quality study (4415 participants) compared Nao-an capsule with aspirin for primary prevention in high-risk stroke populations. Nao-an capsule appeared to reduce the incidence of stroke compared with aspirin (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). One study of low methodological quality indicated that a self-prepared Xifenwan tablet reduced the incidence of stroke in people with transient ischaemia attack (TIA) (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.78). The

  15. Comparative Analysis of Compatibility Effects on Invigorating Blood Circulation for Cyperi Rhizoma Series of Herb Pairs Using Untargeted Metabolomics

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    Pei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mutual-assistance compatibility of Cyperi Rhizoma (Xiangfu, XF and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG, Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong, CX, Paeoniae Radix Alba (Baishao, BS, or Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo, YH, found in a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM named Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD, can produce synergistic and promoting blood effects. Nowadays, XFSWD has been proved to be effective in activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. However, the role of the herb pairs synergistic effects in the formula were poorly understood. In order to quantitatively assess the compatibility effects of herb pairs, mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics studies were performed. The plasma and urine metabolic profiles of acute blood stasis rats induced by adrenaline hydrochloride and ice water and administered with Cyperi Rhizoma—Angelicae Sinensis Radix (XD, Cyperi Rhizoma—Chuanxiong Rhizoma (XC, Cyperi Rhizoma—Paeoniae Radix Alba (XB, Cyperi Rhizoma—Corydalis Rhizoma (XY were compared. Relative peak area of identified metabolites was calculated and principal component analysis (PCA score plot from the potential markers was used to visualize the overall differences. Then, the metabolites results were used with biochemistry indicators and genes expression values as parameters to quantitatively evaluate the compatibility effects of XF series of herb pairs by PCA and correlation analysis. The collective results indicated that the four XF herb pairs regulated glycerophospholipid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. XD was more prominent in regulating the blood stasis during the four XF herb pairs. This study demonstrated that metabolomics was a useful tool to efficacy evaluation and compatibility effects of TCM elucidation.

  16. [EST-SSR identification, markers development of Ligusticum chuanxiong based on Ligusticum chuanxiong transcriptome sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Can; Peng, Fang; Yang, Ze-Mao; Zhong, Wen-Juan; Mou, Fang-Sheng; Gong, Yi-Yun; Ji, Pei-Cheng; Pu, De-Qiang; Huang, Hai-Yan; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Chao

    2017-09-01

    Ligusticum chuanxiong is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine plant. The study on its molecular markers development and germplasm resources is very important. In this study, we obtained 24 422 unigenes by assembling transcriptome sequencing reads of L. chuanxiong root. EST-SSR was detected and 4 073 SSR loci were identified. EST-SSR distribution and characteristic analysis results showed that the mono-nucleotide repeats were the main repeat types, accounting for 41.0%. In addition, the sequences containing SSR were functionally annotated in Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway and were assigned to 49 GO categories, 242 KEGG pathways, among them 2 201 sequences were annotated against Nr database. By validating 235 EST-SSRs,74 primer pairs were ultimately proved to have high quality amplification. Subsequently, genetic diversity analysis, UPGMA cluster analysis, PCoA analysis and population structure analysis of 34 L. chuanxiong germplasm resources were carried out with 74 primer pairs. In both UPGMA tree and PCoA results, L. chuanxiong resources were clustered into two groups, which are believed to be partial related to their geographical distribution. In this study, EST-SSRs in L. chuanxiong was firstly identified, and newly developed molecular markers would contribute significantly to further genetic diversity study, the purity detection, gene mapping, and molecular breeding. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Rhizome (Reimagined

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    Anar Rajabali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As an a/r/tographer, I take up the invitation to contemplate and complicate alternative notions of space and time (Irwin & Springgay, 2008, p. xx. In my poem Rhizome in the Sky, I (reimagine and (reconceptualize Deleuze and Guattari’s (1997 metaphor of the rhizome with its interconnected complexity, multiplicity and in-between spaces that “desires, moves and produces” (p. 15. I then take these underground roots that deepen down in the dark earth and I place it in the sky, where I extend these lines of flight into points of light, the branches reaching out heavenward on an endless journey of perpetual becomings. I methodologically affirm, “any elongated form reaches out toward the height, [reaches] toward light” (Bachelard, 1988, p. 259. In the symbolic potency of the poetic image through the lens of spiritual revealing, is where its transcendental power cannot be reduced to the horizontal (Laude, 2004.

  18. Optimization of processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    soaking time and processing temperature on processing technology of Rhizoma ... Results: During the processing of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum, the size of influence of licorice .... Table 1: Factors and levels of orthogonal experiment.

  19. Rhizoma coptidis: A potential cardiovascular protective agent

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    Hui-Li Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. Rhizoma coptidis (RC, known as Huang Lian in China, is the dried rhizome of medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, such as Coptis chinensis Franch, C. deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao, and C. teeta Wall which has been used by Chinese medicinal physicians for more than 2000 years. In China, RC is a common component in traditional medicines used to treat CVD associated problems including obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and disorders of lipid metabolism. In recent years, numerous scientific studies have sought to investigate the biological properties of RC to provide scientific evidence for its traditional medical uses. RC has been found to exert significant beneficial effects on major risk factors for CVDs including anti-atherosclerotic effect, protection from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, lipid-lowering effect, anti-obesity effect and anti-hepatic steatosis effect. These properties have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds contained in RC such as berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine and magnoflorine; all of which have been demonstrated to have cardioprotective effects on the various parameters contributing to the occurrence of CVD through a variety of pathways. The evidence available in the published literature indicates that RC is a herb with tremendous potential to reduce the risks of CVDs, and this review aims to summarize the cardioprotective properties of RC with reference to the published literature which overall indicates that RC is a herb with remarkable potential to reduce the risks of CVDs.

  20. Optimization of processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Orthogonal design method was applied to analyze the effects of factors such as licorice concentration volume, soaking time and processing temperature on processing technology of Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum; MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the inhibitory effect of Rhizoma Pinelliae ...

  1. Development of Alginate Microspheres Containing Chuanxiong for Oral Administration to Adult Zebrafish

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    Li-Jen Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM by patients is the common way to treat health problems. Zebrafish emerges as an excellent animal model for the pharmacology investigation. However, the oral delivery system of TCM in zebrafish has not been established so far. This issue was addressed by development of alginate microparticles for oral delivery of chuanxiong, a TCM that displays antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects on hepatocytes. The delivery microparticles were prepared from gelification of alginate containing various levels of chuanxiong. The chuanxiong-encapsulated alginate microparticles were characterized for their solubility, structure, encapsulation efficiency, the cargo release profile, and digestion in gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Encapsulation of chuanxiong resulted in more compact structure and the smaller size of microparticles. The release rate of chuanxiong increased for alginate microparticles carrying more chuanxiong in simulated intestinal fluid. This remarkable feature ensures the controlled release of encapsulated cargos in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Moreover, chuanxiong-loaded alginate microparticles were moved to the end of gastrointestinal tract after oral administration for 6 hr and excreted from the body after 16 hr. Therefore, our developed method for oral administration of TCM in zebrafish is useful for easy and rapid evaluation of the drug effect on disease.

  2. [Research progress of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of essential oil of Ligusticum chuanxiong].

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    Du, Jing-Chang; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Xiong, Liang; Sun, Chen; Peng, Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Essential oil is the low polar and volatile components distilled or extracted from Ligusticum chuanxiong, the dry root of perennial herb L. chuanxiong, which has proven to be one of the main biological active ingredients of L. chuanxiong. Studies suggested that essential oil of L. chuanxiong mainly contains phthalide, terpene alcohols and fatty acids compounds. Different regions or varied extraction technology had influences on the type and contents of compound in essential oil of L. chuanxiong and the total yield efficiency of essential oil, while the differences among the distribution of compounds leads to the variant pharmacological function of essential oil of L. chuanxiong. Researches confirmed that essential oil of L. chuanxiong has kinds of pharmacological activities such as sedation, analgesia, improve function of blood vessels, protected nerve cells and fever-reducing, all these benefits were verified by experiment studies in vivo and some of which were used as therapies in treating migraine, the underlining mechanisms include anti-inflammation, apoptosis pathway and studies found that essential oil of L. chuanxiong possessed very low acute and chronic toxicity at the same time, revealed its great value of development and utilization in clinical applications. Recent studies light some problems such as lack of quality standards and the research of relationship between efficacy and material. The key to apply the usage of essential oil of L. chuanxiong locate in its substantial basis research, the establishment of the quality standards and the joint research institute, more study should work on these fields. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Comparative analysis of Ligusticum chuanxiong and related umbelliferous medicinal plants by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

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    Yi, Tao; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Lu, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Hao

    2007-04-01

    A highly precise and accurate method, based on high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), was developed for the qualitative and quantitative comparison of the main constituents in the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC) and three related umbelliferous medicinal plants. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted, and the method was highly sensitive, reproducible and accurate. The unique properties of the present method were validated by analyzing 20 related herbal samples including 5 LC samples, 5 Cnidium officinale samples (CO), 5 Angelica sinensis samples (AS) and 5 Angelica acutiloba samples (AA). Twelve compounds including phenolic constituents, alkylphthalides and phthalide dimers were identified by online ESI-MS and by comparison with literature data and standard compounds, and six of them were quantified by HPLC-DAD simultaneously. The results demonstrated that identical compound types were identified as the main constituents of LC, CO, AS and AA herbs. The results also support the alternative application of these medicinal plants in Chinese and Japanese folk medicines. In the present study, it was found that the variation in the abundance of senkyunolide A was significant in these related herbs; it is therefore feasible to choose senkyunolide A as a characteristic compound for quality evaluation and chemical authentication of these herbs.

  4. [Determination of ferulic acid absorbed into human serum from oral decoction of rhizoma chuanxiong and pharmacokinetic study of ferulic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S; Huang, X; Zhang, L; Ren, P; Chang, Z

    2001-10-01

    To improve the HPLC method for determining ferulic acid(FA) in the human serum and to research FA clinical pharmacokinetics. Serum concentrations of FA were determined by HPLC using methanol-water-acetic acid (40:59.7:0.3, v/v) as the mobile phase and the column packed with ODS (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microns) as a fixed phase and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. FA was detected at 320 nm wave length. The internal standard was coumarin. The serum samples were treated by the water-boiling method. Peak of FA in serum was recognized by photodiode-array detection. FA and internal standard were separated completely under the condition described as above. FA was linear in the range of (40.16-8032 ng/ml) (r = 0.9975). The CV was less than 10%, the average recovery was 100.3%, and the limit concentration in serum was 25.1 ng/ml. PK was in accordance with open bicameral model. This method can be applied to clinical pharmacokinetic study of FA.

  5. [Contents of total flavonoids in Rhizoma Arisaematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, S S; Lin, H Y; Zhou, Y X; Wei, L X

    2001-06-01

    Comparing the contents of total flavonoides of Rhizoma Arisaematis, which collected in different time, regions, different varieties and processed. Determining the contents by ultraviolet spectro-photometry. The contents were found in the following sequence: 1. the end of July, the begin of July, August, September; 2. Beijing, Shanxi, Sichuan, Anhui; 3. Arisaema erubenscens, A. heterophyllum, A. amurense; 4. unprocessed product, processed product.

  6. Quality evaluation and species differentiation of Rhizoma coptidis by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Gang; Zhang Mengying; Zhou Xiangdong; Lai Xianrong; Yue Qinghong; Tang Ce; Luo Weizao; Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report a qNMR method for the determination of six alkaloids in Rhizoma coptidis. ► The results of the qNMR method are reliable by comparison with a HPLC method. ► The proposed method has good selectivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. ► This method coupled with chemometrics can distinguish three Rhizoma coptidis species. - Abstract: Rhizoma coptidis, a broadly used traditional Chinese medicine, derives from the dried rhizomes of Coptis chinensis Franch, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao and Coptis teeta Wall. Quantitative determination of protoberberine alkaloids in R. coptidis is critical for controlling its quality. In this study, a rapid, simple and accurate quantitative 1 H NMR (qNMR) method was developed for simultaneous determination of berberine, jatrorrhizine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine and columbamine in R. coptidis from the three species. Method validation was performed in terms of selectivity, precision, repeatability, stability, accuracy, robustness and linearity. The average recoveries obtained were in the range of 96.9–102.4% for all the six alkaloids. In addition, the qNMR data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and the results showed that the contents of the active alkaloids have significant difference among the three species. Compared with the conventional HPLC approach, the proposed qNMR method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for quantifying the six alkaloids due to its unique advantages of high robustness, rapid analysis time and no need of standard compounds for calibration curves preparation. These findings indicate that this method has potential as a reliable method for quality evaluation of herb medicines, especially for protoberberine alkaloid-containing ones.

  7. Quality evaluation and species differentiation of Rhizoma coptidis by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Gang [College of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137 (China); Zhang Mengying [China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhou Xiangdong, E-mail: zhouxd88@yahoo.cn [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Lai Xianrong; Yue Qinghong; Tang Ce [College of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137 (China); Luo Weizao [Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica, Chongqing 400065 (China); Zhang Yi, E-mail: tcmzhangyi@yahoo.cn [College of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137 (China)

    2012-10-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a qNMR method for the determination of six alkaloids in Rhizoma coptidis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results of the qNMR method are reliable by comparison with a HPLC method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed method has good selectivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method coupled with chemometrics can distinguish three Rhizoma coptidis species. - Abstract: Rhizoma coptidis, a broadly used traditional Chinese medicine, derives from the dried rhizomes of Coptis chinensis Franch, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao and Coptis teeta Wall. Quantitative determination of protoberberine alkaloids in R. coptidis is critical for controlling its quality. In this study, a rapid, simple and accurate quantitative {sup 1}H NMR (qNMR) method was developed for simultaneous determination of berberine, jatrorrhizine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine and columbamine in R. coptidis from the three species. Method validation was performed in terms of selectivity, precision, repeatability, stability, accuracy, robustness and linearity. The average recoveries obtained were in the range of 96.9-102.4% for all the six alkaloids. In addition, the qNMR data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and the results showed that the contents of the active alkaloids have significant difference among the three species. Compared with the conventional HPLC approach, the proposed qNMR method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for quantifying the six alkaloids due to its unique advantages of high robustness, rapid analysis time and no need of standard compounds for calibration curves preparation. These findings indicate that this method has potential as a reliable method for quality evaluation of herb medicines, especially for protoberberine alkaloid-containing ones.

  8. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqiu Shan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India, is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  9. A Review of the Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Chen, Peidong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2016-12-20

    Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber. This review mainly concentrates on studies of the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of this Traditional Chinese Medicine. The phytochemical evidences indicated that over a hundred chemical components have been found and isolated from the medicine, such as anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, triterpenoids, cyclic hexapeptides and others. These components are considered responsible for the various bioactivities of the herbal drug, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, antitumor, effects on coagulation-fibrinolysis system, neuroprotection and other effects. Additionally, based on these existing results, we also propose some interesting future research directions. Consequently, this review should help us to more comprehensively understand and to more fully utilize the herbal medicine Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma.

  10. [Compatibility law of Baizhi formulae and molecular mechanism of core herbal pair "Baizhi-Chuanxiong"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Tang, Shi-Huan; Guo, Fei-Fei; Li, De-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2018-04-01

    By using the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS) in this study, the prescription rules of Baizhi formulae were analyzed and the core herbal pair "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" was obtained. Through the systemic analysis of prescription rules of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" and combined with the pharmacology thinking of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" in treating headache, the paper was aimed to find out the combination rules containing Baizhi andits molecular mechanisms for treating headaches, and provide the theory basis for further research and reference of Baizhi and its formula. Totally 3 887 prescriptions were included in this study, involving 2 534 Chinese herbs. With a support degree of 20% in analysis, 16 most commonly used drug combinations were screened, which were mainly used to treat 15 types of diseases. Baizhi was often used to treat headache, and the core combination "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" was also often used to treat, consistent with ancient record. A chemical database was established; then the headache and migraine disease targets were retrieved and added in the database to build up the "compounds-targets-pathways "core network of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" by the internet-based computation platform for IP of TCM (TCM-IP). TCM-IP was then applied to study the molecular mechanism of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" treatment of headache. The results suggested that37 chemical compounds in the core combination "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" were closely related with headache treatment by adjusting serotonin levels or applying to inflammation-related targets and energy metabolism pathways such as purine metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, fatty acid degradation, carbon metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Origin discrimination and quality evaluation of Gastrodiae rhizoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality control and origin discrimination of Gastrodiae rhizoma. Methods: Twelve .... Similarity. Evaluation. System for. Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional. Chinese Medicine ..... chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight.

  12. Activation of P-glycoprotein and CYP 3A by Coptidis Rhizoma in vivo: Using cyclosporine as a probe substrate in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Ping Yu; Ching-Ya Huang; Shiuan-Pey Lin; Yu-Chi Hou

    2018-01-01

    Coptidis Rhizoma (CR), the rhizome of Coptis chinensis FRANCH, is a popular Chinese herb. CR contains plenty of isoquinoline alkaloids such as berberine, coptisine and palmatine. Cyclosporine (CSP), an important immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, is employed as a probe substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 in order to investigate the in vivo modulation effect of CR on P-gp and CYP3A4. Three groups of rats were orally administered CSP without and with single dose or repe...

  13. Origin discrimination and quality evaluation of Gastrodiae rhizoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint method for the quality control and origin discrimination of Gastrodiae rhizoma. Methods: Twelve batches of G. rhizoma collected from Sichuan, Guizhou and Shanxi provinces in china were used to establish the fingerprint.

  14. Identification of major xanthones and steroidal saponins in rat urine by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry technology following oral administration of Rhizoma Anemarrhenae decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Wang, Longxing; Tang, Yihong; Fan, Mingsong; Xiao, Hongbin; Huang, Chenggang

    2008-10-01

    Rhizoma Anemarrhenae (Zhimu in Chinese), the dried rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. (Fam. Liliaceae), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb and has been used clinically in China for centuries to cure various diseases. However, like other traditional Chinese medicines, the effective constituents of this medicine, especially the assimilation and metabolites in vivo, which are very important to show their effects, have not been systematically studied. In this paper, solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry technologies were used to study the constituents absorbed into rat urine and their metabolites after oral administration of Rhizoma Anemarrhenae decoction. A total of 11 compounds, including two xanthones, three of their metabolites and six steroidal saponins, were identified in rat urine sample. They were neomangiferin (1), glucuronide and monomethyl conjugate of mangiferin (2), mangiferin (3), monomethyl conjugate of mangiferin (4), dimethyl conjugate of mangiferin (5), timosaponin N or timosaponin E1 (6), timosaponin BII (7), timosaponin BIII (8), anemarrhenasaponin I or anemarrhenasaponin II (9), timosaponin AII (10) and timosaponin AIII (11). The results would efficaciously narrow the potentially active compounds range in Rhizoma Anemarrhenae decoction, and pave a helpful way for follow-up mechanism of action research.

  15. Integration of HPLC-based fingerprint and quantitative analyses for differentiating botanical species and geographical growing origins of Rhizoma coptidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiumei; Li, Yan; Tang, Ce; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Gang

    2016-12-01

    Rhizoma coptidis is a broadly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The investigation of the influence of species and geographical origins on the phytochemicals of R. coptidis is crucial for its reasonable application and quality control. Development of an effective method to systematically study the phytochemical variations of the rhizomes of three Coptis species (Ranunculaceae) (Coptis chinensis Franch, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao and Coptis teeta Wall.) and a species (i.e., C. chinensis) obtained from both Daodi and non-Daodi production regions. The three species had significant differences in their phytochemicals. The rhizome of C. chinensis contained more epiberberine (13.52 ± 2.65 mg/g), palmatine (18.20 ± 2.89 mg/g), coptisine (23.32 ± 4.27 mg/g) and columbamine (4.89 ± 1.16 mg/g), whereas the rhizomes of C. deltoidea and C. teeta showed the highest level of jatrorrhizine (8.52 ± 1.36 mg/g) and berberine (81.06 ± 4.83 mg/g), respectively. Moreover, the rhizome of C. chinensis from three Daodi production regions (Shizhu, Lichuan and Emeishan) contained more alkaloids than those from three non-Daodi production regions (Mianyang, Shifang and Zhenping). It is necessary to use the three R. coptidis species differentially in TCM clinical practice. Daodi C. chinensis medicinal materials have better quality than most non-Daodi ones, and so they should be preferred for TCM prescription. The combination of HPLC-based fingerprint analysis and quantification of multi-ingredients with statistical analysis provided an effective approach for species discrimination and quality evaluation of R. coptidis.

  16. Rapid and simultaneous analysis of five alkaloids in four parts of Coptidis Rhizoma by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jintao, Xue; Yufei, Liu; Liming, Ye; Chunyan, Li; Quanwei, Yang; Weiying, Wang; Yun, Jing; Minxiang, Zhang; Peng, Li

    2018-01-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was first used to develop a method for rapid and simultaneous determination of 5 active alkaloids (berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine and jatrorrhizine) in 4 parts (rhizome, fibrous root, stem and leaf) of Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 100 samples from 4 main places of origin were collected and studied. With HPLC analysis values as calibration reference, the quantitative analysis of 5 marker components was performed by two different modeling methods, partial least-squares (PLS) regression as linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regression. The results indicated that the 2 types of models established were robust, accurate and repeatable for five active alkaloids, and the ANN models was more suitable for the determination of berberine, coptisine and palmatine while the PLS model was more suitable for the analysis of epiberberine and jatrorrhizine. The performance of the optimal models was achieved as follows: the correlation coefficient (R) for berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine and jatrorrhizine was 0.9958, 0.9956, 0.9959, 0.9963 and 0.9923, respectively; the root mean square error of validation (RMSEP) was 0.5093, 0.0578, 0.0443, 0.0563 and 0.0090, respectively. Furthermore, for the comprehensive exploitation and utilization of plant resource of Coptidis Rhizoma, the established NIR models were used to analysis the content of 5 active alkaloids in 4 parts of Coptidis Rhizoma and 4 main origin of places. This work demonstrated that NIRS may be a promising method as routine screening for off-line fast analysis or on-line quality assessment of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

  17. RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Синельникова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non

  18. [Research on compatibility of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung based on complex network analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Wen; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Ling-Shan; Wang, Cong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    The applications of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung in contemporary literatures from 1949 to 2016 are compiled and the data mining techniques containing scale-free complex network method are utilized to explore its practical characteristics, with comparison between modern and ancient ones. The results indicate that malignant neoplasms, coronary heart disease which present Qi deficiency and blood stasis type are the main diseases treated by prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung according to the reports during 1949 to 2016. The complex network connection shows that Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma are the primary drugs related to Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. The next are Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Persicae Semen, Foria, et al. Carthami Flos, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Cyperi Rhizoma, Bupleuri Radix are the peripheral ones. Also, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Astragali Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix are the main paired drugs. The paired drugs including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Typhae Pollen have a higher support degree. The main compatible drugs are different in ancient and modern prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix are utilized frequently in modern prescriptions while less used in ancient ones. It is also shown

  19. [Standardization of production of process Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen-Yang; Wang, Ying-Zi; Nie, Rui-Jie; Zhang, Jing-Zhen; Wang, Si-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Notopterol, isoimperatorin, volatile oil and extract (water and ethanol) were used as the research objects in this study to investigate the effects of different softening method, slice thickness and drying methods on the quality of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices, and the experimental data were analyzed by homogeneous distance evaluation method. The results showed that different softening, cutting and drying processes could affect the content of five components in Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix incisum. The best processing technology of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices was as follows: non-medicinal parts were removed; mildewed and rot as well as moth-eaten parts were removed; washed by the flowing drinking water; stacked in the drug pool; moistening method was used for softening, where 1/8 volume of water was sprayed for every 1 kg of herbs every 2 h; upper part of herbs covered with clean and moist cotton, and cut into thick slices (2-4 mm) after 12 h moistening until appropriate softness, then received blast drying for 4 h at 50 ℃, and turned over for 2 times during the drying. The process is practical and provides the experimental basis for the standardization of the processing of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, with great significance to improve the quality of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix slices. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. [Industrialization condition and development strategy of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shun-Yuan; Sun, Hui; Wang, Hong-Lan; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Qin, Ji-Hong; Xin, Jun; Sun, Hong-Bing; Du, Jiu-Zhen; Yin, Li

    2017-07-01

    Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, the underground part of Notopterygium incisum and N. franchetii, is used as a classical traditional Chinese medicine, and as raw materials for 262 Chinese patent drugs production in 694 pharmaceutical factories currently. It plays an important role in the whole Chinese medicine industry with irreplaceable important economic and social values. However, wild resource of was abruptly depleted, and large-scale artificial cultivation has been inapplicable. In this study, Utilization history and the industrialization status of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix were summarized. Resource distribution, ecological suitability of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix and core technologies for seeds production, seedling breeding, large-scale cultivation has been reported by current studies, and basic conditions are already available for industrialization production of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. However, there still some key technical problems need to be solved in the further research, and some policy dimensions need to be focused on in the coming industrialization cultivation of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Recent progress on the traditional Chinese medicines that regulate the blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Hung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, the herbs that regulate blood play a vital role. Here, nine herbs including Typhae Pollen, Notoginseng Root, Common Bletilla Tuber, India Madder Root and Rhizome, Chinese Arborvitae Twig, Lignum Dalbergiae Oderiferae, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Corydalis Tuber, and Motherwort Herb were selected and reviewed for their recent studies on anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular effects. Besides, the analytical methods developed to qualify or quantify the active compounds of the herbs are also summarized.

  2. Rhizome elongation and seagrass clonal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marbà, N.; Duarte, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    A compilation of published and original data on rhizome morphometry, horizontal and vertical elongation rates and branching patterns for 27 seagrass species developing in 192 seagrass stands allowed an examination of the variability of seagrass rhizome and clonal growth programmes across and within

  3. Antitumor Mechanisms of Curcumae Rhizoma Based on Network Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hua Bi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumae Rhizoma, a traditional Chinese medication, is commonly used in both traditional treatment and modern clinical care. Its anticancer effects have attracted a great deal of attention, but the mechanisms of action remain obscure. In this study, we screened for the active compounds of Curcumae Rhizoma using a drug-likeness approach. Candidate protein targets with functions related to cancer were predicted by reverse docking and then checked by manual search of the PubMed database. Potential target genes were uploaded to the GeneMANIA server and DAVID 6.8 database for analysis. Finally, compound-target, target-pathway, and compound-target-pathway networks were constructed using Cytoscape 3.3. The results revealed that the anticancer activity of Curcumae Rhizoma potentially involves 13 active compounds, 33 potential targets, and 31 signaling pathways, thus constituting a “multiple compounds, multiple targets, and multiple pathways” network corresponding to the concept of systematic actions in TCM. These findings provide an overview of the anticancer action of Curcumae Rhizoma from a network perspective, as well as setting an example for future studies of other materials used in TCM.

  4. Virtual screening studies of Chinese medicine Coptidis Rhizoma as alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Xu, Youdong; Zhang, Yan; Meng, Xianli; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. Extensive in vitro and in vivo experiments have proved that the decreased activity of the cholinergic neuron is responsible for the memory and cognition deterioration. The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is proposed to a drug target of AD, and compounds which acting as α7-nAChR agonists are considered as candidates in AD treatment. Chinese medicine CoptidisRhizoma and its compounds are reported in various anti-AD effects. In this study, virtual screening, docking approaches and hydrogen bond analyses were applied to screen potential α7-nAChR agonists from CoptidisRhizome. The 3D structure of the protein was obtained from PDB database. 87 reported compounds were included in this research and their structures were accessed by NCBI Pubchem. Docking analysis of the compounds was performed using AutoDock 4.2 and AutoDock Vina. The images of the binding modes hydrogen bonds and the hydrophobic interaction were rendered with PyMOL1.5.0.4. and LigPlot+ respectively. Finally, N-tran-feruloyltyramine, isolariciresinol, flavanone, secoisolariciresinol, (+)-lariciresinol and dihydrochalcone, exhibited the lowest docking energy of protein-ligand complex. The results indicate these 6 compounds are potential α7 nAChR agonists, and expected to be effective in AD treatment.

  5. Sprouting inhibition of rhizomes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Chosdu, Rahayu

    1985-01-01

    Sprouting inhibition by gamma irradiation to prolong the storage life of 4 species of rhizomes, namely curcuma domestica, kaemferia galanga, curcuma xanthoriza and curcuma aeruginosa, has been carried out. Two groups of samples were used, freshly harvested rhizomes and fresh rhizomes which have been stored for about two weeks. The samples were packed in a plastic net bag, each contained about 100 grams of rhizomes. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature at the doses of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kGy. Post irradiation storage was done at room temperature with relative humidity ranging between 85 and 95%. The results showed that irradiation doses of 0.06 to 0.08 kGy was sufficient to inhibit sprouting of freshly harvested rhizomes and prolonged its storage life for 6 weeks, while in the other group sprouting still occured at the dose of 0.25 kGy. Irradiation dose up to 0.25 kGy did not cause significant effect on moisture and volatile oil contents, as well as volatile oil characteristics of the samples. About 50% of weight losses were found either in irradiated or unirradiated samples after being stored for 8 weeks. Odour and texture were evaluated organoleptically while mould growth and insect damage were observed visually. (author)

  6. Effect of Arisaema erubescens (Wall) Schott rhizome extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research April 2016; 15 (4): 805-813 ... Keywords: Rhizoma Arisaematis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Inflammatory, .... evaluated following oral administration of the .... for RA rats on the 21st day of treatment.

  7. Complexity, rhizome and magma, three key elements in pattern building in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera de Echeverri, Ana Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The following reading synthesizes the rur-urban-agrary environmental research pattern that appear from the research Caldas Agrary Environmental Profile (IDEA, National University, Manizales - Colciencias, 1998 - 2000). This pattern is constructed from three ideas of the contemporary philosophy: complexity, rhizome and magma that comes from another disciplines: the mathematics, botanic, and geology. The genetics-historical method that follows this article, starts with a critical analysis to the relation forms between society and nature that belongs to the modernity, to do then, a presentation of the influence of the ecology in the construction of new relations between society and nature, culture and nature, and the influence of the theory of systems in a systemic view of society, culture, and nature. Finish with a presentation of the pattern ecosystem-culture made for Augusto Angel Maya and the critical-development that becomes form this pattern, that we had named rur-urban-agrary rhizoma. For example we show how this research pattern let us to amplify the methodology of river basins that we use inside the Agrary Environmental Profile

  8. Analysis and identification of two similar traditional Chinese medicines by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy: Ligusticum chuanxiong, Angelica sinensis and their different extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Wang, Jingjuan; Zhang, Guijun; Rong, Lixin; Wu, Haozhong; Sun, Suqin; Guo, Yizhen; Yang, Yanfang; Lu, Lina; Qu, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Rhizoma Chuanxiong (CX) and Radix Angelica sinensis (DG) are very important Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and usually used in clinic. They both are from the Umbelliferae family, and have almost similar chemical constituents with each other. It is complicated, time-consuming and laborious to discriminate them by using the chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Therefore, to find a fast, applicable and effective identification method for two herbs is urged in quality research of TCM. In this paper, by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)), we analyzed and discriminated CX, DG and their different extracts (aqueous extract, alcoholic extract and petroleum ether extract). In FT-IR, all the CX and DG samples' spectra seemed similar, but they had their own unique macroscopic fingerprints to identify. Through comparing with the spectra of sucrose and the similarity calculation, we found the content of sucrose in DG raw materials was higher than in CX raw materials. The significant differences in alcoholic extract appeared that in CX alcoholic extract, the peaks at 1743 cm-1 was obviously stronger than the peak at same position in DG alcoholic extract. Besides in petroleum ether extract, we concluded CX contained much more ligustilide than DG by the similarity calculation. With the function of SD-IR, some tiny differences were amplified and overlapped peaks were also unfolded in FT-IR. In the range of 1100-1175 cm-1, there were six peaks in the SD-IR spectra of DG and the intensity, shape and location of those six peaks were similar to that of sucrose, while only two peaks could be observed in that of CX and those two peaks were totally different from sucrose in shape and relative intensity. This result was consistent with that of the

  9. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL and LPS (2 μg/mL had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05. All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food.

  10. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rhei Rhizoma and Coptidis Rhizoma Mixture on Reflux Esophagitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Jun Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the combined extract of Rhei rhizoma and Coptidis rhizoma (RC-mix in experimental model of acute reflux esophagitis. The antioxidant activity was assessed by in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assays. RC-mix was given at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight 2 h prior to induction of reflux esophagitis (RE. After 5 h, the effects of RC-mix treated rats were compared with those of normal and control rats. The representative flavonoid contents of RC-mix, such as sennoside A, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, and berberine, were detected using HPLC. The elevated esophageal mucosa damage was markedly ameliorated by RC-mix treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the administration of RC-mix reduced the increase of serum reactive oxygen species (ROS and peroxynitrite (ONOO−. The improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 levels were marked in the group given RC-mix. Moreover, the elevation of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation in control rats decreased by RC-mix pretreatment. These results indicate that RC-mix treatment reduces the pathological states of esophagitis via regulating NF-κB mediated inflammation related to oxidative stress.

  11. A study of extraction process and in vitro antioxidant activity of total phenols from Rhizoma Imperatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian-rong; Wang, Jian-hua; Jiang, Bo; Shang, Jin; Zhao, Chang-qiong

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae and its antioxidant activity, and provided a basis for its rational development. The extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae was determined using orthogonal design test and by total phenol content, its hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was measured by Fenton reaction, and potassium ferricyanide reduction method was used to determine its reducing power. The results showed that the optimum extraction process of Rhizoma Imperatae was a 50-fold volume of water, 30 °C, three times of extraction with 2 h each. Its IC50 for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was 0.0948 mg/mL, while IC50 of ascorbic acid was 0.1096 mg/mL; in the ferricyanide considerable reduction method, the extract exhibited reducing power comparable to that of the ascorbic acid. The study concluded that Rhizoma Imperatae extract contains relatively large amount of polyphenols, and has a good anti-oxidation ability.

  12. [Analysis of effect of topographical conditions on content of total alkaloid in Coptidis Rhizoma in Chongqin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Huang, He; Yang, Yan-fang; Wu, He-zhen

    2014-12-01

    To study ecology suitability rank dividing of the total alkaloid content of Coptis Rhizoma for selecting artificial planting base and high-quality industrial raw material in Chongqing province. Based on the investigation of PCB and DEM data of Chongqing province, the relationship between the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma and topographical conditions was analyzed by statistical analysis. The geographic information systems (GIS)-based assessment and landscape ecological principles were applied to assess eco logy suitability areas of Coptis Rhizoma in Chongqing. slope, aspect and altitude are main topographical factors that affect the content of the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma The total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma is higher in the lower altitude, shady slope and bigger slope areas. The total alkaloid content is higher in the south areas of Chongqing province and lower in the northeast. Terrain conditions of the southern region of Chongqing are most suitable for The accumulated of total alkaloid Coptis Rhizoma content.

  13. Coptidis rhizoma and its main bioactive components: recent advances in chemical investigation, quality evaluation and pharmacological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Cheng; Wu, Zheng-Feng; Yin, Zhi-Qi; Lin, Li-Gen; Wang, Ruibing; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Coptidis rhizoma (CR) is the dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch., C. deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao or C. teeta Wall. (Ranunculaceae) and is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of various diseases including bacillary dysentery, typhoid, tuberculosis, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, empyrosis, pertussis, and other illnesses. A literature survey was conducted via SciFinder, ScieneDirect, PubMed, Springer, and Wiley databases. A total of 139 selected references were classified on the basis of their research scopes, including chemical investigation, quality evaluation and pharmacological studies. Many types of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, lignans, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saccharides, and steroids have been isolated from CR. Among them, protoberberine-type alkaloids, such as berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, columamine, are the main components of CR. Quantitative determination of these alkaloids is a very important aspect in the quality evaluation of CR. In recent years, with the advances in isolation and detection technologies, many new instruments and methods have been developed for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the main alkaloids from CR. The quality control of CR has provided safety for pharmacological applications. These quality evaluation methods are also frequently employed to screen the active components from CR. Various investigations have shown that CR and its main alkaloids exhibited many powerful pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-Alzheimer and hepatoprotective activities. This review summarizes the recent phytochemical investigations, quality evaluation methods, the biological studies focusing on CR as well as its main alkaloids.

  14. [Effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-Mei; Tao, Ling; Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Zang, Zhen-Zhong; Jin, Chen; Chen, Li-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption, and investigate the mechanism of permeation on the microstructure and molecular structure of stratum corneum. Through the determination of stratum corneum/medium partition coefficient of ferulicacid in Chuanxiong influenced by Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil, the effects of volatile oil of frankincense and Myrrh on the the microscopic and molecular structure of stratum corneum were explored by observation of skin stratum corneum structure under scanning electron microscopy, and investigation of frankincense and myrrh essential oil effects on the molecular structure of keratin and lipids in stratum corneum under Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the oil could enhance the distribution of ferulic acid in the stratum corneum and medium, and to a certain extent damaged the imbricate structure of stratum corneum which was originally regularly, neatly, and closely arranged; some epidermal scales turned upward, with local peeling phenomenon. In addition, frankincense and myrrh essential oil caused the relative displacement of CH2 stretching vibration peak of stratum corneum lipids and amide stretching vibration peak of stratum corneum keratin, indicating that frankincense and myrrh essential oil may change the conformation of lipid and keratin in the stratum corneum, increase the bilayer liquidity of the stratum corneum lipid, and change the orderly and compact structure to increase the skin permeability and reduce the effect of barrier function. It can be concluded that Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil can promote the permeation effect by increasing the distribution of drugs in the stratum corneum and changing the structure of the stratum corneum. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. The content of active constituents of stored sliced and powdered preparations of turmeric rhizomes and zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The stability of active constituents (curcuminoids and volatile oil in turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. rhizomes and zedoary [Curcuma zedoaria (Berg. Roscoe] bulb and finger rhizomes during storage have been investigated. They were prepared as sliced and powdered and separately packed, either in black polyethylene bags or in paper bags, and stored at room temperature (28-31oC. Samples at initial and three monthly intervals were examined over 12-15 months storage to determine the contents of curcuminoids, volatile oil and moisture. The results showed that storage of rhizomes in black polyethylene bags could prevent samples from taking up moisture better than those stored in paper bags. The sliced and powderedturmeric rhizomes exhibited no decrease in curcuminoids content after 15 months of storage irrespective of the nature of the packing material. However, the slices of zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes lost curcuminoids to a lesser extent than powdered rhizomes during storage period. Volatile oil content of turmeric rhizomes, zedoary (bulb and finger rhizomes decreased slower when stored as slices rather than as powders. The result from the present study suggested that in order to maintain the quality of turmeric and zedoary rhizomes as raw material for food and medicinal uses, they should be prepared in sliced form and stored in black polyethylene bags in order to maintain their content of active constituents during storage period.

  16. Asarone from Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma Potentiates the Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neuronal Differentiation in Cultured PC12 Cells: A Signaling Mediated by Protein Kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Y C Lam

    Full Text Available Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR, the rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, is being used clinically to treat neurological disorders. The volatile oil of ATR is being considered as an active ingredient. Here, α-asarone and β-asarone, accounting about 95% of ATR oil, were evaluated for its function in stimulating neurogenesis. In cultured PC12 cells, application of ATR volatile oil, α-asarone or β-asarone, stimulated the expression of neurofilaments, a bio-marker for neurite outgrowth, in a concentration-dependent manner. The co-treatment of ATR volatile oil, α-asarone or β-asarone, with low concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF potentiated the NGF-induced neuronal differentiation in cultured PC12 cells. In addition, application of protein kinase A inhibitors, H89 and KT5720, in cultures blocked the ATR-induced neurofilament expression, as well as the phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB. In the potentiation of NGF-induced signaling in cultured PC12 cells, α-asarone and β-asarone showed synergistic effects. These results proposed the neurite-promoting asarone, or ATR volatile oil, could be useful in finding potential drugs for treating various neurodegenerative diseases, in which neurotrophin deficiency is normally involved.

  17. Bioactivity of two extracts from Alpinia officinarum rhizome against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... These results suggest that the A. officinarum rhizome extracts have potential for integrated pest management programs of T. castaneum population. Key words: Alpinia officinarum rhizome extract, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), fumigant activity, repellent activity, plant extract. INTRODUCTION. The red flour ...

  18. A comparative study on antioxidant activity of different parts of lotus (Nelumbo nuficera Gaertn rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei YANG

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the antioxidant activities of different parts of lotus (Nelumbo nuficera Gaertn rhizome were compared. The total phenolic content of lotus rhizome was determined, and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and β-carotene-linoleic acid assay were performed to assess the antioxidant activity of lotus rhizome. Results showed that there was a significant difference in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity between any two of four parts of lotus rhizome. The order of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in different parts of lotus rhizome was as follows: peel of old lotus rhizome > peel of young lotus rhizome > flesh of old lotus rhizome > flesh of young lotus rhizome. The total phenol content is significantly positive correlated with the antioxidant activity in different parts of lotus rhizome. This study has provided a basis for further exploring the antioxidant components in lotus rhizome.

  19. [Discover potential inhibitors of 5-LOX and LTA4H from Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix and Genitana Macrophyllae Radix based on molecular simulation methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Yan-Kun; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-12-01

    5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), as the major targets of 5-LOX branch in the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway, play an important role in the treatment of inflammation. Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix and Genitana Macrophyllae Radix have clear anti-inflammation activities. In this paper, the targets of 5-LOX and LTA4H were used as the research carrier, and Hiphop module in DS4.0 (Discovery studio) was used to construct ingredients database for preliminary screening of three traditional Chinese medicines based on target inhibitor pharmacophore, so as to obtain 5-LOX and LTA4H potential active ingredients. The ingredients obtained in initial pharmacophore screening were further screened by using CDOCKER module, and the screening rules were established based on the score of initial compound and the key amino acids to obtain 12 potential 5-LOX inhibitors and 7 potential LTA4H inhibitors. To be more specific, the potential 5-LOX inhibitors included 6 ingredients in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, such as procyanidins B2-3,3'-O-double gallate and revandchinone 2; four ingredients in notopterygium, such as dodecanoic acid and so on. On the other hand, potential LTA4H inhibitors included revandchinone 1, revandchinone 4 in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, tridecanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid and methyl eicosanoate in Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, montanic acid methyl ester and N-docosanoyl-O-aminobenzoate in Genitana Macrophyllae Radix and so on. The molecular simulation methods were highly efficient and time-saving to obtain the potential inhibitors of 5-LOX and LTA4H, which could provide assistance for discovering the chemical quality indicators of anti-inflammatory efficacy of three Chinese herbs, and may be helpful to promote the whole-process quality control of three Chinese herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Effect of Arisaema erubescens (Wall) Schott rhizome extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-arthritic activity of the water extract of Rhizoma Arisaematis (WERA) using a collagen II -induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Methods: CIA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intradermal injection of bovine collagen II in Complete Freund's Adjuvant. The rats were treated with daily oral ...

  1. Quality assessment of Tulbaghia rhizomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna; Stafford, Gary Ivan

    2012-01-01

    fast upon storage, half of the main compound was lost four weeks after harvest. Possible adulterants for Tulbaghiae rhizoma are Allium sativum and Agapanthus campanulatus. It was not possible to detect adulteration with A. sativum, but a simple TLC test could detect adulteration with 10 % A...

  2. [Chemical constituents from rhizomes of Illicium henryi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Xuemei; Shi, Yao; Jiang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yunbao; Chen, Jijun

    2010-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Illicium henryi. Column chromatographic techniques using silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, Rp-8 and Rp-18 as packing materials were applied to isolate constituents. The structures of isolates were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. Twelve compounds were isolated from the rhizomes of I. henryi, which were characterized as balanophonin (1), aviculin (2), rubriflosides A (3), 1,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanediol (4), jasopyran (5), kaempferol (6), quercetin (7), (2R, 3R)-3, 5, 7, 3', 5'- pentahydroxyflavan (8), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), 3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), coniferyl aldehyde (11), sinapaldehyde (12), respectively. All the isolates were obtained for the first time from this plant.

  3. [Influence of different original processing methods on quality of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Shu-Rui; Hou, Jun-Ling; Wang, Wen-Quan; Xu, Zhen-Guang; Song, Yan; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Li, Jun

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the contents of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, crytotanshinone, tanshinone II(A) in samples of different original processed Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were determined by HPLC. Different processing methods have varied influences on four active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Sun-drying reduced the content of crytotanshinone, tanshi-none II(A) and rosmarinic acid, integralsamples were better than those cut into segments. Oven dry method had great influence on water--soluble ingredients, high temperature (80-100 degrees C) could easily cause big loss of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. The role of traditional processing method "fahan: was complicated, the content of rosmarinic acid decreased, crytotanshinone and tanshinone II(A) increased, and salvianolic acid B showed no difference after "fahan". Drying in the shade and oven dry under low temperatrure (40-60 degrees C) were all effective to keep active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and, there was no difference between integral samples and samples cut into segments. Therefore, considering comprehensively the content of active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and processing costing etc., shade-drying or oven dry underlow temperature (40-60 degrees C) should be the most suitable original processing method.

  4. [Effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong and penetration mechanism of skin blood flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Jing; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yu, Ya-Ting; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hong-Ning

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong, and to investigate the possible penetration mechanism of their essential oil from the perspective of skin blood perfusion changes. Transdermal tests were performed in vitro with excised mice skin by improved Franz diffusion cells. The cumulative penetration amounts of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong were determined by HPLC to investigate the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal permeation properties of Chuanxiong. Simultaneously, the skin blood flows were determined by laser flow doppler. The results showed that the cumulative penetration amount of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong was (8.13±0.76) μg•cm⁻² in 24 h, and was (48.91±4.87), (57.80±2.86), (63.34±4.56), (54.17±4.40), (62.52±7.79) μg•cm⁻² respectively in Azone group, Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group. The enhancement ratios of each essential oil groups were 7.68, 8.26, 7.26, 8.28, which were slightly greater than 6.55 in Azone group. In addition, as compared with the conditions before treatment, there were significant differences and obvious increasing trend in blood flow of rats in Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil group, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group when were dosed at 10, 20, 30, 10 min respectively, indicating that the skin blood flows were increased under the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil to a certain extent. Thus, Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil had certain effect on promoting permeability of Chuanxiong both before and after drug combination, and may promote the elimination of drugs from epidermis to dermal capillaries through increase of

  5. Activation of P-glycoprotein and CYP 3A by Coptidis Rhizoma in vivo: Using cyclosporine as a probe substrate in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ping Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coptidis Rhizoma (CR, the rhizome of Coptis chinensis FRANCH, is a popular Chinese herb. CR contains plenty of isoquinoline alkaloids such as berberine, coptisine and palmatine. Cyclosporine (CSP, an important immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, is employed as a probe substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp and CYP3A4 in order to investigate the in vivo modulation effect of CR on P-gp and CYP3A4. Three groups of rats were orally administered CSP without and with single dose or repeated dosing of CR in a parallel design. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and the blood CSP concentration was determined by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The results showed that a single dose (1.0 g/kg and the 7th dose (1.0 g/kg of CR significantly decreased the Cmax of CSP by 56.9% and 70.4%, and reduced the AUC0-540 by 56.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Cell study indicated that CR decoction, berberine, coptisine, palmatine all activated the efflux transport of P-gp. Ex-vivo study showed that the serum metabolites of CR activated CYP 3A4. In conclusion, through using CSP as an in vivo probe substrate, we have verified that oral intake of CR activated the functions of P-gp and CYP3A based on in vivo and in vitro studies. Keywords: Cyclosporine, P-glycoprotein, Cytochrome P450 3A, Herb–drug interactions, Pharmacokinetics

  6. Activation of P-glycoprotein and CYP 3A by Coptidis Rhizoma in vivo: Using cyclosporine as a probe substrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung-Ping; Huang, Ching-Ya; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2018-04-01

    Coptidis Rhizoma (CR), the rhizome of Coptis chinensis FRANCH, is a popular Chinese herb. CR contains plenty of isoquinoline alkaloids such as berberine, coptisine and palmatine. Cyclosporine (CSP), an important immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, is employed as a probe substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 in order to investigate the in vivo modulation effect of CR on P-gp and CYP3A4. Three groups of rats were orally administered CSP without and with single dose or repeated dosing of CR in a parallel design. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and the blood CSP concentration was determined by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The results showed that a single dose (1.0 g/kg) and the 7th dose (1.0 g/kg) of CR significantly decreased the C max of CSP by 56.9% and 70.4%, and reduced the AUC 0-540 by 56.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Cell study indicated that CR decoction, berberine, coptisine, palmatine all activated the efflux transport of P-gp. Ex-vivo study showed that the serum metabolites of CR activated CYP 3A4. In conclusion, through using CSP as an in vivo probe substrate, we have verified that oral intake of CR activated the functions of P-gp and CYP3A based on in vivo and in vitro studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Simultaneous, simple and rapid determination of five bioactive free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei by quantitative 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Fang, Yun-Shan; Duan, Wei-He; Li, Zhen-Jie; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Radix et Rhizoma Rhei has been recognized for centuries in traditional medicine for its multiple pharmacological actions. The free anthraquinones including physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, and aloe-emodin are the main bioactive components in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. In the present study, a fast quantitative 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (q-HNMR) method for the determination and quantitation of five free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was developed. Validation of the quantitative method was performed in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, and stability. The results showed that the solvent acetone-d 6 enabled satisfactory separation of the signals to be integrated. Five anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei could be quantified accurately using featured signals from 1 H NMR. This work implied that q-HNMR represents a feasible alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based methods for quantitation of anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and is suitable for the quality control of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. (author)

  8. Asparagus decline: Autotoxicity and autotoxic compounds in asparagus rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Nakamura, Keisuke; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Okuda, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a perennial vegetable, but its crop productivity and quality decrease gradually. One possible reason for "asparagus decline" is thought to be the autotoxicity of asparagus. However, the autotoxic property of asparagus rhizomes remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of rhizomes in the autotoxicity of asparagus. An aqueous methanol extract of asparagus rhizomes inhibited the growth of asparagus seedlings and six other test plants in a concentration-dependent manners: garden cress (Lepidum sativum L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.). These results suggest that asparagus rhizomes contain autotoxic compounds. The extract was purified through several chromatographic steps with monitoring the autotoxic activity, and p-coumaric acid and iso-agatharesinol were isolated. These compounds inhibited the shoot and root growth of asparagus and two other test plants, garden cress and ryegrass, at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. The concentrations required for 50% inhibition of the root and shoot growth of these test plants ranged from 0.36 to 0.85mM and 0.41-1.22mM for p-coumaric acid and iso-agatharesinol, respectively. Therefore, these compounds may contribute to the autotoxicity caused by asparagus rhizomes and may be involved in "asparagus decline". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Rhizomes and plateaus: A study of digital communities of practice in University College English Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Rhizomes and plateaus: A study of digital communities of practice in University College English Teaching......Rhizomes and plateaus: A study of digital communities of practice in University College English Teaching...

  10. Analysis of Rhizome Development in Oryza longistaminata, a Wild Rice Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akiko; Terada, Yasuhiko; Toriba, Taiyo; Kose, Katsumi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kyozuka, Junko

    2016-10-01

    Vegetative reproduction is a form of asexual propagation in plants. A wide range of plants develop rhizomes, modified stems that grow underground horizontally, as a means of vegetative reproduction. In rhizomatous species, despite their distinct developmental patterns, both rhizomes and aerial shoots derive from axillary buds. Therefore, it is of interest to understand the basis of rhizome initiation and development. Oryza longistaminata, a wild rice species, develops rhizomes. We analyzed bud initiation and growth of O. longistaminata rhizomes using various methods of morphological observation. We show that, unlike aerial shoot buds that contain a few leaves only, rhizome buds initiate several leaves and bend to grow at right angles to the original rhizome. Rhizomes are maintained in the juvenile phase irrespective of the developmental phase of the aerial shoot. Stem elongation and reproductive transition are tightly linked in the aerial shoots, but are uncoupled in the rhizome. Our findings indicate that developmental programs operate independently in the rhizomes and aerial shoots. Temporal modification of the developmental pathways that are common to rhizomes and aerial shoots may be the source of developmental plasticity. Furthermore, the creation of new developmental systems appears to be necessary for rhizome development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Simultaneous determination of seven alkaloids and three flavonoids in Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fu-Man; Wang, Li-Xin; Chen, Ying; Chen, Liang-Mian; Feng, Wei-Hong; Wang, Jin-Yu; Liu, De-Wen; You, Yun; Tong, Yan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, an HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of seven alkaloids (cytosine, oxymatrine, N-oxysophocarpine, N-methylcytisine, sophoranol, matrine, and sophocarpine) and three flavonoids (trifolirhizin, fermononetin, and maackiain) from different samples of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma. Samples were analyzed on a Welch XtimateTM C₁₈ column (4. 6 mm× 250 mm, 5 μm) eluted with the mobile phase of acetonitrile (A) and 0.01 mol•L⁻¹ ammonium acetate solution (pH 8.0) (B) in a linear gradient mode as follows: 0-20 min,4%-14% A;20-30 min,14%-25% A;30-45 min,25%-40% A;45-65 min,40%-55% A;65-75 min,55% A. The flow rate of the mobile phase, the column temperature, and the PDA detector wavelength were set at 1.0 mL•min⁻¹, 30 ℃, and 225 nm, respectively. For the method validation, these ten compounds showed good separation and satisfactory linearity (r≥0.999 7) within the concentration ranges tested. The mean recoveries were in the range of 98.60% to 102.6% with the RSD (n=6) between 0.60% and 3.7%. This method was proved to be simple, accurate and repeatable. The quantitative results showed that there were significant differences in the contents of seven alkaloids and three flavonoids among the different samples. This result revealed that the quality of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma varied widely. This method could be used for the simultaneous determination of the multi-ingredients from Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma, which might provide scientific evidences to evaluate/control the quality of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma, comprehensively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Effects of total flavonoids from Drynariae Rhizoma prevent bone loss in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-hong Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the major causes of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Drynariae Rhizoma is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of bone diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of the total Drynariae Rhizoma flavonoids (DRTF on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss using an ovariectomized rat model and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results indicated that DRTF produced osteo-protective effects on the ovariectomized rats in terms of bone loss reduction, including decreased levels of bone turnover markers, enhanced biomechanical femur strength and trabecular bone microarchitecture deterioration prevention. In vitro experiments revealed that the actions of DRTF on regulating osteoblastic activities were mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER dependent pathway. Our data also demonstrated that DRTF inhibited osteoclastogenesis via up-regulating osteoprotegrin (OPG, as well as down-regulating receptor activator of NF–κB ligand (RANKL expression. In conclusion, this study indicated that DRTF treatment effectively suppressed bone mass loss in an ovariectomized rat model, and in vitro evidence suggested that the effects were exerted through actions on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Keywords: Osteoporosis, Osteoblast, Osteoclast, Ovariectomy, Drynariae Rhizoma

  13. [Simultaneous determination of two saponnins in anemarrhenae rhizoma by HPLC-ELSD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianliang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Wenquan; Ma, Changhua

    2011-02-01

    To establish an HPLC-ELSD method for determination of Anemarsaponin C and Anemarsaponin A III in Anemarrhenae Rhizoma. Kromasil C18 column(4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was used as stationary phase. Mobile phase was methanol-water gradient with the flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1); the temperature of the drift tube and evaporation was 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C respectively. The gas pressure was 1.03 x 10(5) Pa. There are good linearity in the range 0.310-3.10 microg of anemarsaponin C (lgA = 1.254 2lgM + 5.734 7, r = 0.999 5) and in the range 0.323-3.23 microg (lgA = 1.328 41gM + 5. 937, r = 0.999 6) of anemarsaponin A III. The average recovery of anemarsaponin C and anemarsaponin A III was 98.1% with RSD 2.1% and 97.3% with RSD 1.5% (n = 6) respectively. The method is rapid and accurate. It is suitable for quality control of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma. The result of determination reveals that the quality of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma from different places of north China are of notable difference.

  14. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  15. RhizomANTically Becoming-Cyborg: Performing Posthuman Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a narrative experiment inspired by Deleuze and Guattari's (1987) figuration of the rhizome. It is a textual assemblage of popular and academic representations of cyborgs that might question, provoke, and challenge some of the dominant discourses and assumptions of curriculum, teaching, and learning. Emboldened by Deleuze's penchant…

  16. Consumption of pondweed rhizomes by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Podruzny, S.R.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.) are common foods of waterfowl throughout the Northern Hemisphere. However, consumption of pondweeds by bears has been noted only once, in Russia. We documented consumption of pondweed rhizomes by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Yellowstone region, 1977-96, during investigations of telemetry locations obtained from 175 radiomarked bears. We documented pondweed excavations at 25 sites and detected pondweed rhizomes in 18 feces. We observed grizzly bears excavating and consuming pondweed on 2 occasions. All excavations occurred in wetlands that were inundated during and after snowmelt, but dry by late August or early September of most years. These wetlands were typified by the presence of inflated sedge (Carex vesicaria) and occurred almost exclusively on plateaus of Pliocene-Pleistocene detrital sediments or volcanic rhyolite flows. Bears excavated wetlands with pondweeds when they were free of standing water, most commonly during October and occasionally during spring prior to the onset of terminal snowmelt. Most excavations were about 4.5 cm deep, 40 cubic decimeter (dm3) in total volume, and targeted the thickened pondweed rhizomes. Starch content of rhizomes collected near grizzly bear excavations averaged 28% (12% SD; n = 6). These results add to the documented diversity of grizzly bear food habits and, because pondweed is distributed circumboreally, also raise the possibility that consumption of pondweed by grizzly bears has been overlooked in other regions.

  17. Two new triterpenoid saponins from rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Lu, Jincai; Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Two new 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid-type triterpenoid saponins, raddeanoside Ra (1) and raddeanoside Rb (2), were isolated from the rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated to be 27-hydroxyoleanolic acid 3-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-alpha...

  18. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia [4]. Its rhizome, known as Xianmao in. China, is a common traditional Chinese medicine. (TCM) used as alterative, demulcent, diuretic and restorative agent [5]. C. orchioides is reported to possess ..... Patent Med [In Chinese] 2014, 36(09): 1985-1988. 11. "Principles of Laboratory Animal Care" (NIH publication no.

  19. [Evaluation of crude drugs by means of colorimeter (I). Study on correlation between color and alkaloids content of coptidis rhizoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Michiyo; Qu, Xian-You; Luo, Wei-Zao; Qin, Song-Yun

    2014-05-01

    To examine the correlation between alkaloids content and L*, a* and b* color indices of Rhizoma Coptidis for quality control. A colorimeter was used for the measurement of reflected light from sieved powder samples using the CIE 1976 L* a* b* color system. The content of six alkaloids were determined by HPLC. The correlation between alkaloids content and color indices of Rhizoma Coptidis was analyzed. When the particle size of Rhizoma Coptidis was less than 355 microm and the colorimeter parameters were set as measurement diameter of 3 mm, observation degree of 10, and light source of F2 and F7, the measured color was significantly correlated with total alkaloids content (r = 0.793, P < 0.05). As light source of F11, the measured color was significantly correlated with berberine content (r = 0.867, P < 0.01). The correlation between the color of powdered Coptidis Rhizoma and its alkaloids contents was found in this study. Measurment of the color of Coptidis Rhizoma can be used to assess its quality.

  20. Clinical Research of the Efficacy and the Safety of Dioscoreae Rhizoma (Sanyak Pharmacopuncture Therapy for Peripheral Facial Paralysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung In-Soo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of Sanyak pharmacopuncture therapy for the treatment of peripheral facial paralysis patients. Methods: This study was a retrospective investigation of a total of 70 patients who were inpatients of the Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2012, and who were diagnosed as having peripheral facial paralysis by physical examination, the patients received three different interventions. Eleven (11 patients were treated with acupuncture and alcohol Dioscorea rhizoma pharmacopuncture (ADG, 25 patients with acupuncture and distillation Dioscorea rhizoma pharmacopuncture (DDG, and 34 patients with acupuncture and non-Dioscorea rhizoma pharmacopuncture (NDG. The resulting data were analyzed. Results: The changed H-B grades indicated significant improvements in all three groups, and the ADG and the DDG groups showed significant results after two weeks of treatment when compared to the NDG group. The changed y-Scores indicated significant improvements in all three groups, and the ADG group showed significant results after 10 and 15 days of treatment when compared to the NDG group. Dioscorea rhizoma pharmacopuncture may be safe for the human body because in most cases, the only abnormal finding was the pain could by the application of pharmacopuncture. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that Oriental medical treatment with dioscoreae Rhizoma (Sanyak pharmacopuncture complex therapy may be effective and safe in patient with peripheral facial paralysis

  1. Influence of Vinegar and Wine Processing on the Alkaloid Content and Composition of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corydalis Rhizoma is the dried tuber of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang which is used in traditional Chinese medicine for pain relief and blood activation. Before being used in the clinics, C. yanhusuo is traditionally processed through dry-frying or frying with vinegar, wine or salt. In this study, eleven alkaloids from Corydalis Rhizoma, namely protopine (1, α-allocryptopine (2, tetrahydrocolumbamine (3, coptisine (4, palmatine (5, berberine (6, dehydrocorydaline (7, d,l-tetrahydropalmatine (8, tetrahydroberberine (9, corydaline (10 and tetrahydrocoptisine (11 were simultaneously quantified using a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD method. The influence of vinegar and wine processing on the content of the main alkaloids of Corydalis Rhizoma was investigated. For this purpose, two common formulations with clinical application, namely the water decoction of Corydalis Rhizoma and its formula Jin Ling Zi San (combination of Corydalis Rhizoma and Toosendan Fructus were studied. In the two water decoctions, wine and vinegar processing increased the amount of tertiary alkaloids. The differences were more pronounced for Jin Ling Zi San, in which case the content of all tertiary alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 was increased by wine processing.

  2. Nitric oxide inhibitory substances from Curcuma mangga rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanidta Kaewkroek

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma mangga Val. & Zijp. is a member of the Zingiberaceae family commonly grown in Thailand. It is locally known as mango tumeric because of its mango-like smell when the fresh rhizomes are cut. C. mangga is a popular vegetable, the tips of the young rhizomes and shoots are consumed raw with rice. Medicinally, the rhizomes are used as a stomachic and for chest pains, fever, and general debility. It is also used in postpartum care. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract and compounds from C. mangga rhizomes against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in RAW 264.7 cell line. From bioassay-guided fractionation, the chloroform fraction exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 2.1 g/ml, followed by the hexane fraction (IC50 = 3.8 g/ml and the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.5 g/ml, respectively. Demethoxycurcumin (1 and 3-buten-2-one, 4-[(1R, 4aR, 8aR-decahydro-5, 5, 8a-trimethyl-2-methylene-1-naphthalenyl]-, (3E-rel- (2 were isolated from the chloroform- and hexane fractions, respectively. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (3 whose structure is similar to that of 1 was also tested for NO inhibitory activity. Of the tested compounds, compound 1 exhibited the highest activity with an IC50 value of 12.1 μM, followed by 3(IC50 = 16.9 M and 2 (IC50 = 30.3 M. These results suggest that C. mangga and its compounds exert NO inhibitory activity and have a potential to be developed as a pharmaceutical preparation for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases. Moreover, this is the first report of compound 2 that was isolated from C. mangga rhizomes.

  3. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Runqiang; He, Jun; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-10-12

    In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were ( Z )-ligustilide (44.58%) and senkyunolide A (26.92%), and that of LO were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola , with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC) value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w : w ). Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC) was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution) was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC) on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  4. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO and lemongrass oil (LO against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were (Z-ligustilide (44.58% and senkyunolide A (26.92%, and that of LO were geranial (42.16% and neral (32.58%, respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w:w. Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  5. The Antihyperglycemic Effects of Rhizoma Coptidis and Mechanism of Actions: A Review of Systematic Reviews and Pharmacological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Coptidis (Huang Lian in Chinese pinyin is among the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines and has a profound history of more than 2000 years of being used as a therapeutic herb. The antidiabetic effects of Rhizoma Coptidis have been extensively investigated in animal experiments and clinical trials and its efficacy as a promising antihyperglycemic agent has been widely discussed. In the meantime, findings from modern pharmacological studies have contributed the majority of its bioactivities to berberine, the isoquinoline alkaloids component of the herb, and a number of experiments testing the antidiabetic effects of berberine have been initiated. Therefore, we conducted a review of the current evidence profile of the antihyperglycemic effects of Rhizoma Coptidis as well as its main component berberine and the possible mechanism of actions, in order to summarize research evidence in this area and identify future research directions.

  6. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cailan; Xie, Jianhui; Chen, Xiaoying; Mo, Zhizhun; Wu, Wen; Liang, Yeer; Su, Zuqing; Li, Qian; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. [Metabonomics on toxicity reduction of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma for Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata in Sini Tang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fu, Chao-Mei; Peng, Wei; Li, Bo; Fu, Shu; Zhang, Hui-Min

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the endogenous metabolite changes in rat plasma after intervention by Sini Tang and Sini Tang without Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma based on GC-MS metabonomics technology, and study the toxicity reduction effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in Sini Tang on Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata. Eighteen SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, Sini Tang group and Sini Tang without Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group on average. The rats in Sini Tang group and Sini Tang without Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group were treated respectively with physic liquor by intragastric administration at the dose of 0.02 mL•g ⁻¹ (equivalent to 0.8 g•mL ⁻¹ crude drugs) once a day for 7 days. The rats in normal group were given with equal volume of saline solution. The plasma samples were collected from each rat 0.5 h after the last administration for GC-MS detection. The data was used for multivariate statistical analysis to obtain 14 potential metabolic markers(13 of them were identified). Then their relative content and metabolic pathways were analyzed. Compared with Sini Tang without Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group, seven metabolic markers of were reduced in Sini Tang group. Analysis on physiological functions of these potential metabolic markers showed that the Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in Sini Tang could reduce the toxicity of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata by adjusting the glycolysis, lipid metabolism, citrate cycle and some amino acids metabolism. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. [Contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-ling; Yang, Sheng-chao; Chen, Zhong-jian; Shen, Yong; Wei, Fu-gang; Wang, Wu; Long, Ting-ju

    2014-10-01

    The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as the composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were studied to compare the medicinal quality and commercial values. Three-year-old Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma was selected as the research materials. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins were determined by spectrophotometry. The compositions of saponin monomers were monitored by HPLC. The significance of content differences was determined by variance analysis. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizomawere about 204.85% and 33.86% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. The Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma both contained five saponin monomers whose contents were as follows: ginsenoside Rg1 > ginsenoside Rb1 > notoginsenoside R1 > ginsenoside Rd > ginsenoside Re. The contents of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 16.03%, 10.83% and 5.39% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. However, the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 0.93% and 3.33% higher than those of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. With respect to Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, the increase of the total anthocyanins in Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma reached a significant level, but the increases of total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re and the decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 did not. The total anthocyanins accumulation in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma implies the content increases of the total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re, and the slight decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 contents; but the type and relative contents of saponin monomers remain unchanged. The medicinal

  9. Enhanced Antifungal Bioactivity of Coptis Rhizome Prepared by Ultrafining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the bioactive constituents in the methanol extracts of Coptis Rhizome prepared by ultrafining technology. The indicator compound was identified by spectroscopic method and its purity was determined by HPLC. Moreover, the crude extracts and indicator compound were examined for their ability to inhibit the growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-4 on potato dextrose agar plates. The indicator compound is a potential candidate as a new plant derived pesticide to control Rhizoctonia damping-off in vegetable seedlings. In addition, the extracts of Coptis Rhizome prepared by ultrafining technology displayed higher contents of indicator compound; they not only improve their bioactivity but also reduce the amount of the pharmaceuticals required and, thereby, decrease the environmental degradation associated with the harvesting of the raw products.

  10. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... in order to identify the most sustainable design for the production of ethanol. The capacity for ethanol production from cassava rhizome is set to 150,000 liters/day, which is about 1.3 % of the total demand of ethanol in Thailand. LCA on the base case design pointed to large amounts of CO2 and CO...

  11. In vitro propagation of Alstroemeria using rhizome explants derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... Single in vitro and in vivo rhizome bud were excised (3 -7 mm) using a sharp knife and cultured on MS basal medium with 3 different composition of growth regulators. Culture media. The explants were planted in culture media as M1 (MS + 1 mg l-1. BA + 0.2 mg l-1 NAA) Han et al. (1994), M2 (MS + 1 mg l-1 ...

  12. A new lignan glycoside from the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Han, Kyung-Min; Song, Myoung-Chong; Lee, Do-Gyeong; Rho, Yeong-Deok; Baek, Nam-In

    2008-01-01

    A new lignan glycoside, 6-acetyl-1-[1,3-(4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-beta-truxinyl)-beta-d-fructofuranosyl]-alpha-d-glucopyranoside (1), named impecyloside, was isolated from the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica. The structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic data including FABMS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR (DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC).

  13. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Curcuma caesia Roxb. rhizome extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heisanam Pushparani Devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizomes of Curcuma caesia Roxb. (zingiberacea are traditionally used in treatment of various ailments and metabolic disorders like leukoderma, asthma, tumours, piles, bronchitis, etc. in Indian system of medicine. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. caesia Roxb. rhizome extract and its fractions were evaluated. The ethanolic fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (86.91% comparable to ascorbic acid (94.77% with IC50 value of 418 μg/ml for EECC followed by MECC (441.90 μg/ml > EAECC(561 μg/ml > AECC(591 μg/ml. Based on the antioxidant activity, three of the rhizome extracts were evaluated for their antimutagenic properties against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide (CP using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The antimutagenic activity of the extracts against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide in the presence of mammalian metabolic activation system was found to be significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05. All the extracts showed similar antimutagenicity in dose dependent manner. The total phenolic content as well as reducing ability of the extracts was also determined.

  14. Authentication of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and other two Chinese Materia Medica of the Liliaceae family by pharmacognosy technique with GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjiao; Liu, Canhuang; Yu, Yafei; Xu, Bei; Gong, Limin; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Lan; Cheng, Qilai; Liu, Tasi

    2015-02-01

    Yuzhu (Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma), Kangdingyuzhu (Polygonati Prattii Rhizoma), and zhugenqiyuzhu (Disporopsis Fuscopictae Rhizoma) are of the same family, but of different genera. They have all often used in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) as Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma in China market. Three species of CMM are confused. For better application, we need to identify these plants accurately. This study use pharmacognosy technique and GC-MS analysis, three species of CMM were authenticated. In macroscopic characteristics, the fruit of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is blue-black, while the other two are maroon and dark purple orderly. Nodes of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma are upward and light uplift, about 1 cm spacing, while the other are not. As for microscopic characteristics, the cortex of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma only occupies about 1/5 of the radius of the transverse section with inconspicuous endodermis, which is much smaller than others. The type of vascular bundles of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is closed collateral, but the other is amphivasal. Raphides of calcium oxalate are scattered, but Raphides of the other two are like brooms and neat rows. GC-MS analysis of essential oil could provide different characteristics to distinguish three species. Twenty-three compounds were identified from essential oil of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and the main components were n-hexadecanoic acid (49.45%), while n-hexadecanoic acid of the other two are 23.92% and 9.45%. The content of n-hexadecanoic is strongly different. This research was aimed to establish a method by pharmacognosy and GC-MS analysis to identify three CMM and for providing scientifical data to ensure accuracy of origin of three species. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Environ: E00410 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00410 Homalomena rhizome Homalonemae rhizoma Crude drug ... Homalomena aff. Sagittaefolia, Homalomena... [TAX:174172] ... Araceae (arum family) Homalomena aff. sagittaefolia or assortative plants rhizome (dried) ...

  16. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.

  17. Curcuma increasing antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins through absorptive enhancement of paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Shuli; Li, Yuanyuan; Fan, Wei; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-09-15

    Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) played a good antitumor role in many clinical applications. However, low oral bioavailability limited its application. In this research, water extract of Curcuma (CW) significantly increased antitumor effect of Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS). GC-MS was used to identify its polar composition. HPLC was applied for determination of the content of curcuminoids in CW. As a result, 47 analytes with 0.65% of curcuminoids were identified in CW. According to the in vivo anti-tumor data, the best proportion of curcuminoids in CW with RPS was 16:500 (w/w). Using this ratio, curcuminoids significantly increased absorption of RPS in the everted rat duodenum sac system. In addition, curcuminoids decreased the promotion of RPS on rhodamine 123 efflux. The effect of curcuminoids was similar to that of the P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A in combination with RPS. In conclusion, drug combination of water extract of Curcuma with RPS was a good method to increase the antitumor effect of RPS. This combination would be a potent anticancer agent used in the prospective application. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of secretory diarrhea by ethanol extract of Bistortae rhizoma through inhibition of chloride channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (CaCC represents an attractive approach for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular basis of the anti-diarrheal effect of traditional Chinese herbal anti-diarrheal medicine Bistortae rhizoma. Fluorescence quenching assay indicated that the 40% methanol /water fraction (D5 dose-dependently inhibited both CFTR and CaCC function in transfected Fischer rat thyroid (FRT cells. Ex vivo studies indicated that D5 inhibited both forskolin (FSK-activated CFTR current and CCh-induced CaCC current in rat colonic mucosa. In the mouse closed-loop model, intraluminal application of D5 (200 µg/mL significantly reduced cholera toxin-stimulated fluid secretion. In the intestinal motility model, D5 significantly delayed intestinal peristalsis in mice. Our research suggests that CFTR and CaCC-mediated intestinal epithelial Cl- secretion inhibiting and gastrointestinal motility delaying may account for the anti-diarrheal activity of B. rhizoma.

  19. [Determination of ferulic acid in chuanxiong and in animal serum and cerebrospinal fluid by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, K; Ding, M Y; Li, H X; Liu, D L

    2000-11-01

    An easy, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of ferulic acid(FA) in Chuanxiong extracts, animal (mouse) serum and cerebrospinal fluid by RP-HPLC has been developed. The FA was separated on an ODS column, Nova-Pak C18(3.9 mm i.d. x 150 mm) and detected at the wavelength of 320 nm. The mobile phase was methanol-water-acetic acid (35:65:0.5, V/V), with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection limit of FA was 1.7 micrograms/L(S/N = 3) and the calibration curve was linear within the range of 0.85 mg/L-4.00 mg/L(r = 0.99904, n = 6). The mean recovery from animal serum and cerebrospinal was 95%-102%.

  20. Rhizoma Coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NF?B-Dependent Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Remppis, Andrew; Bea, Florian; Greten, Henry Johannes; Buttler, Annette; Wang, Hongjie; Zhou, Qianxing; Preusch, Michael R.; Enk, Ronny; Ehehalt, Robert; Katus, Hugo; Blessing, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFB was anal...

  1. Herbological studies of Coptidis rhizoma (Part 2): on the old Japanese name of Coptis japonica makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, M; Mikage, M

    1999-01-01

    The rhizome of Coptis plant of the family ranunculaceae has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a crude drug (Huanglian in present Chinese). In Japan, the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino (the botanical name of which is "Ohren" in modern Japanese) has been utilized as a crude drug since the Nara era. The Japanese name in those days was "Kakumakusa based on descriptions in old books written in the Heian era. It changed to "Kakumikusa" early in the Edo era, and then changed again to Kakumakusa later in the Edo era. Through this herbological study, it was conjectured as follows: The resemblance between Chinese characters (or MA) and (or MI) in cursive style caused mis-copying of the character. After the "Honzo-wamyo, written in the Heian era, was revised in the late Edo era, and on which the name was accurately written as Kakumakusa, the mistake was corrected.

  2. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B; de Jager, Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-11-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails. Although it has been previously reported for some pesticides that passive diffusion is greater for rhizome than shoot components, this is the first study to demonstrate that the absorption capacity of rhizomes is species dependent, with the glyphosate absorption being significantly greater for rhizomes than shoots in case of native cattails, but with no significant differences in glyphosate absorption between rhizomes and shoots in case of hybrid cattails. Most importantly, glyphosate absorption by native rhizomes far exceeded that of the absorption occurring for hybrid rhizomes, native shoots and hybrid shoots. Glyphosate has long been used to manage invasive hybrid cattails in wetlands in North America, but hybrid cattail expansions continue to occur. Since our results showed limited glyphosate absorption by hybrid shoots and rhizomes, this lack of sorption may partially explain the poorer ability of glyphosate to control hybrid cattails in wetlands.

  3. [GC-MS analysis of essential oil from Curcuma aromatica rhizome of different growth periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Ming-ming; Huang, Xiu-lan; Liu, Hua-gang; Lai, Mao-xiang; Wei, Meng-han

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the essential oil from the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica of different growth periods, and to provide the scientific reference for reasonable cultivation and quality control of this plant. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed with GC-MS. The relative contents were determined with area normalization method. The main volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica were basically the same. Among these volatile constituents, curdione was the major. The relative content of curdione was 16.35% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county, and 15.81% in the rhizome of one-year-old plant in Mingyang farm, Nanning city. The relative content of eucalyptol in the 2-year-old cultivated rhizome in Hengxian county was 15.40%, and 14.59% in the rhizome of wild plant in Hengxian county. beta-Elemene, beta-caryophyllene,eugenol and germacrone were also the main constituents in the rhizome essential oil. Volatile constituents in the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica are similar to each other,but the relative content of each component is different. This result can provide the scientific foundation for the cultivation of Curcuma aromatica.

  4. Composition of the essential oils of Kaempferia rotunda L. and Kaempferia angustifolia Roscoe rhizomes from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, HJ; Windono, T; Bos, R; Riswan, S; Quax, WJ

    2004-01-01

    The volatile constituents of rhizomes (main rhizome, lateral parts) of two medicinally used Indonesian plants of the family Zingiberaceae, Kaempferia rotunda L. and K. angustifolia Roscoe, were investigated by GC and GC-MS (EI) analysis. A total of 75 compounds were identified. The most abundant

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF THE ISOLATED COMPOUNDS FROM Zingiber amaricans BL. RHIZOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Riyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Five extracts were obtained from extraction of rhizomes of Zingiber amaricans. Hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were obtained by maceration, while dichloromethane and acetone extracts the resulted of soxhlet extraction. By column chromatography technique 2,6,9-humulantrien-9-one (zerumbone was isolated as the major constituent of the hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts. The minor constituents were phytosterol mixtures isolated from hexane and dichloromethane extracts. The mixtures consisted cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and b-sitosterol. The structure elucidations of zerumbone was confirmed by spectroscopic method, whereas the phytosterol mixtures was identified by gas chromatography-mass.   Keywords: zerumbone, phytosterol, zingiber amaricans, spectroscopy

  6. Simultaneous, simple and rapid determination of five bioactive free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei by quantitative {sup 1}H NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Fang, Yun-Shan; Duan, Wei-He; Li, Zhen-Jie; Ding, Zhong-Tao, E-mail: ztding@ynu.edu.cn, E-mail: caile@ynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming (China)

    2016-07-01

    Radix et Rhizoma Rhei has been recognized for centuries in traditional medicine for its multiple pharmacological actions. The free anthraquinones including physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, and aloe-emodin are the main bioactive components in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. In the present study, a fast quantitative {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (q-HNMR) method for the determination and quantitation of five free anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei was developed. Validation of the quantitative method was performed in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, and stability. The results showed that the solvent acetone-d{sub 6} enabled satisfactory separation of the signals to be integrated. Five anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei could be quantified accurately using featured signals from {sup 1}H NMR. This work implied that q-HNMR represents a feasible alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based methods for quantitation of anthraquinones in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and is suitable for the quality control of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. (author)

  7. Nine New Gingerols from the Rhizoma of Zingiber officinale and Their Cytotoxic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zezhi; Wang, Yanzhi; Gao, MeiLing; Cui, Wanhua; Zeng, Mengnan; Cheng, Yongxian; Li, Juan

    2018-02-02

    Nine new gingerols, including three 6-oxo-shogaol derivatives [( Z )-6-oxo-[6]-shogaol ( 1 ), ( Z )-6-oxo-[8]-shogaol ( 2 ), ( Z )-6-oxo-[10]-shogaol ( 3 )], one 6-oxoparadol derivative [6-oxo-[6]-paradol ( 4 )], one isoshogaol derivative [( E )-[4]-isoshogaol ( 5 )], and four paradoldiene derivatives [(4 E ,6 Z )-[4]-paradoldiene ( 8 ), (4 E ,6 E )-[6]-paradoldiene ( 9 ), (4 E ,6 E )-[8]-paradoldiene ( 10 ), (4 E ,6 Z )-[8]-paradoldiene ( 11 )], together with eight known analogues, were isolated from the rhizoma of Zingiber officinale . Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. It was noted that the isolation of 6-oxo-shogaol derivatives represents the first report of gingerols containing one 1,4-enedione motif. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and HRESIMS data. All the new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cells (MCF-7, HepG-2, KYSE-150).

  8. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  9. Effects of Dioscoreae Rhizoma (SanYak on Peripheral Neuropathy and its Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Min-jung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature for the safety and efficacy of Dioscoreae Rhizoma (DR for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Literature searches were performed in MEDLINE and three Korean medical databases up to April 2013. All studies evaluating the effects on peripheral neuropathy or the safety of DR monopreparations were considered. Results: Three studies - DR extract per os (po on diabetic neuropathy in mice, DR extract injection on the peripheral sciatic nerve after crush injury in rats and DR extract injection to patients with peripheral facial paralysis proved that DR treatments were effective for the treatment of nerve injuries. Conclusions: In conclusion, we found the DR has a strong positive potential for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, but studies addressing direct factors related to the nerve still remain insufficient.

  10. Cellulase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Rhizoma imperata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long-Fa

    2014-08-08

    In this study, the cellulase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from Rhizoma imperata were investigated. To improve the yield of R. Imperata polysaccharides (RPs), the extraction conditions were optimized as follows: time, 69.48 min; temperature, 45.36°C; pH, 4.58; cellulase amount, 1,200 U/g. Under these optimum conditions, the yield of RPs reached 0.67% (w/w), and was higher than that of the traditionally aqueous extraction method. The sugar content in the RPs product reached up to 93.25% (w/w). The RPs product has high antioxidant activity including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity at the concentration of 100mg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of plant age on fresh rhizome yield and volatile oil composition of Acorus calamus linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.A.; Bahl, J.R.; Darokar, M. P.; Garg, S.N.; Lal, R.K.; Khanuja, S.P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of plant age on growth, yield and oil content and composition of sweet flag (Acorus calamus) was studied in four populations at four different ages, raised at CIMAP experimental research Farm, India. The plant age had significant effect on total fresh yield and leaves and rhizomes fresh weights. These parameters showed increasing trend with advancement of harvesting age up to 6 years, and age increase to more than 15 years resulted in their decrease . Significantly highest number of shoots per square meter was recorded in more than 15 year old crop, and the lowest number was recorded in the 6 year old crop. The highest oil yield of rhizomes was obtained from the six year old plants. Shoot length, rhizome leaf ratio (R/L) and oil yield of leaves did not show significant differences with the age of the plant. However, 6 year old plants recorded the highest average shoot length, and the three year old plants gave the highest oil yield of leaves. The total fresh yield showed a highly significant positive correlation with rhizomes fresh weight (r = 0.999), leaves fresh weight (r=0.994) and with rhizome: leaf ratio (r = 0.998). Highly significant positive correlations (r = 0.999) were also obtained between rhizomes oil content and rhizomes oil yield and between leaves oil content and leaves oil yield. β-asarone was the most dominant constituent in the oils of both leaves and rhizomes , constituting an average of 84.2% in the leaves and 88.9% in the rhizomes oil. The study indicated that the oil content of fresh rhizomes and leaves is the main contributor to their oil yields, and selection for high oil content will be effective. The constituents of the volatile oil remained the same irrespective of the plant age.(Author)

  12. Total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changrun Guo,1 Gang Ding,2 Wenzhe Huang,2 Zhenzhong Wang,2 Zhaoqing Meng,1,2 Wei Xiao2 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang City, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for more effective and safer drugs for use in this condition.Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the ameliorative effects of total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma (TSD on diabetic nephropathy and to explore the potential underlying mechanism(s.Methods: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were orally treated with TSD at 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for biochemical and histological examination.Results: The results demonstrated that TSD significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels in diabetic rats. The results of histological examinations showed that TSD ameliorated glomerular and tubular pathological changes in diabetic rats. Furthermore, TSD significantly prevented oxidative stress and reduced the renal levels of advanced glycation end products, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the renoprotective effects of TSD in experimental diabetic nephropathy via a number of different mechanisms. Keywords: total saponin of Dioscoreae hypoglaucae rhizoma, diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, AGEs, TGF-β1

  13. Micropropagation of Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig through rhizome bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pritam; Behera, Shashikanta; Swain, Swasti S; Barik, Durga P; Naik, Soumendra K

    2013-10-01

    An optimized protocol was developed for in vitro plant regeneration of a medicinally important herb Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig using sprouted buds of rhizomes. The rhizomes with sprouted bud were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium (MS) supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) alone (1.0-4.0 mg L(-1)) or in combination with 0.5 mg L(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Of these combinations, MS supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA was most effective. In this medium, best shoots (3.6) and roots (4.0) regeneration was observed simultaneously with an average shoot and root length of 4.7 cm and 4.2 cm respectively. Regeneration of shoots and roots in the same medium at the same time (One step shoot and root regeneration) reduced the time for production of in vitro plantlets and eliminates the media cost of rooting. Cent-percent (100 %) success in plant establishment was observed in both gradual acclimatization process as well as when plants were directly transferred to outdoor in clay pots containing a mixture of garden soil and sand (2:1) without any sequential acclimatization stage.

  14. Physicochemical and tablet properties of Cyperus alulatus rhizomes starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramakrishnan, N; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2015-05-01

    The starch extracted from rhizomes of Cyperus alulatus (CA) was characterized for its physicochemical, morphological and tableting properties. Rhizomes of CA yield a significant quantity of starch granules (CASG) i.e., 11.93%. CASG was characterized in terms of moisture, ash and amylose contents, solubility and swelling power, paste clarity and water retention capacity. The swelling power was found to be significantly improved with the increase in temperature. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the granule's surface was smooth, the granules were spherical, mostly round, disc like, and the size range was 6.65-12.13 μm. Finger print region in FTIR spectra confirmed its carbohydrate nature. The evaluated micromeritic properties of extracted granule's bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, true density and porosity render unique practicability of CASG being used as an adjuvant in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Tablets prepared by using CASG showed higher mechanical strength and more disintegration time, which depicted the characteristic binding nature of the starch granules. As CASG is imparting better binding properties in less concentration and also it can be used in combination with the established starches to get the synergistic effect; this starch can be used commercially in the tablet preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Features of Professor Ma Kun's medication in treating ovulatory infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Chen, Yan-Xia; Dong, Mei-Ling; Ma, Kun

    2017-12-01

    In order to analyze Professor Ma Kun's medication in treating anovulatory infertility, her prescriptions for treating anovulatory infertility in 2012-2015 were collected. The medication features and the regularity of prescriptions were mined by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system, association rules, complex system entropy clustering and other mining methods. Finally, a total of 684 prescriptions and 300 kinds of herbs were screened out, with a total frequency of 11 156 times; And 68 core combinations and 8 new prescriptions were mined. The top three frequently used herbs by effect were respectively tonic herb, blood circulation promoting herb, and Qi-circulation promoting herb. The top three tastes were sweetness, bitterness and pungent flavor. The results showed 28 herbs with a high frequency of ≥100.The top 10 frequently used herbs were respectively Angelica Sinensis Radix, Cyperi Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizome, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Cyathulae Radix, Taxilli Herba, Cuscutae Semen, Codonopsis Radix, Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, Paeoniae Albaand Paeoniae Radix Alba. The association rules analysis showed commonly used herbal pairs, including Rehmanniae Radix Preparata-Chuanxiong Rhizome, Rehmanniae Radix Preparata-Angelica Sinensis Radix, Cuscutae Semen-Dipsaci Radix. In conclusion, Professor Ma has treated anovulatory infertility by nourishing the kidney and activating blood throughout the treatment course, and attached the importance to the relationship between Qi and blood and there gulation of liver, spleen and kidney in treating anovulatory infertility. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Simultaneous determination of anthraquinones, their 8-beta-D-glucosides, and sennosides of Rhei Rhizoma by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Junko; Morita, Izumi; Fujiyoshi, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Norihiro

    2005-05-01

    The simultaneous separation and determination of major anthraquinones (emodin, chrysophanol, rhein and their glucosides, aloe-emodin, sennoside A, and sennoside B) of Rhei Rhizoma were achieved by cyclodextrin modified capillary zone electrophoresis. The running electrolyte used in this method was 0.005 M alpha-cyclodextrin in 0.03 M borate buffer (pH 10.0) containing 20% acetonitrile, with an applied voltage of 20 kV.

  17. Effect of atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Liu, C; Zhou, Q; Xie, Y C; Qiu, X M; Feng, X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the therapeutic effects of Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided in to 5 groups (n=10 rats per group): The normal control group, the chronic renal failure pathological control group, the dexamethasone treatment group and two Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide treatment groups, treated with two different concentrations of the polysaccharide, the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and the Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group. All the rats, except those in the normal control group were fed adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 3 weeks. After being fed with adenine, the dexamethasone treatment group, Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide high group and Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide low group rats were administered the drug orally for 2 weeks. On day 35, the kidney coefficient of the rats and the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein and hemalbumin were determined. Subsequent to experimentation on a model of chronic renal failure in rats, the preparation was proven to be able to reduce serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and hemalbumin levels (Prenal function. Atracylodes rhizome polysaccharide had reversed the majority of the indices of chronic renal failure in rats.

  18. Gamma radiation, cold and four different wrappings to preserve ginger rhizomes, Zingiber officinallis Roscoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirol, Marco Antonio P.; Neto, J.T.; Arthur, Valter; Wiendl, Frederico M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2002-01-01

    After irradiating with a single dose of 50 Gy, ginger rhizomes were dipped into paraffin for coating, wrapped in a plastic film of low-density polyethylene, on perforated or non-perforated polivinyl chloride film, and compared with non-wrapping and non-irradiation as the controls. After treatments the rhizomes were maintained refrigerated at 13 deg. C and 80% relative humidity. As a main result it could be observed that dipping into paraffin and wrapping with plastics resulted in smaller weight loss of the rhizomes

  19. A New Sesquiterpenoid from the Rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, So Hee; Choi, In Ho; Shim, Sang Hee

    2010-01-01

    Chemical studies of Curcuma zedoaria led to isolation of a new sesquiterpenoid 1 and a known flavonoid 2. The structures of both compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS data. Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, also known as white turmeric, zedoaria, or gajutsu, is a perennial rhizomatous herb that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. The plant is indigenous to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and India, and is also cultivated in China, Japan, Brazil, Nepal, and Thailand. The rhizome of the plant has been used in Japanese and Chinese folk medicine as an aromatic stomachic, emmenagogus, or for the treatment of 'Oketsu' syndrome caused by blood stagnation. Zedoaria has also been reported to have antimicrobial and antifungal activities, a larvicidal effect, and analgesic, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, cytotoxic, anticancer, and antioxidant activities. Previous chemical studies of this plant have revealed the presence of curcuminoids and different kinds of sesquiterpenoids, including furanodiene, furanodienone, zederone, curzerenone, curzeone, germacrone, curcumenol, and zedoaronediol

  20. A New Sesquiterpenoid from the Rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, So Hee; Choi, In Ho; Shim, Sang Hee [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Chemical studies of Curcuma zedoaria led to isolation of a new sesquiterpenoid 1 and a known flavonoid 2. The structures of both compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS data. Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, also known as white turmeric, zedoaria, or gajutsu, is a perennial rhizomatous herb that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. The plant is indigenous to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and India, and is also cultivated in China, Japan, Brazil, Nepal, and Thailand. The rhizome of the plant has been used in Japanese and Chinese folk medicine as an aromatic stomachic, emmenagogus, or for the treatment of 'Oketsu' syndrome caused by blood stagnation. Zedoaria has also been reported to have antimicrobial and antifungal activities, a larvicidal effect, and analgesic, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, cytotoxic, anticancer, and antioxidant activities. Previous chemical studies of this plant have revealed the presence of curcuminoids and different kinds of sesquiterpenoids, including furanodiene, furanodienone, zederone, curzerenone, curzeone, germacrone, curcumenol, and zedoaronediol.

  1. Impact of Roots and Rhizomes on Wetland Archaeology: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjellden, Anna Katarina Ejgreen; Kristiansen, Søren Munch; Matthiesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    species that can damage site stratigraphy and artefacts. However, reviews on the types and degree of damage caused by vegetation to archaeological remains preserved in situ in wetlands have hitherto only been sporadically treated in the literature. Thus, this paper provides an overview of the adverse...... be spatially and temporally concomitant. In waterlogged anoxic environments, deterioration is mainly related to (i) preferential growth of roots/rhizomes due to nutrient uptake and lesser soil resistance, (ii) root etching due to organic acid exudates, (iii) microbial growth due to root release of oxygen...... and labile organic compounds, and/or (iv) precipitation of hydroxides due to root release of oxygen. For example, roots of some wetland plants, such as marsh horsetail (Equisetum palustre), have been documented to penetrate archaeological artefacts down to c. 2 m in waterlogged anoxic soils. Here, we...

  2. Hepatoprotective glycosides from the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Sun, Hua; Liu, Hui; Shi, Gao-Na; Zang, Ying-Da; Li, Chuang-Jun; Yang, Jing-Zhi; Chen, Fang-You; Huang, Ji-Wu; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Three new C-methylated phenylpropanoid glycosides (1, 2), a new 8-4'-oxyneolignan (3), together with two known analogs (4, 5), were isolated from the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. major (Nees) C. E. Hubb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 (10 μM) exhibited pronounced hepatoprotective activity against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)-induced HepG2 cell damage in vitro assays. Furthermore, their antioxidant activities against Fe 2+ -cysteine-induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and the effects on the secretion of TNF-α in murine peritoneal macrophages (RAW264.7) induced by lipopolysaccharides were evaluated.

  3. Rhizoma coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NFB-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Remppis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFB was analyzed in nuclear extracts, secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 was measured in supernatants. Results. Incubation with Rhizoma coptidis and berberine strongly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 production in RAW cells. Activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFB was inhibited by Rhizoma coptidis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Conclusions. Rhizoma coptidis extract inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in vitro via an AP-1 and NFB-dependent pathway. Anti-inflammatory action of the extract is mediated mainly by its alkaloid compound berberine.

  4. Rhizoma Coptidis Inhibits LPS-Induced MCP-1/CCL2 Production in Murine Macrophages via an AP-1 and NFκB-Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remppis, Andrew; Bea, Florian; Greten, Henry Johannes; Buttler, Annette; Wang, Hongjie; Zhou, Qianxing; Preusch, Michael R.; Enk, Ronny; Ehehalt, Robert; Katus, Hugo; Blessing, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFκB was analyzed in nuclear extracts, secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 was measured in supernatants. Results. Incubation with Rhizoma coptidis and berberine strongly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production in RAW cells. Activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB was inhibited by Rhizoma coptidis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Conclusions. Rhizoma coptidis extract inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in vitro via an AP-1 and NFκB-dependent pathway. Anti-inflammatory action of the extract is mediated mainly by its alkaloid compound berberine. PMID:20652055

  5. Determination of the levels of two types of neurotransmitter and the anti-migraine effects of different dose-ratios of Ligusticum chuanxiong and Gastrodia elata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC–Gastrodia elata (GE compatibility is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of migraine. It has been shown that the changes of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system are closely related to the pathogenesis of migraine; whether LC–GE compatibility might affect the neurotransmitters in migraine rats has not yet been studied. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector methods for quantification of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and excitatory amino acids (EAAs in rat brain were developed. The 5-HT was measured directly, while EAAs were determined by using dansyl chloride as precolumn derivative reagent. The validation of the methods, including selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recoveries, and stability were carried out and demonstrated to meet the requirements of quantitative analysis. Compared with the model group, the expression of 5-HT in migraine rat brain was enhanced from 30 minutes to 120 minutes and glutamate (L-Glu was suppressed from 30 minutes to 60 minutes in an LC–GE (4:3 group compared with the model group (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively. These findings showed that the analytical methods were simple, sensitive, selective, and low cost, and LC–GE 4:3 compatibility could have better efficacy for treating migraine through upregulating 5-HT levels and downregulating L-Glu levels.

  6. Development and Validation of Improved Method for Fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate an improved method by capillary zone electrophoresis with photodiode array detection for the fingerprint analysis of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Rhizoma Chuanxiong). Methods: The optimum high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) conditions were 30 mM borax containing 5 ...

  7. Sulphate reduction and nitrogen fixation rates associated with roots, rhizomes and sediments from Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L B; Finster, K; Welsh, D T; Donelly, A; Herbert, R A; de Wit, R; Lomstein, B A

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate reduction rates (SRR) and nitrogen fixation rates (NFR) associated with isolated roots, rhizomes and sediment from the rhizosphere of the marine macrophytes Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima, and the presence and distribution of Bacteria on the roots and rhizomes, were investigated. Between 1% and 3% of the surface area of the roots and rhizomes of both macrophytes were colonized by Bacteria. Bacteria on the surfaces of S. maritima roots and rhizomes were evenly distributed, while the distribution of Bacteria on Z. noltii roots and rhizomes was patchy. Root- and rhizome-associated SRR and NFR were always higher than rates in the bulk sediment. In particular, nitrogen fixation associated with the roots and rhizomes was 41-650-fold higher than in the bulk sediment. Despite the fact that sulphate reduction was elevated on roots and rhizomes compared with bulk sediment, the contribution of plant-associated sulphate reduction to overall sulphate reduction was small (< or =11%). In contrast, nitrogen fixation associated with the roots and rhizomes accounted for 31% and 91% of the nitrogen fixed in the rhizosphere of Z. noltii and S. maritima respectively. In addition, plant-associated nitrogen fixation could supply 37-1,613% of the nitrogen needed by the sulphate-reducing community. Sucrose stimulated nitrogen fixation and sulphate reduction significantly in the root and rhizome compartments of both macrophytes, but not in the bulk sediment.

  8. [Analysis of Volatile Oils from Different Processed Products of Zingiber officinale Rhizome by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-bing; Wang, Zhi-hui; He, Fang; Meng, Han; Peng, Jian-hua; Shi, Ji-lian

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the volatile components in different processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome, and to make clear the effect of different heating degree on them. The volatile components were extracted from four kinds of processed products by applying steam distillation, and then were analyzed by GC-MS. There were totally 43 components of volatile oil identified from four kinds of processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome. Fresh product, dried product, and charcoal product of Zingiber officinale rhizome each had 27 components of volatile oil, while sand fried product contained 24 components. Fresh Zingiber officinale rhizome contained 22. 59% of zingiberene, 20. 87% of a-citral and 11. 01% of β-phellandrene, respectively. After processing in different heating degree, the volatile components changed greatly in both of their quantity and quality, For instance, dried Zingiber officinale rhizome contained 40. 48% of α-citral and 8-phellandrene content was slightly lower at 10. 38%. 32.73% of 3,7,11-trimethyl-l, 6, 10-dodecatriene,16. 38% of murolan-3, 9 (11)-diene-10-peroxy and 3. 36% of cubebene newly emerged in the sand fried Zingiber officinale rhizome, and eudesm-4 (14) and β-bisabolol, etc. However, β-phellandrene content was only 1. 95%. The zingiberene and β-sesquiphellandrene were the highest in charcoal product, besides, new components such as α-cedrene, decanal and γ-elemene appeared. Volatile components in different processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome were different in both of their kinds and contents. This method is suitable for the analysis of volatile components in Zingiber officinale rhizome, and this study can provide the experimental evidence for quality evaluation and clinical application for ginger processed products.

  9. Large-scale proteome comparative analysis of developing rhizomes of the ancient vascular plant Equisetum hyemale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Santana Balbuena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Equisetum hyemale is a widespread vascular plant species, whose reproduction is mainly dependent on the growth and development of the rhizomes. Due to its key evolutionary position, the identification of factors that could be involved in the existence of the rhizomatous trait may contribute to a better understanding of the role of this underground organ for the successful propagation of this and other plant species. In the present work, we characterized the proteome of E. hyemale rhizomes using a GeLC-MS spectral-counting proteomics strategy. A total of 1,911 and 1,860 non-redundant proteins were identified in the rhizomes apical tip and elongation zone, respectively. Rhizome- characteristic proteins were determined by comparisons of the developing rhizome tissues to developing roots. A total of 87 proteins were found to be up-regulated in both E. hyemale rhizome tissues in relation to developing roots. Hierarchical clustering indicated a vast dynamic range in the expression of the 87 characteristic proteins and revealed, based on the expression profile, the existence of 9 major protein groups. Gene ontology analyses suggested an over-representation of the terms involved in macromolecular and protein biosynthetic processes, gene expression and nucleotide and protein binding functions. Spatial differences analysis between the rhizome apical tip and the elongation zone revealed that only eight proteins were up-regulated in the apical tip including RNA-binding proteins and an acyl carrier protein, as well as a KH-domain protein and a T-complex subunit; while only seven proteins were up-regulated in the elongation zone including phosphomannomutase, galactomannan galactosyltransferase, endoglucanase 10 and 25 and mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase subunits alpha and beta. This is the first large scale characterization of the proteome of a plant rhizome. Implications of the findings were discussed in relation to other underground organs and related

  10. [Herbal textual research on Chinese medicine "Huangjing" (Polygonati Rhizoma)and some enlightenments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Si, Jin-Ping

    2018-02-01

    To clarify the change and development of the original plants, medicinal organs, traditional functions, resource distribution of "Huangjing"(Polygonati Rhizome), a traditional Chinese medicine, we investigated Polygonatum species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts. The name of "Nüwei" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Its effects included two aspects: one was similar to "Weirui"(Polygonati Odorati Rhizome, "Yuzhu"), that was tonifying, nourishing one's vitality, removing wind and dampness, settling five organs, making body lightness, keeping longevity and not being hungry; the second was alike to "Huangjing" recorded in the book of Ming Yi Bie Lu(Appendant Records of Famous Physicians). Specifically, "Weirui" possesses the therapeutic effect of "Nüwei", while "Huangjing" possesses the tonic effect of " Nüwei". Thereafter, the following ancient Chinese herbal texts kept those two names and function records. Accordingly, we hold the point of view that "Huangjing" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic in the synonym of "Nüwei". "Yuzhu" included the "Huangjing" in ancient herbal text before Qing Dynasty, that was further confirmed by the research on change and development of the original plants. The identification between "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" was based on the shape of rhizome and size before early Tang Dynasty. The shape was a key character and used up to now, but size was not reasonable. The opposite phyllotaxy was an important character of authentic "Huangjing" from Tang to Qing Dynasty. The seedling of Polygonatum sibiricum and P. kingianum, the adult plant of P. cyrtonema with alternate leaves were misused as "Yuzhu"("Nüwei" and "Weirui") at that time. Therefore, both "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" should be used as key words during the search of ancient prescriptions and development of new drugs and health foods. The leaves, flowers, fruits and seedlings could

  11. Rhizomes Help the Forage Grass Leymus chinensis to Adapt to the Salt and Alkali Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junfeng; Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Ying; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis has extensive ecological adaptability and can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. The knowledge about tolerance mechanisms of L. chinensis could be base for utilization of saline-alkaline soils and grassland restoration and rebuilding. Two neutral salts (NaCl : Na2SO4 = 9 : 1) and two alkaline salts (NaHCO3 : Na2CO3 = 9 : 1) with concentration of 0, 100, and 200 mmol/L were used to treat potted 35-day-old seedlings with rhizome growth, respectively. After 10 days, the biomass and number of daughter shoots all decreased, with more reduction in alkali than in salt stress. The rhizome biomass reduced more than other organs. The number of daughter shoots from rhizome was more than from tillers. Under both stresses, Na+ contents increased more in rhizome than in other organs; the reduction of K+ content was more in underground than aerial tissue. Anion ions or organic acids were absorbed to neutralize cations. Na+ content in stem and leaf increased markedly in high alkalinity (200 mmol/L), with accumulation of soluble sugar and organic acids sharply. Rhizomes help L. chinensis to adapt to saline and low alkaline stresses by transferring Na+. However, rhizomes lost the ability to prevent Na+ transport to aerial organs under high alkalinity, which led to severe growth inhibition of L. chinensis. PMID:25121110

  12. Insulin sensitizing and alpha-glucoamylase inhibitory action of sennosides, rheins and rhaponticin in Rhei Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Bong; Ko, Byoung Seob; Park, Seong Kyu; Jang, Jin Sun; Park, Sunmin

    2006-01-25

    Extracts from Rhei Rhizoma extracts (RR) have been reported to attenuate metabolic disorders such as diabetic nephropathy, hypercholesterolemia and platelet aggregation. With this study we investigated the anti-diabetic action of 70% ethanol RR extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and determined the action mechanism of active compounds of RR in vitro. In the diabetic mice, serum glucose levels at fasting and post-prandial states and glucose area under the curve at modified oral glucose tolerance tests were lowered without altering serum insulin levels, indicating that RR contained potential anti-diabetic agents. The fractions fractionated from RR extracts by XAD-4 column revealed that 60%, 80% and 100% methanol fractions enhanced insulin sensitivity and inhibited alpha-glucoamylase activity. The major compounds of these fractions were sennosides, rhein and rhaponticin. Rhaponticin and rhein enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Rhaponticin increased adipocytes with a differentiating effect similar to pioglitazone, but rhein and sennoside B decreased triglyceride accumulation. Sennoside A and B inhibited alpha-glucoamylase activity as much as acarbose. In conclusion, a crude extract of RR improves glucose intolerance by enhancing insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and decreasing carbohydrate digestion via inhibiting alpha-glucoamylase activity. Rhein and rhaponticin are potential candidates for hypoglycemic agents.

  13. [Quality changes in Gastrodia Rhizoma of different origins and forms before and after sulfur fumigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Zhen; Zhou, Li; Jiang, Jing-Yi; Lv, Chao-Geng; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Tao; Yang, Ye; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2018-01-01

    As Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR) is one of the herbs more seriously affected by sulfur fumigation, so its quality has been always of a great concern. In this paper, GR samples collected from eight main producing areas and in three forms were fumigated with sulfur and quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. The results showed that the contents of gastrodin, parishin, parishin B and parishin C were decreased, while the content of parishin E was increased after sulfur fumigation treatment. Besides, a new sulfur marker named p-hydroxybenzyl hydrogen sulfite was produced in sulfur-fumigated GR samples. As compared with producing origins, forms had a greater impact on the quality of GR, especially in Hongtianma and Wutianma. Besides, the contents of gastrodins and parishins in Hongtianma from Jilin were lowest as compared with those in other producing areas. This might be correlated with planting patterns and environmental factors. In conclusion, sulfur fumigation has a more obvious impact on the quality of GR than origins and forms, which is attributed to the generation of new sulfur fumigated markers. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Endothelium-Independent Vasorelaxant Effect of Ligusticum jeholense Root and Rhizoma on Rat Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumjung Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ligusticum jeholense has been used as the traditional medicine ‘Go-Bon’ (Chinese name, Gao-ben in China and Korea. Considering the increased use of medicinal herbs to treat hypertension, in this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the vasorelaxation effect caused by L. jeholense. We tested the methanol (MeOH extract of L. jeholense root and rhizoma for vasorelaxant effects; while using an isolated organ-chamber technique, L. jeholense extract (LJE induced relaxation in the rat aortic rings by stimulating vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. LJE showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects on endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings pre-contracted with both phenylephrine (PE and potassium chloride (KCl in Krebs-Henseleit (KH buffer. The vasorelaxant effect of LJE was partly attenuated by pre-treatment with glibenclamide or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP as K+ channel blockers. Moreover, LJE showed concentration-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction by Ca2+ supplementation in the aortic rings that were pre-contracted with PE or KCl in Ca2+-free KH buffer. In addition, a combination of LJE and nifedipine, pre-incubated further, decreased PE-induced contractions. The results suggested that LJE-induced vasorelaxation were related to blocking K+ channels and inhibiting entry of extracellular Ca2+ via receptor-operative Ca2+ channels (ROCCs or voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs.

  15. Chemical Composition and Characteristic Odor Compounds in Essential Oil from Alismatis Rhizoma (Tubers of Alisma orientale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Yoshinaga, Seiji; Kashima, Yusei; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Usami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Chemical composition and potent odorants that contribute to the characteristic odor of essential oil from Alismatis Rhizoma (tubers of Alisma orientale) were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and relative flavor activity (RFA) methods. Fifty components, representing 94.5% of the total oil, were identified. In this study, we newly identified thirty-nine compounds in the oil from tubers of A. orientale. The major constituents of the essential oil were khusinol (36.2%), δ-elemene (12.4%), germacron (4.1%), alismol (3.8%), β-elemene (3.1%), and α-bisabolol (1.9%). Through sensory analysis, sixteen aroma-active compounds were detected and the key contributing aroma-active compounds were δ-elemene (woody, flavor dilution (FD)-factor = 4, RFA = 0.3) β-elemene (spicy, FD = 5, RFA = 0.7), spathulenol (green, FD = 5, RFA = 1.0), γ-eudesmol (woody, FD = 6, RFA = 1.5), and γ-cadinol (woody, FD = 5, RFA = 1.0). These compounds are thought to contribute to the odor from tubers of A. orientale. These results imply that the essential oil from the tubers of A. orientale deserve further investigations in the phytochemical and medicinal fields.

  16. Treatment with Rhizoma Dioscoreae Extract Has Protective Effect on Osteopenia in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous extract from Rhizoma Dioscoreae (RDE on rats with ovariectomy- (OVX- induced osteopenia. Our results show that RDE could inhibit bone loss of OVX rats after a 12-week treatment. The microarray analysis showed that 68 genes were upregulated and that 100 genes were downregulated in femurs of the RDE group rats compared to those in the OVX group. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA showed that several downregulated genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (Sost, Lrp6, Tcf7l2, and Alpl and the RANKL/RANK signaling pathway (Map2k6 and Nfatc4. These results revealed that the mechanism for an antiosteopenic effect of RDE might lie in the synchronous inhibitory effects on both the bone formation and the bone resorption, which is associated with modulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the RANKL/RANK signaling.

  17. Treatment with Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract has protective effect on osteopenia in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Xiang, Lihua; Bai, Dong; Fu, Xiaowei; Wang, Wenlai; Li, Yan; Liu, Hong; Pan, Jinghua; Li, Ya'nan; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous extract from Rhizoma Dioscoreae (RDE) on rats with ovariectomy- (OVX-) induced osteopenia. Our results show that RDE could inhibit bone loss of OVX rats after a 12-week treatment. The microarray analysis showed that 68 genes were upregulated and that 100 genes were downregulated in femurs of the RDE group rats compared to those in the OVX group. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that several downregulated genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathway (Sost, Lrp6, Tcf7l2, and Alpl) and the RANKL/RANK signaling pathway (Map2k6 and Nfatc4). These results revealed that the mechanism for an antiosteopenic effect of RDE might lie in the synchronous inhibitory effects on both the bone formation and the bone resorption, which is associated with modulating the Wnt/ β -catenin signaling and the RANKL/RANK signaling.

  18. Authenticity analyses of Rhizoma Paridis using barcoding coupled with high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bao-Zhong; Wang, Ya-Ping; Fang, Hai-Lan; Xiong, Chao; Li, Xi-Wen; Wang, Ping; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Rhizoma Paridis (Chonglou) is a commonly used and precious traditional Chinese medicine. Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand. -Mazz. and Paris polyphylla Smith var . chinensis (Franch.) Hara are the two main sources of Chonglou under the monograph of Rhizoma Paridis in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In the local marketplace, however, this medicine is prone to be accidentally contaminated, deliberately substituted or admixed with other species that are similar to Rhizoma Paridis in shape and color. Consequently, these adulterations might compromise quality control and result in considerable health concerns for consumers. This study aims to develop a rapid and sensitive method for accurate identification of Rhizoma Paridis and its common adulterants. DNA barcoding coupled with high resolution melting analysis was applied in this research to distinguish Rhizoma Paridis from its adulteration. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) barcode was selected for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of the selected species. DNA of the tested herbal medicines was isolated and their melting profiles were generated and compared with the standard melting profile of P. polyphylla var. chinensis . The results indicate that the ITS2 molecular regions coupled with HRM analysis can effectively differentiate nine herbal species, including two authentic origins of Chonglou and their seven common adulterants. Ten herbal medicines labeled "Chonglou" obtained from a local market were collected and identified with our methods, and their sequence information was analyzed to validate the accuracy of HRM analysis. DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis is a accurate, reliable, rapid, cost-effective and robust tool, which could contribute to the quality control of Rhizoma Paridis in the supply chain of the natural health product industry (NHP).

  19. Comparison of Structural and Functional Properties of Starches from the Rhizome and Bulbil of Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese yam is an important edible starch plant and widely cultivated in China. Its rhizome and bulbil are starch storage tissues below and above ground, respectively. In this paper, starches were isolated from the rhizome and bulbil of Chinese yam, and their structural and functional properties were compared. Both starches had an oval shape with an eccentric hilum and a CA-type crystalline structure. Their short-range ordered structure and lamellar structure had no significant difference. However, the rhizome starch had a significantly bigger granule size and lower amylose content than the bulbil starch. The swelling power and water solubility were significantly lower in the rhizome starch than in the bulbil starch. The onset and peak gelatinization temperatures were significantly higher in the rhizome starch than in the bulbil starch. The rhizome starch had a significantly higher breakdown viscosity and a lower setback viscosity than the bulbil starch. The thermal stability was lower in the rhizome starch than in the bulbil starch. The rhizome starch had a significantly lower resistance to hydrolysis and in vitro digestion than the bulbil starch. The above results provide important information for the utilization of rhizome and bulbil starches of Chinese yam.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Germacrane Type Sesquiterpenes from Curcuma heyneana Rhizomes

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    Hartiwi Diastuti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of terpenoids from C. heyneana rhizomes and their antibacterial activity have been conducted. The terpenoids were isolated by using vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structures of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic data (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR (1D and 2D. The antibacterial activity was carried out by using microdilution method and evaluated against eight bacteria. Three germacrane type sesquiterpenes have been isolated from C. heyneana rhizhomes and were identified as germacrone, dehydrocurdione, and 1(10,4(5-diepoxygermacrone. Germacrone showed highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa with MIC values of 15.6 µg/mL and MBC values 31.2 µg/mL. Dehydrocurdione showed highest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis with MIC values of 31.2 µg/mL and MBC values of 31.2 µg/mL. However, 1(10,4(5-diepoxygermacrone showed a weak antibacterial activity.

  1. Phytochemical and Cytotoxic Investigations of Alpinia mutica Rhizomes

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    Kae Shin Sim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water of Alpinia mutica (Zingiberaceae rhizomes were investigated for their cytotoxic effect against six human carcinoma cell lines, namely KB, MCF7, A549, Caski, HCT116, HT29 and non-human fibroblast cell line (MRC 5 using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The ethyl acetate extract possessed high inhibitory effect against KB, MCF7 and Caski cells (IC50 values of 9.4, 19.7 and 19.8 µg/mL, respectively. Flavokawin B (1, 5,6-dehydrokawain (2, pinostrobin chalcone (3 and alpinetin (4, isolated from the active ethyl acetate extract were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activity. Of these, pinostrobin chalcone (3 and alpinetin (4 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Pinostrobin chalcone (3 displayed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against the tested human cancer cells, such as KB, MCF7 and Caski cells (IC50 values of 6.2, 7.3 and 7.7 µg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of the cytotoxic activity of Alpinia mutica.

  2. New Triterpene Diglycosides from the Rhizome of Cimifuga foetida

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    Minghua Qiu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Five new 9,19-cycloartane triterpene diglycosides, which have been named cimiaceroside C (1, and cimifosides A-D (2-5 together with the known compounds cimiracemoside D (6, cimidahurine (7 and α-D-glucopyranosyl-l-β-D-fructofuranoside (8 were isolated from the rhizome of Cimicifuga foetida. The new triterpene diglycosides 1-5 were identified as cimiacerol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1''→3'-β-D-xylopyranoside, 12β-hydroxycimigenol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1''→3'-β-D-xylopyranoside, 25-Oacetylcimig- enol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1''→3'-β-D-xylopyranoside, 24- acetylhydroshengmanol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1''→3'-β-D-xylopyranoside and 26- deoxyacetylacteol-3-O-β-D-xylo- pyranosyl-(1''→3'-β-D-xylopyranoside, respectively, based on analysis of their spectral data and chemical reactions.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2011-10-01

    To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L.) Smith and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The fresh rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet were extracted in cold with ethanol (4.0 L) after concentration. The crude ethanol extract was fractionated by petroleum ether and chloroform to form a suspension of ethanol extract (15.0 g), petroleum ether fraction (6.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (5.0 g). The crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform fractions were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and three fungi by the disc diffusion method. Commercially available kanamycin (30 µg/disc) was used as standard disc and blank discs impregnated with the respective solvents were used as negative control. At a concentration of 400 µg/disc, all the samples showed mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and produced the zone of inhibition ranging from 6 mm to 10 mm. Among the tested samples, the crude ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude ethanol extract and its fractions were within the value of 128-256 µg/mL against two Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and all the samples showed the lowest MIC value against V. parahemolyticus (128 µg/mL). It can be concluded that, potent antibacterial and antifungal phytochemicals are present in ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet (L).

  4. THE ABILITY OF LEAVES AND RHIZOMES OF AQUATIC PLANTS TO ACCUMULATE MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS

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    Agnieszka Edyta Parzych

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The samples of macrophytes and bottom sediments originated from the littoral zone of the Słupia River were collected in summer 2013. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of the accumulation of leaves and rhizomes of Glyceria maxima, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia and Phalaris arundinacea for macro- and micronutrients. The largest quantities of macroelements were found in the leaves of the examined species, and microelements dominated the rhizomes of most examined macrophytes except for Mn in P.australis and T.latifolia. The obtained results show that N and K dominated in the leaves of P.arundinacea, P and Mg in the leaves of P.australis, and Ca in the leaves of G.maxima. The largest quantities of N, P and K were cumulated in the rhizomes of P.arundinacea, while Mg and Ca in the rhizome of T.latifolia. The leaves of aquatic plants accumulated from 1354.9 mmolc·kg-1 (T.latifolia to 1844.0 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea, and rhizomes from 985.8 mmolc·kg-1 (G.maxima to 1335.2 mmolc·kg-1 (P.arundinacea of all the analyzed components. In these species of macrophytes lower accumulated value of the sum of macro- and microelements were found in the rhizomes. The share of nitrogen was 42.4–59.8% of this amount, phosphorus 4.3–8.6%, potassium 22.8–35.1%, calcium from 2,6% to 12.4%, magnesium 3.0–7.5%, and heavy metals were from 0.6% (G.maxima to 1.2% (T.latifolia in leaves and from 2.2% (T.latifolia to 8.7% (G.maxima in rhizomes.

  5. PHYTOPHARMACEUTICAL POTENTIAL AND MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF RHIZOMES OF CURCUMA LONGA AND ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (ZINGIBERACEAE

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    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric and ginger are spices derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale respectively. The rhizomes of C. longa and Z. officinale were extracted in hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Phytochemical screening was carried out on each of the extracts. Proximate analysis to determine the extractive values, moisture content, total ash, crude fibre, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash were carried out on the rhizomes of fresh and dried turmeric and ginger. The rhizomes of C. longa revealed alcohol extractive value 22.79%, water extractive value 26.44%, moisture content 11.56 ± 0.04%, total ash 13.24±0.03%, crude fiber 6.40±0.20%, acid insoluble ash 1.02±0.02% and water soluble ash 4.32±0.07%. Extractive values for ginger were recorded as alcohol 2.7% and water 2.1%, fresh and dried ginger rhizomes afforded, moisture content 72.63 ±0.09%, 10.03±0.09%, total ash 2.50 ±0.06%, 7.30±0.10%, acid insoluble ash 0.57±0.03%, 2.03±0.09%, and water soluble ash 1.23±0.03%, 3.87±0.09% respectively. Observations on the microscopic studies of the fresh rhizomes of turmeric and ginger revealed possession of oil duct and spiral xylem vessels. Similarly phytomorphology of the powdered rhizomes of ginger and turmeric revealed the presence of tracheid and compartment of vessels. Presence of similar anatomical features in both the fresh and ground samples confirmed the authenticity or adulterous of the powdered samples.

  6. Danshen-Chuanxiong-Honghua Ameliorates Cerebral Impairment and Improves Spatial Cognitive Deficits after Transient Focal Ischemia and Identification of Active Compounds

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    Xianhua Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we only apply a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Danshen-Chuanxiong-Honghua (DCH for cardioprotection via anti-inflammation in rats of acute myocardial infarction by occluding coronary artery. Presently, we select not only DCH but also its main absorbed compound ferulic acid (FA for cerebra protection via similar action of mechanism above in animals of the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO. We investigated whether oral administration of DCH and FA could ameliorate MCAO-induced brain lesions in animals. By using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, we analyzed four compounds, including tanshinol, salvianolic acid B, hydroxysafflor yellow A and especially FA as the putative active components of DCH extract in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and injured hippocampus of rats with MCAO. In our study, it was assumed that FA played a similar neuroprotective role to DCH. We found that oral pretreatment with DCH (10 or 20 g/kg and FA (100 mg/kg improved neurological function and alleviated the infarct volume as well as brain edema in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were accompanied by improved ischemia-induced apoptosis and decreased the inflammatory response. Additionally, chronic treatment with DCH reversed MCAO-induced spatial cognitive deficits in a manner associated with enhanced neurogenesis and increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in lesions of the hippocampus. These findings suggest that DCH has the ability to recover cognitive impairment and offer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury via inhibiting microenvironmental inflammation and triggering of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. FA could be one of the potential active compounds.

  7. Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS

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    Gang Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma.

  8. High Frequency Multiple Shoot Induction of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.: Shoot Tip V/S Rhizome Disc

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    K. S. Nagesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an endangered medicinal plant with anticancer properties. The rhizome and tuberous roots of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Curculigo orchioides is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered ‘endangered’ in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. Here, we describe a successful protocol for multiple shoot induction of C. orchioides using shoot tip and rhizome disc. We find that proximal rhizome discs are optimal for high frequency shoot bud formation than shoot tip and distal rhizome disc. We observed a synergistic effect between 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin (KN (each at 1 mg/L on the regeneration of shoot buds from proximal rhizome disc than shoot tip explant. Optimum root induction was achieved on half-strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to natural condition with 90% survival.

  9. A comparative study on the hepatoprotective action of bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma aqueous extract on experimental liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Feng, Yibin; Cheung, Fan; Chow, Oi-Yee; Wang, Xuanbin; Su, Weiwei; Tong, Yao

    2012-11-29

    Bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma have been used in Chinese medicine with a long tradition in treating heat-diseases. Both bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma are used to treat liver diseases in clinical practice of Chinese Medicine. Since bears are currently endangered, it raises the question whether the use of bear bile is ethical. To look for substitute for bear bile, the aim of this study is to compare the anti-fibrotic effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and its major component berberine with the actions of bear bile and its major compound tauroursodeoxycholic acid on experimental liver fibrosis in rats. Quality assessment was conducted with high performance liquid chromatography. The experimental liver fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, and bile duct ligation respectively. The biochemical criteria in the blood and tissue samples were measured to evaluate the anti-fibrotic properties and underlying mechanisms of the drugs. Coptidis Rhizoma Aqueous Extract (CRAE), berberine, and bear bile exerted anti-fibrotic properties on various liver fibrosis models in rats. CRAE and berberine significantly reduced the peroxidative stress in liver through increasing the superoxide dismutase enzyme activity. CRAE and berberine were able to excrete bilirubin products from the liver and protect hepatocytes from cholestatic damage. The effect of CRAE and berberine are comparable to that of bear bile. Instead of using bear bile, CRAE and berberine can be potential substitutes in treating liver fibrosis.

  10. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria

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    Omer Abdalla Ahmed Hamdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7 and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namely, labda-8(17,12 diene-15,16 dial (1, dehydrocurdione (2, curcumenone (3, comosone II (4, curcumenol (5, procurcumenol (6, germacrone (7, zerumbone epoxide (8, zederone (9, 9-isopropylidene-2,6-dimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[6.2.1.01,5]undec-6-en-8-ol (10, furanodiene (11, germacrone-4,5-epoxide (12, calcaratarin A (13, isoprocurcumenol (14, germacrone-1,10-epoxide (15, zerumin A (16, curcumanolide A (17, curcuzedoalide (18, and gweicurculactone (19. Compounds (1–19 were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF-7, PC-3, and HT-29. Curcumenone (3 and curcumenol (5 displayed strong antiproliferative activity (IC50=8.3±1.0 and 9.3±0.3 μg/mL, resp. and were found to induce apoptotic cell death on MCF-7 cells using phase contrast and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay. Thus, the present study provides basis for the ethnomedical application of Curcuma zedoaria in the treatment of breast cancer.

  11. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Syed Abdul Rahman, Syarifah Nur; Awang, Khalijah; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Looi, Chung Yeng; Thomas, Noel Francis; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7) and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC) using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namely, labda-8(17),12 diene-15,16 dial (1), dehydrocurdione (2), curcumenone (3), comosone II (4), curcumenol (5), procurcumenol (6), germacrone (7), zerumbone epoxide (8), zederone (9), 9-isopropylidene-2,6-dimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[6.2.1.01,5]undec-6-en-8-ol (10), furanodiene (11), germacrone-4,5-epoxide (12), calcaratarin A (13), isoprocurcumenol (14), germacrone-1,10-epoxide (15), zerumin A (16), curcumanolide A (17), curcuzedoalide (18), and gweicurculactone (19). Compounds (1–19) were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF-7, PC-3, and HT-29). Curcumenone (3) and curcumenol (5) displayed strong antiproliferative activity (IC50 = 8.3 ± 1.0 and 9.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.) and were found to induce apoptotic cell death on MCF-7 cells using phase contrast and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay. Thus, the present study provides basis for the ethnomedical application of Curcuma zedoaria in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25126594

  12. Composition of the Essential Oil From Roots and Rhizomes of Valeriana phu L. Growing Wild in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslan, Sinem; Kartal, Murat; Kurucu, Semra; Kuiper, Johanna M.; Kruizinga, Wim H.; Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The volatile constituents isolated from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana phu L. were investigated by GC and GUMS (EI) analysis. The roots and rhizomes yielded 0.64% (v/w) essential oil on a dry weight basis. From the oil 70 compounds Could he identified with a valerenal isomer (11.3%), valerianol

  13. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  14. Rheum turkestanicum rhizomes possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in experimental diabetes

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    Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rheum turkestanicum (R. turkestanicum rhizomes have been used in Iranain traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of R. turkestanicum rhizome extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats received the decoction extract of R. turkestanicum rhizomes at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg daily by gavage for 3 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were measured in all groups before diabetes induction and at the end of week 3. Oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver by measurement of malondialdehyde levels and total thiol concentration at the end of the experiment.Results: A significant increase in serum glucose and triglyceride levels was observed in diabetic rats, which was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and decreased total thiol concentration in the liver after 3 weeks. Treatment of diabetic rats with R. turkestanicum rhizome extract at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg over a 3-week period did not change serum glucose, hepatic malondialdehyde and total thiol levels in diabetic rats. However, treatment with R. turkestanicum extract significantly decreased serum triglyceride levels in a dose-dependent manner at the end of the experiment.Conclusion: R. turkestanicum rhizome extract possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. Therefore, R. turkestanicum rhizome should be consumed with more caution by diabetic patients.

  15. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Rhizome as an Antioxidant Dietary Fiber in Cooked Sausage: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Shin, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Il; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of cooked emulsion sausages containing different levels of lotus rhizome powder (0, 1, 2, and 3%, based on total weight). Lotus rhizome powder had no significant ( p >0.05) impact on pH, moisture, protein, or ash content of sausage. However, fat content was slightly but significantly ( p color of cooked sausage compared to control. Increase in lotus rhizome level slightly improved the emulsion stability and apparent viscosity. Significant ( p color and juiciness scores. However, cooked sausages exhibited similar overall acceptability regardless of the level of lotus rhizome powder added to sausages. Therefore, lotus rhizome powder, an antioxidant dietary fiber, could be used as an effective natural ingredient in meat products for the development of healthier and functional food.

  16. Reconsidering the Rhizome: A Textual Analysis of Web Search Engines as Gatekeepers of the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.

    Critical theorists have often drawn from Deleuze and Guattari's notion of the rhizome when discussing the potential of the Internet. While the Internet may structurally appear as a rhizome, its day-to-day usage by millions via search engines precludes experiencing the random interconnectedness and potential democratizing function. Through a textual analysis of four search engines, I argue that Web searching has grown hierarchies, or "trees," that organize data in tracts of knowledge and place users in marketing niches rather than assist in the development of new knowledge.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of microemulsion-based transdermal delivery of total flavone of rhizoma arisaematis

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    Shen LN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Li-Na Shen,1 Yong-Tai Zhang,1 Qin Wang,2 Ling Xu,2 Nian-Ping Feng11Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The aims of the present study were to investigate the skin permeation and cellular uptake of a microemulsion (ME containing total flavone of rhizoma arisaematis (TFRA, and to evaluate its effects on skin structure. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to evaluate ME regions with various surfactants and cosurfactants. Eight formulations of ­oil-in-water MEs were selected as vehicles, and in vitro skin-permeation experiments were performed to optimize the ME formulation and to evaluate its permeability, in comparison to that of an aqueous suspension. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and fluorescent-activated cell sorting were used to explore the cellular uptake of rhodamine 110-labeled ME in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT and human embryonic skin fibroblasts (CCC-ESF-1. The structure of stratum corneum treated with ME was observed using a scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, skin irritation was tested to evaluate the safety of ME. ME formulated with 4% ethyl oleate (weight/weight, 18% Cremophor EL® (weight/weight, and 18% Transcutol® P, with 1% Azone to enhance permeation, showed good skin permeability. ME-associated transdermal fluxes of schaftoside and isoschaftoside, two major effective constituents of TFRA, were 3.72-fold and 5.92-fold higher, respectively, than those achieved using aqueous suspensions. In contrast, in vitro studies revealed that uptake by HaCaT and CCC-ESF-1 cells was lower with ME than with an aqueous suspension. Stratum corneum loosening and shedding was observed in nude mouse skin treated with ME, although ME produced no observable skin irritation in rabbits. These findings indicated that ME enhanced transdermal TFRA delivery effectively and showed

  18. Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract protects against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via microRNAs regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Song, Changheng; Zhang, Fangzhen; Xiang, Lihua; Chen, Yanjing; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2015-02-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Female Wistar rats underwent either ovariectomy or sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX), estradiol valerate (EV), or RDE. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD) and the three-dimensional microarchitecture of the alveolar bone were analyzed to assess bone mass. Microarrays were used to evaluate microRNA expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of microRNAs was validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the target genes of validated microRNAs were predicted and further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using qRT-PCR. Our results show that RDE inhibits alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs and downregulated expression levels of 8 microRNAs in the alveolar bone in the microarray analysis. qRT-PCR helped validate 13 of 16 differentially expressed microRNAs, and 114 putative target genes of the validated microRNAs were retrieved. The IPA showed that these putative target genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)/Smad signaling pathway (Tgfbr2/Bmpr2, Smad3/4/5, and Bcl-2) and interleukin (IL)-6/oncostatin M (OSM)/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathway (Jak1, STAT3, and Il6r). These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may involve the simultaneous inhibition of bone formation and bone resorption, which is associated with modulation of the TGF-β/BMPs/Smad and the IL-6/OSM/Jak1/STAT3 signaling pathways via microRNA regulation.

  19. [GC-MS combined with AMDIS and Kováts retention index to investigate dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with different stir-baking degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Ping; Pan, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Mei-Jun; Luo, Guan-Hua; Liu, You-Ping

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma with different stir-baking degrees (from slight stir-baking, stir-baking to yellow, stir-baking to brown, to stir-baking to scorch). In the present experiment, the Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples with different stir-baking degrees were collected at different processing time points. The contents of volatile oil in various samples were determined by steam distillation method, and the volatile compounds were extracted by using static headspace sampling method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS) and automated mass spectral deconrolution and identification system (AMDIS) were combined with Kováts retention index to analyze the chemical constituents of the volatile compounds. The results showed that with the deepening of the stir-baking degree, the content of volatile oil was decreased step by step in 4 phases, and both the compositions and contents of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma showed significant changes. The results showed that the dynamic change rules of volatile components from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in the process of stir-baking were closely related to the processing degree; in addition, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and honey bran had adsorption on each other. These results can provide a scientific basis for elucidating the stir-baking (with bran) mechanism of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Control of weight loss and sprouting of ginger rhizome in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paull, R.E.; Chen, N.J.; Goo, T.T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Methods were investigated to control weight loss and sprouting of stored ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc), including waxing, sprout inhibitors, and gamma irradiation. Rhizomes stored for 3 months at 22°C and 70% RH lost about 20% weight. Waxing of the rhizome did not reduce water loss. Some wax treatments increased the number and length of sprouts. Preharvest application of maleic hydrazide significantly increased the number and reduced the length of sprouts. Postharvest CIPC application significantly reduced the length of sprouts. Vacuum infiltration increased the effectiveness of CIPC in reducing sprout length. Gamma and X-ray irradiation also reduced sprout number and length. Minimum doses of gamma radiation for sprout control was 25 Gy and 120 to 150 Gy for X-ray irradiation if the rhizome was stored for more than 3 months at 22°C. At higher dose of irradiation (500 Gy) was required if complete sprout growth control was needed for storage periods < 3 months at 22.degree. Suberization occurred during curing at 22°C, but the suberin layer did not completely protect the cut surface

  1. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  2. Storage of Miscanthus-derived carbon in rhizomes, roots, and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Compared with annual crops, dedicated perennial bioenergy crops are ascribed additional benefits in terms of reduced greenhouse gas emissions; these benefits include increased carbon (C) storage in soil. We measured Miscanthus-derived C in rhizomes, roots, and 0–100 cm soil beneath three 16-yr-ol...

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Sudipta; Ray, Asit; Banerjee, Anwesha; Sahoo, Ambika; Nasim, Noohi; Sahoo, Suprava; Kar, Basudeba; Patnaik, Jeetendranath; Panda, Pratap Chandra; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-09-01

    The essential oil extracted from rhizome and leaf of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) was characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 32 and 35 identified constituents, comprising 92.6% and 92% of total leaf and rhizome oil, respectively. Curzerenone (33.2%), 14-hydroxy-δ-cadinene (18.6%) and γ-eudesmol acetate (7.3%) were the main components in leaf oil. In rhizome oil, curzerenone (72.6%), camphor (3.3%) and germacrone (3.3%) were found to be the major constituents. Antioxidant capacities of oil were assessed by various methods, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and reducing power ability (RPA). Based on the results, the leaf oil showed more antioxidant potential as compared to rhizome oil and reference standards (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)). Thus, the leaf essential oil of C. angustifolia can be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidant.

  4. Compositional analysis of the leaf, stem and rhizome oils of Piper lolot C. DC. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Thanh, L.; Khoi, Ta Thi; Leclercq, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fresh leaves, stems and rhizomes of Piper lolot C. DC. have been analyzed for the first time by a combination of GC and GC/MS. The oils contained more than 35 compounds, of which 25 constituents could be identified according to their

  5. Determination of catechin in lotus rhizomes by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-Lei; Wang, Qing-Zhang; Peng, Guang-Hua

    2009-08-01

    A novel method was developed to analyze lotus rhizome polyphenolic catechin using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The retain time of catechin was 14.72 min under the optimized condition. Mass spectrometry was further employed to qualify and quantify the purity of the catechin peak. Good linearity (R=0.9997) was obtained within the range of 50-1,000 ng. The coefficient of variance was determined as 5.2%, with a recovery rate of 97%. The detection and quantification limitations of catechin were 23 ng and 50 ng, respectively. The catechin level was 0.0025% in the lotus rhizome, and 0.011% in the knot of the lotus rhizome (Nelumbo nucifera cv. 'damao jie'). The optimized conditions of HPLC for catechin detection in the lotus rhizome matrix were as follows: the SuperlcosIL™ LC-18 analytical column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm), methanol-water-acetic acid (10:90:1, volume ratio) as the mobile phase, an UV detector at 280 nm, a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min, column temperature at 30°C, and an injection volume of 10 µl.

  6. Effect of growth regulators on growth, flowering and rhizome yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2001 and 2002, to study the effect of foliar application of growth regulators on growth; flowering and rhizome yield of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Treatments consisted of gibberellic acid (GA3) at 0,150 and 300 ppm; ethrel at 0,100 and 200 ppm and cycocel (CCC) at 0,250 ppm ...

  7. Effect of rhizome storage duration on the varietal growth, yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike in 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons to determine the effect of rhizome storage duration on the subsequent field performance of ginger in humid tropical rainforest ecology of Nigeria. Treatments consisted of three ginger ...

  8. The root/rhizome system of seagrasses: an asset and a burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Large-scale declines in seagrass vegetation have been frequently observed in recent decades. Many of these declines can be traced to the reduction of light levels in the water column. In this paper, it is argued that the root/rhizome system offers a competitive advantage in nutrient-poor waters, but

  9. Impact of Microwave Treatment on Chemical Constituents in Fresh Rhizoma Gastrodiae (Tianma by UPLC-MS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qimeng Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh Rhizoma Gastrodiae (Tianma was processed in a microwave oven at 2450 MHz in order to study the effect on the main chemical component changes taking place during microwave treatment. It was found that microwave affected the chemical composition of Tianma. Seven compounds, including gastrodin, gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzylalcohol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillyl alcohol, vanillin, adenine, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, were identified in this study. As major active compounds, the contents of gastrodin and gastrodigenin in MWT Tianma were both twice as much as those in raw Tianma. Besides, the MS data show that there are still some unidentified compositions in Tianma, and there are also many converted compounds in MWT Tianma, which is worthy of further work. The results have indicated that microwave treated fresh Tianma might be helpful in designing the processing of traditional Chinese medicine and the application of microwave technology in traditional Chinese medicine needs to be researched further in the future.

  10. The effect of gamma radiation on microbial content and curcuminoids of curcuma amada roxb. rhizomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DP Rahayu; D Darwis; FC Saputri

    2016-01-01

    The microbial contamination in the rhizomes of medicinal plants including Curcuma amada rhizomes is generally high. This due to the fact that rhizomes are the bottom parts that grow in the soil. Based on the Regulation of Head of the Indonesian National Agency of Drug and Food Control Number HK.00.06.1.52.4011, the limits of microbial contamination in herbal/medicinal plants are 10"6 cfu/g for the total microbial and 2×10"4 cfu/g for the total yeast and mold. Gamma irradiation is one of the methods to reduce microbial contamination in medicinal plants. In this research, the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in microbial reduction and its effects to curcuminoid contents was determined by irradiating Curcuma amada rhizomes at doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The initial contamination in this rhizome was 8.78×10"7 cfu/g and 5×10"1 cfu/g for the total microbial and for the total yeast and mould, respectively. The result indicates that at 5 kGy, the microbial contamination and the mould and yeast contamination were reduced from 8.78×10"7 cfu/g and 5×10"1 cfu/g to 1.39×10"4 cfu/g and under 1×10"1 cfu/g, respectively. Meanwhile the comparison of curcuminoids between the irradiated and non irradiated samples was performed by HPLC method and was found to actually increase from 0.26% to 0.36% after the 5-kGy irradiation. It can be concluded that an irradiation dose of 5 kGy is effective to reduce the content of microorganisms without lowering curcuminoids. Gamma radiation could be used as decontamination method in medicinal plants. (author)

  11. Levels of rhizome endophytic fungi fluctuate in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis as plants age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is an important medicinal plant with abundant saponins that are widely used in the pharmaceuticals industry. It is unclear why the levels of active ingredients increase as these plants age. We speculated that the concentrations of those components in the rhizomes are mediated by fungal endophytes. To test this hypothesis, we took both culture-dependent and -independent (metagenomics approaches to analyze the communities of endophytic fungi that inhabit those rhizomes in plants of different age classes (four, six, and eight years old. In all, 147 isolates representing 18 fungal taxa were obtained from 270 segments (90 per age class. Based on morphological and genetic characteristics, Fusarium oxysporum (46.55% frequency of occurrence was the predominant endophyte, followed by Leptodontidium sp. (8.66% and Trichoderma viride (6.81%. Colonization of endophytic fungi was maximized in the eight-year-old rhizomes (33.33% when compared with four-year-old (21.21% and six-year-old (15.15% rhizomes. Certain fungal species were present only at particular ages. For example, Alternaria sp., Cylindrocarpon sp., Chaetomium sp., Paraphaeosphaeria sporulosa, Pyrenochaeta sp., Penicillium swiecickii, T. viride, and Truncatella angustata were found only in the oldest plants. Analysis of (metagenomics community DNA extracted from different-aged samples revealed that, at the class level, the majority of fungi had the highest sequence similarity to members of Sordariomycetes, followed by Eurotiomycetes and Saccharomycetes. These results were mostly in accord with those we obtained using culture methods. Fungal diversity and richness also changed over time. Our investigation is the first to show that the diversity of fungi in rhizomes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is altered as plants age, and our findings provide a foundation for future examinations of useful compounds.

  12. Chemical characterisation and allelopathic potential of essential oils from leaves and rhizomes of white ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEssential oils have the potential to be used as bioherbicides, and possess the advantage of their biodegradability, high structural diversity and reduced natural resistance to weeds. The essential oils of the leaves and rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium, an exotic invasive plant adapted to different regions of Brazil, were extracted by hydrodistillation and characterised chemically by Gas-Liquid Chromatography and Gas-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Allelopathic activity was determined using methodologies that evaluate the effects of volatility and direct contact on seed germination and seedling vigour in the lettuce. The major constituents of the essential oil from the leaves were β-pinene (46.9%, α-pinene (19.2% and β-caryophyllene (13.2% and from the rhizomes, β-pinene (41.5%, 1.8-cineole (23.6% and α-pinene (13.1%. When analysing the volatile effects of the essential oils, it was seen that their concentration did not affect seedling first germination count or total germination. The essential oil from the rhizomes was more effective than the essential oil from the leaves in reducing seedling response for SGI, dry weight, and length of the roots and shoots. When evaluating the effect of direct contact with the essential oils, it was seen that both oils reduced the response of all the variables under evaluation, and that in addition, the oil from the rhizomes caused greater reductions than that from the leaves, again for all variables. These results can be attributed to the higher levels of monoterpenes present in the essential oil from the rhizomes, mainly the presence of 1.8-cineole.

  13. Study on the Property Change of Rhizoma Coptidis and Its Ginger Juice Processed Products Based on 5-Ht Level and Brain Tissues Morphology of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lingyun; Tong, Hengli; Lv, Mu; Deng, Yufen

    2017-09-01

    According to the theory of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), all Chinese materia medica need to be processed using Pao zhi which is a processing technology before being used in clinic. Ginger juice, made from dried or fresh ginger, is one of the main TCM processing accessories and always used to help change some Chinese materia medica’s properties for its warm or hot nature. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of ginger juice on Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) by determining 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content and observing morphological changes in the harns tissue of rats. Raw Rhizoma Coptidis (RRC), fresh ginger juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (FGJPRC), dried juice processed Rhizoma Coptidis (DGJPRC), dried ginger juice (DGJ) and fresh ginger juice (FGJ) were prepared using appropriate methods. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the distribution of 5-HT and fluorescence spectrophotometry was applied to determine 5-hydroxytryptamine content in the brain tissue of rats. 5 - HT in brain tissue of the rats of RRC group was distributed most densely, with the highest content. Compared to the blank group, RRC and different ginger processed RC groups could lead to increasing content of 5-HT in rat encephalon, and significant differences in RRC. Compared with the RRC, the 5-HT content in rat encephalon in DGJPRC, FGJPRC, FGJ and DGJ groups reduced, and DGJPRC, FGJPRC groups showed significant difference, FGJ and DGJ groups showed extreme significant differences. The research showed that processing with hot, warm accessories would moderate the cold nature of RC. The cold and hot nature of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica could be expressed by the difference of 5-HT contents and morphological changes of rats’ brain tissue. Simultaneously, the research showed the different excipient of ginger juice would have different effects on the processing of RC.

  14. Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus Extracts Effectively Inhibit BK Virus and JC Virus Infection of Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human polyomaviruses BK (BKPyV and JC (JCPyV are ubiquitous pathogens long associated with severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis, whereas JCPyV is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. No effective therapies targeting these viruses are currently available. The goal of this study was to identify Chinese medicinal herbs with antiviral activity against BKPyV and JCPyV. We screened extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit hemagglutination by BKPyV and JCPyV virus-like particles (VLPs and the ability to inhibit BKPyV and JCPyV binding and infection of host cells. Two of the 40 herbal extracts screened, Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus, had hemagglutination inhibition activity on BKPyV and JCPyV VLPs and further inhibited infection of the cells by BKPyV and JCPyV, as evidenced by reduced expression of viral proteins in BKPyV-infected and JCPyV-infected cells after treatment with Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma or Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus extract. The results in this work show that both Rhodiolae Kirliowii Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegus pinnatifida Fructus may be sources of potential antiviral compounds for treating BKPyV and JCPyV infections.

  15. Simultaneous determination of seven alkaloids from Rhizoma Corydalis Decumbentis in rabbit aqueous humor by LC-MS/MS: Application to ocular pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhengsheng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yangdan; Huang, Yuting; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to establish a fast and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of seven alkaloids from Rhizoma Corydalis Decumbentis in rabbit aqueous humor. Aqueous humor samples were processed by protein precipitation and then separated on a Thermo Syncronis C 18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm) with a mobile phase using acetonitrile-0.05% formic acid (28:72, v/v). Detection of the analytes and the internal standard (coptisine) were performed in positive electrospray ionization with selected reaction monitoring. The method showed good linearity (r>0.9931) for all the seven alkaloids. This fully validated method was applied to the studies of aqueous humor pharmacokinetics of seven alkaloids from Rhizoma Corydalis Decumbentis and the effects of borneol on corneal penetration of these alkaloids into aqueous humor. This is the first work that presents a reliable LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of seven alkaloids in rabbit aqueous humor and its application of ocular pharmacokinetics of seven alkaloids from Rhizoma Corydalis Decumbentis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; Wisniewski, Michael; Kennedy, John F; Jiang, Yusong; Tang, Jianmin; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-20

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, with the best control at 5g/L. Chitosan and oligochitosan applied at 5g/L also reduced weight loss, measured as a decrease in fresh weight, but did not affect soluble solids content or titratable acidity of rhizomes. The two compounds applied at 5g/L induced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity and the transcript levels of their coding genes, as well as the total phenolic compounds in rhizome tissues. Therefore, the ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to reduce rot in stored rhizomes may be associated with their ability to induce defense responses in ginger. These results have practical implications for the application of chitosan and oligochitosan to harvested ginger rhizomes to reduce postharvest losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of costus speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Nagaich, Upendra

    2010-01-01

    Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE) in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA) significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE) produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE) showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  18. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of Costus Speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  19. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  20. Assessment of oleoresin and gingerol contents in gamma irradiated ginger Rhizomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyenekwe, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Oleoresin and gingerol contents in gamma irradiated dried ginger rhizomes were evaluated to determine the effect of radiation and storage on these constituents of ginger. Dried ginger rhizomes were subjected to 0, 5 and 10 kilogray (kGy) doses of gamma rays from 60Co source. The oleoresin and gingerol contents were monitored for 9 months. Radiation treatment (10 kGy) reduced the decrease of the oleoresin content of ginger during the storage period by 14% in unground samples and 11% in ground samples. There was a dose-dependent decrease in the 6-gingerol content of the ground ginger decreased by 65.6, 67.4 and 70.4% for the 0, 5, and 10 kGy samples, respectively, while the corresponding values for the ungrounded ginger samples were 37.8, 40.0 and 44.3% at the end of the storage period

  1. Processing and Compatibility Laws of Rhizoma Cyperi in Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions for Dysmenorrhea%香附在痛经方剂中的炮制与配伍规律探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林妍燕; 王曼宇; 徐长玲; 文乐兮

    2017-01-01

    目的:探讨香附在痛经方剂中的炮制方法与配伍规律.方法:收集整理《中医方剂大辞典》中含香附的痛经复方共71首,用Microsoft Excel建立数据库,通过数据筛选等功能,研究香附在痛经方剂中的炮制方法与配伍规律.结果:香附在经期腹痛的方剂中最多见,较少出现在经后腹痛的方剂中.痛经方剂中香附多生用,经前腹痛方剂中炒香附使用频率居第二位,经期腹痛方剂中制香附使用频率居第二位.配伍出现频率较高的是香附-当归、香附-川芎、香附-白芍.经前腹痛的方剂中亦多用香附配伍延胡索等;经期腹痛的方剂中亦多用香附配伍木香等;经后腹痛的方剂中常用香附配伍艾叶等.结论:香附治疗痛经依据疼痛发生时期的不同而有炮制、配伍之异.%Objective:To investigate the processing and compatibility laws of Rhizoma Cyperi in TCM prescription for dysmenorrhea.Methods:Collect and organize the prescriptions containing Rhizoma Cyperi in The Great Dictionary of Chinese medicine prescriptions,summed up to 71.We used Microsoft Excel to establish database,and investigated the processing and compatibility laws of Rhizoma Cyperi in dysmenorrhea prescriptions by data screening.Results:Rhizoma Cyperi is more often used to treat the menstrual pain than in the treatment of post-menstrual pain.Unprocessed Rhizoma Cyperi is more used in dysmenorrhea prescriptions,and the fried Rhizoma Cyperi frequency in premenstrual pain prescriptions ranks the second and in menstrual prescriptions ranks the second.The higher frequency of compatibility is Rhizoma Cyperi-Angelica Sinensi,Rhizoma Cyper-Ligusticum Wallichii and Rhizoma CyperiRadix Paeoniae Alba.Rhizoma Cyperi combined with Corydalis Tuber is also widely used in premenstrual pain prescriptions,Rhizoma Cyperi combined with Costustoot during menstrual pain,and Rhizoma Cyperi combined with Folium Artemisiae Argyi after the menstrual cycle.Conclusion:Rhizoma

  2. Five new diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis and their antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Dan; Gao, Jin-Tao; Liu, Jing-Gong; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Rui-Zhi; Lu, Chuan-Jian

    2015-04-01

    Five new diarylheptanoids (1-5), along with nine known ones (6-14), were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1-3 were cyclic diarylheptanoids rarely discovered from C. kwangsiensis. Of all the isolated compounds, compound 4 showed moderate antiproliferative activity on HH and HaCaT cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizomes in artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    Rhizomes are essential organs for growth and expansion of Phragmites australis. They function as an important source of organic matter and as a nutrient source, especially in the artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) of shallow lakes. In this study, decomposition experiments on 1- to 6-year-old P. australis rhizomes were conducted in the ALWTZ of Lake Baiyangdian to evaluate the contribution of the rhizomes to organic matter accumulation and nutrient release. Mass loss and changes in nutrient content were measured after 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days. The decomposition process was modeled with a composite exponential model. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors. A multiple stepwise regression model was utilized to determine the dominant factors that affect mass loss. Results showed that the decomposition rates in water were significantly higher than those in soil for 1- to 6-year-old rhizomes. However, the sequence of decomposition rates was identical in both water and soil. Significant relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors were observed at a later stage, and P-related factors proved to have a more significant impact than N-related factors on mass loss. According to multiple stepwise models, the C/P ratio was found to be the dominant factor affecting the mass loss in water, and the C/N and C/P ratios were the main factors affecting the mass loss in soil. The combined effects of harvesting, ditch broadening, and control of water depth should be considered for lake administrators.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Tannins in the Rhizomes of Great Burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhametgaliev N.R.; Idrisova G.I.; Gilazieva G.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the content of tannins in the rhizomes of great burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis L.) was performed using Leventhal’s permanganometric method, its Kursanov's modification, and spectrophotometry. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods used were discussed to determine the quantitative content of tannins in the active parts of different plants. New locations of S. officinalis populations in various regions of the Republic of Tatarstan were detected. The discovered pop...

  5. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Acorus calamus Rhizomes against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes, its insecticidal activity against the booklouse, (Liposcelis bostrychophila and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. calamus rhizomes was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 32 components of the essential oil of A. calamus rhizomes was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were determined to be α-asarone (50.09%, (E-methylisoeugenol (14.01%, and methyleugenol (8.59%, followed by β-asarone (3.51%, α-cedrene (3.09% and camphor (2.42%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, (E-methylisoeugenol and α-asarone. The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LD50 value of 100.21 µg/cm2 while three constituent compounds, α-asarone, methyleugenol, and (E-methylisoeugenol had LD50 values of 125.73 µg/cm2, 103.22 µg/cm2 and 55.32 µg/cm2, respectively. Methyleugenol and (E-methylisoeugenol possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila adults with LC50 values of 92.21 μg/L air and 143.43 μg/L air, respectively, while the crude essential oil showed an LC50 value of 392.13 μg/L air. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. calamus rhizomes and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural fumigants/insecticides for control of the booklice.

  6. Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

    1994-02-01

    Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles. Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs.

  7. Suppression of Rhizome Rot in Organically Cultivated Ginger Using Integrated Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ki Shim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to control ginger rhizome rot treated with the combined treatment, the hairy vetch, carbonized rice husk and eggshell calcium in organic ginger farm. Early symptoms of leaf yellowing and plant wilt began in the chemical fertilizer treatment on July 1. Ginger rhizome rot was more progressed on October 2, and stem browning and dead plant showed a high disease incidence with from 36.7% to 43.0%. On the other hand, the combined treatment did not occur at all until July 1 and delayed the disease incidence to October 2. It showed a low disease incidence of 1.3% to 1.7%. In the combined treatment, the content of soil Na, Fe, Cu was decreased and organic matter was increased twice with 31.6% than previous. Population density of Pythium sp. is lower in the combined treatment (0.3-2.0×103 cfu/g than the chemical fertilizer treatments (12.0-12.3×103 cfu/g. The combined treatment, hairy vetch, carbonized rice husk and the eggshell calcium is able to control the ginger rhizome rot in organically cultivated ginger field.

  8. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Alpinia blepharocalyx rhizomes against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of essential oil derived from Alpinia blepharocalyx rhizomes against the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius. Essential oil of A. blepharocalyx rhizomes was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 46 components of the essential oil of A. blepharocalyx rhizomes were identified. The principal compounds in A. blepharocalyx essential oil were camphor (23.13%, sabinene (11.27%, α-pinene (9.81% and eucalyptol (8.86% followed by camphene (8.05%, sylvestrene (5.61% and α-phellandrene (5.00%. Among them, the four active constituents, predicted with a bioactivity-test, were isolated and identified as camphor, sabinene, α-pinene and eucalyptol. The essential oil of A. blepharocalyx possessed strong contact toxicity against the cigarette beetle with LD50 value of 15.02 μg adult-1, and also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LC50 value of 3.83 mg L-1 air. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. blepharocalyx shows potential in terms of contact and fumigant toxicities against stored product insects.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Rhizoma Zingiberis on the Level of Aconitine in Rat Gut Sacs and Qualitative Analysis of the Major Influencing Components of Rhizoma Zingiberis on Aconitine Using UPLC/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xin

    Full Text Available This study attempted to clarify the material basis for the detoxification of Rhizoma Zingiberis (RZ on aconitine, an analgesic drug, by quantitatively assessing the influence of RZ on the in vitro intestinal concentration of aconitine using an everted gut sac model and by qualitatively identifying the components in the RZ extract. To quantify aconitine in rat everted gut sacs, both an accurate processing method and a sensitive detection method were required. We developed a three-step sample processing method to protect the components from decomposition and applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/TQMS to quantify aconitine, glucose and digoxin. In addition, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC/ITMS was applied to detect the potential antidotal components in the RZ extract. Finally, the RZ extract reduced the level of aconitine in everted gut sacs, and eleven gingerols were successfully identified, which could be considered potential antidotal components for aconitine. This study demonstrated the application of two UPLC/MS methods for analyzing the material basis for the reciprocity between Chinese medicine components in everted gut sacs.

  10. The root/rhizome system of seagrasses: an asset and a burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminga, M. A.

    1998-06-01

    Large-scale declines in seagrass vegetation have been frequently observed in recent decades. Many of these declines can be traced to the reduction of light levels in the water column. In this paper, it is argued that the root/rhizome system offers a competitive advantage in nutrient-poor waters, but that it makes the plant vulnerable when changes in water quality lead to reduction of incident light. Seagrasses are capable of exploiting the nutrient stocks of both the water column and the sediment pore water, by leaves and roots, respectively. A survey of the literature shows that the median concentrations of water-column ammonium and phosphate in seagrass beds worldwide are 1.7 and 0.35 μM, respectively, whereas the same compounds in the pore water of the root zone reach median concentrations of 60 and 6.5 μM. The dual possibilities for nutrient uptake may underlie the apparent lack of strongly developed nutrient conservation strategies in seagrasses. The possession of roots becomes a disadvantage when the photosynthetically active radiation available to the plants decreases. At saturating light levels, the maximum rate of net photosynthesis (measured as O 2 production) of the leaves typically exceeds leaf respiration (measured as O 2 consumption) about 5 times. In low-light environments, the respiring below-ground biomass (which can greatly exceed the above-ground biomass) can be a considerable burden to the carbon balance of the plant, limiting its survival potential. In addition, secondary and tertiary effects of light reduction involving the roots and rhizomes may undermine plant vitality as well. Leaf photosynthesis is the major source of oxygen for the roots and rhizomes. Hence, decreased photosynthetic activity following light reduction may lead to hypoxic or anoxic conditions in the below-ground organs, presumably making them vulnerable to carbon starvation. A decreased flux of oxygen to the roots and rhizomes also restricts the possibilities for

  11. Metabolomics reveals the mechanisms for the cardiotoxicity of Pinelliae Rhizoma and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Tan, Yong; Tsui, Man-Shan; Yi, Hua; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Li, Ting; Chan, Chi Leung; Guo, Hui; Li, Ya-Xi; Zhu, Pei-Li; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Cao, Hui; Lu, Ai-Ping; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2016-10-01

    Pinelliae Rhizoma (PR) is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb, but it has been frequently reported about its toxicity. According to the traditional Chinese medicine theory, processing can reduce the toxicity of the herbs. Here, we aim to determine if processing reduces the toxicity of raw PR, and to explore the underlying mechanisms of raw PR-induced toxicities and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing. Biochemical and histopathological approaches were used to evaluate the toxicities of raw and processed PR. Rat serum metabolites were analyzed by LC-TOF-MS. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the metabolomics data highlighted the biological pathways and network functions involved in raw PR-induced toxicities and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing, which were verified by molecular approaches. Results showed that raw PR caused cardiotoxicity, and processing reduced the toxicity. Inhibition of mTOR signaling and activation of the TGF-β pathway contributed to raw PR-induced cardiotoxicity, and free radical scavenging might be responsible for the toxicity-reducing effect of processing. Our data shed new light on the mechanisms of raw PR-induced cardiotoxicity and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing. This study provides scientific justifications for the traditional processing theory of PR, and should help in optimizing the processing protocol and clinical combinational application of PR.

  12. Extraction Optimization, Characterization, and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum Cum Alumine Employing Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Jie; Mo, Xue-Lin; Tang, Xiao-Zhang; Li, Jiang-Hua; Hu, Mei-Bian; Yan, Dan; Peng, Wei; Wu, Chun-Jie

    2017-06-09

    In this study, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides (PSA) from Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum Cum Alumine (PRPCA) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The structural characteristics of PSA were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high performance gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. In addition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of PSA were studied by different in vitro assays. Results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of water to raw of 30 mL/g, extraction time of 46.50 min, ultrasonic temperature of 72.00 °C, and ultrasonic power of 230 W. Under these conditions, the obtained PSA yield (13.21 ± 0.37%) was closely agreed with the predicted yield by the model. The average molecular weights of the PSA were estimated to be 5.34 × 10³ and 6.27 × 10⁵ Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that PSA consisted of mannose, galactose uronic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose with a molar ratio of 1.83:0.55:75.75:1.94:0.45. Furthermore, PSA exhibited moderate antioxidant and antibacterial activities in vitro. Collectively, this study provides a promising strategy to obtain bioactive polysaccharides from processed products of herbal medicines.

  13. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of bioactive alkaloid compounds from rhizoma coptidis (Coptis chinensis Franch.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Choi, Yong Hee

    2014-01-01

    The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content (TAC), berberine content (BC), palmatine content (PC), and the highest antioxidant capacity (AC) from rhizoma coptidis subjected to ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) with three variables and five levels was employed, and response surface plots were constructed in accordance with a second order polynomial model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the quadratic model was well fitted and significant for responses of TAC, BC, PC, and AA. The optimum conditions obtained through the overlapped contour plot were as follows: ethanol concentration of 59%, extraction time of 46.57min, and temperature of 66.22°C. Verification experiment was carried out, and no significant difference was found between observed and estimated values for each response, suggesting that the estimated models were reliable and valid for UAE of alkaloids. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of Corydalis Rhizoma and L-tetrahydropalmatine on dopamine system of hippocampus and striatum in morphine-induced conditioned place preference rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shou-Yang; Bai, Wei-Feng; Tu, Ping; Qiu, Cheng-Kai; Yang, Pei-Run; Luo, Su-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effects of Corydalis Rhizoma and L-tetrahydropalma-tine (L-THP) on the levels of dopamine neurotransmitter (DA), dopamine transporter (DAT) and the second dopamine receptor (D2R) in learning and memory-related brain areas, hippocampus and striatum, the DA, DAT and D2R were detected in conditioned place preference (CPP) rats suffered from morphine. And comparation the degree of similarity and consistency of the pharmacological effects was also studied. The rats were trained in black compartments and white ones (drug-paired compartment) with the increasing doses of morphine for 10 days (hypodermically injected from 10 mg•kg⁻¹ to 100 mg•kg⁻¹). Models of CPP were validated in those psychological dependence rats after 48 h training. The dopamine contents were detected as soon as the materials of hippocampus and striatum are harvested from rats of NS control group and model group. The DAT and D2R levels are measured by Western blot. The high, medium and low dose group of Corydalis Rhizoma are given Corydalis Rhizoma 2, 1, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹ water extraction liquid respectively (which contains L-THP were 0.274, 0.137 and 0.137 mg respectively), and the high, medium and low dose group of L-THP were given L-THP 3.76, 1.88, 0.94 mg•kg⁻¹ lavage treatment respectively, NS treatment group were lavaged normal saline for 6 days and they were killed after test of CPP, again tested DA levels and expression of DAT and D2R similar to the front of materials. The reduction effects of CPP were observed in the groups of both Corydalis Rhizoma (2, 1 g•kg⁻¹) and L-THP (3.76, 1.88 mg•kg⁻¹) subjected to medicine for 6 days (Peffect of L-THP. The similar effects were observed on the neurotransmitter dopamine, DAT and D2R in learning and memory-related brain areas, hippocampus and striatum of the morphine- dependent rats. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Attenuation of gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunsuyi, Opeyemi B; Akinyemi, Ayodele J

    2012-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes on antioxidant status and renal damage induced by gentamycin in rats. Renal damage was induced in albino rats pretreated with dietary inclusion of ginger and turmeric (2% and 4%) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for three days. Assays for renal damage biomarkers (plasma creatinine, plasma urea, blood urea nitrogen and plasma uric acid), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as renal antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out. The study revealed significant (p turmeric rhizome (2% and 4%) prior to gentamycin administration significantly (p turmeric rhizomes may protect against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  16. Analysis of essential oils of leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Smith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridahanim Mohd Jaafar; Che Puteh Osman; Nor Hadiani Ismail; Khalijah Awang

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes of Etlingera elatior, an aromatic plant that are widely used in traditional medicine and as a flavour in local dishes were extracted. The essential oils were extracted using the hydro distillation method and analysed by GC-MS. The percentage yield of volatile constituents of the leaves, stems, flowers and rhizomes were 0.0735%, 0.0029%, 0.0334% and 0.0021%, respectively. The leaf essential oil contained β- pinene (19.7%), caryophyllene (15.36%) and (E)-β-farnesene (27.90%) as major compounds whereas the stem essential oil were largely dominated by 1,1-dodecanediol diacetate (34.26%) and (E)-5-dodecane (26.99%). The essential oils of the flowers and rhizomes contained the major compounds 1, 1- dodecanediol diacetate (24.38% and 40.37% respectively) and cyclododecane (47.28% and 34.45% respectively). (author)

  17. Two new monoterpenoid glycosides from the fresh rhizome of Tongling White Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Tan, Su-Bei; Wang, Ya; Chang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Two new monoterpenoid glycosides, trans-1,8-cineole-3,6-dihydroxy-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and 5,9-dihydroxy borneol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with four known monoterpenoid glycosides (3-6), were isolated from the water-soluble constituents of the fresh rhizome of Tongling White Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Their structures were decisively elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In vitro tests for antimicrobial activity showed that compounds 1 and 3 possess significant activity against two Gram-positive organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  18. Anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from Panax japonicus rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuda Hiromichi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rhizomes of Panax japonicus are used as a folk medicine for treatment of life-style related diseases such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as a substitute for ginseng roots in China and Japan. Obesity is closely associated with life-style-related diseases. This study was performed to clarify whether chikusetsusaponins prevent obesity induced in mice by a high-fat diet for 9 weeks. Methods We performed two in vivo experiments. In one, female ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1 or 3% chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes for 9 weeks. In the other, lipid emulsion with or without chikusetsusaponins was administered orally to male Wistar rats, and then the plasma triacylglycerol level was measured 0.5 to 5 h after the orally administered lipid emulsion. For in vitro experiments, the inhibitory effects of total chikusetsusaponins and various purified chikusetsusaponins on pancreatic lipase activity were determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein in an assay system using triolein emulsified with lecithin. Results Total chikusetsusaponins prevented the increases in body weight and parametrial adipose tissue weight induced by a high-fat diet. Furthermore, consumption of a high-fat diet containing 1 or 3% total chikusetsusaponins significantly increased the fecal content and triacylglycerol level at day 3 compared with the high-fat diet groups. Total chikusetsusaponins inhibited the elevation of the plasma triacylglycerol level 2 h after the oral administration of the lipid emulsion. Total chikusetsusaponins, chikusetsusaponin III, 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin IV and 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin V inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes in mice fed a high-fat diet may be partly mediated through delaying the

  19. [Dynamic accumulation regulation of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxyeurcumin in three strains of curcuma longae rhizome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Miao; Yang, Wen-Yu; Tang, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Xian-Jian; Shu, Guang-Ming; Zhao, Jun-Ning; Fang, Qing-Mao

    2014-06-01

    The paper is aimed to study the dynamic accumulation regulation of curcumin (Cur), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxyeurcumin (BDMC) in three strains of Curcuma longa, and provide scientific references for formalized cultivation, timely harvesting, quality control and breeding cultivation of C. longa. The accumulation regulation of the three curcumin derivatives was basically the same in rhizome of three strains. The relative contents decreased along with plant development growing, while the accumulation per hectare increased with plant development growing. The accumulation of curcuminoids per hectare could be taken as the assessment standard for the best harvest time of C. longa. A3 was the best strain in terms of Cur and BDMC content.

  20. Evaluation of larvicidal activity and brine shrimp toxicity of rhizome extracts of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Augusto; Falcão-Bücker, Nádia Cristina; Nunez, Cecília Veronica; Pinheiro, Carlos Cleomir de Souza; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the Zingiber zerumbet rhizome to evaluate brine shrimp lethality and larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari mosquitoes. Bioassays were performed by exposing third-instar larvae of each mosquito species to the DCM or MeOH extracts. Probit analysis with DCM and MeOH extracts demonstrated efficient larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and A. nuneztovari larvae. The DCM and MeOH extracts showed higher activity against A. nuneztovari larvae than against A. aegypti larvae, suggesting that the extracts have species-specific activity.

  1. Utilization of metabonomics to identify serum biomarkers in murine H22 hepatocarcinoma and deduce antitumor mechanism of Rhizoma Paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Yang, He; Fan, Wei; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-25

    Murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model is so popular to be used for the preclinical anticancer candidate's evaluation. However, the metabolic biomarkers of this model were not identified. Meanwhile, Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) as natural products have been found to show strong antitumor activity, while its anti-cancer mechanism is not clear. To search for potential metabolite biomarkers of this model, serum metabonomics approach was applied to detect the variation of metabolite biomarkers and the related metabolism genes and signaling pathway were used to deduce the antitumor mechanisms of RPS. As a result, ten serum metabolites were identified in twenty-four mice including healthy mice, non-treated cancer mice, RPS-treated cancer mice and RPS-treated healthy mice. RPS significantly decreased tumor weight correlates to down-regulating lactate, acetate, N-acetyl amino acid and glutamine signals (p < 0.05), which were marked metabolites screened according to the very important person (VIP), loading plot and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) tests. For the analysis of metabolic enzyme related genes, RPS reversed the aerobic glycolysis through activating tumor suppressor p53 and PTEN, and suppressed FASN to inhibit lipogenesis. What's more, RPS repressed Myc and GLS expression and decreased glutamine level. The regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and HIF-1α/Myc/Ras networks also participated in these metabolic changes. Taken together, RPS suppressed ATP product made the tumor growth slow, which indicated a good anti-cancer effect and new angle for understanding the mechanism of RPS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the utility of (1)H NMR metabolic profiles taken together with tumor weight and viscera index was a promising screening tool for evaluating the antitumor effect of candidates. In addition, RPS was a potent anticancer agent through inhibiting cancer cellular metabolism to suppress proliferation in hepatoma H22 tumor murine, which promoted the

  2. Macrophage biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MSn analysis for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhao-Guang; Duan, Ting-Ting; He, Bao; Tang, Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Ru-Shang; Zhu, Jia-Xiao; Xu, You-Hua; Zhu, Quan; Feng, Liang

    2013-04-15

    A cell-permeable membrane, as typified by Transwell insert Permeable Supports, permit accurate repeatable invasion assays, has been developed as a tool for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (SGR). In this research, components in the water extract of SGR (ESGR) might conjugate with the receptors or other targets on macrophages which invaded Transwell inserts, and then the eluate which contained components biospecific binding to macrophages was identified by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Six compounds, which could interact with macrophages, were detected and identified. Among these compounds, taxifolin (2) and astilbin (4) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of standards, while the four others including 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (1), neoastilbin (3), neoisoastilbin (5) and isoastilbin (6), were elucidated by their structure clearage characterizations of tandem mass spectrometry. Then compound 1 was isolated and purified from SGR, along with 2 and 4, was applied to the macrophage migration and adhesion assay in HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) -macrophages co-incultured Transwell system for immunological activity assessment. The results showed that compounds 1, 2 and 4 with concentration of 5μM (H), 500nM (M) and 50nM (L) could remarkably inhibit the macrophage migration and adhesion (Vs AGEs (Advanced Glycation End Produces) group, 1-L, 2-H and 4-L groups: pgroups: pESI-MS(n) analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method for screening immunological active components from Traditional Chinese Medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Combining mechanical rhizome removal and cover crops for Elytrigia repens control in organic barley systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B; Nørremark, M; Kristensen, E F

    2013-01-01

    of vegetative propagules located within the plough layer to allow for quick re-establishment of a plant cover. A field experiment comparing the effects of conventional practices (stubble cultivation) with different combinations of rotary cultivation (One, Two or four passes) and cover crops (none vs. rye......-vetch-mustard mixture) on Elytrigia repens rhizome removal, shoot growth and suppression of a subsequent barley crop was examined in two growing seasons. Four passes with a modified rotary cultivator, where each pass was followed by rhizome removal, reduced E. repens shoot growth in barley by 84% and 97%. In general...

  4. Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Rhizome Are Putatively Mediated through Calcium Channel Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Samra; Memon, Raafia; Gilani, Anwar H

    2011-01-01

    Valeriana hardwickii is indigenous to Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, where it is traditionally being used as an antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, besides its culinary use as spice. The aim of this paper was to provide pharmacological validation to these medicinal uses. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome (Vh.Cr) was studied on isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice for spasmolytic and antidiarrheal properties, respectively. Vh.Cr caused concentration-dependent (0.01-1 mg/mL) relaxation of spontaneous contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum and inhibited K(+)-induced contractions (0.01-0.3 mg/mL), similar to verapamil, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB). The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Vh.Cr produced a concentration-dependent (0.03-0.1 mg/mL) rightward shift in the Ca(++) concentration-response curves, as caused by verapamil. Vh.Cr exhibited dose-dependent (100-300 mg/kg) protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Loperamide, a standard antidiarrheal drug, similarly prevented the diarrhea. These data indicate the presence of CCB effect in the extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome, possibly mediating its antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities and provide a scientific base for its traditional use in hyperactive gut disorders.

  5. Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Rhizome Are Putatively Mediated through Calcium Channel Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samra Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana hardwickii is indigenous to Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, where it is traditionally being used as an antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, besides its culinary use as spice. The aim of this paper was to provide pharmacological validation to these medicinal uses. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome (Vh.Cr was studied on isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice for spasmolytic and antidiarrheal properties, respectively. Vh.Cr caused concentration-dependent (0.01–1 mg/mL relaxation of spontaneous contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum and inhibited K+-induced contractions (0.01–0.3 mg/mL, similar to verapamil, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB. The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Vh.Cr produced a concentration-dependent (0.03–0.1 mg/mL rightward shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves, as caused by verapamil. Vh.Cr exhibited dose-dependent (100–300 mg/kg protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. Loperamide, a standard antidiarrheal drug, similarly prevented the diarrhea. These data indicate the presence of CCB effect in the extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome, possibly mediating its antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities and provide a scientific base for its traditional use in hyperactive gut disorders.

  6. THE PROSPECTS OF THE USE OF DRUGS BASED ON RHIZOMES AND ROOTS OF URTICA DIOICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Balagozyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. from the Urticaceae family is one of the popular medicinal plants. The leaves of Urtica doica L. are used in our country as a hemostatic agent. The rhizomes and roots are the base for the drugs for prostatic adenoma treatment in foreign countries. Earlier we studied acute toxicity, and diuretic activity of an extract of the rootstock with roots of Urtica doica L. We have conducted a study of antimicrobial activity of water and alcohol-water extracts from the rhizomes and roots of Urtica dioica L. The determination of a minimal inhibiting concentration was conducted by using a method of double series broth dilution. Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms were used as testing cultures. The study showed that the broth and liquid extract of the nettle, obtained on the basis of 70% ethanol do not stop the growth of microorganisms. The liquid nettle extract obtained by 40% ethanol is characterized by the weak antimicrobial activity.

  7. Bioactive Properties of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch. Rhizomes Growing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parina Asgharian, Abbas Delazar, Farzaneh Lotfipour. Solmaz Asnaashari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study was assigned to evaluate the antioxidant, general toxicity, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial activities of different extracts obtained from rhizomes of Eremostachys macrophylla (Lamiaceae. Methods: All activities were evaluated by obtaining extracts of E. macrophylla in n-hexane, DCM (dichloromethane and MeOH (methanol by soxhlet apparatus. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated in terms of FRST (free radical scavenging activity test by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. BSLT (Brine shrimp lethality tests, MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and disc diffusion method were carried out to determine the general toxicity, anti-proliferative and antibacterial activities of the different extracts, respectively. Results: The findings of the study for antioxidant, anti-proliferative and antibacterial effects showed that DCM extract was the most active fraction, but n-hexane extract indicated the most potent effect against Artemia salina. Conclusion: The results revealed strong bioactive effects of nonpolar fractions of E. macrophylla rhizomes. Thus, it is possible to suggest some new potential antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial agents with no harmful effects on noncancerous cells.

  8. Lipoxygenase and urease inhibition of extracts of polygonatum verticillatum rhizome: augmented by its isolated compound, santonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.; Saeed, M.; Saeed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the enzyme inhibitory profile of extracts of rhizome of Polygonatum verticillatum against lipoxygenase and urease. When tested against lipoxygenase, ethyl acetate fraction was found the most potent (IC50: 69 micro g/ml) and the overall IC50 values of different extracts ranged from 69-174 micro g/ml. In urease assay, n-butanol was the most potent fraction (IC50: 169 micro g/ml) while the overall IC50 values were in the range of 169-288 micro g/ml. Bioactivity guided chromatography led to the isolation of compound 1 which was characterized as santonin on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques. When santonin was tested against lipoxygenase and urease, it showed potent inhibition of lipoxygenase (IC50: 27.4 micro M) but did not attenuate the urease activity. Our findings provided strong evidence for the enzyme inhibitory profile of the extracts of P. verticillatum rhizome and its isolated compound. Thus results are consistent with the traditional use of the plant as an anti-inflammatory agent. (author)

  9. [Study on extracting and separating curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome using ultrasound strengthen by microemulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chun-Hua; Zheng, Li-Tao; Guo, Qi-Ming; Li, Kun-Ping

    2014-05-01

    To establish a new method for the extraction and separation of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome by cloud-point preconcentration using microemulsions as solvent. The spectrophotometry was used to detect the solubility of curcumin in different oil phase, emulsifier and auxiliary emulsifier, and the microemulsion prescription was used for false three-phase figure optimization. The extraction process was optimized by uniform experiment design. The curcuminoids were separated from microemulsion extract by cloud-point preconcentration. Oil phase was oleic acid ethyl ester; Emulsifier was OP emulsifier; Auxiliary emulsifier was polyethylene glycol(peg) 400; The quantity of emulsifier to auxiliary emulsifier was the ratio of 5: 1; Microemulsion prescription was water-oleic acid ethyl ester-mixed emulsifier (0.45:0.1:0.45). The optimum extraction process was: time for 12.5 min, temperature of 52 degrees C, power of 360 W, frequency of 400 kHz, and the liquid-solid ratio of 40:1. The extraction rate of curcuminoids was 92.17% and 86.85% in microemulsion and oil phase, respectively. Curcuminoids is soluble in this microemulsion prescription with good extraction rate. This method is simple and suitable for curcuminoids extraction from Curcuma longa rhizome.

  10. Anti-allergic activity of sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2011-02-01

    From the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (CRE), several major constituents including the sesquiterpene derivatives (valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide), monoterpenes (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, and limonene) and 4-cymene were isolated and examined for their anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. In rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells, the sesquiterpenes strongly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed leukotrienes production. In addition, they inhibited β-hexosaminidase release by antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, with valencene having the highest inhibitory effect. CRE inhibited leukotrienes production and β-hexosaminidase release at 300 μg/mL. It was also found that the most active sesquiterpene (valencene) and CRE inhibited β-hexosaminidase degranulation by inhibiting the initial activation reaction, Lyn phosphorylation, in IgE-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, CRE, valencene and nootkatone significantly inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice when administered orally at 50-300 mg/kg. In conclusion, C. rotundus and its constituents, valencene, nootkatone, and caryophyllene α-oxide, exert anti-allergic activity in vitro and in vivo. These sesquiterpenes, but not monoterpenes, certainly contribute to the anti-allergic activity of the rhizomes of C. rotundus.

  11. Ginger and turmeric expressed sequence tags identify signature genes for rhizome identity and development and the biosynthesis of curcuminoids, gingerols and terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) accumulate important pharmacologically active metabolites at high levels in their rhizomes. Despite their importance, relatively little is known regarding gene expression in the rhizomes of ginger and turmeric. Results In order to identify rhizome-enriched genes and genes encoding specialized metabolism enzymes and pathway regulators, we evaluated an assembled collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from eight different ginger and turmeric tissues. Comparisons to publicly available sorghum rhizome ESTs revealed a total of 777 gene transcripts expressed in ginger/turmeric and sorghum rhizomes but apparently absent from other tissues. The list of rhizome-specific transcripts was enriched for genes associated with regulation of tissue growth, development, and transcription. In particular, transcripts for ethylene response factors and AUX/IAA proteins appeared to accumulate in patterns mirroring results from previous studies regarding rhizome growth responses to exogenous applications of auxin and ethylene. Thus, these genes may play important roles in defining rhizome growth and development. Additional associations were made for ginger and turmeric rhizome-enriched MADS box transcription factors, their putative rhizome-enriched homologs in sorghum, and rhizomatous QTLs in rice. Additionally, analysis of both primary and specialized metabolism genes indicates that ginger and turmeric rhizomes are primarily devoted to the utilization of leaf supplied sucrose for the production and/or storage of specialized metabolites associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway and putative type III polyketide synthase gene products. This finding reinforces earlier hypotheses predicting roles of this enzyme class in the production of curcuminoids and gingerols. Conclusion A significant set of genes were found to be exclusively or preferentially expressed in the rhizome of ginger and turmeric. Specific

  12. RHIZOME YIELD OF TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. AT N, P, K VARIOUS LEVEL AND N, K COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Nihayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of N, P and K on temulawak have not been clear enough to explain the need in temulawak rhizome in order to get high yield. The experiment was conducted in a screen house in Malang East Java with an altitude of 500 m asl. from Desember 2010 - August 2011. There were 4 experiments in series, consisting of N, P, K various level and N,K alone and combination on the growth and quantity of rhizome arranged in randomized block design comprising 7 levels of fertilizer per plant with 3 replications. The treatments of urea (N, SP36 (P consisted of 0, 1,25, 2,5, 3,75, 5, 6,25 and 7.5 g. The KCl (K comprised 0, 1,5, 3, 4,5, 6, 7,5 and 9 g. The N, K alone and combination treatments consisted of (No fertilizer, N, K, NK g /plant. The results of this research were N, P, K optimum dose of each N 6.25 g N / plant P2O5/tan P 6.25 g, K 7.5 g K2O / plant increased temulawak rhizome dry weight. Combination 4.5 g N + 2.8 g K / plant could increase temulawak rhizome dry weight by 33% compared to the addition of N and 220% when compared to the addition of a single K harvesting age 6 months.

  13. Use of Computed Tomography Imaging for Qualifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging has been used to describe and quantify subtidal, benthic animals such as polychaetes, amphipods, and shrimp. Here, for the first time, CT imaging is used to successfully quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from...

  14. Use of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Imaging for Quantifying Coarse Roots, Rhizomes, Peat, and Particle Densities in Marsh Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-aided Tomography (CT) imaging was utilized to quantify wet mass of coarse roots, rhizomes, and peat in cores collected from organic-rich (Jamaica Bay, NY) and mineral (North Inlet, SC) Spartina alterniflora soils. Calibration rods composed of materials with standard dens...

  15. Pushing toward cogongrass (Imperata cylindrical) patch eradication: the influence of herbicide treatment and application timing on cogongrass rhizome elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatinder S. Aulakh; Stephen F. Enloe; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Andrew J. Price; Glenn Wehtje; James Miller

    2014-01-01

    Cogongrass, an invasive grass native to Asia, has infested thousands of hectares in the southeastern United States. Although numerous studies have examined cogongrass control, no published studies, to our knowledge, have tested strategies for cogongrass eradication. Cogongrass has a persistent, thick rhizome mat but an ephemeral seedbank; therefore, successful...

  16. DECOLORISATION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF SYNTHETIC DYES BY Lentinus polychrous Lév. CULTIVATED ON CASSAVA RHIZOME

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    Jirachaya Boonyarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cassava rhizomes are left in fields after harvesting. This agricultural waste is rich in lignocellulosic material which is a substrate for white rot fungi. Disposal of synthetic dyes poses a problem to the environment and it needs to be addressed. The ability of Lentinus polychrous Lév., a white rot fungus, grown on the cassava rhizome chips, to decolorise three kinds of synthetic dye was studied. The effects of the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome used for fungal cultivation, the temperature during the decolorisation, and the pH of synthetic dye solution on the extent of decolorisation were investigated. The decolorisations of Reactive blue 49, Navy blue and Acid blue 62 were affected by the initial moisture content of cassava rhizome. The highest extents of decolorisation of these dyestuffs were observed when the fungus was cultivated at 70% initial moisture content. Temperatures of 30, 37 and 45oC did not alter the extent of decolorisation of the dyestuffs. The most extensive decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62 (anthraquinone dyes were at pH 3.0 while that of Navy blue (azo dye was at pH 7.0. Adsorption was the main mechanism of decolorisation of Navy blue. However, both enzymic degradation and adsorption were involved in the decolorisations of Reactive blue 49 and Acid blue 62.

  17. Pushing towards cogongrass patch eradication: the influence of herbicide treatment and application timing on cogongrass rhizome elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogongrass is an invasive grass native to Asia that has infested thousands of hectares in the southeastern US. While numerous studies have examined cogongrass control, no published studies have tested strategies for cogongrass eradication. Since cogongrass has a persistent, thick, rhizome mat and ep...

  18. Protodioscin, Isolated from the Rhizome of Dioscorea tokoro Collected in Northern Japan is the Major Antiproliferative Compound to HL-60 
Leukemic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Manami; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Kawaii, Satoru; Yoshida, Yasunori; Mizuno, Kouichi; Oh, Keimei; Yoshizawa, Yuko

    2017-06-01

    The rhizome of Oni-dokoro (a wild yam, Dioscorea tokoro) has extremely bitter taste and is not generally regarded edible;, however, in northern part of Japan, such as Iwate and a part of Aomori, it is used as health promoting food. To clarify the reason, we examined the biologically active compounds in the rhizome collected at Iwate and compared them from the other area in literature. The acetonitrile extract from northern part of Japan was purified by bioassay-guided separation using antiproliferative activity to human leukemia HL-60 cell, and protodioscin (PD) was isolated and identified by instrumental analyses as the major active compound. PD known as a saponin with four sugar moieties, an inhibitor for platelet aggregation, and a low density lipoprotein (LPL) lowering agent, displayed strong growth inhibitory effect to HL-60. The literature search suggested that the rhizome from other area contained dioscin and other saponins with three sugar moieties as their major component. We assume that the edible and health promoting effect of the rhizome in the particular area is partially derived from these different components. We were interested in the differences of utilization in the rhizome of wild yam Dioscorea tokoro, and examined the chemical composition in the rhizome to find protodioscin as antiproliferative compound to HL-60. In the report from other area, the rhizome exhibited dioscin as the major compound. Our study indicated that the protodioscin/dioscin composition varied regionally, although the reason is still needs to be investigated.

  19. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Seed and Rhizome Propagated Miscanthus in the UK

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    Astley Hastings

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg. The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine. Economic and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions costs were quantified for the following production chain: propagation, establishment, harvest, transportation, storage, and fuel preparation (excluding soil carbon changes. The production and utilization efficiency of seed and rhizome propagation were compared. Results show that new hybrid seed propagation significantly reduces establishment cost to below £900 ha-1. Calculated GHG emission costs for the seeds established via plugs, though relatively small, was higher than rhizomes because fossil fuels were assumed to heat glasshouses for raising seedling plugs (5.3 and 1.5 kg CO2 eq. C Mg [dry matter (DM]-1, respectively. Plastic mulch film reduced establishment time, improving crop economics. The breakeven yield was calculated to be 6 Mg DM ha-1 y-1, which is about half average United Kingdom yield for Mxg; with newer seeded hybrids reaching 16 Mg DM ha-1 in second year United Kingdom trials. These combined improvements will significantly increase crop profitability. The trade-offs between costs of production for the preparation of different feedstock formats show that bales are the best option for direct firing with the lowest transport costs (£0.04 Mg-1 km-1 and easy on-farm storage. However, if pelleted fuel is required then chip harvesting is

  20. Metabolism of monoterpenes: early steps in the metabolism of d-neomenthyl-β-D-glucoside in peppermint (Mentha piperita) rhizomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croteau, R.; Sood, V.K.; Renstroem, B.; Bhushan, R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the monoterpene ketone l-[G- 3 H] menthone is reduced to the epimeric alcohols l-menthol and d-neomenthol in leaves of flowering peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), and that a portion of the menthol is converted to methyl acetate while the bulk of the neomenthol is transformed to neomenthyl-β-D-glucoside which is then transported to the rhizome. Analysis of the disposition of l-[G] 3 H]menthone applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis and transport of the monoterpenyl glucoside to be determined, and gave strong indication that the glucoside was subsequently metabolized in the rhizome. Studies with d-[G- 3 H]neomenthyl-β-D-glucoside as substrate, using excised rhizomes or rhizome segments, confirmed the hydrolysis of the glucoside as an early step in metabolism at this site, and revealed that the terpenoid moiety was further converted to a series of ether-soluble, methanol-soluble, and water-soluble products. The conversion of menthone to the lactone, and of the lactone to more polar products, were confirmed in vivo using l-[G- 3 H]menthone and l-[G- 3 H]-3,4-menthone lactone as substrates. Additional oxidation products were formed in vivo via the desaturation of labeled neomenthol and/or menthone, but none of these transformations appeared to lead to ring opening of the p-menthane skeleton. Each step in the main reaction sequence, from hydrolysis of neomenthyl glucoside to lactonization of menthone, was demonstrated in cell-free extracts from the rhizomes of flowering mint plants. The lactomization step is of particular significance in providing a means of cleaving the p-methane ring to afford an acyclic carbon skeleton that can be further degraded by modifications of the well-known β-oxidation sequence. 41 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  1. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wojciech; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Marzec, Zbigniew; Kasperek, Elwira; Wyszogrodzka-Koma, Lucyna; Szwerc, Wojciech; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2017-02-20

    The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%); the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg); a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass) and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass) content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb) remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6)-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6)-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, ( E , E )-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar -curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals.

  2. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Koch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan. GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%; the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg; a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E,E-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar-curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals.

  3. New steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Xiangrong; Hua, Dong; Cheng, Guang; Wang, Kaixing; Zhang, Lihan; Tang, Haifeng; Wang, Minchang

    2016-06-01

    Four new furostanol saponins, named padelaosides C-F (1-4), together with four known spirostanol saponins 5-8 were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi Franchet. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The discovery of the new compounds 1-4 extended the diversity and complexity of this furostanol saponin family. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins was evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma U87MG and human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2 cell lines. The known spirostanol saponins 7 and 8 exhibited notable cytotoxicity against the two tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 1.13 and 3.42μM, respectively, while the new furostanol saponins 3 and 4 showed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 15.28 to 16.98μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New Sesquiterpenoids and Anti-Platelet Aggregation Constituents from the Rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jih-Jung; Tsai, Tung-Han; Liao, Hsiang-Ruei; Chen, Li-Chai; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chen, Chun-Lin; Wei, Chun-Sheng

    2016-10-17

    Two new sesquiterpenoids-13-hydroxycurzerenone ( 1 ) and 1-oxocurzerenone ( 2 )-have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria , together with 13 known compounds ( 3 - 15 ). The structures of two new compounds were determined through spectroscopic and MS analyses. Among the isolated compounds, 13-hydroxycurzerenone ( 1 ), 1-oxocurzerenone ( 2 ), curzerenone ( 3 ), germacrone ( 4 ), curcolone ( 5 ), procurcumenol ( 6 ), ermanin ( 7 ), curcumin ( 8 ), and a mixture of stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione ( 12 ) and stigmasta-4,22-dien-3,6-dione ( 13 ) exhibited inhibition (with inhibition % in the range of 21.28%-67.58%) against collagen-induced platelet aggregation at 100 μM. Compounds 1 , 5 , 7 , 8 , and the mixture of 12 and 13 inhibited arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation at 100 μM with inhibition % in the range of 23.44%-95.36%.

  5. Four new sesquiterpenes from the rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis and their iNOS inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiang-Hao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yue; Gao, Su-Yu; Ding, Li-Qin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Li-Xia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Three new guaiane-type sesquiterpenes named phaeocaulisins K-M (1-3), and one germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid with new ring system of 1,5- and 1,8-ether groups named phagermadiol (4), were isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1, the first example of norsesquiterpene with tropone backbone, and compound 3 with a novel 1,2-dioxolane sesquiterpene alcohol were isolated from the genus Curcuma. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compound 3 inhibited NO production with IC50 value of 6.05 ± 0.43 μM. The plausible biosynthetic pathway for compounds 3 and 4 in C. phaeocaulis was also discussed.

  6. Hypoglycemic effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa L. rhizomes) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Minpei; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Nishiyama, Tozo; Mae, Tatsumasa; Kishida, Hideyuki; Tsukagawa, Misuzu; Takahashi, Kazuma; Kawada, Teruo; Nakagawa, Kaku; Kitahara, Mikio

    2005-05-01

    The turmeric (Curcuma longa L. rhizomes) EtOH extract significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-A(y) mice. In an in vitro evaluation, the extract stimulated human adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and showed human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligand-binding activity in a GAL4-PPAR-gamma chimera assay. The main constituents of the extract were identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and ar-turmerone, which had also PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity. These results indicate that turmeric is a promising ingredient of functional food for the prevention and/or amelioration of type 2 diabetes and that curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and ar-turmerone mainly contribute to the effects via PPAR-gamma activation.

  7. Anthelmintic potential of various extracts of the rhizomes of Curcuma amada Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharudra S. Rakh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anthelmintic potential of various extracts of the rhizomes of Curcuma amada Roxb. Methods: Cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of Curcuma amada Roxb. against Pheretima posthuma, an Indian species of earthworm. Various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg/mL of these extract were evaluated for anthelmintic activity by recording the time required for paralysis and death of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard drug. Results: Methanol and aqueous extracts shows most significant anthelmintic activity compared with standard drug. Conclusions: Since methanol and aqueous extracts were tested by different chemical tests. It shows presence of carbohydrates, steroid, alkaloids, glycosides and flavanoids. These phytoconstituents may be responsible for the said activities.

  8. Cytotoxic oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Minchang; Xu, Min; Wang, Yi; Tang, Haifeng; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-02-18

    Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1-5, together with five known saponins 6-10. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21α-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four human cancer cell line, including HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma) and HeLa (cervical carcinoma). The monodesmosidic saponins 6-8 exhibited cytotoxic activity toward all tested cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the 7.25-22.38 μM range.

  9. Melanogenesis stimulation in murine B16 melanoma cells by Kava (Piper methysticum) rhizome extract and kavalactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hideaki; Hirata, Noriko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Takata, Takanobu; Oyama, Masayoshi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kubo, Michinori

    2006-04-01

    Melanogenesis stimulation activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of five Piper species, namely Piper longum, P. kadsura, P. methysticum, P. betle, and P. cubeba, were examined by using cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Among them, the extract of P. methysticum rhizome (Kava) showed potent stimulatory effect on melanogenesis as well as P. nigrum leaf extract. Activity-guided fractionation of Kava extract led to the isolation of two active kavalactones, yangonin (2) and 7,8-epoxyyangonin (5), along with three inactive kavalactones, 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), (+)-kawain (3) and (+)-methysticin (4), and a glucosylsterol, daucosterin (6). 7,8-Epoxyyangonin (5) showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Yangonin (2) exhibited a weak melanogenesis stimulation activity.

  10. Isolation and identification of curcumin and bisacurone from rhizome extract of temu glenyeh (Curcuma soloensis. Val)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasari, Rista A.; Wibowo, Fajar R.; Marliyana, Soerya D.; Widyo Wartono, M.

    2016-02-01

    Temu glenyeh (Curcuma soloensis. Val) is one of the medicinal plants that grow in Surakarta. This plant is similar with C. longa and C. Xanthoriza. Chemical constituents from an extract of the plant have never been studied. In this paper, we report the isolation of a terpenoid and curcumin from the rhizome of C. soloensis. The isolation was employed by soxhlet apparatus using acetone as solvent. The fractionation and purification of the compound from the acetone extracts were undertaken by vacuum liquid chromatography and flash chromatography. Identification of compounds used spectroscopy methods, such as FTIR, NMR (1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and GC-MS. Isolated compounds were identified as curcumin (1) and bisacurone (2).

  11. Analgesic and antipyretic activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extracts in wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Neha

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain analgesic and antipyretic activities of rhizome extracts of Curcuma longa in Wister rats. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts at 100 and 200 mg/kg by oral, single dose treatment for seven days revealed significant difference (P<0.05, 0.01 in reaction time in terms of analgesic activity before and after treatments which was comparable to analgin (10 mg/kg b wt. and were ineffective in reversal of brewers yeast induced pyrexia. Solvent yield of these extracts was 20 percent and color dark brown and reddish brown with solid and semisolid consistency respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 304-306

  12. Magnetic purification of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome by novel naked maghemite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, Rene; Baratella, Davide; Ferreira, Maria Izabela; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Corraducci, Vittorino; Uliana, Maíra Rodrigues; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Santagata, Silvia; Sambo, Paolo; Vianello, Fabio

    2015-01-28

    Naked maghemite nanoparticles, namely, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), characterized by a diameter of about 10 nm, possessing peculiar colloidal stability, surface chemistry, and superparamagnetism, present fundamental requisites for the development of effective magnetic purification processes for biomolecules in complex matrices. Polyphenolic molecules presenting functionalities with different proclivities toward iron chelation were studied as probes for testing SAMN suitability for magnetic purification. Thus, the binding efficiency and reversibility on SAMNs of phenolic compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, namely, catechin, tyrosine, hydroxytyrosine, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, naringenin, curcumin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside, were evaluated. Curcumin emerged as an elective compound, suitable for magnetic purification by SAMNs from complex matrices. A combination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin was recovered by a single magnetic purification step from extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes, with a purity >98% and a purification yield of 45%, curcumin being >80% of the total purified curcuminoids.

  13. Influence of Turmeric Rhizome Powder diets on decreasing oxidative stress caused by heat stress inbroiler model

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    Seyyed Javad Hosseini-Vashan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS increases during oxidative stress conditions, which stimulates diabetes, inflammatory reactions, rheumatism and anemia. Some antioxidant properties of turmeric rhizome powder (TRP were revealed by previous researchers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of TRP on decreasing effects of oxidative stress resulted from heat stress in broiler chickens.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two-hundred-sixty-four 1-day-old broilers were divided into 3 dietary treatments. The dietary treatments involved 0(control, 0.4 and 0.8% turmeric rhizome powder (cases. In order to create oxidative stress, the ambient temperature was daily raised from 21 to 33oc for 5 hours (11a.m-4p.m throughout the 28th-42nd days. Blood lipids, Glutathione peroxidase (GPx ,superoxide dismutase (SOD, and Tiobarbituric acid reaction score (TBARS were determined at the end of the experiment.   Results: The results revealed that total cholesterol and triglyceride were not affected. The 0.4 TRP diet decreased blood LDL (46.7±3.01 compared to basal group (52.0±2.17. HDL increased in broilers fed 0.8% TRP (74.0 ± 3.87 compared to chickens with basal diet (63.7± 2.98. Enzyme activity of GPx improved in broilers fed TRP diets (225.9± 11.52 as compared to chickens with basal diet(183.1± 8.52 however, the TRP diet did not affect enzyme activity of SOD (P > 0.05. The TBARS index decreased in broilers fed TRP (0.76 ± 0.0052 in basal vs.0.49 ± 0.0032 in 0.8% TRP.   Conclusion: The major bioactive component of TRP is Curcumin that can improve the antioxidant properties under oxidative stress and high ambient temperature.

  14. Cytotoxicity of Alpinia galanga Rhizome Crude Extract on NIH-3T3 Cells

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    Ferry Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga was reported as a potential medicinal source due to its wide effect. A. galanga rhizome crude extract (ARCE was reported to have high cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but low in normal cells. However half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of ARCE is not clearly known yet. Hence, current study was conducted to investigate the IC50 of ARCE in normal standard fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3 cells. METHODS: Rhizomes of A. galanga were collected, peeled, dried, milled and weighed. Extraction was performed using maceration method, then filtered and evaporated. ARCE with various concentrations were applied in NIH-3T3 cells for 24 or 48 hours. Cells were documented and counted with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: Five hundreds grams of simplicia were macerated with ethanol and evaporated, 1 mg/mL crude extract with total volume of 114 mL was obtained. By addition of ARCE in NIH-3T3 cell culture, number of NIH-3T3 cells were shown less when treated with higher concentration of ARCE. Cell numbers of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50% ARCE treatment for 24 hours are 11,531, 11,352, 10,920, 10,365, 9,471, 8,360, respectively, meanwhile for 48 hours are 13,219, 12,686, 12,278, 11,390, 10,279, 8,390, respectively. CONCLUSION: IC50 of ARCE in 24 hours treatment was 620.5 mg/mL, while in 48 hours treatment was 666.6 mg/mL. Hence, ARCE is suggested to have low cytotoxic effect in NIH-3T3 cells. KEYWORDS: Alpinia galanga, ginger, extract, cytotoxic, MTT, NIH-3T3

  15. Antihypertensive effect of rhizome part of Acorus calamus on renal artery occlusion induced hypertension in rats

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    Pinal Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rhizomes part of Acorus calamus (AC having the calcium inhibitory effect and diuretic activity which may potentiate Na+ excretion in hypertension induced by occlusion of renal artery. Therefore this study was aimed to investigate the effect of AC on experimentally induced hypertension. Methods: Hypertension in rats was induced by clamping the left renal artery for 4h by arterial clamp (2K1C. At the end of experiment animal were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg. Carotid artery was cannulated which was connected to pressure transducer for estimation of blood pressure. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes (EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension, demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure when compared with 2K1C rats indicated blood pressure lowering activity. Plasma renin activity was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in EAAC treated rats compared to 2K1C rats. EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower mean blood urea nitrogen and creatinine when compared with 2K1C rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly (P < 0.001 decreased, where as nitric oxide level in tissue was significantly elevated in EAAC treated rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 increased in EAAC treated rats when compared to 2K1C rats. Conclusions: In conclusions, EAAC treatment attenuated renal artery occlusion induced hypertension via nitric oxide generation and decreases the plasma renin activity.

  16. Healing Potential of Picrorhiza kurroa (Scrofulariaceae rhizomes against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration: a mechanistic exploration.

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    Bandyopadhyay Sandip K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of the rhizomes of the Indian medicinal plant, Picrorhiza kurroa in healing indomethacin-induced acute stomach ulceration in mice and examine its capacity to modulate oxidative stress and the levels of prostaglandin (PGE2 and EGF during the process. Methods Male swiss albino mice, ulcerated with indomethacin (18 mg/kg, p. o., single dose were treated up to 7 days with different doses of the methanol extract of P. kurroa rhizomes (designated as PK. The healing capacity of the most effective dose of PK (20 mg/kg, p. o. × 3 d was compared with that of omeprazole (Omez (3 mg/kg, p. o. × 3 d. The effects of the drug-treatment for one and three days on the biochemical parameters were assessed by comparing the results with that of untreated mice of the 1st and 3rd day of ulceration. The stomach tissues of the mice were used for the biochemical analysis. Results The macroscopic indices revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin administration, which was effectively healed by PK. Under the optimized treatment regime, PK and Omez reduced the ulcer indices by 45.1% (P P Compared to the ulcerated untreated mice, those treated with PK for 3 days showed decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (32.7%, P P P 2 (21.4%, P P P P P P P Conclusion PK (20 mg/kg, p. o. × 3 days could effectively heal indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in mice by reducing oxidative stress, and promoting mucin secretion, prostaglandin synthesis and augmenting expressions of cyclooxygenase enzymes and growth factors.

  17. Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma, the active component of the Kampo formula Daikenchuto, induces anti-inflammatory actions through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, M; Hori, M; Mihara, T; Ozaki, H; Oikawa, T; Odaguchi, H; Hanawa, T

    2017-12-01

    We previously reported that Daikenchuto (DKT), a gastrointestinal prokinetic Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine used for the treatment of postoperative ileus (POI), has characteristic potent anti-inflammatory activity. This effect may be partly mediated by the activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In this study, we identified the specific herbs in DKT that induce anti-inflammatory action. The herbal components of DKT were individually administered orally to each mouse four times before and after intestinal manipulation (IM) was carried out on the distal ileum. The anti-inflammatory activity of each crude drug was subsequently evaluated using immunohistochemical analyses of relevant molecules. Treatment with Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma (ZSR) but not the other components inhibited the infiltration of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-positive macrophages as effectively as DKT treatment. Selective α7nAChR antagonists, such as methyllycaconitine citrate, or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonists, such as HC-030031, significantly inhibited the amelioration of macrophage infiltration by ZSR. The inhibition of macrophage infiltration by ZSR was abolished in both α7nAChR and 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor (5-HT 4 R) knockout mice. Daikenchuto-induced anti-inflammatory activity, which was mediated by inhibiting macrophage infiltration in POI, is dependent on the effects of ZSR. Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma activates TRPA1 channels possibly in enterochromaffin (EC) cells to release 5-HT, which stimulates 5-HT 4 R in the myenteric plexus neurons to release ACh, which in turn activates α7nAChR on macrophages to inhibit inflammation in POI. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Imaging of metal bioaccumulation in Hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) rhizomes growing on contaminated soils by laser ablation ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmel, Jeremy; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri

    2012-01-01

    Understanding Pb removal from the translocation stream is vital to engineering Pb hyperaccumulation in above ground organs, which would enhance the economic feasibility of Pb phytoextraction technologies. We investigated Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn distributions in Hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) rhizomes on shooting range soils by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), analyzing digested rhizomes, stems, and fronds using ICP-MS. Nutrients Cu and Zn concentrated in fronds while toxic elements Pb and Sb did not, showing potential Pb and Sb sequestration in the rhizome. Frond and rhizome concentration of Pb was 0.17 ± 0.10% and 0.32 ± 0.21% of dry biomass, respectively. The 208 Pb/ 13 C and 121 Sb/ 13 C determined by LA-ICP-MS increased from inner sclerotic cortex to the epidermis, while Pb concentrated in the starchy cortex only in contaminated sites. These results suggest that concentration dependent bioaccumulation in the rhizome outer cortex removes Pb from the vascular transport stream. - Highlights: ► Bioimaged Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn across fern rhizomes from shooting ranges using LA-ICP-MS. ► Pb levels were highest in the outer starchy cortex. ► Pb seemed to displace nutrients Cu and Zn in contaminated site rhizomes. ► [Pb] and [Sb] were correlated across organs suggesting similar transport factors. - Using LA-ICP-MS we determined elemental distributions in Hay-scented fern rhizomes including concentration dependent Pb sequestration patterns in the outer cortex.

  19. Shelf-life enhancement of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures by combination of gamma-irradiation, biocontrol and closed polyethylene bag storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, P.K.; Thomas, P.; Raghu, K.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of a combination process involving gamma-irradiation, packing in closed polyethylene bags and biological control of fungi causing storage rot was evaluated as a means of extending the shelf-life of fresh ginger rhizomes at ambient temperatures (25–30°C). Storage in closed polyethylene bags reduced weight loss but increased sprouting and rooting, which could be prevented by gamma irradiation to 60 Gy. Rotting caused by Sclerotium rolfsii was, however, a major cause of spoilage during extended storage. Four isolates of Trichoderma sp. isolated from sclerotia of S. rolfsii infecting ginger rhizomes, one of Gliocfadium uirens, and four isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas were tested, out of which, one isolate of Trichoderma was found to be highly effective in suppressing the growth of S. rolfsii. The efficacy of the antagonist was demonstrated under simulated market conditions using artificially inoculated rhizomes. The recommended procedure consists of dipping washed, air dried rhizomes in Trichoderma suspension (10 8 spores ml -1 ), air-drying, packing in 250 gauge LDPE bags followed by irradiation to 60 Gy. Rhizomes thus treated remained in good marketable condition for up to 2 months at ambient temperature without sprouting or significant loss of quality and less than 5% weight loss. An in vitro bioassay system was developed to demonstrate the efficacy of the antagonist to protect the cut surface of sliced rhizomes inoculated with the pathogen. The method could be used for rapid screening of antagonists

  20. Distribution of the carcinogenic terpene ptaquiloside in bracken fronds, rhizomes (Pteridium aquilinum),and litter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L. H.; Jensen, L. S.; Hansen, H. C. B.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of ptaquiloside (PTA) was studied in four Danish bracken populations in order to evaluate the transfer of PTA from ferns to soil. Populations showed statistically significant differences in PTAcontents of fronds and rhizomes despite large in-site variations. The highest concentra......The distribution of ptaquiloside (PTA) was studied in four Danish bracken populations in order to evaluate the transfer of PTA from ferns to soil. Populations showed statistically significant differences in PTAcontents of fronds and rhizomes despite large in-site variations. The highest...... showed that water could leach PTA from bracken fronds, which is in support of the high soil contents observed at sites exposed to heavy showers just before sampling. The observed soil contents correspond to estimated soil solution concentrations of 200–8500 ¹g/liter, demonstrating a substantial risk...

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on sprouting turmeric rhizome and the quality and resulting characteristics in powdered form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peret-Almeida, Lucia [UNI-BH, Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Junqueira, Roberto Goncalves; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (FAFAR/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2008-07-01

    Rhizomes were submitted to doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 kGy and stored at 26 {+-} 1 deg C and 85% relative humidity for 135 days. In 45 day intervals samples were collected for analysis of the rhizomes and processed into ground turmeric. The higher the dose the longer the time required for sprouting. At 0.15 kGy there was no sprouting up to 135 days of storage, however callus started to appear. The levels of curcuminoid pigments in ground turmeric were not affected by irradiation dose; however they varied with storage time. The CIE L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} color characteristics of ground turmeric were not affected by radiation dose, but changed with storage time, except for 0.15 kGy. (author)

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on sprouting turmeric rhizome and the quality and resulting characteristics in powdered form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peret-Almeida, Lucia; Junqueira, Roberto Goncalves; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.

    2008-01-01

    Rhizomes were submitted to doses of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 kGy and stored at 26 ± 1 deg C and 85% relative humidity for 135 days. In 45 day intervals samples were collected for analysis of the rhizomes and processed into ground turmeric. The higher the dose the longer the time required for sprouting. At 0.15 kGy there was no sprouting up to 135 days of storage, however callus started to appear. The levels of curcuminoid pigments in ground turmeric were not affected by irradiation dose; however they varied with storage time. The CIE L * a * b * color characteristics of ground turmeric were not affected by radiation dose, but changed with storage time, except for 0.15 kGy. (author)

  3. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Curcuma wenyujin Rhizomes Active against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

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    Shu Shan Du

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling rhizomes against the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of C. wenyujin rhizomes was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil were identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (15.26%, camphor (10.12%, germacrone (6.86%, β-elemene (6.33%, curzerene (6.70%, and β-elemenone (5.23%. followed by curzerenone (4.52%, curdione (4.45% and linalool (4.43%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the two main active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as 1,8-cineole and camphor. The essential oil of C. wenyujin rhizomes exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LD50 value of 208.85 µg/cm2. Camphor (LD50 = 207.26 µg/cm2 exhibited stronger contact toxicity than 1,8-cineole (LD50 = 1048.75 µg/cm2 against booklouse. The essential oil of C. wenyujin (LC50 = 2.76 mg/L air also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila, while the two constituents, camphor and 1,8-cineole had LC50 values of 1.03 mg/L air and 1.13 mg/L air, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. wenyujin rhizomes and its constituent compounds have potential for development as natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  4. Thin layer chromatography fingerprint, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, A.; Batubara, I.; Khumaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Fingerprints of 5 temu hitam (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) accessions (Malang, Cirebon, Kuningan 1, Bogor, and Liwa) were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and compared to fingerprints of turmeric (Curcuma longa L), temu putih (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe), and temu lawak (Curcuma zanthorriza Roxb.). Maceration method with ethanol as the solvent was used for extraction. The eluent used for fingerprint by TLC was chloroform:dichloromethane (9:1v/v). Five accessions of temu hitam show similar fingerprint patterns, but different in band thickness. Temu hitam rhizomes have bands of curcuminoid (Rf 0.22, 0.10, 0.03), and characteristic bands of Rf 0.42, 0.27, and 0.77, which can be distinguished from turmeric and temu lawak and Rf 0.13, which is different from temu putih. Leaves and stems of temu hitam can be distinguished from temu putih, turmeric, and temu lawak at Rf 0.60. Rhizomes of all plants reveal strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals than its corresponding stems and leaves. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities were determined by microdilution and TLC-bioautography. Antibacterial activity of rhizomes of Cirebon and Kuningan 1 accessions are higher than that of other accessions (MIC = 250 μg/mL MBC = 500 μg/mL, but lower as compared to that of temu lawak (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL, MBC = 250 μg/mL) and tetracycline (MIC = MBC = 15.63 μg/mL). Rhizome of Liwa accession exhibits the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 124.88 μg/mL) amongst all accessions, but lower than that of temu lawak (IC50 = 18.45 μg/mL), turmeric (IC50 = 18.82 μg/mL), and temu putih (IC50 = 94.35 μg/mL).

  5. Phenolic Compounds of Fresh Roots and Rhizomes of Garden Angelica Angelica Archangelica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. BASHIROVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because in the process of drying and storage of plant materials is a change of genuine compounds, we studied the content of phenolic compounds in freshly drawn angelica roots and rhizomes of the drug Angelica archangelica L. samples had been taken on the territory of the Bashkir State University experimental plot a few days before soil freezing. Fresh rhizomes and roots were ground at room temperature and poured with 96% ethanol. The first portion of the extract containing the glycosides was kept at +5 ° C to precipitate the polysaccharides, and the residual plant material was extracted repeatedly during the day of 96% ethanol to isolate coumarins.After two hours, the first portion of the extract containing glycosides was frozen in a refrigerator, and the remaining part was re-extracted by 96% ethanol for coumarin isolation next day. The second portion representing 80% of the ethanol extract was evaporated to a "tar" state under vacuum at room temperature. Then it was dissolved in CHCl3 and placed in the refrigerator. After a day of keeping the chloroform extract at -10°C, its separation into two fractions was observed: a yellow-orange top and a poor-colored bottom.After separation a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer Thermo Finnigan, 800-Finnigan chromatograph and mass spectrometer of high resolution MAT-95XP "Delta" with “Data System” processing were used.In the alcohol fraction (50% 6.45% there were found catechol, methylcatechol 0.61%, 4.23% 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, xanthyletine 0.78%, 4.21% osthol, 10.47% 2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H,5H-pyrano[2,3-b]chromen-5-one, 1.35% kvannin, isoangenomalin 0.37%, 0.8% psoralen and 1.32% prangenin.In the colored fractions 0.41 % bergaptol, 0.41 % marmesin, 0.20 % oroselonе, and 0.07 % neobyakangelikol have been found. High levels of ethyl α-D-glucopyranoside amounting to 35 % were observed in this fraction as well. furocoumarin glycosides are entirely possible to be hydrolysed during the

  6. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  7. A mass transfer model applied to the supercritical extraction with CO2 of curcumins from turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chassagnez-Méndez A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing restrictions on the use of artificial pigments in the food industry, imposed by the international market, have increased the importance of raw materials containing natural pigments. Of those natural substances with potential applications turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L, are one of the most important natural sources of yellow coloring. Three different pigments (curcumin, desmetoxycurcumin, and bis-desmetoxycurcumin constitute the curcuminoids. These pigments are largely used in the food industry as substitutes for synthetic dyes like tartrazin. Extraction of curcuminoids from tumeric rhizomes with supercritical CO2 can be applied as an alternative method to obtain curcuminoids, as natural pigments are in general unstable, and hence degrade when submitted to extraction with organic solvents at high temperatures. Extraction experiments were carried out in a supercritical extraction pilot plant at pressures between 25 and 30 MPa and a temperature of 318 K. The influence of drying pretreatment on extraction yield was evaluated by analyzing the mass transfer kinetics and the content of curcuminoids in the extracts during the course of extraction. The chemical identification of curcuminoids in both the extract and the residual solid was performed by spectrophotometry. Mass transfer within the solid matrix was described by a linear first-order desorption model, while that in the gas phase was described by a convective mass transfer model. Experimental results showed that the concentration profile for curcuminoids during the supercritical extraction process was higher when the turmeric rhizomes were submitted to a drying pretreatment at 343 K.

  8. Rhizomes of Eremostachys laciniata: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Chemical Constituents and a Clinical Trial on Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Delazar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was the isolation and structure elucidation of chemical compounds from the rhizomes of Eremostachys laciniata (L Bunge (EL, an Iranian traditional medicinal herb with a thick root and pale purple or white flowers as well as the clinical studies on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of topical application of the EL extract in the management of some inflammatory conditions, e.g., arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and septic arthritis (Riter’s syndrome. Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated unequivocally on the basis of one and two dimensional NMR, UV and HR-FABMS spectroscopic data analyses. A single-blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out with the extract of the rhizomes of E. laciniata (EL to determine the efficacy and safety of the traditional uses of EL compared to that of piroxicam in treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and Reiter’s syndrome. Results: Eleven iridoid glycosides, two phenylethanoids and two phytosterols were isolated and identified for the first time from the rhizomes of EL. After 14 days of treatment with the EL and piroxicam ointments, all groups showed significant improvements compared to the control groups. EL (5% ointment induced better initial therapeutic response than piroxicam (5% onitment. Conclusion: This clinical trial established that EL was suitable for topical applications as a safe and effective complementary therapy for inflammatory diseases.

  9. Changes in physicochemical properties related to the texture of lotus rhizomes subjected to heat blanching and calcium immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Xie, Wei; Du, Shenglan; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2016-11-15

    Pretreatments such as low temperature blanching and/or calcium soaking affect the cooked texture of vegetal food. In the work, lotus rhizomes (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) were pretreated using the following 4 treatments, blanching at 40°C, blanching at 90°C, soaking in 0.5% CaCl2, and blanching at 40°C followed by immersion in 0.5% CaCl2. Subsequently, the cell wall material of pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to identify changes in the degree of esterification (DE) and monosaccharide content of each section, and the texture of the lotus rhizomes in different pre-treatments was determined after thermal processing with different time. The results showed that the greatest hardness was obtained after blanching at 40°C in CaCl2, possibly attributing to the formation of a pectate calcium network, which maintains the integrity of cell walls. Furthermore, the content of galactose, rhamnose and arabinose decreased due to the breakage of sugar backbones and subsequent damage to cell walls. Our results may provide a reference for lotus rhizome processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Comparative study on specific chromatograms and main active components of wild and cultivated rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Ke; Gao, Yu-Ming; Cui, Gan; Liu, Jie; Guo, Li-Nong; Zheng, Jian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    The present study is to compare specific chromatograms and main acitive components between wild and cultivated rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis by HPLC. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 C₁₈ clumn (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (A)-water (B) at a flow rate of 1 mL•min⁻¹ (0-50 min,30%-50%A;50-80 min,50% A,80-85 min,50%-30%A;85-100 min,30% A). The detection wavelength was 203 nm and the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃, and the injection volume was 10 μL. HPLC specific chromatograms of wild and cultivated rhizomes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were established and nine steroidal saponins were simultaneously determined by the above method. The mean contents of paris saponin Ⅶ, paris saponin H and total average contents of four pennogenyl saponins in Rhizomes of wild samples were significantly higher than those of cultivated ones. However, this result is opposite from the average content of paris saponin Ⅰ and total average contents of five dioscins in the wild and cultivated samples. Because the significant differences occurred for the specific chromatograms and main active components between the wild and cultivated P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, much more pharmacological and clinical researches are therefore necessary. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Protective Effect of T. violacea Rhizome Extract Against Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

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    Olorunnisola Sinbad Olorunnisola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effect of methanolic extract of T. violacea rhizomes on high cholesterol (2% diet fed rats (HCD. At the end of 4 weeks, serum total protein, albumin, reduced glutathione (GSH, and markers of oxidative stress viz., catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS—a marker of lipid peroxidation, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the serum, aorta, liver and heart of HCD and normal rats were assessed and compared. A significant (p < 0.05 elevation in TBARS, and a reduction (p < 0.05 in serum total protein, albumin, GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in tissues of HCD fed rats compared with the normal group. Co-administration of crude extracts of T. violacea rhizomes protected the liver, heart, serum and aorta against HCD-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner. The activities of the extract (500 mg/kg compared favorably with gemfibrozil. The extracts also protected against HCD-induced reduction in serum total protein, GSH and restored the activities of antioxidant tissues (liver, heart and aorta enzymes to near normal values. This result suggested that consumption of T. violacea rhizome may help to protect against hypercholesterolemia- induced oxidative stress diseases in the heart and liver.

  12. Differential transcriptome profiling of chilling stress response between shoots and rhizomes of Oryza longistaminata using RNA sequencing.

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    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa is very sensitive to chilling stress at seedling and reproductive stages, whereas wild rice, O. longistaminata, tolerates non-freezing cold temperatures and has overwintering ability. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of chilling tolerance (CT in O. longistaminata should thus provide a basis for rice CT improvement through molecular breeding. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to profile global transcriptome alterations and crucial genes involved in response to long-term low temperature in O. longistaminata shoots and rhizomes subjected to 7 days of chilling stress. A total of 605 and 403 genes were respectively identified as up- and down-regulated in O. longistaminata under 7 days of chilling stress, with 354 and 371 differentially expressed genes (DEGs found exclusively in shoots and rhizomes, respectively. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that multiple transcriptional regulatory pathways were enriched in commonly induced genes in both tissues; in contrast, only the photosynthesis pathway was prevalent in genes uniquely induced in shoots, whereas several key metabolic pathways and the programmed cell death process were enriched in genes induced only in rhizomes. Further analysis of these tissue-specific DEGs showed that the CBF/DREB1 regulon and other transcription factors (TFs, including AP2/EREBPs, MYBs, and WRKYs, were synergistically involved in transcriptional regulation of chilling stress response in shoots. Different sets of TFs, such as OsERF922, OsNAC9, OsWRKY25, and WRKY74, and eight genes encoding antioxidant enzymes were exclusively activated in rhizomes under long-term low-temperature treatment. Furthermore, several cis-regulatory elements, including the ICE1-binding site, the GATA element for phytochrome regulation, and the W-box for WRKY binding, were highly abundant in both tissues, confirming the involvement of multiple regulatory genes and complex networks in the

  13. Comparison of the histology of (I) fresh, (II) solar dried and (III) solar dried/steam distilled ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome tissue prior to the extraction of its pungent principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-yen, I.; Duncan, E.J. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-06-01

    The histological analysis of the rhizome cells of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has revealed some information about the cell`s design. Comparisons have shown that the oleoresin (pungent principles - gingerols and shogaols) were not observable in cell sections of the fresh ginger rhizomes. However, the number of the oleoresin organelles increased in the order of solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes, the latter having a high oleoresin extraction yield with acetone of 8.0 g per 100 g ginger rhizome (dry wt.). (author)

  14. Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

    2015-04-15

    Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural Elements and Cough Suppressing Activity of Polysaccharides from Zingiber officinale Rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, K; Nosalova, G; Sivova, V; Ray, B

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is used for the management of fever, bronchial asthma and cough for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in human, the active principle of the formulation remains unknown. Herein, we have investigated a water extracted polysaccharides (WEP) containing fraction from its rhizome. Utilizing a traditional aqueous extraction protocol and using chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods a fraction containing a branched glucan and polygalaturonan in a ratio of 59:1 was characterized. This glucan, which has a molecular mass of 36 kDa, is made up of terminal-, (1,4)- and (1,4,6)-linked α-Glcp residues. Oral administration of WEP in doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight significantly inhibited the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts in guinea pigs. It does not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity significantly. Thus, traditional aqueous extraction method provides molecular entities, which induces antitussive activity without addiction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Drying kinetics of whole and sliced turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L. in a solar conduction dryer

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    A. Borah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying of turmeric was carried out in a solar conduction dryer (SCD. Drying air temperature was achieved around 39–51 °C for an ambient temperature in the range of 25–28 °C. Moisture content from 78.65% (wb, was reduced to 6.36% (wb and 5.50% (wb for solid and sliced samples respectively in 12 h effective drying time. Drying curve of sliced samples showed more uniform falling in comparison to that of whole samples. The average effective moisture diffusivity was found to be 1.852 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for slab samples and 1.456 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for solid samples. Out of four models tried for simulation, Page model was found as best fitted thin layer drying model when simulation was done for all the drying data. The overall thermal efficiency of the dryer was found to be 55%. Drying of sliced rhizomes showed better drying kinetics and effective drying time could be reduced by slicing instead of drying in whole form.

  17. Labdane diterpenoids from Curcuma amada rhizomes collected in Myanmar and their antiproliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ito, Takuya; Ngwe, Hla; Win, Yi Yi; Prema; Okamoto, Yasuko; Tanaka, Masami; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Four new labdane diterpenoids, 12β-hydroxy-15-norlabda-8(17),13(14)-dien-16-oic acid (1), (E)-15-ethoxy-15-methoxylabda-8(17),12-dien-16-al (2), (E)-15α-ethoxy-14α-hydroxylabda-8(17),12-dien-16-olide (3), and 15-ethoxy-12β-hydroxylabda-8(17),13(14)-dien-16,15-olide (4) were isolated from the methanol extract of Curcuma amada rhizomes collected in Myanmar, together with 13 known analogs. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques. All of the isolates were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against a small panel of five different human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung cancer; HeLa, human cervical cancer; MCF7, human breast cancer; PANC-1 and PSN-1, human pancreatic cancer). Among the isolates, compounds 2-4, 7, 8, 12, and 17 showed mild antiproliferative activities with IC 50 values ranging from 19.7 to 96.1μM. (E)-14-Hydroxy-15-norlabda-8(17),12-dien-16-al (11) exhibited strong antiproliferative activities selectively against HeLa, PANC-1, and PSN-1 cells, with IC 50 values of 5.88, 1.00, and 3.98μM, respectively. These potencies were comparable to those of the positive control, 5-fluorouracil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antitumour Effects of Isocurcumenol Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria Rhizomes on Human and Murine Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, S.; Padmaja, G.; Remani, P.

    2011-01-01

    Curcuma zedoaria belonging to the family Zingiberaceae has been used in the traditional system of medicine in India and Southwest Asia in treating many human ailments and is found to possess many biological activities. The rationale of the present study was to isolate, identify, and characterize antitumour principles from the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria, to assess its cytotoxic effects on human and murine cancer cells, to determine its apoptosis inducing capacity in cancer cells, and to evaluate its tumour reducing properties in in vivo mice models. Isocurcumenol was characterized as the active compound by spectroscopy and was found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells without inducing significant toxicity to the normal cells. Fluorescent staining exhibited the morphological features of apoptosis in the compound-treated cancer cells. In vivo tumour reduction studies revealed that a dose of 35.7 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the ascitic tumour in DLA-challenged mice and increased the lifespan with respect to untreated control mice. PMID:27429805

  19. Optimization of Alkaline Extraction and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yin, Luoyi; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qiuzhi; Jin, Chenzhong; Wang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as the following: NaOH concentration (A) 0.3 M, temperature (B) 80°C, ratio of NaOH to solid (C) 10-fold, and extraction time (D) 4 h, in which ratio of NaOH to solid was a key factor. The order of the factors was ratio of NaOH to solid (fold, C) > extraction temperature (°C, B) > NaOH concentration (M, A) > extraction time (h, D). The monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides from P. odoratum were rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose with the molecular ratio of 31.78, 31.89, 11.11, and 1.00, respectively. The reducing power, the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging rate, the hydroxyl radicals scavenging rate, and the inhibition rate to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation of the alkaline soluble polysaccharides from P. odoratum at 1 mg/mL were 9.81%, 52.84%, 19.22%, and 19.42% of ascorbic acid at the same concentration, respectively. They also showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:25093173

  20. Optimizing oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salea, Rinaldi; Widjojokusumo, Edward; Veriansyah, Bambang; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2014-09-01

    Oil and xanthorrhizol extraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. rhizome by supercritical carbon dioxide was optimized using Taguchi method. The factors considered were pressure, temperature, carbon dioxide flowrate and time at levels ranging between 10-25 MPa, 35-60 °C, 10-25 g/min and 60-240 min respectively. The highest oil yield (8.0 %) was achieved at factor combination of 15 MPa, 50 °C, 20 g/min and 180 min whereas the highest xanthorrhizol content (128.3 mg/g oil) in Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil was achieved at a factor combination of 25 MPa, 50 °C, 15 g/min and 60 min. Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane and percolation with ethanol gave oil yield of 5.88 %, 11.73 % and xanthorrhizol content of 42.6 mg/g oil, 75.5 mg/g oil, respectively. The experimental oil yield and xanthorrhizol content at optimum conditions agreed favourably with values predicted by computational process. The xanthorrizol content extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide was higher than extracted using Soxhlet extraction and percolation process.

  1. Study of the antioxidant effects of Eremostachys laciniata rhizome extracts in isolated rat hepatocytes

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    Haleh Vaez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eremostachys laciniata, having rich flavonoid content, is expected to have a considerable antioxidant effect. In this study We used ACMS (Accelerated cytotoxic or protective mechanism screening technique to evaluate the possible antioxidant effect of E. laciniata rhizome against oxidative cell damages induced by different types of oxidative stress such as iron-8-hydroxyquinolin (IQ complex and copper in freshly isolated liver cells. The extracts were prepared with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. Hepatocytes were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by a two-step collagenase perfusion. Cell viability was measured by trypan blue exclusion method. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. ROS formation was measured by using DCFDA (2, 7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate probe, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP was assessed by rhodamine 123 fluorescence and lipid peroxidation was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS assay. The MET extract was demonstrated to possess a significant radical scavenging activity (RC50%=0.212. Unlike MET extract, the n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts showed toxic effects in cell suspensions. The MET extract significantly decreased cell death and ROS formation induced by IQ complex and copper and demonstrated protective effects against copper-induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and lipid peroxidation. The protection induced by MET extract can be attributed to antioxidant characteristics of the phenylethanoids content.

  2. A new mannose-specific lectin from daylily (Hemerocallis fulva L. rhizome: purification and properties

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    V. O. Antonyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new lectin was purified from the daylily (Hemerocallis fulva L. with the yield of approximately 10 mg per kg of fresh plant rhizome. The purification procedure was based on application of the affinity chromathography on the column with yeast mannan and the ion-exchange chromatography on the column with DEAE-Toyopearl. The lectin possessed low affinity for α-methyl-D-mannopyranoside, D-fructose, D-turanose and 2-acetamido-D-galactopyranose and hight affinity for the yeast mannan. The lectin bound with greatly less affinity for the mannose-containig glycoproteins, such as ovoalbumin, ovomucoid and horseradish peroxidase. According to the results of electrophoresis in 20% DSNa-PAGE, the lectin consists of subunits of 12 kDa molecular weight. According to the results of gel-chromatography on the Toyopearl HW-55, the lectin’s molecular weight is 48 kDa. It agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes very well, while rat and guinea-pig erythrocytes were agglutinated worse, and human erythrocytes were not agglutinated at all. Lectin’s dialysis against 1% EDTA or heating to 60 ºC for 60 min did not stop its hemagglutinating activity.

  3. [Extraction Optimization of Rhizome of Curcuma longa by Response Surface Methodology and Support Vector Regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei-pei; Shan, Jin-feng; Jiang, Jian-lan

    2015-12-01

    To optimize the optimal microwave-assisted extraction method of curcuminoids from Curcuma longa. On the base of single factor experiment, the ethanol concentration, the ratio of liquid to solid and the microwave time were selected for further optimization. Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Central Composite Design-Response Surface Methodology (CCD) algorithm were utilized to design and establish models respectively, while Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was introduced to optimize the parameters of SVR models and to search optimal points of models. The evaluation indicator, the sum of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin by HPLC, were used. The optimal parameters of microwave-assisted extraction were as follows: ethanol concentration of 69%, ratio of liquid to solid of 21 : 1, microwave time of 55 s. On those conditions, the sum of three curcuminoids was 28.97 mg/g (per gram of rhizomes powder). Both the CCD model and the SVR model were credible, for they have predicted the similar process condition and the deviation of yield were less than 1.2%.

  4. Isoeugenin, a Novel Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Isolated from the Rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica

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    Hyo-Jin An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical studies on the constituents of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica (Gramineae were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. We also aimed to search for any biologically active substance capable of inhibiting nitric oxide (NO formation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophage 264.7 cells, by testing four compounds isolated from this plant. Four compounds, including a new chromone, isoeugenin, along with ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of isoeugenin was determined as 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylchromone by the 2D-NMR technique. Among the four compounds, isoeugenin has the lowest IC50 value on the inhibition of NO production in LPS-activated macrophage RAW264.7 cells (IC50, 9.33 μg/mL. In addition, isoeugenin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of isoeugenin is associated with the down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. Accordingly, our results suggest that the new chromone isoegenin should be considered a potential treatment for inflammatory disease.

  5. Isoeugenin, a Novel Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Isolated from the Rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyo-Jin; Nugroho, Agung; Song, Byong-Min; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2015-12-01

    Phytochemical studies on the constituents of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica (Gramineae) were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We also aimed to search for any biologically active substance capable of inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) formation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage 264.7 cells, by testing four compounds isolated from this plant. Four compounds, including a new chromone, isoeugenin, along with ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of isoeugenin was determined as 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylchromone by the 2D-NMR technique. Among the four compounds, isoeugenin has the lowest IC50 value on the inhibition of NO production in LPS-activated macrophage RAW264.7 cells (IC50, 9.33 μg/mL). In addition, isoeugenin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of isoeugenin is associated with the down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. Accordingly, our results suggest that the new chromone isoegenin should be considered a potential treatment for inflammatory disease.

  6. Active Compounds of Rhubarb Root and Rhizome in Animal Model Experiments of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-ju Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhubarb root and rhizome (RRR has been clinically used for stroke at least 2000 years and is still used in modern times in both China and elsewhere worldwide. The objective of present study was to evaluate the efficacy of active compounds of RRR (ACRRR for experimental ischemic stroke. Studies of ACRRR in animal models of ischemic stroke were identified from 5 databases until April 2014. Study quality for each included article was evaluated according to the CAMARADES 10-item checklist. Outcome measures were neurological deficit score and infarct size. All the data were analyzed using RevMan 5.1 software. As a result, 20 studies were identified describing procedures involving 577 animals. The quality score of studies ranges from 2 to 6, and the median was 3.4. Six studies showed significant effects of ACRRR for improving infarct size compared with model group (P<0.01. Six studies indicated significant effects of ACRRR for improving the neurological deficit scores according to Zea longa criterion or eight-point criterion (P<0.01. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated a possible efficacy of ACRRR that have potential neuroprotective effect for experimental ischemic stroke. However, these apparently positive findings should be interpreted with caution because of the methodological flaws.

  7. Determination of caffeic acid in root and rhizome of Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L. Nutt.

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    Zapala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cimicifuga racemosa, is a plant with a diverse and long history of medicinal use. Caffeic acid, bioactive compound, which often occurs with other polyphenols can influence the biological activity of this plant. The aim of our work was quantitative analysis of caffeic acid in roots and rhizomes of two varieties of C. racemosa. Analysis was performed by HPLC method. The extracts were separated on C18 reversed-phase column using mixture of methanol, water and formic acid (25:75:0.5 v/v/v as a mobile phase. The flow rate of eluent was 1.0 ml·min-1. The obtained validation parameters such as linearity, linear regression equation and precision expressed as a relative standard deviation were adequate for quantitative determination. Caffeic acid was found in all tested extracts. The highest total amount of caffeic acid was determined in C. racemosa var. racemosa (255.3 μg·g-1 while its concentration in C. racemosa var. cordifolia was significantly lower (213.0 μg·g-1.

  8. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-04-01

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P < 0.05). Mycorrhiza application in organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the combined application of tissue culture and mycorrhiza significantly increased concentrations of TF and gingerols and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05), suggesting their synergistic effects. Considerable amounts of phenolics were found in the Bound fractions of the rhizomes. Six-gingerol, ferulic acid, and lutein were predominant ones among gingerols, phenolic acids, and carotenoids, respectively, in ginger rhizomes. The results suggest that organic farming with mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Polysaccharides Extracted from Rhizoma Pleionis Have Antitumor Properties In Vitro and in an H22 Mouse Hepatoma Ascites Model In Vivo

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    Yukun Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant ascites is a highly severe and intractable complication of advanced or recurrent malignant tumors that is often immunotherapy-resistant. Rhizoma Pleionis is widely used in traditional medicine as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent, but its effectiveness in treating malignant ascites is unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of polysaccharides isolated from Rhizoma Pleionis (PRP on murine hepatocarcinoma H22 cells in an ascites model. We have found that the main components of PRP, that presented a relative molecular weight of 383.57 kDa, were mannose and glucose. We also found that PRP reduced the occurrence of abdominal ascites and increased survival in our mouse model. An immune response in the ascites tumor model was observed by performing a lymphocytes proliferation experiment and an E-rosette test. The ratios of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and NK cells in the spleen were examined by flow cytometry, and the mRNA expression of Foxp3+in CD4+CD25+ (T regulatory Tregs was measured by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The levels of the cytokines TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-2 (interleukin, and IFN-γ (interferon in the serum and ascites supernatants were measured by ELISA. The expression of Foxp3 and Stat3 in peritoneal cells in the mouse model was measured by immunocytochemistry. The results indicated that PRP increased H22 tumor cell apoptosis in vivo by activating and enhancing the immune response. Furthermore, the effects of PRP on the proliferation of H22 cells were assessed by the CCK8 assay, Hoechest 33258, and TUNEL staining in vitro. We found that PRP suppressed the proliferation of H22 tumor cells but had no effect on BRL (Big rat liver -3A rat hepatoma normal cells in vitro. Next, we investigated the underlying immunological mechanism by which PRP inhibits malignant ascites. PRP induced tumor cell apoptosis by inhibiting the Jak1–Stat3

  10. Composition of Hedychium Malayanum Rhizome Essential Oil and Its Antioxidant Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Yahya Abdo; Wan Yaacob Wan Ahmad; Laily Bin Din; Nazlina Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The Hedychium malayanum rhizome oil with a yield of 0.079 % was obtained after hydro distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Nineteen compounds representing 99.5 % of the total amount of oil were identified using capillary GC and GC-MS with a DB-5 column. The oil was dominated by monoterpenes (99.0 %) with 1,8-cineole (37.7 %), β-pinene (35.2 %) and α-pinene (10.9 %) being the most abundant constituents. The oil was studied for its antioxidant activities by three different tests, involving its effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (radical scavenging activity, RSA), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) in linoleic acid system. The oil showed fairly good activities toward all the above tests compared to the standards except in the case of FIC, where the standard ascorbic acid possessed weaker chelating ability than the oil. RSA was calculated as IC_5_0, and the respective values for gallic acid, ascorbic acid and the oil were 1.8 ± 0.06, 3.5 ± 0.30 and 140.3 ± 1.46 μg/mL. For BCB, the oil and standard BHT had possessed high and very high capacity (87.2 ± 1.00 and 96.8 ± 0.21 % respectively) to prevent the oxidation by linoleic acid. FIC activity showed that the oil and standard ascorbic acid were weaker chelating than EDTA (IC_5_0 86.9 ± 0.70 μg/ mL). However, the oil showed a fairly good chelating (IC_5_0 283.3 ± 5.26 μg/ mL) whereas the ascorbic acid possessed a weak activity to chelate Fe"2"+ (IC_5_0 1428.6 ± 7.04 μg/ mL). (author)

  11. Three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hoggas, Naouel; Hafid, Kahina

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes for the first time an elegant non-chromatographic method, the three phase partitioning for the purification and recovery of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme, from Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Factors affecting partitioning efficiency such as (NH4)2SO4 saturation, crude extract to t-butanol ratio and pH on zingibain partitioning were investigated. Optimal purification parameters were 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation with 1.0:1.0 ratio of crude extract:t-butanol at pH 7.0, which gave 14.91 purification fold with 215% recovery of zingibain. The enzyme was found to be exclusively partitioned in the aqueous phase. The enzyme showed a prominent single band on SDS-PAGE. It is a monomeric protein of 33.8 kDa and its isoelectric point is 4.38. The enzyme exhibited maximal proteolytic activity at a temperature of 60 °C and pH 7.0. It was found to be stable at 40-65 °C during 2 h. The enzyme was found to be highly stable against numerous metal ions and its activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+). It was completely inhibited by heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and partially by Cd(+). Zingibain milk-clotting activity (MCA) was found to be highly stable when stored under freezing (-20 °C) for 30 days compared at 4 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication and vibration characterization of curcumin extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes of the northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nong, Hoang; Hung, Le Xuan; Thang, Pham Nam; Chinh, Vu Duc; Vu, Le Van; Dung, Phan Tien; Van Trung, Tran; Nga, Pham Thu

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present the research results on using the conventional method and microwave technology to extract curcuminoid from turmeric roots originated in different regions of Northern Vietnam. This method is simple, yet economical, non-toxic and still able to achieve high extraction performance to get curcuminoid from turmeric roots. The detailed results on the Raman vibration spectra combined with X-ray powder diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry allowed the evaluation of each batch of curcumin crystalline powder sample received, under the conditions of applied fabrication technology. Also, the absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies of the samples are presented in the paper. The information to be presented in this paper: absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies of the samples; new experimental study results on applied technology to mass-produce curcumin from turmeric rhizomes; comparative study results between fabricated samples and marketing curcumin products-to state the complexity of co-existing crystalline phase in curcumin powder samples. We noticed that, it is possible to use the vibration line at ~959 cm(-1)-characteristic of the ν C=O vibration, and the ~1625 cm(-1) line-characteristic of the ν C=O and ν C=C vibration in curcumin molecules, for preliminary quality assessment of naturally originated curcumin crystalline powder samples. Data on these new optical spectra will contribute to the bringing of detailed information on natural curcumin in Vietnam, serving research purposes and applications of natural curcumin powder and nanocurcumin in Vietnam, as well as being initial materials for the pharmaceutical, cosmetics or functional food industries.

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  14. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Periasamy, Vengadesh [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physic, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  15. Rhizome of life, catastrophes, sequence exchanges, gene creations and giant viruses: How microbial genomics challenges Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky eMerhej

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Darwin’s theory about the evolution of species has been the object of considerable dispute. In this review, we have described seven key principles in Darwin’s book The Origin of Species and tried to present how genomics challenge each of these concepts and improve our knowledge about evolution. Darwin believed that species evolution consists on a positive directional selection ensuring the survival of the fittest. The most developed state of the species is characterized by increasing complexity. Darwin proposed the theory of descent with modification according to which all species evolve from a single common ancestor through a gradual process of small modification of their vertical inheritance. Finally, the process of evolution can be depicted in the form of a tree. However, microbial genomics showed that evolution is better described as the biological changes over time." The mode of change is not unidirectional and does not necessarily favors advantageous mutations to increase fitness it is rather subject to random selection as a result of catastrophic stochastic processes. Complexity is not necessarily the completion of development: several complex organisms have gone extinct and many microbes including bacteria with intracellular lifestyle have streamlined highly effective genomes. Genomes evolve through large events of gene deletions, duplications, insertions and genomes rearrangements rather than a gradual adaptative process. Genomes are dynamic and chimeric entities with gene repertoires that result from vertical and horizontal acquisitions as well as de novo gene creation. The chimeric character of microbial genomes excludes the possibility of finding a single common ancestor for all the genes recorded currently. Genomes are collections of genes with different evolutionary histories that cannot be represented by a single tree of life. A forest, a network or a rhizome of life may be more accurate to represent evolutionary relationships

  16. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2015-01-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl 4 .3H 2 O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine

  17. Stability of Curcuma longa rhizome lectin: Role of N-linked glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Himadri; Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal

    2016-04-01

    Curcuma longa rhizome lectin, a mannose-binding protein of non-seed portions of turmeric, is known to have antifungal, antibacterial and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. We studied the role of complex-type glycans attached to asparagine (Asn) 66 and Asn 110 to elucidate the role of carbohydrates in lectin activity and stability. Apart from the native lectin, the characteristics of a deglycosylated Escherichia coli expressed lectin, high-mannose oligosaccharides at both asparagines and its glycosylation mutants N66Q and N110Q expressed in Pichia pastoris, were compared to understand the relationship between glycosylation and activity. Far UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra, fluorescence emission maximum, hemagglutination assay show no change in secondary or tertiary structures or sugar-binding properties between wild-type and aforementioned recombinant lectins under physiological pH. But reduced agglutination activity and loss of tertiary structure are observed in the acidic pH range for the deglycosylated and the N110Q protein. In thermal and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnCl)-induced unfolding, the wild-type and high-mannose lectins possess higher stability compared with the deglycosylated recombinant lectin and both mutants, as measured by a higher Tm of denaturation or a greater free energy change, respectively. Reversibility experiments after thermal denaturation reveal that deglycosylated proteins tend to aggregate during thermal inactivation but the wild type shows a much greater recovery to the native state upon refolding. These results suggest that N-glycosylation in turmeric lectin is important for the maintenance of its proper folding upon changes in pH, and that the oligosaccharides help in maintaining the active conformation and prevent aggregation in unfolded or partially folded molecules. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Acute diuretic activity of aqueous Erica multiflora flowers and Cynodon dactylon rhizomes extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadki, Chrifa; Hacht, Brahim; Souliman, Amrani; Atmani, Fouad

    2010-03-24

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diuretic potential and effect on urinary electrolytes of aqueous Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae) flowers and Cynodon dactylon L. (Poaceae) rhizomes extracts in rats. Different concentrations of these plants extract (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 g/kg of body weight) or the reference drug furosemide (0.015 g/kg) were administrated orally to hydrated male Wistar rats and their urine output was measured at several interval of time after a single dose administration. Furthermore, a toxicological effect of both plants was undertaken as well. The results showed that furosemide induced significant diuresis and electrolytes excretion during the first hours. Plant extracts increased significantly urinary output and electrolytes excretion at the dose of 0.250 g/kg for Erica multiflora and 0.500 g/kg for Cynodon dactylon. This diuretic effect seems to be not related to K(+) plant content. Urinary pH remained mostly unchanged during the course of the study for both plant extracts. No lethality was observed among animals when using Erica multiflora even at the dose of 10 g/kg while Cynodon dactylon, instead, caused 50% of rat death (LD50) at 4.5 g/kg. We concluded that both aqueous herb extracts administered, particularly, at the dose of 0.500 g/kg induce significant effect on urinary output of water and electrolytes and justify their use as diuretic remedy in traditional medicine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with LTQ OrbitrapXL Hybrid Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Dan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Smilacis glabrae, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM as well as a functional food, has been commonly used for detoxification treatments, relieving dampness and as a diuretic. In order to quickly define the chemical profiles and control the quality of Smilacis glabrae, ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was applied for simultaneous identification and quantification of its bioactive constituents. A total of 56 compounds, including six new compounds, were identified or tentatively deduced on the basis of their retention behaviors, mass spectra, or by comparison with reference substances and literature data. The identified compounds belonged to flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenylpropanoid glycosides. In addition, an optimized UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS method was established for quantitative determination of six marker compounds from five batches. The validation of the method, including linearity, sensitivity (LOQ, precision, repeatability and spike recoveries, was carried out and demonstrated to be satisfied the requirements of quantitative analysis. The results suggested that the established method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system and quality control of TCM.

  20. A 1H-NMR-Based Metabonomic Study on the Anti-Depressive Effect of the Total Alkaloid of Corydalis Rhizoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corydalis Rhizoma, named YuanHu in China, is the dried tuber of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang which is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for pain relief and blood activation. Previous pharmacological studies showed that apart from analgesics, the alkaloids from YuanHu may be useful in the therapy of depression by acting on the GABA, dopamine and benzodiazepine receptors. In this study, the antidepressive effect of the total alkaloid of YuanHu (YHTA was investigated in a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS rat model using 1H-NMR-based metabonomics. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed and multivariate data analysis was applied to discover the metabolic biomarkers in CUMS rats. Thirteen biomarkers of CUMS-introduced depression were identified, which are myo-inositol, glycerol, glycine, creatine, glutamine, glutamate, β-glucose, α-glucose, acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, leucine and unsaturated lipids (L7, L9. Moreover, a metabolic network of the potential biomarkers in plasma perturbed by CUMS was detected. After YHTA treatment, clear separation between the model group and YHTA-treated group was achieved. The levels of all the abnormal metabolites mentioned above showed a tendency of restoration to normal levels. The results demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of YHTA against depression and suggested that NMR-based metabolomics can provide a simple and easy tool for the evaluation of herbal therapeutics.

  1. Protective effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via regulation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Yan-Jing; Xiang, Li-Hua; Pan, Jing-Hua; Wang, Zhen; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Da-Hong

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on preventing rat alveolar bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX), and to determine the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in this effect. Female Wistar rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery. The rats that had undergone OVX were treated with RDE (RDE group), vehicle (OVX group) or 17β-estradiol subcutaneous injection (E2 group). Subsequently, bone metabolic activity was assessed by analyzing 3-D alveolar bone construction, bone mineral density, as well as the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover. The gene expression of alveolar bone in the OVX and RDE groups was evaluated by IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays, and differentially expressed genes were determined through reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The inhibitory effect of RDE on alveolar bone loss in the OVX group was demonstrated in the study. In comparison with the OVX group, the RDE group exhibited 19 downregulated genes and 1 upregulated gene associated with the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway in alveolar bone. Thus, RDE was shown to relieve OVX-induced alveolar bone loss in rats, an effect which was likely associated with decreased abnormal bone remodeling via regulation of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  2. Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract protects against alveolar bone loss by regulating the cell cycle: A predictive study based on the protein‑protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Song, Chang-Heng; Zhang, Fang-Zhen; Chen, Yan-Jing; Xiang, Li-Hua; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Da-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) exhibits a protective effect on alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The aim of this study was to predict the pathways or targets that are regulated by RDE, by re‑assessing our previously reported data and conducting a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. In total, 383 differentially expressed genes (≥3‑fold) between alveolar bone samples from the RDE and OVX group rats were identified, and a PPI network was constructed based on these genes. Furthermore, four molecular clusters (A‑D) in the PPI network with the smallest P‑values were detected by molecular complex detection (MCODE) algorithm. Using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools, two molecular clusters (A and B) were enriched for biological process in Gene Ontology (GO). Only cluster A was associated with biological pathways in the IPA database. GO and pathway analysis results showed that cluster A, associated with cell cycle regulation, was the most important molecular cluster in the PPI network. In addition, cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) may be a key molecule achieving the cell‑cycle‑regulatory function of cluster A. From the PPI network analysis, it was predicted that delayed cell cycle progression in excessive alveolar bone remodeling via downregulation of CDK1 may be another mechanism underling the anti‑osteopenic effect of RDE on alveolar bone.

  3. Involvement of herb-herb interactions in the influences of Radix Scutellaria and Coptis Chinensis on the bioavailability of the anthraquinones form Rhei Rhizoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongming; Ma, Bingliang; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tianming; Ma, Yueming

    2015-03-01

    Xiexin decoction (XXD) is composed of Rhei Rhizoma (DH), Radix Scutellaria (HQ), and Coptis Chinensis (HL). Free anthraquinones in DH are the basic effective constituents in XXD. Reportedly, HL decreases the bioavailability of the anthraquinones, while HQ antagonizes the effect of HL. In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying mechanisms. The metabolisms of anthraquinones by intestinal flora were studied using rat fecal suspension (RFS); the metabolisms of rhein (a typical anthraquinone in DH) by rat intestine and liver were studied using rat intestine microsomes (RIMs) and rat liver microsomes (RLMs), respectively; the intestinal transport of rhein was studied using everted gut sacs. The results showed that HL decreased the amount of the free anthraquinones after incubation in RFS and inhibited the intestinal transport of rhein, but HQ antagonized the effect of HL. On the other hand, HQ strongly inhibited the glucuronidation of rhein in both RIMs and RLMs. The results suggested that HL decreased the oral bioavailability of the anthraquinones due to inhibiting the conversion of conjugated anthraquinones to free anthraquinones by intestinal flora and decreasing the intestinal transport of the anthraquinones; HQ confronted the effect of HL by inhibiting the glucuronidation of the anthraquinones in intestine and weakening the inhibitory effects of HL.

  4. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhos...

  5. Structure, anti-Phytophthora and anti-tumor activities of a nortriterpenoid from the rhizome of Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Maria C; Neves, Dina; Dacunha, Bruno; Laczko, Endre; Maia, Cristiana; Teixeira, Rúben; Cravador, Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    To investigate bioactive compounds potentially involved in the biotic interactions exhibited by Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) in rhizospheres infested with Phytophthora cinnamomi, the plant rhizome was chemically analysed. The nortriterpenoid (17S)-2α,3α,11α,23,24-pentahydroxy-19(18 → 17)-abeo-28-norolean-12-en-18-one, was isolated and its structure was elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, chiefly using 2D NMR experiments, and X-ray analysis. It was shown to be exuded by roots and to exhibit anti-Phytophthora and antitumor activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Variability characteristics and comparison of Carex arenaria L. and Carex ligerica Gay populations based on rhizome characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Urbaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies included 9 populations of Carex arenaria L. and 7 populations of Carex ligerica Gay, compared with each other on grounds of variability analysis, related to rhizome characters. The sedges reach in the area of Poland their eastern range limits, with isolated populations spread along the range margins. The studied plants were placed in a greenhouse in homogenous conditions,which made possible an analysis of genetic variability in the populations. The obtained results point to the absence of gene flow between the studied species and, thus, to their clearly distinct character. Genetic drift was postulated as one of the causes of the obtained variability pattern.

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly (NGS) of Curcuma longa L. Rhizome Reveals Novel Transcripts Related to Anticancer and Antimalarial Terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Vasanthan; Damodaran, Anand C.; Rao, Sudha Narayana; Katta, Mohan A. V. S. K.; Gopinathan, Sreeja; Sarma, Santosh Prasad; Senthilkumar, Vanitha; Niranjan, Vidya; Gopinath, Ashok; Mugasimangalam, Raja C.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa. PMID:23468859

  8. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der Jiun Ooi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  9. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B

    2016-11-02

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10-20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90-97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production.

  10. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, DNA Damage Protective, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of Cyperus rotundus Rhizomes Essential Oil against Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming; Hao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens. These biological activities were dose-dependent, increasing with higher dosage in a certain concentration range. The antibacterial effects of essential oil were greater against Gram-positive bacteria as compared to Gram-negative bacteria, and the antibacterial effects were significantly influenced by incubation time and concentration. These results may provide biological evidence for the practical application of the C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28338066

  11. De Novo transcriptome assembly (NGS of Curcuma longa L. rhizome reveals novel transcripts related to anticancer and antimalarial terpenoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy S Annadurai

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa.

  12. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10–20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90–97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production. PMID:27804972

  13. De Novo transcriptome assembly (NGS) of Curcuma longa L. rhizome reveals novel transcripts related to anticancer and antimalarial terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annadurai, Ramasamy S; Neethiraj, Ramprasad; Jayakumar, Vasanthan; Damodaran, Anand C; Rao, Sudha Narayana; Katta, Mohan A V S K; Gopinathan, Sreeja; Sarma, Santosh Prasad; Senthilkumar, Vanitha; Niranjan, Vidya; Gopinath, Ashok; Mugasimangalam, Raja C

    2013-01-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa.

  14. Curcuminoid content of Curcuma longa L. and Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome based on drying method with NMR and HPLC-UVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, S.; Artanti, A. N.; Rinanto, Y.; Wahyuni, D. S. C.

    2018-04-01

    Curcuminoid, consisting of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis demethoxycurcumin, is the major compound in Curcuma longa L. and Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome. It has been known to have a potent antioxidants, anticancer, antibacteria activity. Those rhizomes needs to be dried beforehand which influenced the active compounds concentration. The present work was conducted to assess the curcuminoid content of C. longa L. and C. xanthorrhiza based on drying method with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-UVD. Samples were collected and dried using freeze-drying and oven method. The latter is the common method applied in most drying method at herbal medicine preparation procedure. All samples were extracted using 96% ethanol and analyzed using NMR and HPLC-UVD. Curcuminoid as a bioactive compound in the sample exhibited no significant difference and weak significant difference in C. xanthorrhiza and C. longa L., respectively. HLPC-UVD as a reliable analytical method for the quantification is subsequently used to confirm of the data obtained by NMR. It resulted that curcuminoid content showed no significant difference in both samples. This replied that curcuminoids content in both samples were stable into heating process. These results are useful information for simplicia standardization method in pharmaceutical products regarding to preparation procedure.

  15. Studies concerning the production of volatile oil, rhizomes and roots, to different genotypes of Valeriana officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Radu POP

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. is considered to pertain to European species, with great ecologic plasticity, which allows its adaptation to climate conditions characteristics to plain areas and also to mountain areas up to an altitude of 2400 meters. The species is a well-known curative plant, with a long history and multiple uses. Essential oils deriving from this species revealed the interest of researchers in food industry, cosmetics and officinal industry, furthermore being used as additives too.The raw material from which essential oils are being extracted is represented mainly by rhizomes and roots. This study has the purpose to emphasize the differences of essential oils production registered based upon the genotypes diversity. Thus, 11 experimental variants have been used, with biologic material of different origin, from Romania, Poland, Germany and Russia; they have been measured in relation to their production of rhizomes, roots and volatile oil, in the ecological conditions of Brasov, Romania.The results proved the superiority of the variants was used Romanian variety M-100, but have also revealed a negative correlation between capacity and essential oil biosynthesis.

  16. Protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract from rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. on compensated right heart failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garjani, Alireza; Afrooziyan, Arash; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Najafi, Moslem; Kharazmkia, Ali; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin

    2009-08-05

    The rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon are used for the treatment of heart failure in folk medicine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of C. dactylon rhizomes on cardiac contractility in normal hearts and on cardiac functions in right-heart failure in rats. Right-heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (50 mg/kg). Two weeks later, the animals were treated orally with different doses of the extract for fifteen days. At the end of the experiments cardiac functions and markers of myocardial hypertrophy were measured. The treated rats showed very less signs of fatigue, peripheral cyanosis and dyspnea. The survival rate was high in the extract treated groups (90%). Administration of C. dactylon in monocrotaline-injected rats led to profound improvement in cardiac functions as demonstrated by decreased right ventricular end diastolic pressure (RVEDP) and elevated mean arterial pressure. RVdP/dtmax, and RVdP/dt/P as indices of myocardial contractility were also markedly (p < 0.001; using one way ANOVA) increased by the extract. The extract reduced heart and lung congestion by decreasing tissue wet/dry and wet/body weight ratios (p < 0.01). In the isolated rat hearts, the extract produced a remarkable (P < 0.001) positive inotropic effect concomitant with a parallel decrease in LVEDP. The results of this study indicated that C. dactylon exerted a strong protective effect on right heart failure, in part by positive inotropic action and improving cardiac functions.

  17. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2011-10-01

    enhanced gene exchange. Therefore, the tree of life is not sufficient to explain the chimeric structure of current genomes, and the theory of a single common ancestor and a top-down tree does not reflect our current state of knowledge. Mitochondrial evolution constitutes a rhizome, and it should be represented as such. Reviewers This article was revised by William Martin, Arcady Mushegian and Eugene V. Koonin.

  18. Simultaneous quantification of chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma by ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and application of the technique to comparative pharmacokinetic studies of Radix et Rhei Rhizoma extract alone and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Li; Xing, Jiangwa; Poh, Yanhong; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao Chang

    2015-02-01

    Most herbal medicines are prescribed in combination based on the theory of TCM to obtain synergistic effects or diminish the possible adverse reactions. Compatibility refers to the combination of two or more herbs based on the clinical settings and the properties of herbs. Chrysophanol and physcion are the main effective compounds in Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Dahuang Fuzi Decoction which is the combination of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata and Radix et Rhizoma Asari. However, chrysophanol and physcion are difficult to detect in vivo because of their low concentration and interference from endogenous compounds. The aim of this study is to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass method to simultaneously quantify chrysophanol and physcion in rat plasma, in order to better understand the pharmacokinetics and compatibility mechanism of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction for the first time. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for the quantitation at [M-H](-)m/z 253.0→m/z 225.1 for chrysophanol, [M-H](-) for m/z 283.1→m/z 240.0 physcion and [M-H](-)m/z 239.0→m/z 211.0 for IS. The analytes were separated on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) column within a total running time of 6.5min using a mixture of 3mM ammonium acetate in water and methanol (95:5, v/v) with a time program flow gradient according to the "plus gradient chromatography" theory. The inclusion of the ammonium acetate in the UFLC mobile phase dramatically improved the detection limit of the tested compounds and decreased the interference by matrix effects, which have been referred to as "LC-electrolyte effects". Finally, we demonstrated the application of a validated method in a comparative pharmacokinetic study of rats receiving an oral dose of Dahuang Fuzi Decoction or Radix et Rhei Rhizoma, the monarch drug in the prescription. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed

  19. Combination of capillary GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR for the characterization of the rhizome oil of Piper betle L. (Piperaceae) from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, L.; Dung, N.X.; Bighelli, A.; Casanova, J.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The essential oil from the rhizomes of Piper betle L. (betel), collected around Hue, was obtained in 0.20% yield. The oil was examined by a combination of capillary GC and GC/MS. 13C-NMR studies confirmed the structure assignments proposed by retention data and mass spectra of the components with a

  20. Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sok-Lai; Lee, Guan-Serm; Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Awang, Khalijah; Aznam Nugroho, Nurfina

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens Bl., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is known as temu tis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In this study, the hydrodistilled dried ground rhizome oil was investigated for its chemical content and antiproliferative activity against selected human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, Ca Ski, A549, HT29, and HCT116) and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5). Results from GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the rhizome oil of temu tis showed turmerone as the major component, followed by germacrone, ar-turmerone, germacrene-B, and curlone. The rhizome oil of temu tis exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 4.9 ± 0.4 μg/mL), weak cytotoxicity against A549, Ca Ski, and HCT116 cells (with IC50 values of 46.3 ± 0.7, 32.5 ± 1.1, and 35.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.), and no inhibitory effect against MCF7 cells. It exhibited mild cytotoxicity against a noncancerous human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5), with an IC50 value of 25.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this rhizome's oil and its selective antiproliferative effect on HT29. The obtained data provided a basis for further investigation of the mode of cell death. PMID:25177723

  1. Black Cohosh Hepatic Safety: Follow-Up of 107 Patients Consuming a Special Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome Herbal Extract and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Firenzuoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available European Medicines Agency (EMEA and the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC on July 2006 have released an alert to get European sanitary authorities aware of 42 cases of suspected hepatotoxic reactions in patients consuming Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome. In the public statement EMEA itself considered reliable as hepatotoxic reactions only four cases, on the base of RUCAM score: two were considered possible and two probable. Lacking in almost all of them a precise description of cases, especially a botanical-chemical analysis of the suspected substance, we think there is no real proof of supposed C. racemosa rhizome hepatotoxicity. In our department we administer from about 10 years C. racemosa as special herbal dry extract as single substance or mixed with other medicinal plants at the dose of 500–1000 mg daily, for treatment of menopause related disorders without any reported adverse effect. After EMEA's official signal we have contacted all our patients using a C. racemosa rhizome herbal extract continuously from more than 12 months to verify possible hepatotoxic effects. We followed-up 107 women, and asked them by telephone (33/107 and/or after anamnesis and clinical examination (74/107 to undergo a blood sample examination. In all the patients there was no sign of hepatic disease, or worsening of already altered but stable parameters. We think on the base of these data and current literature C. racemosa rhizome extract should not be considered a potential hepatotoxic substance.

  2. Preliminary Examination of the Composition of the Essential Oil From the Roots and Rhizomes of Valeriana alpestris Stev. Growing in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozbay, Ozge; Aslan, Sinem; Kartal, Murat; Kurucu, Semra; Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The volatile constituents from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana alpestris Stev., obtained from Van, Turkey, were investigated by GC and GC/MS analysis. The oil yield of the plant material was 0.2% (v/w) on a dry weight basis. From the oil 82 components (34.1%) of the total oil could be identified.

  3. Structural characterization and discrimination of Chinese medicinal materials with multiple botanical origins based on metabolite profiling and chemometrics analysis: Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin-Xiu; Li, Rui; Liu, Ke; Yang, Jie; Li, Hui-Jun; Li, Song-Lin; Liu, Jian-Qun; Liu, Li-Fang; Xin, Gui-Zhong

    2015-12-18

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs)-based products are becoming more and more popular over the world. To ensure the safety and efficacy, authentication of Chinese medicinal materials has been an important issue, especially for that with multiple botanical origins (one-to-multiple). Taking Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma (CRR) as a case study, we herein developed an integrated platform based on metabolite profiling and chemometrics analysis to characterize, classify, and predict the "one-to-multiple" herbs. Firstly, the predominant constituents, triterpenoid saponins, in three Clematis CRR were rapid characterized by a novel UPLC-QTOF/MS-based strategy, and a total of 49 triterpenoid saponins were identified. Secondly, metabolite profiling was performed by UPLC-QTOF/MS, and 4623 variables were extracted and aligned as dataset. Thirdly, by using pattern recognition analysis, a clear separation of the three Clematis CRR was achieved as well as a total number of 28 variables were screened as the valuable variables for discrimination. By matching with identified saponins, these 28 variables were corresponding to 10 saponins which were identified as marker compounds. Fourthly, based on the relative intensity of the marker compounds-related variables, genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines (GA-SVM) was employed to predict the species of CRR samples. The obtained model showed excellent prediction performance with a prediction accuracy of 100%. Finally, a heatmap visualization was employed for clarifying the distribution of identified saponins, which could be useful for phytochemotaxonomy study of Clematis herbs. These results indicated that our proposed platform was a powerful tool for chemical profiling and discrimination of herbs with multiple botanical origins, providing promising perspectives in tracking the formulation processes of TCMs products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An experimental study on providing a scientific evidence for seven-time alcohol-steaming of Rhei Rhizoma when clinically used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Hyein; Oh, Dal-Seok; Kim, Namkwon; Gu, Pil Sung; Choi, Jin Gyu; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kang, Tong Ho; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-10-27

    Rhei Rhizoma (RR) has been widely used as laxative and processed to alter its therapeutic actions or reduce its side effects. In this study, we evaluated experimentally the clinical application guideline that RR should be alcohol-steamed seven times before being used in elderly patients, as described in Dongeuibogam, the most famous book on Korean traditional medicine. Unprocessed RR (RR-U) was soaked in rice wine, steamed and then fully dried (RR-P1). The process was repeated four (RR-P4) or seven times (RR-P7). Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the RR-U, RR-P1, RR-P4 and RR-P7 (RRs) constituents. To evaluate the effect of RRs on liver toxicity, human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were treated with RRs at 100 μg/mL for 4 h and then cell viabilities were measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. To confirm the effects in vivo, 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with RRs at 3 g/kg/day for 21 days. Body weight and serum biochemical parameters were measured and liver histology was assessed. The levels of sennosides decreased in processed RRs in an iteration-dependent manner, while the emodin level was unaffected. In HepG2 cells, cell viability was reduced with RR-U, while the toxicity decreased according to the number of processing cycles. The changes in body weight, relative liver weight and liver enzymes of RR-U-treated rats were reduced in processed RRs-treated rats. Histopathological analysis indicated swelling and cholestasis improved following seven times alcohol-steaming cycles. These results provide experimental evidence that RR-P7 almost completely reduces RR hepatotoxicity.

  5. Kidney tissue targeted metabolic profiling of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and the proposed therapeutic effects of Rhizoma Drynariae studied using UHPLC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Famei; Xiong, Zhili

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine and modern science have indicated that there is a close relationship between bone and kidney. In light of this, this project was designed to study the metabolic profiling by UHPLC/MS/MS of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in kidney tissue and the possible therapeutic effects of Rhizoma Drynariae (RD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine, in improving the kidney function and strengthening bone. Twenty-one Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (rats before prednisolone inducing), a model group (prednisolone-induced group) and a treatment group (prednisolone-induced rats that were then administered RD ethanol extracts). By using pattern recognition analysis, a significant change in the metabolic profile of kidney tissue samples was observed in the model group and restoration of the profile was observed after the administration of RD ethanol extracts. Some significantly changed biomarkers related to osteoporosis such as sphingolipids (C16 dihydrosphingosine, C18 dihydrosphingosine, C18 phytosphingosine, C20 phytosphingosine), lysophosphatidycholines (C16:0 LPC, C18:0 LPC) and phenylalanine were identified. As a complement to the metabolic profiling of RD in plasma, these biomarkers suggest that kidney damage, cell cytotoxicity and apoptosis exist in osteoporosis rats, which is helpful in further understanding the underlying process of glucocorticoid-induced osetoporosis and the suggested therapeutic effects of RD. The method shows that tissue target metabonomics might provide a powerful tool to further understand the process of disease and the mechanism of therapeutic effect of Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of the Mechanism Underlying the Biotransportation of the Active Ingredients in Puerariae lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin-Li; Zhang, Jing; Liao, Zheng-Gen; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Luo, Yun; Li, Zhe; Satterlee, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative method to evaluate the biotransportation of a drug across the cell membrane. Through the application of the law of mass conservation, the drug transportation rate was calculated based on Fick's law of passive diffusion and the Michaelis-Menten equation. The overall membrane-transportation rate was the sum of the passive diffusion rate and the carrier-mediated diffusion rate, which were calculated as the transportation mass divided by the respective rate. The active ingredients of Puerariae lobatae Radix and Chuanxiong rhizoma, namely, puerarin and ferulic acid, respectively, were used as two model drugs. The transportation rates of puerarin and ferulic acid were obtained by fitting a model that includes both Fick's law of diffusion and the Michaelis-Menten equation. Compared with the overall transportation, the carrier-mediated transport and passive diffusion of 1.59 mmol/L puerarin were -35.07% and 64.93%, respectively, whereas the respective transportation modes of 0.1 mmol/L ferulic acid were -35.40% and 64.60%, respectively. Verapamil and MK-571 increased the overall transport rate and ratio, and MK-571 treatment changed the carrier-mediated transport from negative to positive. However, the transport rate and ratio of ferulic acid did not change significantly. The cell transportation mechanisms of puerarin and ferulic acid primarily involve simple passive diffusion and carrier-mediated transportation. Moreover, P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein efflux proteins, and other transportation proteins were found to be involved in the transportation of puerarin. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Antihyperglycemia and Antihyperlipidemia Effect of Protoberberine Alkaloids From Rhizoma Coptidis in HepG2 Cell and Diabetic KK-Ay Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hang; Hu, Yinran; Zou, Zongyao; Feng, Min; Ye, Xiaoli; Li, Xuegang

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research Rhizoma Coptidis (RC), the root of Coptis chinensis Franch, a species in the genus Coptis (family Ranunculaceae), has been commonly prescribed for the treatment of diabetes in Chinese traditional herbal medicine applications. The present study is focused on the assessment of the antihyperglycemia and antidiabetic hyperlipidemia effect of five protoberberine alkaloids, berberine (BBR), coptisine (COP), palmatine (PAL), epiberberine (EPI), and jatrorrhizine (JAT), separated from R. Coptidis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and diabetic KK-Ay mice. Protoberberine alkaloids are effective in modulating hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. After adding BBR and COP to culture medium, glucose consumption of HepG2 cells was increased. In KK-Ay mice assays, suppressed fasting blood glucose level and ameliorated glucose tolerance were observed after BBR/COP administration. After treated with berberine and coptisine, in the same dose of 5 µg/mL, the glucose consumption of HepG2 cells were promoted and, respectively, reached 96.1% and 17.6%. Body weight, food consumption, water intake, and urinary output of KK-Ay mice were reduced after treated with EPI. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride of mice were decreased after treated with palmatine and jatrorrhizine. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of mice was increased after palmatine, jatrorrhizine, and berberine administrated. Moreover, hepatomegaly was attenuated in JTR-treated mice. Suggested that these protoberberine alkaloids from R. Coptidis have potential curative effect for diabetes. Drug Dev Res 77 : 163-170, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The protective effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract against alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats via regulating Wnt and p38 MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Xiang, Lihua; Bai, Dong; Wang, Wenlai; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinghua; Liu, Hong; Wang, Shaojun; Xiao, Gary Guishan; Ju, Dahong

    2014-12-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX) or RDE by oral gavage or with 17β-estradiol (E2) subcutaneously. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD), the three-dimensional bone architecture of the alveolar bone and the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover were analyzed to assess bone metabolism, and the histomorphometry of the alveolar bone was observed. Microarrays were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of genes was further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that RDE inhibited alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 207 genes and downregulated expression levels of 176 genes in the alveolar bone. The IPA showed that several genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (Wnt7a, Fzd2, Tcf3, Spp1, Frzb, Sfrp2 and Sfrp4) and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway (Il1rn and Mapk14). These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may be involved in the reduced abnormal bone remodeling, which is associated with the modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin and the p38 MAPK signaling pathways via gene regulation.

  9. In vitro mineral nutrition of Curcuma longa L. affects production of volatile compounds in rhizomes after transfer to the greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F; Grace, Mary H; Janbey, Alan; Lila, Mary Ann; Adelberg, Jeffrey W

    2018-06-18

    Turmeric is a rich source of bioactive compounds useful in both medicine and cuisine. Mineral concentrations effects (PO 4 3- , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and KNO 3 ) were tested during in vitro rhizome development on the ex vitro content of volatile constituents in rhizomes after 6 months in the greenhouse. A response surface method (D-optimal criteria) was repeated in both high and low-input fertilizer treatments. Control plants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, acclimatized in the greenhouse and grown in the field. The volatile constituents were investigated by GC-MS. The total content of volatiles was affected by fertilizer treatments, and in vitro treatment with Ca 2+ and KNO 3 ; but PO 4 3- and Mg 2+ had no significant effect. The content was higher in the high-input fertilizer treatments (49.7 ± 9 mg/g DM) with 4 mM Ca 2+ , 60 mM KNO 3 and 5 mM NH 4 + , than the low-input fertilizer (26.6 ± 9 mg/g DM), and the MS control (15.28 ± 2.7 mg/g DM; 3 mM Ca 2+ , 20 mM K + , 39 mM NO 3 - , 20 mM NH 4 + , 1.25 mM PO 4 3- , and 1.5 mM Mg 2+ ). The interaction of Ca 2+ with KNO 3 affected curcumenol isomer I and II, germacrone, isocurcumenol, and β-elemenone content. Increasing in vitro phosphate concentration to 6.25 mM increased ex vitro neocurdione and methenolone contents. These results show that minerals in the in vitro bioreactor medium during rhizome development affected biosynthesis of turmeric volatile components after transfer to the greenhouse six months later. The multi-factor design identified 1) nutrient regulation of specific components within unique phytochemical profile for Curcuma longa L. clone 35-1 and 2) the varied phytochemical profiles were maintained with integrity during the greenhouse growth in high fertility conditions.

  10. A novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of xanthones and steroidal saponins in crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, De; Su, Xiaonan; Huang, Ziyan; Wang, Qiaohan; Lu, Tulin

    2018-06-01

    We established a rapid and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of xanthones and steroidal saponins in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C 18 column with a mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid. The detection was performed by negative electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The validated method showed good linearity within the tested range (r > 0.9945). The intra- and interday precision at high, medium, and low concentrations was less than 7.96%. The bias of accuracies ranged from -1.92 to 9.62%. The extraction recoveries of the compounds ranged from 84.78 to 88.69%, and the matrix effects ranged from 96.76 to 108.59%. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic comparison of crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma aqueous extracts after oral administration in rats. The maximum plasma concentration and area under concentration-time curve of timosaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII increased significantly (P < 0.05 or 0.01) and those of timosaponin BII decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after processing. These results could contribute to the clinical application of crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and reveal the processing mechanism. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Anti-Platelet Aggregation and Vasorelaxing Effects of the Constituents of the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Shung Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol (1. Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol (13 and [6]-shogaol (17 exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol (15 inhibited the Ca2+-dependent contractions in high K+ medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism.

  12. Evaluating the anti-inflammatory potential of Tectaria cicutaria L. rhizome extract in vitro as well as in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Amit S; Raina, Prerna; Deshpande, Manasi M; Wali, Ashok G; Zanwar, Anand; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2013-10-28

    The rhizome of Tectaria cicutaria has been used in the folklore system of Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for the treatment of various disorders such as rheumatic pain, chest complaints, burns, sprain, poisonous bites, tonsilitis, toothache, gum complaints, cuts and wounds. The present work has for the first time tried to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extract of Tectaria cicutaria rhizome (TCRaq) in vitro as well as in vivo. Anti-inflammatory potential of TCRaq was analyzed in vivo in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. Serum antioxidant status in TCRaq-treated as well as untreated control rodents was measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In vitro experiments for analyzing the anti-inflammatory potential of TCRaq were performed on murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Analysis of nitric oxide release in RAW 264.7 cells was done by Griess reaction. RT-PCR and western blotting experiment was performed to analyze the expression of iNOS. Expression of COX-2 and NFκB proteins was evaluated by western blotting. TCRaq significantly reduced the paw volume in Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight, which was comparable with the standard diclofenac treatment. The rats treated with TCRaq showed a significant increase in the serum antioxidant levels compared to the untreated control animals. TCRaq was able to reduce the nitric oxide (NO) levels in RAW 264.7 cells that had been stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This was accompanied by a corresponding decrease in iNOS expression at mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, TCRaq was found to decrease the expression of COX-2 as well as the nuclear translocation of NFκB in RAW 264.7 cells. Our study signifies the anti-inflammatory potential of Tectaria cicutaria and scientifically validates its traditional use in inflammatory conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The chemopreventive potential of Curcuma purpurascens rhizome in reducing azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Henhena, Nawal; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Awang, Khalijah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, is a popular spice in Indonesia that is traditionally used in assorted remedies. Dichloromethane extract of C. purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) has previously been shown to have an apoptosis-inducing effect on colon cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the potential of DECPR to prevent colon cancer development in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM) (15 mg/kg) by determining the percentage inhibition in incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Starting from the day immediately after AOM treatment, three groups of rats were orally administered once a day for 2 months either 10% Tween 20 (5 mL/kg, cancer control), DECPR (250 mg/kg, low dose), or DECPR (500 mg/kg, high dose). Meanwhile, the control group was intraperitoneally injected with 5-fluorouracil (35 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. After euthanizing the rats, the number of ACF was enumerated in colon tissues. Bax, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expressions were examined using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Antioxidant enzymatic activity was measured in colon tissue homogenates and associated with malondialdehyde level. The percentage inhibition of ACF was 56.04% and 68.68% in the low- and high-dose DECPR-treated groups, respectively. The ACF inhibition in the treatment control group was 74.17%. Results revealed that DECPR exposure at both doses significantly decreased AOM-induced ACF formation, which was accompanied by reduced expression of PCNA. Upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 suggested the involvement of apoptosis in the chemopreventive effect of DECPR. In addition, the oxidative stress resulting from AOM treatment was significantly attenuated after administration of DECPR, which was shown by the elevated antioxidant enzymatic activity and reduced malondialdehyde level. Taken together, the present data clearly indicate that DECPR significantly inhibits ACF formation

  14. Repellant and insecticidal activities of shyobunone and isoshyobunone derived from the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Ping; Yang, Kai; Zheng, Li-Shi; You, Chun-Xue; Cai, Qian; Wang, Cheng-Fang

    2015-01-01

    It was found that the essential oil of Acorus calamus rhizomes showed insecticidal activity. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil from A. calamus rhizomes, evaluate insecticidal and repellant activity against Lasioderma serricorne (LS) and Tribolium castaneum (TC), and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. Essential oil from A. calamus was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal and repellant activity of the essential oil and isolated compounds was tested using a variety of methods. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be isoshyobunone (15.56%), β-asarone (10.03%), bicyclo[6.1.0]non-1-ene (9.67%), shyobunone (9.60%) and methylisoeugenol (6.69%). Among them, the two active constituents were isolated and identified as shyobunone and isoshyobunone. The essential oil showed contact toxicity against LS and TC with LD50 values of 14.40 and 32.55 μg/adult, respectively. The isolated compounds, shyobunone and isoshyobunone also exhibited strong contact toxicity against LS adults with LD50 values of 20.24 and 24.19 μg/adult, respectively, while the LD50 value of isoshyobunone was 61.90 μg/adult for TC adults. The essential oil, shyobunone and isoshyobunone were strongly repellent (98%, 90% and 94%, respectively, at 78.63 nL/cm(2), after 2 h treatment) against TC. The essential oil, shyobunone and isoshyobunone possessed insecticidal and repellant activity against LS and TC.

  15. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa , flowers of Cordia lutea , and leaves of Annona muricata . Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund's adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group ( P <0.05). The histopathologic evaluation at 72 hours showed normal characteristics in the APS group. Considering the clinical and histopathological signs, we conclude that the administration of the atomized extract of rhizome of C. longa , flowers of C. lutea , and leaves of A. muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits.

  16. (+)-Nootkatone and (+)-valencene from rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus increase survival rates in septic mice due to heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoyi, Konstantin; Jang, Hwa Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Hye Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Lee, Jae Heun; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Dong-Ung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2011-10-11

    The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus have been used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which extract of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (ECR) elicits anti-inflammation has not been extensively investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to test whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction is involved in the anti-inflammatory action of ECR. Induction of HO-1 and inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO production by ECR and its 12 constituents (3 monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes, and 4 aromatic compounds) were investigated using RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In addition, anti-inflammatory action of ECR and its two active ingredients (nookkatone, valencene) were confirmed in sepsis animal model in vivo. ECR increased HO-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, which was correlated with significant inhibition of iNOS/NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Among 12 compounds isolated from ECR, mostly sesquiterpenes induced stronger HO-1 expression than monoterpenes in macrophage cells. Nootkatone and valencene (sesquiterpenes) significantly inhibited iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-simulated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of iNOS expression by nootkatone, valencene, and ECR were significantly reduced in siHO-1 RNA transfected cells. Furthermore, all three showed marked inhibition of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in LPS-activated macrophages and increased survival rates in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Taken together, we concluded that possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ECR is, at least, due to HO-1 induction, in which sesquiterpenes such as nootkatone and valencene play a crucial role. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The fossil Osmundales (Royal Ferns)—a phylogenetic network analysis, revised taxonomy, and evolutionary classification of anatomically preserved trunks and rhizomes

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Bomfleur; Guido W. Grimm; Stephen McLoughlin

    2017-01-01

    The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exce...

  18. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging and tandem mass spectrometry imaging. An atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging ion source was combined with an orbital trapping mass spectrometer in order to o...... and saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues....

  19. EFFERVESCENT TABLETS FORMULATION OF GINGER RHIZOME (Zingiber officinale Rosc. WITH VARIATION OF CITRIC ACID AND TARTARIC ACID LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrod Mufrod

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. has efficacy as an anti-emetic. Ginger rhizome is usually consumed as instant beverages, so that need to be made into a dosage form that more effective, efficient and attractive. This research aims to formulate ginger into effervescent tablets by using variation of the levels of citric acid and tartaric acid. Dried extract of ginger was made with percolation method using ethanol 70% and evaporated using spray dryer. Extract was made for 5 formulas with variation of acid source using smelting method. Granules were tested its physical properties include flow time, tap index, angle of repose, water absorption, compactibility, mass density, water content, and total phenolic level. Granules were compressed become tablets and tested for physical properties include weight uniformity, friability, hardness, dissolve time, flavor response test and total phenolic level. Data were analyzed with Anova One Way using 95% confidence level. The result shown that formula III was the best formula because it meets the physical requirements of granules and tablets. While the formula V (100% tartaric acid was a formula that provides the greatest stability phenolic levels.

  20. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO. PMID:24396831

  1. Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2015-12-01

    Free and bound polyphenol extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome were investigated for their antidiabetic potential in the pancreatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Forty Wistar rats were completely randomized into five groups: A-E consisting of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprises normal healthy animals and were orally administered 1.0mL distilled water on a daily basis for 42 days while group B-E were made up of 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Group C and D received 1.0mL 500mg/kg body weight free and bound polyphenol extracts respectively while group E received 1.0mL 0.6mg/kg of glibenclamide. Administration of the extracts to the diabetic rats significantly reduced (pZingiber officinale could ameliorate diabetes-induced pancreatic and renal derangements in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Constituents of the Rhizomes of Boesenbergia pandurata and Their Antiausterity Activities against the PANC-1 Human Pancreatic Cancer Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Dang, Phu Hoang; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Awale, Suresh

    2017-01-27

    Human pancreatic cancer cell lines have a remarkable tolerance to nutrition starvation, which enables them to survive under a tumor microenvironment. The search for agents that preferentially inhibit the survival of cancer cells under low nutrient conditions represents a novel antiausterity strategy in anticancer drug discovery. In this investigation, a methanol extract of the rhizomes of Boesenbergia pandurata showed potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under nutrient-deprived conditions, with a PC 50 value of 6.6 μg/mL. Phytochemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of 15 compounds, including eight new cyclohexene chalcones (1-8). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic data analysis. Among the isolated compounds obtained, isopanduratin A1 (14) and nicolaioidesin C (15) exhibited potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under nutrition-deprived conditions, with PC 50 values of 1.0 and 0.84 μM, respectively.

  3. Neuropharmacological profile and chemical analysis of fresh rhizome essential oil of Curcuma longa (turmeric) cultivated in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyemitan, Idris A; Elusiyan, Christianah A; Onifade, Ayoola O; Akanmu, Moses A; Oyedeji, Adebola O; McDonald, Armando G

    2017-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) is commonly used as spice and also used to treat fever, cough and febrile convulsions in Nigeria. This study determined the chemical composition of the essential oil of C. longa and evaluated its neuropharmacological activity in mice. Essential oil of C. longa (EOCL) fresh rhizome was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition determined by GC-MS. Acute toxicity (LD 50 ) profile of the essential oil was determined orally (p.o.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.); and the EOCL (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated for its behavioural, anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities using appropriate models in Albino mice (Vom Strain, Jos, Nigeria). Analysis of the oil showed the presence of 23 compounds with turmerone (35.9%) being the major component. The LD 50 values obtained for the mice were 2154 mg/kg, p.o., and 693 mg/kg, i.p. The EOCL (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.) caused significant (p longa species was turmerone; the oil was slightly toxic orally but moderately toxic intraperitoneally in mice; exhibited significant anxiolytic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities in mice.

  4. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleya Abdulaziz Bardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p. for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween, respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL. This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.

  5. In vivo evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes for its protective effect against liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2-5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38-60 μ g/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.

  6. Functional-drink rich in antioxidant cardamom-rhizome (Amomum cardamomum willd) suppresses inflammation and improves lipid profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarsi, H.; Susilowati, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know the effect of functional drink rich in antioxidant cardamom rhizome (Fd-Carrhi) on level of IL-6, C-RP, and lipid profile of atherosclerotic. A total of 30 women with atherosclerosis, age 40-65 years old, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, lived in Purwokerto, Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia, and were willing to sign informed consent, recruited as research subjects. They consumed simvastatin from doctors, divided by 3 groups of 10 people each. Group I, given Fd-Carrhi; II, placebo; and III, only simvastatin, for 2 months. As many as 100 ml of Fd-Carrhi or placebo were given every morning. Blood samples were taken 3 times, 1 ml, at baseline, 1 and 2 months after intervention. Blood plasma was determined levels of IL-6, C-RP, as well as total cholesterol (total-c), triglycerides (TG), LDL-c, and HDL-c. Result showed Fd-Carrhi versus placebo significantly decreased plasma level of IL-6, C-RP, total-c, and LDL-c, and otherwise increased HDL-c, but no differences were seen in TG. The findings clearly support Fd-Carrhi inhibit the development of atherosclerosis towards cardiovascular heart diseases (CHD) by suppressing IL-6 and CRP levels, and improving lipid profile.

  7. Method of propagation, stimulation of rhizomes growth in vitro culture and adaptation in the open ground for the genus Miscanthus representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. М. Гонтаренко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a method of propagation, stimulation of rhizomes growth in vitro culture for the genus Miscanthus representatives and their adaptation in the open field without the use of greenhouse complexes for acclimatization and completion of growing. Methods. Biotechnological procedures, mathematical and statistical analyses. Results. Prescription of nutrient medium was developed for explants inoculation, sprouts propagation, rhizomes growth stimulation in vitro. Such sterile explants as seeds, buds to be removed from rhizomes, parts of  stems with bud were placed on modified media with mineral portion by Murashige and Skoog (MS that contained 0,5–1 dose of macroelements and one dose of microelements,  vitamins (10 mg/l of thia­minum, 1,0 mg/l of pyridoxine, 1,0 mg/l of nicotinic acid and 1,0 mg/l of ascorbic acid supplemented with amino acids (250 mg/l of glutamic acid, 3 mg/l of tyrosine, 3 mg/l of arginine, 2 mg/l of hydroxyproline, plant growth regulators [0,5–1,0 mg/l of GA (gibberelline acid, 0,2 mg/l of 6-BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine, 0,1 mg/l of NAA (α-naphtylacetic acid] in different variations. After seed germination, buds emerging and sprouts formation 1–2 cm in height, for propagation purpose they were passivated on the medium of other composition that differed from previous one by the content and ratio of growth regulators, especially by a high concentration of cytokinins [6-BAP (0,4–0,5 mg/l, kinetin (0,5 mg/l, adenine (0,5 mg/k] in different variations in presence of GA (0,2 mg/l. In order to stimulate rhizomes growth, microclones were transferred on media with other composition and ratio growth regulators (6-BAP (0,2–0,3 mg/l + GA (0,5–1,0 mg/l or 6-BAP (0,2–0,3 mg/l + GA (0,5–1,0 mg/l + NAA (0,1 mg/l,  in other words,  with a high content of gibberellins. After the formation of rhizomes 10–15 cm in length, miscanthus plants were planted out in the open ground. Stimulation of

  8. Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Activities of Flavonoids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant growth inhibitory effect on RKO cells with IC50 of 39.08 μmol/L and 17.68 μmol/L, respectively ..... YJ.. Essential oil from rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong induces apoptosis in hypertrophic scar ... Liu H, Mou Y, Zhao J, Wang J, Zhou L, Wang M, Wang. D, Han J, Yu Z, Yang F. Flavonoids from Halostachys.

  9. Molecular phylogenetics and anti-Pythium activity of endophytes from rhizomes of wild ginger congener, Zingiber zerumbet Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, D; Aswati Nair, R; Prasath, D

    2016-03-01

    Zingiber zerumbet, a perennial rhizomatous herb exhibits remarkable disease resistance as well as a wide range of pharmacological activities. Towards characterizing the endophytic population of Z. zerumbet rhizomes, experiments were carried out during two different growing seasons viz., early-June of 2013 and late-July of 2014. A total of 34 endophytes were isolated and categorized into 11 morphologically distinct groups. Fungi were observed to predominate bacterial species with colonization frequency values ranging from 12.5 to 50%. Among the 11 endophyte groups isolated, molecular analyses based on ITS/16S rRNA gene sequences identified seven isolate groups as Fusarium solani, two as F. oxysporum and one as the bacterium Rhizobium spp. Phylogenetic tree clustered the ITS sequences from Z. zerumbet endophytes into distinct clades consistent with morphological and sequence analysis. Dual culture assays were carried out to determine antagonistic activity of the isolated endophytes against Pythium myriotylum, an economically significant soil-borne phytopathogen of cultivated ginger. Experiments revealed significant P. myriotylum growth inhibition by F. solani and F. oxysporum isolates with percentage of inhibition (PoI) ranging from 45.17 ± 0.29 to 62.2 ± 2.58 with F. oxysporum exhibiting higher PoI values against P. myriotylum. Using ZzEF8 metabolite extract, concentration-dependent P. myriotylum hyphal growth inhibition was observed following radial diffusion assays. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis wherein exposure to ZzEF8 metabolite extract induced hyphal deformities. Results indicate Z. zerumbet endophytes as promising resources for biologically active compounds and as biocontrol agents for soft rot disease management caused by Pythium spp.

  10. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zingiber officinale R. rhizome (ginger is a popular spice that has traditionally been used to combat the effects of various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea. Method This was a randomized, controlled trial. The study was based on a sample of one hundred and twenty students with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals. The ginger and placebo groups in both protocols received 500 mg capsules of ginger root powder or placebo three times a day. In the first protocol ginger and placebo were given two days before the onset of the menstrual period and continued through the first three days of the menstrual period. In the second protocol ginger and placebo were given only for the first three days of the menstrual period. Severity of pain was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analogue scale. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups (placebo n = 46, ginger n = 56. The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the severity of pain between ginger and placebo groups for protocol one (P = 0.015 and protocol two (P = 0.029. There was also significant difference in duration of pain between the two groups for protocol one (P = 0.017 but not for protocol two (P = 0.210. Conclusion Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5 days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain. Trial registration IRCT201105266206N3

  11. Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome accelerates rat excisional wound healing: involvement of Hsp70/Bax proteins, antioxidant defense, and angiogenesis activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Zahedifard, Maryam; Tayeby, Faezeh; Awang, Khalijah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Curcuma purpurascens BI. is a member of Zingiberaceae family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wound healing properties of hexane extract of C. purpurascens rhizome (HECP) against excisional wound healing in rats. Materials and methods Twenty four rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: A) negative control (blank placebo, acacia gum), B) low dose of HECP, C) high dose of HECP, and D) positive control, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions (approximately 2.00 cm) were made on the neck area of each rat. Groups 1–4 were treated two-times a day for 20 days with blank placebo, HECP (100 mg/kg), HECP (200 mg/kg), and intrasite gel as a positive control, respectively. After 20 days, hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome stainings were employed to investigate the histopathological alterations. Protein expressions of Bax and Hsp70 were examined in the wound tissues using immunohistochemistry analysis. In addition, levels of enzymatic antioxidants and malondialdehyde representing lipid peroxidation were measured in wound tissue homogenates. Results Macroscopic evaluation of wounds showed conspicuous elevation in wound contraction after topical administration of HECP at both doses. Moreover, histopathological analysis revealed noteworthy reduction in the scar width correlated with the enhanced collagen content and fibroblast cells, accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory cells in the granulation tissues. At the molecular level, HECP facilitates wound-healing process by downregulating Bax and upregulating Hsp70 protein at the wound site. The formation of new blood vessel was observed in Masson’s trichrome staining of wounds treated with HECP (100 and 200 mg/kg). In addition, HECP administration caused a significant surge in enzymatic antioxidant activities and a decline in lipid peroxidation. Conclusion These findings suggested that HECP accelerated wound-healing process in rats via antioxidant activity, angiogenesis

  12. Determination of the Marker Diarylheptanoid Phytoestrogens in Curcuma comosa Rhizomes and Selected Herbal Medicinal Products by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingngam, Bancha; Brantner, Adelheid; Jinarat, Damrongsak; Kaewamatawong, Rawiwun; Rungseevijitprapa, Wandee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2018-01-01

    A method for quantification of diarylheptanoids in Curcuma comosa rhizomes and selected pharmaceutical preparations was established by using HPLC-diode array detector (DAD). The chromatographic separation of three diarylheptanoids [(3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (1), (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (2), and (3S)-1,7-diphenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol (3)] was performed on a Luna C 18 analytical column using gradient elution with 0.5% acetic acid in water and acetonitrile with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a column temperature of 35°C. The calibration curves for the analytes showed good linearity (R 2 >0.999), high precision (relative standard deviation (RSD) <2%) and acceptable recovery (98.35-103.90%, RSD <2%). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.06-0.22 and 0.18-0.69 µg/mL, respectively. The results of all validated parameters were within the limits according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines. The established method was successfully applied for qualitative and quantitative determination of the three constituents in different samples of C. comosa and some commercial products in capsules. The simplicity, rapidity, and reliability of the method could be useful for the fingerprint analysis and standardization of diarylheptanoids, which are responsible for the estrogenic activity in raw materials and herbal medicinal products of C. comosa.

  13. Transcriptomic and Hormonal Analyses Reveal that YUC-Mediated Auxin Biogenesis Is Involved in Shoot Regeneration from Rhizome in Cymbidium.

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    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Guo, He-Rong; Xie, Li; Zeng, Rui-Zhen; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Zhang, Zhi-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Cymbidium , one of the most important orchid genera in horticulture, can be classified into epiphytic and terrestrial species. Generally, epiphytic Cymbidium seedlings can be easily propagated by tissue culture, but terrestrial seedlings are difficult to propagate. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in the ease with which terrestrial and epiphytic cymbidiums can be propagated are largely unknown. Using RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Cymbidium 'Xiaofeng' (CXF), which can be efficiently micropropagated, and terrestrial Cymbidium sinense 'Qijianbaimo' (CSQ), which has a low regeneration ability, were used to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the micropropagation ability of Cymbidium species. To this end, 447 million clean short reads were generated, and 31,264 annotated unigenes were obtained from 10 cDNA libraries. A total of 1,290 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between CXF and CSQ during shoot induction. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in auxin pathway-related GO terms. Further analysis demonstrated that YUC and GH3 family genes, which play crucial roles in the regulation of auxin/IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) metabolism, acted quickly in response to shoot induction culture in vitro and were closely correlated with variation in shoot regeneration between CXF and CSQ. In addition, the study showed that IAA accumulated rapidly and significantly during shoot induction in CXF compared to that in CSQ; in contrast, no significant changes in other hormones were observed between CXF and CSQ. Furthermore, shoot regeneration in CXF was inhibited by a yucasin-auxin biosynthesis inhibitor, indicating that increased IAA level is required for high-frequency shoot regeneration in CXF. In conclusion, our study revealed that YUC-mediated auxin biogenesis is involved in shoot regeneration from rhizome in

  14. Transcriptomic and Hormonal Analyses Reveal that YUC-Mediated Auxin Biogenesis Is Involved in Shoot Regeneration from Rhizome in Cymbidium

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    Yang Liu

    2017-10-01

    regeneration from rhizome in Cymbidium.

  15. Caracterização anatômica de folha, colmo e rizoma de Digitaria insularis Anatomical characterization of the leaf, stem and rhizome of Digitaria insularis

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    A.F.L. Machado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia da folha, de colmo e do rizoma de Digitaria insularis foi investigada, visando identificar características que possam estar relacionadas à sua tolerância ao glyphosate. Sementes e rizomas de plantas adultas foram coletadas em campo, em área de plantio direto, onde o herbicida glyphosate vem sendo utilizado repetidamente há vários anos. As plantas provenientes dessas sementes e desses rizomas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade de 3 L, contendo solo de textura média, em casa de vegetação. Quando as plantas atingiram o estádio fenológico de pré-florescimento, foram coletadas três folhas totalmente expandidas por planta, entre o terceiro e o quinto nó. Simultaneamente, coletaram-se fragmentos dos rizomas e os entrenós recobertos pelas bainhas das folhas amostradas. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA50 e estocadas em etanol, para obtenção de cortes histológicos e montagem das lâminas, conforme metodologia usual. Para obtenção do índice estomático e da densidade estomática nas superfícies da epiderme, amostras das folhas foram diafanizadas, conforme método utilizado usualmente. Verificou-se que plantas provenientes de rizomas apresentavam maior índice estomático e maior número de estômatos por mm², maior espessura na epiderme das faces adaxial e abaxial e maior espessura da lâmina foliar. Foi observada coloração intensa nos rizomas submetidos ao Lugol, indicando presença de grande quantidade de amido, independentemente da origem do material.The anatomy of the leaf, stem and rhizome of Digitaria insularis was studied, evaluating characteristics that could be related to its tolerance to glyphosate. Seeds and rhizomes of adult plants were collected in the field, area of no-till system, where the herbicide glyphosate had been repeatedly used for several years. The plants derived from these seeds and rhizomes were cultivated in 0.003 m³ vases, containing soil, under a greenhouse conditions. When the plants

  16. Effects of Acidic Polysaccharides from Gastrodia Rhizome on Systolic Blood Pressure and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Im; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

    2012-01-01

    The effects of acidic polysaccharides purified from Gastrodia rhizome on blood pressure and serum lipid levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Acidic polysaccharides were purified from crude polysaccharides by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. Thirty-six male SHR were randomly divided into three groups: Gastrodia rhizome crude polysaccharide (A), acidic polysaccharide (B) groups, and a control group (C). A 5-week oral administration of all treatment groups was performed daily in 3- to 8-week-old SHRs with a dose of 6 mg/kg of body weight/day. After 5 weeks of treatment, total cholesterol in the acidic polysaccharide group, at 69.7 ± 10.6 mg/dL, was lower than in the crude polysaccharide group (75.0 ± 6.0 mg/dL) and the control group (89.2 ± 7.4 mg/dL). In addition, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the acidic polysaccharide group were lower than in the crude polysaccharide and control groups. The atherogenic index of the acidic polysaccharide group was 46.3% lower than in the control group. Initial blood pressure after the initial three weeks on the high-fat diet averaged 195.9 ± 3.3 mmHg among all rats. Compared with the initial blood pressure, the final blood pressure in the control group was increased by 22.8 mmHg, whereas it decreased in the acidic polysaccharide group by 14.9 mmHg. These results indicate that acidic polysaccharides from Gastrodia rhizome reduce hypertension and improve serum lipid levels. PMID:22312280

  17. An extract of pomegranate fruit and galangal rhizome increases the numbers of motile sperm: a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedder, Maja D K; Jakobsen, Henrik B; Giversen, Ina; Christensen, Lars P; Parner, Erik T; Fedder, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) and galangal (Alpinia galanga) have separately been shown to stimulate spermatogenesis and to increase sperm counts and motility in rodents. Within traditional medicine, pomegranate fruit has long been used to increase fertility, however studies on the effect on spermatogenesis in humans have never been published. With this study we investigated whether oral intake of tablets containing standardised amounts of extract of pomegranate fruit and powder of greater galangal rhizome (Punalpin) would increase the total number of motile spermatozoa. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Enrolment was based on the mean total number of motile spermatozoa of two ejaculates. The participants delivered an ejaculate after 4-8 days of tablet intake and two ejaculates just before they stopped taking the tablets. Seventy adult men with a semen quality not meeting the standards for commercial application at Nordic Cryobank, but without azoospermia, were included in the study. Participants were randomized to take tablets containing extract of pomegranate fruit (standardised with respect to punicalagin A+B, punicalin and ellagic acid) and freeze-dried rhizome of greater galangal (standardised with respect to 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate) or placebo on a daily basis for three months. Sixty-six participants completed the intervention (active treatment: n = 34; placebo: n = 32). After the intervention the total number of motile spermatozoa was increased in participants treated with plant extracts compared with the placebo group (p = 0.026). After three months of active treatment, the average total number of motile sperm increased by 62% (from 23.4 to 37.8 millions), while for the placebo group, the number of motile sperm increased by 20%. Sperm morphology was not affected by the treatment. Our findings may help subfertile men to gain an improved amount of motile ejaculated sperm by taking tablets

  18. Effects of Acidic Polysaccharides from Gastrodia Rhizome on Systolic Blood Pressure and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Do Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acidic polysaccharides purified from Gastrodia rhizome on blood pressure and serum lipid levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Acidic polysaccharides were purified from crude polysaccharides by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. Thirty-six male SHR were randomly divided into three groups: Gastrodia rhizome crude polysaccharide (A, acidic polysaccharide (B groups, and a control group (C. A 5-week oral administration of all treatment groups was performed daily in 3- to 8-week-old SHRs with a dose of 6 mg/kg of body weight/day. After 5 weeks of treatment, total cholesterol in the acidic polysaccharide group, at 69.7 ± 10.6 mg/dL, was lower than in the crude polysaccharide group (75.0 ± 6.0 mg/dL and the control group (89.2 ± 7.4 mg/dL. In addition, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the acidic polysaccharide group were lower than in the crude polysaccharide and control groups. The atherogenic index of the acidic polysaccharide group was 46.3% lower than in the control group. Initial blood pressure after the initial three weeks on the high-fat diet averaged 195.9 ± 3.3 mmHg among all rats. Compared with the initial blood pressure, the final blood pressure in the control group was increased by 22.8 mmHg, whereas it decreased in the acidic polysaccharide group by 14.9 mmHg. These results indicate that acidic polysaccharides from Gastrodia rhizome reduce hypertension and improve serum lipid levels.

  19. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hung-Cheng; Chern, Ching-Yuh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, You-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Liao, Yu-Ren; Teng, Che-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b) exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads. PMID:24599082

  20. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Shih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

  1. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF THE POWDER OF CURCUMA LONGA RHIZOME PLANT ON A CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AT ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    R. I. Aizman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effects of the powder of Curcuma longa plant rhizome as food additive on different processes of carbohydrate metabolism: glucose concentration in whole blood, concentration of hormones – insulin and C-peptide in plasma, content of glycogen in the liver, structural and functional organization of the islet apparatus of the pancreas in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus were studied.Material and methods. The study was conducted on Wistar adult male rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups: 1 and 2 – the controls, 3 and 4 – the rats with alloxan-induced model of diabetes mellitus. Animals of groups 1 and 3 were kept on standard chow, whereas the rats of groups 2 and 4 were feeded with additive of powder from Curcuma longa plant rhizome (2% by weight of feed.The concentration of glucose in blood and perfused solution was determined with picric acid method by intensity of colour reaction on spectrofotometer. Concentration of hormones (insulin, C-peptide was defined by immunoenzyme method with standard sets on tablet spectrofotometer. The morphological structure of a pancreas was studied by a method of light microscopy. Content of glycogen in a liver was measured by means of Shick-reaction on the Mac-Manus method with measurement of colour intensity on spectrofotometer.Results. Intake of the turmeric rhizomes powder by rats with diabetes, as compared with the diabetic animals on a standard diet, resulted in the lower increase of the glucose concentration in blood, the decrease of glucose absorption in the gut, higher concentration of the insulin and C-peptide in plasma and significant increase of glycogen content in the liver. The microstructure of pancreatic tissue samples of experimental animals using turmeric intake, was characterized by the better preservation of the islet apparatus in comparison with a group of animals on a standard diet.Conclusion. The results indicate the positive effect of the Curcuma longa rhizomes

  2. "I Got to Know Them in a New Way": Rela(y/t)ing Rhizomes and Community-Based Knowledge (Brokers') Transformation of Western and Indigenous Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornssler, Barbara; McKenzie, Holly A; Dell, Colleen Anne; Laliberte, Larry; Hopkins, Carol

    2014-04-01

    Drawing on three culturally specific research projects, this paper examines how community-based knowledge brokers' engagement in brokering knowledge shaped the projects' processes. Informed by Deleuze and Guattari's (1987) conceptualization of the "rhizome," we discuss how community knowledge brokers' engagement in open research-creation practices embrace the relational foundation of Indigenous research paradigms in contrast to mainstream Western research practices that are engaged as linear, objective, and outcome-oriented activities. In turn, we offer propositions for building team environments where open research-creation practices can unfold, informing a periphery of shared space for Indigenous and Western paradigms.

  3. Discovering Bisdemethoxycurcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome as a potent small molecule inhibitor of human pancreatic α-amylase, a target for type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Sudha; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Rajamohanan, P R; Ravikumar, Ameeta

    2012-12-15

    Curcuma longa rhizome is used extensively in culinary preparations in Far East and South-East Asia. Health benefits of curcuminoids from C. longa as antioxidants, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory molecules have been well documented. We report here for the first time that Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) from C. longa, acts as an inhibitor to inactivate human pancreatic α-amylase, a therapeutic target for oral hypoglycemic agents in type-2 diabetes. Bioactivity guided isolation of rhizome isopropanol extract led to the identification by HPLC and NMR of BDMC as a lead small molecule inhibitor of porcine and human pancreatic α-amylase with an IC(50) value of 0.026 and 0.025 mM, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed that using starch as the substrate, HPA exhibited an uncompetitive mode of inhibition with an apparent K(i) of 3.0 μM. The study gains importance as BDMC could be a good drug candidate in development of new inhibitors of HPA and of functional foods for controlling starch digestion in order to reduce post-prandial hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  5. Protective effects of components of the Chinese herb grassleaf sweetflag rhizome on PC12 cells incubated with amyloid-beta42

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    Zi-hao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The major ingredients of grassleaf sweetflag rhizome are β-asarone and eugenol, which can cross the blood-brain barrier and protect neurons. This study aimed to observe the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of β-asarone and eugenol, components of the Chinese herb grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, on PC12 cells. First, PC12 cells were cultured with different concentrations (between 1 × 10 -10 M and 1 × 10 -5 M of β-asarone and eugenol. Survival rates of PC12 cells were not significantly affected. Second, PC12 cells incubated with amyloid-beta42, which reduced cell survival, were cultured under the same conditions (1 × 10 -6 M β-asarone and eugenol. The survival rates of PC12 cells significantly increased, while expression levels of the mRNAs for the pro-apoptotic protein Bax decreased, and those for the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl mRNA increased. In addition, the combination of β-asarone with eugenol achieved better results than either component alone. Our experimental findings indicate that both β-asarone and eugenol protect PC12 cells through inhibiting apoptosis, and that the combination of the two is better than either alone.

  6. Evaluation of antinociceptive, in-vivo & in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H M Arif; Zaman, Sayera; Juhara, Fatematuj; Akter, Lucky; Tareq, Syed Mohammed; Masum, Emranul Haque; Bhattacharjee, Rajib

    2014-09-22

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the Curcuma zedoaria (family Zingiberaceae) ethanolic rhizome extract in laboratory using both in vitro and in vivo methods so as to justify its traditional use in the above mentioned pathological conditions. Phytochemical screening was done to find the presence of various secondary metabolites of the plant. In vivo antinociceptive activity was performed employing the hot plate method, acidic acid induced writhing test and formalin induced writhing test on Swiss albino mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Anti-inflammatory activity test was done on Long Evans rats at two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) by using carrageenan induced paw edema test. Finally in vitro anti-inflammatory test by protein-denaturation method was followed. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's t-test was used as the test of significance. P value <0.05 was considered as the minimum level of significance. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, gums & carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids, reducing sugars and terpenoids in the extract. In the hot plate method, the extract increased the reaction time of heat sensation significantly to 61.99% and 78.22% at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW respectively. In acetic acid induced writhing test, the percent inhibition of writhing response by the extract was 48.28% and 54.02% at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses respectively (p < 0.001). The extract also significantly inhibited the licking response in both the early phase (64.49%, p < 0.01) and the late phase (62.37%, p < 0.01) in formalin induced writhing test. The extract significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) inhibited carrageenan induced inflammatory response in rats in a dose related manner. In in-vitro anti-inflammatory test, the extract significantly inhibited protein denaturation of 77.15, 64.43, 53

  7. Identification of Absorbed Constituents in the Rabbit Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid after Intranasal Administration of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by HS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-APCI-IT-TOF-MSn

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    Chen Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM nasal therapy has been utilized to treat numerous diseases for over two millennia. It has many advantages compared with other routes. In this article, headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion trap-time of flight-multistage mass spectrometry were applied for the first time to analyze the absorbed constituents in rabbit plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after intranasal administration of Asari Radix et Rhizoma (AR. In total, 47 absorbed AR constituents including 14 monoterpenes, 10 phenylpropanoids, four benzene derivatives, two alkanes, nine N-alkylamides and eight lignans were tentatively identified in the rabbit plasma and CSF. Thirty-three absorbed constituents are found to have different bioactivities related to the pharmacological actions of AR through bibliography data retrieval. These indicated that many types of constituents of TCM can be absorbed at the nasal cavity into both rabbit blood and CSF. This is the first study to explore the absorption of AR, and comprehensively analyze the absorbed constituents after intranasal administration of TCM. These findings extend our understanding of the effective substances of AR, and inspire us to make a hypothesis on the mechanism of additive effect of multiple constituents of TCMs, which is very worthy of further investigation.

  8. Elucidation of Compatibility Interactions of Traditional Chinese Medicines: In Vitro Absorptions Across Caco-2 Monolayer of Coptidis Rhizoma and Euodiae Fructus in Zuojin and Fanzuojin Formulas as A Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Fang; Zhou, Qi-Le; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2017-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines are often combined as formulae and interact with each other. As for Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) and Euodiae Fructus (EF), the most classical compatibilities were Zuojin (ZJF) and Fanzuojin formulas (FZJF) with reverse mixture ratios and opposite effects. To compare in vitro absorption interactions between CR and EF, bidirectional transports across Caco-2 cell monolayer of extracts of two formulas and equivalent single herbs were studied. Eighteen alkaloids from CR and EF were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Parameter apparent permeability coefficient (P app ) and efflux rate (ER) values showed that most alkaloids were well or moderately absorbed and six quaternary protoberberine alkaloids from CR had obvious efflux. ZJF compatibilities reduced both P app BL→AP and ER values of three indole alkaloids, and increased ER values of two quinolone alkaloids from EF. FZJF compatibilities obviously affected the bidirectional P app values of CR alkaloids, weakened ERs of five protoberberines from CR and enlarged ERs of two quinolones from EF. Conclusions were drawn that different compatibility ratios of CR and EF led to different interactions on the in vitro absorption of alkaloids. The results may provide a good reference for interaction studies on the compatibilities of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Identification of absorbed constituents in the rabbit plasma and cerebrospinal fluid after intranasal administration of Asari Radix et Rhizoma by HS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-APCI-IT-TOF-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Xu, Feng; Xie, De-Mei; Jing, Yu; Shang, Ming-Ying; Liu, Guang-Xue; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-04-17

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) nasal therapy has been utilized to treat numerous diseases for over two millennia. It has many advantages compared with other routes. In this article, headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion trap-time of flight-multistage mass spectrometry were applied for the first time to analyze the absorbed constituents in rabbit plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after intranasal administration of Asari Radix et Rhizoma (AR). In total, 47 absorbed AR constituents including 14 monoterpenes, 10 phenylpropanoids, four benzene derivatives, two alkanes, nine N-alkylamides and eight lignans were tentatively identified in the rabbit plasma and CSF. Thirty-three absorbed constituents are found to have different bioactivities related to the pharmacological actions of AR through bibliography data retrieval. These indicated that many types of constituents of TCM can be absorbed at the nasal cavity into both rabbit blood and CSF. This is the first study to explore the absorption of AR, and comprehensively analyze the absorbed constituents after intranasal administration of TCM. These findings extend our understanding of the effective substances of AR, and inspire us to make a hypothesis on the mechanism of additive effect of multiple constituents of TCMs, which is very worthy of further investigation.

  10. Väike teatmik (Tartu paranoiakriitilise risoomi kohta / A Small Guide to the (Tartu Paranoiac-Critical Rhizome

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    Aare Pilv

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of a network of authors who have been active since the end of the 20th century, mainly (but not only in Tartu. They can be characterized as having an experimental attitude and maintaining distance from the literary mainstream, but at the same time they do not try to be consciously polemical or novatory, because partly they repeat the techniques of the 20th century avant-garde and, what is maybe more important, they sidestep the dialectics of innovating or altering the literary canon. The network is not strictly organized; it is rather a rhizome that has some denser nodes (literary journals and mailing lists. There have been different attempts to name the phenomenon: Tartu avant-garde, microcosmic literature, cognitive realism, Y-literature, "eksp" and so on. I have chosen "paranoiac-critique" as the term that best captures the common characteristics of these authors and their artistic practices (some of the authors are active not only as text writers, but also as conceptual artists.The paper then gives a list, with commentary, of the most important groups and individuals of that movement. In the role of "predecessors" are the group 14NÜ (Paavo Matsin, Mait Laas, Marianne Ravi et al., which also experimented with the format of the book, and a company in Tartu that developed a specific actionist stylistics called "mugiv" (Marko Kompus, Mehis Heinsaar, Martiini, Kaspar et al.. The sovereign figure in the experimental network is Valdur Mikita, who has also academically researched the problems of creativity; he is also a theoretician and metapoet. An important institution for the network has been the literary journal Vihik (initiator Berk Vaher; the later editor of the journal Jaak Tomberg has also participated in activities of the Tartu Theatre Laboratory (managed by Andreas W, which has experimented with "technological theatre". In the middle of the first decade of the 21st century the network has gathered around the

  11. Germacrane sesquiterpenes isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. inhibit UVB-induced upregulation of MMP-1, -2, and -3 expression in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hae; Mohamed, Mohamed Antar Aziz; Jung, Ye-Jin; Shrestha, Sabina; Lee, Tae Hoon; Lee, Chang-Ho; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Jiyoung; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-10-01

    Four sesquiterpenes were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.: furanodiene (1), germacrone (2), furanodienone (3), and 13-hydroxygermacrone (4). Importantly, this was the first time compounds 1 and 4 were isolated from this plant. The chemical structures of these compounds were determined using 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and electron ionization mass spectrometry analyses. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 2 and 4 inhibited UVB-induced upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3 in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this upregulation occurred in a dose-dependent manner over the range of 1-10 μM for each compound.

  12. Chemical composition and major odor-active compounds of essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER (dried rhizome of Pinellia ternata) as crude drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Megumi; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Ono, Toshirou; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER (Japanese name: Hange), the dried rhizome of Pinellia ternata, was investigated by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. The oil obtained from Pinellia tuber was revealed the presence of 114 compounds, representing 90.6% of the total oil identified. This colorless oil had a spicy and woody odor. The main components of the oil were β-cubebene (8.8%), atractylon (7.8%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and δ-cadinene (5.3%). Fifteen major odor-active compounds were identified in the essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER by the GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among these, safrole (spicy) and β-vatirenene (woody) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor (128), followed by paeonol (FD = 64; woody, spicy), α-humulene (FD = 64; woody), and β-phenylnaphthalene (FD = 64; spicy).

  13. Ex Vitro Seedling Development from In Vitro Rhizome-Like Bodies in Eulophia promensis Lindl.: A New Technique for Orchid Propagation

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    Mohammad Musharof Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication describes in vitro seed germination, embryo differentiation, and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro rhizome-like bodies of a terrestrial orchid, Eulophia promensis Lindl. Effects of two nutrient media, namely, Murashige and Skoog (MS and Phytotechnology Orchid Seed Sowing medium (P723 supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1 and/or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 0.5–1.0 mgL−1 and activated charcoal (2.0 gL−1, were studied on seed germination and subsequent development of embryos. Maximum seed germination (100% was recorded in P723 medium fortified with 1.0 mgL−1 BAP + 2.0 gL−1 activated charcoal. The different developmental stages of protocorm morphogenesis were traced out. In subsequent subcultures, the protocorms proliferated profusely and developed rhizome-like bodies (RLBs with numerous hair-like structures. These RLBs were transferred to pots containing potting mixture composed of humus + coir dust + saw dust (1 : 1 : 1 where ∼80% of RLBs survived and produced 1–3 seedlings per RLB. This is the first time report for in vitro germination of seeds and ex vitro seedling production from in vitro raised RLBs in Eulophia promensis. This is a time saving and cost effective protocol that could be extended to other economically important, rare, and endangered orchids for propagation and conservation.

  14. A comparison study of the nutritional, mineral and volatile compositions of three dry forms of ginger rhizomes, and antioxidant properties of their ethanolic and aqueous extracts

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    Aicha Jelled

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the most accessible dry forms of ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale used as a spice and as a remedy in order to choose the best ginger for medicinal purpose. Methods: Freshly air dried ginger, commercially dry rhizomes and ginger available in powder form are investigated in terms of nutritional values (proximate and mineral compositions and volatiles profile. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts (decoctions and infusions were prepared for total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents determination. Also, three standard tests were established in order to estimate the best extract with the better antioxidant potential. Results: The results showed unlike proximate composition revealing different nutritional values. In fact, freshly dried ginger contained much ash, while already dry samples contained much protein. In addition, mineral contents of studied samples indicated their dissimilar richness especially in Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Fe, and Mn. Solid phase micro-extraction gave volatile profiles with many interesting compounds, only 26 from the 51 identified components were common to studied samples with bioactive compounds predominance in freshly dried sample. Also, the antioxidant potential established by three different tests was higher in already dry samples and was positively correlated with their higher contents in the determined phytochemicals. The ethanolic extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than aqueous extracts. Decoctions and infusions were almost similar proving that long cooking time did not affect ginger antioxidant potential. Conclusions: This work highlighted the benefits of traditional preparations of ginger as sources of bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants, and proved that the available commercial samples are not identical and encouraged analyzing samples before uses depending on needs.

  15. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FLAVONOID COMPOUND EXTRACTIRE ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION EXTRACTED FROM THE RHIZOMES FINGERROOT OF (Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb. Schlecht (Zingiberaceae

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    Ochtavia Prima Sari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Boesenbergia pandurata (Roxb. Schlecht is one of fingerroot plant in ginger family (Zingiberaceae. The rhizomes of the plant contained a lot of secondary metabolites compounds. Therefore, the purpose of the research is to isolate and identify the flavonoid compound from the plant. The rhizomes were extracted with metanol continued by partition using ethyl acetate-water (1:1. The ethyl acetate extract was chromatographed on a column of Si gel (Vacuum Liquid Chromatography and Gravitation Column Chromatography using n-hexane-ethyl acetate (5:2 as eluents. Further purification by recristalization  using benzene  produced a compound as yellow powder (16 mg having melting point of 294-295 oC. The spectra of isolated compound were determined by spectroscopic UV-Vis, FT-IR, and GC-MS. Spectrum UV-Vis of the isolated compound showed ultraviolet absorption at λmax (MeOH, nm 290 and 322; λmax (MeOH+NaOH, nm 322; λmax (MeOH+AlCl3, nm 309; λmax (MeOH+AlCl3+HCl, nm 310; λmax (MeOH+NaOAc, nm 322 and λmax (MeOH+NaOAc+H3BO3, nm 290. Its FT-IR spectrum represented a number of absorption lied on νmax (cm-1 : 3142.5; 3012.6; 2893; 2345.3; 1631.7; 1585.4; 1357.8; 1168.8; and 825.5. GC-MS spectrum of the isolated compound exhibited an [M]+ ion peak at m/z = 256 with retention time of  22,579. Based on the results of spectrum analysis it can be concluded that the compound is 5,7-dyhydroxyflavanone.   Keywords: 5,7-dyhydroxyflavanone, Boesenbergia pandurata, ethyl asetat, fingerroot

  16. Estaquia de rizomas do carapiá, planta medicinal em extinção Rhizome cuttings of Carapiá, a medicinal plant vulnerable to extinction

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    José Magno Q Luz

    2011-06-01

    ção assexuada.Dorstenia cayapia Vellozo, Moraceae (carapiá is a Brazilian native medicinal herb that is classified as "vulnerable" because of the drastic reduction of its habitat and its declining population. This study was carried out in a greenhouse at the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of the study was to obtain informations about cultivation and exploration of carapiá to obtain plant material for phytotherapy and chemical industry products. Plant material was collected in Raul Soares, Minas Gerais State, in a fragment of the Atlantic Coastal Forest. Three substrates were evaluated in the rhizome cutting experiment: Commercial substrate, S1 (40% soil + 40% cattle manure + 20% humus; S2 (20% soil + 20% cattle manure + 40% humus + 20% vermiculite; three sections of the rhizome: apical, basal and intermediate and two types of trays: 128 and 200 cells. Medium sized cuttings (2 cm were prepared and planting was done according to positive geotropism. The experiment was carried out from April to June 2007 and the experimental design was completely randomized as a 3x3x2 factorial. Dry mass was determined for the above ground (leaves and inflorescences and for the under ground (roots and rhizomes parts of the plant. The rhizome tip sprouting was greater than those of the median and basal sections. Rhizome sprouting was better in the 128-cells tray than in the 200-cell tray. Collecting cuttings from the top of the rhizomes could be recommended for planting because it avoids removing the entire plant, thus preserving the plants in their environment and providing for the possibility of asexual propagation.

  17. Effects of Extractive from Gastrodiae Rhizoma on Learning-Memory Function in Mice%天麻总提物对小鼠学习记忆能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春妮; 何芳雁; 田野; 段小花

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察天麻总提物对小鼠学习记忆能力的获得、巩固、再现功能的影响,为临床研发新药提供依据。方法昆明种雄性小鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、对照组、天麻总提物组,各给药组给予相应药物灌胃,灌胃容积为0.2 mL/10 g,正常组与模型组给予等容积蒸馏水灌胃,连续16 d。于给药11 d后复制东莨菪碱、氯霉素、乙醇致小鼠记忆获得、巩固、再现功能障碍模型,采用Morris水迷宫进行定位航行实验及空间探索实验,测定小鼠逃避潜伏期和空间搜索距离,以及原平台象限时间百分比和距离百分比。结果天麻总提物能明显缩短模型小鼠逃避潜伏期及搜索距离(P<0.05,P<0.01),显著增加原平台象限时间和距离百分比(P<0.01)。结论天麻总提物能具有改善模型小鼠记忆获得、促进记忆巩固及记忆再现的作用。%Objective To evaluate the effects of extractive from Gastrodiae Rhizoma on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of learning-memory function in mice;To provide some reference for clinical research and development of new drugs.Methods Male Kunming mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive control group and Gastrodia extractive group. Positive control group and Gastrodia extractive group were given gavage by using relevant medicine 0.2 mL/10 g, and the control group and model group were given gavage with the same amount of distilled water for 16 days. After receiving gavage for continuous 11 days, memory acquisition barrier model was induced by scopolamine;memory consolidation barrier model was induced by chloromycetin;memory retrieval barrier model was induced by EtOH. The learning-memory function was reviewed by escape latency and spatial search distance. The quadrant and distance search time percentage was detected through directional navigation test and spatial probe test in Morris water maze.Results Extractive from Gastrodia Rhizoma

  18. A systematic data acquisition and mining strategy for chemical profiling of Aster tataricus rhizoma (Ziwan) by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and the corresponding anti-depressive activity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yupeng; Li, Li; Liao, Man; Su, Min; Wan, Changchen; Zhang, Lantong; Zhang, Hailin

    2018-05-30

    In this study, a systematic data acquisition and mining strategy aimed at the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) complex system based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was reported. The workflow of this strategy is as follows: First, the high resolution mass data are acquired by both data-dependent acquisition mode (DDA) and data-independent acquisition mode (DIA). Then a global data mining that combined targeted and non-targeted compound finding is applied to analyze mass spectral data. Furthermore, some assistant tools, such as key product ions (KPIs), are employed for compound hunting and identification. The TCM Ziwan (ZW, Aster tataricus rhizoma) was used to illustrate this strategy for the first time. In this research, total 131 compounds including organic acids, peptides, terpenes, steroids, flavonoids, coumarins, anthraquinones and aldehydes were identified or tentatively characterized in ZW based on accurate mass measurements within ±5 ppm error, and 50 of them were unambiguously confirmed by comparing standard compounds. Afterwards, based on the traditional Chinese medical theory and the key determinants of firing patterns of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons in the development of depression, the confirmed compounds were subsequently evaluated the pharmacological effect of activity of VTA DA neurons and anti-depressive efficacy. This research provided not only a chemical profiling for further in vivo study of ZW, but also an efficient data acquisition and mining strategy to profile the chemical constituents and find new bioactive substances for other TCM complex system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioactivity-guided isolation of anti-hepatitis B virus active sesquiterpenoids from the traditional Chinese medicine: Rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Geng, Chang-An; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Yang, Tong-Hua; Chen, Xing-Long; Yang, Cai-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2015-08-02

    The rhizome of Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine to cure hepatitis in many formulae, but the active components responsible for hepatitis have not been elucidated. According to our bioassay on HepG2.2.15 cell line in vitro, the ethanol extract of C. rotundus demonstrated potent anti-HBV activity. This current study was designed to isolate and identify the anti-HBV active constituents from the rhizomes of C. rotundus. Bioactivity and LC-MS guided fractionation on the extract of C. rotundus using various chromatographic techniques including open-column, Sephadex LH-20 and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography led to the isolation and identification of thirty-seven sesquiterpenoids. Structural elucidation of the isolates was carried out by extensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D- and 2D -NMR). The anti-HBV activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on the HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cell line in vitro. The cytotoxicity effects of the isolates were assessed by a MTT assay. The secretions of HBsAg and HBeAg in the culture medium were detected by ELISA method, and the load of HBV DNA was quantified by real-time fluorescent PCR technique. Five new patchoulane-type sesquiterpenoids, namely cyperene-3, 8-dione (1), 14-hydroxy cyperotundone (2), 14-acetoxy cyperotundone (3), 3β-hydroxycyperenoic acid (4) and sugetriol-3, 9-diacetate (5), along with 32 known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the active fractions of C. rotundus. Compounds 2 and 3 were the first cyperotundone-type sesquiterpenoids with a hydroxyl group at C-14 position. Nine eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids (15-21 and 23-24) significantly inhibited the HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 42.7±5.9, 22.5±1.9, 13.2±1.2, 10.1±0.7, 14.1±1.1, 15.3±2.7, 13.8±0.9, 19.7±2.1 and 11.9±0.6 μM, respectively, of which, compounds 17, 21, 23 and 24 possessed high SI values of 250.4, 125.5,>259.6 and 127.5, respectively. Two patchoulane

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Chemical Compounds Isolated from the Rhizome of Smilax glabra on Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cell

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    Chuan-li Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Smilax glabra has been used for a long time as both food and folk medicine in many countries. The present study focused on the active constituents from the rhizome of S. glabra, which possess potential anti-inflammatory activities. As a result, nine known compounds were isolated from the rhizome of S. glabra with the bioassay-guiding, and were identified as syringaresinol (1, lasiodiplodin (2, de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3, syringic acid (4, 1,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl-1,4-butanediol (5, lyoniresinol (6, trans-resveratrol (7, trans-caffeic acid methyl ester (8, and dihydrokaempferol (9. Among these compounds, 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from S. glabra. In addition, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that 4 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects on NO production of RAW264.7 cells, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed moderate suppression effects on induced NO production. 1, 7, and 5 exhibited high inhibitory effects on TNF-α production, with the IC50 values less than 2.3, 4.4, and 16.6 μM, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 were the potential anti-inflammatory active compositions of S. glabra.

  1. Rhizome extracts of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc induce caspase dependant apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species in filarial parasite Setaria digitata in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senathilake, K S; Karunanayake, E H; Samarakoon, S R; Tennekoon, K H; de Silva, E D

    2016-08-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis (LF) is mainly caused by filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and is the second leading cause of long term and permanent disability in tropical countries. To date, incapability to eliminate long lived adult parasites by current drugs remains the major challenge in the elimination of LF. Hence, in the current study, the efficacy of rhizome extracts of Curcuma zedoaria (a plant traditionally used in Sri Lanka in the management of LF) was evaluated as an effective filaricide in vitro. Sequential solvent extracts of C. zedoaria rhizomes were screened for in vitro antifilarial activity at 0.01-1 mg/mL concentrations by motility inhibition assay and 3-(4, 5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay using cattle parasite Setaria digitata as a model organism. Exposure of parasites to hexane and chloroform extracts of C. zedoaria caused a dose dependant reduction in motility and viability of microfilariae (IC50 = 72.42 μg/mL for hexane extract, 191.14 μg/mL for chloroform extract) and adult parasites (IC50 = 77.07 μg/mL for hexane extract, 259.87 μg/mL for chloroform extract). Both extracts were less toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells when compared to filariae. A dose dependant increase in caspase 3/CED 3 and a decrease in total protein content, cyclooxygenase (COX) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activities were observed in adult parasites treated with hexane or chloroform extract. A significant degree of chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation were also observed in these worms by Hoechst 33342 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining respectively. Dose dependant chromosomal DNA laddering was observed in treated adult worms but not in microfilariae in response to both extracts. Oxidative stress parameters such as reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and increase in glutathione s transferase (GST

  2. Genetic diversity of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. based on inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... data. The dendrograms generated from both data sets showed a close alliance among Sichuan Province ..... higher level of geographic structuring (Figure 1B) comp- .... management strategy would be a program of samples.

  3. Extending the applicability of pressurized hot water extraction to compounds exhibiting limited water solubility by pH control: curcumin from the turmeric rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euterpio, Maria Anna; Cavaliere, Chiara; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE, also known as subcritical water extraction) is commonly considered to be an environmentally friendly extraction technique that could potentially replace traditional methods that use organic solvents. Unfortunately, the applicability of this technique is often limited by the very low water solubility of the target compounds, even at high temperatures. In this paper, the scope for broadening the applicability of PHWE by adjusting the pH of the water used in the extraction is demonstrated in the extraction of curcumin (which exhibits very limited water solubility) from untreated turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes. Although poor extraction yields were obtained, even at high temperatures when using degassed water or neutral phosphate buffer as the extraction medium, yields exceeding those obtained by Soxhlet extraction were achieved using highly acidic pH buffers due to curcumin protonation. The influence of the temperature, pH, and buffer concentration on the extraction yield were investigated in detail by means of a series of designed experiments. Optimized conditions for the extraction of curcumin from turmeric by PHWE were estimated at 197 °C using 62 g/L buffer concentration at pH 1.6. The relationships between these variables were subjected to statistical analysis using response surface methodology.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed Ali; El-Sayed, Wael Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Turmeric (rich in curcuminoids) and ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Ayurveda/Chinese medicine since antiquity. Here, we compared the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity of these two plants in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Both plants (at dose 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed (but with different degrees) the incidence and severity of arthritis by increasing/decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, and activating the anti-oxidant defence system. The anti-arthritic activity of turmeric exceeded that of ginger and indomethacin (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), especially when the treatment started from the day of arthritis induction. The percentage of disease recovery was 4.6-8.3% and 10.2% more in turmeric compared with ginger and indomethacin (P turmeric over ginger and indomethacin, which may have beneficial effects against rheumatoid arthritis onset/progression as shown in AIA rat model.

  5. Alpinia pricei Rhizome Extracts Induce Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Squamous Carcinoma KB Cells and Suppress Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Cheng Hseu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpinia pricei has been shown to induce apoptosis in human squamous carcinoma (KB cells. In this study, we report the effectiveness of the ethanol (70% extracts of A. pricei rhizome (AP extracts in terms of tumor regression as determined using both in vitro cell culture and in vivo athymic nude mice models of KB cells. We found that the AP extract (25–200 μg/mL treatment decreased the proliferation of KB cells by arresting progression through the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. This cell cycle blockade was associated with reductions in cyclin A and B1, Cdc2, and Cdc25C, and increased p21/WAF1, Wee1, p53 and phospho-p53 (p-p53 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that AP extract treatment decreased metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA expression, while expression of their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, were increased in KB cells. Furthermore, AP extract treatment effectively delayed tumor incidence in nude mice inoculated with KB cells and reduced the tumor burden. AP extract treatment also induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation, as detected by in situ TUNEL staining. Thus, A. pricei may possess antitumor activity in human squamous carcinoma (KB cells.

  6. Modules of co-regulated metabolites in turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome suggest the existence of biosynthetic modules in plant specialized metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Ma, Xiaoqiang; Gang, David R

    2009-01-01

    Turmeric is an excellent example of a plant that produces large numbers of metabolites from diverse metabolic pathways or networks. It is hypothesized that these metabolic pathways or networks contain biosynthetic modules, which lead to the formation of metabolite modules-groups of metabolites whose production is co-regulated and biosynthetically linked. To test whether such co-regulated metabolite modules do exist in this plant, metabolic profiling analysis was performed on turmeric rhizome samples that were collected from 16 different growth and development treatments, which had significant impacts on the levels of 249 volatile and non-volatile metabolites that were detected. Importantly, one of the many co-regulated metabolite modules that were indeed readily detected in this analysis contained the three major curcuminoids, whereas many other structurally related diarylheptanoids belonged to separate metabolite modules, as did groups of terpenoids. The existence of these co-regulated metabolite modules supported the hypothesis that the 3-methoxyl groups on the aromatic rings of the curcuminoids are formed before the formation of the heptanoid backbone during the biosynthesis of curcumin and also suggested the involvement of multiple polyketide synthases with different substrate selectivities in the formation of the array of diarylheptanoids detected in turmeric. Similar conclusions about terpenoid biosynthesis could also be made. Thus, discovery and analysis of metabolite modules can be a powerful predictive tool in efforts to understand metabolism in plants.

  7. Effects of curcuminoids identified in rhizomes of Curcuma longa on BACE-1 inhibitory and behavioral activity and lifespan of Alzheimer’s disease Drosophila models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of presenile and senile dementia. The human β-amyloid precursor cleavage enzyme (BACE-1) is a key enzyme responsible for amyloid plaque production, which implicates the progress and symptoms of AD. Here we assessed the anti-BACE-1 and behavioral activities of curcuminoids from rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), diarylalkyls curcumin (CCN), demethoxycurcumin (DMCCN), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMCCN) against AD Drosophila melanogaster models. Methods Neuro-protective ability of the curcuminoids was assessed using Drosophila melanogaster model system overexpressing BACE-1 and its substrate APP in compound eyes and entire neurons. Feeding and climbing activity, lifespan, and morphostructural changes in fly eyes also were evaluated. Results BDMCCN has the strongest inhibitory activity toward BACE-1 with 17 μM IC50, which was 20 and 13 times lower than those of CCN and DMCCN respectively. Overexpression of APP/BACE-1 resulted in the progressive and measurable defects in morphology of eyes and locomotion. Remarkably, supplementing diet with either 1 mM BDMCCN or 1 mM CCN rescued APP/BACE1-expressing flies and kept them from developing both morphological and behavioral defects. Our results suggest that structural characteristics, such as degrees of saturation, types of carbon skeleton and functional group, and hydrophobicity appear to play a role in determining inhibitory potency of curcuminoids on BACE-1. Conclusion Further studies will warrant possible applications of curcuminoids as therapeutic BACE-1 blockers. PMID:24597901

  8. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome on the development of metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammi, Srinivas; Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2009-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome, including obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance that predisposes type 2 diabetes is a major disease problem around the world and a plethora of herbal medicines are claimed to be effective in controlling these disorders. The rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is commonly used as a spice in various foods and beverages. Apart from its other traditional medical uses, Z. officinale has been used to control diabetes and dyslipidaemia. In the present study, the protective effects of an ethanolic extract of Z. officinale on the development of metabolic syndrome were investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The marked rise in body weights, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids in serum of the rats that followed 6 weeks of high-fat diet treatment were significantly reduced by Z. officinale treatment. However, no significant change in serum HDL cholesterol was observed either with high-fat diet or Z. officinale compared to both control groups. The present results provide scientific evidence to substantiate the traditional use of Z. officinale in preventing metabolic disorders.

  9. Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginko, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes

    2016-05-27

    The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated-except for one sample worthy of discussion-according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters.

  10. Consumption of Polyphenol-Rich Zingiber Zerumbet Rhizome Extracts Protects against the Breakdown of the Blood-Retinal Barrier and Retinal Inflammation Induced by Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the amelioration of diabetic retinopathy (DR by Zingiber zerumbet rhizome ethanol extracts (ZZRext in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats. ZZRext contains high phenolic and flavonoid contents. STZ-diabetic rats were treated orally with ZZRext (200, 300 mg/kg per day for three months. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB breakdown and increased vascular permeability were found in diabetic rats, with downregulation of occludin, and claudin-5. ZZRext treatment effectively preserved the expression of occludin, and claudin-5, leading to less BRB breakdown and less vascular permeability. Retinal histopathological observation showed that the disarrangement and reduction in thickness of retinal layers were reversed in ZZRext-treated diabetic rats. Retinal gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were all decreased in ZZRext-treated diabetic rats. Moreover, ZZRext treatment not only inhibited the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB activation, but also downregulated the protein expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in diabetic retina. In conclusion, the results suggest that the retinal protective effects of ZZRext occur through improved retinal structural change and inhibiting retinal inflammation. The antiretinopathy property of ZZRext might be related to the downregulation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signal transduction induced by diabetes.

  11. Paleomycology of the Princeton Chert. III. Dictyosporic microfungi, Monodictysporites princetonensis gen. et sp. nov., associated with decayed rhizomes of an Eocene semi-aquatic fern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymiuk, Ashley A

    2016-09-01

    This study builds on previous investigations of paleomycological diversity within permineralized plants of a significant Eocene paleobotanical locality, the Princeton Chert. The fungal body fossils described here occur in decayed rhizomes of the extinct semi-aquatic fern Dennstaedtiopsis aerenchymata Fungi include vegetative hyphae throughout the plant tissue, as well as a dense assemblage of >100 dematiaceous spores. The spores occur in a discrete zone surrounding two extraneous rootlets of other plants, which penetrated the fern tissue post-mortem. Spores are obovoid and muriform, composed of 8-12 cells with constricted septa and produced from hyaline or slightly pigmented hyphae. The spores are morphologically similar to both asexual reproductive dictyospores of phylogenetically disparate microfungi attributed to the morphogenus Monodictys and perennating dictyochlamydospores that occur in the anamorph genus Phoma In addition to expanding the early Eocene fossil record for Ascomycota, these specimens also provide new insight into the rapidity of initial phases of the fossilization process in this important paleobotanical locality. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  12. Metabolic Profiling of Liver Tissue in Diabetic Mice Treated with Artemisia Capillaris and Alisma Rhizome Using LC-MS and CE-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumi; Lee, In-Seung; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Bang, Eunjung; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Na, Yun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia Capillaris (AC) and Alisma Rhizome (AR) are natural products for the treatment of liver disorders in oriental medicine clinics. Here, we report metabolomic changes in the evaluation of the treatment effects of AC and AR on fatty livers in diabetic mice, along with a proposition of the underlying metabolic pathway. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic metabolites extracted from mouse livers were analyzed using HPLC-QTOF and CE-QTOF, respectively, to generate metabolic profiles. Statistical analysis of the metabolites by PLS-DA and OPLA-DA fairly discriminated between the diabetic, and the AC- and AR-treated mice groups. Various PEs mostly contributed to the discrimination of the diabetic mice from the normal mice, and besides, DG (18:1/16:0), TG (16:1/16:1/20:1), PE (21:0/20:5), and PA (18:0/21:0) were also associated with discrimination by s-plot. Nevertheless, the effects of AC and AR treatment were indistinct with respect to lipid metabolites. Of the 97 polar metabolites extracted from the CE-MS data, 40 compounds related to amino acid, central carbon, lipid, purine, and pyrimidine metabolism, with [Formula: see text] values less than 0.05, were shown to contribute to liver dysregulation. Following treatment with AC and AR, the metabolites belonging to purine metabolism preferentially recovered to the metabolic state of the normal mice. The AMP/ATP ratio of cellular energy homeostasis in AR-treated mice was more apparently increased ([Formula: see text]) than that of AC-treated mice. On the other hand, amino acids, which showed the main alterations in diabetic mice, did not return to the normal levels upon treatment with AR or AC. In terms of metabolomics, AR was a more effective natural product in the treatment of liver dysfunction than AC. These results may provide putative biomarkers for the prognosis of fatty liver disorder following treatment with AC and AR extracts.

  13. Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-Oxidative Mechanism

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    Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200 mg kg−1 b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI of 50 ± 4.0/46 ± 4.0, respectively, similar to that of lansoprazole (80% at 30 mg kg−1 b.w. Increased H+, K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were observed in ulcer-induced rats, while GRAE fed rats showed normalized levels and GRAE also normalized depleted/amplified anti-oxidant enzymes in swim stress and ethanol stress-induced animals. Gastric mucin damage was recovered up to 77% and 74% in swim stress and ethanol stress, respectively after GRAE treatment. GRAE also inhibited the growth of H. pylori with MIC of 300 ± 38 μg and also possessed reducing power, free radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.4 μg mL−1 gallic acid equivalent (GAE. DNA protection up to 90% at 0.4 μg was also observed. Toxicity studies indicated no lethal effects in rats fed up to 5 g kg−1 b.w. Compositional analysis favored by determination of the efficacy of individual phenolic acids towards their potential ulcer-preventive ability revealed that between cinnamic (50% and gallic (46% phenolic acids, cinnamic acid appear to contribute to better H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, while gallic acid contributes significantly to anti-oxidant activity.

  14. The fossil Osmundales (Royal Ferns—a phylogenetic network analysis, revised taxonomy, and evolutionary classification of anatomically preserved trunks and rhizomes

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    Benjamin Bomfleur

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Osmundales (Royal Fern order originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera, it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exceptional source of information on the evolutionary history of the group from the Permian to the present. However, inconsistent terminology, varying formats of description, and the general lack of a uniform taxonomic concept renders this wealth of information poorly accessible. To this end, we provide a comprehensive review of the diversity of structural features of osmundalean axes under a standardized, descriptive terminology. A novel morphological character matrix with 45 anatomical characters scored for 15 extant species and for 114 fossil operational units (species or specimens is analysed using networks in order to establish systematic relationships among fossil and extant Osmundales rooted in axis anatomy. The results lead us to propose an evolutionary classification for fossil Osmundales and a revised, standardized taxonomy for all taxa down to the rank of (subgenus. We introduce several nomenclatural novelties: (1 a new subfamily Itopsidemoideae (Guaireaceae is established to contain Itopsidema, Donwelliacaulis, and Tiania; (2 the thamnopteroid genera Zalesskya, Iegosigopteris, and Petcheropteris are all considered synonymous with Thamnopteris; (3 12 species of Millerocaulis and Ashicaulis are assigned to modern genera (tribe Osmundeae; (4 the hitherto enigmatic Aurealcaulis is identified as an extinct subgenus of Plenasium; and (5 the poorly known Osmundites tuhajkulensis is assigned to Millerocaulis. In addition, we consider Millerocaulis

  15. The fossil Osmundales (Royal Ferns)-a phylogenetic network analysis, revised taxonomy, and evolutionary classification of anatomically preserved trunks and rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Grimm, Guido W; McLoughlin, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exceptional source of information on the evolutionary history of the group from the Permian to the present. However, inconsistent terminology, varying formats of description, and the general lack of a uniform taxonomic concept renders this wealth of information poorly accessible. To this end, we provide a comprehensive review of the diversity of structural features of osmundalean axes under a standardized, descriptive terminology. A novel morphological character matrix with 45 anatomical characters scored for 15 extant species and for 114 fossil operational units (species or specimens) is analysed using networks in order to establish systematic relationships among fossil and extant Osmundales rooted in axis anatomy. The results lead us to propose an evolutionary classification for fossil Osmundales and a revised, standardized taxonomy for all taxa down to the rank of (sub)genus. We introduce several nomenclatural novelties: (1) a new subfamily Itopsidemoideae (Guaireaceae) is established to contain Itopsidema , Donwelliacaulis , and Tiania ; (2) the thamnopteroid genera Zalesskya , Iegosigopteris , and Petcheropteris are all considered synonymous with Thamnopteris ; (3) 12 species of Millerocaulis and Ashicaulis are assigned to modern genera (tribe Osmundeae); (4) the hitherto enigmatic Aurealcaulis is identified as an extinct subgenus of Plenasium ; and (5) the poorly known Osmundites tuhajkulensis is assigned to Millerocaulis . In addition, we consider Millerocaulis

  16. The fossil Osmundales (Royal Ferns)—a phylogenetic network analysis, revised taxonomy, and evolutionary classification of anatomically preserved trunks and rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Osmundales (Royal Fern order) originated in the late Paleozoic and is the most ancient surviving lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. In contrast to its low diversity today (less than 20 species in six genera), it has the richest fossil record of any extant group of ferns. The structurally preserved trunks and rhizomes alone are referable to more than 100 fossil species that are classified in up to 20 genera, four subfamilies, and two families. This diverse fossil record constitutes an exceptional source of information on the evolutionary history of the group from the Permian to the present. However, inconsistent terminology, varying formats of description, and the general lack of a uniform taxonomic concept renders this wealth of information poorly accessible. To this end, we provide a comprehensive review of the diversity of structural features of osmundalean axes under a standardized, descriptive terminology. A novel morphological character matrix with 45 anatomical characters scored for 15 extant species and for 114 fossil operational units (species or specimens) is analysed using networks in order to establish systematic relationships among fossil and extant Osmundales rooted in axis anatomy. The results lead us to propose an evolutionary classification for fossil Osmundales and a revised, standardized taxonomy for all taxa down to the rank of (sub)genus. We introduce several nomenclatural novelties: (1) a new subfamily Itopsidemoideae (Guaireaceae) is established to contain Itopsidema, Donwelliacaulis, and Tiania; (2) the thamnopteroid genera Zalesskya, Iegosigopteris, and Petcheropteris are all considered synonymous with Thamnopteris; (3) 12 species of Millerocaulis and Ashicaulis are assigned to modern genera (tribe Osmundeae); (4) the hitherto enigmatic Aurealcaulis is identified as an extinct subgenus of Plenasium; and (5) the poorly known Osmundites tuhajkulensis is assigned to Millerocaulis. In addition, we consider Millerocaulis stipabonettiorum a

  17. Combination of ¹H NMR- and GC-MS-based metabonomics to study on the toxicity of Coptidis Rhizome in rats.

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    Yuting Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coptidis Rhizome (CR, widely applied to treat with heat and toxicity, is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, however, an extensive dosage can induce toxicity. Diarrhea is one of the most frequent side effects of CR treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, metabonomics was combined with the multivariate statistical analysis to discover the endogenous metabolites which related to the diarrheal induced by CR. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with 4.95 g CR/kg weight. Urine samples were collected at day -1 (before treatment, and days 14 and 21 for NMR analysis. Serum and tissues were collected at day 14 for GC-MS analysis and histopathological examination, respectively. The urine and serum metabolic profiles provided clearer distinction between CR-treated group and control group, which was confirmed by body weight change and diarrhea. Through multivariate statistical analysis, 12 marker metabolites from ¹H NMR and 8 ones from GC-MS have been found. Among those metabolites, hippurate, acetate, alanine, glycine and glutamate are likely to break the balance of gut microbiota, whereas, lactate and 2-ketoisovalerate showed association with energy metabolism. Meanwhile, we observed that the CR-induced toxicity will recover when the treatment was stopped. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the main reason for the CR-associated diarrhea might be disturbance in the normal gut microbiota. This metabonomics approach may provide an effective way to study the alteration of gut microbiota, which is expected to find broader application in other drug-induced gastrointestinal reaction assessment.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation with turmeric rhizome extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability, and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens

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    Dingfa Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of turmeric rhizome extract (TRE on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality of Wenchang broiler chickens. Three hundred, 1-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were brooded together for 2 weeks, then randomly allocated into four treatments with five replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with TRE at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results revealed that a TRE-supplemented diet had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the body weight, although birds fed a diet with TRE at 100 and 200 mg/kg had higher average daily weight gains and average daily feed as compared to controls from 9 to 12 week (P<0.05. Also, the addition of TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg had a better feed conversion ratio compared to controls from week 9 to 12 (P<0.05. Dietary supplementation with TRE at 300 mg/kg increased the breast muscle weight ratio (P<0.05. Meanwhile, dietary supplementation with TRE at 100 to 300 mg/kg reduced the abdominal fat ratio (P<0.05, compared to that of the control group. TRE increased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondiadehhyde concentrations, compared to the control group. Dietary TRE supplementation at 300 mg/kg decreased the drip loss in both breast muscle and thigh muscles, compared with the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, dietary TRE supplementation enhanced antioxidant capability, growth performance, breast muscle weight ratio, and reduced the abdominal fat ratio of Wenchang broiler chickens.

  19. Flavonoids and Tannins from Smilax china L. Rhizome Induce Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Pathway and MDM2-p53 Signaling in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, San; Yang, Yanfang; Liu, Dan; Luo, Yan; Ye, Xiaochuan; Liu, Yanwen; Chen, Xin; Wang, Song; Wu, Hezhen; Wang, Yuhang; Hu, Qiwei; You, Pengtao

    2017-01-01

    In vitro evidence indicates that Smilax china L. rhizome (SCR) can inhibit cell proliferation. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the effects in vitro of SCR extracts on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Our results showed that A549 cell growth was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with SCR extracts. Total flavonoids and total tannins from SCR induced A549 apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by our flow cytometry analysis, which was consistent with the alterations in nuclear morphology we observed. In addition, the total apoptotic rate induced by total tannins was higher than the rate induced by total flavonoids at the same dose. Cleaved-caspase-3 protein levels in A549 cells after treatment with total flavonoids or total tannins were increased in a dose-dependent manner, followed by the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9, finally triggering to PARP cleavage. Furthermore, total flavonoids and total tannins increased the expression of Bax, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, and promoted cytochrome [Formula: see text] release. Moreover, MDM2 and p-MDM2 proteins were decreased, while p53 and p-p53 proteins were increased, both in a dose-dependent manner, after A549 treatment with total flavonoids and total tannins. Finally, cleaved-caspase-3 protein levels in the total flavonoids or total tannins-treated H1299 (p53 null) and p53-knockdown A549 cells were increased. Our results indicated that total flavonoids and total tannins from SCR exerted a remarkable effect in reducing A549 growth through their action on mitochondrial pathway and disruption of MDM2-p53 balance. Hence, our findings demonstrated a potential application of total flavonoids and total tannins from SCR in the treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. Pharmacognostic evaluation, and development and validation of a HPLC-DAD technique for gallocatechin and epigallocatechin in rhizomes from Limonium brasiliense

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    Andressa Blainski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Limonium brasiliense (Boiss. Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, is a plant from the southern coast of Brazilian that is used for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, menstrual disorders and genito-urinary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality control parameters for rhizomes collected during different periods by pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods, and to develop and validate a HPLC-DAD method for quantitative control of marker substances. The measured parameters were: granulometric analysis (d50 = 0.21–0.48 mm, loss on drying (11.1–12.4%, total ash (4.9–5.7%, dry residue by extraction with acetone:water (7:3, v/v (30.6–39.5%, total polyphenol content (8.5–15.8%, and chromatographic fingerprint by HPLC and TLC. Besides, the acetone:water (7:3, v/v extraction solvent in combination with a turbo-extractor, yielded the crude extract with a significant increase in tannins (F4,20 = 37.0, p < 0.001. The antioxidant potential of the crude acetone:water (7:3, v/v extract, as well as the ethyl acetate and water fractions obtained after the partition process was evaluated by DPPH and the results were, respectively: IC50 6.87, 5.91, and 6.92 µg/ml. The validation parameters for the HPLC-DAD method showed adequate specificity, precision and accuracy. The gallo- and epigallocatechin contents were, respectively, 0.8–2.7% and 1.2–2.2%. These data contribute to analysis of the pharmacognostic quality control of the commonly used part from this species.

  1. Chemical composition and anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activity of rhizome essential oil of Globba sessiliflora Sims. collected from Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

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    Ravendra Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Family Zingiberaceae is worldwide in distribution. Plants of the zingiberaceae family are used in traditional herbal folk medicine besides their uses in spices, cosmetic, ornamental, food preservatives etc. In Uttarakhand the herbs grow from sub-tropical to temperate region. Globba sessiliflora Simsrhizomes were collected at maturity stage in November from Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India. In present communication the medicinal use of various zingiberaceous herb provoked us to study the chemical diversity and pharmacological activity determination of this important traditional herb. Experimental: The essential oil was extracted using hydrodistillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. Anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities of essential oil were experimently determined using mice model. Results: The major compounds identified were β-eudesmol (27.6%, (E-β-caryophyllene (24.3%, α-humulene (3.0%, (6E-nerolidol (4.1%, caryophyllene oxide (9.7%, γ-eudesmol (6.4% and τ-muurolol (8.3% besides other minor constituents. Essential oil of G. sessiliflora rhizome showed good anti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight. The oral administration of the essential oil exhibited no toxicity at 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg b.wt. concentration. Ibuprofen, indomthacin and paracetamol were used as standard drugs for comparison. Recommended applications/industries: G. sessiliflora essential oil can be used as herbal remedy for its nontoxicityanti-inflamatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities.

  2. Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance and some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of metabolizable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Samie, Abdol-Hossein; Mehri, Mehran

    2017-03-01

    High-energy diets of laying hens may improve roductive performance, although some negative effects may also appear with respect to egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress. Increasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality by improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P < 0.05). The best feed conversion ratio was obtained in birds fed high-apparent metabolizable energy (AME) diets supplemented with 2.0 g kg -1 CRP (P < 0.05). Although increasing dietary AME elevated the serum concentration of triglycerides (P < 0.05) and enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05), dietary inclusion of CRP alleviates the blood levels of these enzymes (P < 0.01). Low level of dietary CRP boosted the immune responses to Newcastle virus (P < 0.01) and sheep red blood cells (P < 0.05) antigens but decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). Inclusion of at least 2.0 g kg -1 CRP in the diet of laying decreased Escherichia coli enumerations in the ileal content (P < 0.01) and improved villus height, crypt depth and goblet cell numbers (P < 0.05). An improvement in the productive performance of laying hens fed high-energy diets might be associated with decreasing health indices and product quality, which could potentially be amended by nutritional modifications such as incorporating medicinal herbs in the feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Optical sensor nanoparticles in artificial sediments--a new tool to visualize O2 dynamics around the rhizome and roots of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Klaus; Brodersen, Kasper E; Jakobsen, Sofie L; Kühl, Michael

    2015-02-17

    Seagrass communities provide important ecosystems services in coastal environments but are threatened by anthropogenic impacts. Especially the ability of seagrasses to aerate their below-ground tissue and immediate rhizosphere to prevent sulfide intrusion from the surrounding sediment is critical for their resilience to environmental disturbance. There is a need for chemical techniques that can map the O2 distribution and dynamics in the seagrass rhizosphere upon environmental changes and thereby identify critical stress thresholds of e.g. water flow, turbidity, and O2 conditions in the water phase. In a novel experimental approach, we incorporated optical O2 sensor nanoparticles into a transparent artificial sediment matrix consisting of pH-buffered deoxygenated sulfidic agar. Seagrass growth and photosynthesis was not inhibited in the experimental setup when the below-ground biomass was immobilized in the artificial sulfidic sediment with nanoparticles and showed root growth rates (∼ 5 mm day(-1)) and photosynthetic quantum yields (∼ 0.7) comparable to healthy seagrasses in their natural habitat. We mapped the real-time below ground O2 distribution and dynamics in the whole seagrass rhizosphere during experimental manipulation of light exposure and O2 content in the overlaying water. Those manipulations showed that oxygen release from the belowground tissue is much higher in light as compared to darkness and that water column hypoxia leads to diminished oxygen levels around the rhizome/roots. Oxygen release was visualized and analyzed on a whole rhizosphere level, which is a substantial improvement to existing methods relying on point measurements with O2 microsensors or partial mapping of the rhizosphere in close contact with a planar O2 optode. The combined use of optical nanoparticle-based sensors with artificial sediments enables imaging of chemical microenvironments in the rhizosphere of aquatic plants at high spatiotemporal resolution with a relatively

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen. The Panel...... the combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder was consumed for three months, that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided, and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the food could exert the claimed effect. The Panel...... concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase...

  5. “I Got to Know Them in a New Way”: Rela(y/t)ing Rhizomes and Community-Based Knowledge (Brokers’) Transformation of Western and Indigenous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornssler, Barbara; McKenzie, Holly A.; Dell, Colleen Anne; Laliberte, Larry; Hopkins, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on three culturally specific research projects, this paper examines how community-based knowledge brokers’ engagement in brokering knowledge shaped the projects’ processes. Informed by Deleuze and Guattari’s (1987) conceptualization of the “rhizome,” we discuss how community knowledge brokers’ engagement in open research-creation practices embrace the relational foundation of Indigenous research paradigms in contrast to mainstream Western research practices that are engaged as linear, objective, and outcome-oriented activities. In turn, we offer propositions for building team environments where open research-creation practices can unfold, informing a periphery of shared space for Indigenous and Western paradigms. PMID:27867319

  6. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-05-09

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides.

  7. Tissue-specific metabolite profiling of Cyperus rotundus L. rhizomes and (+)-nootkatone quantitation by laser microdissection, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Guo, Ping; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2014-07-23

    Cyperus rotundus L. is a plant species commonly found in both India and China. The caused destruction of this plant is of critical concern for agricultural produce. Nevertheless, it can serve as a potential source of the commercially important sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone. The present work describes comparative metabolite profiling and (+)-nootkatone content determination in rhizome samples collected from these two countries. Laser dissected tissues, namely, the cortex, hypodermal fiber bundles, endodermis, amphivasal vascular bundles, and whole rhizomes were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used for profiling of essential oil constituents and quantitation of (+)-nootkatone. The content of (+)-nootkatone was found to be higher in samples from India (30.47 μg/10 g) compared to samples from China (21.72 μg/10 g). The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines (Q2 R1). The results from this study can be applied for quality control and efficient utilization of this terpenoid-rich plant for several applications in food-based industries.

  8. The Rhizome Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptidis chinensis Ameliorates Acute and Chronic Colitis in Mice by Inhibiting the Binding of Lipopolysaccharide to TLR4 and IRAK1 Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ju Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous study, the mixture of the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae and the rhizome of Coptidis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae (AC-mix improved TNBS- or oxazolone-induced colitis in mice. Therefore, to investigate its anticolitic mechanism, we measured its effect in acute and chronic DSS-induced colitic mice and investigated its anti-inflammatory mechanism in peritoneal macrophages. AC-mix potently suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, colon shortening, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expressions in acute or chronic DSS-stimulated colitic mice. Among AC-mix ingredients, AA, CC, and their main constituents mangiferin and berberine potently inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as the activation of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. AA and mangiferin potently inhibited IRAK phosphorylation, but CC and berberine potently inhibited the binding of LPS to TLR4 on macrophages, as well as the phosphorylation of IRAK1. AC-mix potently inhibited IRAK phosphorylation and LPS binding to TLR4 on macrophages. Based on these findings, AC-mix may ameliorate colitis by the synergistic inhibition of IRAK phosphorylation and LPS binding to TLR4 on macrophages.

  9. Effects of total saponins from Trillium tschonoskii rhizome on grey and white matter injury evaluated by quantitative multiparametric MRI in a rat model of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manzhong; Ouyang, Junyao; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Brian Chi Yan; Zhan, Yu; Yang, Le; Zou, Haiyan; Zhao, Hui

    2018-04-06

    Trillium tschonoskii rhizome (TTR), a medicinal herb, has been traditionally used to treat traumatic brain injury and headache in China. Although the potential neuroprotective efficacy of TTR has gained increasing interest, the pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. Steroid saponins are the main bioactive components of the herb. To investigate the protective and repair-promoting effects of the total saponins from TTR (TSTT) on grey and white matter damages in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assay. Ischemic stroke was induced by MCAO. TSTT and Ginaton (positive control) were administered orally to rats 6h after stroke and daily thereafter. After 15 days of treatment, the survival rate of each group was calculated. We then conducted neurological deficit scores and beam walking test to access the neurological function after ischemic stroke. Subsequently, T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and T2 relaxometry mapping were performed to measure infarct volume and grey and white matter integrity, respectively. Moreover, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was carried out to evaluate the grey and white matter microstructural damage. Additionally, arterial spin labelling (ASL) - cerebral blood flow (CBF) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images provided dynamic information about vascular hemodynamic dysfunction after ischemic stroke. Finally, haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was carried out to evaluate the stroke-induced pathological changes in the brain. The survival rate and neurological behavioural outcomes (Bederson scores and beam walking tests) were markedly ameliorated by TSTT (65mg/kg) treatment within 15 days after ischemic stroke. Moreover, T2WI and T2 relaxometry mapping showed that TSTT (65mg/kg) significantly reduced infarct volume and attenuated grey and white matter injury, respectively, which was confirmed by histopathological evaluation of brain tissue. The results obtained from DTI showed that

  10. Evaluación física y química dE los rizomas dE guapo ( Maranta arundinacea y dE gallEtas dulcEs prEparadas con su harina I physical and chEmical Evaluation of guapo ( Maranta arundinacea rhizomEs and swEEt cookiEs madE with its flou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Ciarfella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of flour from unconventional sources contributes to maintaining and adding value to crops currently little known. Weight, length, thickness, edible portion, flour yield from guapo ( Maranta arundinacea rhizomes were studied; sweet cookies were prepared with its flour: 100% guapo flour (GHG, 100% wheat flour (GHT and a 50:50 mixture of wheat flour and guapo flour (GHTG. Proximate composition and color of flours and cookies were determined; in addition, spreading factor and level of sensory acceptance were determined on the cookies. Rhizomes had a weight, length and thickness averages of 116.28 ± 56.32 g, 10,83 ± 2.18 cm and 4.50 ± 0.79 cm, respectively; the yield in edible portion and flour was 92.79 ± 4.40% and 47.08%, respectively. Compared to wheat flour, the guapo had lower protein and fat content and higher ash content ( p 0.05; color difference was 3.04 (GHG and 0.95 (GHTG regarding the GHT. The acceptability of the sweet cookies was similar ( p > 0.05 in color, odor, texture and flavor attributes. This study shows that guapo flour can replace wheat flour for making sweet cookies well accepted by consumers

  11. Comparative studies of saponins in 1-3-year-old main roots, fibrous roots, and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng, and identification of different parts and growth-year samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Chao-Qun; Liu, Jin-Huai; Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xuan; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2013-04-01

    Notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa, and K (N-R1, N-R4, N-Fa, and N-K), as well as ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2 and Rh1 (G-Rg1, G-Rb1, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rf, G-Rg2 and G-Rh1) in 47 Notoginseng samples including 1-, 2- and 3-year-old main roots, rhizomes and fibrous roots of Panax notoginseng were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method. Total contents (%) of the 11 saponins were 9.82-14.57 for 2-year old and 14.20-16.00 for 3-year-old rhizomes; 2.72-4.50 for 2-year-old and 1.98-4.92 for 3-year-old fibrous roots; 1.75-3.05 for 1-year-old whole roots; and 3.71-8.98 for 2-year-old and 7.03-11.23 for 3-year-old main roots. Contents of most saponins and total content of 11 saponins were in the order 3- >2- >1-year-old main root samples. G-Rf content, sum of G-Rf and G-Rh1 were, respectively, 0.08-0.18 and 0.14-0.32 for 2- or 3-year-old rhizomes, and 0.01-0.07 and 0.03-0.10 for 2- or 3-year-old main roots. Combined contents of N-R1, G-Rg1 and G-Rb1 were 5.78-9.37 in 3-year-old main roots, and 2.99-7.13 in 2-year-old main roots, of which nearly one-third of samples were lower than the limit (5 %) in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Those of 2- or 3-year-old fibrous roots (1.47-3.83) and 1-year-old whole roots (1.41-2.44) were much lower than the limit, and were considered not suitable for use as Notoginseng. Two-year-old main roots are not appropriate for collection as Notoginseng. Different parts and growth years of P. notoginseng can be identified from each another according to differences in saponin content.

  12. Study on preventive and therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts on rat with bone marrow injury induced by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jun; Chen Baotian; Meng Hua; Liu Wenchao; Xie Wei; Sheng Rong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts, Danggui (Radix angelicae sinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong), Huangqi (Radix astragali), and Danshen (Radix salviae miltiorrhizae) on rats with bone marrow injury induced with whole-body gamma-ray exposure. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomly divided into three groups, control group, model group (irradiation only with no administration of the extracts), and drug treatment group (irradiation and administration of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts). Rats were irradiated with 6 Gy cobolt-60 gamma rays after administration of the extracts for two weeks. The number of marrow nucleate cells was counted, and VEGF and PDGF expression were measured with Western blot method on the 7th day since the irradiation. Results: Bone marrow nucleate cells and VEGF and PDGF expression in bone marrow cells in the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01), and these values in the drug treatment group were significantly higher than those in the model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: The extracts of Chuanxiong, Danggui, Huangqi, and Danshen can be used to prevent from ration bone marrow injury in rats. (authors)

  13. Quantitative determination of triterpenoids and formononetin in rhizomes of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and dietary supplements by using UPLC-UV/ELS detection and identification by UPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2009-03-01

    A UPLC-UV/ELSD method has been developed for analysis of major triterpenoids and formononetin in ACTAEA RACEMOSA L. (family Ranunculaceae) samples. The best results were obtained with an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mmx2.1 mm, i. d., 1 microm) column system using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile:methanol (7:3) at a constant flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Owing to their low UV absorption, the triterpene saponins were detected by evaporative light scattering. Within 5.5 minutes, three main triterpenoid glycosides [cimiracemoside A, 23- EPI-26-deoxyactein, and actein] and an isoflavonoid, formononetin, could be separated, with detection limits of 5, 5, 10, and 0.01 microg/mL, respectively. The method was successfully used to analyze different Actaea racemosa market products as well as to distinguish between two other ACTAEA species. There was a significant variability in the amounts of the selected triterpene glycosides for the products containing black cohosh and rhizomes of black cohosh. The isoflavone formononetin was not detected in the samples analyzed. LC-MS coupled with the electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the identification of formononetin and triterpenoid glycosides in plant samples and dietary supplements that claim to contain black cohosh and different species of Actaea.

  14. Cytotoxic Activities, SAR and Anti-Invasion Effects of Butylphthalide Derivatives on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7721 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of butylphthalide derivatives (BPDs 1–8 were isolated from the extract of the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae. The cytotoxic activities of BPDs 1–8 were evaluated using a panel of human cancer cell lines. In addition, the SAR analysis and potential anti-invasion activities were investigated. The sp2 carbons at C-7 and C-7a appeared to be essential for the cytotoxic activities of BPDs. BPDs 5 and 6 remarkably inhibited the migration and invasion of cancer cells. The anti-invasion activity of dimer 6 was demonstrated to be significantly higher than monomer 5.

  15. Morfoanatomia de rizomas e raízes de Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae dos Campos Gerais, PR, Brasil Morphology and anatomy of rhizomes and roots in Tillandsia L. (Bromeliaceae from the "Campos Gerais", PR, Brazil

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    Simone Segecin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a morfoanatomia dos rizomas e das raízes de Tillandsia crocata (E. Morren Baker, T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn., T. mallemontii Glaziou ex Mez., T. linearis Vell., T. lorentziana Griseb., T. recurvata L., T. stricta Soland. ex Sims., T. streptocarpa Baker, T. tenuifolia L. e Tillandsia sp., epífitas dos Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brasil. Os rizomas são horizontais, ou levemente inclinados e apresentam raízes intracorticais. São revestidos por epiderme unisseriada ou súber estratificado. O córtex parenquimático é constituído por células isodiamétricas, apresenta idioblastos de ráfides e grãos de amido. A endoderme é unisseriada, com células de paredes finas. O periciclo é uni ou multisseriado, com células de paredes finas ou espessadas. O cilindro vascular apresenta feixes vasculares colaterais. As raízes são adventícias intracorticais ou externas. Estas últimas apresentam velame multisseriado. O córtex apresenta idioblastos de ráfides e grandes espaços intercelulares na região interna. A exoderme apresenta duas a quatro camadas de células com paredes espessadas. A endoderme é unisseriada, com células de paredes finas ou espessadas. O periciclo é unisseriado, com células de paredes finas. O cilindro vascular é reduzido, poliarco. As raízes intracorticais diferem das externas por não apresentarem velame. A presença de rizoma com raízes intracorticais, raízes com velame, espaços intercelulares no córtex interno, idioblastos de ráfides e grande quantidade de células com paredes espessadas são caracteres anatômicos adaptativos, que provavelmente ocorrem como resposta ao hábito epifítico dessas plantas.Morphological and anatomical features of rhizomes and roots were studied in Tillandsia crocata (E. Morren Baker, T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn., T. mallemontii Glaziou ex Mez., T. linearis Vell., T. lorentziana Griseb., T. recurvata L., T. stricta Soland. ex Sims., T

  16. Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) Supplements on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer-407 Induced -Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Kabiru, A; Abdulrasak, A; Mohammed, K A; Salisu, A I; Jimoh, A; Gidado, N M; Sada, N M

    2017-12-30

    This research was aimed at investigating the Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer 407Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with poloxamer P407 (1.5 g/kg   b.w. i.p.) The Animals were grouped into six of five animals each group. Group 1 normal control, Group 2 served as the hyperlipidemic control, Group 3 administered 0.26 g/kg cholestyramine, Group 4 fed on Fenugreek 25% supplement. Group 5 fed on 25% fermented ginger supplement, while group 6 were fed on 25% ginger and fenu greek combined   respectively. All treatments were given for a period of four week. Serum antioxidant activities such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde were evaluated.  As regards to the catalase activity there was a significant decrease in the groups' fed on 25% fenugreek and 25% fermented ginger supplements respectively. However, co-fed with both supplements significantly increase the catalase activity as compared with the hyperlipidaemic control untreated. Comparism with the positive control cholestyramine, there was also a significant increase. Also in relation to the SOD activity there was a significant increase in the activity as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. Furthermore, the Gpx activity there was a significant increase in the as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. oxidative stress biomarker activities SOD) there was significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the Malondialdehyde levels in the groups fed with the supplement when compared with hyperlipidemic control. In conclusion supplements of Fenugreek and Ginger improved antioxidant status and reduced Malondialdehyde in Poloxamer-407 Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

  17. Rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides as mediators of the eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold spherical, face-centred cubic nanocrystals and its anti-migratory and cytotoxic potential in normal and cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun A; Castro-Aceituno, Veronica; Abbai, Ragavendran; Moon, Seong Soo; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2018-03-29

    The water extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides, the traditional oriental medicinal plant, mediated the eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Aa-AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (Aa-AuNPs). First, its therapeutic rhizome was powdered prior to water extraction and then silver, gold nanoparticles were synthesized. Aa-AgNPs and Aa-AuNPs were found to be spherical, face-centred cubic nanocrystals with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 190 and 258 nm, respectively. In addition, proteins and aromatic biomolecules were the plausible players associated with the production and stabilization of Aa-AgNPs; instead, phenolic compounds were responsible for the synthesis and stability of Aa-AuNPs. In vitro cytotoxic analysis revealed that up to 50 μg.mL -1 concentration Aa-AuNPs did not exhibit any toxicity on 3T3-L1, HT29 and MCF7 cell lines, while being specifically cytotoxic to A549 cell line. On the contrary, Aa-AgNPs displayed a significantly higher toxicity in comparison to Aa-AuNPs in all cell lines specially MCF7 cell line. Since cancer cells were more sensitive to Aa-Au/AgNPs treatments, further evaluation was done in order to determine their anticancer potential. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was not affected by Aa-AuNPs, on the other hand, Aa-AgNPs treatment exhibited a higher potential to induce oxidative stress in A549 cells than HT29 and MCF7 cells. In addition, Aa-Ag/AuNPs reduced cell migration in A549 cells at 10 and 50 μg.mL -1 , respectively. So far, this is the only report uncovering the ability of A. asphodeloides to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles with anticancer potential and also indirectly enabling its large-scale utilization with value addition.

  18. Development and validation of an analytical method for the separation and determination of major bioactive curcuminoids in Curcuma longa rhizomes and herbal products using non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anubala, S; Sekar, R; Nagaiah, K

    2014-06-01

    A simple, fast and efficient non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis method (NACE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of three major bioactive curcuminoids (CMNs) in Curcuma longa rhizomes and its herbal products. Good separation, resolution and reproducibility were achieved with the background electrolyte (BGE) consisting a mixture of 15.0 mM sodium tetraborate and 7.4 mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 2:10:15 (v/v/v) of water, 1-propanol, and methanol. The influences of background electrolyte, sodium hydroxide, water, sodium dodecyl sulfate and hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin on separations were investigated. The separation was carried out in a fused-silica capillary tube with reverse polarity. Hydrodynamic injection of 25mbar for 12s was used for injecting samples and a voltage of 28 kV was applied for separation. The ultrasonication method was used for the extraction of CMNs from the turmeric herbal products and the extract was filtered and directly injected without any further treatments. The limits of detection and quantification were less than 5.0 and 14.6 µg/ml respectively for all CMNs. The percentage recoveries for CMNs were >97.2% (%RSD, <2.62). The results obtained by the method were compared with existing spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The related compounds in the extract did not interfere in the determination of CMNs. The proposed NACE method is better than existing chromatographic and electrophoretic methods in terms of simple electrophoretic medium, fast analysis and good resolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous determination of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV and HPLC-TOF-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-11-01

    UPLC-UV and HPLC-TOF-MS methods have been developed for the analysis of major sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. (Family, Asteracea) and dietary supplements claiming to contain P. hybridus. The best results were obtained with Acquity UPLC™ HSS T3 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, I.D., 1.8 μm) column system using a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium formate (50mM) and acetonitrile (0.05% formic acid) at a constant flow rate of 0.25 mL/min via UPLC-UV. The newly developed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. The limits of detection were found to be 5 μg/mL and 0.1 μg/mL for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and sesquiterpenes, respectively by UPLC-UV and 0.001 and 0.01 μg/mL, respectively using HPLC-TOF-MS. The methods were successfully used to analyze different P. hybridus market products, as well as to distinguish between two other Petasites species. The total content of petasins was found to be in the range of 0.02-11.6 mg/dosage form for 15 dietary supplements and no petasins were detected in an additional six dietary supplements. Additionally, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are considered to be toxic for the liver, were detected in seven dietary supplements. The amount of petasin in seven dietary supplements was found to be within limits of label claim and no pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected. HPLC-mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the identification and confirmation of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from plant extracts and dietary supplements that claim to contain P. hybridus as well as different species of Petasites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efeito da temperatura e do teor de umidade na iniciação e desenvolvimento do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae Effect of temperature and the water content in the initiation and developmental of the rhizome of Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Andrea Silva de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. pertence à família Gesneriaceae e possui órgão subterrâneo, que está associado à reprodução vegetativa. Este órgão apresenta gemas envoltas por folhas modificadas, as quais armazenam amido. Em seções do rizoma (1,5 a 2,0cm compr. contendo seis gemas, só uma gema geralmente brota. Esta pode diferenciar-se em dois padrões morfológicos: parte aérea ou rizoma. Em seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água ou em sua ausência, houve brotação do padrão rizoma, em seções em substrato com elevado teor de umidade (12mL de água, brotação do padrão parte aérea. A temperatura de 20ºC também favoreceu a brotação do padrão rizoma, independente do volume de água do substrato. Seções também desenvolveram o padrão rizoma em substrato com adição de solução de polietilenoglicol 6000 (PEG, nas concentrações de 161,2; 235,2 e 340,0g/L, que geraram os potenciais de -3, -6 e -12 MPa, respectivamente. Seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água apresentaram redução de massa seca e elevada concentração osmótica em relação àquelas em substrato com elevado teor de umidade. Verificou-se que a formação do padrão rizoma foi influenciada pelos fatores teor de umidade e temperatura. Sugere-se que a brotação do padrão rizoma foi induzida pelo baixo potencial hídrico nas seções, quando mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade. Além disto, evidenciou-se que as gemas do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha apresentam elevado grau de plasticidade.Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst is a plant belonging to the family Gesneriaceae, with an underground organ, which is associated with vegetative reproduction. This organ is a rhizome, whose stem bears buds covered with modified leaves that store up starch. In small sections of this rhizome, containing six buds (1.5 to 2.0cm long, only one bud sprouted. The sprouted bud could be differentiated

  1. Protective effect of Rhizoma drynariae extract on osteoporosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been a popular therapeutic strategy designed for postmenopausal osteoporosis [8,9]. However, the long-term application of HRT has potential malignant effects on reproductive tissues [10-13]. Other medicines that stimulate bone formation (e.g., growth hormone, sodium uoride, and parathyroid hormone) or inhibit bone.

  2. Aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ABU

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... This study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous ethanolic ... Key words: Cochlospermum planchonii, sperm characteristics, reproduction, Wistar rats. ... extract was stored in air-tight container at 4°C until needed.

  3. PHYSICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Hedychium coronarium RHIZOMES AND STARCH CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E FÍSICO-QUÍMICA DE RIZOMAS E AMIDO DO LÍRIO-DO-BREJO (Hedychium coronarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez ascheri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the chemical composition of Hedychium coronarium rhizomes and isolate and characterize their starch by conducting physical and physicochemical analyses. The chemical composition of isolated starch granules was also determined, as well as shape, size, particle distribution size by laser diffraction, paste viscosity by rapid visco-analysis, swelling power, water solubility index, thermal property by differential scanning calorimetry, and crystallinity by X-ray diffraction. Rhizomes presented high water content and low lipids, carbohydrates, ash, protein and fiber levels. Due to its low dry matter content (17.3%, with 21.97% of starch, as well as long fibers and latex, which hamper starch extraction, the white ginger lily rhizomes are not interesting as a starch source. The isolated starch showed 99.2% purity, with 37.2% of amylase content. The starch granules presented an irregular polyhedral shape and average size of 38.2 ?m. The crystalline structure of the starch granules was type A, which is maintained by strong internal associative forces that reduce water solubility. The starch gelatinization temperature occurs between 73.1ºC and 78.7°C. The starch paste viscosity profile showed high stability at 95°C and high tendency to retrograde, suggesting its use in adhesive and food industries

  4. Inhibition mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from wuweizi (fructus schisandrae chinensis) on renal interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Daning; Zhang, Mianzhi

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate inhibition effect and mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from Wuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Chuanxiong) and Muli (Cocha Ostreae) (FRC) on glomerular and tubular interstitial fibrosis in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (ND) model mice. Twenty-seven male C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 3 groups: nondibetic (ND), STZ-induced diabetic (D), and STZ-induced diabetic that were treated with 5 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) of FRC by oral gavage (D(FRC)), with 9 in each group. The protein expressions of E-cadherin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAL-1) in renal tissues were investigated by Western blotting. The expressions of fibronectin (FN) and alpha-SMA were detected by immunohistochemical method. The morphological changes of renal tissues were observed under a microscope. Renal tissues in the D(FRC) group showed a lessened degree of fibrosis. Meanwhile, the expressions of FN, alpha-SMA and PAI-1 were significantly lower in the D(FRC) group than those in the D group (all P < 0.05). FRC can ameliorate the DN in the C57BL/6 mice, and its mechanism may relate to inhibition on the epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation, endothelial-myofibroblast transition and PAL-1 expression.

  5. Systematic Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Herbal Medicines for Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui Cheung Man

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic review of existing research that aims to assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medications (HM, as either monotherapy or adjunct to orthodox medications (OM, mainly comprised of cholinesterase inhibitors, for vascular dementia (VaD. We included 47 studies conducted in mainland China, each testing different HM. Of 43 HM monotherapy studies, 37 reported HM to be significantly better than OM or placebo; six reported similar efficacy between HM and OM. All four HM adjuvant studies reported significant efficacy. No major adverse events for HM were reported. Heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria, interventions and outcome measures hindered comprehensive data analysis. Studies suggested that HM can be a safe and effective treatment for VaD, either alone or in conjunction with OM. However, methodological flaws in the design of the studies limited the extent to which the results could be interpreted. Thirty most commonly used herbal constituents, including Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong in Chinese, Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu in Chinese and Radix Astragali (Huangqi in Chinese. were ranked. Further multi-center trials with large sample sizes, high methodological quality and standardized HM ingredients are necessary for clinical recommendations to be made.

  6. Effects of rhizoma polygonati on the expression of glucose transporter-4 gene in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats with insulin resistance%黄精对2型糖尿病胰岛素抵抗大鼠葡萄糖转运蛋白-4基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董琦; 董凯; 张春军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of rhizoma polygonati( RP) on the expression of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) gene in muscular tissue in type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) rats with insulin resistance(IR). Methods The model of T2DM rats with insulin resistance was established by giving high fat, high caloric diet and injection of small dose of strep-tozotocin(STZ). The model rats were divided into model control group, high, middle and low doses RP groups( inlragastric administration 10.0,5.0,2.5 g o kg-1 o d-1 RP). Other 10 rats were selected as normal control group. After intragastric administration for eight weeks,then the GLUT-4 mRNA in muscular tissue was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Results Compared with normal control group,the expressions of GLUT-4 mRNA were lower(P <0.01), but the levels of fasting plasma glucose(FPG) were higher(P <0. 01) in model control group,low,middle and high doses RP groups. Compared with model control group,the levels of FPG were lower in low,middle and high doses RP groups,and the decreasing level in middle and high doses RP groups was obviously( P < 0.01 ) ; the expressions of GLUT-4 mRNA were higher in low,middle and high doses RP groups,and the increasing level in middle and high doses RP groups was obviously(P<0.01 ). Conclusion RP can reduce blood glucose by increasing expression of GLUT-4 mRNA in T2DM rats with IR.%目的 观察黄精水提液对2型糖尿病(T2DM)胰岛素抵抗大鼠肌肉组织葡萄糖转运蛋白-4(GLUT-4)基因表达的影响.方法 采用小剂量链脲佐菌素加高脂高热量饲料喂养方法建立2型糖尿病胰岛素抵抗模型,将造模大鼠随机分为模型对照组和黄精高、中、低剂量治疗组(分别灌胃10.0、5.0、2.5g·kg-1·d-1),另选10只为正常对照组.灌胃8周后,空腹取材,反转录-聚合酶链反应法检测肌肉组织GLUT-4基因mRNA水平.结果 与正常对照组相比,模型对照组及黄精高、中

  7. New Potential Pharmacological Functions of Chinese Herbal Medicines via Regulation of Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Yuen Kwan Law

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a universal catabolic cellular process for quality control of cytoplasm and maintenance of cellular homeostasis upon nutrient deprivation and environmental stimulus. It involves the lysosomal degradation of cellular components such as misfolded proteins or damaged organelles. Defects in autophagy are implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases including cancers, myopathy, neurodegenerations, infections and cardiovascular diseases. In the recent decade, traditional drugs with new clinical applications are not only commonly found in Western medicines, but also highlighted in Chinese herbal medicines (CHM. For instance, pharmacological studies have revealed that active components or fractions from Chaihu (Radix bupleuri, Hu Zhang (Rhizoma polygoni cuspidati, Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubesens, Hou po (Cortex magnoliae officinalis and Chuan xiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong modulate cancers, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease via autophagy. These findings shed light on the potential new applications and formulation of CHM decoctions via regulation of autophagy. This article reviews the roles of autophagy in the pharmacological actions of CHM and discusses their new potential clinical applications in various human diseases.

  8. Propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção de água do amido de rizomas do lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium Thermodynamic properties of water adsortion of the starch of rhizome of swamp lily (Hedychium coronarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se as propriedades termodinâmicas (entalpia diferencial, entropia diferencial, entalpia integral e entropia integral do amido de rizomas do lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium por meio de isotermas de adsorção de água. As isotermas foram determinadas em atividades de água no intervalo de 0,11 a 0,84, sob temperaturas que variaram de 30 a 50 °C. A Equação de GAB, que se ajustou bem às isotermas experimentais, foi utilizada para estimar as propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção. As isotermas apresentaram ligeira inversão, indicando a precença de amido danificado. A entalpia diferencial e a entropia diferencial aumentaram com a diminuição da umidade de equilíbrio e correlacionaram entre si confirmando a compensação química linear. Um modelo exponencial do tipo Y = b.e(a/Xe descreveu adequadamente a dependência destas propriedades diferenciais ao teor de umidade de equilíbrio. A entalpia integral e a entropia integral aumentaram continuamente com o teor de umidade de equil��brio, porém com valores negativos para a entropia integral. Estas propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção de água demonstraram que o amido extraído dos rizomas do lírio-do-brejo possui baixa higrocopicidade apesar da ocorrência de grânulos de amido danificados.Thermodynamic properties where determined (differential enthalpy, of differential entropy, integral enthalpy, and integral entropy of the starch of rhizomes of swamp lily through water adsorption isotherms. The isotherms were determined in water activities in the range of 0.11 to 0.84, in temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C. The GAB equation which fits well to the experimental isotherms was used to estimate the properties of thermodynamic adsorption. The slight reversal of the isotherms indicates damaged starch. The enthalpy and entropy differential gap increased with the decrease in moisture and correlated to each other confirming the chemical linear compensation. An

  9. Essential oil yield and composition of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes after different drying periods Teor e composição de óleo essencial de rizomas de gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe após diferentes períodos de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.M Dabague

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger production in Paraná State, Brazil, has predominated in Morretes Municipality, with around 300 ha cultivated area. The aim of this work was to evaluate the essential oil yield and composition of ginger rhizomes produced in Morretes and subjected to different drying periods at room temperature. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x5 factorial arrangement, with four replicates (four plants each, five origins and five drying periods at room temperature (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type device for 3h and the constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The drying of ginger rhizomes at room temperature for up to 60 days decreased the essential oil yield in most origins. Geranial and neral levels were higher in all origins and as drying periods were longer. Geraniol and geranyl acetate levels decreased after drying in all origins, as well as eucalyptol, camphene, zingiberene and β-bisabolene in most origins.A produção de gengibre no Paraná concentra-se no município de Morretes, ocupando uma área de plantio de aproximadamente 300 ha. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de rizomas de gengibre produzidos em Morretes e submetidos a diferentes períodos de secagem em temperatura ambiente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com quatro repetições (quatro plantas por repetição, avaliando cinco procedências e cinco períodos de secagem a temperatura ambiente (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias. As extrações de óleo essencial foram realizadas por hidrodestilação em aparelho graduado Clevenger durante três horas e a análise dos constituintes foi realizada por meio de cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. A secagem de rizomas de gengibre em temperatura ambiente por até 60 dias resultou na diminuição de teores de

  10. Onda, rizoma e “sororidade” como metáforas: representações de mulheres e dos feminismos (Paris, Rio de Janeiro: anos 70/80 do século XX Wave, Rhizome and “Sorority” as Feminist Metaphors: Representation of Women and Feminisms (Paris, Rio De Janeiro: 1970s and 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Gomes Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PortuguesEste artigo examina noções de onda, rizoma e “sororidade” como metáforas de representações sobre mulheres e seus movimentos, em diferentes lugares e tempos históricos. Associa-se à crítica a tendências analíticas que acentuam experiências feministas conjunturais que podem tornar invisíveis tensões e rupturas entre gerações de mulheres e de feministas. Problematiza, ainda, a metáfora da “sororidade”: por solidariedades presumidas com a experiência comum da maternidade, exclui contingências que, subterraneamente, podem mover mulheres e feminismos em diferentes direções. Destaca, enfim, a perspectiva da longa duração histórica e dos tempos múltiplos como modo de perceber a história das mulheres e dos feminismos em suas continuidades e rupturas.EnglishThis article analyses the conceptions of wave, rhizome, and “sorority” as metaphors for the representation of women and their movements in different places and historical periods. It joins critical efforts already made towards analytical trends highlighting circumstantial feminist experiences and thus turning other social projects invisible, but without taking into consideration possible breakdowns which come from tensions within generations of women and feminists. It also questions the “sorority” metaphor: by its solidarity assumed on the grounds of the shared experience of maternity, it also conceals contingencies that secretly gather women and feminists for different causes in different periods. Finally, it admits the long-term historical perspective and the multiple timings as a way of perceiving the history of women and of feminism throughout its continuities and breakdowns.

  11. Preparation of molecularly imprinted adsorptive resin for trapping of ligustrazine from the traditional Chinese herb Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifeng; Guo Tingting; Guo Mufan

    2008-01-01

    A highly selective molecularly imprinted adsorptive resin for ligustrazine was prepared by melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) gel. In the experiments, two pieces of MUF gel were synthesized firstly; one was added ligustrazine hydrochloride as the template molecule in it to prepare the imprinted adsorptive resin, and the other was not. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that both resins were the porous with a network structure whether or not it was added template molecule. The imprinted adsorptive resin had an absorbability of 85.22% measured by a 200 mg L -1 solution of ligustrazine hydrochloride at room temperature. The resin of MUF without template, on the other hand, displayed an adsorption capacity of almost zero. It illuminated the imprinted adsorptive resin formed ligustrazine recognition sites when the template molecule had been eluted. In the present paper, ligustrazine was effectively separated and enriched from herbs by using a solid-phase adsorptive column filled with the imprinted adsorptive resin. Its eluate, obtained from three kinds of solvents, was analyzed by GC-MS, and the results indicated that the imprinted adsorptive resin showed a high selectivity for ligustrazine. This is believed to be beneficial for extracting natural and highly purified ligustrazine

  12. Influence of turmeric rhizome and black pepper on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and black pepper (BP) on blood components and performance of male broiler chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of TRP (0 and 0.5 g/kg) and three levels of BP (0, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) were used to provide six dietary treatments ...

  13. Effects on saturated hydraulic conductivity and rhizome yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... ... as recorded at. Umudike, followed the bi-modal pattern, typical of the tropical rain- ... coefficients of determination and regression equations, were used ... Effects of mulch types, rates and sampling depth on selected physical properties of an arenic hapludult. .... as the independent variable to explain the.

  14. Milk Clotting Activity of Protease, Extracted from Rhizome of Taffin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-03-07

    Mar 7, 2017 ... The increasing prices of calf rennets, their accessibility and ethical concerns ... the region with a massive annual production (FAO, ... valuable group of enzymes with various industrial ... use of protease enzymes in the food industry .... In the procedure, Bovine Serum Albumin ..... Agricultural Economics.

  15. Radurisation of ginger rhizomes to increase shelf lifes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, D L; De Rooster, K; Du Toit, L W [Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Inst., Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1979-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the shelf-life of ginger rhisomes for marketing purposes and to prevent the use of imported ginger as planting material, trials were carried out in which ginger was radurised at various dosages using a Co 60 source. It was found that even at rates as low as 0,05 kGy both the sprouting and growth of ginger in the soil could be inhibited. Ginger which was already sprouting, virtually ceased further development when treated at dosages of 0,30 and 0,50 kGy. Brief reference is made to the commercial potential of the process.

  16. Outliers, Cheese, and Rhizomes: Variations on a Theme of Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    All research has limitations, for example, from paradigm, concept, theory, tradition, and discipline. In this article Lynda Stone describes three exemplars that are variations on limitation and are "extraordinary" in that they change what constitutes future research in each domain. Malcolm Gladwell's present day study of outliers makes a…

  17. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-tumor effect of PDC on cervical cancer was investigated in vivo in mice injected with Hela cells. The parameters measured were tumor volume and weight. In vitro anti-tumor effects of PDC were assessed by measuring expressions of caspase-3, caspase-9 and P53 proteins in Hela cells via ELISA assay. Thymus ...

  18. Roots and Rhizomes--Some Reflections on Contemporary Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Ian

    2012-01-01

    During this article, I look at three images of thought which feature in Deleuze and Guattari's "A Thousand Plateaus" and consider their relevance to contemporary pedagogy. Deleuze and Guattari begin by discussing tree-like thought, which involves an insular depiction of the world. I suggest that the performative apparatus, which structures…

  19. Influence of turmeric rhizome and black pepper on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-26

    ) and black pepper. (BP) on blood components and performance of male broiler chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of TRP (0 and 0.5 g/kg) and three levels of BP (0, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) were used to provide six.

  20. Optimization of the extraction of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane P. Paulucci

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of dynamic maceration factors upon the curcumin content of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae, extracts and to determine the optimum set of parameters for the extraction of curcumin using a 2(5 full factorial design and the response surface methodology. Under the established conditions, the content of soluble solids and curcumin in the extracts ranged from 0.8 to 3.4%, and from 0.1 to 1.8%, respectively. The most influential variable observed for the extraction was the ethanolic strength of the solvent. The optimized condition involves an extraction time of 12 h, agitation speed of 30 rpm, drug to solvent ratio of 1/6, extraction temperature of 80 ºC and the solvent with ethanolic strength of 70%. The data reported herein are useful for further developments of curcuma phytopharmaceutical intermediate products with optimized characteristics.

  1. Assessment of Roots, Rhizomes, and Soil Respiration in Disturbed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accelerated sea level rise and cultural eutrophication are anthropogenic stressors known to alter the structure and function of salt marsh ecosystems. Many salt marshes in Jamaica Bay (NY) are reported to be disappearing at an alarming rate, approximately 35 - 40 acres per year....

  2. Bioactive Diterpenes and Sesquiterpenes from the Rhizomes of Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wild ginger (Siphonochilus aethiopicus (Schweinf) B.L Burtt) is used in traditional medicines in the West and South of Africa. In the present study, the crude hexane extract of wild ginger was evaluated for in vitro bioactivity. The components isolated from the plant for the first time are: epi-curzerenone, furanodienone ...

  3. Radurisation of ginger rhizomes to increase shelf lifes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, D.L.; De Rooster, K.; Du Toit, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the shelf-life of ginger rhisomes for marketing purposes and to prevent the use of imported ginger as planting material, trials were carried out in which ginger was radurised at various dosages using a Co 60 source. It was found that even at rates as low as 0,05 kGy both the sprouting and growth of ginger in the soil could be inhibited. Ginger which was already sprouting, virtually ceased further development when treated at dosages of 0,30 and 0,50 kGy. Brief reference is made to the commercial potential of the process

  4. Sonorama or Digital Culture Rhizome. A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Mónica María López; Rasco, Félix Angulo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the case study of Sonorona, Maria’s nickname, a young girl aged 22. Sonorona is a ‘makeup guru’ in Spain. She is a youtuber and blogger’s girl. This study aimed to analyze the comprehension and participation of young people in mediatic and technological culture. It intends to continue the works by Sefton-Green (1998), Hutchby and Moran-Ellis (2001)and Facer, Furlong and Furlong (2003), among others, in what is related to the profound changes that lead to the emergence of t...

  5. Influence of turmeric rhizome and black pepper on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Each diet was randomly fed to four groups of 12 chicks each, and performance and ... Different spices have been used as food additive all over the globe ... preservative and coloring material that has biological ... Although curcumin is the main active ..... Effects of turmeric extract on lipid profile in human.

  6. Caracterização anatômica e fitoquímica de folhas e rizomas de Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae Anatomical and phytochemical characterization of leaves and rhizomes from Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B.G Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido a grande potencialidade na utilização de Hedychium coronarium, na medicina popular e também como biorremediadora no tratamento de efluentes, objetivou-se uma diagnose dos órgãos, folha e rizoma, para elucidar resultados estruturais e fitoquímicos. A folha é anfiestomática, com predominância de estômatos na face abaxial. Em ambas as superfícies foliares há projeções de cera epicuticular sobre as paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas. O mesofilo dorsiventral apresenta hipoderme multisseriada (3 camadas em ambos os lados. O parênquima clorofiliano é diferenciado em paliçádico (1-2 camadas e lacunoso (4-5 camadas com muitos espaços intercelulares e ocorrência de idioblastos cristalíferos. Na nervura central, o aerênquima ocorre em único arco na região abaxial. Os feixes vasculares distribuem-se aleatoriamente e são de diferentes tamanhos, pequenos, médios e grandes, envolvidos por fibras. Os feixes menores localizam-se no lado abaxial da nervura. A triagem fitoquímica das folhas mostrou a presença de saponinas e ausência de taninos, antraquinonas, alcalóides e flavonóides. Por meio de Cromatografia em Camada Delgada foram identificadas as presenças de cariofileno e mirceno no óleo essencial bruto obtido a partir das folhas de H. coronarium.Due to the great potentiality regarding the use of Hedychium coronarium in folk medicine and also as a bioremediator in effluent treatment, this study aimed to diagnose leaf and rhizome in order to elucidate structural and phytochemical results. Hedychium coronarium leaf is amphistomatal, with predominance of stomata on the abaxial surface. On both leaf surfaces, there are epicuticular wax projections over the anticlinal walls from epidermal cells. The dorsiventral mesophyll presents multiseriate (3 layers hypoderm on both sides. The chlorophyllian parenchyma is differentiated into palisade (1-2 layers and spongy (4-5 layers with many intercellular spaces and some

  7. Study on 1H-NMR fingerprinting of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi-yuan; Zhou, Jiang-tao; Chen, Yan-yan; Ding, Li-qin; Jiang, Miao-miao

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) fingerprint of Rhodiola rosea medicinal materials was established, and used to distinguish the quality of raw materials from different sources. Pulse sequence for water peak inhibition was employed to acquire 1H-NMR spectra with the temperature at 298 K and spectrometer frequency of 400.13 MHz. Through subsection integral method, the obtained NMR data was subjected to similarity analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). 10 batches raw materials of Rhodiola rosea from different origins were successfully distinguished by PCA. The statistical results indicated that rhodiola glucoside, butyl alcohol, maleic acid and alanine were the main differential ingredients. This method provides an auxiliary method of Chinese quality approach to evaluate the quality of Rhodiola crenulata without using natural reference substances.

  8. The anticoagulant ability of ferulic acid and its applications for improving the blood compatibility of silk fibroin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Song; Gao Zhen; Chen Xiaomeng; Lian Xiaojie; Zhu Hesun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zheng Jun; Sun Lizhong [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100037 (China)], E-mail: wangsongbit@hotmail.com

    2008-12-15

    The hemocompatibility of silk fibroin (SF) was improved with ferulic acid (FA) by graft polymerization. Ferulic acid is an active ingredient of many Chinese herbal medicines, such as Chuanxiong (Rhizoma ligustici wallichii), Danggui (Angelica sinensis) and Awei (Asafoetida giantfennel), which have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases by Chinese physicians for thousands of years. The inhibitory functions of FA on blood coagulation and erythrocyte agglutination were first characterized by a Lee-White test tube method and a micropipette technique, respectively. Then, FA was immobilized on SF by graft polymerization and the surface composition of modified SF was characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and optical microscopy. The anticoagulant activity of modified SF was assessed, respectively, by in vitro clotting time measurements on a photo-optical clot detection instrument and with the Lee-White test tube method. The test results indicated that in comparison to untreated SF, the anticoagulant activity of modified SF has been improved significantly. Moreover, the SF surface composition is altered by FA but its {beta}-sheet conformation is not disturbed.

  9. Development of an analytical method coupling cell membrane chromatography with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry via microextraction by packed sorbent and its application in the screening of volatile active compounds in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2015-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are important sources of lead compounds in modern drug discovery. To facilitate the screening of volatile active compounds in NPs, we have developed a new biochromatography method that uses rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which are rich in L-type calcium channels (LCC), to prepare the stationary phase. This integrated method, which couples cell membrane chromatography (CMC) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) via microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) technology, has been termed VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS. Methodological validation confirmed its specificity, reliability and convenience. Screening results for Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Fructus Cnidii obtained using VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS were consistent with those obtained using VSMC/CMC-offline-GC-MS. MEPS connection plays as simplified solid-phase extraction and replaces the uncontrollable evaporation operation in reported offline connections, so our new method is supposed to be more efficient and reliable than the offline ones, especially for compounds that are volatile, thermally unstable or difficult to purify. In application, senkyunolide A and ligustilide were preliminary identified as the volatile active components in Rhizoma Chuanxiong. We have thus confirmed the suitability of VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS for volatile active compounds screening in NP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Gastrodiae (also known as Tian ma, the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume, is a famous Chinese herb that has been traditionally used for the treatment of headache, dizziness, spasm, epilepsy, stoke, amnesia and other disorders for centuries. Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the main bioactive constituent of Rhizoma Gastrodiae. Since identified in 1978, gastrodin has been extensively investigated on its pharmacological properties. In this article, we reviewed the central nervous system (CNS effects of gastrodin in preclinical models of CNS disorders including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, affective disorders, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cognitive impairment as well as the underlying mechanisms involved and, where possible, clinical data that support the pharmacological activities. The sources and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin were also reviewed here. As a result, gastrodin possesses a broad range of beneficial effects on the above-mentioned CNS diseases, and the mechanisms of actions include modulating neurotransmitters, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, suppressing microglial activation, regulating mitochondrial cascades, up-regulating neurotrophins, etc. However, more detailed clinical trials are still in need for positioning it in the treatment of neurological disorders.

  11. The Experimental Study on Anti-bacterial Potency of Soyum Herbal-acupuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang & Coptidis rhizoma on Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sik Seo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom. Methods: Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom pharmacopuncture at same concentration. 2. Observing chromatogram of HPLC, removal of the enzyme was successfully rendered on Sweet BV. 3. The anti-serum of Sweet BV showed high titers against melittin and bee venom and relatively low titer against phospholipase A2. 4. After conducting approximately 3,000 cases of Sweet BV administration, not a single case of generalized anaphylatic reaction occurred in clinical observation. 5. Mild compared to the bee venom pharmacopuncture, Sweet BV showed some acute hypersensitive reactions of edema, itchiness, and aching locally. 6. Sweet BV was administered on six patients with previous history of suffering from generalized acute hypersensitive reactions with the bee venom. None of the patients showed allergic reactions with Sweet BV, suggesting it can effectively prevent anaphylatic shock which may occur after the bee venom pharmacopuncture procedure. Conclusion : Summarizing above results, Sweet Bee Venom appears to be an effective measurement against allergic reactions from the bee venom pharmacopuncture especially against anaphylatic shock.

  12. Traditional chinese medicine Xuebijing treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gong

    Full Text Available Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra, has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days plus conventional therapy (XBJ group. Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02 compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001 compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all P<0.05, but these values were significant improved in the XBJ group (all P<0.05. Only one patient had skin rash with itch within 30 minutes after injection and no severe adverse events were found in the XBJ group. In conclusion, XBJ treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events.

  13. Traditional chinese medicine Xuebijing treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Lu, Zhidan; Xing, Jing; Wang, Na; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra), has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group) and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days) plus conventional therapy (XBJ group). Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02) compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001) compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all Ptreatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events.

  14. Uptake of Carbamazepine by rhizomes and endophytic bacteria of Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eSauvetre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic and mood-stabilizing drug which is used widely in Europe and North America. In the environment, it is found as a persistent and recalcitrant conta¬mi-nant, being one of the most prominent hazardous pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Phragmites australis is one of the species with both, the highest potential of detoxification and phytoremediation. It has been used successfully in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Recently, the identification of endophytic micro¬organisms from different plant species growing in contaminated sites has provided a list of candidates which could be used as bio-inoculants for bioremediation of difficult compounds. In this study, Phragmites australis plants were exposed to 5 mg/L of carbamazepine. After 9 days the plants had removed 90% of the initial concentration. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from these plants and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of these isolates belong to three groups: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Carbamazepine uptake and plant growth promoting (PGP traits were analyzed among the isolates. Ninety percent of the isolates produce indole acetic acid (IAA and all of them possess at least one of the PGP traits tested. One isolate identified as Chryseobacterium taeanense combines good carbamazepine uptake and all of the PGP traits. Rhizobium daejeonense can remove carbamazepine and produces 23 µg/mL of IAA. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens and Achromobacter mucicolens are suitable for carbamazepine removal while both, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas lini show high siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Alone or in combination, these isolates might be applied as inoculates in constructed wetlands in order to enhance the phyto-remediation of carbamazepine during wastewater treatment.

  15. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  16. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling

  17. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  18. Fabrication and vibration characterization of curcumin extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes of the northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nong, Hoang; Hung, Le Xuan; Thang, Pham Nam; Chinh, Vu Duc; Vu, Le Van; Dung, Phan Tien; Van Trung, Tran; Nga, Pham Thu

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present the research results on using the conventional method and microwave technology to extract curcuminoid from turmeric roots originated in different regions of Northern Vietnam. This method is simple, yet economical, non-toxic and still able to achieve high extraction performance to get curcuminoid from turmeric roots. The detailed results on the Raman vibration spectra combined with X-ray powder diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry ...

  19. Anatomical characterization of the leaf, stem and rhizome of Digitaria insularis

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, A.F.L.; Meira, R.M.S.; Ferreira, L.R.; Ferreira, F.A.; Tuffi Santos, L.D.; Fialho, C.M.T.; Machado, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A anatomia da folha, de colmo e do rizoma de Digitaria insularis foi investigada, visando identificar características que possam estar relacionadas à sua tolerância ao glyphosate. Sementes e rizomas de plantas adultas foram coletadas em campo, em área de plantio direto, onde o herbicida glyphosate vem sendo utilizado repetidamente há vários anos. As plantas provenientes dessas sementes e desses rizomas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade de 3 L, contendo solo de textura média, em casa de...

  20. Sustainable value chains for bamboo working communities : Integrating the tenets of sustainability through the Rhizome Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reubens, R.R.R.; Brezet, J.C.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing demand globally for products which impact sustainability positively. Bamboo fulfills these criteria, since it is a highly renewable timber replacement material which does not cause deforestation. It simultaneously has the potential to create livelihood opportunities for both the

  1. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B.; Jager, de Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are

  2. Effect of Chitosan on Rhizome Rot Disease of Turmeric Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    OpenAIRE

    Anusuya, Sathiyanarayanan; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan was evaluated for its potential to induce antifungal hydrolases in susceptible turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.). Under field conditions, the application of chitosan (crab shell) to turmeric plants by foliar spray method induces defense enzymes such as chitinases and chitosanases. Such an increase in enzyme activity was enhanced by spraying chitosan (0.1% w/v) on leaves of turmeric plants at regular intervals. Gel electrophoresis revealed new chitinase and chitosanase isoforms in lea...

  3. Two new C-methyl flavanones from the rhizomes and frond bases of Matteuccia struthiopteris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, D.; Li, S. B.; Li, Y. J.; Zhu, X. X.; Kmoníčková, Eva; Zídek, Zdeněk; Fu, M. H.; Fang, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 11 (2013), s. 1163-1167 ISSN 1028-6020 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10116 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Onocleaceae * Matteuccia struthiopteris * C-methyl flavanones Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2013

  4. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Activities of Polygonatum Alte-lobatum Hayata Rhizomes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ting Horng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polygonatum alte-lobatum Hayata, a rhizomatous perennial herb, belongs to the Liliaceae family and is endemic to Taiwan. We investigated the antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities of P. alte-lobatum in exercised rats. Levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging activity were measured in extracts of P. alte-lobatum (EPA. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for 8-week treatment with vehicle (control and low-, medium-, and high-dose EPA (LEPA, MEPA, HEPA; 0, 75, 150, and 375 mg/kg/day, respectively. Exercise performance was evaluated by exhaustive treadmill exercise time and by changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. EPA contained polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides, with polysaccharide content at least 26 times greater than that of polyphenols and flavonoids. Trend analysis revealed that EPA dose-dependently scavenged DPPH free radicals. EPA treatment dose-dependently increased endurance running time to exhaustion and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant ability of blood. EPA dose-dependently decreased serum urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels after exercise. Hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with EPA treatment. EPA could be a potential agent with an anti-fatigue pharmacological function.

  5. Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of topical formulations of purified curcuminoids from Curcuma longa rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Berenjian*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was optimization of semisolid topical formulation from ethanol extract of turmeric and evaluation of rheological characterization and investigation of physicochemical control tests. Methods: The ethanolic extract was prepared with Soxhlet method and the compounds were isolated with silica gel column chromatography. Isolation of curcuminoids was accomplished by preparative HPLC.  The accelerated and real time stability tests for the formulations were investigated at 40±2 °C/70% RH for 90 days and 30±2° C/35%±5 RH for 12 month, respectively. Results: The yield of pure curcuminoids was 0.8%.The results of rheograms at 25° C showed pseudoplastic, plastic and pseudoplastic behavior for the ointment, cream and gel formulations respectively. The pH was measured by using  a  digital  type  of  pH  meter  by  dipping  the  glass electrical probe  for all of formulation, and the consequences exhibited PH values of 6.6, 6.8 and 6.9for the ointment, cream and gel, respectively. The results of cumulative release (µg/cm2 for ointment, cream and gel formulation achieved with dissolution media which contained buffer phosphate with pH 7.2 and 1% tween 20 after 24 h were 693.6, 648.5 and 650.5, respectively. Discussion:  The advantage of this method extraction compared to previously described methods, was utilizing safer solvent for extraction. The cumulative release of formulation and drug content during the physicochemical control tests was compared with commercial product and showed no significant different (p˃ 0.05.The formulations of this study showed functional and physical stability in the period of the study.

  6. Chemical constituents variations of essential oils from rhizomes of four Zingiberaceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukari, M.A.; Mohd Sharif, N.W.; Yap, A.L.C.; Tang, S.W.; Rahmani, M.; Ee, G.C.L.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Yusof, U.K.

    2008-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted using the hydrodistillation method from four Zingiberaceae species; Zingiber officinale var.rubrum, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The major constituents of Zingiber officinale, Zingiber amaricans, Kaempferia galanga, and Boesenbergia pandurata were identified as E-citral (20.98%), zerumbone (40.70%), ethyl p -methoxycinnamate (58.47%) and camphor (57.97%), respectively. Kaempferia galanga and Zingiber amaricans were rich in sesquiterpenes whereas Boesenbergia pandurata and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum contained mostly monoterpenes. (author)

  7. Application of Essential Oils from Galanga Rhizome in Edible Coating Carrageenan as Antibacterial on Tilapia Fishball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Bayu Senoaji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish ball is a perishable food product. One of an alternative method which could be applied to delay the deterioration process was using carrageenan edible coating with the addition of galangal rhizome’s essential oil as an antibacterial agent. The aim of this study was to find out whether the addition of carrageenan edible coating with galangal rhizome’s essential oil could increase the shelf life of the tilapia fish ball during cold storage or not. This study was used experimental laboratories with the completely randomized design used factorial (2x6 two factors include essential oils concentrations (0%, dan 1% and storage time (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 with three repetitions. The shelf life of the fish ball observed by sensory, TPC, TVBN, pH, Aw, moisture content, and gel strength test. The parametric data were analyzed by the ANOVA, while the non-parametric was using the Kruskal Wallis test. As the result, the fish ball with the 1% treatment was still acceptable until 15 days of storage compared with the control which only lasts for 9 days. The other results were the sensory test was 6.63≤π≤6.95, TPC value was 1.07x105 cfu/g, TVBN value was 30.33±1.68 mgN%, the moisture content was 61.38%±0.47, the Aw was 0.89±0.006, the pH was 6.24±0.0, and the gel strength was 721.19±1.61 g.cm. The treatment of 1% essential oil addition to carrageenan edible coating was significantly different (p<0.05 compared to the control treatment during cold storage to the characteristic of tilapia fish ball.

  8. Diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens L. roots and rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozaien, Hoda E; El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Temraz, Abeer; El-Gindi, Omayma D; Taha, Kamilia F

    2018-02-08

    The diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens was investigated in rats. A single oral dose of 500 mg/kg of P. repens extract were given to rats, after 24 h, urine volume, its sodium and potassium concentrations were estimated. Treatment with P. repens extract caused a significant increase in tested parameters as compared to their corresponding controls, p < 0.05.

  9. The Effect of Temperature on Leaf and Rhizome Growth Rates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and reproduction in seagrass is affected by environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity, tidal current and nutrients. Following the current global warming trend, ocean temperatures in Tanzania are predicted to increase by 2-4oC from current levels of 27-28oC. Changes in climate are thus likely to affect ...

  10. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisiere, Julien; Mousset, Pierre-Yves; Lafay, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed) until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety. PMID:29614764

  11. Estrogenic activity of constituents from the rhizomes of Rheum undulatum Linné.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SeonJu; Kim, Yun Na; Kwak, Hee Jae; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2018-02-15

    Stilbenes have been reported to be phytoestrogen compounds owing to its structural similarity to the estrogenic agent diethylstilbestrol. To find new stilbene-derivative phytoestrogens, isolation of stilbene-rich R. undulatum was performed and led to identify six new compounds (1-5 and 28), one newly determined absolute configurations compound (27) together with 21 previously reported compounds (6-26). The structures of compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectra data. All the isolated compounds were tested for their estrogenic activities in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with ERα, ERβ and ERE-reporter plasmid. Among them, stilbene-derivatives, piceatannol 3'-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (12), cis-rhaponticin (16) and rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (17), showed the more potent binding affinity for estrogen receptors than 17β-estrodiol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial activity of [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol isolated from ginger rhizome against periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miri; Bae, Jungdon; Lee, Dae-Sil

    2008-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used widely as a food spice and an herbal medicine. In particular, its gingerol-related components have been reported to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, as well as several pharmaceutical properties. However, the effective ginger constituents that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria associated with periodontitis in the human oral cavity have not been elucidated. This study revealed that the ethanol and n-hexane extracts of ginger exhibited antibacterial activities against three anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 53978, Porphyromonas endodontalis ATCC 35406 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611, causing periodontal diseases. Thereafter, five ginger constituents were isolated by a preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic method from the active silica-gel column chromatography fractions, elucidated their structures by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and their antibacterial activity evaluated. In conclusion, two highly alkylated gingerols, [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol effectively inhibited the growth of these oral pathogens at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 6-30 microg/mL. These ginger compounds also killed the oral pathogens at a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) range of 4-20 microg/mL, but not the other ginger compounds 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerol, 3,5-diacetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol and galanolactone.

  13. The Rhizome Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptis chinensis Attenuates Mesalazine-Resistant Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Min Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of DWac on the gut microbiota composition in mice with 2,3,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Treatment with DWac restored TNBS-disturbed gut microbiota composition and attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the effect of DWac in mice with mesalazine-resistant colitis (MRC. Intrarectal injection of TNBS in MRC mice caused severe colitis, as well as colon shortening, edema, and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with mesalazine (30 mg/kg did not attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in MRC mice, whereas treatment with DWac (30 mg/kg significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, treatment with the mixture of mesalazine (15 mg/kg and DWac (15 mg/kg additively attenuated colitis in MRC mice. Treatment with DWac and its mixture with mesalazine inhibited TNBS-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of M1 macrophage markers but increased TNBS-suppressed expression of M2 macrophage markers. Furthermore, these inhibited TNBS-induced T-bet, RORγt, TNF-α, and IL-17 expression but increased TNBS-suppressed Foxp3 and IL-10 expression. However, Th2 cell differentiation and GATA3 and IL-5 expression were not affected. These findings suggest that DWac can ameliorate MRC by increasing the polarization of M2 macrophage and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota and Th1/Th17/Treg, as well as additively attenuating MRC along with mesalazine.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile compounds of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.J.; Yang, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Gingers were irradiated at a dose of 0.05 kGy to inhibit sprouting and conserve quality. Effects of gamma irradiation on the flavor compounds of ginger were studied. After 3 months of storage after irradiation, the quantities of some major volatile compounds such as alpha-zingiberene, alpha-bergamotene, neral, geranial, and alpha-curcumene were significantly lower in irradiated than in unirradiated ginger, although no difference was found immediately after irradiation. A triangle test showed no difference between irradiated and unirradiated gingers stored for 1 month at ambient temperature but showed significant difference after 5 months of storage

  15. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Stanisiere

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP. However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Wen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra, Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas, Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively, and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz (designated as CBE and CBM, were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50 and 50% of viral replication (EC50 were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI=CC50/EC50 of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were>59.4,> 57.5,> 62.1,> 59.4, and>92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.

  17. Data in support of three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hafid, Kahina; Hoggas, Naouel

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article titled “Three Phase Partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes” (Gagaoua et al., 2015) [1]. Zingibain (EC 3.4.22.67), is a coagulant cysteine protease and a meat tenderizer agent that have been reported to produce satisfactory final products in dairy and meat technology, respectively. Zingibains were exclusively purified using chromatographic techniques with very low yield purification. This paper includes data of the effect of temperature, usual salts and organic solvents on the efficiency of the three phase partitioning (TPP) system. Also it includes data of the kinetic activity characterization of the purified zingibain using TPP purification approach. PMID:26909379

  18. Enhanced extraction of oleoresin from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder using enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakumar, Sadineni; Umesh, Kannamangalam Vijayan; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used worldwide. The oleoresin consists of gingerols, shogaols and other non-volatiles as chief bioactive constituents. Three phase partitioning (TPP), a bioseparation technique, based on partitioning of polar constituents, proteins, and hydrophobic constituents in three phases comprising of water, ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, was explored for extraction of oleoresin and gingerols from dry powder. Parameters optimized for maximum recovery of gingerols and [6]-shogaol were ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of t-butanol to slurry, solid loading and pH. Ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments increased the yield of oleoresin and its phytoconstituents. Ultrasound pretreatment showed separation of starch in the bottom aqueous phase but is an additional step in extraction. Enzymatic pretreatment using accellerase increased the yield of [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-shogaol by 64.10, 87.8, 62.78 and 32.0% within 4h and is recommended. The efficacy of the enzymatic pretreatment was confirmed by SEM and FTIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizomes) extract on timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol infusion seizure model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Abdolkarim; Mirazi, Naser

    2014-03-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) or ginger, which is used in traditional medicine has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints (myoclonic, generalized clonus and forelimb tonic extension phase) was recorded. The results showed that the ginger extract has anticonvulsant effects in all the experimental treatment groups of seizure tested as it significantly increased the seizure threshold. Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25-100mg/kg (p<0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (p<0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (p<0.01) seizure 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ compared with control group. Based on the results the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory system, antioxidant mechanisms, oxidative stress and calcium channel inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from the rhizome of Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on Candida albicans biofilms at adherent, intermediate, and mature phase of growth. C. albicans biofilms were formed in flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The biofilms of C. albicans at different phases of development were exposed to xanthorrhizol at different concentrations (0.5 µg/mL-256 µg/mL) for 24 h. The metabolic activity of cells within the biofilms was quantified using the XTT reduction assay. Sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) were determined at 50% and 80% reduction in the biofilm OD₄₉₀ compared to the control wells. The SMIC₅₀ and SMIC₈₀ of xanthorrhizol against 18 C. albicans biofilms were 4--16 µg/mL and 8--32 µg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the activity of xanthorrhizol in reducing C. albicans biofilms OD₄₉₀ was dependent on the concentration and the phase of growth of biofilm. Xanthorrhizol at concentration of 8 µg/mL completely reduced in biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at adherent phase, whereas 32 µg/mL of xanthorrhizol reduced 87.95% and 67.48 % of biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at intermediate and mature phases, respectively. Xanthorrhizol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and therefore might have potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Metabolic profiling of Rhodiola rosea rhizomes by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioset, Karine Ndjoko; Nyberg, Nils T; Van Diermen, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    to remove polymeric polyphenols as the (1)H NMR analysis of low-molecular-weight metabolites was hampered by the presence of tannins. Principal component analysis disclosed tight clustering of samples according to population. PCA models based on the aromatic region of the spectra showed that the first two...... analysis and identification of secondary metabolites responsible for differences in sample composition. To achieve this, plants from three different geographic areas (Swiss Alps, Finland, and Altai region in Siberia) were investigated.Results - A sample preparation procedure was developed in order...

  2. Expansion into an Herbivorous Niche by a Customary Carnivore: Black-Tailed Godwits Feeding on Rhizomes of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, F.; Piersma, T.; Meunier, F.; Bocher, P.

    2013-01-01

    In expanding populations, individuals may increasingly be forced to use sites of relatively low quality. This process, named the "buffer effect," was previously described for the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa islandica) in its use of nonbreeding sites in Great Britain and of breeding areas in

  3. Rhizome-Modular Teaching of Students as a Basis of Their Professional Creative Self-Consciousness Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritskaya, Elena V.; Burkhanova, Irina Y.; Voronin, Denis I.; Ivanova, Svetlana S.; Grigoryeva, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is determined by a necessity to ensure contents unity of two professional education degrees: Bachelor's and Master's. The necessity to update higher professional education originates from the crisis of educational system state which is confirmed in theory and in practice. The purpose of the study is in definition of…

  4. UHPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics for the characterization of cold and hot properties of Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Shujun; Wang, Meng; Liu, Shuying; Hu, Yuanjia; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-02-17

    The cold/hot property of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and the application of its corresponding knowledge in the diagnosis, differentiation and treatment of diseases have been considered to be the extremely important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As highly abstracted TCM theory, the cold/hot property of CMMs is still not fully understood and remains to be elucidated by systems biology approach. The cold and hot properties of CMM are mainly defined by the response of the body to a given CMM. Metabolomics is a promising systems biology method to profile entire endogenous metabolites and monitor their fluctuations related to an exogenous stimulus. Thus, a metabolomics approach was applied to characterize the cold and hot properties of CMMs. Mice were intragastrically administered three selected cold property CMMs (i.e., Rheum palmatum L., radix et rhizoma; Coptis chinensis Franch, rhizome and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, radix) and three hot property CMMs (i.e., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, cortex; Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizoma and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., fructus) once daily for one week. The comprehensive metabolome changes in the plasma of mice after treatment with cold or hot property CMMs were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS), and the potential biomarkers related to cold and hot properties of CMM were explored. Metabolites perturbation in plasma occurs after treatment with cold CMMs and hot CMMs in mice, and 15 and 16 differential biomarkers were identified to be associated with the cold and hot properties of CMMs, respectively. Among them, LPC (18:0), LPC (18:1), LPC (20:4) and LPC (20:5) showed decreased trends in the cold property CMM treated groups, but increased in the hot property CMM treated groups. There is a strong connection between the cold/hot property of CMMs and lysophosphatidylcholines metabolism. This study offers new insight

  5. Environ: E00603 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00603 Woodwardia rhizome Crude drug Woodwardia acid Woodwardia [TAX:29603], Woodwar...dia unigemmata [TAX:120732], Woodwardia orientalis [TAX:86683] ... Blechnaceae Woodwardia rhizome (dried) ...

  6. Environ: E00598 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00598 Woodwardia unigemmata, Woodwardia japonica rhizome Crude drug ... Woodwardia u...nigemmata [TAX:120732], Woodwardia japonica [TAX:120728] ... Blechnaceae Woodwardia unigemmata, Woodwardia japonica rhizome ...

  7. Chemical characteristics of saponins from Paris fargesii var. brevipetala and cytotoxic activity of its main ingredient, paris saponin H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feiyan; Yin, Hongxiang; Chen, Chu; Liu, Xianbo; Xue, Dan; Chen, Tiezhu; He, Jun; Zhang, Hao

    2012-06-01

    More attention was paid to the anti-tumor activity of Rhizoma Paridis (RP) recently, of which the wild resource was decreased significantly. This study was aimed to elucidate the chemical characteristics of Paris fargesii var. brevipetala (PFB) that may be administrated as alternate resource of legal RP. A HPLC-ELSD method was established to characterize the steroid saponins in rhizomes of PFB and two legal Paris species [Paris polyphylla var. chinensis (PPC) and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY)] in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP). Ten saponins (paris saponins I, II, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and other three paris saponins) were involved as standards. The results indicated that PFB contained pennogenyl saponins as the main components with small amounts of diosgenin saponins. The total contents of the detected saponins in PFB ranged from 9.12mg/g to 85.33mg/g. Nine of the twelve PFB samples own a total content of paris saponins I, II, VI, and VII more than 6.0mg/g (meeting the standard of CP 2010 edition). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analysis (PLS-DA) both confirmed the fact that saponin profiles of PFB, PPC and PPY were different from each other. In addition, paris saponin H (Ps H), the predominant saponin of PFB (>50%), was tested in vitro to evaluate its cytotoxic activities on HepG2, A549, RPE and L929 cells with a positive control of Cisplatin. Ps H showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity on A549 cells with an IC(50) value of 1.53±0.08μg/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  9. The Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine Hachimijiogan Elicits Neurite Outgrowth Effects in PC12 Cells and Improves Cognitive in AD Model Rats via Phosphorylation of CREB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kubota

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hachimijiogan (HJG is a traditional herbal medicine that improves anxiety disorders in patients with dementia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HJG exerts neurotrophic factor-like effects to ameliorate memory impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD model rats. First, we describe that HJG acts to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells (a rat pheochromocytoma cell line like nerve growth factor (NGF in a concentration-dependent manner (3 μg/ml HJG, p < 0.05; 10–500 μg/ml HJG, p < 0.001. While six herbal constituents of HJG, Rehmannia root, Dioscorea rhizome, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria sclerotium, Moutan bark, and Cinnamon bark, could induce neurite outgrowth effects, the effect was strongest with HJG (500 μg/ml. Second, we demonstrated that HJG-induced neurite outgrowth was blocked by an inhibitor of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB, KG-501 (10 μM, p < 0.001. Moreover, HJG was observed to induce CREB phosphorylation 20–90 min after treatment (20 min, 2.50 ± 0.58-fold and CRE-mediated transcription in cultured PC12 cells (500 μg/ml, p < 0.01; 1000 μg/ml, p < 0.001. These results suggest a CREB-dependent mechanism underlies the neurotrophic effects of HJG. Finally, we examined improvements of memory impairment following HJG treatment using a Morris water maze in AD model animals (CI + Aβ rats. Repeated oral administration of HJG improved memory impairment (300 mg/kg, p < 0.05; 1000 mg/kg, p < 0.001 and induced CREB phosphorylation within the hippocampus (1000 mg/kg, p < 0.01. Together, our results suggest that HJG possesses neurotrophic effects similar to those of NGF, and can ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in a rat dementia model via CREB activation. Thus, HJG could potentially be a substitute for neurotrophic factors as a treatment for dementia.

  10. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs as penetration enhancers (PEs to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil >> Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05. The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05. In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  11. Diurnal dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in shoots and rhizomes of a perennial in a constructed wetland indicate down-regulation of below ground oxygen consumption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fausser, A. C.; Dušek, Jiří; Čížková, Hana; Kazda, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, JUL (2016), č. článku plw025. ISSN 2041-2851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : typha-latifolia l * internal gas-transport * phragmites-australis * convective throughflow * pressurized ventilation * angustifolia l * ex steud * roots * flow * respiration * Aeration * constructed wetland * in-situ field study * internal carbon dioxide * internal oxygen dynamics * Phragmites australis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  12. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Shakeri; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 ?g/ml) rats. Results: Total and mo...

  13. An aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes stimulates insulin release and mimics insulin action on tissues involved in glucose homeostasis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohankumar, Sureshkumar; McFarlane, James R

    2011-03-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used widely as a spice, particularly in Asian countries. It is also used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as an antiinflammatory and antimicrobial agent and for numerous other curative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (AEC) on tissues involved in glucose homeostasis. The extract was prepared by soaking 100 g of ground turmeric in 1 L of water, which was filtered and stored at -20°C prior to use. Pancreas and muscle tissues of adult mice were cultured in DMEM with 5 or 12 mmol/L glucose and varying doses of extract. The AEC stimulated insulin secretion from mouse pancreatic tissues under both basal and hyperglycaemic conditions, although the maximum effect was only 68% of that of tolbutamide. The AEC induced stepwise stimulation of glucose uptake from abdominal muscle tissues in the presence and absence of insulin, and the combination of AEC and insulin significantly potentiated the glucose uptake into abdominal muscle tissue. However, this effect was attenuated by wortmannin, suggesting that AEC possibly acts via the insulin-mediated glucose uptake pathway. In summary, water soluble compounds of turmeric exhibit insulin releasing and mimicking actions within in vitro tissue culture conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Investigation for Antifungal Effect of Medicinal Plants, Combination Infusion of Piper Bettle Leaves, Punica Granatum Fructus Cortec, Curcuma Domestica Rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Elya

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The tested demartophyta used Candida albicans. This research using dilution method to determine of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and difusion method to determine zone inhibition around of disc. The results of determination of MIC showed that combination infusion Piper bettle leaves with Punica granatum Fructus Cortex against C. albicans respectively, 31,2 mg/ml : 7,8 mg/ml; 15,6 mg/ml : 15,6 mg/ml and 7,8 mg/ml : 31,2 mg/ml. The determination for zone inhibition from 3 concentration of infusion of Piper bettle leaves with 3 concentration of Punica granatum Fructus Cortex with 9 combination against C. albicans showed that combination of two infusion is the larger than the single infusion.

  15. Comparing effects of metformin and ginger rhizome extract on the pituitary - gonad function in adult female rats with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Foroozandeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. Due to the prevalence of PCOS in worldwide, this study aimed to compare the effect of metformin with ginger on pituitary-gonad function in PCOS adult female rats was performed. Methods: In this experimental study, 72 adult female rats divided to control, sham PCOS and 7 experimental groups PCOS receiving metformin at 500mg/kg, the ginger at doses 100, 200 & 300mg/kg and ginger at doses 100, 200 & 300mg /kg with metformin at 500 mg/kg were used. All injections by gavage and for 28 days were conducted. After phlebotomizing the animals, to measure hormones FSH, LH and estrogen, progesterone and testosterone, their ovaries removed and after preparing tissue sections, follicles were counted. Data obtained by 18-SPSS software and ANOVA and Duncan were analyzed, then the significant difference of data at P> 0.05was considered. Results: The results showed that letrozole by creating PCOS causes to increase atretic follicles, testosterone, estrogen and reduce other follicles and FSH at P<0.01, and metformin and Ginger alone and together cause to reduce atretic follicles, testosterone, estrogen and increase other follicles and FSH at P<0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that metformin and Ginger alone or together cause to improve PCOS, and these improvements in both groups receiving simultaneous ginger with metformin can be seen more.

  16. Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Activities of Six Curcuma Rhizomes: A Possible Curcuminoid-independent Pathway Mediated by Curcuma phaeocaulis Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Tohda, Chihiro; Nakayama, Natsuki; Hatanaka, Fumiyuki; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2006-01-01

    We aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of six species of Curcuma drugs using adjuvant arthritis model mice. When orally administered 1 day before the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling and the serum haptoglobin concentration in adjuvant arthritis mice. Also when orally administered 1 day after the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling. Other C...

  17. Internal oxygen dynamics in rhizomes of Phragmites australis and presence of methanotrophs in root biofilms in a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faußer, A.; Dušek, Jiří; Čížková, Hana; Hoppert, M.; Walther, P.; Kazda, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, 13-15 (2013), s. 3026-3031 ISSN 1944-3994. [3rd International Conference on Environmental Management, Engineering, Planning and Economics (CEMEPE) and SECOTOX Conference. Skiathos Island, 19.06.2011-24.06.2011] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Aerenchyma * Macrophyte * Constructed wetland * Internal oxygen partial pressure * Methane-oxidising bacteria Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.988, year: 2013

  18. Expansion into an herbivorous niche by a customary carnivore : Black-tailed godwits feeding on rhizomes of Zostera at a newly established wintering site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, Frederic; Piersma, Theunis; Meunier, Francis; Bocher, Pierrick

    In expanding populations, individuals may increasingly be forced to use sites of relatively low quality. This process, named the "buffer effect," was previously described for the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa islandica) in its use of nonbreeding sites in Great Britain and of breeding areas in

  19. Seasonal variation of the essential oil, valerenic acid and derivatives, and valepotriates in Valeriana officinalis roots and rhizomes, and the selection of plants suitable for phytomedicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; van Putten, F.M S; Hendriks, H; Scheffer, J.J C

    During the seasons 1989-1993, Voleriana officinalis plants were investigated for their contents of essential oil, valerenic acid and derivatives, and valepotriates. Harvesting of the subterranean parts was started in August of the year in which the seeds were sown, and continued until the last week

  20. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa ( C. longa ) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO 2 , NO 3 , MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Total and most differential WBC count, NO 2 , NO 3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls ( P longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group ( P longa and curcumin ( P longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.

  1. Exploring the role of curcumin containing ethanolic extract obtained from Curcuma longa (rhizomes) against retardation of wound healing process by aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Mandloi, Avinash Singh; Shaikh, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the curcumin containing ethanolic extract (EtOH) obtained from Curcuma longa (Cl) against retardation of wound healing by aspirin. Wound healing process was retarded by administering the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight of aspirin orally for 9 days to observe the effect of EtOH obtained from Cl using excision and incision wound model in rats. The various parameters such as % wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline, tensile strength were observed at variant time intervals and histopathological study was also performed. Curcumin containing 5% and 10% ethanolic extract ointment have shown significant (P < 0.01) wound healing activity against an aspirin (administered 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 9 days) retarded wound healing process. Topical application of ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) difference as compared to the control group. Histopathological studies also showed healing of the epidermis, increased collagen, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Ethanolic extract of Cl ointment (EtOHCl) containing 10% curcumin displayed remarkable healing process against wound retardation by aspirin.

  2. HPTLC and reverse phase HPLC methods for the simultaneous quantification and in vitro screening of antioxidant potential of isolated sesquiterpenoids from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya Rani, M; Padmakumari, K P

    2012-09-01

    Three sesquiterpenoids solavetivone, aristolone and nootkatone were isolated from the acetone extract of Cyperus rotundus by silica gel column chromatography and identified by spectral studies. Solavetivone has been isolated for the first time from the species. Simple, sensitive and selective HPTLC and HPLC methods with ultraviolet detection (245 nm) were developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification. HPTLC method was validated in terms of their linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision, accuracy and compared with RP-HPLC-UV method. Among the three sesquiterpenoids isolated, nootkatone possessed the highest radical scavenging potential (IC(50) 4.81 μg/ml) followed by aristolone (IC(50) 5.28 μg/ml) and solavetivone (IC(50) 6.82 μg/ml) by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Total antioxidant activity against phosphomolybdenum reagent was also studied. The methods described in this paper were able to identify and quantify sesquiterpenoids from the complex mixtures of phytochemicals and could be extended to the marker based standardization of polyherbal formulations containing C. rotundus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Activities of Six Curcuma Rhizomes: A Possible Curcuminoid-independent Pathway Mediated by Curcuma phaeocaulis Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Tohda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of six species of Curcuma drugs using adjuvant arthritis model mice. When orally administered 1 day before the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling and the serum haptoglobin concentration in adjuvant arthritis mice. Also when orally administered 1 day after the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling. Other Curcuma species (Curcuma longa, Curcuma wenyujin, Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aromatica had no significant inhibitory effects on adjuvant-induced paw swelling. Cyclooxygenase (COX-2 activity was significantly inhibited by the methanol extract of C. phaeocaulis. Curcuminoids' (curcumin, bis-demethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin were rich in C. longa, but less in C. phaeocaulis and C. aromatica, not in C. wenyujin, C. kwangsiensis and C. zedoaria, suggesting that curcuminoids' contents do not relate to inhibition of arthritis swelling. Therefore, C. phaeocaulis may be a useful drug among Curcuma species for acute inflammation, and the active constituents of C. phaeocaulis are not curcuminoids.

  4. A study of extraction process and in vitro antioxidant activity of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae and its antioxidant activity, and provided a basis for its rational development. The extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae was determined using orthogonal design test and by total phenol content, its hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was measured by ...

  5. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (small galanga) from China. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 46 constituents were identified. Methanol extract from rhizoma A.

  6. Editorial:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    In writing this editorial, I have found three 'rhizome connections' that ... journal editorials, but will rather engage some of the rhizome connections that work their way ... social and natural sciences, arguing that '... society and humans mutually ...

  7. Environ: E00127 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00127 Rheum palmatum, Rheum tanguticum rhizome Crude drug ... Rheum palmatum [TAX:137221], Rheum tangut...icum [TAX:137226] Same as: D06756 Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Rheum palmatum, Rheum tanguticum rhizome ...

  8. Drug: D07051 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Ginger [DR:D06744], (Atractylodes rhizome [DR:D06780] | Atractylodes lancea rhizome [DR:D06752]) ... Therapeutic category: 5200 ... PubChem: 51091393 ...

  9. Uji Daya Hambat Ekstrak Rimpang Kunyit (Curcuma Longa) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Staphylococcus Aureus Dan Pseudomonas SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Pangemanan, Andrew; Fatimawali; Budiarso, Fona

    2016-01-01

    : Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a plant that is known to have medicinal properties, especially the rhizome. The active compound that contained in the rhizomes are able to work as an antibacterial. This study aimed to measure the inhibitory of turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa) extract against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas sp. This was an experimental laboratory study. The polar extract of turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa) was tested by well method with concentration of 40%, 2...

  10. Giant cane propagation techniques for use in restoration of riparian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca L. Sexton; James J. Zaczek; John W. Groninger; Stephen D. Fillmore; Karl W. J. Williard

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine factors important for rhizome cutting propagation of giant cane for use in canebreak restoration. Experiment I showed that greater numbers of culms were produced for rhizomes with more internodes especially when surface planted rather than buried. Experiment II determined that 76 percent of the 435 rhizomes tested produced at least...

  11. Yang et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(4):161 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    in mice treated with Coptidis Rhizoma extract as compared with the control mice. ... Therefore, there is need for development of novel antifungal drugs. Chinese ... onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (Zhaorui Bio Technologies, Shanghai) plates for.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Water Extract of Arisaema Erubescens Tubers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-arthritic activity of the water extract of Rhizoma Arisaematis (WERA) using collagen II .... Plethysmometer PV-200 (ChengDu Technology. & Market Co. ..... Chung WY. Red ginseng saponin extract attenuates.

  13. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pinellia rhizoma, Polysaccharides Optimization extraction, Monosaccharide composition,. Antioxidant ..... mean yield of PRP was 2.47 %. Therefore ... Table 3: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the fitted quadratic polynomial model.

  14. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of 32 Chemical Ingredients of a Chinese Patented Drug Sanhuang Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Hau-Yee Fung; Yan Lang; Hing-Man Ho; Tin-Long Wong; Dik-Lung Ma; Chung-Hang Leung; Quan-Bin Han

    2017-01-01

    Sanhuang Tablet (SHT) is a Chinese patented drug commonly used for the treatment of inflammations of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. It contains a special medicinal composition including the single compound berberine hydrochloride, extracts of Scutellariae Radix and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as well as the powder of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. Despite advances in analytical techniques, quantitative evaluation of a Chinese patented drug like SHT remains a challenge due to the ...

  15. Kaempferia parviflora rhizome extract and Myristica fragrans volatile oil increase the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and impact the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus: Mechanistic insights into their neuroprotective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waluga Plaingam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Potentially useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, Kaempferia parviflora and Myristica fragrans have been shown to possess a wide spectrum of neuropharmacological activities and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we determined whether and how K. parviflora ethanolic extract and M. fragrans volatile oil could influence the levels of neurotransmitters and the whole proteomic profile in the hippocampus of Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The effects of K. parviflora and M. fragrans on protein changes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-gel, and proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The target proteins were then confirmed by Western blot. The levels of neurotransmitters were evaluated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The results showed that K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine (the control drug for this study increased serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the rat hippocampus compared to that of the vehicle-treated group. Our proteomic data showed that 37 proteins in the K. parviflora group were up-regulated, while 14 were down-regulated, and 27 proteins in the M. fragrans group were up-regulated, while 16 were down-regulated. In the fluoxetine treatment group, we found 29 proteins up-regulated, whereas 14 proteins were down-regulated. In line with the proteomic data, the levels of GFAP, PDIA3, DPYSL2 and p-DPYSL2 were modified in the SD rat groups treated with K. parviflora, M. fragrans and fluoxetine as confirmed by Western blot. K. parviflora and M. fragrans mediated not only the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters but also the proteomic profiles in the rat hippocampus, thus shedding light on the mechanisms targeting neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. IMMUNOMODULATOR EFFECT OF COMBINATION OF Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Nees HERB AND GINGER RHIZOME (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ON CELL PROLIFERATION OF Balb/c MICE LYMPHOCYTES IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damriati Azimah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our susceptibility to various infectious diseases can be avoided by increasing the specific immune responses either by the proliferation of lymphocytes. Immunomodulator effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb have been well evaluated. Empirically, the East Borneo’s tribe combined both herbs to treat jaundice disease. However, scientific evidence is still needed in their use as a drug candidate. This study explores further effect of the immunomodulator from 5 ethanol extract groups. Quantitative analysis was also completed using a densitometer to obtain andrographolide and curcumin levels of ethanol extract. Lymphocyte proliferation was tested by using MTT colorimetric method, the results was read by an ELISA reader and statistically analyzed with One-Way ANOVA test with 95 % of confidence level. The maceration yield of sambiloto ethanol extract (EES and temulawak ethanol extract (EET were respectively 5.78 % w / w and 3.92 % w / w. The results of quantitative analysis in 28.6 mg EES contained 11.43 % andrographolide and from the 251.8 mg EET contained 28.79 % curcumin. From the MTT test, all treatment groups were significantly different from the control group. Based on the OD values, the best combination to increase lymphocyte cell proliferation ETS was a group contained 56.25 mg of temulawak and 18.75 mg of sambiloto in 1 ml of solvent. Nonetheless, the value was not higher than the ability of ET in increasing cell proliferation.

  17. Simultaneous determination of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the rhizomes of petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV and LC-TOF methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Butterbur (Petasites hybridus) is a herbaceous perennial plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe and northern Asia. Petasites hybridus exists in two chemo-varieties: those containing petasins and those with furano-petasins which have been reported to be effective in reducing the occ...

  18. The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; An, Mi Ra; Nah, Seung Yeol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jae Ha; Shin, Dong Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products.

  19. Drug: D06761 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06761 Crude ... Drug Anemarrhena rhizome (JP17); Anemarrhera rhizome (TN) Timosaponin... A-I [CPD:C17074], Timosaponin A-III [CPD:C17075], Neogitogenin [CPD:C17003], Mangiferin [CPD:C10077], I...somangiferin [CPD:C16979], Nicotinic acid [CPD:C00253], Pantothenic acid [CPD:C00864], Sarsasaponin ... Anem...gavaceae (agave family) Anemarrhena rhizome Major component: Timosaponin A-III [CPD:C17075] ... PubChem: 47208412 ...

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Wanyu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao, Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye, Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen, Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao, Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong, Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities.