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Sample records for rhipsalis grandiflora haw

  1. Rhipsalis grandiflora Haw. (Cactaceae propagation by setem cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancato Giulio Cesare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhipsalis is being cultivated as a potted plant since the view of the pendant branches with coloured flowers and fruit is very appreciated. Considering that there is no information about the production of rooted propagules of these species, the goal of this work was to evaluate the development of stem cuttings, stimulated by the application of plant growth regulators. The indolebutyric acid (IBA was tested at 0; 4.07; 5.81, and 11.63 mmol L-1 and the naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA at 0; 4.53; 6.47, and 12.94 mmol L-1 for their activity in promoting roots on apical stem segments of Rhipsalis grandiflora Raw. The base of stem cuttings was dipped into auxin solutions mixed with talc and each one was partially embedded in fir bark (Pinus sp and fern fiber (1:1 in polystyrene propagation flats, placed throughout the rooting period in a greenhouse (50% shading, at 60-90% of relative humidity and temperatures from 20 to 25ºC. The experimental design was a completely randomised with eight treatments (twelve replicates, with samplings at 0; 20; 50; 80, and 150 days. The results indicate no differences between IBA and NAA regarding the dry mass of roots, but an increase in for concentrations of 0 and 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 0 and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, in relation to treatments with auxins. Stem cuttings treated with 4.07 mmol L-1 of IBA and 4.53 mmol L-1 of NAA, had greater dry mass of shoot bud differentiation in relation to those treated with 0 mmol L-1.

  2. Nonlinear models applied to seed germination of Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw (Cactaceae

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    Terezinha Aparecida Guedes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this analysis was to fit germination data of Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw seeds to the Weibull model with three parameters using Frequentist and Bayesian methods. Five parameterizations were compared using the Bayesian analysis to fit a prior distribution. The parameter estimates from the Frequentist method were similar to the Bayesian responses considering the following non-informative a priori distribution for the parameter vectors: gamma (10³, 10³ in the model M1, normal (0, 106 in the model M2, uniform (0, Lsup in the model M3, exp (μ in the model M4 and Lnormal (μ, 106 in the model M5. However, to achieve the convergence in the models M4 and M5, we applied the μ from the estimates of the Frequentist approach. The best models fitted by the Bayesian method were the M1 and M3. The adequacy of these models was based on the advantages over the Frequentist method such as the reduced computational efforts and the possibility of comparison.

  3. Morphology and anatomy of Rhipsalis cereuscula, Rhipsalis floccosa subsp. hohenauensis and Lepismium cruciforme (Cactaceae seedlings Morfología y anatomía de las plántulas de Rhipsalis cereuscula, Rhipsalis floccosa subsp. hohenauensis y Lepismium cruciforme (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C. Secorun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw., Rhipsalis floccosa subsp. hohenauensis (F. Ritter Barthlott et N. P. Taylor and Lepismium cruciforme (Vellozo Miquel are obligatory epiphytes that occur frequently on tree trunks of remnant forests in Maringa, Paraná state, Brazil. Morphological and anatomical analyses regarding the seedlings were carried out. The seedlings were prepared according to techniques of resin inclusions and histochemical tests. Seedlings were phanerocotyledonar and originated from seeds with operculum. The root was diarch and the hypocotyl presented transition root-stem structure. The cotyledons were sessile, reduced, with homogeneous mesophyll. The epicotyl (phylloclade presented a lot of parenchyma and reduced vascular cylinder. The 3 studied species showed anatomical characteristics similar to those described for species of Lepismium and Rhipsalis as well as other cacti.Rhipsalis cereuscula Haw., Rhipsalis floccosa subsp. hohenauensis (F. Ritter Barthlott et N. P. Taylor y Lepismium cruciforme (Vellozo Miquel son epífitos obligatorios que frecuentemente habitan en los troncos del árbol de matorrales secundarios de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Se analizaron la morfología y anatomía de las plántulas de estas especies. Las plántulas fueron procesadas según las técnicas de inclusión en resina y pruebas histoquímicas. Las plántulas se clasificaron como fanerocotiledonares y se originaron de semillas con opérculo. La raíz era diarca y el hipocótilo presentó estructura de transición raíz-tallo. Los cotiledones fueron sésiles, reducidos, con el mesófilo homogéneo. El epicótilo (filocladio presentó mucho parénquima y el cilindro vascular reducido. Las 3 especies presentaron características anatómicas similares a las descritas para especies de Lepismium y Rhipsalis, así como otras cactáceas.

  4. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  5. Iridoid glycosides from Thunbergia grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, L D; el-Azizi, M M; Khalifa, T I; Stermitz, F R

    1996-07-01

    The novel iridoid glycosides, isounedoside and grandifloric acid, were isolated from Thunbergia grandiflora. Grandifloric acid contains C-10 as a carboxylic acid group, the presence of which was predicted by recent iridoid biosynthesis studies carried out within T. alata. Isounedoside contains a rare 6,7-epoxide functional group. A revision in some of the NMR spectral assignments for the known iridoid glycoside alatoside was also made.

  6. Experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1993-12-01

    This data report is the eighth of a series intended to document the data obtained from the HAW in situ experiment (at Asse) and to make these data available to potential users. During this experiment a considerable number of thermocouples was damaged so that their signals are lost. In some cases it resulted in plots with no signal but empty frames. In the previous report we tried to change our procedure and remove these frames from the report. This action was not completely successful because, as it turned out, also some of the not empty plots were removed wrongly as well. (orig.)

  7. Experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1993-04-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from January 1st, 1992 to June 30th, 1992. (orig.)

  8. Experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1992-12-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from July 1st, 1991 to December 31th, 1991. (orig.)

  9. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lone

    Full Text Available Abstract The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  10. Physical characterization of Rhipsalis (Cactaceae) fruits and seeds germination in different temperatures and light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, A B; Colombo, R C; Andrade, B L G; Takahashi, L S A; Faria, R T

    2016-06-01

    The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

  11. Seed mutagenesis in Portulaca grandiflora (Hook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennani, F.; Rossi-Hassani, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    Betalain pigments have been used as natural additives. Despite their importance, the biochemistry and genetics of betalain synthesis remain relatively undetermined. Portulaca grandiflora represents an ideal material for genetic analysis. In the present work, seed mutagenesis was examined with a view to enhance the chance of detection of new genetic markers in this species

  12. Performance of CASTORR HAW Cask Cold Trials for Loading, Transport and Storage of HAW canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Vossnacke, Andre

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of reprocessing contracts, concluded between the German Nuclear Utilities (GNUs) and the reprocessing companies in France (AREVA NC) and the UK (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), GNS has the task to return the resulting residues to Germany. The high active waste (HAW) residuals from nuclear fuel reprocessing are vitrified and filled into steel cans, the HAW canisters. According to reprocessing contracts the equivalent number of HAW canisters to heavy metals delivered has to be returned to the country of origin and stored at an interim storage facility where applicable. The GNS' CASTOR R HAW casks are designed and licensed to fulfil the requirements for transport and long-term storage of HAW canisters. The new cask type CASTOR R HAW28M is capable of storing 28 HAW canisters with a maximum thermal power of 56 kW in total. Prior to the first active cask loading at a reprocessing facility it is required to demonstrate all important handling steps with the CASTOR R HAW28M cask according to a specific and approved sequence plan (MAP). These cold trials have to be carried out at the cask loading plant and at the reception area of an interim storage facility in Gorleben (TBL-G), witnessed by the licensing authorities and their independent experts. At transhipment stations GNS performs internal trials to demonstrate safe handling. A brand-new, empty CASTOR R HAW28M cask has been shipped from the GNS cask assembly facility in Muelheim to the TBL-G for cold trials. With this cask, GNS has to demonstrate the transhipment of casks at the Dannenberg transfer station from rail to road, transport to and reception at the TBL-G as well as incoming dose rate and contamination measurements and preparation for storage. After removal of all shock absorbers with a cask specific handling frame, tilting operation and assembly of the secondary lid with a pressure sensor, the helium leak tightness and 'Block-mass' tests have to be carried out as well. GNS long-term CASTOR R

  13. High-active waste (HAW) data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement trans-ducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the period from July 1st, 1990 to December 31, 1990. (author). 4 refs.; 100 figs.; 8 tabs

  14. Performance of CASTOR{sup R} HAW Cask Cold Trials for Loading, Transport and Storage of HAW canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Vossnacke, Andre [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hollestrasse 7A, D-45127 Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    On the basis of reprocessing contracts, concluded between the German Nuclear Utilities (GNUs) and the reprocessing companies in France (AREVA NC) and the UK (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), GNS has the task to return the resulting residues to Germany. The high active waste (HAW) residuals from nuclear fuel reprocessing are vitrified and filled into steel cans, the HAW canisters. According to reprocessing contracts the equivalent number of HAW canisters to heavy metals delivered has to be returned to the country of origin and stored at an interim storage facility where applicable. The GNS' CASTOR{sup R} HAW casks are designed and licensed to fulfil the requirements for transport and long-term storage of HAW canisters. The new cask type CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M is capable of storing 28 HAW canisters with a maximum thermal power of 56 kW in total. Prior to the first active cask loading at a reprocessing facility it is required to demonstrate all important handling steps with the CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask according to a specific and approved sequence plan (MAP). These cold trials have to be carried out at the cask loading plant and at the reception area of an interim storage facility in Gorleben (TBL-G), witnessed by the licensing authorities and their independent experts. At transhipment stations GNS performs internal trials to demonstrate safe handling. A brand-new, empty CASTOR{sup R} HAW28M cask has been shipped from the GNS cask assembly facility in Muelheim to the TBL-G for cold trials. With this cask, GNS has to demonstrate the transhipment of casks at the Dannenberg transfer station from rail to road, transport to and reception at the TBL-G as well as incoming dose rate and contamination measurements and preparation for storage. After removal of all shock absorbers with a cask specific handling frame, tilting operation and assembly of the secondary lid with a pressure sensor, the helium leak tightness and 'Block-mass' tests have to be carried out

  15. Indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae); Alkaloides {beta}-indolopiridoquinazolinicos de Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januario, Ana Helena; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: anahjanuario@unifran.br; Silva, Jorge Jose de Brito; Conserva, Lucia Maria [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical composition of two specimens of Esenbeckia grandiflora, collected in the south and northeast regions of Brazil, was investigated. In this study, three b-indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from the leaves (rutaecarpine, 1-hydroxyrutaecarpine) and roots (euxylophoricine D) were isolated for the first time in this genus. In addition, the triterpenes {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrenonol, {beta}-amyrenonol, 3{alpha}-hydroxy-ursan-12-one, and 3{alpha}-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-oleanane, the coumarins auraptene, umbelliferone, pimpinelin, and xanthotoxin, the furoquinoline alkaloids delbine and kokusaginine, and the phytosteroids sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated from the leaves, twigs, roots and stems of this species. Structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. (author)

  16. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.; Crum, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    This study was performed by a team comprising experts in glass chemistry, glass technology, and statistics at both SRTC and PNNL. This joint effort combined the strengths of each discipline and site to quickly develop a glass formulation for specific INEEL HAW

  17. 27 CFR 9.214 - Haw River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... significance. (b) Approved maps. The two United States Geological Survey 1:100,000-scale metric topographic...) Greensboro, North Carolina, 1984; and (2) Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1984. (c) Boundary. The Haw River... line southeast 2 miles to the intersection of North Carolina State Highway 49 and an unnamed, light...

  18. Chemical constiuents from Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cláudia de A. Tomaz

    Full Text Available Amongst the different forms of therapy to prevent and cure illnesses, plants have been, undoubtedly, the most utilized ones since the beginning of mankind. Brazil has a great diversity on plants that possess non-researched medicinal potential and are promising sources of therapeutic and pharmacological innovations. The Rubiaceae family is considered the biggest one of the order Gentianales, presenting around 637 genera and 10,700 species. Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud., known popularly as "ervanço", "poaia" or "ipeca-mirim", has ethnopharmacological indications to use as decoction against hemorrhoids and as vermifuge. Aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomic study of the family Rubiaceae and considering the absence of data in literature about the chemical constitution of the species Richardia grandiflora, the latter was submitted to a phytochemical study to isolate its chemical constituents, through usual chromatographic methods, and after identifying them by means of spectroscopic methods such as ¹H and 13C NMR, with the add of two-dimensional techniques, besides comparison with literature data. Five constituents were isolated through this first phytochemical study with R. grandiflora: a mixture of the steroids beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, o-hydroxy-benzoic acid, m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and phaeophitin A, all of them isolated for the first time from the genus Richardia.

  19. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  20. Detoxification and decolorization of a simulated textile dye mixture by phytoremediation using Petunia grandiflora and, Gailardia grandiflora: a plant-plant consortial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2014-05-01

    In vitro grown Petunia grandiflora and Gaillardia grandiflora plantlets showed 76 percent and 62 percent American Dye Manufacturers Institute value (color) removal from a simulated dyes mixture within 36h respectively whereas their consortium gave 94 percent decolorization. P. grandiflora, G. grandiflora and their consortium could reduce BOD by 44 percent, 31 percent and, 69 percent and COD by 58 percent, 37 percent and 73 percent respectively. Individually, root cells of P. grandiflora showed 74 and 24 percent induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase and laccase respectively; whereas G. grandiflora root cells showed 379 percent, 142 percent and 77 percent induction in the activities of tyrosinase, riboflavin reductase and lignin peroxidase respectively. In the consortium set, entirely a different enzymatic pattern was observed, where P. grandiflora root cells showed 231 percent, 12 percent and 65 percent induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase and 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase respectively, while G. grandiflora root cells gave 300 percent, 160 percent, 79 percent and 55 percent inductions in the activities of lignin peroxidase, riboflavin reductase, tyrosinase and laccase respectively. Because of the synergistic effect of the enzymes from both the plants, the consortium was found to be more effective for the degradation of dyes from the mixture. Preferential dye removal was confirmed by analyzing metabolites of treated dye mixture using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR and biotransformation was visualized using HPTLC. Metabolites formed after the degradation of dyes revealed the reduced cytogenotoxicity on Allium cepa roots cells when compared with untreated dye mixture solution. Phytotoxicity study exhibited the less toxic nature of the metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. O gênero Rhipsalis Gärtner (Cactaceae, no Estado de São Paulo I: espécies com ramos cilíndricos ou subcilíndricos The genus Rhipsalis Gärtner (Cactaceae in the State of São Paulo-I: species with cylindrical or subcilindrical joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Antonio Lombardi

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhipsalis Gärtner é um gênero de Cactaceae de hábito epífita ou rupícola, de ampla distribuição nas Américas do Sul e Central, atingindo inclusive a África tropical e ilhas do Oceano Índico. Este trabalho procurou caracterizar morfologicamente as espécies do gênero Rhipsalis que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo, possibilitando deste modo o reconhecimento das espécies. Entre as espécies do gênero que possuem artículos cilíndricos e subcilíndricos foram reconhecidas 16 espécies ocorrentes no Estado de São Paulo, incluindo uma espécie nova, R. spinescens Lombardi, além de uma espécie de determinação incerta.Rhipsalis Gärtner is a genus of epiphytic or rupicolous Cactaceae, with a wide distribution in South and Central America. It also occurs in tropical Africa and the islands of the Indie Ocean. This study describes the morphology of the species ocurring in São Paulo state (Brazil. A total of 16 species with cylindrical and subcylindrical joints were recognized for São Paulo state, including an new species R. spinescens Lombardi, and another of uncertain affinity.

  2. Population and community ecology of the rare plant amsinckia grandiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    Research was conducted between the fall of 1992 and the spring on the population and community ecology of the rare annual plant, Amsinckia glandiflora (Gray) Kleeb. ex Greene (Boraginaceae). The research goal was to investigate the causes of the species rarity, data useful to restorative efforts. The work focused on the examination of competitive suppression by exotic annual grasses; comparisons with common, weedy congener; and the role of litter cover and seed germination and seedling establishment. Annual exotic grasses reduced A. grandiflora reproductive output to a greater extent than did the native perennial bunch grass.

  3. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  4. Response of Sesbania grandiflora to Inoculation of Soil with Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, M; Aziz, T

    1985-09-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the influence of two tropical isolates of Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus mosseae on the nutrient uptake and growth of Sesbania grandiflora. Inoculation of sterile soil with the fungi significantly improved growth and nutrient uptake by S. grandiflora, but the response of the legume was markedly better when the soil was inoculated with G. fasciculatum than when it was inoculated with G. mosseae. Nutrient uptake and growth of S. grandiflora in nonsterile soil was also significantly stimulated by inoculation, but the legume did not respond differently to the two endophytes under this condition.

  5. Influence of Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles on the genetic structure of the mistletoe cactus Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae) in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Gómez, Flor

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographical work on cloud forest-adapted species provides inconsistent evidence on cloud forest dynamics during glacial cycles. A study of Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae), a bird-dispersed epiphytic mistletoe cactus, was conducted to investigate genetic variation at sequence data from nuclear [internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 677 bp] and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL, 1092bp) DNA for 154 individuals across the species range in Mesoamerica to determine if such patterns are consistent with the expansion/contraction model of cloud forest during glacial cycles. We conducted population and spatial genetic analyses as well as gene flow and divergence time estimates between 24 populations comprising the distribution of R. baccifera in Mexico and Guatemala to gain insight of the evolutionary history of these populations, and a complementary species distribution modeling approach to frame information derived from the genetic analyses into an explicit paleoecological context. The results revealed a phylogeographical break at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and high levels of genetic diversity among populations and cloud forest areas. Despite the genetic differentiation of some R. baccifera populations, the widespread ITS ribotypes suggest effective nuclear gene flow via pollen and population differentiation shown by the rpl32-trnL suggests more restricted seed flow. Predictions of species distribution models under past last glacial maximum (LGM) climatic conditions and a significant signal of demographic expansion suggest that R. baccifera populations experienced a range expansion tracking the conditions of the cloud forest distribution and shifted to the lowlands with population connectivity during the LGM. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Physics of the mechanical toy Gee-Haw Whammy Diddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Martin; Badin, Matej; Plesch, Martin

    2018-02-27

    Gee-Haw Whammy Diddle is a seemingly simple mechanical toy consisting of a wooden stick and a second stick that is made up of a series of notches with a propeller at its end. When the wooden stick is pulled over the notches, the propeller starts to rotate. Despite its simplicity, physical principles governing the motion of the stick and the propeller are rather complicated and interesting. Here we provide a thorough analysis of the system and parameters influencing the motion. We show that contrary to the results published on this topic so far, neither elliptic motion of the stick nor frequency synchronization is needed for starting a stable motion of the propeller.

  7. High active waste (HAW) data report January-June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.

    1992-04-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the period from January 1st, 1991 to June 30, 1991. (author). 4 refs.; 43 figs.; 8 tabs

  8. Performance of CASTOR {sup registered} HAW cask cold trials for loading, Transport and storage of HAW canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    With over 30 years of experience in the design, manufacturing, assembly and loading of CASTOR {sup registered} casks, GNS is one of the worldwide leading suppliers of casks for the transport and storage of spent fuel assemblies as well as for canisters with vitrified high active wastes (meanwhile over 1.000 casks loaded and stored and more than 1.500 ordered). GNS's products are used at around 30 sites worldwide for a wide range of inventories from pressurised and boiling water reactor fuels (PWR, VVER and BWR, RBMK), thorium high-temperature reactor fuels (THTR) and research reactor fuels (MTR) to vitrified high active wastes (HAW) from reprocessing plants. GNS is responsible for all nuclear wastes resulting from German Nuclear Power Plants and assists and/or performs in the loading and dispatch of CASTOR {sup registered} casks as well as their transport to and storage at central interim storage facilities and local interim storage areas. (orig.)

  9. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m 3 ) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  10. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Huey-Chun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Results Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 =11.1%; v/v, the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 13.6%; v/v and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 25.6%; v/v in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1 were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Conclusions Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  11. The effects of an instant haw beverage on lipid levels, antioxidant enzyme and immune function in hyperlipidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidi; Xue, Bin; Li, Keji; Shi, Jingda; Krempin, D; Zhu, M; Garland, C

    2002-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of an instant haw beverage in regulating lipid disturbance, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and immune function. Data was collected from 60 hyperlipidemic subjects. In this crossover design, each subject randomly received either the instant haw beverage (100 ml corresponding to 3 g of haw powder or 30 g of fresh haw fruit plus the carrier-guar gum plus some starch) or placebo (guar gum 1.5 g plus some starch as the carrier of the beverage) twice daily. Each supplementation lasted 31 days with a 28-day washout period between treatments. The instant haw beverage significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (9.6%), triglyceride (12.1%), LDLC (18%) while significantly increased SOD activities (7.5%). The placebo was shown to have positive results in some of the lipid profiles, though the effects of the instant haw beverage demonstrated greater significance. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity significantly increased only as subjects were supplemented with the instant haw beverage while no significant changes were seen with placebo. Supplementation with the instant haw beverage positively affects blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune function in individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  12. Sample preparation for the HAW project and experimental results from the HFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Celma, A.; Wees, H. van; Miralles, L.

    1990-09-01

    This report deals with the preparation and analysis of samples, during the period May 1989-November 1989, for the High-Active Waste (HAW) project, a large-scale in situ test being performed underground in the Asse salt mine, Remlingen FRG. The development of the technical procedures required, and the scientific results, which regard mostly characterization of Potasas del Llobregat sample, are reported. Prior to using the samples in both the H.A.W. and the H.F.R. experiments they have to be machined to fit their holders. Technical improvements for machining samples of salt are reported. (H.W.). 9 refs.; 68 figs.; 10 tabs

  13. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  14. Tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora to individual and combined application of Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, N; Andrejić, G; Dželetović, Ž

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metal accumulation capacity and tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora were investigated. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots on soil amended with Ni, Pb and Zn to the final concentration of 2 mmol kg(-1) for each metal. Results show considerable accumulating capacity and translocation of Ni and Zn, as well as significant accumulation of Pb in roots. A slight decrease of biomass with Zn and of chlorophyll content with Zn and Ni were observed, as well as an increase of proline content with each of the metals. Combinations of metals revealed mutual interference affecting both the uptake and translocation of the metals and their impact on physiological parameters. Results suggest that Portulaca grandiflora, although not a hyperaccumulator, shows a good tolerance and accumulation capacity for Ni, Pb and Zn, but, for the purposes of remediation, interference of the metals must be taken into account.

  15. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This report is the so-called Synthesis report 1985-1989 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the ASSE salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt-deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos S.A (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated and after some delays in the licensing procedure, the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 32 refs; 76 figs., 11 tabs

  16. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This publication is the interim report 1988-89 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 20 refs.; 92 figs.; 14 tabs

  17. Petrogenesis and geochemical characterisation of ultramafic cumulate rocks from Hawes Head, Fiordland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daczko, N.R.; Emami, S.; Allibone, A.H.; Turnbull, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Early Cretaceous parts of the western Median Batholith (Western Fiordland Orthogneiss) represent the exposed root of a magmatic arc of dioritic to monzodioritic composition (SiO 2 = 51-55 wt%; Na 2 O/K 2 O = 3.7-8.8 in this study). We characterise for the first time the field relationships, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of ultramafic and mafic cumulates at Hawes Head, the largest exposure of ultramafic rocks in western Fiordland. We distinguish three related rock types at Hawes Head: hornblende peridotite (MgO = 21-35 wt%); hornblendite (MgO = 15-16 wt%); and pyroxenite (MgO = 21 wt%). Petrogenetic relationships between the ultramafic rocks and the surrounding Misty Pluton of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss are demonstrated by: (i) mutually cross-cutting relationships; (ii) similar mafic phases (e.g. pyroxene and amphibole) with elevated Mg-numbers (e.g. olivine Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.77-0.82); (iii) fractionation trends in mineral geochemistry; and (iv) shared depleted heavy rare earth element patterns. In addition, the application of solid/liquid partition coefficients indicates that olivine in the ultramafic rocks at Hawes Head crystallised from a magma with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.54-0.57. The olivine grains therefore represent a plausible early crystallising phase of the adjacent Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.51-0.55). (author). 42 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Caracterización morfoanatómica comparativa entre Aloe vera (L. Burm. F., Aloe arborescens Mill., Aloe saponaria Haw. y Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Aloeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Carpano

    Full Text Available Aloe vera (L. Burm. F. (= Aloe barbadensis Miller conhecida como "a planta da imortalidade" no antigo Egito é utilizada em fitoterapia como humectante, antibacteriana, antifúngica, antiviral e antioxidante. Com a finalidade de contribuir para identificação da droga vegetal, foram realizados estudos morfoanatômicos da folha. A utilização de plantas com características terapêuticas reconhecidas determina que, por analogia, popularmente sejam utilizadas com a mesma finalidade outras espécies do mesmo gênero. Isto é o que ocorre com três espécies de Aloe spp., que se cultivam ou crescem acidentalmente na Argentina: A. arborescens Mill., A. saponaria Haw. e A. ciliaris Haw. (Aloaceae. Estabeleceram-se os caracteres morfoanatômicos de diagnóstico por microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (apresentam-se desenhos e fotomicrografias dos mesmos. Obtiveram-se valores numéricos dos elementos histológicos de diagnóstico: magnitudes lineares e proporcionais. Realizaram-se reações histoquímicas de identificação dos princípios ativos para sua localização "in situ".

  19. Anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work dealt with the anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, two perennial geophytes, to elucidate their ability to sprout in the Brazilian Cerrado conditions. V. grandiflora, a subshrubby species, possessed a thickened underground system constituted by a xylopodium and many tuberous roots. The xylopodium had stem and root structure and its buds were axillary or originated from the cortical parenchyma proliferation. The tuberous roots produced by this organ were adventitious and accumulated inulin-type fructans mainly in the cortical parenchyma. The thickened underground system of V. brevifolia, an herbaceous species, was a tuberous primary root whose buds originated from the proliferated pericycle. The occurrence of these bud-forming underground systems, which stored reserve compounds, enabled these plants to survive throughout unfavourable environmental conditions in the Cerrado, such as dry season and frequent fires in the winter.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a anatomia dos sistemas subterrâneos de Vernonia grandiflora Less. e V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, duas geófitas perenes, a fim de esclarecer sua capacidade para brotar em condições de Cerrado. O sistema subterrâneo espessado de V. grandiflora, uma espécie subarbustiva, é constituído pelo xilopódio e por várias raízes tuberosas. O xilopódio possui estrutura mista (radicular e caulinar e suas gemas são de origem axilar ou se originam a partir da proliferação do parênquima cortical. As raízes tuberosas produzidas por este órgão são adventícias e acumulam frutanos do tipo inulina, principalmente no parênquima cortical. Em V. brevifolia, uma espécie herbácea, o sistema subterrâneo espessado é constituído pela raiz primária cujas gemas são originadas a partir do periciclo proliferado. A ocorrência destes sistemas subterrâneos gemíferos, que armazenam compostos

  20. Manipulation technology optimization for the interim storage of HAW transport and storage containers; Optimierung der Handhabungstechnik zur Zwischenlagerung von HAW-Transport- und Lagerbehaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmrich, Uwe; Krueger, Michael; Schulze, Hartmut [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The handling of high-level radioactive waste transport and storage containers from reprocessing plants is determined by the cask configuration and the radiation protection measures with respect to the safe enclosure of the radioactive inventory and shielding of gamma and neutron radiation. The new of CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M was designed for higher radioactive inventories, the heat generation is has rarely been changed with respect to the former design. The essential structural modifications are shock absorbers that have to be demounted before storage in the interim storage facility Gorleben. Due to public acceptance forcings the ALARA principle is not the only basis for manipulation technology optimizations, the minimization of dose rate for the operational personnel is of increasing importance. The authors describe the optimizations and the resulting dose reductions.

  1. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm; Bonface, Jean-Michael

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  2. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany); Bonface, Jean-Michael [TN International, Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)

    2009-07-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  3. Zoochoric and hydrochoric maritime dispersal of the Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Martins Fraga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary adaptations in the morphology and physiology of cactus species have been associated to their mechanisms of dispersal and colonization. The dispersal mechanisms and modes of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae were characterized in two beaches in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. A marsupial from the genus Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae was the only frugivorous and, thus, disperser of fruits, presenting specific eating places. The maritime hydrochory was due to the overwash on restinga vegetation, it is characterized by the dispersal of cladodes and fruits at various times of the year. It is here firstly described the sea action as a potential disperser for a cactus species.

  4. Rauvolfia grandiflora (Apocynaceae extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanamar de Almeida Carlos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction (RGE on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 mg.mL-1 RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  5. Rauvolfia grandiflora (apocynaceae) extract interferes with staphylococcal density, enterotoxin production and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Carlos, Lanamar; da Silva Amaral, Kenas Aguiar; Curcino Vieira, Ivo José; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silva Samarão, Solange; Vieira-da-Motta, Olney

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococci bacteria are involved in many human and animal infections and development of alternative antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic bacteria is of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Rauvolfia grandiflora methanol extract (root bark fraction) (RGE) on the density of ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and a clinical enterotoxin-producer, S. aureus bovine strain. The alkaloid, isoreserpiline, obtained from dichloromethane extract of R. grandiflora was ineffective against the strains tested. After incubation of staphylococci strains in the presence of 1.2 μg.mL(-1) RGE, a significant inhibition of cell growth was observed using both spectrophotometry and ELISA assays. Twelve drugs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on culture RGE-treated cells using the disk diffusion method. Penicillin resistant strains became sensitive to the drug after RGE treatment. Furthermore, enterotoxin production by RGE-treated S. aureus was evaluated using a standardized ELISA method. Although staphylococcal LSA 88 bovine strain cells remained viable after exposure to the extract, enterotoxin production was precluded in 20% after RGE treatment. Significant interference in staphylococci cell density, drug sensitivity and enterotoxin secretion was observed after treatment. The study highlights the necessity to find new methods of disease prevention and new antibiotic therapies against staphylococcal infections.

  6. HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.; Stippler, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in an one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. The project is funded by the BMFT and the CEC and carrier out in close co-operation with the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN)

  7. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.

    1990-04-01

    The HAW-project plants the testwise emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters containing Cs-137 and Sr-90 at the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine for a testing period of approximately five years. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in geological salt formations. During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated, the measuring equipment installed, and two preceedings inactive electrical tests taken into operation. Furthermore, the components of a system for transportation and emplacement of highly radioactive canisters was fabricated, installed, and preliminarily tested. After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of the 30 radioactive canisters is now envisaged for early 1991. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed and will be tested. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  8. The HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.

    1988-04-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in a one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  9. Technical Status Report: Preliminary Glass Formulation Report for INEEL HAW. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.; Reamer, I.; Vienna, J.; Crum, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    Preliminary glass formulation work has been initiated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to support immobilization efforts of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) high activity waste (HAW). Based on current pretreatment flow sheet assumptions, several glasses were fabricated and tested using an average 'All Blend' waste stream composition which is dominated by the presence of ZrO 2 (i.e., approximately 80 wt percent). The results of this initial work show that immobilization via vitrification is a viable option for a specific INEEL HAW waste stream. Waste loadings of at least 19 wt percent can be achieved for the 'All Blend' stream while maintaining targeted processing and product performance criteria. This waste loading translates into a ZrO 2 content in excess of 15 wt percent in the final glass waste form. Frits developed for this work are based in the alkali borosilicate system. Although the results indicate that vitrification can be used to immobilize the 'All Blend' waste stream, the glass compositions are by no means optimized

  10. Response of Opuntia stricta Haw micropropagated plants in acclimatization and field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Medeiros de Araújo Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forage palm (Opuntia stricta Haw. is a great important crop for the semi-arid region of Brasil. It has been propagated through in vitro culture, by areole activation. This work aimed to determine the response of Opuntia stricta Haw. variety ‘Oreja de Elefante Mexicana’ micropropagated plants during its acclimatization and field planting. Plants were acclimatized in tubes and plastic bags with a mixture of soil and manure, and it were kept in greenhouse for 130 days. Later, the plants kept in tubes were divided into nine treatments, according to their size (between 6 to 14 cm, and transfer to the field. The use of tubes provided a higher survival, height, fresh and dry mass of the cladodes. There was no significant differences between the recipients used for root development. At the end of acclimatization it was observed that plants did not have a uniform development, presenting size variation. After the first 15 days in the field, the majority of the plants with primary shoots were larger than 10 cm. At 60 days the survival was 100%, and all plants presented shoots, even the smallest. However, is recommended that plants larger than 10 cm will be used, due to the better establishment to field conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility in the use of micropropagated plants for the establishment of forage palm fields. Keywords: cladodes, forage palm, in vitro culture, semi-arid region

  11. The HAW Project. Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Mueller-Lyda, I.; Raynal, M.; Major, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to prove the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt a five years test disposal of thirty highly radioactive canisters is planned in the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The thirty canisters containing the radionuclides Caesium 137 and Strontium 90 in quantities sufficient to cover the bandwith of heat generation and gamma radiation of real HAW will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two galleries at the 800-m-level. Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuously surveyed in respect of the thermomechanical and geochemical response of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of the radioactive canisters was developed and successfully tested. A laboratory investigation programme on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This programme includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field measuring systems consisting of ionization chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. 70 refs

  12. Spanish participation in the Haw Project: Laboratory investigations on Gamma irradiation effects in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, C. de las; Miralles, L.; Teixidor, P.; Garcia Veigas, J.; Dies, X.; Ortega, X.; Pueyo, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to prove the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt rock, a five years test disposal of thirty highly radioactive radiation sources is planned in the Asse salt mine, in the Federal Republic of Germany. The thirty radiation sources consist of steel canisters containing the vitrified radionuclides Caesium 137 and Strontium 90 in quantities sufficient to cover the bandwidth of heat generation and gamma radiation of real HAW. The radiation sources will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two galleries at the 800 m level. Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuosly surveyed in respect of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of the radioactive canisters was developed and succesfully tested. A laboratory investigation programme on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This programme includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Part of this programme has been carried out since 1988 at the University of Barcelona, basically what refers to colloidal sodium determinations by light absorption measurements and microstructural studies on irradiated salt samples. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field, measuring systems consisting of ionisation chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. Thermomechanical computer code validation is performed by calculational predictions and parallel investigation of the stress and displacement fields in the underground test field

  13. Phase transformations in lithium bearing sodiumborosilicate base glass melts for the solidification of HAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettlicher, J.

    1994-10-01

    Metastable phase separation has been observed in the Li-bearing basic glass SM58. This observation gave rise to examine the exsolution behaviour in model glasses by chemical substitution. It is impossible to produce metastable phase separation in the Li-free HAW-glasses VG98/12 and VG98/12.2. However, one can't exclude textural changes of Li-bearing glasses, because in a HAW-container the central temperature remains at about 300 C for more than 50 years. For the first time it has been tried to find a relationship between glass textures and structural parameters by combining textural investigations (electron microscopy) with structural determinations (NMR, WAXS). Modell glasses belong to the system (Li, Na) 2 O.B 2 O 3 , (Al 2 O 3 ).n(TO 2 ), with T=Si, Ge and n=2, 4, 6. Furthermore glasses from the KfK and from Mol (PAMELA) were investigated. A newly built apparatus was used to prepare glasses by replica technique (PtIrC oblique shadowing) for TEM investigations. This method turned out to be well suited to study glass textures with features down to 5 nm. Sometimes direct examinations of ion-thinned glasses showed that their textures were affected by radiation damage, caused by accelerated electrons. LVSE-(Low Voltage Scanning Electron)- and AF-(Atomic Force)- microscopy seems to be a promising method for studying glass surfaces and their textures directly. (orig./MM) [de

  14. Commentary - Physiological variation and phenotypic plasticity: a response to 'Platicity in arthropod cryotypes' by Hawes and Bale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chown, S.L.; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Sinclair, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent publication, Hawes and Bale provide an extended discussion of phenotypic plasticity in the context of low temperature responses of animals. They argue that phenotypic plasticity may be partitioned phylogenetically at several levels and go on to explore these levels, and cold hardiness...

  15. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora by GC/MS and their cholinesterase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cahlíková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. The chemical composition of alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl. was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven known compounds, belonging to five structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, were identified. The alkaloid extract from the bulbs showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 39.2±3.0 µg/mL and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 356±9.3 µg/mL.

  16. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora by GC/MS and their cholinesterase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cahlíková

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. The chemical composition of alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl. was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven known compounds, belonging to five structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, were identified. The alkaloid extract from the bulbs showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 39.2±3.0 µg/mL and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 356±9.3 µg/mL.

  17. Amylase production by endophytic fungi Cylindrocephalum sp. isolated from medicinal plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw. Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Sunitha.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Amylases are among the most important enzymes used in modern biotechnology particularly in the process involving starch hydrolysis. Fungal amylase has large applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Considering these facts, endophytic fungi isolated from the plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw. Roscoe were screened for amylolytic activity on glucose yeast extract peptone agar (GYP medium. Among thirty isolates of endophytic fungi, isolate number seven identified as Cylindrocephalum sp. (Ac-7 showed highest amylolytic activity and was taken for further study. Influence of various physical and chemical factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on amylase production in liquid media were studied. The maximal amylase production was found to be at 30ºC and at pH 7.0 of the growth medium. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, maltose at 1.5% and Sodium nitrate at 0.3% respectively gave optimum amylase production.

  18. Finite element analyses of a heater-interruption in the HAW test field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, B.A. van den.

    1991-09-01

    In this report the results of two finite element analyses of the HAW field are presented. The determination of the influence of a heater-interruption on the tube load as well as the differences in the evaluation of the tube load for both types of boreholes (type A and type B) are the main objectives of this report. Axisymmetric models are made for both type of boreholes in order to simulate this heater-interruption. It appeared that a heater-interruption of 4 hours leads to a temperature drop of 17.2deg C at the borehole wall and to a maximum reduction of the tube load of 1.76 MPa. About 20 days after reparation of the heaters of the heaters the evolution of the maximum temperature and the maximum tube load will be rehabilitated; the difference with the corresponding evolutions due to an uninterrupted heat-production are negligible. (author). 9 refs.; 25 figs.; 5 tabs

  19. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K. S.; Nurestri, A. M. Sri; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as “Jarum Tujuh Bilah” in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia. PMID:20931088

  20. Experiments in the HAW project. Data report. ECN contribution July-December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, voltage and electric current meters and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from July 1st, 1993 to December 31th, 1993. (orig.).

  1. Experiments in the HAW project. Data report. ECN contribution January - June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, voltage and electric current meters and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from January 1st, 1993 to June 30th, 1993. (orig.).

  2. Experiments in the HAW project. Data report. ECN contribution July-December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, voltage and electric current meters and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from July 1st, 1993 to December 31th, 1993. (orig.)

  3. Experiments in the HAW project. Data report. ECN contribution January - June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonka, V.; Middleton, D.W.; Ruiter, A. de.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, voltage and electric current meters and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the ECN contribution in the period from January 1st, 1993 to June 30th, 1993. (orig.)

  4. Irradiation effects on the rock-salt HAW-Asse Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palut, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1988 ANDRA is involved in the HAW project, a test disposal of high level radioactive canisters in a salt dome, at Asse in FRG. ANDRA is responsible of in situ measurements, laboratory analyses and predictive calculations. Thus are delayed in situ dose measurements. Two methods have been developed, one is based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and measure an integrated dose, the other uses ionization chambers and gives a dose rate. Specific equipments had to be developed: manufacturing and testing. Geomechanics is also concerned by in situ measurement, especially rocksalt deformation, induced by the heat production of the canisters. Three groups of tiltmeters have been installed, providing informations on both natural creeping of rocksalt and effect of electrical heating in two boreholes. Laboratory studies consist in analyzing gases released by Asse salt samples irradiated under various conditions. Most of the 150 sample irradiations are completed. The last topic to the project intends to predict gamma ray flux and spectrum in the HAW test field using computer models. The work carried out and discussed includes digitalization of test data (sources, borehole lining, rocksalt), Bremsstrahlung sensitivity analysis, and calculation of both energy deposited and dose rate around the sources. This calculation was performed for 50 points, requiring 400 runs of Mercure-5 models. Interpolation functions are also provided in order to give values between these 50 points. The next step aim to determine gamma spectrum in salt and also energy deposited at various locations in the dummy canister where samples are intended to be emplaced. TRIPOLI-2 Model will be used for these purposes [fr

  5. CASTOR registered HAW28M - a high heat load cask for transport and storage of vitrified high level waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossnacke, A.; Klein, K.; Kuehne, B.

    2004-01-01

    Within the German return programme for vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing at COGEMA and BNFL up to now 39 casks loaded with 28 containers each were transported back to Germany and are stored in the Interim Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G) for up to 40 years. For transport and storage in all but one case the GNB casks CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG have been used. This cask type is designed to accommodate 20 or 28 HLW containers with a total thermal power of 45 kW maximum. In the near future, among the high level waste, which has to be returned to Germany, there will be an increasing number of containers of which the heat capacity and radioactive inventory will exceed the technical limits of the CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG. Therefore GNB has started the development of a new cask generation, named CASTOR registered HAW28M, meeting these future requirements. The CASTOR registered HAW28M is especially developed for the transport of vitrified residues from France and Great Britain to Germany. It complies with the international regulations for type B packages according to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). It is thus guaranteed that even in case of any accident the cask body and the lid system remain functional and the safe confinement of the radioactive contents remains intact during transport. The CASTOR registered HAW28M fulfills not only the requirements for transport but also the acceptance criteria of interim storage: radiation shielding, heat dissipation, safe confinement under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Storage buildings such as the TBL-G simply support the safety functions of the cask. The challenge for the development results from higher requirements of the technical specification, particularly related to fuel which is reprocessed. As a consequence of the reprocessing of fuel with increased enrichment and burn up, higher heat capacity and sophisticated shielding measures have to be considered. For the CASTOR

  6. Nectandra grandiflora By-Products Obtained by Alternative Extraction Methods as a Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Antifungal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Thomas da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies and underlines the potential of natural products from Nectandra grandiflora that can add value to the forest exploitation. This study shows the effect of three different extraction methods: conventional (CE, ultrasound-assisted (UAE and microwave-assisted (MAE on Nectandra grandiflora leaf extracts (NGLE chemical yields, phenolic and flavonoid composition, physical characteristics as well as antioxidant and antifungal properties. Results indicate that CE achieves the highest extraction phytochemical yield (22.16%, but with similar chemical composition to that obtained by UAE and MAE. Moreover, CE also provided a superior thermal stability of NGLE. The phenolic composition of NGLE was confirmed firstly, by colorimetric assays and infrared spectra and then by chromatographic analysis, in which quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was detected as the major compound (57.75–65.14%. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of the NGLE was not altered by the extraction methods, finding a high radical inhibition in all NGLE (>80% at 2 mg/mL. Regarding the antifungal activity, there was observed that NGLE possess effective bioactive compounds, which inhibit the Aspergillus niger growth.

  7. Factors influencing bank geomorphology and erosion of the Haw River, a high order river in North Carolina, since European settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfall, Janet; Robinette, Paul; Welch, David

    2014-01-01

    The Haw River, a high order river in the southeastern United States, is characterized by severe bank erosion and geomorphic change from historical conditions of clear waters and connected floodplains. In 2014 it was named one of the 10 most threatened rivers in the United States by American Rivers. Like many developed areas, the region has a history of disturbance including extensive upland soil loss from agriculture, dams, and upstream urbanization. The primary objective of this study was to identify the mechanisms controlling channel form and erosion of the Haw River. Field measurements including bank height, bankfull height, bank angle, root depth and density, riparian land cover and slope, surface protection, river width, and bank retreat were collected at 87 sites along 43.5 km of river. A Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) was calculated for each study site. Mean bank height was 11.8 m, mean width was 84.3 m, and bank retreat for 2005/2007-2011/2013 was 2.3 m. The greatest bank heights, BEHI values, and bank retreat were adjacent to riparian areas with low slope (<2). This is in contrast to previous studies which identify high slope as a risk factor for erosion. Most of the soils in low slope riparian areas were alluvial, suggesting sediment deposition from upland row crop agriculture and/or flooding. Bank retreat was not correlated to bank heights or BEHI values. Historical dams (1.2-3 m height) were not a significant factor. Erosion of the Haw River in the study section of the river (25% of the river length) contributed 205,320 m3 of sediment and 3759 kg of P annually. Concentration of suspended solids in the river increased with discharge. In conclusion, the Haw River is an unstable system, with river bank erosion and geomodification potential influenced by riparian slope and varied flows.

  8. New Apigenin Glycoside, Polyphenolic Constituents, Anti-inflammatory and Hepatoprotective Activities of Gaillardia grandiflora and Gaillardia pulchella Aerial Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharram, Fatma A; El Dib, Rabab Abd El Moneim; Marzouk, Mohamed S; El-Shenawy, Siham M; Ibrahim, Haitham A

    2017-07-01

    Gaillardia grandiflora Hort. ex Van Houte and Gaillardia pulchella Foug are flowering plants widely cultivated in Egypt for their ornamental value. Previous reports demonstrated that sesquiterpene derivatives represent the major compounds in both species. Moreover, only few flavones were identified from genus Gaillardia and few studies on the cytotoxicity of G. pulchella were found. Investigation of the phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of both species and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. The 80% aqueous methanol extracts (AME) were prepared for both plants and evaluated for their biological activities. Phytochemical investigation of both extracts resulted in isolation of twelve compounds, which have been identified on the basis of ultraviolet, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and negative ESI-MS. The new 8-hydroxyapigenin 6- O -β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1'''→6'')- C -β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside was isolated from G. grandiflora for the first time in nature, along with schaftoside, luteolin 6-C-β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, apigenin 6- C -β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, isoorientin, isovitexin, 6-methoxyluteolin and hispidulin, as well as vicenin-2, vitexin, luteolin and apigenin, which were isolated from G. pulchella together with 6-methoxyluteolin. Furthermore, the AME of both species were found to be nontoxic to mice and exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities in dose dependent manner. Current results shed light on the phenolic constituents of G. grandiflora and G. pulchella aerial parts and the safety of the AME of both species, in addition to their significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. Both plant species may be promising candidates for natural anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective drugs. Phytochemical investigation of Gaillardia grandiflora and Gaillardia pulchella 80% aqueous methanol extracts of the aerial parts led

  9. Structure prediction and functional analysis of a non-permutated lectin from Dioclea grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Bruno Lopes; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Simões, Rafael da Conceição; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape da Silva; Cajazeiras, João Batista; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Legume lectins have been widely studied and applied for many purposes in the last few decades, but many of their physiological aspects remain elusive. The Diocleinae legume subtribe, which includes intensively explored lectins, such as ConA, presents an unusual and extensive post-translational process which results in minor alterations in protein structure, in turn making its function elusive. Despite previous reports about Diocleinae precursor activity, no structural or functional analyses have ever been carried out to understand the impacts of post-translational processing relative to lectin structure and binding specificity. Here we analyzed the functionality of a non glycosylated, recombinantly expressed lectin precursor from Dioclea grandiflora through inhibition assays, corroborating the experimental data with structural information generated by molecular modeling, docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that Diocleinae precursors are active and share the same carbohydrate specificity as mature lectins. At the same time, however, subtle structural alterations were detected and mostly result in an "incomplete" functionality of the precursor, as consequence of an immature binding site and an unstructured tetramer interface, affecting carbohydrate binding and oligomer formation, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  10. HAW simulation experiments with cobalt-60 radiation sources in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The report describes the experimental work and the measured data of the joint German-American project for the HAW simulation experiment with cobalt-60 radiation sources in the Asse salt mine, covering the period up to the end of the third quarter 1986. The experiment is intended to yield information on the synergistic effects of heat and ionizing radiation on the salt rock under representative waste repository conditions. The investigations aim at the migration, release, and radiolytic decomposition of the water and gas components in the rock salt, and at the thermally induced strain and deformation processes. In addition, corrosion tests are planned to be made on various container test materials, and analyses of salt rock core samples for assessing the effect of heat and radiation on the rock. The report in hand presents all data obtained during the experiment. The results of the subsequent evaluation and verification studies will be presented in another report, the programme being given in an annex to the report in hand. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Dynamic of biochemical soil properties in rainfed agave angustifolia haw. fields in semiard zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A. B.; Cervantes, T. L.; Pacheco, R. P.; Martinez, M. D. L. R.; Perez, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined (a) the activity of the selected enzymes of C (invertase and cellulase), N (urease), P (acid phosphatase, AcP and alkaline phosphatase, AlkP) cycling, as well as soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) in the rhizosphere of Agave angustifolia Haw. (maguey espadin) cultivated in valley, hill and mountain soils in Tlacolula, Oaxaca (Mexico), and (b) changes in selected biochemical soil properties associated with seasonality and plant age. Three maguey espadin plantations with two replicates per topography were selected. Rhizosphere soil sampling was carried out for one year. AcP and urease activities were highest in mountain sites. AlkP and cellulase activities were highest in hill and mountain sites. Invertase activity and SMBC were not different among sites. Phosphatase activity showed no temporal changes. Cellulase and invertase activities were highest in December; maximum urease activity was in October and February. SMBC was highest in August. AcP activity was highest in 0-2 years old plants. AlkP activity and SMBC were highest in 2.1-4 years old plants. Urease, cellulase and invertase activity was not affected by plant age. Significant effects for the site*seasonality*plant age interaction suggest that biochemical soil properties were influenced by site. Mountain soils displayed the highest enzyme activity, which can accelerate soil organic matter turnover and contribute to the longterm sustainability of maguey espadin cropping under rainfed conditions. (author)

  12. Prebiotic Potential of Agave angustifolia Haw Fructans with Different Degrees of Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodolfo Velázquez-Martínez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits. In particular, plants of the Agave genus are rich in fructans. Agave-derived fructans have a branched structure with both β-(2→1 and β-(2→6 linked fructosyl chains attached to the sucrose start unit with a degree of polymerization (DP of up to 80 fructose units. The objective of this work was to assess the prebiotic potential of three Agave angustifolia Haw fructan fractions (AFF with different degrees of polymerization. The three fructan fractions were extracted from the agave stem by lixiviation and then purified by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography: AFF1, AFF2 and AFF3 with high (3–60 fructose units, medium (2–40 and low (2–22 DP, respectively. The fructan profile was determined with high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD, which confirmed a branched fructan structure. Structural elucidation was performed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. The AFF spectrum shows characteristic fructan bands. The prebiotic effect of these fractions was assessed in vitro through fermentation by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains. Four growth patterns were observed. Some bacteria did not grow with any of the AFF, while other strains grew with only AFF3. Some bacteria grew according to the molecular weight of the AFF and some grew indistinctly with the three fructan fractions.

  13. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the growth of Agave angustifolia Haw (Maguey Espadin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A.B.; Gutierrez, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the growth of maguey espadin (Agave angustifolia Haw.). A total of nine strains of PSB, previously isolated in the maguey rhizosphere and identified as PSBVa, PSBVb, PSBVf, PSBHa, PSBHc, PSBHd, PSBMg, PSBMh and PSBMi were tested on maguey plants grown in phosphorus-deficient sterilized and unsterilized soils of three sites where maguey is grown (valley, hill and mountain) under greenhouse conditions. Aerial dry weight and the total weight of maguey plants inoculated with PSBMh in unsterile mountain soil increased by 12.14% and 10.99% respectively, compared with the uninoculated control. Total root dry weight increased by 17.85% with PSBMh in sterile mountain soils and by 11.64% with PSBMg in unsterile mountain soils, with respect to the uninoculated sterile and unsterile control respectively. Plant stem diameter increased by 13.61% with PSBVb in unsterile valley soil, compared to the uninoculated control. Root length was 56.84% higher with PSBMi in unsterile mountain soils than the uninoculated control. Plant leaf number increased by 35% with PSBHd in unsterile hill soil, with respect to the uninoculated control. In all treatments, the available phosphorus at harvest was higher than pre-planting levels. This study suggests that isolated PSBMh, PSBMg and PSBMi are the most efficient biofertilizers for maguey espadin cultivation. (author)

  14. Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosides; Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Qualea grandiflora: atribuicao dos dados de RMN de dois flavoides glicosilados acilados diastereoisomericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Escorcio, Samuel Portela; Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br; Gerardo, Magela Vieira Junior; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2008-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4{sup -}E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4{sup -}Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data. (author)

  15. The complete nucleotide sequence of Alternanthera mosaic virus infecting Portulaca grandiflora represents a new strain distinct from phlox isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Peter A; Mukhamedzhanova, Anna A; Smirnov, Alexander A; Rodionova, Nina P; Karpova, Olga V; Atabekov, Joseph G

    2011-04-01

    A southeastern European isolate of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV-MU) of the genus Potexvirus (family Flexiviridae) was purified from the ornamental plant Portulaca grandiflora. The complete nucleotide sequence (6606 nucleotides) of AltMV-MU genomic RNA was defined. The AltMV-MU genome is different from those of all isolates described earlier and is most closely related to genomes of partly sequenced portulaca isolates AltMV-Po (America) and AltMV-It (Italy). Phylogenetic analysis supports the view that AltMV-MU belongs to a new "portulaca" genotype distinguishable from the "phlox" genotype.

  16. Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Mariane Cruz Costa; Escorcio, Samuel Portela; Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Chaves, Mariana H.; Gerardo, Magela Vieira Junior; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4 - E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(4 - Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data. (author)

  17. KARAKTER MOLEKULER CHRYSANTHEMUM B CARLAVIRUS (CVB ISOLAT KRISAN (DENDRANTHEMA GRANDIFLORA KITAM DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. R. M. Temaja, G. Suastika, S.H. Hidayat dan U. Kartosuwondo .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterstics of Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB isolated from chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Kitam in Indonesia. Chrysanthemum B Carlavirus (CVB belongs to Carlavirus genus which type species is Carnation latent virus (CLV. Since CVB is considered a new plant virus in chrysanthemum plantation in Indonesia, a study on its molecular characters is required. The objectives of the study are: 1 to determine molecular characters of CVB; 2 to study genetic diversity among CVB isolates collected from different geographic regions in Indonesia. The research activities cover virus purifications, electron microscope observation, coat protein analysis by SDS PAGE, and nucleic acid analysis. The result of virus purification demonstrated a high purity level with ratio value of A260/A280 =1.22. The total pure virus produced from 200 g of fresh material is 6.250 mg. Purified virus preparation yielded rather straight rod and flexuous virus particles of about 685 nm long and 12 nm wide. Coat protein analysis with sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE showed specific protein band of approximately 34 kDa. Specific DNA fragment of 739 bp was successfully amplified from chrysanthemum infected by CVB Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates. CVB isolated from Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali have similarity 85-99%. Based on analysis using PAUP 4.10 program, Cianjur, Medan, Malang and Bali isolates belong to the same group with CVB isolates originated from India (Chattisgarh and Jammu isolates. Cianjur isolate has close relationship to Medan isolate, however Bali isolate showed a close relationship with Malang isolate.

  18. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  19. The Haw in-situ test at Asse - its conception and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.; Hinsch, H.; Monig, J.

    1989-01-01

    The HAW-disposal test is a demonstration and a R and D test utilizing nearly full-size waste canisters with vitrified Cs-137 and Sr-90 as heat and radiation sources in a repository-like setting. It is, however, not intended as an in-situ experiment for testing the glass product of the vitrified waste. The entire test field comprises two separate rooms, A and B, each having four boreholes. The maximum salt temperatures are planned to be 250 0 C (electric heating) and 250/200/200 0 C (γ radiative heating), with essentially the same maximum dose rates for two pairs of boreholes (∼5·10 5 rad/h). The loaded test canisters are now available and do not completely meet the intended specification. Heat loadings as well as dose rates are, for several reasons, lower than planned by about 30%. The designs of the emplacement boreholes in each of the two test rooms are basically the same. For retrievability reasons, all boreholes will have a liner. The only significant difference will be, that the room A-boreholes will have a backfilling of inert alumina pebbles between liner and the salt, whereas these in room B will have a free annulus that allows the salt to converge freely onto the liner surfaces, thus simulating the salt converging onto canisters in an actual repository. Gas sampling from the boreholes will mainly be done in the annular regions. A special dosimetry program, as well as an extensive radiolytic effects program, both in situ and laboratory, are under preparation. A special radiation effects study will be performed with Dummy canisters located at the top of the canister stacks. The entire test is a joint European project with the financial contribution of the CEC and the close cooperation with ECN, ANDRA and ENRESA

  20. Involvement of arginine-vasopressin in the diuretic and hypotensive effects of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Caroline Calixto; Uchida, Denise Thiemi; Canzi, Karina Natally; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; Gasparotto, Arquimedes; Laverde, Antonio

    2012-10-31

    Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), popularly known as "ora-pro-nobis" is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as a diuretic agent, although no scientific data have been published to support this effect. The aim of this work is to evaluate the diuretic and hypotensive activities of the infusion (INFPG) and the ethanol extract (HEPG) of Pereskia grandifolia and possible mechanism of action. The infusions (2.5-10%) and the HEPG (3-100 mg/kg) were orally administered in a single dose or daily (for seven days) to rats. The urine excretion rate, pH, density, conductivity and content of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. In collected serum samples the concentration of electrolytes, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were evaluated. The involvement of V(2) vasopressin receptor in the diuretic activity and the hypotensive effect of HEPG were also determined. Water excretion rate was significantly increased by HEPG, while the urinary K(+) and Cl(-) excretion was significantly reduced in acute and prolonged treatment. The oral administration of the HEPG (30mg/kg) significantly reduced serum levels of vasopressin and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in normotensive rats. All other evaluated parameters have not been affected by any treatment. The results showed that HEPG could present compound(s) responsible for aquaretic activities with no signs of toxicity, and this effect could involve a reduction in the arginine-vasopressin release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Can climate and soil conditions change the morpho-anatomy among individuals from different localities? A case study in Aldama grandiflora (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Muniz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vegetative aerial organs are considerably more exposed to environmental conditions and can reflect the specific adaptations of plants to their local environment. Aldama grandiflora species are known to be widely distributed in Brazil; therefore, individuals from different populations of this species are thought to be exposed to different abiotic and biotic conditions. Several anatomical studies conducted on Brazilian Aldama species have mainly focused on the qualitative anatomical characters or traits of these species, but not on their quantitative traits. In this study, we evaluated whether climate and soil conditions can change the morphometry among individuals of A. grandiflora collected from six sites in the Goiás State, Brazil, by assessing their anatomical characters. Further, soil sampling was performed, and climate data were collected from all the six sites. The analysis indicated few statistical differences among the populations evaluated, showing that A. grandiflora presented consistent leaf and stem anatomical characteristics. The small morpho-anatomical differences found among individuals of the different populations evaluated, reflected the soil conditions in which these populations were grown. Therefore, environmental factors have a significant influence on the morpho-anatomy of Aldama grandiflora.

  2. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora, Chrysactinia mexicana, and Schinus molle found in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; Waksman de Torres, Noemí; González González, Gloria María; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora and Chrysactinia mexicana leaves, and from Schinus molle leaves and fruit, were characterized by gas chromatography/flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight compounds from M. grandiflora leaves were identified (representing 93.6% of the total area of the gas chromatogram), with the major component being bornyl acetate (20.9%). Colorless and yellow oils were obtained from the C. mexicana leaves with 18 (86.7%) and 11 (100%) compounds identified, respectively. In both fractions, the principal component was sylvestrene (36.8% and 41.1%, respectively). The essential oils ofS. molle leaves and fruit were each separated into colorless and yellow fractions, in which 14 (98.2) and 20 (99.8%) compounds were identified. The main component was alpha-phellandrene in all fractions (between 32.8% and 45.0%). The M. grandiflora oil displayed antifungal activity against five dermatophyte strains. The oils from S. molle and M. grandiflora leaves had antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, which cause skin infections that potentially may lead to sepsis. However, the antioxidant activities of all oils were small (half maximal effective concentration values >250 microg/mL).

  3. Physiological differences and changes in global DNA methylation levels in Agave angustifolia Haw. albino variant somaclones during the micropropagation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Aké, Fátima; Castillo-Castro, Eduardo; Pool, Felipe Barredo; Espadas, Francisco; Santamaría, Jorge M; Robert, Manuel L; De-la-Peña, Clelia

    2016-12-01

    Global DNA methylation changes caused by in vitro conditions are associated with the subculturing and phenotypic variation in Agave angustifolia Haw. While the relationship between the development of albinism and in vitro culture is well documented, the role of epigenetic processes in this development leaves some important questions unanswered. During the micropropagation of Agave angustifolia Haw., we found three different phenotypes, green (G), variegated (V) and albino (A). To understand the physiological and epigenetic differences among the somaclones, we analyzed several morphophysiological parameters and changes in the DNA methylation patterns in the three phenotypes during their in vitro development. We found that under in vitro conditions, the V plantlets maintained their CAM photosynthetic capacity, while the A variant showed no pigments and lost its CAM photosynthetic ability. Epigenetic analysis revealed that global DNA methylation increased in the G phenotype during the first two subcultures. However, after that time, DNA methylation levels declined. This hypomethylation correlated with the appearance of V shoots in the G plantlets. A similar correlation occurred in the V phenotype, where an increase of 2 % in the global DNA methylation levels was correlated with the generation of A shoots in the V plantlets. This suggests that an "epigenetic stress memory" during in vitro conditions causes a chromatin shift that favors the generation of variegated and albino shoots.

  4. Preparation and characterization of an improved borosilicate glass matrix for the incorporation of high level radioactive waste (HAW). Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guber, W.; Hussain, M.; Kahl, L.; Ondracek, G.; Saidl, J.; Dippel, T.

    1979-08-01

    On the basis of laboratory and technical experience with the preparation and the characterization of borosilicate glasses as solidification matrix for high level radioactive waste solution (HAW), a borosilicate glass composition with optimum properties has been developed. Keeping in view the technical and final storage requirements, a number of glass compositions with varying proportions of influential components as Al, Mg, Na were prepared and thoroughly investigated for certain parameters as specific gravity, thermal conductivity, impact resistance, thermal expansion, viscosity, characteristic temperature points, specific heat, evaporation losses from the melt, electrical conductivity, leach resistance, tendency toward recrystallization and second phase formation. All the compositions (some with different amounts of Gd 2 O 3 , an expected neutron poision) contained 15 wt. % simulated HAW oxides. Samples for investigation were fabricated very close to the actual process conditions of vitrification. Two glass products GP12 and GP26 (3.7% Gd 2 O 3 ) have been selected out of 25 glasses as the optimised products for further thorough investigations. Leach resistance, viscosity at 1420 K, tendency towards recrystallization and second phase formation were the most important deciding factors. (orig.) [de

  5. In situ-experiments on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HAW) at the Asse salt mine Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Rothfuchs, T.

    1989-01-01

    Deep geological salt formations are considered as being the most suitable medium for the disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This paper reports how, in order to develop and to prove the necessary disposal techniques, the Asse Salt Mine in the northern part of Germany is being used as a national R and D facility for the execution of representative in situ-tests. Besides the test-wise disposal of low-and medium-level radioactive waste, a series of in situ experiments was performed on the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW). The so-called HAW repository is being performed from 1983 through 1994 will be the most important pilot test for the HAW repository in the FRG. During this experiment, 30 vitrified high-level radioactive heat and radiation sources will be emplaced in six underground boreholes. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. In addition to the investigations of the interactions of the heat and radiation sources and the host rock, a complete handling system for HAW-canisters is being developed and proved

  6. Verification of Vitrified High-Activity Waste Stored in a CASTOR HAW 20/28 CG Cask by Simulated Baseline Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shephard, A.; Arenas-Carrasco, J.; Dratschmidt, H.; De-Baere, P.; Af Ekenstam, G.; Lebrun, A.

    2010-01-01

    The verification process for the vitrification of high-activity waste (HAW) focuses on maintaining the continuity-of-knowledge of special nuclear material (SNM) as it traverses a vitrification facility. However, the inaccessible nature of a vitrification facility presents an obstacle to the deployment of conventional safeguards, albeit the process area of a vitrification facility is effectively a hot cell. The employment of remotely operated NDA hardware/DA sample equipment inside the process area would be problematic-at-best and the alternative of continuous monitoring would draw heavily on the critical resource of inspector time. In response to the aforementioned constraints, the IAEA and Euratom opted to develop a new method which focuses on the verification of SNM after the vitrified HAW has been sealed in storage casks. The new method verifies the presence of the vitrified HAW through the comparison of total neutron count rates collected at points around a cask with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulation. The model includes a dual N50 neutron slab detector (custom design by Euratom) and a CASTOR HAW 20/28 CG storage cask configured with the operator declared contents. By comparison of the simulated neutron emission pattern and field measurements, the displacement of Pu and U is evident from a detectable neutron signal defect. Because the spontaneous fission of 244 Cm is the dominant neutron source in vitrified HAW, the 244 Cm/Pu and 244 Cm/U mass ratios must be known in order to relate the neutron signal outside the cask to the amounts of Pu and U stored inside. These mass ratios can be determined from HAW samples collected by the inspectorates from the accountability tanks and analyzed by DA. The absence of separation of SNM from the HAW is verified by other measures. To ensure the validity of the simulation, sources of uncertainty were systematically addressed and quantified. This new verification method effectively removes the need for NDA equipment

  7. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  8. Germinación de semillas y desarrollo de plantas en Escobedia grandiflora (Orobanchaceae: ¿Evidencia de hemiparasitismo obligado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Cardona-Medina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas parásitas de raíces pueden ser facultativas u obligadas, las primeras pueden completar su ciclo de vida y sus semillas pueden germinar sin un hospedero. Escobedia grandiflora es una especie poco estudiada, a pesar de su importancia ancestral como colorante de alimentos y uso medicinal. Este estudio evaluó los estados de semilla, plántula y planta adulta, en presencia y ausencia de posibles hospederos para inferir sobre su tipo de parasitismo. En las semillas se evaluaron dos condiciones de luz (12 y 0 horas y temperatura (20 °C y 25 °C, el porcentaje y velocidad de germinación. Las semillas no requirieron la presencia del hospedero para germinar. El porcentaje de germinación osciló entre 66 y 85,3 % y no fue afectado por la luz o la temperatura, aunque la velocidad de germinación fue mayor a 25 °C. Las semillas con mayor tamaño presentaron mayor porcentaje de germinación y produjeron plántulas más grandes. Las plántulas sembradas sin hospedero no sobrevivieron, mientras que las sembradas con Paspalum notatum, tuvieron una sobrevivencia del 45 %, evidenciando que este estado es crítico, aún con hospedero. Las plantas de Escobedia grandiflora sembradas con pastos, iniciaron la etapa reproductiva en la semana 28, y aquellas sembradas con Pennisetum purpureum presentaron más haustorios, y mayor materia seca en la planta total, rizoma y tallos aéreos. Las plantas sembradas solas vivieron más de seis meses, pero ellas no desarrollaron flores y ni frutos. Según el comportamiento de las plántulas y las plantas, E. grandiflora es parásita obligada.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2015-05-22

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  10. Effects of microhabitat on leaf traits in Digitalis grandiflora L. (Veronicaceae growing at forest edge and interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołodziejek J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, anatomical and biochemical traits of the leaves of yellow foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora Mill. from two microhabitats, forest interior (full shade under oak canopy and forest edge (half shade near shrubs, were studied. The microhabitats differed in the mean levels of available light, but did not differ in soil moisture. The mean level of light in the forest edge microhabitat was significantly higher than in the forest interior. Multivariate ANOVA was used to test the effects of microhabitat. Comparison of the available light with soil moisture revealed that both factors significantly influenced the morphological and anatomical variables of D. grandiflora. Leaf area, mass, leaf mass per area (LMA, surface area per unit dry mass (SLA, density and thickness varied greatly between leaves exposed to different light regimes. Leaves that developed in the shade were larger and thinner and had a greater SLA than those that developed in the half shade. In contrast, at higher light irradiances, at the forest edge, leaves tended to be thicker, with higher LMA and density. Stomatal density was higher in the half-shade leaves than in the full-shade ones. LMA was correlated with leaf area and mass and to a lesser extent with thickness and density in the forest edge microsite. The considerable variations in leaf density and thickness recorded here confirm the very high variation in cell size and amounts of structural tissue within species. The leaf plasticity index (PI was the highest for the morphological leaf traits as compared to the anatomical and biochemical ones. The nitrogen content was higher in the “half-shade leaves” than in the “shade leaves”. Denser leaves corresponded to lower nitrogen (N contents. The leaves of plants from the forest edge had more potassium (K than leaves of plants from the forest interior on an area basis but not on a dry mass basis; the reverse was true for phosphorus.

  11. Propagação por sementes de Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (flor-de-maio em diferentes substratos = Propagation by seeds of Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (florde- maio in different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Soares Nunes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, conhecida como flor-demaio, é uma espécie herbácea epífita, nativa no Brasil, muito apreciada como planta ornamental pela beleza de suas flores. Esta espécie multiplica-se por sementes, mas comercialmente é propagada por estacas e enxertia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de quatro variedades de cores desta espécie (rosa, vermelha, branca e amarela em cinco substratos (vermiculita de granulometria média, xaxim desfibrado, areia, substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras e mistura de 50% do substrato comercial Rendmax®Floreiras + 50% xaxim desfibrado. Os resultados mostraram que a espécie pode ser reproduzida com facilidade por sementes. O substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras proporcionou os melhores resultados.Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, known as “flor-de-maio”, is a Brazilian endogenous herbaceous epiphytic species, muchappreciated as ornamental for the beauty of its flowers. This species is multiplied by seeds, but commercially it is propagated by cuttings and grafting. The aim of this research was to evaluate the germination of four varieties of colors of this species (pink, red, white and yellow in five substrates (vermiculite, de-fibered tree ferns, sand, commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras and a mixture of 50% of the commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras + 50% tree ferns. The results showed that this species can be easily reproduced by seeds. The commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras provided the best germination result.

  12. Phytoremediation potential of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. (Moss-Rose) in degrading a sulfonated diazo reactive dye Navy Blue HE2R (Reactive Blue 172).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Kurade, Mayur B; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-06-01

    Wild and tissue cultured plants of Portulaca grandiflora Hook. have shown to be able to decolorize a sulfonated diazo dye Navy Blue HE2R (NBHE2R) up to 98% in 40 h. A significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase was observed in the roots during dye decolorization. The wild plants and tissue cultures could independently decolorize and degrade NBHE2R into metabolites viz. N-benzylacetamide and 6-diazenyl-4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. A dye mixture and a textile effluent were also decolorized efficiently by P. grandiflora. The phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in the toxicity due to metabolites formed after dye degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Aqueous Crude Extracts of Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora Reduce Immobility Faster Than Fluoxetine Through GABAA Receptors in Rats Forced to Swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Cueto-Escobedo, Jonathan; Flores-Aguilar, Luis Ángel; Rosas-Sánchez, Gilberto Uriel; Rovirosa-Hernández, María de Jesús; García-Orduña, Francisco; Carro-Juárez, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora have been indistinctly used for centuries in traditional Mexican medicine for reproductive impairments, anxiety, and mood disorders. Preclinical studies support their aphrodisiac and anxiolytic properties, but their effects on mood are still unexplored. The effects of 25 and 50 mg/kg of M frutescens and M grandiflora extracts were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatment, and compared with fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and Remotiv (7.14 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. The participation of GABA A receptor in the effects produced by the treatments was explored. Montanoa extracts reduced immobility since day 1 of treatment, while fluoxetine and Remotiv required 14 days. The GABA A antagonism blocked the effects of Montanoa extracts, but not of fluoxetine or Remotiv. Montanoa extracts prevented quickly the stress-induced behaviors in the swimming test through action at the GABA A receptor, exerting a protective effect different to the typical antidepressants drugs.

  14. Evaluation of efficient glucose release using sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid as pretreating agents from the biomass of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.: A fast growing tree legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Nitesh K; Dash, Debabrata; Barik, Chitta R; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Mishra, Prasannajit; Nayak, Nihar R

    2017-07-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. is one of the fast growing tree legumes having the efficiency to produce around 50tha -1 above ground dry matters in a year. In this study, biomass of 2years old S. grandiflora was selected for the chemical composition, pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis studies. The stem biomass with a wood density of 3.89±0.01gmcm -3 contains about 38% cellulose, 12% hemicellulose and 28% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass revealed that phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) pretreated samples even at lower cellulase loadings [1 Filter Paper Units (FPU)], could efficiently convert about 86% glucose, while, even at higher cellulase loadings (60FPU) alkali pretreated biomass could convert only about 58% glucose. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid pretreatment was also supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M - a high heat load cask for transport and storage of vitrified high level waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossnacke, A.; Klein, K.; Kuehne, B. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH/GNB, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Within the German return programme for vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing at COGEMA and BNFL up to now 39 casks loaded with 28 containers each were transported back to Germany and are stored in the Interim Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G) for up to 40 years. For transport and storage in all but one case the GNB casks CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG have been used. This cask type is designed to accommodate 20 or 28 HLW containers with a total thermal power of 45 kW maximum. In the near future, among the high level waste, which has to be returned to Germany, there will be an increasing number of containers of which the heat capacity and radioactive inventory will exceed the technical limits of the CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG. Therefore GNB has started the development of a new cask generation, named CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M, meeting these future requirements. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M is especially developed for the transport of vitrified residues from France and Great Britain to Germany. It complies with the international regulations for type B packages according to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). It is thus guaranteed that even in case of any accident the cask body and the lid system remain functional and the safe confinement of the radioactive contents remains intact during transport. The CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M fulfills not only the requirements for transport but also the acceptance criteria of interim storage: radiation shielding, heat dissipation, safe confinement under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Storage buildings such as the TBL-G simply support the safety functions of the cask. The challenge for the development results from higher requirements of the technical specification, particularly related to fuel which is reprocessed. As a consequence of the reprocessing of fuel with increased enrichment and burn up, higher heat capacity and sophisticated shielding measures have to be

  16. Loading, transport and storage of casks of the type CASTOR registered HAW28M in the frame of vitrified high-level waste repatriation from France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm; Gosch-Warning, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Until 2005 the German nuclear power plant operators have contracts with AREVA NC (former COGEMA) and NDA (former BNFL) concerning the reprocessing of spent fuel elements. The reprocessed and vitrified radioactive waste has to be repatriated to Germany. Due to the reprocessing of spent fuel elements with increased burnup and the repatriation after shorter cooling time the total activity and the Cm-244 content of the high-level-waste coquilles have increased since 2008. Consequently the heat output has increased to 2 kW/coquille. Therefore the new transport cask type CASTOR registered HAW28M was developed. The authors describe the design of the casks, the licensing according to the German transport regulations, loading procedures, radiation measurements and shipment completion. In autumn 2011 the repatriation of vitrified high-level waste from France is supposed to be completed with the transport of eleven CASTOR registered HAW28M.

  17. Oxalate contributes to the resistance of Gaillardia grandiflora and Lupinus sericeus to a phytotoxin produced by Centaurea maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Tiffany L; Bais, Harsh Pal; Stull, Valerie J; Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Bhamidi, Suresh; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2006-03-01

    Centaurea maculosa Lam. is a noxious weed in western North America that produces a phytotoxin, (+/-)-catechin, which is thought to contribute to its invasiveness. Areas invaded by C. maculosa often result in monocultures of the weed, however; in some areas, North American natives stand their ground against C. maculosa and show varying degrees of resistance to its phytotoxin. Two of these resistant native species, Lupinus sericeus Pursh and Gaillardia grandiflora Van Houtte, were found to secrete increased amounts of oxalate in response to catechin exposure. Mechanistically, we found that oxalate works exogenously by blocking generation of reactive oxygen species in susceptible plants and reducing oxidative damage generated in response to catechin. Furthermore, field experiments show that L. sericeus indirectly facilitates native grasses in grasslands invaded by C. maculosa, and this facilitation can be correlated with the presence of oxalate in soil. Addition of exogenous oxalate to native grasses and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh grown in vitro alleviated the phytotoxic effects of catechin, supporting the field experiments and suggesting that root-secreted oxalate may also act as a chemical facilitator for plant species that do not secrete the compound.

  18. Phyto-synthesis and antibacterial studies of bio-based silver nanoparticles using Sesbania grandiflora (Avisa) leaf tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna, K.; Balasubramanyam, K.; Narasimha, G.; Kim, Haekyoung

    2018-01-01

    Green nanobiotechnology using plants, micro-organisms, and their extracts has improved the utilization of natural resources. More efficient and eco-friendly routes are being developed for the creation of benign, biodegradable materials that have medical applicability. We developed silver nanoparticles encapsulated with Sesbania grandiflora (Avisa) leaf extract, which served as a reducing and capping material. The structure and functionalization of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated using UV-vis, XRD, FE-TEM, SAED, and FTIR analyses. The nanoparticles were found to be isotropic and spherical, with a core of Ag wrapped in phytochemicals. The presence of phytochemicals stabilized the nanoparticles during production by preventing agglomeration. Antibacterial properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were also tested. The phytochemical-wrapped silver nanoparticles were more effective antibiotics than were bare silver nanoparticles. The phytochemicals were likely responsible for both direct and indirect improvements in the bactericidal properties of the Ag particles. Additionally, the developed nanoparticles showed higher antibacterial activity towards gram-negative bacteria than towards gram-positive bacteria, with the cell wall playing an important role in adsorption and absorption of Ag+.

  19. Los cariotipos de Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México Karyotypes of Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae- Phaseoleae of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron citogenéticamente células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de 2 leguminosas, Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana, que en la actualidad están incluidas en la flora de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México, D. F., mediante una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para determinar los números cromosómicos somáticos. Por vez primera se obtuvieron la morfología cromosómica y otras características cuantitativas de los cariotipos en C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m +18sm y en E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm +2st sat, primeras también en ambos géneros. Cologania y Erythrina se reconocen como poliploides estabilizados y el hallazgo de un único par de cromosomas con satélites (dominancia nucleolar en las especies estudiadas aquí, favorece la opinión de un origen alopoliploide para estos taxa.Meristematic root cells from Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico, were analyzed cytogenenetically using a surface-spreading and air-drying method. The somatic chromosome numbers were determined. Chromosome morphology and others quantitative features of the karyotypes obtained for first time in C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m + 18sm and E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm + 2st sat and also the first in both genera. Cologania and Erythrina are recognized as stabilized polyploids and the finding of just one pair of chromosomes with satellites (nucleolar dominance in the species analyzed here supports the view of allopolyploid origin of these taxa.

  20. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND POLLEN FLOW IN PROGENIES OF Qualea grandiflora Mart., A TYPICAL SPECIES OF THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Maris Orth Ritter Antiqueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the reproductive system and the pollen dispersion pattern of Qualea grandiflora progenies. This is a typical species from the Brazilian Cerrado about which there are not too many studies from the genetics point of view. The study was conducted in an area of 2.2 hectares located in the Conservation Unit managed by the Forest Institute of the state of São Paulo, Brazil (Assis State Forest. Total genomic DNA of 300 seeds from 25 plants (12 seeds from each plant was extracted and amplified using specific primers to obtain microsatellite markers. Results showed that selfing is frequent among adults and progenies, and the species reproduces by outcrossing between related and unrelated individuals (0.913. The single-locus outcrossing rate was 0.632, which indicates that mating between unrelated individuals is more frequent than between related plants. The selfing rate was low (0.087, that is, the species is allogamous and self-fertilization is reduced. About 35% of the plants in the progenies were full-sibs, and about 57%, half-sibs. Besides, about 8% of the progenies were selfing siblings. The genetic differentiation coefficient within progenies was 0.139, whereas the fixation rate was about 27%. The estimate of the effective size revealed that the genetic representativeness of descent was lower than expected in random mating progenies: The analyzed samples corresponded to only 13.2 individuals of an ideal panmictic population. In environmental recovery programs, seeds, preferably from different fruits, should be collected from 95 trees to preserve the genetic diversity of the species.

  1. The HAW-Project. Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Cuevas, C. de las; Donker, H.; Feddersen, H.K.; Garcia-Celma, A.; Gies, H.; Goreychi, M.; Graefe, V.; Heijdra, J.; Hente, B.; Jockwer, N.; LeMeur, R.; Moenig, J.; Mueller, K.; Prij, J.; Regulla, D.; Smailos, E.; Staupendahl, G.; Till, E.; Zankl, M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to improve the final concept for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in boreholes drilled into salt formation plans were developed a couple of years ago for a full scale testing of the complete technical system of an underground repository. To satisfy the test objectives, thirty highly radioactive radiation sources were planned to be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800-m-level in the Asse salt mine. A duration of testing of approximately five years was envisaged. Because of licensing uncertainties the German Federal Government decided on December 3rd, 1992 to stop all activities for the preparation of the test disposal immediately. In the course of the preparation of the test disposal, however, a system, necessary for handling of the radiation sources was developed and installed in the Asse salt mine and two non-radioactive reference tests with electrical heaters were started in November 1988. These tests served for the investigation of thermal effects in comparison to the planned radioactive tests. An accompanying scientific investigation programme performed in situ and in the laboratory comprises the estimation and observation of the thermal, radiation-induced, and mechanical interaction between the rock salt and the electrical heaters and the radiation sources, respectively. The laboratory investigations are carried out at Braunschweig (FRG), Petten (NL), Saclay (F) and Barcelona (E). As a consequence of the premature termination of the project the working programme was revised. The new programme agreed to by the project partners included a controlled shutdown of the heater tests in 1993 and a continuation of the laboratory activities until the end of 1994. (orig.)

  2. Antihyperglycemic effect of Sesbania grandiflora seed decoction on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: Inflammatory status and the role of interleukin-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroni, Ahmad; Widjanarko, Simon B.; Rifa'i, Muhaimin; Zubaidah, Elok

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in the world: its prevalence is estimated to reach 642 million people, or one-tenth of adults will have diabetes by 2040. Traditional herbal exploration and investigation are needed in order to discover medicines that have potential anti-diabetic activity, with no or lower side effects than the medicines clinically used today. In this research, we investigated the anti-hyperglycemic activity of an aqueous decoction of Sesbania grandiflora seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and analyzed the immune responses that occurred during the counter balance process to reach blood glucose homeostasis. Our results revealed that administration of the aqueous decoction (2.5 g/kg BW) could lower the blood glucose levels of diabetic mice from an initial blood glucose level of 435 mg/dl to 213 mg/dl within 18 days of treatment. Analysis of inflammatory markers showed that there was no significant difference in the relative amounts of CD4+CD62L-, CD8+CD62L-, TNF-α or IFN-γ between the experimental groups, which revealed that there were no pro-inflammatory responses involved either in hyperglycemia or in the blood glucose lowering process. On the other hand, an increased amount of interleukin-10 in diabetic mice treated with an S. grandiflora seed decoction indicated a role for IL-10 in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis.

  3. Functional quality, sensorial and shelf life characteristics of Agathi (Sesbania grandiflora (L.Poir leaves enriched breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Mesa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our modern life, theburdensof non-communicable diseases such as obesity, cancer, cardiovasculardisease,and type-2 diabetes haveincreased. By contrast, life expectancy and also cost of healthcare has increased. Therefore, individuals search other ways to improve or maintain their well-being. Inthis regard, food and pharmaceutical industriesoffer functional foods (FFs with health promotingand disease-preventing properties.Sesbania grandifloraL.Poiris a small, loosely branching tree alsoknown as the local name,Agathi. Agathibelongs to the Fabaceaefamily, and is one of the most popular green vegetables andtraditional medicinal plantsof India.The chemical analysis of Sesbania grandifloraleaves reveal it to be a rich source of nutrientsand beneficial bioactive compounds,such as antioxidants and polyphenols.Bread has been regarded as one of the most popular foodfor centuries, as agood source of calories and othernutrients. Bread is traditionally made from wheat flour.The addition of Agathi leaves led to the enhancementof functionality of common bread.Objective: Against the background of thisinformation, the present investigation was undertaken withaclear objective of evaluatingthe effects of the additionof Agathi leaves on the sensory, textural, andbaking characteristics,byexamining their microbial quality on a 5-daystorage period,at an ambient temperature,in different packaging materials, and assessingthe improvement, if any, in their antioxidant content.Methods: Shade dried Agathi leaf powder was analysedfor proximate,mineral,and phytochemical composition. Bread samples were prepared with ingredients such as yeast, salt, sugar, water,shortening, baking time,temperature using straight dough process,and varying levels ofshade dried Agathi leaves.Physical parameters such as loaf weight, loaf volume,and color values were recorded. Breads were subjected to a sensory evaluation, andin vitroanti-oxidant capacitywas evaluated. Results

  4. químicos das folhas de Qualea grandiflora: atribuição dos dados de RMN de dois flavonóides glicosilados acilados diastereoisoméricos Chemical constituents from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora: attribution of the NMR data of two diastereoisomeric acylated flavonoid glycosids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Cruz Costa Ayres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-E-p-coumaroyl-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-Z-p-coumaroyl-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data.

  5. Evaluación de la reproducción sexual de Espeletia grandiflora VAR. Multiflora en la Reserva Forestal Municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Sánchez Zambrano

    2006-01-01

    fenología es diferente en relación con la que se presenta en lugares con mayor grado de conservación. Los resultados se compararon con los encontrados por Fagua (2002 en otro estudio realizado en el Páramo de Chingaza, lugar con mayor grado de conservación. Para el presente sitio de estudio se reportó un porcentaje de viabilidad menor, un índice de autoincompatibilidad mayor, una producción de semillas por planta menor y etapas fenológicas más cortas que en el Páramo de Chingaza. Las diferencias en el estado de conservación, la composición genética de E. grandiflora, y el clima entre los dos sitios, pueden explicar los diferentes resultados.

  6. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Modern highly insulated greenhouses are more energy efficient than conventional types. Furthermore applying dynamic greenhouse climate control regimes will increase energy efficiency relatively more in modern structures. However, this combination may result in higher air and crop temperatures. Too...... high temperature affects the plant photosynthetic responses, resulting in a lower rate of photosynthesis. To predict and analyse physiological responses as stress indicators, two independent experiments were conducted, to detect the effect of high temperature on photosynthesis: analysing photosystem II...... (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect on PSII when...

  7. Characterization and Functional Identification of a Novel Plant 4,5-Extradiol Dioxygenase Involved in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis in Portulaca grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christinet, Laurent; Burdet, Frédéric X.; Zaiko, Maïa; Hinz, Ursula; Zrÿd, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Betalains are pigments that replace anthocyanins in the majority of families of the plant order Caryophyllales. Betalamic acid is the common chromophore of betalains. The key enzyme of the betalain biosynthetic pathway is an extradiol dioxygenase that opens the cyclic ring of dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) between carbons 4 and 5, thus producing an unstable seco-DOPA that rearranges nonenzymatically to betalamic acid. A gene for a 4,5-DOPA-dioxygenase has already been isolated from the fungus Amanita muscaria, but no homolog was ever found in plants. To identify the plant gene, we constructed subtractive libraries between different colored phenotypes of isogenic lines of Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) and between different stages of flower bud formation. Using in silico analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, we identified a candidate showing strong homology at the level of translated protein with the LigB domain present in several bacterial extradiol 4,5-dioxygenases. The gene was expressed only in colored flower petals. The function of this gene in the betalain biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by biolistic genetic complementation in white petals of P. grandiflora genotypes lacking the gene for color formation. This gene named DODA is the first characterized member of a novel family of plant dioxygenases phylogenetically distinct from Amanita sp. DOPA-dioxygenase. Homologs of DODA are present not only in betalain-producing plants but also, albeit with some changes near the catalytic site, in other angiosperms and in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. These homologs are part of a novel conserved plant gene family probably involved in aromatic compound metabolism. PMID:14730069

  8. Effects of different potting growing media for Petunia grandiflora and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto on photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Petunia grandiflora Juss. and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto are two of the most widely spread plants on the market for annual potted ornamental plants. In order to identify the most adequate substrate formula we analyzed the effects of different potting growing media used for P. hybrida grandiflora 'Bravo' and N. alata 'Dinamo' on their photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential. Optimization of growing media formula for petunia and ornamental tobacco was performed by preparing four growing media mixing fallow soil (FS, Biolan peat (BP, acid peat (AP, leaf compost (C, and perlite (P in different proportions. The physiological potential of petunia and ornamental tobacco was investigated by photosynthesis and respiration rate and chlorophyll pigments in leaves, while the vegetative and flowering phenological stages were evaluated by number of leaves per plant, leaf area, number of flowers per plant and leaf area/flowers ratio. These measurements were significantly influenced by the different potting growing media used in this study. In the flowering stage, the highest photosynthesis rates (8.612 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 as well as leaf area (1.766 dm² of petunias were obtained on growing media with 60% biolan peat, 30% acid peat and 10% perlite (BP60-AP30-P10. Flowering responses to growing conditions vary greatly among plants and the biggest number of ornamental tobacco flowers (22 flowers plant-1 was registered as an effect of BP60-AP30-P10 media. Growing media with the BP60-AP30-P10 formula seem to be the most adequate growth substrate to develop profitable crops for petunias and ornamental tobacco with high decorative value.

  9. Reubicación de plantas de Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae como estrategia para el enriquecimiento de áreas de páramo alteradas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rojas-Zamora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante o reubicación de individuos ha sido ampliamente usado para la adición de especies en procesos de restauración. En este trabajo se estudió la respuesta de individuos de Espeletia grandiflora a la reubicación como estrategia de restauración ecológica; así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de los individuos reubicados sobre la supervivencia y desarrollo. Se reubicaron individuos de tres diferentes tamaños, 5, 10 y 15cm de altura. Se registraron las variables supervivencia, altura de la planta, número de hojas vivas y diámetro del tallo de cada uno de los individuos, se evaluaron las posibles diferencias en cuanto a supervivencia y desarrollo. La categoría de tamaño más eficaz corresponde a la de 15cm de altura, que presentó una supervivencia del 85% luego de dos años. Se sugiere el uso del diámetro del tallo como criterio de selección de los individuos a reubicar, ya que es la variable que mejor predice la supervivencia dos años luego de la reubicación. Las tasas de crecimiento relativo en altura y diámetro del tallo disminuyen conforme aumenta el tamaño de los individuos; sin embargo, el incremento absoluto en altura no presenta diferencias entre los tres tamaños evaluados. A partir de los resultados se verifica el éxito de la reubicación de plantas de E. grandiflora como estrategia de enriquecimiento en pastizales de páramos alterados.Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia. Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs

  10. Considerations on the construction testing of the CASTOR registered HAW 28M cask with respect to the traffic law in the view of the responsible authority BAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, Frank; Droste, Bernhard; Zencker, Uwe; Komann, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The authors reflect the construction testing of the CASTOR registered HAW 28M cask with respect to the traffic law in the view of the responsible authority BAM. The test procedures are based on the recommendations of the IAEA and the respective national and international legal regulations for the transport of radioactive materials. BAM is performing mechanical and thermal tests to investigate the safety of the containers in case of a severe accident. The radionuclide release has to be restricted to a defined limiting value, the radiation shielding and the nuclear safety have to be ensured. The component test is performed using prototypes of model containers combined with calculations or transferability considerations. The safety evaluation is usually based on experimental tests and numerical analyses.

  11. The HAW project. Test storage of high-level radiation sources in the Asse salt mine. Documentation and assessment of the storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.; Rothfuchs, T.

    1994-01-01

    The HAW project aimed primarily at studying the interaction between high-level radioactive waste moulds and rock salt as the respository medium. Another priority was the prototype development and testing of a technical system for the emplacement of high-level radioactive moulds in deep storage boreholes. To simulate real high-level radioactive wastes, special high-level radiation sources (Cs-137, Sr-90) were produced in the United States of America under a German-American cooperation contract, for carrying out the tests at the Asse salt mine. The components of the storage system are described, their position and task within the entire handling procedure explained. Questions of radiation protection and accident protection, of functioning and operating reliability, of quality assurance and examination of documents, materials, of manufacture and functioning, and of documentation are dealt with in detail. With a view to the planning of storage techniques for a mine respository, the experience of development and operation is recorded, and recommendation of further developments are given. Problems which arose during work on the HAW project were partly due to test-specific reasons and will not or not in this form occur in a mine respository. It was planned to start the test emplacement in 1987, and it could have been executed in 1993 after appropriate preparation and approval of the storage system by the mining authority and the Hanover TUEV in 1991. In December 1992, however, the Federal Government decided to give up to the project due to the uncertain licensing situation, and to immediately stop all preparatory work. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Correlations among experimental and theoretical NMR data to determine the absolute stereochemistry of darcyribeirine, a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelieri, Náuvia Maria; Ferreira, Thiago Resende; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Alcântara, Antônio Flávio de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Darcyribeirine (1) is a pentacyclic indole alkaloid isolated from Rauvolfia grandiflora. Stereochemistry of 1 was previously proposed based on 1D (coupling constant data) and 2D (NOESY correlations) NMR techniques, having been established a configuration 3R, 15S, and 20R (isomer 1a). Stereoisomers of 1 (i.e., 1a-1h) can be grouped into four sets of enantiomers. Carbon chemical shifts and hydrogen coupling constants were calculated using BLYP/6-31G* theory level for the eight isomers of 1. Calculated NMR data of 1a-1h were correlated with the corresponding experimental data of 1. The best correlations between theoretical and experimental carbon chemical shift data were obtained for the set of enantiomers 1e/1f to structures in the gaseous phase and considering solvent effects (using PCM and explicit models). Similar results were obtained when the same procedure was performed to correlations between theoretical and experimental coupling constant data. Finally, optical rotation calculations indicate 1e as its absolute stereochemistry. Orbital population analysis indicates that the hydrogen bonding between N-H of 1e and DMSO is due to contributions of its frontier unoccupied molecular orbitals, mainly LUMO+1, LUMO+2, and LUMO+3.

  13. Propagação por sementes de Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (flor-de-maio em diferentes substratos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.480 Propagation by seeds of Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (florde- maio in different substrates - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.480

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Biondi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, conhecida como flor-demaio, é uma espécie herbácea epífita, nativa no Brasil, muito apreciada como planta ornamental pela beleza de suas flores. Esta espécie multiplica-se por sementes, mas comercialmente é propagada por estacas e enxertia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de quatro variedades de cores desta espécie (rosa, vermelha, branca e amarela em cinco substratos (vermiculita de granulometria média, xaxim desfibrado, areia, substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras e mistura de 50% do substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras + 50% xaxim desfibrado. Os resultados mostraram que a espécie pode ser reproduzida com facilidade por sementes. O substrato comercial Rendmax® Floreiras proporcionou os melhores resultados.Schlumbergera truncata (Haw. Moran (Cactaceae, known as “flor-de-maio”, is a Brazilian endogenous herbaceous epiphytic species, much appreciated as ornamental for the beauty of its flowers. This species is multiplied by seeds, but commercially it is propagated by cuttings and grafting. The aim of this research was to evaluate the germination of four varieties of colors of this species (pink, red, white and yellow in five substrates (vermiculite, de-fibered tree ferns, sand, commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras and a mixture of 50% of the commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras + 50% tree ferns. The results showed that this species can be easily reproduced by seeds. The commercial substrate Rendmax® Floreiras provided the best germination result.

  14. Dispersão zoocórica e hidrocórica marítima de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Lenzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p47 Adaptações evolutivas na morfologia e fisiologia das cactáceas têm sido associadas aos seus mecanismos de dispersão e colonização. Os mecanismos e modos de dispersão de Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae foram caracterizados em duas praias de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. Um marsupial do gênero Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae foi o único frugívoro e, portanto, dispersor de frutos, apresentando locais específicos para alimentação. A hidrocoria marítima ocorreu após a invasão marinha sobre a vegetação de restinga, caracterizando-se pela dispersão de cladódios e frutos em várias épocas do ano. Descreve-se pela primeira vez a ação do mar como potencial dispersor para uma espécie de cactos.

  15. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  16. Abertura floral de Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ´Bronze Repin´após rmazenamento a frio seguido de “pulsing” Floral opening of Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ´Bronze Repin´after cold storage followed by pulsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar a abertura de inflorescências e a vida de vaso de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Bronze Repin’ colhido precocemente, montou-se um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado bifatorial 2 x 6 com cinco repetições, realizado no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. As hastes foram armazenadas a 2ºC ou 5ºC por sete dias, sendo em seguida tratadas com soluções de “pulsing” por 24h e mantidas em vasos com água de torneira, renovada a cada dois dias. As soluções utilizadas foram: Água (testemunha; Tiosulfato de Prata-STS 11mg.L-1 (Crysal AVB; Ácido Giberélico-GA3 50mg.L-1 (Pro-gibb; Hipoclorito de Sódio-NaOCl 200mg.L-1; 8-Hidroxiquinolina-8-HQ 100mg.L-1; Tiabendazole-TIBA 100mg.L-1(Tecto 100. Com exceção da testemunha, as outras soluções continham 2% de Sacarose. Com estes tratamentos, observou-se que não foi possível uma abertura perfeita da inflorescência, mas a vantagem foi de prolongar a sua vida, podendo-se colocá-las no mercado num momento mais oportuno.The study of opening of inflorescences and the vase life (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Bronze Repin’ early picked of chysanthemum, was carried out in an experiment entirely set up in bifactorial 2 x 6 with five repetitions, at the Department of Fitotecnia of Santa Maria’s Federal University. The stems were stored at 2ºC or 5ºC for 7 days, prior to being treated with pulsing solutions for 24 hours and maintained in vases with distilled water, renewed every two days. The solutions used as follows: Water (control; Silver Thiosulfate-STS 11mg.L-1 (Crysal AVB; Giberelic Acid-GA3 50mg.L-1 (Pro-gibb; Sodium Hipochloride-NaOCl 200mg.L-1; 8-Hidroxyquinoline-8-HQ 100mg.L-1; Tiabendazole-TIBA 100mg.L-1 (Tecto 100. With the exception of the control, all solutions contained 2% sucrose. Perfect opening of the flower was not achieved, but vase life could be extended in order to place them in the

  17. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Delbart, E.; Mahy, G.; Monty, A.

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of techniques used to control the development of five invasive amphibious plant species: Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticum. A review. Among rapidly spreading invasive species in Europe, amphibious plants are particularly problematic. These plants are capable of developing a photosynthetic activity both below and above the water surface, and they typically form dense floating populations. Controlling a...

  18. Efeito do armazenamento a frio e desidratação sobre o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de Dendranthema grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Teixeira Schwab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido no setor de floricultura do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria – Santa Maria, RS, no período de novembro a dezembro de 2007 e teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do armazenamento a frio e da desidratação sobre o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de Dendranthema grandiflora, cultivares ‘Satllion’ e ‘Toon Hermans’, tratadas com Ácido Indol Butírico (AIB 0,1%. As estacas herbáceas foram coletadas no matrizeiro localizado no Setor de Floricultura, apresentando 6 cm de comprimento final, e foram então armazenadas a frio por diferentes períodos de tempo (0; 7; 14 e 21 dias, sendo que cada tratamento constou de 20 repetições. As estacas depois de tratadas com AIB 0,1% foram pesadas antes e após o armazenamento para obter o percentual de perda de umidade e, logo após, foram plantadas em bandejas de enraizamento contendo casca de arroz carbonizada e colocadas em estufa onde permaneceram 15 dias até sua avaliação. Para a avaliação do efeito da estocagem a frio e desidratação, foram realizadas as seguintes medições: comprimento total das raízes nas estacas e número de raízes por estaca. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho mostraram que certo nível de frio é favorável ao enraizamento, porém este efeito deve ser observado quanto a cultivar e ao tempo de exposição das estacas às baixas temperaturas. Além disso, foi possível observar que a capacidade de formação e crescimento das raízes pelas estacas é um caráter varietal, o que determina um melhor desempenho das plantas.

  19. Estructura espacial y estacional de la comunidad de hongos asociada al abrigo de hojas muertas de Espeletia grandiflora H & B en el páramo El Granizo, Monserrate - Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalfy Anacona Chicangana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la comunidad de hongos asociada a la necromasa de Espeletia grandiflora, segúnlas siguientes variables: Grado de descomposición de la necromasa, segmentos foliares, tama-ño de la planta y época climática. El muestreo se realizó durante los meses marzo-abril (seca-húmeda, agosto (seca y octubre (húmeda del año 2001. Las muestras de roseta y denecromasa a diferentes alturas con respecto al suelo (distribución vertical, fueron subdivididasen secciones foliares (distribución horizontal, procesadas según la técnica de aislamiento demicelio activo en medios de cultivo PDA y luego determinadas hasta especie. La clase-forma:Deuteromycete presentó cuatro familias, Moniliaceae, Dematiaceae, Melanconiaceae ySphaeropsidaceae, donde la familia Moniliaceae exhibió la mayor riqueza de especies (4,seguida por la Dematiaceae (3; de igual forma la clase Ascomicete con cuatro familias,Sordariaceae, Chaetomiaceae, Lasiosphaerinaceae y Nectriaceae, siendo Sordariaceae la másrepresentativa en especies (2. Las clases Oomycetes y Zigomycetes presentaron una familia,Pytiaceae y Mortierelaceae respectivamente; la familia Pytiaceae estuvo representada por tresespecies. Es de anotar que, la clase-forma Deuteromycetes presenta la mayor riqueza en fami-lias, especies y la mayor abundancia de individuos, sin embargo, los individuos con las mayoresfrecuencias y una amplia distribución correspondes a las clases Ascomycetes y Oomycete.Las especies de hongos siguieron un patrón de distribución fundamentado en la heteroge-neidad espacial como temporal de los hábitats en estudio. Pythium vexansy Sordaria fimicolarepresentaron 33% de la abundancia total de las especies de hongos asociadas a la necromasade Espeletia grandiflora.

  20. Estructura espacial y estacional de la comunidad de hongos asociada al abrigo de hojas muertas de Espeletia grandiflora H & B en el páramo El Granizo, Monserrate-Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalfy Anacona Chicangana

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe caracterizó la comunidad de hongos asociada a la necromasa de Espeletia grandiflora, segúnlas siguientes variables: Grado de descomposición de la necromasa, segmentos foliares,tamaño de la planta y época climática. El muestreo se realizó durante los meses marzo - abril(seca-húmeda, agosto (seca y octubre (húmeda del año 2001. Las muestras de roseta y denecromasa a diferentes alturas con respecto al suelo (distribución vertical, fueron subdivididasen secciones foliares (distribución horizontal, procesadas según la técnica de aislamiento demicelio activo en medios de cultivo PDA y luego determinadas hasta especie. La clase-forma:Deuteromycete presentó cuatro familias, Moniliaceae, Dematiaceae, Melanconiaceae yActa Sphaeropsidaceae, donde la familia Moniliaceae exhibió la mayor riqueza de especies (4,seguida por la Dematiaceae (3; de igual forma la clase Ascomicete con cuatro familias,Sordariaceae, Chaetomiaceae, Lasiosphaerinaceae y Nectriaceae, siendo Sordariaceae la másrepresentativa en especies (2. Las clases Oomycetes y Zigomycetes presentaron una familia,Pytiaceae y Mortierelaceae respectivamente; la familia Pytiaceae estuvo representada por tresespecies. Es de anotar que, la clase-forma Deuteromycetes presenta la mayor riqueza enfamilias, especies y la mayor abundancia de individuos, sin embargo, los individuos con lasmayores frecuencias y una amplia distribución corresponden a las clases Ascomycetes yOomycete. Las especies de hongos siguieron un patrón de distribución fundamentado en laheterogeneidad espacial como temporal de los hábitats en estudio. -Pythium vexansy Sordariafimicolarepresentaron el 33% de la abundancia total de las especies de hongos asociadas a lanecromasa de Espeletia grandiflora.

  1. Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (Opuntia stricta [Haw.] Haw.) spineless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Ten Girolando cows, 500 ± 51.6 kg bodyweight, were distributed in a double ... agronomic characteristics, such as being tolerant to hydric stress, and .... 4 Assayed with a heat-stable amylase and corrected for ash and protein ...

  2. Actual Situation and Further Development of Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and Highly Active Waste (HAW) from the View of the Competent Authority in the Field of section 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastl, Christoph; Drobniewski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    According to the German atomic law the storage of nuclear material has to be licensed following section 6 by the competent authority in this field, which is the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. Interim storage in its actual form started in 2002 in the interim storage facility next to the NPP Lingen. Since this time each NPP erected its own storage facilities and three central storage facilities have been built. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the vitrified high level waste (HAW) will be stored there until final disposal. The time span from now on to the point of opening of a final disposal facility shall be presented from a regulators point of view, divided into different phase which could spread from years to decades. Special attention shall be drawn on the different aspects influencing the licensing process and its duration at the moment and in future including the capabilities of the competent authority. (authors)

  3. Plant Guide: Bigflower agoseris: Agoseris grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower family (Asteraceae). Bigflower agoseris is a short lived perennial forb from a simple or branched taproot. The stems and leaves contain a white milky juice. The leaves are all basal with the flower heads solitary on a naked scape. Leaves are 8 to 25 cm (3 to 10 in) long and 1 to 3 cm (0.4 to 1.2 in) wide, oblanceolate pinnatifid to nearly entire. The...

  4. The long path to a disposal for high radioactive waste. Pt. 1. A new approach for a better understanding of processes and the system in a whole; Auf dem langen Weg zu einem Endlager fuer hochradioaktive Waerme entwickelnde Abfaelle. T. 1. Ein neuer konzeptionell-konfigurativer Ansatz und ein neues Simulationswerkzeug zur Erarbeitung eines verbesserten Prozess- und Systemverstaendnisses fuer HAW-Entsorgungsanlagen - ohne und mit direktem laengerfristigem Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Karl-Heinz; Wolters, Ralf; Zhao, Juan [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Aufbereitung, Deponiertechnik und Geomechanik

    2017-03-15

    A new conceptual-configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems - without and with direct long-term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrievability of the heat-generating high-radioactive waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post-closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.

  5. The long path to a disposal for high radioactive waste. Pt. 2. A new approach for a better understanding of processes and the system in a whole; Auf dem langen Weg zu einem Endlager fuer hoch radioaktive Waerme entwickelnde Weg Abfaelle. T. 2. Ein neuer konzeptionell-konfigurativer Ansatz und ein neues Simulationswerkzeug zur Erarbeitung eines verbesserten Prozess- und Systemverstaendnisses fuer HAW-Entsorgungsanlagen - ohne und mit direktem laengerfristigem Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Karl-Heinz; Wolters, Ralf; Zhao, Juan [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Aufbereitung, Deponietechnik und Geomechanik

    2017-04-15

    A new conceptual-configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems - without and with direct long term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrieveability of the heat generating high radio active waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.

  6. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of techniques used to control the development of five invasive amphibious plant species: Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticum. A review. Among rapidly spreading invasive species in Europe, amphibious plants are particularly problematic. These plants are capable of developing a photosynthetic activity both below and above the water surface, and they typically form dense floating populations. Controlling amphibious plants, whether for the purposes of total eradication or for the regulation of their spread, represents an important challenge for managers. A literature review of existing control methods for Crassula helmsii, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Ludwigia grandiflora, Ludwigia peploides and Myriophyllum aquaticu was carried out, taking into account efficiency and costs. Of the 87 studies analyzed, a great variation was evident in the research efforts undertaken (number and spatial scale of studies between species and between control methods. However, overall, the different control methods described showed a similar level of efficiency between species. Reports of total eradication of amphibious plants were rare. Such cases resulted from the application of mechanical or chemical methods, most often coupled with complementary methods such as manual finishing. The use of chemical control methods (less laborious and costly than others was found to be frequently documented in the literature. However, except in the case of some active substances, such chemical methods were found to provide low control efficiency. Similarly, to date, biological control has not been found to provide convincing results. In addition, it should be noted that several biological control agents are considered as invasive species in Europe. On the other hand, although little related research has been carried out, methods such as manual or mechanical removal with manual finishing have often

  7. The long path to a disposal for high radioactive waste. Pt. 3. A new approach for a better understanding of processes and the system in a whole; Auf dem langen Weg zu einem Endlager fuer hochradioaktive, Waerme entwickelnde Abfaelle. T. 3. Ein neuer konzeptionell-konfigurativer Ansatz und ein neues Simulationswerkzeug zur Erarbeitung eines verbesserten Prozess- und Systemverstaendnisses fuer HAW-Entsorgungsanlagen - ohne und mit direktem laengerfristigem Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Karl-Heinz; Wolters, Ralf; Zhao, Juan [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Aufbereitung, Deponiertechnik und Geomechanik

    2017-05-15

    A new conceptual@configurative approach and a new simulation tool for the development of an improved process and system understanding for HAW disposal systems - without and with direct long-term monitoring are presented and discussed. With regard to the final repository development, a retrieveability of the heat-generating high-radio-active waste during the storage phase and a general recoverability during the first 500 years after closure of the repository in the post-closure phase are required. Both for the monitoring of the repository during the storage phase as well as thereafter, a direct monitoring of the storage horizon could be implemented as an alternative to an indirect monitoring.

  8. Fast neutron induced increase of flowering in portulaca grandiflora linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, V.; Desai, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Unbranched cuttings were exposed to fast neutron doses of 71-284 rads and planted along with unirradiated controls. There was a significant increase in the numbers of flowers in the treated populations due to the increased production of primary and secondary branches. (MG) [de

  9. The aeroelastic code HawC - model and comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirstrup Petersen, J. [Risoe National Lab., The Test Station for Wind Turbines, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    A general aeroelastic finite element model for simulation of the dynamic response of horizontal axis wind turbines is presented. The model has been developed with the aim to establish an effective research tool, which can support the general investigation of wind turbine dynamics and research in specific areas of wind turbine modelling. The model concentrates on the correct representation of the inertia forces in a form, which makes it possible to recognize and isolate effects originating from specific degrees of freedom. The turbine structure is divided into substructures, and nonlinear kinematic terms are retained in the equations of motion. Moderate geometric nonlinearities are allowed for. Gravity and a full wind field including 3-dimensional 3-component turbulence are included in the loading. Simulation results for a typical three bladed, stall regulated wind turbine are presented and compared with measurements. (au)

  10. Caracterización morfoanatómica comparativa entre Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F., Aloe arborescens Mill., Aloe saponaria Haw. y Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Aloeaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carpano, Stella Maris; Castro, María Teresa; Spegazzini, Etile Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (= Aloe barbadensis Miller) conhecida como "a planta da imortalidade" no antigo Egito é utilizada em fitoterapia como humectante, antibacteriana, antifúngica, antiviral e antioxidante. Com a finalidade de contribuir para identificação da droga vegetal, foram realizados estudos morfoanatômicos da folha. A utilização de plantas com características terapêuticas reconhecidas determina que, por analogia, popularmente sejam utilizadas com a mesma finalidade outras espécies d...

  11. Propagation in Schlumbergera truncata (Haw: alternatives to the use of xaxim = Propagação de Schlumbergera truncata (Haw: alternativas ao uso do xaxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonseca Zanotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental cactus, Schlumbergera truncata, is propagated by cuttings, with xaxim (Dicksonia sellowiana being one of the substrates used. However, xaxim is endangered, and it has become necessary to evaluate alternative substrates. The use of suitable substrates and of substances that promote organogenesis, such as auxins, aid in the process of plant propagation. The aim of this study therefore, was to evaluate the development of cuttings of S. truncata in different substrates, and the effect of IBA on organogenesis. Six treatments were carried out, consisting of a combination of three substrates (powdered xaxim, powdered coconut and a commercial substrate, and two rates of IBA (0 and 600 mg L-1. Twenty cuttings were used per treatment, distributed over five replications of four cuttings, in a completely randomised design and a 3 x 2 factorial (substrates x AIB. There was no significant interaction between the factors, which were evaluated separately. For the powdered xaxim substrate, the commercial substrate and the powdered coconut, the cuttings displayed 3.0, 3.7 and 1.3 shoots per plant respectively. After exposure to a solution of IBA of 0 or 600 mg L-1, the cuttings presented 2.2 and 3.1 shoots per plant respectively. The substrate of powdered xaxim and the commercial substrate are both effective in the propagation of S. truncata. As the xaxim, found in the Atlantic Forest, is an endangered species, the use of a commercial substrate is recommended, with IBA as a growth regulator to promote an increase in budding. = A Schlumbergera truncata é uma cactaceae ornamental, propagada por estacas, e o xaxim é um dos substratos utilizados. Devido à ameaça de extinção do xaxim, torna-se necessário avaliar substratos alternativos. A utilização de substratos adequados e o uso de substâncias promotoras de organogênese, como as auxinas, auxiliam no processo de propagação vegetativa. Dessa maneira, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento de estacas de S. truncata em diferentes substratos e o efeito do AIB na organogênese. Foram realizados seis tratamentos, que consistiram na combinação de três substratos (pó de xaxim; pó de coco e substrato comercial, bem como na presença (600 mg L-1 ou ausência de AIB. Foram utilizadas 20 estacas por tratamento, sendo distribuídas em cinco repetições com quatro estacas por repetição, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (substratos x AIB. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, sendo avaliados isoladamente. Nos substratos pó de xaxim, substrato comercial e pó de coco, as estacas apresentaram 3,0; 3,7 e 1,3 brotos por planta, respectivamente. Após exposição à solução de AIB com 0 e 600 mg L-1, as estacas apresentaram 2,2 e 3,1 brotos por planta, respectivamente. Tanto o substrato pó de xaxim quanto o substrato comercial são eficientes para propagação de S. truncata. Portanto, sendo o xaxim (Dicksonia sellowianna uma espécie da Mata Atlântica que se encontra em extinção, recomenda-se a utilização de substrato comercial e uso do regulador de crescimento AIB para promover incremento de brotação.

  12. Induction of in vivo mutation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. Pink Repin breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Augusto Tulmann; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha

    1997-01-01

    Mutation induction was used with the objective of obtaining mutants for flower colour of chrysanthemum, cv. Repin (pink colour). Rooted cuttings were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma rays and before the selection the cutting back method was used to advance the generations. The frequency of colour mutants observed was 5.8%. Among the mutants obtainedthe white and dark-pink-coloured ones were evaluated in yield trial and post-harvest. The results indicated that these mutants mantained the same agronomical characteristics showed by the control, with the exception of plant height in the white mutant that was shorter. Due to commercial interest of the producers, these mutants were multiplied and released as new cultivars. The white flower colour mutant was named Cristiane and the dark-pink, Ingrid. This was the first example of cultivars from an ornamental plant released by mutation breeding in Brazil. (author)

  13. Micropropagation of ornamental species Petunia grandiflora and Dianthus chinensis x barbatus

    OpenAIRE

    Velesanova, Ivana; Trajkova, Fidanka; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2017-01-01

    Petunia (Petunia sp.) and pink dianthus (Dianthus sp.) are important ornamental plants which are grown on balconies, in flower gardens, parks and other during summer period. Approximately 156 ornamental species are cultivated via tissue culture in different commercial laboratories worldwide. In vitro plant culture is one of the key tools in plant biotechnology that utilizes the totipotency of plant cells. In this research the influence of different concentrations and combinations of BA, GA...

  14. Progress report of the ECN contribution to the experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.; Vonka, V.

    1990-12-01

    This progress report documents the progress of the ECN contribution in the High Active Waste experiment, a large-scale in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen FRG, during the period April 1st through June 30th, 1990. In ch. 2 a general overview is given of the experiment development. Problems and solutions are discussed in ch. 3. (author). 4 refs.; 10 figs

  15. The HAW-Project: Test disposal of highly radioactive radiation sources in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuously surveyed in respect of the thermomechanical and geochemical response of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of 30 radioactive canisters (Sr-90 and Cs-137 sources) was developed and succesfully tested. This system consists of six multiple transport and storage casks of the type Castor-GSF-5, two above ground/below ground shuttle transport casks of the type Asse TB1, an above ground transfer station, an underground transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and a borehole slider. A laboratory investigation program on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This program includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field measuring systems consisting of ionisation chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. Thermomechanical computer code validation is performed by calculational predictions and parallel investigation of the stress and displacement fields in the underground test field. (orig./HP)

  16. Progress report of the ECN contribution to the experiments in the HAW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.; Vonka, V.

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the progress of the ECN contribution in the High Active Waste Experiment, a large-scale in-situ test being performed underground in the Asse salt mine, Remlingen, FRG, during the period January 1st through March 31st, 1991. (A.S.). 3 refs.; 10 figs

  17. Generative period in development of Mammillaria Haw. (Cactaceae Juss. plants in greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Baglay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic composition of the collection of the genus Mammillariain O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, as well as the peculiarities of blooming and seed germination have been considered. The list of the plants from the genus Mammillariain this collection which are included into IUCN Red List have been represented. The optimal conditions of seed conservation have been determined.

  18. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1990-04-01

    To satisfy the test objectives thirty highly radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./DG)

  19. Thermo-mechanical analyses and model validation in the HAW test field. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, J J; Broerse, J; Prij, J

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of the thermo-mechanical analysis work done for the design of the High Active Waste experiment and for the purpose of validation of the used models through comparison with experiments. A brief treatise is given on the problems of validation of models used for the prediction of physical behaviour which cannot be determined with experiments. The analysis work encompasses investigations into the initial state of stress in the field, the constitutive relations, the temperature rise, and the pressure on the liner tubes inserted in the field to guarantee the retrievability of the radioactive sources used for the experiment. The measurements of temperatures, deformations, and stresses are described and an evaluation is given of the comparison of measured and calculated data. An attempt has been made to qualify or even quantify the discrepancies, if any, between measurements and calculations. It was found that the model for the temperature calculations performed adequately. For the stresses the general tendency was good, however, large discrepancies exist mainly due to inaccuracies in the measurements. For the deformations again the general tendency of the model predictions was in accordance with the measurements. However, from the evaluation it appears that in spite of the efforts to estimate the correct initial rock pressure at the location of the experiment, this pressure has been underestimated. The evaluation has contributed to a considerable increase in confidence in the models and gives no reason to question the constitutive model for rock salt. However, due to the quality of the measurements of the stress and the relatively short period of the experiments no quantitatively firm support for the constitutive model is acquired. Collections of graphs giving the measured and calculated data are attached as appendices. (orig.).

  20. Thermo-mechanical analyses and model validation in the HAW test field. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Broerse, J.; Prij, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of the thermo-mechanical analysis work done for the design of the High Active Waste experiment and for the purpose of validation of the used models through comparison with experiments. A brief treatise is given on the problems of validation of models used for the prediction of physical behaviour which cannot be determined with experiments. The analysis work encompasses investigations into the initial state of stress in the field, the constitutive relations, the temperature rise, and the pressure on the liner tubes inserted in the field to guarantee the retrievability of the radioactive sources used for the experiment. The measurements of temperatures, deformations, and stresses are described and an evaluation is given of the comparison of measured and calculated data. An attempt has been made to qualify or even quantify the discrepancies, if any, between measurements and calculations. It was found that the model for the temperature calculations performed adequately. For the stresses the general tendency was good, however, large discrepancies exist mainly due to inaccuracies in the measurements. For the deformations again the general tendency of the model predictions was in accordance with the measurements. However, from the evaluation it appears that in spite of the efforts to estimate the correct initial rock pressure at the location of the experiment, this pressure has been underestimated. The evaluation has contributed to a considerable increase in confidence in the models and gives no reason to question the constitutive model for rock salt. However, due to the quality of the measurements of the stress and the relatively short period of the experiments no quantitatively firm support for the constitutive model is acquired. Collections of graphs giving the measured and calculated data are attached as appendices. (orig.)

  1. Effect of different 1-methylcyclopropene doses on the postharvest period of pitahaya fruits (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez-Herrera

    2016-07-01

    application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on the preservation and quality of dragon fruit, given that it has been effective in the conservation and postharvest quality of many agricultural species allowing longer life, using a completely randomized experiment design with three treatments: 0, 300 and 600 mg L-1 of 1-MCP, with four replications. The 600 mg L-1 of 1-MCP dose was able to maintain the quality of the dragon fruit longer (28 days after harvest (dah because it managed to reduce the respiratory rate. The application of 1-MCP did not affect the firmness, loss of mass, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, or total carotenoids in the fruits. The application of 1-MCP slowed the loss of fruit quality in terms of color because the 600 mg L-1 dose maintained the lightness of the fruits longer, reduced the color changes as expressed in a* and b* values and decreased the chlorophyll degradation.

  2. Ethylene and 1-MCP affect the postharvest behavior of yellow pitahaya fruits (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pitahaya or dragon fruit is one of the most representative exotic fruits that Colombia has, with an important, growing international market, but the cultivation and postharvest of this fruit lack sufficient technological support to be more competitive. Therefore, alternatives that provide good-quality products that meet market requirements are very important. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the effect of a ripening retardant and ethylene application on the conservation and quality of pitahaya fruits and the possible changes during ripening associated with ethylene, for which a completely randomized design with three treatments was used, corresponding to the application of ethylene (ethephon, 3 mL L-1, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, 600 mg L-1 and a control, with four replications, for a total of 12 experimental units. The fruits were stored at 18°C with 75% relative humidity. The 1-MCP application significantly decreased the loss of firmness, total soluble solids, loss of fresh mass and respiratory rate. Fruits from the control and ethylene treatment tended toward a climateric respiratory behavior. The total carotenoid content of the fruits was significantly higher in the ethylene application and the control treatment, which was consistent with the color change of the fruits. It can be concluded that the 1-MCP application reduced the ethylene action, slowing the ripening of the dragon fruits.

  3. Haw-glass dissolution and radionuclide release: mechanism - modelling - source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grambow, B [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fur Nukleare, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Important release controlling processes are: 1) kinetics of glass matrix dissolution (leaching), 2) formation of secondary alteration products (controlling thermodynamic solubility), 3) sorption on surfaces in the engineered barrier system and 4) formation of mobile species. Quantification of these processes requires assessment of the energetics and dynamics of the various reversible and irreversible processes within an overall open non-equilibrium system. Corrosion/dissolution of the waste matrices is not necessarily associated with a proportional release of radionuclides. The formation of new secondary phases, such as silicates, molybdates, uranates, carbonates... establishes a new geochemical barrier for re-immobilization of radionuclides dissolved from the waste matrices. The presence of iron (corroding canisters during glass alteration) reduces the solution concentration of redox sensitive radionuclides. Consequently, the container, after being corroded, constitutes an important geochemical barrier for radionuclide re-immobilization. Geochemical modelling of the long-term behaviour of glasses must be performed in an integrated way, considering simultaneous reactions of the glass, of container corrosion, of repository rock and of backfill material. Until now, only few attempts were made for integral systems modelling. (A.C.)

  4. Position of the axillary bud and mutation induction in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) plant lets; Posicao da gema axilar e a inducao de mutacao em mudas de crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adames, Alvis Hernan; Latado, Rodrigo Rocha; Camargo, Nalza Maria; Tulmann Neto, Augusto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Melhoramento de Plantas. E-mail: rrlatado@cena.usp.br

    1999-12-01

    Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of application of this method in the M{sub 1}V{sub 2} population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar Ingrid (dark ping) were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream). Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original) and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M{sub 1}V{sub 1} populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named Magali was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar. (author)

  5. Cytomorphological and autoradiografical studies on the receptacle of the strawberry (Fragaria grandiflora Eherh. in the initial stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szymański

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume of the cortex and pith cells of strawberries from the cultivar Talizman gradually increased until ripening, especially in the cortex. The volume of the nucleus also increased. The nuclei in the pith were smaller then in the cortex. The volume of the nucleolus increased significantly between days 1 and 5 after pollination, after which it remained unchanged. At the end of the growth period, the volume of the nucleolus in cortical and pith cells in the lower and central part of the fruit increased. Endomitotic polyploidization which was responsible for the growth of the fruit, occurred during the development of the receptacle. The intensity of 3H actinomycin binding reached a maximum in the oldest stages. This is proof for the accumulation of active DNA during mitosis. Saturation with this antibiotic occurred in the early stages of fruit development. No dependence between the volume of cells and the number of nuclei binding 3H actinomycin was observed.

  6. Cloning of the chrysanthemum UEP1 promoter and comparative expression in leaves and ray and disc florets of Dendranthema grandiflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Kuipers, G.; Visser, P.B.; Outchkourov, N.; Pereira, A.; Udayakumar, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    To attain high transgene expression in petal tissue of ray florets of chrysanthemum an endogenous ubiquitin extension protein (UEP1) promoter was cloned and tested with the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression levels were compared with four heterologous promoters: chalcone synthase

  7. INOCULACIÓN IN VITRO DE LA ROYA BLANCA (Puccinia horiana HENNINGS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C\\u00E9sar Vences-Contreras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad el desarrollar la técnica de inoculación in vitro de la roya blanca, con el objeto de ahorrar tiempo y espacio en la caracterización de los distintos cultivares de crisantemo respecto al grado de susceptibilidad o resistencia a este patógeno. En Tenancingo, Estado de México, en el periodo 2004-2005 se colectaron hojas de crisantemo que presentaban daños por la enfermedad, se desinfectaron para posteriormente inocular las pústulas sobre plantas creciendo bajo condiciones in vitro. El recipiente de cultivo se mantuvo a una humedad relativa alrededor del 95% y temperaturas entre los 13 y 27 ºC, bajo condiciones de luz y oscuridad. Los daños por la enfermedad se manifestaron a los 20 días después de la inoculación. Los tratamientos a 17 ºC y oscuridad generaron un mayor número de pústulas (18,7. El diámetro de las pústulas fluctuó entre los 0,71 mm (tratamientos con 17 ºC y luz a los 1,79 mm en los tratamientos con 19 ºC y bajo oscuridad.

  8. El daminozide aumenta el diámetro de inflorescencia del crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., cultivar polaris white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. G. Esquivel-Pool

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron varias concentraciones (1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000 y 5,000 mg·litro-1 de daminozide sobre plantas de crisantemo cv. Polaris White, en maceta y se midieron el incremento del diámetro del tallo, altura de la planta, número de nudos, longitud de entrenudos, diámetro de la inflorescencia, biomasa y área foliar para comparar su efecto contra un testigo. La concentración de 1,000 mg·litro-1 provocó que los tallos incrementaran su diámetro 10.08 % en comparación con el testigo en tanto que con 4,000 mg·litro-1 el diámetro del tallo se redujo 8 %. Los entrenudos disminuyeron su longitud hasta 76 % con 4,000 mg·litro-1 en comparación con el testigo. Concentraciones iguales o mayores a 2,000 mg·litro-1 redujeron hasta en 34.3 % la altura de la planta. El daminozide favoreció el crecimiento de las inflorescencias incrementando su diámetro 31.22 % en promedio

  9. REGENERACIÓN IN VITRO DE ONCE CULTIVARES DE CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev A PARTIR DE MERISTEMOS APICALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C\\u00E9sar Vences-Contreras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de inducir la regeneración de plántulas in vitro de 11 cultivares regionales de crisantemo, se realizó un ensayo en el Laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos Vegetales de la Facultad de Cie ncia s Agrícolas de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México en el periodo 2005- 2006. Se sembraron meristemos api cales de cada varie dad en el medio de cultivo Murashige y Skoog 1962, más 3 % de sacarosa, 6,5 g/l de agar y un pH de 5,7-5,8. Se evaluaron doce combinaciones posibles producto de cuatro dosis de ANA (0,01; 0,02; 0,03 y 0,04 mg/l por tres dosis de K (0,5; 1,0 y 1,5 mg/l. La tasa de multip licación varió de 1:8 hasta 1:29 dependiendo del cultivar.

  10. Meiotic restitution mechanisms involved in the formation of 2n pollen in Agave tequilana Weber and Agave angustifolia Haw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    A cytological analysis of the microsporogenesis was carried out in the Agave tequilana and A. angustifolia species. Several abnormalities such as chromosomal bridges, lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, monads, dyads and triads were found. The morphological analysis of the pollen, together with the above-mentioned 2n microspores, allowed us to confirm the presence of 2n pollen as well as its frequency. In both A. tequilana and A. angustifolia two different mechanisms were observed: the first mechanism, a failure in the cytokinesis in meiosis II caused the formation of dyads with two 2n cells and triads containing two n cells and one 2n cell; the second mechanism, involves an abnormal spindle, which caused the formation of triads with two n cells and one 2n cell. Likewise, the presence of monads was detected in both species, these, might be caused by a failure of the cytokinesis in both meiotic divisions. This is the first report about the presence of a Second Division Restitution mechanism (SDR) which causes the formation of 2n pollen in the genus Agave. The genetic implications of the presence of 2n pollen in the genus Agave are discussed.

  11. The Haw River Sites: Archaeological Investigations at Two Stratified Sites in the North Carolina Piedmont. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    activity of the NBS Oxalic acid as a modem standard. .......... Table 1 Radiocarbon Age Determinations for Samples from 31ChS and 31Ch29 Lab Number...devitrified flow. Devitrification of both basic and acidic tuffs involves alteration of glass and glass fragments to other minerals (Howell, Turner...quartz as " hydrothermal veins" (Blatt at al. 1972:276-277) account for its white color. Additional trace minerals may add color to the quartz. In

  12. Ácido giberélico (GA3 no crisântemo (Dedranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. de corte 'viking': cultivo verão/outono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Claudinei Márcio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a ação do ácido giberélico (AG3 em plantas crisântemo de corte 'Viking' quanto a parâmetros fenométricos, melhor época e concentração da aplicação para obter-se hastes de melhor qualidade no cultivo de verão/outono. Avaliou-se o efeito de cinco épocas de aplicação (sem aplicação, aplicação na segunda, quarta, oitava e décima semana após o plantio e quatro concentrações (0, 100, 200 e 300 mg.L-1 de GA3. Verificou-se que as maiores alturas foram obtidas com as aplicações na segunda e quarta semanas de cultivo e nas concentrações entre 200 a 300 mg.L-1. O maior diâmetro de haste e pedúnculo floral foram obtidos com a aplicação de 100 a 200 mg.L-1 GA3 na quarta semana. A concentração de 200 mg.L-1 de GA3, independente da época de aplicação proporcionou a antecipação do florescimento em cinco dias, todas as concentrações aplicadas a partir da oitava semana provocaram o clareamento do disco floral.

  13. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzy, M.; Zalewska, M.; Lema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  14. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to moniter high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendrantherma grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janka, Eshetu; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    and quantum yield of PSII remaining low until the temperature reaches 28 °C and 2) the integration of online measurements to monitor photosynthesis and PSII operating efficiency may be used to optimise dynamic greenhouse control regimes by detecting plant stress caused by extreme microclimatic conditions.......Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes...

  15. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Aloe saponaria Haw in a model of UVB-induced paw sunburn in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariane Arnoldi; Trevisan, Gabriela; Hoffmeister, Carin; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Walker, Cristiani Isabel Banderò; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Silva, Cássia Regina; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-04-05

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation mainly affects biological tissues by inducing an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which leads to deleterious outcomes for the skin, including pain and inflammation. As a protective strategy, many studies have focused on the use of natural products. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Aloe saponaria on nociceptive, inflammatory, and oxidative parameters in a model of UVB-induced sunburn in adult male Wistar rats. Sunburned animals were topically treated with vehicle (base cream), 1% silver sulfadiazine (positive control) or A. saponaria (10%) once a day for 6days. UVB-induced nociception (allodynia and hyperalgesia), inflammation (edema and leukocyte infiltration) and oxidative stress (increases in H2O2, protein carbonyl levels and lipid peroxidation and a decrease in non protein thiol content) were reduced by both A. saponaria and sulfadiazine topical treatment. Furthermore, A. saponaria or its constituents aloin and rutin reduced the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in skin homogenates in vitro. Our results demonstrate that topical A. saponaria treatment displayed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in a UVB-induced sunburn model, and these effects seem to be related to its antioxidant components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Methodology and applicability of a safety and demonstration concept for a HAW final repository on clays. Safety concept and verification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Andre; Meleshyn, Artur

    2014-08-01

    The report describes the site independent frame for a safety concept and verification strategy for a final repository for heat generating wastes in clay rock. In the safety concept planning specifications and technical measures are summarized that are supposed to allow a safe inclusion of radionuclides in the host rock. The verification strategy defines the systematic procedures for the development of fundamentals and scenarios as basis for the demonstration of the safety case and to allow the prognosis of appropriateness. The report includes the boundary conditions, the safety concept for the post-closure phase and the verification strategy for the post-closure phase.

  18. El mezcal en Sonora, México, más que una bebida espirituosa. Etnobotánica de Agave angustifolia Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Bañuelos Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cómo sería la vida de los sonorenses sin el mezcal? La interrogante guía el propósito general del trabajo, orientado a identificar la importancia que tradicionalmente ha revestido el Agave angustifolia en la vida cotidiana de los sonorenses. En su mayor parte, los estudios existentes en Sonora en torno a esta especie se enfocan, básicamente, en su uso para la elaboración industrial del licor, popularmente conocido como bacanora. La investigación pretende contribuir, en alguna medida, al mayor conocimiento del valor biológico y cultural de la planta. Con ese objetivo se recurre a la etnobotánica para obtener una mirada más completa de las formas en las que los hombres y mujeres se han relacionado con el agave. La región de estudio comprende dos zonas mezcaleras: la sierra orien-te, donde la mayor parte de la población es mestiza, y la zona sur, donde los grupos indígenas Mayo y Guarijío cohabitan con mestizos. Se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad a diversos pobladores, así como a investigadores y otros estudiosos de la planta. Se consultaron las fuentes históricas disponibles. Los resultados muestran la existencia de diferencias regionales en los usos del agave y técnicas de preparación, determinadas por un número de factores estrechamente vinculados con el grupo étnico de los pobladores y su historia.

  19. Biologia reprodutiva e ausência de frutificação de Aloe saponaria (Aiton Haw. (Xanthorrhoeaceae fora do local de origem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. CORREDOR-PRADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O gênero Aloe, originário principalmente da África, tem atualmente uma ampla distribuição no mundo. No entanto, são poucas as regiões que têm realizado estudos quanto ao sistema reprodutivo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar as características e o comportamento reprodutivo de Aloe saponaria em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. Foram conduzidos estudos sobre sua morfologia e biologia floral, visitantes florais e sistema reprodutivo. Esta espécie apresentou uma inflorescência por planta, com um comprimento de 105 ± 0,1 cm e 267 ± 92,7 flores. A razão pólen/óvulo sugere que a espécie é xenogâmica. O volume e concentração de sólidos solúveis totais do néctar potencial foi 16,6 ± 6,3 μL e 22 ± 2,4 °Brix respectivamente. O néctar instantâneo não apresentou diferenças significativas nos períodos avaliados (9:00h e 15:00h e o estigma permaneceu receptivo até o segundo dia após a antese. Foram coletados 110 insetos visitantes florais, dos quais 61,8% foram indivíduos de Trigona spinipes. Entretanto, nos testes de polinização não foi observada frutificação efetiva, indicando que a propagação vegetativa é o principal tipo de reprodução usado nessa população. Isto pode estar relacionado a um mecanismo de autoincompatibilidade esporofítica, a anormalidades cromossômicas durante a formação do pólen, as condições climáticas, e a escassa variabilidade genética no local de estudo.

  20. Inventario de la entomofauna asociada al cultivo de pitahaya amarilla (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw. en Briceño (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Iván Patiño-Tiria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Boyacá es uno de los departamentos con mayor producción de pitahaya amarilla en el país. Los estudios realizados sobre este cultivo son muy pocos, y el conocimiento de la entomofauna asociada a él es un punto de partida para realizar nuevas investigaciones que permitan identificar la entomofauna asociada a este cultivo en el municipio de Briceño (Boyacá. El desarrollo de esta investigación se llevó a cabo en plantaciones de pitahaya en tres fincas del municipio de Briceño (Boyacá. Se realizaron muestreos empleando métodos activos, como captura manual directa, uso de red y aspirador entomológico, y métodos pasivos, como trampas con atrayentes y trampas  de caída. Los insectos colectados se sometieron a cámara letal y luego se montaron en alfileres para su posterior identificación con ayuda del estereoscopio y claves taxonómicas. En las tres fincas se identificaron un total de 9 órdenes y 58 familias, y los órdenes Hymenóptera y Díptera se reportaron con la mayor cantidad de individuos benéficos. En la finca San Pablo se observó la mayor cantidad de insectos; también fue la única en donde se evidenció la presencia de la plaga más limitante para este cultivo, que es Dasiops saltans (mosca del botón floral. La cantidad de familias presentes en los muestreos se ve influenciada más por el manejo agronómico implementado en cada finca que por las variables climatológicas, como temperatura, humedad relativa y precipitación.

  1. Notes on the typification of some species of Aloe (Asphodelaceae/Aloaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Glen

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Lecto- or neotypes are designated for Aloe thompsoniae Groenew.. A. micracantha Haw .. A. schmidticma Regel (a synonym of/4,  cooperi Baker. A. longistyla Baker. A. aristata Haw., A. longiaristata Schult. & Schult. f„ (a synonym of the preceding name, A. humilis (L. Mill. var.  incurva Haw.. A. glauca Mill., A. niuricata Schult. (a synonym of the preceding name. A. saponaria (Aiton Haw. var.  latifolia Haw. (a new synonym of A. maculata All. and A. pluridens Haw. The confusing citation of the type of A. thomcroftii Pole Evans is clarified.

  2. (Bio)degradation of RDX and HMX in Marine/Estuarine Water and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    four fungal strains Rhodotorula sp . HAW-OCF1, Bullera sp . HAW-OCF2, Acremonium sp . HAW-OCF3 and Penicillium sp . HAW-OCF5, were isolated as RDX...represent four novel species of Shewanella described as follows: Shewanella sediminis sp . nov.: Strain HAW-EB3T contains lysine decarboxylase that is...We proposed Shewanella sediminis sp . nov. with HAW-EB3T (= NCIMB 14036T = DSM 17055T) as the type strain (Zhao et al. 2005). Shewanella halifaxensis

  3. EFECTO DE DOS ÍNDICES DE MADUREZ Y DOS TEMPERATURAS DE ALMACENAMIENTO SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO EN POSCOSECHA DE LA PITAHAYA AMARILLA (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw. EFFECT OF TWO RIPENING STAGES AND TWO STORAGE TEMPERATURES ON THE POSTHARVEST BEHAVIOUR OF YELLOW PITAHAYA (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Alexandra Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el comportamiento poscosecha de la pitahaya amarilla, se almacenaron 60 kg de fruta cosechada en estado 3 de madurez, según la Tabla de Color de CENICAFE (ICONTEC NTC 3554, de los cuales 30 kg se colocaron en un cuarto a 19 ºC y los 30 kg restantes en un cuarto frío a 8 ºC; igual se procedió con 60 kg de la fruta cosechada en estado 5 de madurez. Las características físicas de las frutas en estado 3 cambiaron poco, mientras las químicas variaron a través del tiempo, respondiendo al proceso de maduración; tuvieron un tiempo de vida útil mayor los frutos almacenados a 8 °C (19 días. Sin embargo a partir de este día se evidenció daño por frío en el 50 % de los frutos. Los frutos a 8 °C y 19 °C, presentaron aumento en el pH y el índice de madurez, pasando de estado 3 a 5 y de 5 a 6 al final del almacenamiento. Así mismo la acidez titulable decreció, pasando de 2,54 % a 1,50 % y 3,02 % a 1,29 % en estado 3 a 19 ºC y 8 ºC, respectivamente. El porcentaje de agua en el fruto tuvo una reducción del 3,0 % y 1,10 % para las frutas en estado 3 a 19 ºC y 8 ºC; y de 2,5 4 % y 0,51 % en estado 5 a 19 ºC y 8 ºC, respectivamente. Los ºBrix tuvieron un comportamiento errático. Las frutas cosechadas en estado 5, no presentaron cambios fisicoquímicos importantes y su duración fue menor, debido en parte a la presencia de la pudrición basal del fruto causada por Fusarium sp. Por lo tanto se sugiere cosechar la fruta en estado 3 de madurez y almacenarla a una temperatura menor al ambiente ( 19 ºC aprox. y mayor a 8 ºC.In order to evaluate the postharvest behaviour of yellow pitahaya, 60 kg of fruit harvested at ripening stage 3, as determined by the CENICAFE colour scale (ICONTEC NTC 3554, were stored, of which 30 kg were placed in a room at 19 °C and the remaining 30 kg were placed in refrigerated storage at 8 °C; similarly, the same procedure was conducted with 60 kg of fruit harvested at ripening stage 5. The physical properties of stage 3 fruits changed little, while chemical properties varied over time, responding to the ripening process. Fruits stored at 8 °C had a longer shelf life (19 days. However, after this time, chill injury was apparent in 50 % of the fruits. Fruits at 8 and 19 °C exhibited increases in pH and the ripening index went from 3 to 5 up to 5 to 6 by the end of the storage. Likewise, titratable acid decreased in stage 3 from 2,54 % to 1,50 %, and from 3,02 % to 1,29 %, at 19 and 8 ºC, respectively. Water percentage of the stage 3 fruit decreased 3 and 1,10 % at 19 and 8 ºC; and decreased in stage 5 fruits 2,54 and 0,51 % at 19 and 8 ºC, respectively. ºBrix exhibited erratic behavior. Fruits harvested at ripening stage 5 did not exhibit important physicochemical changes and their longevities were lower, due in part to fruit basal end-rot caused by Fusarium sp. Therefore, it is suggested that fruit be harvested at ripening stage 3 and stored at temperatures below ambient ( 19 °C and above 8 °C.

  4. Notes on the Cactaceae of Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire and North Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar Hummelinck, P.

    1938-01-01

    La flora de cactos de las islas situadas entre Trinidad y la península de La Goajira comprende trece especies silvestres, aparte del género Melocactus: Pereskia Guamacho, Opuntia caribaea, O. curassavica, O. Wentiana, O. elatior, Rhipsalis cassutha, Hylocereus Lemairei, Acanthocereus pentagonus,

  5. Perfil metabólico e aspectos ultraestruturais de plantas de Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae) crescidas na presença e ausência de alumínio

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Jessica Regina

    2017-01-01

    O alumínio trivalente (Al+3) é altamente tóxico e é o principal fator de estresse para plantas sensíveis em solos ácidos. Contudo, muitas espécies são bem adaptadas a condições de solos ácidos e a elevadas concentrações de Al. Os mecanismos de adaptação das plantas podem ser divididos em: a) resistência: exclusão do Al a partir de células do sistema radicular e, b) tolerância: entrada e sequestro do Al para os órgãos vegetais. Algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado, além de serem acumuladoras de...

  6. Evaluación de la actividad biocontroladora de Arthrobotrys sp. y Paecilomyces sp. sobre Meloidogyne javanica in vitro y bajo condiciones de invernadero en crisantemo (Drendranthema grandiflora Andernson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Lida

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Para evaluar la acción biocontroladora de Arthrobotrys sp. y Paecilomyces sp. sobre huevos y larvas de Meloidogyne javanica en crisantemo, se realizaron prue­bas in vitro y en invernadero. Se tomaron 500 larvas y 500 huevos del nematodo contenidos en suspensiones de agua estéril y se trataron con concentraciones de 1,3· 106; 1,4· 107 y 6,4· 106; 1,14· 107 conidias/mL de Arthrobotrys sp. y Paecilomyces sp. Se observó bajo estereos­copio cada 24 horas, mientras la acción de los hongos sobre M. javanica se cuantificó a las 72 horas de incu­bación, con un índice de control mayor de 50% sobre larvas y huevos. En invernadero se sembraron esquejes en suelo con compost estéril bajo un diseño estadístico de bloques completos al azar. Los tratamientos fueron: hongos de forma individual y combinada; compost sólo y combinado con cada hongo; carbofurán (Fura­dan®; testigo patógeno y testigo absoluto. A los 45 días después de la inoculación se evaluó el peso fresco de la raíz, la longitud de la raíz, el número de nódulos y el de individuos de M. javanica ambulatorios en 100 g de suelo. Mediante la prueba de Duncan (5% se determi­nó que el tratamiento de hongos en forma combinada controló a M. javanica, con un promedio de 18 nódulos en raíz, y fue menos eficiente comparado con el control individual, con un promedio de 7 y 8 nódulos en raíz respectivamente a los 45 días de transcurrida la infec­ción. El compost no ejerció control sobre M. javanica pues presentó un promedio de 50 nódulos en raíz; el tratamiento (Furadán® exhibió un promedio de 25 nó­dulos en raíz, mostrando diferencias significativas res­pecto a los tratamientos con los hongos nematófagos.

  7. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas. Spectral NIR data from intact leaves showing different levels of yellowing (healthy leaves, slightly deformed leaves or highly deformed leaves with advanced yellowing, used in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis of NIR spectra, were used to build a descriptive model for chrysanthemum leaf yellowing classification. The descriptive model indicated the presence of two groups of NIR spectra belonging to asymptomatic or symptomatic leaves, with no further differentiation of NIR spectra from leaves showing mild or severe yellowing symptoms. Not without the drawbacks of a low number of NIR spectra, these results suggests that it is possible to develop a fast, accurate and nondestructive, spectroscopic based system to detect this disease on blind plant samples. Improvements to the sensitivity of this model in detecting multiple stages of this disease will depend on obtaining and adding new NIR leaf spectra obtained from clearly defined ratings of the disease. Due to its sensitivity and wide application, NIR spectroscopy appear to be a core technique to further develop new systems for the early detection of chrysanthemum leaf yellowing and other plant diseases. This in turn may result in the design of opportune and timely systems for plant disease control.

  8. UJI VIABILITAS DAN PERKEMBANGAN SERBUK SARI BUAH NAGA PUTIH (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS (HAW. BRITTON & ROSE, MERAH (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS (WEB. BRITTON & ROSE DAN SUPER MERAH (HYLOCEREUS COSTARICENSIS (WEB. BRITTON & ROSE SETELAH PENYIMPANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI KADEK YUNITA SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine pollen viability, pollen tube length and pollen development of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at different temperatures and times. The method used to test pollen viability was hanging drop technique and to observe the development of pollen used acetolysis techniques. The results showed viability and pollen tube length of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at temperature of 10° C and -20° C for 1, 2 and 3 weeks decreased (66% and 25%, tended to increase (2% after 4 weeks. Viability and pollen tube length decreased (100% after storage at 30° C for 4 weeks. Pollen development of white, red and super red dragon fruit after storage at 30°C, 10°C and -20°C for 1 to 4 weeks showed the majority of pollen consists of uninucleat and binucleat.

  9. A fugitive illusion. anti-nuclear 'barbarism'. Nuclear policies: France hums and haws, England dashes, Germany sinks, Northern America strengthens, Japan gets ready, Russia and China move forward, and the rest of the world emerges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-04-01

    This document proposes three articles by the same author. In the first one, he presents wind energy and photovoltaic as a complete economic failure (and even disaster), a sector in which huge investments have been lost with dramatic human consequences. In the second one, he comments and criticizes the statements contained in an anti-nuclear publication entitled Antinuclear barbarism (in French: Barbarie antinucleaire) which denounces various aspects of the nuclear industry notably in Japan and in Fukushima, but also regarding the Chernobyl accident and its health consequences, or the French nuclear policy (ASTRID project) and energy policies of various countries. The third article proposes an overview of nuclear policies in France (no important nuclear project until 2007, difficulties with the EPR, new perspectives in China and in the UK), in England (project of construction of 10 EPRs), in Germany (dramatic consequences of the decision to phase out nuclear), in Eastern European countries (new reactor projects), in Scandinavia (Finland and Sweden may extend their nuclear fleet), in the USA (a 20 year extension of reactor life) and in Canada, in Russia (nuclear revival with remarkable improvements on the existing reactors, project of development of fast breeder reactors, development of the VVER fleet, good prospects for exports), in Asia (Japan, South Korea, China)

  10. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes; Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung von bestrahlten Brennelementen und verglastem HAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, A.; Geupel, S.; Gewehr, K.; Gmal, B.; Hannstein, V.; Hummelsheim, K.; Kilger, R.; Wagner, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schmidt, G.; Spieth-Achtnich, A. [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer angewandte Oekolgie (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available. With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management. The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed. Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing an ageing management program for dry cask storage facilities. From the gained results and findings recommendations were derived, which are on the one hand directed to the implementation of a periodic safety review, and on the other hand addressing safety issues which could be important in case of a needed extension of the storage period. The report comes to the conclusion that on the base of the analyses performed herein no indication on unexpected long term effects nor on insufficient justification of safety during the planned regular period of storage was found. In addition the report provides recommendations regarding the implementation of a systematic ageing management program in the frame of the planned 40 years storage period and for an extension, if this should be necessary.

  11. Evaluación de la actividad fungistática in vitro de bacterias ácido lácticas contra especies de Fusarium causantes de pudrición basal en pitahaya amarilla (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw)

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Hernández, Leidy J

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium sp. Es uno de los principales hongos fitopatógenos causantes de enfermedades en pitahaya amarilla. Estudios previos han demostrado la capacidad antimicrobiana de bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL) contra patógenos; sin embargo no se ha reportado en la literatura científica actividad fungistática de BAL contra especies de Fusarium causantes de pudrición basal en pitahaya amarilla. En este trabajo se evaluó in vitro la actividad fungistática de una BAL aislada de cultivos de pitahaya amari...

  12. COMUNICACIONES CORTAS TERPENOS ISLADOS DE LOS FRUTOS DE CLUSIA ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron triterpenos de los frutos de tres especies de Clusia (familia Guttiferae. En C.multlflora y C. grandiflora se encontraron eufenol, epímero en C-20 del tirucallol, y 3 ceto eufano antes no reportados para este género. También se encontró isocariofileno en C. grandiflora.

  13. Invasive alien plant species used for the treatment of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japonica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest ...

  14. Impact of Relativistic Electron Beam on Hole Acoustic Instability in Quantum Semiconductor Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Areeb, F.; Javed, Asif; Sumera, P.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of the classical relativistic beam of electrons on the hole acoustic wave (HAW) instability exciting in the semiconductor quantum plasmas. We conducted this study by using the quantum-hydrodynamic model of dense plasmas, incorporating the quantum effects of semiconductor plasma species which include degeneracy pressure, exchange-correlation potential and Bohm potential. Analysis of the quantum characteristics of semiconductor plasma species along with relativistic effect of beam electrons on the dispersion relation of the HAW is given in detail qualitatively and quantitatively by plotting them numerically. It is worth mentioning that the relativistic electron beam (REB) stabilises the HAWs exciting in semiconductor (GaAs) degenerate plasma.

  15. Distribution and Biosynthesis of Iridoid Glucosides in the Loasaceae Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Veronica

    In order to make a more precise inventory of iridoid glucosides from Loasaceae family 13 species belonging to 7 genera (Eucnide bartonioides, E. grandiflora, Gronovia scandens, Fuertesia domingensis, Loasa parviflora, L. tricolor, L. urens, L. speciosa, Klaphrotia mentzeloides, Cajophora cernua, ...

  16. Decomposition and nutrient release in leaves of Atlantic Rainforest tree species used in agroforestry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, E.M.G.; Cardoso, I.M.; Stijnen, T.; Mendonça, M.A.F.C.; Coelho, M.S.; Cantarutti, R.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Villani, E.M.A.; Mendonça, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to support the use of native species from the Atlantic Rainforest in local agroforestry systems, we analysed chemical and biochemical components related to leaf decomposition of Inga subnuda, Senna macranthera, Erythrina verna, Luehea grandiflora, Zeyheria tuberculosa, Aegiphila sellowiana,

  17. Off-Gas Analysis During the Vitrification of Hanford Radioactive Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Choi, A.S.; Bibler, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the off-gas analysis of samples collected during the radioactive vitrification experiments. Production and characterization of the Hanford waste-containing LAW and HAW glasses are presented in related reports from this conference

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2053 ref|YP_001474562.1| DNA internalization-related competence protei...n ComEC/Rec2 [Shewanella sediminis HAW-EB3] gb|ABV37434.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 [Shewanella sediminis HAW-EB3] YP_001474562.1 0.18 25% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1488 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1488 ref|YP_001474562.1| DNA internalization-related competence protei...n ComEC/Rec2 [Shewanella sediminis HAW-EB3] gb|ABV37434.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 [Shewanella sediminis HAW-EB3] YP_001474562.1 1.7 33% ...

  20. Posição da gema axilar e a indução de mutação em mudas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev Position of the axillary bud and mutation inducion in chrysanthemun (Dendranthema glandiflora Tzevelev plantets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis Hernán Adames

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento mutagênico de meristemas multicelulares em plantas de propagação vegetativa geralmente resulta na formação de plantas quiméricas. Os setores mutados podem ser ampliados e estabilizados por meio de podas repetidas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência de podas em distintas posições (da 1a até a 6a gema axilar de um ramo M1V1, na freqüência de obtenção de mutantes de coloração de inflorescência e no tamanho dos setores mutados, em plantas de crisântemo irradiadas com raios-gama. Para tal, mudas enraizadas do cultivar ‘Ingrid’ (de coloração rosa escuro foram tratadas com 20 Gy de raios-gama. Após 40 dias do plantio foram realizadas as podas. Avaliaram-se a freqüência de mutantes e o espectro de mutação para a coloração da inflorescência nos ramos M1V2. Não foram observados mutantes no controle. No total de plantas avaliadas, 22,1% apresentavam mutações na coloração das flores sendo que, do total de plantas mutantes, 1,8% eram mutantes periclinais (com coloração única e as restantes (98,2%, apresentavam apenas alguns setores mutados. Não se observou diferença significativa quanto ao tamanho do setor mutado e ao número de mutantes nos diversos tratamentos (podas em diferentes gemas axilares. Com relação ao espectro de mutação, observaram-se mutantes com flores de coloração bronze, rosa claro, chá-rosa, variegado, amarelo, branco, vinho e creme. Um mutante de coloração vinho foi selecionado, multiplicado e avaliado em ensaio de produção. Este mutante denominado ‘Magali’ foi multiplicado para lançamento como novo cultivar.Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of the application of this method in the M1V2 population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M1V1 chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar ‘Ingrid’ (dark pink were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M1V2 population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream. Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M1V2 populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named ‘Magali’ was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar.

  1. Datos experimentales de la cinética del secado y del modelo matemático para pulpa de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum en rodajas Kinetic drying experimental data and mathematical model for cupuaçu pulp (Theobroma grandiflora slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Damian Giraldo-Zuniga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo fueron obtenidos experimentalmente la cinética del secado de la pulpa de cupuaçu en forma de rodajas con espesor de 0,5 cm. El secado fue realizado utilizándose un secador laboratorial de bandejas, a las temperaturas de 50, 60 y 70 ºC y a la velocidad del aire de secado de 1,5 m/s. De acuerdo con los datos de la cinética del secado se puede observar que cuanto mayor es la temperatura del secado mayor es la velocidad del secado. El tiempo requerido para secar el producto hasta una humedad del 20%, fueron 9,2, 8,1 y 7,3 horas para las temperaturas de secado de 50, 60 y 70 ºC respectivamente. Las curvas experimentales del secado fueron ajustados al modelo difusional de Fick considerándose la muestra como una lámina infinita y al modelo de Page. Los dos modelos se ajustaron bien a los datos experimentales. Los coeficientes de difusión del modelo de Fick variaron de 1.171 a 1.561 m/s².This work examined experimentally the kinetics of drying cupuaçu pulp (Theobroma grandiflorum slices. The experimental runs were driven in a laboratory dryer, at temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC and an air drying velocity of 1.5 m/s. According to the kinetics study, increasing the temperature led to a decrease in drying time. The required drying times were 9.2, 8.1 and 7.3 hours for drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC respectively. The experimental drying curves were adjusted to Fick's diffusional model for an infinite lamina with shrinkage and Page model. The diffusion coefficients of the Fick model varied between 1.171 and 1.561 m/s².

  2. Efficacité des méthodes de lutte contre le développement de cinq espèces de plantes invasives amphibies : Crassula helmsii , Hydrocotyle ranunculoides , Ludwigia grandiflora , Ludwigia peploides et Myriophyllum aquaticum (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Delbart, Emmanuel; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Parmi les espèces invasives connaissant une expansion rapide en Europe, les plantes dites « amphibies » sont particulièrement problématiques. Elles sont capables de former des populations très denses à la surface des plans d’eau, se développant à la fois sous l’eau et hors de l’eau. La lutte contre ces espèces, en vue de l’éradication totale ou du ralentissement de l’invasion, représente un défi de taille pour les gestionnaires. Une synthèse bibliographique des méthodes de lutte existantes po...

  3. Investigations concerning the source term for the emission of fission products and transuranic elements from the highly radioactive waste in the temperature region between 200 and 11000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, F.; Krebs, K.; Merte, B.

    1984-04-01

    Starting point of these investigations was the research report 290 of the former Institute for Reactor Safety, Cologne. The largely incorrect assumptions made in the chemical statement led to high radioactive doses not only for the closer, but also for the further surroundings of a reprocessing plant in case that the cooling system of the fuel element storage or the storage tank for the highly radioactive waste (HAW) should become inoperative for an extended period of time. However, as a result of this temperature region which we used in our experiments, the investigations concerning the source term of the HAW between 1100 and 1200 0 C became interesting again, because a glass melt of about 1100 0 C is used during the PAMELA-process for the vitrification of the HAW. The aqueous HAW-solution is thereby poured onto a hot glass melt. The solution thereby dries up, the HAW-salt is calcined and finally sinks into the glass melt. From today's point of view an investigation concerning the source term of the fission products and transuranic elements from the HAW at 1100 0 C therefore provides information regarding the fission product- and transuranic element volatilization within the melting furnace during the vitrification process. The results may now therefore also be considered a contribution for the layout of the off-gas purification system during the PAMELA-process

  4. Non-reciprocal Interspecies Hybridization Barriers in the Capsella Genus Are Established in the Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin A Rebernig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition to selfing in Capsella rubella accompanies its recent divergence from the ancestral outcrossing C. grandiflora species about 100,000 years ago. Whether the change in mating system was accompanied by the evolution of additional reproductive barriers that enforced species divergence remained unknown. Here, we show that C. rubella and C. grandiflora are reproductively separated by an endosperm-based, non-reciprocal postzygotic hybridization barrier. While hybridizations of C. rubella maternal plants with C. grandiflora pollen donors resulted in complete seed abortion caused by endosperm cellularization failure, the reciprocal hybridization resulted in the formation of small seeds with precociously cellularized endosperm. Strikingly, the transcriptomic response of both hybridizations mimicked respectively the response of paternal and maternal excess hybridizations in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting unbalanced genome strength causes hybridization failure in both species. These results provide strong support for the theory that crosses between plants of different mating systems will be unbalanced, with the outcrosser behaving like a plant of increased ploidy, evoking a response that resembles an interploidy-type seed failure. Seed incompatilibity of C. rubella pollinated by C. grandiflora followed the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model, involving negative genetic interaction of multiple paternal C. grandiflora loci with at least one maternal C. rubella locus. Given that both species only recently diverged, our data suggest that a fast evolving mechanism underlies the post-zygotic hybridization barrier(s separating both species.

  5. Nitrogen use efficiency as a tool to evaluate the development of ornamental cacti species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen efficiency, along with associated indexes, is a widely used tool for assessing nutritional status in agricultural species. However, this parameter is not used in studies with ornamental plants, especially epiphytic cacti species. In particular, we know very little about the potential response of ornamental cacti to N absorption and use. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate N use efficiency (NUE, along with its associated parameters, in three species of ornamental cacti under nitrogen nutrition. To accomplish this, Rhipsalis baccifera, Rhipsalis paradoxa and Hatiora salicornioides were fertilized by Hogland and Arnon nutrition solution modified and enriched with urea in the concentrations of 0, 33.3 or 66.6 mM N during 180 days. At the end of the experiment, efficiency indexes were calculated. Efficiency parameters varied according to species. R. baccifera presented the greatest dissimilarity among the species, with highest uptake efficiency (NUpE, but lowest use efficiency (NUtE and biomass conversion (BCE. R. paradoxa presented high values for NUE, NUtE, BCE and physiological efficiency (NPE at concentrations of 33.3 mM N, suggesting greater investment in biological processes with lower supply of N. H. salicornioides had the highest averages in most parameters measured. Our results show that these indexes provided important comparative baseline information on nutritional status and investment strategy, thus serving as a suitable analytical tool to increase knowledge about this group of ornamental plants.

  6. Headspace Analysis of Volatile Compounds Coupled to Chemometrics in Leaves from the Magnoliaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headspace volatile analysis has been used for volatiles profiling in leaves of 4 Magnolia species with a total of 75 compounds were identified. Monterpene hydrocarbons dominated the volatile blend of M. calophylla (86%, M. acuminata (78%, M. virginiana (70% and M. grandiflora (47% with b -pinene and b -ocimene occurring in the largest amounts, whereas sesquiterpenes were the most abundant compounds in M. grandiflora (39%. High levels of oxygenated compounds were only found in M. virginiana volatile blend (11.4% with 2-phenylethyl alcohol as major component. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on volatiles content revealed the close relationship between M. acuminata and M. calophylla.

  7. Phylogeny of Cyclic Nitramine-Degrading Psychrophilic Bacteria in Marine Sediment and Their Potential Role in the Natural Attenuation of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    prepared by dissolving Brewer Anaerobic Agar (Becton Dickson,Sparks, MD, USA) in marine salts medium. Liquid marine media used in the present study...were marine broth 2216 (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD) [7], or prepared by dissolving 0.1 or 1 g each of yeast extract, bacto peptone, and glucose in 1 l...biodegrada- tion All marine isolates (HAW-EB1–5, HAW-EB17, 18 and 21) grew well in marine broth 2216 or other peptone and yeast extract based media

  8. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations of the Mountain Creek Area, North Central Texas. Volume 2. Historic Farming on the Hogwallow Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    species. Once an item recovered from sites 41DL183, 41DL196, and 41TR45. was identified to genus or species, it was labeled and When viewed from the...Gray Red Haw Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon Sapindus saponaria L. var. Wild China/ Soapberry Cercis canadensis L. Redbud Juglans spp. Walnut 15.4...spp. Plum .3 Crataegus mollis Torr. & Gray Red Haw .9 .8 .3 Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon .3 Sapindus saponaria L. var. Wild China/ Soapberry .8 1.9

  9. Negotiating Primitivist Modernisms: Louis Armstrong, Robert Goffin, and the Transatlantic Jazz Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available “Dear Pal Goffin,” Louis Armstrong wrote to his Belgian acquaintance, the lawyer, hobby journalist, and jazz historian Robert Goffin, on July 19, 1944. “‘Man—I’ve been trying to get in touch with you […]. Here’s another hundred dollars toward the five hundred. […] So accept this hundred and I’ll send the other before a ‘Black Cat can ‘Lick his ‘Bu‘hind’ ….. haw haw haw…” (80. Sending Goffin a batch of money along with this playfully worded missive, Armstrong was hoping for quick results. He ...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for Aircraft Maintenance Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    lies within the Southern Mixed Forest Province that is typically characterized by forests of broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf evergreen trees ...virginiana), pin oak (Q. palustris), and southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). Small tree and shrub species include the eastern red cedar, eastern ...this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington

  11. Piedmont community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; James R. Simpson; Paula J. Peper; Shelley L. Gardner; Kelaine E. Vargas; Scott E. Maco; Qingfu Xiao

    2006-01-01

    This report quantifies benefits and costs for small, medium, and large broadleaf trees and one coniferous tree in the Piedmont region: the species chosen as representative are dogwood (Cornus florida), Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), red maple (Acer rubrum), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  12. 76 FR 39888 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... (Sonoma alopecurus); Amsinckia grandiflora (large-flowered fiddleneck); Arabis mcdonaldiana (McDonald's... of receipt of permit applications; request for comment. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... received on or before August 8, 2011. ADDRESSES: Written data or comments should be submitted to the U.S...

  13. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dillenia indica L of Dilleniaceae is an elegant, medium sized, tree of Indian origin (North-Eastern India). Its large white flowers, up to 20 centimetres in diameter, are very beautiful. They look somewhat like the fJowers of Magnolia grandiflora. Full of nectar, the flower is generally seen with a number of large bees feasting ...

  14. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syriaca and Crété (1950) Linum variation of Solanad type of embryo develop- ment in Asclepias curassavica. Rao and Rao (1954) published an account of male and female gametophytes, endosperm and embryo development in. Cryptostegia grandiflora and Caralluma attenuata. Biswas (1957) studied the embryology of ...

  15. Characterization of calcium crystals in Abelia using x-ray diffraction and electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Localization, chemical composition, and morphology of calcium crystals in leaves and stems of Abelia mosanensis and A. ×grandiflora were analyzed with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM) equipped with an X-ray diffraction system, low temperature SEM (LT-SEM) and a transmission ...

  16. Coastal plain community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; James R. Simpson; Paula J. Peper; Shelley L. Gardner; Kelaine E. Vargas; Scott E. Maco; Qingfu Xiao

    2006-01-01

    This report quantifies benefits and costs for representative large, medium, and small broadleaf trees and coniferous trees in the Coastal Plain region: the species chosen as representative are the Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida...

  17. Oil content and physicochemical characteristics of some wild oilseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant seed oils content reported in this study are comparatively higher than some food crop plants such as soybean and olive. Five of these oils have oil melting range as that of edible oils. C. grandiflora, C. halicacabum, M. eminii and the two species of Myrianthus are in the range of common cooking oils by their ...

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    It is urgent to find other novel therapy for lung cancer patients. Opuntia dillenii Haw was introduced from Milpa region into China in 1997. Because its rhizome is an excellent herb medicine, it has been used extensively for treatments of wounds, burns, asthma and diabetes (Huang et al., 2009). This plant contains high levels ...

  19. Confirmed range extension of the White-billed Buffalo Weaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FAnsHAwe, J. 2002. Field guide of the birds of East Africa. Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda,. Rwanda, Burundi. London: T. & A.D. Poyser. zimmermAn, d.A., tUrner, d.A. & PeArson d.J. 1999. Birds of Kenya & Northern Tanzania. London: Helm Field Guides. Sandro Panzera. Museo di Storia Naturale del Salento, Calimera LE, Italy.

  20. 3 CFR 8386 - Proclamation 8386 of May 26, 2009. National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... storm surges, which can in turn bring severe flooding, power outages, damage to homes and businesses... working in government, business, and the nonprofit sector—to plan ahead and help secure the safety and... conditions. More information on precautionary measures is available at www.nhc.noaa.gov/HAW2/english/intro...

  1. Archeological Survey of Undeveloped Portions of Eaker Air Force Base, Mississippi County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-25

    Swamp (Quercus bicolor) T I White (Quercus alba)11 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw...Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Sheilbark ( Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeamn (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica

  2. A Cultural Resources Survey of Steele, New Franklin, and Main Ditches, and National Register of Historic Places Significance Testing of Sites 2PM574, 575, 577, and 23PM578, Pemiscot County Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-15

    White (Quercus alba) 1 1 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red... Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellbark (Car.ya laciniosa) T Hornbeam ( Ostrya virgin/iana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica)T "Locust, ? T Black (Robinia

  3. Enhancing Infant Mental Health Using a Capacity-Building Model: A Case Study of a Process Evaluation of the "Ready, Steady, Grow" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrelly, Christine; Guerin, Suzanne; Victory, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Infant mental health (IMH) is best promoted through a continuum of services underpinned by strong service capacity. However, service providers often lack fundamental IMH knowledge and skills. Using the Ready, Steady, Grow (RSG) initiative as a case study of a capacity-building model (P., Hawe, L., King, M., Noort, C., Jordens, & B., Llyod,…

  4. Oma riik / Jaan Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Jaan, 1954-

    2007-01-01

    Inglise kunstniku Mark Wallingeri näitusest "State Britain" Londonis Tate Britainis. Eksponeeritakse üle 40 meetri pikkust installatsiooni, mis koosneb Briti parlamendihoone vastas sõjavastast demonstratsiooni pidava Brian Haw' banneritest, lippudest, loosungitest, fotodest, kaisukarudest. Rootsi kunstniku Ann Sofi Siden'i näitusest "Warte Mal!" Londoni Haywardi galeriis 2002 a.

  5. Commodity Cluster Computing for Remote Sensing Applications using Red Hat LINUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorband, John

    2003-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been doing research at Goddard Space Flight Center on implementing a wide variety of applications on commodity based computing clusters. This talk is about these clusters and haw they are used on these applications including ones for remote sensing.

  6. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  7. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Number 293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-06

    of Koh’s Johore-registered Datsun where the drugs were found after Mr Lim Chye Huat, who was holding a watching brief for Messrs United Keng Soon...prime minister that Article 21 be imposed against two Chinese Haw heroin traffickers, Lin Taisiang and Mrs Ma Chin -muai, who were caught with k.l kgs

  8. Marketing Climate: New Considerations for Target Marketing in Graduate Student Enrollment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzow, Jeannine; Hyland, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Lewison and Hawes (1997) discuss target marketing strategies of differentiated, concentrated or orchestrated marketing in their article "Student Marketing Strategies for Universities." While the authors agree with some of the suggested strategies and reasons behind them, their perspective as faculty teaching in a graduate education program offers…

  9. A Drosophila melanogaster hobo-white + vector mediates low frequency gene transfer in D. vlrllls with full Interspecific white + complementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformation of a Drosophila virilis white mutant host strain was attempted by using a hobo vector containing the D. melanogaster mini-white+ cassette (H[w+, hawN]) and an unmodified or heat shock regulated hobo transposase helper. Two transformant lines were recovered with the unmodified helper (...

  10. Farmer education and organization in the Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, Ronald F.L.; Sugano, J.S.; Jang, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A critical component of successful area wide pest management (AWPM) programs are organized, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programs. The Hawaii area wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) program's educational program, a part of a USDA AWPM program in Hawaii, utilized the 'logic model' approach to organize, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programs statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between program inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilized extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational program targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness program for the pubic at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education program was the development of implementation schedules used to track program progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of program sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring program elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilization of the logic model to organize efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programs such as the HAW-FLYPM program has shown to be a successful method of program advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Independent Waste Handling Facility, 211-F at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Currently, liquid Low Activity Waste (LAW) and liquid High Activity Waste (HAW) are generated from various process operational facilities/processes throughout the Savannah River Site (SRS) as depicted on Figure 2-1. Prior to storage in the F-Area tank farm, these wastes are neutralized and concentrated to minimize their volume. The Waste Handling Facility (211-3F) at Building 211-F Complex (see Figure 2-2) is the only existing facility onsite equipped to receive acidic HAW for neutralization and volume reduction processing. Currently, Building 221-F Canyon (see Figure 2-2) houses the neutralization and evaporation facilities for HAW volume reduction and provides support services such as electric power and plant, process, and instrument air, waste transfer capabilities, etc., for 21 1-F operations. The future plan is to deactivate the 221-F building. DOE`s purpose is to be able to process the LAW/HAW that will continue to be generated on site. DOE needs to establish an alternative liquid waste receipt and treatment capability to support site facilities with a continuing mission. The desire is for Building 211-F to provide the receipt and neutralization functions for LAW and HAW independent of 221-F Canyon. The neutralization capability is required to be part of the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Programs (NMSP) facilities since the liquid waste generated by the various site facilities is acidic. Tn order for Waste Management to receive the waste streams, the solutions must be neutralized to meet Waste Management`s acceptance criteria. The Waste Management system is caustic in nature to prevent corrosion and the subsequent potential failure of tanks and associated piping and hardware.

  12. El género Calamintha Mill. (Labiatae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, Ramón

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian species of Calamintha Mill, are studied taxonomically, including chemical, palynological and karyological data. Two species inhabit the geographic área considered: C. nepeta, with two subspecies and C. grandiflora. Each species is accompanied by a distribution map (UTM projection with points equivalent to 10 x 10 km quadrats. The new combinations Calamintha sect. Macromelissa (Benth. R. Morales and C. nepeta subsp. sylvatica (Bromf. R. Morales are proposed.Estudio de las especies ibéricas de Calamintha Mill., teniendo en cuenta datos químicos, palinológicos y cariológicos. En el área geográfica considerada viven dos especies: C. nepeta, con dos subespecies, y C. grandiflora. Se incluyen mapas de distribución. Se proponen las nuevas combinaciones Calamintha sect. Macromelissa (Benth. R. Morales y C. nepeta subsp. sylvatica (Bromf. R. Morales.

  13. Fort Bragg Old Post Historic District Landscape Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    proved to be of substantial economic value (Lefler and Powell 1973). Lon- gleaf pines ( Pinus palustris) produce higher quality pine resin/crude gum than...plants that have the same characteristics as the historic varieties; na- tive plants require relatively little upkeep, are drought tolerant, and can... Pinus palustris Longleaf Pine 1933/IDG 2009 Native Quercus alba White Oak Large Evergreen Trees 1933/IDG 2009 Native Magnolia grandiflora Southern

  14. Sustainable harvesting strategy of medicinal plant species in Nepal results of a six-year study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Z.; Dostálek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2017), s. 239-252 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : scrophulariiflora pennell hong * population viability analysis * nardostachys-grandiflora dc. * comparative demography * allium-tricoccum * growth rates * models * conservation * dynamics * forest * conservation * elasticity * Himalayan region * medicinal plants * NTFPs * population dynamics * rhubarb * sustainability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  15. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  16. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume atsaline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in thisresearch was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged inrandomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grassmonoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grassmonoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch;M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass withSesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed byDuncan's Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grasslegumewith 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth,forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plantgrowth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritionalquality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

  17. Characterization of the salt stress vulnerability of three invasive freshwater plant species using a metabolic profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenot, Lise; Deleu, Carole; Berardocco, Solenne; Haury, Jacques; Thiébaut, Gabrielle

    2015-03-01

    The effects of salt stress on freshwater plants has been little studied up to now, despite the fact that they are expected to present different levels of salt sensitivity or salt resistance depending on the species. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of NaCl at two concentrations on three invasive freshwater species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Ludwigia grandiflora, by examining morphological and physiological parameters and using metabolic profiling. The growth rate (biomass and stem length) was reduced for all species, whatever the salt treatment, but the response to salt differed between the three species, depending on the NaCl concentration. For E. canadensis, the physiological traits and metabolic profiles were only slightly modified in response to salt, whereas M. aquaticum and L. grandiflora showed great changes. In both of these species, root number, photosynthetic pigment content, amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism were affected by the salt treatments. Moreover, we are the first to report the salt-induced accumulation of compatible solutes in both species. Indeed, in response to NaCl, L. grandiflora mainly accumulated sucrose. The response of M. aquaticum was more complex, because it accumulated not only sucrose and myo-inositol whatever the level of salt stress, but also amino acids such as proline and GABA, but only at high NaCl concentrations. These responses are the metabolic responses typically found in terrestrial plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental drop tests in the frame of the component testing of transport casks for radioactive materials; Durchfuehrung experimenteller Fallpruefungen im Rahmen der mechanischen Bauartpruefung von Transportbehaeltern fuer radioaktive Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolff, A.; Droste, B.; Quercetti, T.; Mueller, K. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM) is the responsible German authority for component testing of packaging containers for radioactive materials in the frame of the licensing process. The tests are performed according to the national and international legal regulations for the transport of radioactive materials. This includes the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal behavior under defined testing conditions and the radionuclide release in case of severe accidents. The most important test concerning the accident resistance is the experimental drop tests from 9 m height on a firm base plate and from 1 m height on a steel mandrel. The tested sample was a 1:2 model cask CASTOR {sup registered} HAW/Tb2 of the original type CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M. The tests were performed at the BAM test ground in Hortswalde. The documented test results will be part of the safety analysis in the frame of the licensing process for the transport and storage cask.

  19. A nuclear waste deposit in space - the ultimate solution for low-cost and safe disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppe, H.O.; Hayn, D.; Braitinger, M.; Schmucker, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear high-active waste (HAW) is representative for the problem of burdening the environment with highly active or toxic waste products at present and in the future. Safe disposal methods on Earth are technically very difficult to achieve and the costs of establishment and maintenance of such plants are extremely high. Furthermore the emotionally based rejection by a wide sector of the population gives sufficient reason to look for new solutions. Here, space technology can offer a real alternative - a waste deposit in space. With the Space Transportation System, which shall soon be operative, and the resulting high flight frequencies it will be possible to transport all future HAW into space at economical casts. (orig.) [de

  20. Nuevas citas de monocotiledóneas adventicias para la Argentina New records of adventitious monocots for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo incluye cinco nuevos registros de monocotiledóneas adventicias para la Argentina: Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Asphodelaceae, Aspidistra elatior Blume (Convallariaceae, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain (Dracaenaceae, Phormium tenax J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Hemerocallidaceae y Ornithogalum arabicum L. (Hyacinthaceae, pertenecientes al orden Asparagales. También incluye una evaluación del estado actual de estas especies, en relación al proceso de naturalización: escapadas de cultivo ocasionales, naturalizadas.This paper includes five new records of adventitious monocots for Argentina: Aloe ciliaris Haw. (Asphodelaceae, Aspidistra elatior Blume (Convallariaceae, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain (Dracaenaceae, Phormium tenax J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Hemerocallidaceae and Ornithogalum arabicum L. (Hyacinthaceae, belonging to order Asparagales. Also includes an evaluation of its status in the naturalization process: casual alien, naturalized.

  1. Variation in Phytochemical Composition Reveals Distinct Divergence of Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. From Other Aloe Species: Rationale Behind Selective Preference of Aloe vera in Nutritional and Therapeutic Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Priyankar; Dutta, Somit; Chowdhury, Anurag; Das, Abhaya Prasad; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we have phytochemically characterized 5 different abundant Aloe species, including Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., using silylation followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry technique and compared the data using multivariate statistical analysis. The results demonstrated clear distinction of the overall phytochemical profile of A vera, highlighted by its divergent spatial arrangement in the component plot. Lowest correlation of the phytochemical profiles were found between A vera and A aristata Haw. (−0.626), whereas highest correlation resided between A aristata and A aspera Haw. (0.899). Among the individual phytochemicals, palmitic acid was identified in highest abundance cumulatively, and carboxylic acids were the most predominant phytochemical species in all the Aloe species. Compared to A vera, linear correlation analysis revealed highest and lowest correlation with A aspera (R 2 = 0.9162) and A aristata (R 2 = 0.6745), respectively. Therefore, A vera demonstrated distinct spatial allocation, reflecting its greater phytochemical variability. PMID:29228808

  2. The Natural and Cultural Environmental Resources of the Aquilla Creek Watershed, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    Vernonia baldwinii Torr. Western Ironweed Viburnum rufidulum Raf. Black Haw Vicia dasycarpa Ten. Winter (Wooly-pod) Vetch Vitex agnus -castus L. Chaste-tree... DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In...Bacteria. 207 Table 45. Macrobenthos. 208 Table 46. Turbidity. 209 Table 47. Relative Transparency. 209 Table 48. Distribution of invertebrates in

  3. In vitro neoplastic transformation of plant callus tissue by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, K.N.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Tumours have been induced by γ-radiation in callus tissue derived from a monocotyledonous flowering plant, Haworthia mirabilis Haw. The transformed tissue exhibited compact texture, excessive cell proliferation and loss of capacity for organogenesis. Tumors were characterized by their ability to undergo continuous autonomous growth on minimal media in the subsequent 4 generations of subculture. In contrast, the nonirradiated control tissue grew with friable texture, required inositol or growth hormones and showed prolific differentiation of vegetative buds. (Auth.)

  4. Designing Medical Facilities to Care for Patients with Highly Hazardous Communicable Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    experience in biocontainment patient care. Pub Health Nursing 2010;140-6. 25Lowe JJ , Jelden KC, Schenarts PJ, Rupp LE, Jr, Hawes KJ, Tysor BN, Swansiger RG...units. Curr Opin-Infect Dis 2015;28:343-8. 27 Wadman MC, Schwedhelm SS, Watson S, Swanhorst J, Gibbs SG, Lowe JJ , Iwen PC, Hayes AK, Needham S...30 Lowe JJ , Gibbs SG, Schwedhelm SS, Nguyen J, Smith PW. Nebraska biocontainment unit perspective on disposal of Ebola medical waste. Am J Infect

  5. Können Suchmaschinen von sozialer Software profitieren?

    CERN Document Server

    Seehaus, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Students at the HAW Hamburg dealed with the question how search engines could add user generated content from a social software system like lycos iq to their result pages. For this reason they analysed and compared the systems` advantages, relevance of search results, usability and the quality of the generated content. The conclusion is that it’s necceassary to improve social software. The text presents the results and the recommendations for lycos iq.

  6. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Along Ditch 19 and Extensive Testing of 23DU289, Dunklin and Stoddard Counties, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Pl.um (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) T...2 Cherry (Prunus sp.) T Cottonwood (Populus sp.) 1 3 Dogwood (Cornus sp.) 1 Hackberry (Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellhark... Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree( Gymnoeladus dioica)T Locust, T Black (Robinia pseudo-acacia) T Honey

  7. Shielding calculations with SCALE/MAVRIC and comparison with measurements for the TN85 cask with vitrified high level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Holger; Börst, Frank-Michael

    2017-09-01

    A series of dose rate/spectra measurements in the German interim storage facility Gorleben was carried out at a TN85 cask in April 2009. This type of cask is used for the transport and interim storage of vitrified high level radioactive waste (HAW) from reprocessing. The aim of this work is to assess the shielding component MAVRIC of the SCALE code system with these measurements for the use in the German Bundesamt für Kerntechnische Entsorgungssicherheit (BfE).

  8. Recreational Appendix Report, Elm Fork Flood Control Project, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    Juniperus virginiana 2. Willow Salix nigra 3. Cottonwood Populus deltoides 4. Black Walnut Juglans migra 5. Pecan Carya illinoensis 6. Bur Oak...Maclura pomifera 12. Red Mulberry Morus rubra 13. Sycamore Platanus occidentailis 14. Red Haw Crataegus, sps. 15. Wild Plum Prunus mexicana 16. Mesquite...also provides a habitat for a number of mammals including: 1. Opossum Didelphis virginiana 2. Shrews Blarina brevicuada and Cryptotis parva 3. Raccoon

  9. Laboratory Experiments to Simulate and Investigate the Physics Underlying the Dynamics of Merging Solar Corona Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-05

    efficiently by using current density rather than electric field as the fundamental wave quantity. 3. Moser & Bellan (2012) showed that the effective gravity...there is effectively a magnetic bubble. This is relevant to interplanetary magnetic clouds spawned by the eruptions of solar corona structures. 10...release. Haw, Magnus , & Bellan, Paul. 2015. 1D fast coded aperture camera. Review of Scientific Instruments, 86(4). 043506. Moser, Auna L., & Bellan

  10. Accumulated energy determination in salts rocks irradiated by means of thermoluminescence techniques: application to the high level radioactive wastes repositories analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Ortega. J.; Tarrasa. F.; Cuevas, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report summarizes the study carried out to develop the radiation effects on salt rocks in order to repository the high level radioactive wastes. The study is structured into 3 main aspects: 1.- Analysis of irradiation experiences in Haw project of Pet ten reactor. 2.- Irradiation of salt sample of CESAR industrial irradiator. 3.- Correlation study between the accumulated energy, termoluminescence answer and the defect concentration

  11. Results of research and development works 1981 of the Institute for Nuclear Waste Management Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The emphasis of the work is on the development and characterization of waste products suitable for final storage, such as actinides and fission products from MAW/LAW, as well as on the development of methods for the treatment and solidification of radioactive wastes, e.g. wet chemical oxidation, vitrification and cementation. Investigations on the HAW-storage in salt are carried out in cooperation with the GSF. (HP) [de

  12. Aquilla Lake, Brazos River Basin, Texas, Pre-Impoundment Environmental Study: Supplement to Design Memorandum Number 9, Master Plan (in Response to: 40CFR 1505.3),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    phaeacantha White Prairie Rose Rosa filiolosa Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa Slippery Elm Ulrnus rubra Elbow-Bush Forestiera pubescens Southen Black-haw Virburnum...It LIST OF PLATES Plate Title Page 1 Above, a cedar elm woodland scene ( -5), herbaceous component consists primarily of Canada...3( 2 Above, view of a pecan parkland (T3-2), herbaceous and shrub components composed primarily of Smilax, June 1980. Below, a mesquite/cedar elm

  13. 6-Hydroxymethyl-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (Opuntiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Athar Abbasi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H8O4, isolated from Opuntia dillenii Haw (Cactaceae, is almost planar [maximum deviation of 0.027 (2 Å] except for the H atoms of the methylene and methyl groups. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds, resulting in the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  14. Puccinia scillae (Uredinales, a new species for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rust species new for Poland, that affects the ornamental plant Scilla siberica Haw. The distribution of the fungus and its host plants, both introduced and native in Europe, have been investigated. The data from neighbouring countries indicate that the parasite has been probably overlooked in Poland till now. There is a possibility, however, that the species is currently spreading in central and north-eastern Europe.

  15. Generalized laws of black-hole thermodynamics and quantum conservation laws on Hawking radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Q.; Cai, X.

    2000-01-01

    Four classical laws of black-hole thermodynamics are extended from exterior (event) horizon to interior (Cauchy) horizon. Especially, the first law of classical thermodynamics for Kerr-Newman black hole (KNBH) is generalized to those in quantum form. Then five quantum conservation laws on the KNBH evaporation effect are derived in virtue of thermodynamical equilibrium conditions. As a by-product, Bekenstein-Haw king's relation S=A/4 is exactly recovered

  16. Typologie spatiale de la végétation sahélienne en relation avec les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    0,0316. Tribulus terrestris L. 16,5. 0,0373. Très dégradé. Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw. 36,5. 0,0170. Acalypha crenata Hochst.ex A.Rich. 36,5. 0,0250. Tableau 4: Quantification comparative des variables par stade de dégradation. Variables de dégradation des glacis du bassin versant de. Gourouol. Peu dégradé.

  17. Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 μg/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 μg/mL and 183 μg/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50 values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47

  18. 2.45 GHz Rectenna Designed for Wireless Sensors Operating at 500 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Schwartz, Zachary D.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Downey, Alan N.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    High temperature wireless sensors that operate at 500 C are required for aircraft engine monitoring and performance improvement These sensors would replace currently used hard-wired sensors and lead to a substantial reduction in mass. However, even if the sensor output data is transmitted wirelessly to a receiver in the cooler part of the engine, and the associated cables are eliminated, DC power cables are still required to operate the sensors and power the wireless circuits. To solve this problem, NASA is developing a rectenna, a circuit that receives RF power and converts it to DC power. The rectenna would be integrated with the wireless sensor, and the RF transmitter that powers the rectenna would be located in the cooler part of the engine. In this way, no cables to or from the sensors are required. Rectennas haw been demonstrated at ambient room temperature, but to date, no high temperature rectennas haw been reported. In this paper, we report the first rectenna designed for 2.45 GHz operation at 500 C. The circuit consists of a microstrip dipole antenna, a stripline impedance matching circuit, and a stripline low pass filter to prevent transmission of higher harmonics created by the rectifying diode fabricated on an Alumina substrate. The rectifying diode is the gate to source junction of a 6H Sic MESFET and the capacitor and load resistor are chip elements that are each bonded to the Alumina substrate. Each element and the hybrid, rectenna circuit haw been characterized through 500 C.

  19. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997

  20. Requirements for a long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a final storage facility for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, M.; Hippler, J.; Herzog, C.

    2007-01-01

    Within the scope of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie, BMWi), a safety certification concept for a future permanent final storage for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste (HAW disposal facility) in rock salt formations is being prepared. For a reference concept, compliance with safety requirements in regard to operational safety as well as radiological and non-radiological protection objectives related to long-term safety, including ground water protection, will be evaluated. This paper deals with the requirements for a long-term safety certification for the purpose of protecting ground water from chemotoxic substances. In particular, longterm safety certifications for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations and for the dumping of hazardous waste in underground storage facilities in rock salt formations are first discussed, followed by an evaluation as to whether these methods can be applied to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances. The authors find it advisable to apply the long-term safety certification for underground storage facilities to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations. In conclusion, a corresponding certification concept is introduced. (orig.)

  1. Landau quantization effects on hole-acoustic instability in semiconductor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumera, P.; Rasheed, A.; Jamil, M.; Siddique, M.; Areeb, F.

    2017-12-01

    The growth rate of the hole acoustic waves (HAWs) exciting in magnetized semiconductor quantum plasma pumped by the electron beam has been investigated. The instability of the waves contains quantum effects including the exchange and correlation potential, Bohm potential, Fermi-degenerate pressure, and the magnetic quantization of semiconductor plasma species. The effects of various plasma parameters, which include relative concentration of plasma particles, beam electron temperature, beam speed, plasma temperature (temperature of electrons/holes), and Landau electron orbital magnetic quantization parameter η, on the growth rate of HAWs, have been discussed. The numerical study of our model of acoustic waves has been applied, as an example, to the GaAs semiconductor exposed to electron beam in the magnetic field environment. An increment in either the concentration of the semiconductor electrons or the speed of beam electrons, in the presence of magnetic quantization of fermion orbital motion, enhances remarkably the growth rate of the HAWs. Although the growth rate of the waves reduces with a rise in the thermal temperature of plasma species, at a particular temperature, we receive a higher instability due to the contribution of magnetic quantization of fermions to it.

  2. Antioxidant and antitopoisomerase activities in plant extracts of some Colombian flora from La Marcada Natural Regional Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Niño

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have been used to treat some diseases and infections since time immemorial, and this potential has been exploited by the pharmaceutical industry in the search of new analgesic, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial agents, among other active agents. in order to contribute with bioprospection studies on the Colombian flora, 35 extracts from 13 plant species belonging to seven families (Apocynaceae, Cactaceae, Costaceae, Eremolepidaceae, Passifloraceae, Solanaceae and Urticaceae were collected from La Marcada Natural Regional Park (LMNRP, Colombia. Dichloromethane, n-hexane and aqueous-methanol crude extracts were prepared and evaluated for their activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R52Y and RS321 strains in the yeast mutant assay and their antioxidant capacity through the DPPH test. The dichloromethane extract from Myriocarpa stipitata (Urticaceae showed moderate inhibitory activity against the three S. cerevisiae strains tested. The capacity of the dichloromethane extract from M. stipitata to inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase I and to cause DNA damage was inferred from these results. In the DPPH assay, the n-hexane crude extract from Costus sp. (Costaceae showed good antioxidant activity (48%; in addition, the crude dichloromethane and aqueous-methanol extracts from Rhipsalis micrantha (Cactaceae showed moderate antioxidant activity with percentage of 29 and 21%, respectively. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1089-1097. Epub 2011 September 01.Desde tiempos inmemoriales, muchas plantas han sido usadas para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades e infecciones, este potencial ha sido explotado por la industria farmacéutica en la búsqueda de nuevos agentes analgésicos, anticancerígenos y antimicrobianos, entre otros. Consientes con esto, se evaluó la actividad de 35 extractos de 13 especies de plantas recolectadas en el Parque Regional Natural La Marcada (PRNLM, Colombia contra las cepas mutadas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R

  3. Functional specialization and phenotypic generalization in the pollination system of an epiphytic cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant-pollinator interactions range from obligatory specialists to facultative generalists, and floral morphology and pollination system may not match completely. The floral biology, reproductive system and floral visitors of a species of the tribe Rhipsalideae were investigated with a focus on the consistency between the pollination system and the floral phenotype. Rhipsalis neves-armondii is an obligate xenogamous species, due to self-sterility. Its flowers are white, small and diurnal, and radially symmetrical. These features, along with their small amount of nectar, characterize the flowers as phenotypic generalists. The most frequent pollinators were a solitary oligolectic species of Andrenidae (Rhophitulus solani, two species of Meliponinae (Trigona spinipes and T. braueri and Apis mellifera. Despite the generalist floral phenotype, the pollination system is functionally specialized, since only small bees performed effective visits. Flowers of R. neves-armondii may represent a case of cryptic floral specialization in which attributes other than morphology act as filters, restricting them to a single functional group of pollinators. Moreover, the four most frequent species of pollinators cover a spectrum ranging from solitary oligolectic to social polylectic bees, including an exotic species. These results illustrate the distinct dimensions of specialization-generalization that may occur in the pollination process of a single species.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae) and taxonomic implications for Schlumbergera and Hatiora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, Alice; Zappi, Daniela C; Forest, Félix; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2011-03-01

    Tribe Rhipsalideae is composed of unusual epiphytic or lithophytic cacti that inhabit humid tropical and subtropical forests. Members of this tribe present a reduced vegetative body, a specialized adventitious root system, usually spineless areoles and flowers and fruits reduced in size. Despite the debate surrounding the classification of Rhipsalideae, no studies have ever attempted to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among its members or to test the monophyly of its genera using DNA sequence data; all classifications formerly proposed for this tribe have only employed morphological data. In this study, we reconstruct the phylogeny of Rhipsalideae using plastid (trnQ-rps16, rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH) and nuclear (ITS) markers to evaluate the classifications previously proposed for the group. We also examine morphological features traditionally used to delimit genera within Rhipsalideae in light of the resulting phylogenetic trees. In total new sequences for 35 species of Rhipsalideae were produced (out of 55; 63%). The molecular phylogeny obtained comprises four main clades supporting the recognition of genera Lepismium, Rhipsalis, Hatiora and Schlumbergera. The evidence gathered indicate that a broader genus Schlumbergera, including Hatiora subg. Rhipsalidopsis, should be recognized. Consistent morphological characters rather than homoplastic features are used in order to establish a more coherent and practical classification for the group. Nomenclatural changes and a key for the identification of the genera currently included in Rhipsalideae are provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia. III. La biomasa de tres asociaciones vegetales y la productividad de Calamagrostis Effusa (H. B. K. Steud. Y Paepalanthus Columbiensis Ruhl. En comparación con la concentración de Clorofila Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia. III. La biomasa de tres asociaciones vegetales y la productividad de Calamagrostis Effusa (H. B. K. Steud. Y Paepalanthus Columbiensis Ruhl. En comparación con la concentración de Clorofila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardozo G. Hernán

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available Im Páramo de Cruz Verde (Depto, Cundinamarca wurden in den Jahren 1970 und 1971 in der Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft, der Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense - Gesellschaft und einer degradierten Diplostephium revolutum - Gesellschaft die Biomasse bestimmt und Untersuchungen der Produktivitätund des Chlorophyllgehaltes von Calamagrostis effusa und Paepalanthus columbiensis durchgeführt.  Die Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense- Geselischaft wies die gröBte oberirdische Biomasse auf, was auf den groBen Anteil an Holzpflanzen in der Vegetation zurückzuführen ist.  An zweiter Stelle, aber mit deutlich geringeren Werten, folgte die degradierte Diplostephium revolutum - Gesellschaft, die sich durch einen hohenMoosgehalt auszeichnete. Die niedrigsten Werte fanden sich in der Colamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft. Die gröBte unterirdische Biomasse wurde in der degradierten Diplostephium revolutum - Gesellschaft hestimmt, während die beiden übrigen Gesellschaften nur wenig mehr als die Hälfte der Wurzelmasse, die in dem feuchten Gebiet gefunden worden war, aufwiesen.  Nach Ablauf eines Jahres konnte keine Änderung des Trockengewichtes von Calamagrostis und Paepalanthus nachgewiesen werden, so daB die Nettoproduktion während des Untersuchungszeitraumes null war.  Von Oktoher bis Januar wurde bei Calamagrostis in der Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft und der Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense - Gesellschaft eine Ahnahme des Chlorophyllgehaltes heohachtet. Aus der Bestimmung der Trockensubstanz von Calamagrostis und Paepalanthus, die auf vorher abgeernteten Flächen gewachsen waren, geht hervor, daB Calamagrostis eine bessere Regenerationsfähigkeit besitzt als Paepalanthus. Doch wuchs innerhalb von neun Monaten nur maximal ein Drittel der urspr

  6. Genomic identification of founding haplotypes reveals the history of the selfing species Capsella rubella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Brandvain

    Full Text Available The shift from outcrossing to self-fertilization is among the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. Until recently, however, a genome-wide view of this transition has been obscured by both a dearth of appropriate data and the lack of appropriate population genomic methods to interpret such data. Here, we present a novel population genomic analysis detailing the origin of the selfing species, Capsella rubella, which recently split from its outcrossing sister, Capsella grandiflora. Due to the recency of the split, much of the variation within C. rubella is also found within C. grandiflora. We can therefore identify genomic regions where two C. rubella individuals have inherited the same or different segments of ancestral diversity (i.e. founding haplotypes present in C. rubella's founder(s. Based on this analysis, we show that C. rubella was founded by multiple individuals drawn from a diverse ancestral population closely related to extant C. grandiflora, that drift and selection have rapidly homogenized most of this ancestral variation since C. rubella's founding, and that little novel variation has accumulated within this time. Despite the extensive loss of ancestral variation, the approximately 25% of the genome for which two C. rubella individuals have inherited different founding haplotypes makes up roughly 90% of the genetic variation between them. To extend these findings, we develop a coalescent model that utilizes the inferred frequency of founding haplotypes and variation within founding haplotypes to estimate that C. rubella was founded by a potentially large number of individuals between 50 and 100 kya, and has subsequently experienced a twenty-fold reduction in its effective population size. As population genomic data from an increasing number of outcrossing/selfing pairs are generated, analyses like the one developed here will facilitate a fine-scaled view of the evolutionary and demographic impact of the

  7. Antithrombotic and cytotoxic activities of four Bangladeshi plants and PASS prediction of their isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Mahamoud, Md Sofi; Chakrabarty, Nishan; Ahmad, Shabbir; Masum, Md Abdullah Al; Hoque, Md Akramul; Hossain, Mohammed Munawar; Rahman, Md Mominur; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate whether tested organic extracts possess antithrombotic properties with minimal or no toxicity and to predict the activity of some of their isolated compounds. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W.T. Aiton (Satipata), leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu), leaf of Phyllanthus sikkimensis Muell. Arg., and whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata) using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. In silico prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) prediction was applied for phytoconstituents, namely, nyasicoside, glucomannan, grandifloric acid, serine, and alanine. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, C. recurvata, A. bulbifer, P. sikkimensis, and T. grandiflora showed 28.10±1.64%, 42.47±1.96%, 32.86±1.92%, and 25.51±1.67% of clot lysis, respectively. Reference drug streptokinase exhibited 75.00±3.04% clot lysis. Examined herbs showed significant (p<0.001) percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to negative control. In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, C. recurvata, A. bulbifer, P. sikkimensis, and T. grandiflora showed LC50 values 210.64±3.44, 98.51±1.47, 187.29±2.01, and 386.43±3.02 μg/mL, respectively, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76±0.04). PASS predicted that examined phytoconstituents have a wide range of biological activity. Through our study it was found that A. bulbifer and P. sikkimensis could be considered as very promising and beneficial thrombolytic agents.

  8. Comparing seeds germination of some local plant species on two hydroseeding mulches for post mining revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Anshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine seed germination rate of some local plant species in two hydroseeding mulches containing different tackifier concentration, as well as to determine the optimal hydroseeding mulch media composition for germinating seeds. This study used seeds of 13 local plant species: two species of Cyperaceae (Cyperus brevifolius, C. javanicus, five species of Leguminosae (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria pallida, Sesbania grandiflora, S. sesban, Tephrosia purpurea, and six species of Poaceae (Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum, Sorghum timorense, S. bicolor, Sporobolus indicus, Themeda arundinaceae. Two hydroseeding mulch media with different tackifier composition were mixed with seeds of each species and then sowed in pots. Each treatment was repeated three times. Moistened cotton wool was used as control and comparative media for observing seed viability. Seed germination in mulch media was observed during 13 days. The results showed that only 8 of 13 species could be germinated: S. indicus, S. timorense, T. arundinaceae, C. cajan, C. pallida, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, and T. purpurea. The highest germination rate was shown by S. sesban (67% in M2 medium and the lowest one was shown by T. arundinaceae (2% in both media. The fastest germination time was recorded for C. pallida and S. sesban seeds that germinated in 2 days after sowing (DAS in both media, while S. timorense and T. arundinaceae seeds showed the lowest ones in 11 DAS. The fluid M1 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (50% and S. grandiflora (35%, while the thicker M2 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (67% and S. timorense (50% in 13 DAS. The maximum germination rate was generally reached in 11 DAS.

  9. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indruch, I.; Svetlik, V.; Ligocki, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

  10. Spectrum of induced floral mutants in Petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, V.; Sudhakar, P.

    1987-01-01

    A total of six floral mutants of garden Petunia isolated from the populations raised from the seed treatment with γ-rays, 2, 4-D and sodium azide are described. Five of the mutants viz. stellata, Campyloflora, Rubriflora mixed, Grandiflora and Albiflora mixed originated as segregants in M 2 generation while the chimeral floral phenotype was expressed in M 1 generation itself. Breeding behaviour of these horticulturally interesting altered floral phenotypes were studied in subsequent generations and appropriate conclusions were drawn regarding mode of inheritance of the mutant traits. 15 refs., 4 figures, 1 table. (author)

  11. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Sing Ch’ng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR, second-derivative IR (SD-IR, and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect.

  12. Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik: Status report on research and development 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    Some of the main points tackled by the Institute during 1984 included: Testing the glassification technique for radioactive waste and design and construction of a glassification plant; examination of the properties of glass products, testing of incineration of waste containing plutonium; solidification of concentrate containing alpha particles; separation of actinides and fission products from MAW; examination of the release procedures of radio-nuclides from waste solidified with cement; development of long-term containers for the final storage of HAW glass products in salt; model calculations for thermo-mechanical processes and for release mechanisms in final storage. (RB) [de

  13. Problems with the disposal of run-out high-activity fission product solution in the Hot Cells of Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreibmaier, J.

    1979-05-01

    During decanting of 50 l high-level radioactive waste (120 Ci/l) from a transport container about 1 l HAW leaked to the floor of the transfer chamber. The causes for the incident and the removal of the consequences are described. The costs incurred and the losses resulting from the cell facility not having been used are said to amount to 6-8 million DM. Decontamination and repair work took more than 18 months, sometimes more than 80 persons were occupied. The radiation exposure of all persons involved amounted to 80 man-rem. (HP) [de

  14. 12 Flasktransport of vitrified High Level Waste (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdier, A.; Lancelot, J. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Gisbertz, A.; Graf, W. [GNS (Germany); Bartagnon, O. [COGEMA (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    The return of HLW to Germany has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters to German utilities by COGEMA. After several transports comprising 1, 2 and 6 flasks per shipment German and French Authorities requested to transport 12 flasks in a single shipment. The first of these 12-flask-transports was performed with the type CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG flask in 2002 and the second followed in 2003. COGEMA LOGISTICS is responsible for the overall transport assigned by GNS (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH) being itself entrusted by the German utilities with the return of reprocessing residues.

  15. qualities and skills of nurses from the perspective of nurses and patients

    OpenAIRE

    FIEDLEROVÁ, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Nursing develops and becomes a field with scientific base and well-educated employees. Thanks to that, nursing care is safer and of better quality. Nurses obtain prestige, importance and autonomy. The aim of this thesis is to map haw the nurses perceive their the features and skills and what is the view of patients of the same features and skills of nurses. The research was performed using the quantitative method in the form of a non-standardised questionnaire. The research was aimed at opini...

  16. An one-dimensional model simulating the energy distribution of neutrals going out of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrado, J.M.; Blazquez, J.B.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Zurro, B.

    1977-01-01

    An one-dimensional model to analyze the neutral atoms penetration into a hot plasma has been introduced in order to get the ionic temperature from the energy distribution of the charge exchange neutrals, which is obtained following a Montecarlo procedure. The model enhances the influence of the non homogeneous charge-exchange and temperature profiles over the energy distribution. It also shows haw the inner neutrals are screened by the plasma external layers and the dependence of the effective temperature on the charge-exchange cross section. Results agree with experimental data and with obtained through some others more elaborated models. (author) [es

  17. Nuevos taxones vegetales alóctonos de jardinería en el área continental de NE de España: comportamiento e historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLOT, D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about two topics rarely found in literature on invasions: 1-the record of succulent species naturalised within a continental-type climate area (Teruel, NE Spain, 2-the distinction between taxonomical varieties of invasive taxa. Besides, historical information on introduction, area of origin and taxonomical consideration is provided for each taxa. A. americana var. marginata Trel, Agave ingens Berger, Malephora purpureo-crocea (Haw. Schwantes and Sedum dendroideum DC. subsp. praealtum (A. DC. R. T. Clausen are recorded for the first time in the area.

  18. Biochemical changes during larval development in the short neck clam, Paphia malabarica Chemnitz

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gireesh, R.; Biju, A.; Muthiah, P.

    larvae through feeding on organic particles and are subsequently used for supporting metamorphosis. (Rodriguez, Sedano, Garcia- Martin, Perez-Camacho & Sanchez 1990; Haws, DiMichele & Hand1993). During this stage, larval velum disap- pears, and larvae... on lipid class composition. Part II: larval rearing, competency and settlement. Journal of Shell¢sh Research 22, 377^388. RodriguezJ.L., SedanoF.J., Garcia-Martin L.O., Perez-Cama- choA. & SanchezJ.L. (1990) Energy metabolism of newly settled Ostrea edulis...

  19. The concept of fuel cycle integrated molten salt reactor for transmuting Pu+MA from spent LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Y.; Takashima, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Japan should need a new fuel cycle, not to save spent fuels indefinitely as the reusable resources but to consume plutonium and miner actinides orderly without conventional reprocessing. The key component is a molten salt reactor fueled with the Pu+MA (PMA) separated from LWR spent fuels using fluoride volatility method. A double-tiered once-through reactor system can burn PMA down to 5% remnant ratio, and can make PMA virtually free from the HAW to be disposed geometrically. A key issue to be demonstrated is the first of all solubility behavior of trifluoride species in the molten fuel salt of 7 LiF-BeF 2 mixture. (author)

  20. Physical, chemical and sensory changes of refrigerated yellow pitahaya treated preharvest with 1-MCP

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Serna Cock; Laura Sofía Torres Valenzuela; Alfredo Ayala Aponte

    2013-01-01

    El efecto de la aplicación de soluciones acuosas de 0, 200 y 400 mg L de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) en pitahaya amarilla en precosecha (Selenicereus megalanthus Haw) fue evaluado. Se midieron los cambios en pérdida de peso, cambio total de la coloración, azucares totales, acidez titulable, ácido ascórbico y análisis sensorial. La pitahaya fue almacenada bajo refrigeración (10°C y 85% de humedad relativa por 29 días). Dos tipos de empaque (Cajas para exportación y canastillas plá...

  1. 12 Flasktransport of vitrified High Level Waste (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, A.; Lancelot, J.; Gisbertz, A.; Graf, W.; Bartagnon, O.

    2004-01-01

    The return of HLW to Germany has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters to German utilities by COGEMA. After several transports comprising 1, 2 and 6 flasks per shipment German and French Authorities requested to transport 12 flasks in a single shipment. The first of these 12-flask-transports was performed with the type CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG flask in 2002 and the second followed in 2003. COGEMA LOGISTICS is responsible for the overall transport assigned by GNS (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH) being itself entrusted by the German utilities with the return of reprocessing residues

  2. Survey and documentation of the potential and actual invasive alien plant species and other biological threats to biodiversity in Awash National Park, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebsebe DEMISSEW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Awash National Park (ANP Ethiopia, todocument Invasive Alien Species (IAS and to assess the spread of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. A total of 64 sample plots were laid systematically along the altitudinal gradient of 750 to 1916 m.Potential IAS were recorded. IAS which may threaten biodiversity of the park includes species such as Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br., Parkinsonia aculeata L., Senna occidentalis (L. Link, Datura ferox L. and Xanthium strumarium L. Except P. juliflora and P. hysterophorus, all others were not recorded in Ethiopia as IAS. P.juliflora was recorded in three plots with cover of 1% to 10%. P. juliflora was also found spread in different parts of the park particularly following the route of cattle movement. P. hysterophoruswas recorded in and around nine sample plots. Plot 46, 47 and 48 werehighly infested by P. hysterophorus which covered more than 60, 70 and 80% of the ground layer respectively. C. grandiflora was recorded in 11 plots with cover ranging from 1% to 35%. In view of all the natural as well as anthropogenic threats to the biodiversity of the Park, the ANP is at high risk. The rich biodiversity needsimmediate management intervention.

  3. Efficacy of extracts from plants of the Brazilian Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Bezerra dos Santos

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%. During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage ofRhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armatashowed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus andSenna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida was effective at a 5% concentration.

  4. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant genus Limosella (Scrophulariaceae) with a particular focus on the origin of the Australasian L. curdieana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; Albach, Dirk C; Barfod, Anders S; Oxelman, Bengt; Muasya, A Muthama

    2017-01-01

    Limosella is a small aquatic genus of Scrophulariaceae of twelve species, of which one is distributed in northern circumpolar regions, two in southern circumpolar regions, two in the Americas, one endemic to Australia, and six in tropical or southern Africa or both. The Australasian L. curdieana has always been considered distinct but its close phylogenetic relationships have never been inferred. Here, we investigated the following alternative phylogenetic hypotheses based on comparative leaf morphology and habitat preferences or floral morphology: (1) L. curdieana is sister to the African L. grandiflora; or (2) it is closely related to a group of other African species and the northern circumpolar L. aquatica. We tested these hypotheses in a phylogenetic framework using DNA sequence data from four plastid DNA regions and the nuclear ITS region. These were analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. We obtained moderately resolved, partially conflicting phylogenies, supporting that accessions of L. grandiflora form the sister group to the rest of the genus and that L. curdieana groups with the African taxa, L. africana and L. major, and L. aquatica. Thus, the molecular evidence supports the second hypothesis. A biogeographic analysis suggests an out-of-southern Africa scenario and several dispersal events in the Southern Hemisphere. Past dispersal from southern Africa to Australasia is suggested, yet it cannot be excluded that a route via tropical Africa and temperate Asia has existed.

  6. Bees visitors of three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in Central Amazonia Abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiacea na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Kaminski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on bees visitors to three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in the Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were made during three two-week periods. The three species of Clusia, namely C. grandiflora, C. panapanari and C. insignis, presented variations regarding the species of bee visitors. A total of 23 bee species visited the three species of Clusia. The Euglossini and Meliponinae bees were the most frequent visitors of the Clusia flowers. Bee collecting behavior of floral resources is described.Durante seis semanas foram realizadas observações das abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiaceae, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, em Manaus. As três espécies de Clusia: C. grandiflora Splitg., C. panapanari (Aubl. e C. insignis Mart. apresentaram diferenças com relação às visitas de espécies de abelhas, tendo sido visitadas por 23 espécies. Abelhas Euglossini e Meliponinae foram os visitantes mais freqüentes em flores de Clusia. O comportamento de coleta de recursos florais é descrito.

  7. Institute of Nuclear Waste Management Technology (INE). 1994 progress report on research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994 INE worked on the following research projects: radionuclide behaviour during corrosion of high-level radioactive COGEMA glass; studies of glassy basalt of the Werra-Fulda salt deposit as a natural analogue of the corrosion of HAW glass; corrosion studies of high burnup LWR fuels in brine; chemical behaviour of Tc in aqueous, chloride systems; corrosion studies of waste container materials; solution chemistry of U; thermodynamics of Np(V) in concentrated brines; radiation-chemical effects in the vicinity of repositories; laser spectroscopic speciation and thermodynamics of Cm(III); development of laser spectroscopic methods; radiochemical and chemical analyses of nuclear samples; solid-state and surface analyses; coupling of transport and speciation models; influence of colloid formation on the migration behaviour of long-lived radionuclides; studies of the consolidation behaviour of filling material; thermomechanical effects of inhomogeneities in the salt dome; basic studies and process engineering developments in the field of solidification of high-level radioactive fission product solutions; corrosion behaviour of WAK-HAW containing glass products in brines. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn alleviate the endothelial cells injury after coronary bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Feng, Bing; He, Songmin; Su, Zuqing; Zheng, Guangjuan

    2018-02-01

    To explore the preventive and therapeutic effects of Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn, compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines, on the endothelial cells injury after artery bypass graft surgery. The animal model of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was prepared by transplanting a segment of autologous jugular vein onto the transected common carotid artery in rabbits. After CABG surgery, the rabbits were administrated with saline (model group), aspirin (Aspirin group), resveratrol (Res group), total flavones of hawthorn (Haw group) and resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn (Res+Haw group) once a day for eight weeks, respectively. Eight weeks later, the grafting arteries from all group were obtained for the pathomorphism observation, peripheral blood was collected to detect circulating endothelial cells (CECs) by flow cytometry. And the concentration of albumen and mRNA of ICAM-1 in the serum were measured by western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Compared with the model group, the level of CECs density and the expressions of albumen and mRNA of ICAM-1 were significantly decreased in the aspirin,resveratrol,total flavones of hawthorn and resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn groups (P Resveratrol combined with total flavones of hawthorn could protect the endothelial cells after coronary artery bypass graft. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Substitution of strontium and boron into hydroxyapatite crystals: Effect on physicochemical properties and biocompatibility with human Wharton-Jelly stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Velard, Frédéric; Jaguszewska, Aneta; Lemaire, Flora; Kerdjoudj, Halima; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kaflak, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) enriched with strontium and boron ions was synthesized using two different methods: the precipitation method (Sr,B-HAw) and the dry method (Sr,B-HAd). Additionally, for the sake of comparison, the "pure" unsubstituted HA was prepared together with HAs substituted only with one type of a foreign ion. The obtained materials were subjected to physicochemical analysis with the use of various analytical methods, such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H ssNMR). All the obtained materials were also biologically tested for their potential cytotoxicity. The obtained materials (Sr,B-HAw and Sr,B-HAd) were homogeneous and respectively showed nano- and microcrystal apatitic structures. The simultaneous introduction of Sr 2+ and BO 3 3- ions turned out to be more effective in respect of the dry method. Of importance, doped materials obtained using both synthesis routes have been demonstrated to be biocompatible, opening the way for medical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon-14 in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.R.; Coleman, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of C-14 in high-level waste is needed to establish the amount of C-14 that will be released to the environment either as off-gas from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or as a component of saltstone. Available experimental data confirmed a low level of C-14 in soluble waste, but no data was available for sludge. Based on the processes used in each area, Purex LAW sludge in F-area and HM HAW sludge in H-area will contain the bulk of any sludge produced by the cladding. Accordingly, samples from Tank 8F containing Purex LAW and Tank 15H containing HM HAW were obtained and analyzed for C-14. These two waste types constitute approximately 70% of the total sludge inventory now stored in the waste tanks. Results from analyses of these two sludge types show: the total C-14 inventory in sludge now stored in the waste tanks is 6.8 Ci; C-14 releases to the atmosphere from the DWPF will average approximately 0.6 Ci annually at the projected sludge processing rate in the DWPF. 4 references, 2 tables

  11. Use and knowledge of Cactaceae in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Camilla Marques de; Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de; Costa, Gabriela Maciel; Carvalho, Thamires Kelly Nunes; Costa, Gyslaynne Gomes da Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Pereira, Daniel Duarte; Ribeiro, João Everthon da Silva; Alves, Carlos Antônio Belarmino; Quirino, Zelma Glebya Maciel; Nunes, Ernane Nogueira

    2013-08-28

    This study aimed to record the use, and knowledge that residents from São Francisco community (Paraiba, Brazil) have regarding the Cactaceae. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 118 informants; 50 men and 68 women. The cacti cited in this study were organised into use categories and use values were calculated. Differences in the values applied to species and use categories by men and women were compared via a G test (Williams). The nine species identified were: Cereus jamacaru DC., Melocactus bahiensis (Brtitton & Rose) Luetzelb., Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck., Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill, Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Pilosocereus gounellei (F.A.C. Weber) Byles & Rowley, Pilosocereus pachycladus F. Ritter, Tacinga inamoena (K. Schum) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy, Tacinga palmadora (Britton & Rose) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy. In total, 1,129 use citations were recorded, divided into 11 categories. The use value categories with the highest scores were forage (0.42), food (0.30) and construction (building) (0.25). P. pachycladus showed the greatest use value, versatility and number of plant parts used. The survey showed that the Cactaceae is extremely important for several uses and categories attributed to different species. Apart from contributing to the ethnobotanical knowledge of the Cactaceae, another important focus of this study was to reinforce the necessity for further studies that record the traditional knowledge about this plant family, which has been lost in younger generations.

  12. Long-term stable, long-term safe storage of residues and radioactive waste. Contribution to discussion to the storage (final storage); Langzeitstabile, langzeitsichere Verwahrung von Rueckstaenden und radioaktiven Abfaellen. Beitrag zur Diskussion um Lagerung (Endlagerung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersow, Michael [DGGT e.V., Breitenbrunn/Erzgeb. (Germany). Ak 5.5 Tailings; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper it is presented, where radioactive waste and residues occur, how these materials can be classified, which rules and regulations have to be complied with regarding the disposal and which geotechnical environmental constructions (final repositories) are suitable to guarantee a safe long-term disposal of these materials. Primary protection objective is ''to permanently prevent the transfer of toxic, radioactive contaminations into the biosphere by air, water or rock path or to keep the amount of contamination within a commonly accepted range''. Radionuclide inventories and the given time period considered for long-term safety are compared with. It is shown, that the site-specific disposal solutions cannot be justified by the radioactive inventory deposited there. The given period of 10{sup 6} years is critically evaluated. Based on this it is suggested to subdivide this period into two time periods with different prognosis reliabilities. Results of a specially designed long-term monitoring as part of the site-specific waste disposal solution should be considered for the long-term safety proof. A modular concept for the final storage of High Active Waste (HAW) is derived based on the critical evaluation of the long-term safety, including transmutation, provisional storage and monitoring module. A foundation model is proposed to guarantee the financial resources required for the disposal of HAW.

  13. Vascular epiphytes in seasonal semideciduous forest in the Espírito Santo State and similarity with other seasonal forests in Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayvid Rodrigues Couto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliamos a composição florística de epífitos vasculares em remanescentes de Floresta Estacional Semedicidual na bacia hidrográfica do rio Itapemirim, sul do estado do Espírito Santo, com o intuito de analisar sua similaridade com outras florestas semidecidual estudadas no Brasil. Excursões quinzenais foram realizadas entre junho de 2008 a maio de 2009 e os epífitos coletados e registrados (55 espécies, 34 gêneros e seis famílias. Orchidaceae, com 21 espécies, foi a mais rica, enquanto os gêneros com o maior riqueza foram Tillandsia (7 spp., Rhipsalis (4, Aechmea, Epidendrum e Peperomia, com três espécies cada. A categoria ecológica mais representativa foi holoepífita característica com 84% das espécies. O ambiente mais importante para a flora epifítica foi as matas ciliares. Análise de similaridade e PCA sustentaram quatro grupos, onde a área estudada aparece disjunta das demais, corroborando a hipótese de que a proximidade geográfica, a altitude e clima tem forte efeito sobre a composição florística, condicionando a formação de floras distintas. Estudos detalhados sobre a composição florística e estrutura dessa comunidade é importante para a elaboração de estudos de impactos ambientais coerentes, porque epífitas é típico de florestas tropicais, e é importante componente florístico, estrutural e funcional desses ecossistemas.

  14. What does it take to resolve relationships and to identify species with molecular markers? An example from the epiphytic Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Nadja; Borsch, Thomas; Quandt, Dietmar; Taylor, Nigel P; Müller, Kai F; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-09-01

    The Cactaceae are a major New World plant family and popular in horticulture. Still, taxonomic units and species limits have been difficult to define, and molecular phylogenetic studies so far have yielded largely unresolved trees, so relationships within Cactaceae remain insufficiently understood. This study focuses on the predominantly epiphytic tribe Rhipsalideae and evaluates the utility of a spectrum of plastid genomic regions. • We present a phylogenetic study including 52 of the 53 Rhipsalideae species and all the infraspecific taxa. Seven regions (trnK intron, matK, rbcL, rps3-rpl16, rpl16 intron, psbA-trnH, trnQ-rps16), ca. 5600 nucleotides (nt) were sequenced per sample. The regions used were evaluated for their phylogenetic performance and performance in DNA-based species recognition based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined beforehand. • The Rhipsalideae are monophyletic and contain five clades that correspond to the genera Rhipsalis, Lepismium, Schlumbergera, Hatiora, and Rhipsalidopsis. The species-level tree was well resolved and supported; the rpl16 and trnK introns yielded the best phylogenetic signal. Although the psbA-trnH and trnQ-rps16 spacers were the most successful individual regions for OTU identification, their success rate did not significantly exceed 70%. The highest OTU identification rate of 97% was found using the combination of psbA-trnH, rps3-rpl16, trnK intron, and trnQ-rps16 as a minimum possible marker length (ca. 1660 nt). • The phylogenetic performance of a marker is not determined by the level of sequence variability, and species discrimination power does not necessarily correlate with phylogenetic utility.

  15. Vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment in Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elyta Vilhalba Azeredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey, as well as analyze the spatial distribution of the vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment belonging to the submontane dense ombrophilous forest in the town of Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In addition, information on the ecological groups of epiphytic species and the strategies for pollination and dispersal were also presented. One sampled 60 trees as phorophytes with DBH ≥ 10 cm, through the point-centered quarter method, and the expeditious walking method was used for recording the epiphytic species which weren’t sampled in the phorophytes through the phytosociological method. The frequency was evaluated having the occurrence of epiphytes in the phorophytes and the segments on the bole and crown as a basis. One recorded the presence of epiphytes in the phorophytes in the segments on the bole and crown. One found 65 species distributed into 39 genera and 14 families, out of which 49 were sampled in the phytosociological survey and the remaining ones in the walking survey. Bromeliaceae showed the highest richness, followed by Orchidaceae, and Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. was firstly mentioned in the southern state. The specific diversity was estimated as H’ = 3.33 and evenness (E was equal to 0.86. The ecological group of holoepiphytes was the most representative one in the area under study. Entomophily and anemochory were the prevailing strategies for pollination and dispersal, respectively. In the phytosociological survey, the number of epiphytic species in the phorophytes ranged from 0 to 21. The highest importance values were those related to Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. and Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  16. Comparative study of hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants. Methods: An in vivo hypoglycemic effect on mice model was used to check the hypoglycemic effect of four Bangladeshi herbal organic extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata (C. recurvata, leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu (A. bulbifer, whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata (T. grandiflora and leaf of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (Yunnan (S. colocasiifolia using glibenclamide as a positive control and water as a negative control. They were also tested for antibacterial activity on three Grampositive and four Gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method. C. recurvata, A. bulbifer and T. grandiflora were extracted with methanol and S. colocasiifolia was extracted with ethanol. Results: Among all the plant extract, only ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose significantly (P < 0.01 reduced fasting glucose level in normal mice as compared to standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose decreased 20.28% of blood glucose level after 2 h of administration in normal mice, where glibenclamide decreased 39.63%. Methanol extract of T. grandiflra didn’t show any zone of inhibition against the tested bacteria, but other three extracts showed a wide range of zone of inhibition. However, none of the extract showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. Methanol extract of C. recurvata showed maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus [(10.50 ± 0.50 mm], Salmonella typhi [(16.20 ± 1.26 mm], Escherichia coli [(13.00 ± 1.00 mm] and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia showed maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus [(11.20 ± 1.26 (mm], Bacillus subtilis [(12.00 ± 0.50 (mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(10.80 ± 0.29 (mm

  17. Phytoremediation of textile dyes and effluents: Current scenario and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation has emerged as a green, passive, solar energy driven and cost effective approach for environmental cleanup when compared to physico-chemical and even other biological methods. Textile dyes and effluents are condemned as one of the worst polluters of our precious water bodies and soils. They are well known mutagenic, carcinogenic, allergic and cytotoxic agents posing threats to all life forms. Plant based treatment of textile dyes is relatively new and hitherto has remained an unexplored area of research. Use of macrophytes like Phragmites australis and Rheum rhabarbarum have shown efficient removal of Acid Orange 7 and sulfonated anthraquinones, respectively. Common garden and ornamental plants namely Aster amellus, Portulaca grandiflora, Zinnia angustifolia, Petunia grandiflora, Glandularia pulchella, many ferns and aquatic plants have also been advocated for their dye degradation potential. Plant tissue cultures like suspension cells of Blumea malcolmii and Nopalea cochenillifera, hairy roots of Brassica juncea and Tagetes patula and whole plants of several other species have confirmed their role in dye degradation. Plants' oxidoreductases such as lignin peroxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, azo reductase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, riboflavin reductase and dichlorophenolindophenol reductase are known as key biodegrading enzymes which break the complex structures of dyes. Schematic metabolic pathways of degradation of different dyes and their environmental fates have also been proposed. Degradation products of dyes and their fates of metabolism have been reported to be validated by UV-vis spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy and several other analytical tools. Constructed wetlands and various pilots scale reactors were developed independently using the plants of P. australis, Portulaca grandiflora, G. pulchella

  18. Morphological features of different polyploids for adaptation and molecular characterization of CC-NBS-LRR and LEA gene families in Agave L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Ordóñez, M C; Rodriguez-Zapata, L C; Narváez-Zapata, J A; Tamayo-Ordóñez, Y J; Ayil-Gutiérrez, B A; Barredo-Pool, F; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2016-05-20

    Polyploidy has been widely described in many Agave L. species, but its influence on environmental response to stress is still unknown. With the objective of knowing the morphological adaptations and regulation responses of genes related to biotic (LEA) and abiotic (NBS-LRR) stress in species of Agave with different levels of ploidy, and how these factors contribute to major response of Agave against environmental stresses, we analyzed 16 morphological trials on five accessions of three species (Agave tequilana Weber, Agave angustifolia Haw. and Agave fourcroydes Lem.) with different ploidy levels (2n=2x=60 2n=3x=90, 2n=5x=150, 2n=6x=180) and evaluated the expression of NBS-LRR and LEA genes regulated by biotic and abiotic stress. It was possible to associate some morphological traits (spines, nuclei, and stomata) to ploidy level. The genetic characterization of stress-related genes NBS-LRR induced by pathogenic infection and LEA by heat or saline stresses indicated that amino acid sequence analysis in these genes showed more substitutions in higher ploidy level accessions of A. fourcroydes Lem. 'Sac Ki' (2n=5x=150) and A. angustifolia Haw. 'Chelem Ki' (2n=6x=180), and a higher LEA and NBS-LRR representativeness when compared to their diploid and triploid counterparts. In all studied Agave accessions expression of LEA and NBS-LRR genes was induced by saline or heat stresses or by infection with Erwinia carotovora, respectively. The transcriptional activation was also higher in A. angustifolia Haw. 'Chelem Ki' (2n=6x=180) and A. fourcroydes 'Sac Ki' (2n=5x=150) than in their diploid and triploid counterparts, which suggests higher adaptation to stress. Finally, the diploid accession A. tequilana Weber 'Azul' showed a differentiated genetic profile relative to other Agave accessions. The differences include similar or higher genetic representativeness and transcript accumulation of LEA and NBS-LRR genes than in polyploid (2n=5x=150 and 2n=6x=180) Agave accessions

  19. NDA generic research programme for higher activity waste management issues - 16390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, James; Brownridge, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    NDA has a responsibility to ensure decommissioning activities are sufficiently technically underpinned and appropriate Research and Development (Rand D) is carried out. The NDA funds research and development (R and D) indirectly via the Site Licence Companies (SLCs) or directly. The main component of directly funded R and D is the NDA Direct Research Portfolio (DRP). The DRP is split into four framework areas: - University Interactions; - Waste Processing; - Material Characterisation; - Actinide and Strategic Nuclear Materials. These four framework areas were competed through an Official Journal of European Union (OJEU) process in 2008. Although all four areas involve waste management, Waste Processing and Material Characterisation specifically deal with Higher Activity Waste (HAW) waste management issues. The Waste Processing area was awarded to three groups: (i) National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), (ii) Consortium led by Hyder Consulting Ltd, and (iii) Consortium led by UKAEA Ltd. The Material Characterisation area was awarded to three groups: (i) NNL, (ii) Serco, and (iii) Consortium led by UKAEA Ltd. The initial work in Waste Processing and Material Characterisation was centered on establishing a forward research programme to address the generic needs of the UK civil nuclear industry and the NDA strategic drivers for waste management and land quality. This has been achieved by the four main framework contractors from the Waste Processing and Materials Characterisation areas working together with the NDA to identify the key research themes and begin the development of the NDA's HAW Management Research Programme. The process also involves active engagement with both industry and regulators via the Nuclear Waste Research Forum (NWRF). The NDA's HAW Management Research Programme includes a number of themes: - Optimisation of Interim Store Operation and Design; - Alternative Waste Encapsulants; - Waste Package Integrity; - Alternative Waste treatment methods

  20. New strategy for minor actinides partitioning preliminary results on the electrovolatilization of ruthenium and on the stabilization of Am(IV) in nitric acid with phosphotunsgstate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnet, J.M.; Madic, C.

    1989-01-01

    On problems related to the long term storage in deep geological repositories of high active wastes (H.A.W.) is due to the presence of minor actinide isotopes. Thus after the decay of the fission products (≅ 300 years) the toxicity of these H.A.W. is mainly due to the minor actinides. One solution is based on actinide partitioning followed by transmutation into fission products with short half-lives. A simpler processes than those developed previously, can be based on the possible oxidation of minor actinides to the + IV or + VI oxidation states and their selective extraction. The first step to study is the elimination of the ruthenium (whose presence would be detrimental to oxidize minor actinides) which can be done by electrovolatilization of Ru on the RuO 4 form. The rate of electrovolatilization can be increased by the use of the following electronic mediators, AgI/AgII(1); CeIII/Ce(2), and CoII/CoIII(3), the efficiency of which decreases in the order: 1 > 2 > 3. The effectiveness of that process has been proven when treating real H.A.W solution produced during the study of the reprocessing of a MOX fuel irradiated to as burn-up of 52 GWd/t in a LWR: complete Ru removal was obtained. The second part of the study concerns the electrochemical oxidation of AmIII in nitric acid solutions in the presence of a strong complexing agent: P 2 W 17 O 61 K 10 (P.W.).Total americium oxidation to AmIV can be obtained in nitric acid solution with a concentration up to 8 M. No particular drawback was induced by the presence of an amount of lanthanide III (NdIII) in 6 fold excess vs P.W. The stability of AmIV was studied. The other actinides will be present in these solutions, after the electrochemical oxidation step, in the + VI or+ IV oxidation states, thus a selective extraction (vs fission products) could be performed. A possible way to extract actinide IV/P.W complexes is to use dodecylamine nitrate as extractant

  1. A study on the determination of the morphological, yield and quality characteristics of some sainfoin species (onobrychis spp.) native to east anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okcu, M.; Sengul, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective of the present study is to identify the species belonging to the genus Onobrychis (Fabaceae) growing native in and around Erzurum, and to determine their overall prevalence and morphological and quality characteristics. Species samples were collected from different locations in flowering periods of 2007, 2008 and 2009. At the end of the study, totally 10 genotypes were found representing 8 species and 2 sub-species. It was found that leaf length and leaflet frequency were the largest in O. atropatana var. grandiflora, the number of leaflets was the highest in O. viciifolia, the length and width of leaflets were maximum in O. radiata, the number of main branches and the number of fascicles in main branches were in O. hajastana, crude ash rate was highest in O. stenostachya, plant fresh and dry weight, ADF and NDF rate were highest in O. cornuta, where as crude protein rate was slightly higher in O. stenostachya subsp. sosnowskyi than other taxa. (author)

  2. Absence of mutagenicity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos F.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna (locally called “Cerrado” is an important biome presenting several plants that are used in popular medicine. However, the risks associated with the consumption of derivatives from these plants are generally unknown. Studies with compounds obtained from different species have shown the risks of DNA damage. The present work assessed the in vivo mutagenicity of three plant species used in popular medicine to treat human gastrointestinal disorders (Mouriri pusa, Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora. The micronucleus assay was performed in peripheral blood of mice submitted to acute treatments. Results showed that no assessed extracts were mutagenic in vivo. In fact, the absence of mutagenicity in the present study indicates that the extracts do not contain compounds capable of inducing DNA breaks or chromosomal loss. However, further analysis should be performed in others systems to guarantee their safety, mainly to human chronic use.

  3. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-03

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml).

  4. Observaciones sobre la ecología del páramo andino de Monserrate Observaciones sobre la ecología del páramo andino de Monserrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturm Helmut

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available In a paramo region near Bogotá (Colombia, 3.230 m aboveseal evel investigations were made of clima, soil vegetation and fauna.  The mean temperature was 8.4 degrees C and the annual rainfall 1.221.4 mm. Sometimes great variations of relative humidity and of temperature near the soil surface could be registered. The properties of the black coloured paramosoil, wich probably is not a uniform type, are discussed. Its micromorphology and fauna were examined for the first time. The fauna is well developed and takes part intensivily in mixing the mineral and organic components. The soil type is classified as being between those which KUBIENA (1953 called "Pechtorf" and "Moderranker", The vegetation has been characterized by the estimation of the "Artmächtigkeit" (BRAUN-BLANQUET,1964 of the single species. The distribution and net production of Espeletia grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl., the most specificplant species in this paramo is discussed. The quantitative sampling of the fauna, especially of the arthropod fauna,was carried out by means of a combination of different methods to evaluate the density per litre and the density of activity. The mantle consisting of dead leaves of E. grandiflora proved to be a rich and characteristic "biotope". The facts are discussed partly by comparing them with correspondingfacts from a tropical rain forest.In a paramo region near Bogotá (Colombia, 3.230 m above seal evel investigations were made of clima, soil vegetation and fauna.  The mean temperature was 8.4 degrees C and the annual rainfall 1.221.4 mm. Sometimes great variations of relative humidity and of temperature near the soil surface could be registered. The properties of the black coloured paramo soil, wich probably is not a uniform type, are discussed. Its micromorphology and fauna were examined for the first time. The fauna is well developed and takes part intensivily in mixing the mineral and organic components. The soil type is classified as being

  5. Floristic and phytosociology in dense "terra firme" rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, D A N; Ferreira, B G A; Siqueira, J D P; Oliveira, M M; Ferreira, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41), Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50) and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28) showed the highest importance values (IV). The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%). The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  6. Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia II. Las comunidades vegetales Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia II. Las comunidades vegetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Contreras Gustavo

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available Im Páramo de Cruz Verde, Cundinamarca, Kolumbien (3.400m Höhe werden auf Grund pflanzensoziologischer Untersuchungen mehrere Pflanzengemeinschaften unterschieden. Am verbreitetsten sind solche, die ihre Existenz anthropogenen Einflüssen verdanken und sich unter diesen stabilisiert haben; sie werden als Subklimax-Gesellschaften aufgefaΒt und zeichnen sich durch ihre geringe Empfindlichkeit gegen gelegentliche Brände aus. Hierzu sind zu rechnen: eine Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense - Gesellschaft, eine Calamagrostis effusa - Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium multiceps - Gesellschaft, eine Calamagrostis effusa - Spiranthes vaginata - Gesellschaft, eine Calamagrostis effusa «Espeletia corymbosa - Gesellschaft und eine Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft.In Gebieten, deren Vegetation durch natürliche (z. B. Erdrutsche oder anthropogene Einflüsse (z, B. vorübergehender Ackerbau zerstört wurde, stellen sich Pionier-Gesellschaften mit Espeletia argentea ein.  Da in allen unterschiedenen Subklimax-Gesellschaften Baum - undBusch-Arten vorkommen, die für kleinere Busch waldbestände typisch sind, werden letztere als Reste einer Klimax-Vegetation angesehen, die nur an ständig sumpfigen Stellen durch eine Diplostephium revolutum Gesell-schaft ersetzt wird. Letztere ist noch heute an vielen Stellen erhalten; sie wird wenigstens teilweise als Endstadium einer Sukzessionsreihe angesehen,die während der Verlandung von kleinen Seen (meist glazialer Herkunft auftrat.  Als wesentliche Ursachen der räumlichen Verteilung der heute dominierenden Subklimax-Gesellschaften werden die örtlich unterschiedlich stark schwankenden Bodenwassergehalte diskutiert.En el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Cundinamarca, Colombia (3.400 m de altura se distinguen varias comunidades vegetales con base en estudios fitosociológicos. Distribución más amplia tienen aquellas que deben su existencia a las influencias

  7. Floristic and phytosociology in dense “terra firme” rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN. Lemos

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense “Terra Firme” rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1, distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94, Araceae (65 and Arecaceae (43, comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41, Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50 and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28 showed the highest importance values (IV. The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%. The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition.

  8. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  9. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M S; Shahnaz,; Tabassum, S; Ogunwande, I A; Pervez, M K [University of Karachi (Pakistan). HEJ Research Inst. of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences

    2010-08-15

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  10. Unidirectional hybridization at a species' range boundary: implications for habitat tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatty, Gemma, E.; Philipp, Marianne; Provan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    hybridization may lead to the extinction of peripheral populations of P. minor where the two species grow sympatrically. Extinction could occur as a result of genetic assimilation where F1s are fertile, or via the removal of unidirectionally pollinated sterile F1s, or by a combination of these processes......Aim Introgressive hybridization between a locally rare species and a more abundant congener can drive population extinction via genetic assimilation, or the replacement of the rare species gene pool with that of the common species. To date, however, few studies have assessed the effects...... of such processes at the limits of species' distribution ranges. In this study, we have examined the potential for hybridization between range-edge populations of the wintergreen Pyrola minor and sympatric populations of Pyrola grandiflora. Location Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland and Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Methods...

  11. Insects, birds and lizards as pollinators of the largest-flowered Scrophularia of Europe and Macaronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Olivencia, Ana; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Pérez-Bote, José L; López, Josefa; Mayo, Carlos; Valtueña, Francisco J; Navarro-Pérez, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    It has traditionally been considered that the flowers of Scrophularia are mainly pollinated by wasps. We studied the pollination system of four species which stand out for their large and showy flowers: S. sambucifolia and S. grandiflora (endemics of the western Mediterranean region), S. trifoliata (an endemic of the Tyrrhenian islands) and S. calliantha (an endemic of the Canary Islands). Our principal aim was to test whether these species were pollinated by birds or showed a mixed pollination system between insects and birds. Censuses and captures of insects and birds were performed to obtain pollen load transported and deposited on the stigmas. Also, a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flowers and inflorescences was carried out. Flowers were visited by Hymenoptera and by passerine birds. The Canarian species was the most visited by birds, especially by Phylloscopus canariensis, and its flowers were also accessed by juveniles of the lizard Gallotia stehlini. The most important birds in the other three species were Sylvia melanocephala and S. atricapilla. The most important insect-functional groups in the mixed pollination system were: honey-bees and wasps in S. sambucifolia; bumble-bees and wasps in S. grandiflora; wasps in S. trifoliata; and a small bee in S. calliantha. The species studied show a mixed pollination system between insects and passerine birds. In S. calliantha there is, in addition, a third agent (juveniles of Gallotia stehlini). The participation of birds in this mixed pollination system presents varying degrees of importance because, while in S. calliantha they are the main pollinators, in the other species they interact to complement the insects which are the main pollinators. A review of different florae showed that the large showy floral morphotypes of Scrophularia are concentrated in the western and central Mediterranean region, Macaronesia and USA (New Mexico).

  12. Coral-Associated Bacterial Diversity is Conserved Across Two Deep-Sea Anthothela Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Nichole Lawler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water corals, similar to tropical corals, contain diverse and complex microbial assemblages. These bacteria provide essential biological functions within coral holobionts, facilitating increased nutrient utilization and production of antimicrobial compounds. To date, few cold-water octocoral species have been analyzed to explore the diversity and abundance of their microbial associates. For this study, 23 samples of the family Anthothelidae were collected from Norfolk (n = 12 and Baltimore Canyons (n = 11 from the western Atlantic in August 2012 and May 2013. Genetic testing found that these samples comprised two Anthothela species (Anthothela grandiflora and Anthothela sp. and Alcyonium grandiflorum. DNA was extracted and sequenced with primers targeting the V4-V5 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing with GS FLX Titanium chemistry. Results demonstrated that the coral host was the primary driver of bacterial community composition. Al. grandiflorum, dominated by Alteromonadales and Pirellulales had much higher species richness, and a distinct bacterial community compared to Anthothela samples. Anthothela species (A. grandiflora and Anthothela sp. had very similar bacterial communities, dominated by Oceanospirillales and Spirochaetes. Additional analysis of core-conserved bacteria at 90% sample coverage revealed genus level conservation across Anthothela samples. This core included unclassified Oceanospirillales, Kiloniellales, Campylobacterales, and genus Spirochaeta. Members of this core were previously recognized for their functional capabilities in nitrogen cycling and suggest the possibility of a nearly complete nitrogen cycle within Anthothela species. Overall, many of the bacterial associates identified in this study have the potential to contribute to the acquisition and cycling of nutrients within the coral holobiont.

  13. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3-C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Edwards, Gerald E; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-08-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C(4) photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C(4) plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C(4) enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C(4) species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C(4) species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C(4) species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C(4) species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C(3)-C(4) based on its intermediate CO(2) compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C(4) Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C(3)-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C(4) photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca.

  14. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3–C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V.; Koteyeva, Nuria K.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C4 photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C4 plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C4 enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C4 species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C4 species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C4 species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C4 species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C3–C4 based on its intermediate CO2 compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C4 Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C3-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca. PMID:20591900

  15. Distribuição de diâmetros de um cerradão distrófico no Distrito Federal (DF, Brasil Diametric distribution of a dystrophic cerradão in Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silvestre Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a estrutura diamétrica da reserva biológica do Cerradão (REBIO do Cerradão, a partir da análise das distribuições diamétricas da comunidade e das principais populações, determinadas pelo valor de importância (VI. A relação da distribuição dos indivíduos por classes de diâmetro foi avaliada por análises de regressão e variância. Os valores de “q” e “R²” indicaram que Qualea grandiflora Mart. foi a espécie com distribuição mais balanceada e maior tendência ao equilíbrio, e Terminalia fagifolia Mart. a única que não apresentou curva do tipo J-invertido. O cerradão parece conseguir se restabelecer após eventos fortuitos, mas novas medições precisam ser feitas para a obtenção de conclusões mais contundentes. This study evaluated the diametric structure of the biological reserve of Cerradão (REBIO do Cerradão, from the analysis of the diametric distributions of the community and its main populations, ordered according to the importance value (IV. The individuals distribution ratio by diametric classes were evaluated by regression and variance analysis. The values of “q” and “R²” indicated that Qualea grandiflora Mart. was the species with the most balanced distribution and greater tendency to equilibrium, and Terminalia fagifolia Mart. the only one that did not show the J-reverse shape. The cerradão seems to be able to recover from random events, but new measurements need to be made to permit more robust conclusions.

  16. Assessment of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pandey, Mayank; Tripathi, B D

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some climber plant species to develop vertical gardens in Varanasi city which has characteristics of tall building and narrow roads. This condition results in street canyon like structure and hinders the vertical dispersal of air pollutants. We have selected 24 climber plant species which are commonly found in of Varanasi city. Chosen plants can be easily grown either in planter boxes or directly in the ground, with a vertical support they can climb on walls to form green walls or vertical garden. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of the selected plant species was calculated and plants with higher APTI are recommended for the development of Vertical garden. Highest APTI was noted for Ipomoea palmata (25.39) followed by Aristolochia elegans (23.28), Thunbergia grandiflora (23.14), Quisqualis indica (22.42), and Clerodendrum splendens (22.36). However, lowest APTI value (8.75) was recorded for the species Hemidesmus indicus. Moreover, the linear regression analysis has revealed a high positive correlation between APTI and ascorbic acid content (R 2 =0.8837) and positive correlation between APTI and Chlorophyll content (R 2 =0.6687). On the basis of higher APTI values (greater than 17), nine species of climber plants viz. I. palmata, T. grandiflora, C. splendens, A. elegans, Q. indica, Petria volubilis, Antigonon leptopus, Cryptolepis buchuanni and Tinospora cordifolia have been recommended to develop vertical greenery systems in a compact tropical city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em duas áreas de cerrado sensu stricto no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Lucivânio Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de se conhecer mais sobre o Bioma Cerrado torna-se cada vez mais urgente, devido à destruição acelerada deste bioma. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em duas áreas de Cerrado sensu stricto, no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, registrando as espécies arbóreas e arbustivas, utilizando o método de Point Centered Quarter. Verificou-se que apesar de algumas diferenças litológicas, latossolo vermelho-escuro na primeira área e vermelho-amarelo na segunda, a similaridade entre elas foi alta, com índices de Jaccard (0,72 e Morisita (0,64. Das 67 espécies pertencentes a 51 gêneros e 29 famílias, 48 foram comuns às duas áreas. Kielmeyera coriacea, Qualea grandiflora, Caryocar brasiliense, Syagrus flexuosa e Ouratea hexasperma tiveram os maiores Índices de Valor de Importância na primeira área e Pouteria ramiflora, Qualea parviflora, Qualea grandiflora, Caryocar brasiliense e Vochysia cinamommea, foram as espécies de maior importância na segunda área. A família Vochysiaceae foi a de maior IVI em ambas as áreas e Leguminosae apresentou o maior número de espécies (15, seguindo Vochysiaceae (7, Apocynaceae (5 e Myrtaceae (4.

  18. Effects of different sources of fructans on body weight, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in normal and obese non-diabetic and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Huerta, Juan A; Juárez-Flores, Bertha; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Aguirre-Rivera, J Rogelio; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E

    2012-03-01

    Fructans contribute significantly to dietary fiber with beneficial effects on gastrointestinal physiology in healthy individuals and offer a promising approach to treating some diseases. Two experiments (Experiment 1 = rats with normal weight; Experiment 2 = obese rats) were developed to compare the effects of three fructan sources (Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae, Helianthus tuberosus L. Asteraceae and Agave angustifolia ssp. tequilana Haw, Agavaceae) on body weight change, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) rats. In Experiment 1 total body weight gain and daily feed intake in D and ND rats decreased (P tequilana decreased blood cholesterol and LDL and liver steatosis. For both ND and D rats, fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher (P < 0.05) with fructan supplements.

  19. Issue of Separation of Powers in Ancient Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Javid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotemporary public law in Iran cannot ignore the elements of its identity in the past. Although analysis of public law issue in ancient Iran, the most researchers to be considered so it is not easy to speak about separation of powers, the part of the body of public law in the Iran primary governments but this article constants on hypothesis which with think and assimilation in history of ancient Iran which can laying the groundwork of strengthening people rights and limitation of authority's governors with emphasis on three periods of governorship on ancient Iran .for example Hakhamaneshian, Ashkanian and Sasanian. This article intent to clear haw can in these periods, the primary figure and foundation of separation of powers and functions division in body of previous governments of Iran to be observed.

  20. Visions and Revisions: Seamus Heaney, ‘Foreign’ Poetry, and The Problem of Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the unusual position of Irish and Polish cultures and how it correlates to the construction of lyric subjects that appear unassimilable to dominant postcolonial literary-critical paradigms. Translation and assimilation become crucial concepts when understood in relation to attempts to take inspiration from foreign sources, especially when such attempts do not accord with typical patterns of influence. These concepts, however, only reveal their utility when they are grounded. The problem of assimilation is here considered in reference to debates over the Eastern European influences behind Seamus Heaney’s volume The Haw Lantern, which reveal the cultural pressures brought to bear upon a well-known poet whose work challenges dominant assumptions about the proper idiom of the Anglo-American lyric.

  1. An approach to averaging digitized plantagram curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Heinemeyer, R; Sovak, D; Tory, B

    1994-07-01

    The averaging of outline shapes of the human foot for the purposes of determining information concerning foot shape and dimension within the context of comfort of fit of sport shoes is approached as a mathematical problem. An outline of the human footprint is obtained by standard procedures and the curvature is traced with a Hewlett Packard Digitizer. The paper describes the determination of an alignment axis, the identification of two ray centres and the division of the total curve into two overlapping arcs. Each arc is divided by equiangular rays which intersect chords between digitized points describing the arc. The radial distance of each ray is averaged within groups of foot lengths which vary by +/- 2.25 mm (approximately equal to 1/2 shoe size). The method has been used to determine average plantar curves in a study of 1197 North American males (Hawes and Sovak 1993).

  2. Anisotropic damping of Timoshenko beam elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M.H.

    2001-05-01

    This report contains a description of a structural damping model for Timoshenko beam elements used in the aeroelastic code HawC developed at Risoe for modeling wind turbines. The model has been developed to enable modeling of turbine blades which often have different damping characteristics for flapwise, edgewise and torsional vibrations. The structural damping forces acting on the beam element are modeled by viscous damping described by an element damping matrix. The composition of this matrix is based on the element mass and stiffness matrices. It is shown how the coefficients for the mass and stiffness contributions can be calibrated to give the desired modal damping in the complete model of a blade. (au)

  3. Pilot tests on radioactive waste disposal in underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the pilot test carried out in the underground facilities in the Asse salt mine (Germany) and in the Boom clay beneath the nuclear site at Mol (Belgium). These tests include test disposal of simulated vitrified high-level waste (HAW project) and of intermediate level waste and spent HTR fuel elements in the Asse salt mine, as well as an active handling experiment with neutron sources, this last test with a view to direct disposal of spent fuel. Moreover, an in situ test on the performance of a long-term sealing system for galleries in rock salt is described. Regarding the tests in the Boom clay, a combined heating and radiation test, geomechanical and thermo-hydro mechanical tests are dealt with. Moreover, the design of a demonstration test for disposal of high-level waste in clay is presented. Finally the situation concerning site selection and characterization in France and the United Kingdom are described

  4. Geotechnical and geological aspects for repository concepts with retrievability of radioactive waste; Geotechnische und geologische Aspekte fuer Tiefenlagerkonzepte mit der Option der Rueckholung der radioaktiven Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Leon Vargas, Rocio; Mintzlaff, Volker [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Grundbau und Bodenmechanik

    2016-03-15

    The retrievability of heat-producing high-level radioactive waste (HAW) is on debate internationally as well as in Germany. This article deals with the geological and geotechnical consequences of the design of a repository with retrievability in different host rocks. The properties of rock salt, clay, shale and crystalline rock - potential host rocks for a repository with retrievability in Germany - will be presented. Based on these properties generic models of repositories with measurements for retrievability and monitoring will be also presented. With these models it can be derived that due the different stress-deformation-behavior there is a conflict of aims between the best possible closure of the waste and the option of retrieval.

  5. Genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentation of bacanora produced by artisanal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E

    2015-03-01

    Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately.

  6. Influence of the reprocessing flow sheet on the HLW solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of Pu recycled LWR and CMFBR fuel will require the addition of a second dissolution step to quantitation recover Pu. If process modifications can be brought to the head-end procedures it is advisable to remove Ru, Te, Mo, Pd by high performance centrifugation and to volatilize soluble RuNO(NO 3 ) 2 by sparing with ozone. This changes improve the liquid extraction efficiency and simplify the off gas treatment during calcination and vitrification of HAWC. The conversion of HAW to HAWC by evaporation is accompagnied by some-volatilization of Ru and Cs. Organic reductants reduce the Ru volatilization. The introduction of salt free reagents during feed adjustment steps will decrease Na content in the HLW. The main impact of the use of salt free reagent will have its bearing on the LAW and ILIW treatment and conditioning. (DG)

  7. Contextualización socioambiental del agave en Tonaya, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia Elizabeth Rodríguez Contreras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Tonaya, the Agave angustifolia Haw has been cultivated since 1845, but today has been replaced almost entirely by the Agave tequilana Weber. This replacement and the increase in the demand for agave liquor caused environmental damages. The historical context and the socio-environmental effects generated by the agave distiller industry are described in this article, and the role played by the government institutions is analyzed, a study on the region that was nonexistent until today. Information from bibliographic archives and from interviews to key actors, using the snowball technique, was obtained. Moreover, the effects on biodiversity and water quality by the dumping of liquid waste or vinasse into the Tuxcacuesco river were examined. Decisions were made reducing environmental pollution; however, many of these actions have been abandoned, putting at risk again the water system’s integrity and what it represents.

  8. Pista de aterrizaje sobre un arrecife de coral EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons, Ralph M.

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available This is probably the largest land reclaim project ever attempted to enlarge an airport facility. The owner is the Honolulu International Airport, Hawaii, where a 3600 m long landing strip was built on a coral reef. This project, difficult and unique, opens new ways for airports to solve their capacity and environment problems through reclaiming land from the ocean.

    Probablemente, la mayor obra de ampliación hacia el mar realizada hasta ahora de un aeropuerto se ha hecho en el Aeropuerto Internacional de Honolulú, Hawái, donde se ha construido una pista de aterrizaje de 3.600 m de longitud, sobre un arrecife de coral. Esta obra, difícil y única en su género, abre nuevas posibilidades para que los aeropuertos puedan solucionar sus problemas de capacidad y ambientales mediante la ampliación marítima.

  9. Comparative consideration and design of a security depot for high radioactive glass-enclosed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroni, U.

    1985-01-01

    From the beginning of 1990 the COGEMA shall supply glass-enclosed high radioactive waste of the reprocessing of German fuel elements back to the Federal Republic of Germany. As to this time the final waste storage in the salt stock of Gorleben will not be available the glass cannisters have to be deposited above ground. First a comparison is made out of a number of proposed storage concepts for the deposition of HAW-glass blocks. The safety technical behaviour of the facility is considered. On the basis of the gained results a new facility design is presented, which can take 450 glass cannisters in a discoid built up cast-steel vessel and makes possible the utilization of the resulting radioactive heat of dissociation. During the development of this concept besides a compact, reasonable method of building and the thermodynamic behaviour of the storage the aspect of high security against release of radioactive materials was emphasized. (orig.) [de

  10. La práctica judicial en las causas matrimoniales de la sociedad española del siglo XVIII

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    Margarita Ortega López

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo muestra los comportamientos y estrategias que siguieron los tribunales españoles del siglo XVIII en las causas matrimoniales. Se percibe en ellos como buscaban perpetuar a toda costa la convivencia entre los esposos bajo el principio básico de autoridad masculina y obediencia femenina, existiendo una evidente complicidad entre la magistratura y el cabeza de familia afectado.The study shows the behaviours and strategys, that follow the spanish courts during the XVIII century in the matrimonial lawsuit. In them perceive it, haw they search for perpetúate insistencely the coexistence between the husbands, under the basic principie of the masculine authority and femenine obedience; existing a obvious accomplicity between the magistrate and the family's leader affected.

  11. Some remarks on hydrogen release from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, S.

    1980-01-01

    After a survey of the literature on generalisable statements on β, γ-radiolysis of water and salty solutions, an attempt is made to summarize and evaluate existing measurements in connection with the formation of H 2 in nitrous fission product solutions (or corresponding simulates). It is seen that laboratory experiments with such fission products show rather uniform and plausible G(H 2 )-values in the region -3 . It is also seen, however, that G(H 2 )-values and steady H 2 -release rates are not suitable to describe technical systems (HAW stores). Either H 2 is carried away by purge air or it is, in a non-operating system, consumed again in situ, obviously by back reactions. (orig.) [de

  12. La Asociación Mundial de Psiquiatría Cultural y la crisis migratoria

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    Sergio Javier Villaseñor Bayardo

    2016-01-01

    Participaron personalidades académicas provenientes de todos los continentes, lo que resalta la representatividad de las distintas zonas geográficas y problemáticas sentidas en ellas; los 50 países participantes fueron Alemania, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, China, Colombia, Corea, Dinamarca, República Dominicana, Ecuador, Egipto, España, Estados Unidos de América, Francia, Guatemala, Hawái, Honduras, India, Irán, Irlanda, Israel, Italia, Jamaica, Japón, Kenia, Kazajistán, México, Nueva Zelanda, Noruega, Paquistán, Países Bajos, Perú, Qtar, Reino Unido, República Checa, Rusia, Eslovenia, Sudáfrica, Suiza, Suecia, Turquía, Uganda, Uruguay y Venezuela.

  13. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from two Pereskia species grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucéia Fatima; De Barros, Ingrid Bergman Inchausti; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Pereskia aculeata Mill. and P. grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), grown in Brazil, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS. In all, 37 compounds were identified, 30 for P. aculeata and 15 for P. grandifolia. Oxygenated diterpenes are the main constituents, both in the oil ofP. grandifolia (55.5%) and in that ofP. aculeata (29.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil of P. grandifolia, at all doses tested, significantly inhibited the radicle elongation of R. sativus. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The essential oils showed weak inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  14. Operational and safety aspects of vitrified waste casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, B.

    1993-01-01

    For the time being two technical solutions have been developed for the interim storage: 1) one is based on forced air cooled pits set out in a concrete structure, as presently provided close to the Vitrification Facilities on reprocessing sites; 2) the other one is based on transportable storage casks standing vertically onto a storage pad, following principles similar to those already experienced with spent fuel storage casks. Considering these two solutions for interim storage, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has developed two main types of transportable casks for vitrified HAW; one is a routine transport cask; the other one is a transportable storage cask. Both are covered by the generic name TN28V and have already been described in previous papers. This paper deals with the safety and operation aspects of the casks under both transport and storage conditions. (J.P.N.)

  15. Single-Photon Nonlinear Optics in Integrated Hollow-Core Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    IM_,io{f I +1-o (q&r H-a.w kh<->1 A:a.ro •L- "£. Lll!.L , ’J3 i_""- th.d iJerr 1 Jo lu1. F I UC t)i;t•- vlc - Cntc- 1 /’S’~ His k S-f . Sa.ccfa...this has proven to be challenging as the rubidium is very reactive with air. Attaching a reservoir using anodic bonding techniques is hard to...exciting prospect. 7.2 Remaining challenges The dephasing rate can be even lowered in our device by reducing the experimental 190

  16. Phase 2B experimental design for the INEEL glass composition variation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Offices of Science and Technology (through the Tanks Focus Area [TFA]) and Waste Management are sponsoring a partnership among Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for a collaborative glass composition variation study (CVS). The purpose of the CVS is to investigate property - composition relationships within a glass-composition region compatible with the expected range of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) high-activity wastes (HAWs). The CVS has been conducted in phases to allow INEEL, PNNL, and SRTC researchers to adjust the glass composition region of interest as flowsheet options are refined and/or waste-stream compositions become more defined

  17. Efecto de acondicionadores naturales y sintéticos sobre los cationes solubles y la infiltración del agua en un Aridisol Effect of natural and synthetic conditioners on soluble cations and water infiltration in an Aridisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Henríquez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de diversos acondicionadores sobre los cationes solubles y la infiltración del agua en un suelo Vertic Haplocambid, arcilloso muy fino, de la depresión de Quibor, Venezuela. Fueron aplicadas soluciones de acondicionadores naturales de cardón dato (Lemaireocereus griceus (Haw. Br. & Rose y de cardón lefaria (Cereus deficiens Otto & Dietr, a concentraciones de2.000, 1.000 y 500 mg L-1, solución de un acondicionador sintético, la poliacrilamida, en concentración de 10 mg L-1 y agua del acueducto local. Las soluciones de cada uno de esos tratamientos fueron vertidas sobre mini canales rellenos del suelo, para simular el flujo del agua en surcos. Los acondicionadores naturales incrementaron la infiltración y produjeron una relación Ca-Mg-Na en el suelo, mas adecuada que la producida con la aplicación de la poliacrilamida o el agua sin aditivos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of several conditioners on soluble cations and water infiltration on a fine clay Vertic Haplocambid soil collected on the Quibor depression, Venezuela. Solutions of two natural conditioners from dato cactus (Lemaireocereus griceus (Haw. Br. & Rose and lefaria cactus(Cereus deficiens Otto & Dietr, on concentrations of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 mg L-1, a synthetic polyacrilamide conditioner solution of 10 mg L-1 and local tap water were applied to the soil. All solutions and the tap water were poured in a mini flume to simulate the irrigation process on furrows. The natural conditioners increased the infiltration and produced a better Ca-Mg-Na relationship as compared with that produced by the polyacrilamide and the tap water without additives.

  18. Determination of ten perfluorinated compounds in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delinsky, Amy D.; Strynar, Mark J.; Nakayama, Shoji F.; Varns, Jerry L.; Ye, XiBiao; McCann, Patricia J.; Lindstrom, Andrew B.

    2009-01-01

    A rigorous solid phase extraction/liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the measurement of 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in fish fillets is described and applied to fillets of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) collected from selected areas of Minnesota and North Carolina. The 4 PFC analytes routinely detected in bluegill fillets were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoic acid (C10), perfluoroundecanoic acid (C11), and perflurododecanoic acid (C12). Measures of method accuracy and precision for these compounds showed that calculated concentrations of PFCs in spiked samples differed by less than 20% from their theoretical values and that the %RSD for repeated measurements was less than 20%. Minnesota samples were collected from areas of the Mississippi River near historical PFC sources, from the St. Croix River as a background site, and from Lake Calhoun, which has no documented PFC sources. PFOS was the most prevalent PFC found in the Minnesota samples, with median concentrations of 47.0-102 ng/g at locations along the Mississippi River, 2.08 ng/g in the St. Croix River, and 275 ng/g in Lake Calhoun. North Carolina samples were collected from two rivers with no known historical PFC sources. PFOS was the predominant analyte in fish taken from the Haw and Deep Rivers, with median concentrations of 30.3 and 62.2 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of C10, C11, and C12 in NC samples were among the highest reported in the literature, with respective median values of 9.08, 23.9, and 6.60 ng/g in fish from the Haw River and 2.90, 9.15, and 3.46 ng/g in fish from the Deep River. These results suggest that PFC contamination in freshwater fish may not be limited to areas with known historical PFC inputs.

  19. Effect of different polishing systems and drinks on the color stability of resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Asll; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Baseren, Meserret; Gurgan, Sevil

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resin composit using different finishing systems and drinks. Composit disks (5 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared for each nanofilled composite using a brass mold. The specimens were divided into 5 finishing system groups Mylar strip (Mylar, DuPont, Wilmington, Del., USA), Soft Lex (3M(™) ESPE(™) St. Paul, MN, USA), Enhance (Dentsply-DeTrey GmbHD Konstanz, Germany), Hiluster (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland), Opti Disc (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland) and each group was divided into 10 subgroups (n = 10) and stored for 24 hours at 37°C in different drinks water coffee, coffee with sugar, tea, tea with sugar, diet coke, coke, light sour cherry juice or sour cherry juice. Color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a spectrophotometer using CIE L*a*b* relative, and color changes (ΔE*) were then calculated. The data were analyzed with a twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA), and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). For the drinks, the lowest ΔE* values were observed in the water and highest ΔE* values were observed in sour cherry juice. When drinks with and without sugar were compared, all groups with sugar demonstrated a higher color difference than without sugar. For the different finishing systems, Mylar strip group demonstrated significantly highest color change; Enhance groups demonstrated significantly lowest color change. Finishing treatments and storage solutions significantly affect the color stability of resin composite. The presence of sugar in drinks increased the color difference compared to drinks without composit. Polishing techniques and drinking drinks with sugar may affect the color of esthetic restorations.

  20. Genome characterization of sugarcane yellow leaf virus from China reveals a novel recombinant genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hua; Gao, San-Ji; Damaj, Mona B; Fu, Hua-Ying; Chen, Ru-Kai; Mirkov, T Erik

    2014-06-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a recombinant virus associated with yellow leaf disease, a serious threat to sugarcane in China and worldwide. Among the nine known SCYLV genotypes existing worldwide, COL, HAW, REU, IND, CHN1, CHN2, BRA, CUB and PER, the last five have been reported in China. In this study, the complete genome sequences (5,880 nt) of GZ-GZ18 and HN-CP502 isolates from the Chinese provinces of Guizhou and Hainan, respectively, were cloned, sequenced and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, among 29 SCYLV isolates described worldwide, the two Chinese isolates clustered together into an independent clade based on the near-complete genome nucleotide (ORF0-ORF5) or amino acid sequences of individual genes, except for the MP protein (ORF4). We propose that the two isolates represent a novel genotype, CHN3, diverging from other genotypes by 1.7-13.6 % nucleotide differences in ORF0-ORF5, and 2.7-28.1 %, 1.8-20.4 %, 0.5-5.1 % and 2.7-15.9 % amino acid differences in P0 (ORF0), RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) (ORF1+2), CP (coat protein) (ORF3) and RT (readthrough protein) (ORF3+5), respectively. CHN3 was closely related to the BRA, HAW and PER genotypes, differing by 1.7-3.8 % in the near-complete genome nucleotide sequence. Recombination analysis further identified CHN3 as a new recombinant strain, arising from the major parent CHN-HN1 and the minor parent CHN-GD-WY19. Recombination breakpoints were distributed mostly within the RdRp region in CHN3 and the four significant recombinant genotypes, IND, REU, CUB and BRA. Recombination is considered to contribute significantly to the evolution and emergence of such new SCYLV variants.

  1. Fenologia reprodutiva de pitaia vermelha no município de Lavras, MG Reproductive phenology of red pitaya in Lavras, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna Braga Marques

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do comportamento fenológico pode contribuir para melhorar a produtividade das culturas e a qualidade dos frutos. O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a fenologia reprodutiva da pitaia vermelha em Lavras, MG, Brasil. Foram avaliados em cem plantas de pitaia vermelha (Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose os períodos das subfases desde a emissão das gemas até a maturação dos frutos de 2008 a 2010. O botão floral se desenvolve no período de 19 a 21 dias. A antese é noturna que dura aproximadamente 15 horas. A maturação do fruto ocorre de 30 a 40 dias após a abertura da flor, quando o fruto adquire a coloração rosa a vermelho intenso e a textura firme. Em Lavras, MG o período reprodutivo da pitaia ocorre de novembro a maio e tempo do aparecimento do botão floral até a colheita do fruto é de 50 a 60 dias.The study of phenology can contribute to improve the productivity of crops and fruit quality. The study was conducted to evaluate the reproductive phenology of red pitaya in Lavras, MG, Brazil. It was evaluated in one hundred plants of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose the subphase's periods from the issuance of buds to fruit ripening from 2008 to 2010. The bud develops from 19 to 21 days. The anthesis is nocturnal which lasts about 15 hours. The maturation occurs from 30 to 40 days after flower opening, when the fruit acquires color pink to deep red and firm texture. In Lavras, MG the reproductive period of red pitaya occurs from November to May and the time of appearance of flower buds to fruit harvest is from 50 to 60 days.

  2. Componente epifítico vascular de um fragmento florestal urbano, município de Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Vanilde Citadini-Zanette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p33   Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico, bem como analisar a distribuição espacial do componente epifítico vascular em um fragmento florestal em área urbana pertencente à floresta ombrófila densa submontana no município de Criciúma-SC. Adicionalmente, informações sobre os grupos ecológicos das espécies epifíticas e as estratégias de polinização e de dispersão também foram apresentadas. Foram amostradas 60 árvores como forófitos com DAP ≥ 10 cm, pelo método de pontos quadrantes centrados, e foi utilizado o método expedito por caminhamento para registrar as espécies epifíticas não amostradas nos forófitos pelo método fitossociológico. A frequência foi avaliada com base na ocorrência dos epífitos nos forófitos e nos segmentos fuste e copa. Foi registrada a presença dos epífitos nos forófitos nos segmentos fuste e copa. Foram encontradas 65 espécies distribuídas em 39 gêneros e em 14 famílias, das quais 49 foram amostradas no levantamento fitossociológico e as demais no levantamento por caminhamento. Bromeliaceae apresentou a maior riqueza, seguida de Orchidaceae e Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. foi citada pela primeira vez no sul do estado. A diversidade específica foi estimada em H’ = 3,33 e a equabilidade (E foi igual a 0,86. O grupo ecológico dos holoepífitos foi o mais representativo na área de estudo. Entomofilia e anemocoria foram as estratégias predominantes para polinização e dispersão, respectivamente. No levantamento fitossociológico, o número de espécies epifíticas nos forófitos variou de 0 a 21. Os maiores valores de importância foram os relativos à Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. e Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  3. Análise da estrutura de uma comunidade lenhosa em área de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves, norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil A woody community structure in a cerrado sensu stricto area of the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves, north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Viana Neri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de conhecer a estrutura de uma comunidade arbórea de uma área de Cerrado, fez-se um estudo fitossociológico no Município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves. Para tal foram delimitadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 20m para levantamento dos dados, utilizando-se como critério de inclusão os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco à altura do solo (CAS = 10 cm. Foram encontradas 91 espécies de 38 famílias. As espécies que se destacaram como as mais importantes foram Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata e Lafoensia pacari. Essas 10 espécies representaram 49,32% do VI e 51,26% dos indivíduos amostrados. A área não apresentou espécie com dominância marcante, como mostrou o valor de equabilidade (J'= 0,80. Além de se destacar pela riqueza, o cerrado estudado destacou-se também pelos altos valores de densidade (6.476,67 ind/ha, de área basal (28,93 m²/ha e pelo alto índice de diversidade (H'=3,61.The aim of this work was to study the phytossociological structure of a tree community in a cerrado fragment located in Senador Modestino Gonçalves, MG. A total of 30 10x20m stands of tree individuals with stem circumferences at the soil level = 10cm were sampled, being found 91 species belonging to 38 families. The most important species were Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata and Lafoensia pacari. These species represented 49.32% of the importance value and 51.26% of the individuals. Besides standing out for its richness, the studied cerrado fragment also outstood out for its high tree density, biomass and diversity.

  4. Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia. IV. La actividad biológica del suelo en diferentes asociaciones vegetales Estudios ecológicos en el Páramo de Cruz Verde, Colombia. IV. La actividad biológica del suelo en diferentes asociaciones vegetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnetter Marie-Luise

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron la respiración y la actividad de celulosólisis del suelo en las asociaciones vegetales de Diplostephium revolutum degradada, de Calamagrostis effusa, Espeletia grandiflora y Geranium santanderiense, de Calamagrostis effusa y Altesteinia fimbriata y de un bosque bajo de páramo en el Páramo de Cruz Verde (Cundinamarca. La mayoría de los promedios de la respiración del suelo se situaba entre 120 y 190 mg CO2/m2h. Valores menores se determinaron dos veces en la asociación degradada de Diplostephium revolutum (82,4 mg CO2/m2h, 72,5 mg CO2/m2h, valores mayores una vez en la asociación de Colamagrostis effusa y Altesteinia fimbriata (220,2 mg CO2/m2h y en el bosque bajo de páramo (245,1 mg CO2/m2h.   La actividad de celulosólisis en el bosque bajo de páramo superaba notablemente la de las otras asociaciones vegetales mencionadas, en contraste en la asociación degradada de Diplostephium revolutum no se notó alguna descomposición de celulosa. In vier Pflanzengesellschaften des Páramo de Cruz Verde (Cundinamarca, nämlich der degradierten Diplostephium revolutum - Gesellschaft, der Calamagrostis effusa • Espeletia grandiflora - Geranium santanderiense - Gesellschaft, der Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata - Gesellschaft und einer Gesellschaft des Páramo - Buschwaldes wurden Bodenatmung und zellulolytische Aktivität bestimmt.  Die Mehrzahl der bei den Bodenatmungsbestimmungen gefundenen Mittelwerte lag zwischen 120 und 190 mg CO2/m2h.  In der degradierten Diplostephium revolutum. - Gesellschaft wurde zweimal ein niedrigerer (82,4 mg CO2/m2h, 72,5 mg CO2/m2h, in der Calamagrostis effusa - Altesteinia fimbriata -Gesellschaft (220,2 mg CO2/m2h und im Páramo -Buschwald (245,1 mg CO2/m2h jeweils einmal ein höherer Wert bestimmt.  Die zellulolytische Aktivität war im Päramo - Buschwald um ein Vielfaches höher als in den drei anderen Pflanzengesellschaften, wo in der degradierten Diplostephium. revolutum

  5. Nutrient content, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of tropical tannin-containing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Raghavendra; Saravanan, Mani; Baruah, Luna; Sampath, Koratekere T

    2012-12-01

    Plant tannins as rumen modifiers are better than chemicals or antibiotic-based modifiers since these compounds are natural products which are environmentally friendly and therefore have a better acceptance with regard to feed safety issues. Tropical plants containing phenols such as tannins were found to suppress or eliminate protozoa from the rumen and reduce methane and ammonia production. The screening of these plants is an important step in the identification of new compounds and feed additives which might contribute to mitigate rumen methanogenesis. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of tannins from tropical tree leaves for their methane reduction properties. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 as a tannin binder (tannin bioassay) was highest in Ficus bengalensis (555%), followed by Azardirachta indica (78.5%). PEG addition did not alter (P > 0.05) methane percentage in Ficus racemosa, Glyricidia maculata, Leucena leucocephala, Morus alba and Semaroba glauca, confirming that tannins in these samples did not affect methanogenesis. The increase (P 0.05) in the protozoa population in Autocarpus integrifolia, Ficus bengalensis, Jatropha curcus, Morus alba and Sesbania grandiflora, demonstrating that methane reduction observed in these samples per se was not due to defaunation effect of the tannin. The increase in total volatile fatty acid concentration in samples with PEG ranged from 0.6% to > 70%. The highest increase (%) in NH(3)-N was recorded in Azardirachta indica (67.4), followed by Ficus mysoriensis (35.7) and Semaroba glauca (32.6) leaves, reflecting strong protein binding properties of tannin. The results of our study established that in vitro methanogenesis was not essentially related to the density of protozoa population. Tropical tree leaves containing tannins such as Autocarpus integrifolia, Jatropha curcus and Sesbania grandiflora have the

  6. Crescimento e qualidade de crisântemo cultivado em vaso sob ambiente protegido Growth and quality of Chrysanthemum produced in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryzélia F. de Farias

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora é uma planta ornamental com grande demanda pelo mercado consumidor. Apesar de haver poucas informações sobre a sua exigência hídrica, sabe-se que irrigações deficitárias ou excessivas prejudicam seu desenvolvimento, reduzindo a produtividade e a qualidade. Considerando-se a importância da qualidade para a venda dos produtos florícolas o objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar a tensão de água no substrato (potencial matricial com melhor crescimento e desenvolvimento do crisântemo, cultivar Rage, em vaso. Os tratamentos foram definidos por 6 níveis de tensão de água no substrato: -2; -3; -4; -6; -10 e -30 kPa. Concluiu-se que a melhor qualidade do crisântemo em vaso pode ser obtida com a tensão de -4 kPa e que, embora a tensão de -30 kPa tenha levado a uma drástica redução na qualidade comercial do crisântemo, a mesma pode ter um efeito benéfico na durabilidade pós- colheita.Chrysanthemum (Dendranhema grandiflora has a high commercial value in the ornamental plant market. There is little information about when and how much water to apply. In general the flower growers apply too much water reducing yield and quality. In this research we identified the best substrate water tension that could assure quality and high yield. Treatments were composed of six levels of water tension in the substrate: -2; -3; -4; -6; -10 and -30 kPa. Results showed that -4 kPa of substrate water tension resulted in the highest number of pots with quality A1, considered the highest level in the grower's scale. Post-harvest was also evaluated and plants irrigated when substrate water tension reached -30 kPa presented longer durability.

  7. Water-quality characteristics for selected sites on the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, 1955-80; variability, loads, and trends of selected constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J. Kent

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality data for selected sites in the Cape Fear River basin collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are analyzed and interpreted in this report. Emphasis is given to the Cape Fear River at Lock 1 near Kelly, where data are most complete. Other data included in the report were collected from the Cape Fear River at Lillington, the Haw River near the Jordan Dam, and the Deep River at Moncure. Available data indicate that concentrations of dissolved oxygen at study sites are almost always within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria; however, on two sampling dates, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the Cape Fear at Lock 1 fell slightly below the 5.0 mg/L recommended for fish populations. Measurements of pH from all stations were frequently below the lower limit of 6.5 pH units recommended for protection of freshwater aquatic life. Major dissolved ions detected are sodium and bicarbonate. Sodium concentration averages 8.6 mg/L and bicarbonate averages 17.5 mg/L at Lock 1. Concentrations of dissolved substances and suspended sediment decrease in the downstream direction, presumably because the more heavily populated part of the basin is near the headwaters of the system. Heavy metals, with the exceptions of cadmium and mercury, rarely exceed Environmental Protection Agency criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of mercury in the Haw River, which exceed the recommended 0.20 mg/L needed to protect aquatic life, have frequently been reported by other authors. Several of the most toxic metals, arsenic, cadmium, and cobalt, are about five times more concentrated in water from the Haw River site than from other study sites in the basin. Iron and manganese frequently exceed North Carolina water-quality standards. Available nitrogen averages 1.21 mg/L and available phosphorus averages 0.21 mg/L at Lock 1

  8. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [OeEo-Institute e.V., Inst. for Applied Ecology, Darmstadt (Germany); Arens, Georg [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are

  9. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Arens, Georg

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are under consideration

  10. Medicinal plants used by Burundian traditional healers for the treatment of microbial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngezahayo, Jérémie; Havyarimana, François; Hari, Léonard; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Infectious diseases represent a serious and worldwide public health problem. They lead to high mortality, especially in non-developed countries. In Burundi, the most frequent infectious diseases are skin and respiratory (mainly in children) infections, diarrhea, added to malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Local population used mostly traditional herbal medicines, sometimes animal and mineral substances, to fight against these plagues. To survey in different markets and herbal shops in Bujumbura city, medicinal plants sold to treat microbial infections, with particular emphasis on the different practices of traditional healers (THs) regarding plant parts used, methods of preparation and administration, dosage and treatment duration. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted by interviewing, using a pre-set questionnaire, sixty representative healers, belonging to different associations of THs approved and recognised by the Ministry of Health. Each interviewed herbalist also participated in the collection of samples and the determination of the common names of plants. The plausibility of recorded uses has been verified through an extensive literature search. Our informants enabled us to collect 155 different plant species, distributed in 51 families and 139 genera. The most represented families were Asteraceae (20 genera and 25 species), Fabaceae (14 genera and 16 species), Lamiaceae (12 genera and 15 species), Rubiaceae (9 genera and 9 species), Solanaceae (6 genera and 6 species) and Euphorbiaceae (5 genera and 6 families). These plants have been cited to treat 25 different alleged symptoms of microbial diseases through 271 multi-herbal recipes (MUHRs) and 60 mono-herbal recipes (MOHRs). Platostoma rotundifolium (Briq.) A. J. Paton (Lamiaceae), the most cited species, has been reported in the composition of 41 MUHRs, followed by Virectaria major (Schum.) Verdc (Rubiaceae, 39 recipes), Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw. (Crassulaceae, 37 recipes), Stomatanthes

  11. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  12. Application of perennial legume green manures to improve growth and yield of organic lowland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Winarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment in green house was done to study the effect of the dosage and speciesof perennial legume green manures to the physiological traits, growth and yield of organic lowland rice (Oryza sativaL., and to obtain the optimal dosage as well.  The research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design consistedof two factors with three replications.The first factor was the species of perennial legume thatconsisted of threespecies: Turi (Sesbaniagrandiflora, Glirisidia (Gliricidiasepium, and Lamtoro (Leucaenaleucocephala and cow manure as control treatment. The second factor was the dosage of green manure thatconsisted of four levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha.  The results showed that application ofperennial legumesinto the soil significantly improved the growth and yield of rice.  The application of  20 t Glirisidia leaves/haproduced the highest grain yield, followed by 20 t Lamtoro leaves/ha and 20 t Turi leaves/ha.  The optimal dosages of S. grandiflora, G. sepium and L. leucochepala leaves that could yield 58.03 g/hill (equivalent to14.51 t/ha, 53.67 g/hill (equivalent to 13.42 t/ha, and 49.67 g/hill (equivalent to 12.42 t/ha were 28.05, 25.46 and 26.41 t/ha, respectively.

  13. LEAF RESIDUE DECOMPOSITION OF SELECTED ATLANTIC FOREST TREE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Dias Arato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biogeochemical cycling is essential to establish and maintain plant and animal communities. Litter is one of main compartments of this cycle, and the kinetics of leaf decomposition in forest litter depend on the chemical composition and environmental conditions. This study evaluated the effect of leaf composition and environmental conditions on leaf decomposition of native Atlantic Forest trees. The following species were analyzed: Mabea fistulifera Mart., Bauhinia forficata Link., Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell, Luehea grandiflora Mart. et. Zucc., Croton floribundus Spreng., Trema micrantha (L Blume, Cassia ferruginea (Schrad Schrad ex DC, Senna macranthera (DC ex Collad. H. S. Irwin and Barney and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae. For each species, litter bags were distributed on and fixed to the soil surface of soil-filled pots (in a greenhouse, or directly to the surface of the same soil type in a natural forest (field. Every 30 days, the dry weight and soil basal respiration in both environments were determined. The cumulative decomposition of leaves varied according to the species, leaf nutrient content and environment. In general, the decomposition rate was lowest for Aegiphila sellowiana and fastest for Bauhinia forficate and Schinus terebinthifolius. This trend was similar under the controlled conditions of a greenhouse and in the field. The selection of species with a differentiated decomposition pattern, suited for different stages of the recovery process, can help improve soil restoration.

  14. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC 50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 μg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC 50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC 50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  15. Developing relationships between environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, B.M.; Willits, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to model the relationships between the environmental variables and stem elongation in chrysanthemum with the end-goal of producing a model appropriate for use in the dynamic control of a greenhouse environment. The plants used were Dendranthema grandiflora cv. 'Spice'. The model developed uses Richards' growth equation (Richards, 1969) as its base. Adaptations were made to Richards' growth equation to explicitly include the effects of day and night temperature, daily PPF (photosynthetic photon flux), end-of-day red to far-red ratio, and position of the internode on the stem on internode elongation. The model fit the observed final length data reasonably well (R2 = 0.89). Sensitivity analyses indicated that increasing day temperature had a positive effect on internode length while increasing night temperature had a negative effect, with night temperature having a considerably larger effect than the effect of day temperature. The analyses suggests that both high and low end-of-day red to far-red ratios will produce increased lengths and that increasing daily PPF will produce decreased lengths. The analyses also suggests that internodes which develop later on the plant will generally have larger lengths as reflected by the measured data

  16. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND VARIOUS SAMPLES PREPARATION METHODS FOR In Vitro GAS TEST OF TWO TROPICAL FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Daryatmo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3x2 factorial experimental design was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition ofSesbania grandiflora (SG and Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC leaves and to measure the effects ofpreparation and drying methods on the in vitro gas production in the presence and absence of PEG. Thecollected samples were divided into three groups: One group was fresh samples (F. The second groupwas oven-dried at 55°C for 48h (OD and the last group was freeze-dried at –40°C for 72h (FD. Resultsshowed that the mean value of gas production from fresh SG and MEC samples were not significantlyhigher (P<0.05 than from FD and OD samples. In SG and MEC, the mean value of gas production ofFD was not significant compared to OD samples (P>0.05. Gas production from samples added withPEG were higher (P<0.05 than without PEG. In conclusion, the preparation and drying methods of feedsamples could affect the volume of gas production. The addition of PEG in SG and MEC resulted inhigher gas production volumes.

  17. Análise da estrutura arbustivo-arbórea de uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, município de Aquidauana-Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Gardenal Fina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo registrar a composição florística e estrutura de uma área de Cerrado stricto senso, com ênfase no estrato arbustivo-arbóreo. Foram instaladas 30 parcelas de 10 x 10 m, distribuídas em blocos de 10 parcelas contíguas, onde os indivíduos com PAP superior ou igual a 10 cm foram incluídos. O número total de indivíduos amostrados foi de 1.107, pertencentes a 33 famílias e 88 espécies, evidenciando-se alta riqueza. A área basal total e a densidade total foram, respectivamente, de 6,651 m² e 3.690 indivíduos por hectare. Os valores de diversidade (3.868 nats/indivíduo e equabilidade (0,86 indicaram grande heterogeneidade e baixa dominância ecológica. As espécies mais importantes foram Qualea grandiflora Mart., Lafoensia pacari St. Hil., Magonia pubescens St. Hil e Qualea parviflora Mart., que juntas representaram 57,7% do VI

  18. Chromosome numbers and DNA content in some species of Mecardonia (Gratiolae, Plantaginaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, María M.; Angulo, María B.; Greppi, Julián A.; Bugallo, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic characterization and determination of DNA content by flow cytometry of five species of Mecardonia Ruiz et Pavon, 1798 (Gratiolae, Plantaginaceae) was performed. This is the first study of nuclear DNA content carried out in the genus. Mitotic analysis revealed a base chromosome number x = 11 for all entities and different ploidy levels, ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 22) to hexaploid (2n = 6x = 66). The results include the first report of the chromosome numbers for Mecardonia flagellaris (Chamisso & Schlechtendal, 1827) (2n = 22), Mecardonia grandiflora (Bentham) Pennell, 1946 (2n = 22), Mecardonia kamogawae Greppi & Hagiwara, 2011 (2n = 66), and Mecardonia sp. (2n = 44). The three ploidy levels here reported suggest that polyploidy is common in Mecardonia and appear to be an important factor in the evolution of this genus. The 2C- and 1Cx-values were also estimated in all the species. The 2C-values ranged from 1.91 to 5.29 pg. The 1Cx-values ranged from 0.88 to 1.03 pg. The general tendency indicated a decrease in the 1Cx-value with increasing ploidy level. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to taxonomy of the genus. PMID:28123693

  19. Influence of Boiling, Steaming and Frying of Selected Leafy Vegetables on the In Vitro Anti-inflammation Associated Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. P. P. Gunathilake

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying on anti-inflammation associated properties in vitro of six popularly consumed green leafy vegetables in Sri Lanka, namely: Centella asiatica, Cassia auriculata, Gymnema lactiferum, Olax zeylanica, Sesbania grnadiflora, and Passiflora edulis. The anti-inflammation associated properties of methanolic extracts of cooked leaves were evaluated using four in vitro biological assays, namely, hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition. Results revealed that the frying of all the tested leafy vegetables had reduced the inhibition abilities of protein denaturation, hemolysis, proteinase, and lipoxygenase activities when compared with other food preparation methods. Steaming significantly increased the protein denaturation and hemolysis inhibition in O. zeylanica and P. edulis. Steaming of leaves increased inhibition activity of protein denaturation in G. lactiferum (by 44.8% and P. edulis (by 44%; hemolysis in C. asiatica, C. auriculata, and S. grandiflora; lipoxygenase inhibition ability in P. edulis (by 50%, C. asiatica (by 400%, and C. auriculata leaves (by 250%; proteinase inhibition in C. auriculata (100% when compared with that of raw leaves. In general, steaming and boiling in contrast to frying protect the health-promoting properties of the leafy vegetables.

  20. Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos na região central de Rondônia Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in central region of Rondônia state, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Vargas Schons

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento em 12 municípios da região central de Rondônia sobre a presença de plantas tóxicas e ocorrência de surtos de intoxicação em ruminantes e equídeos. O trabalho foi desenvolvido mediante a utilização de um questionário aplicado a médicos veterinários, agrônomos, zootecnistas e produtores rurais, com o objetivo de identificar as principais plantas tóxicas que ocorrem na região. Trinta e quatro entrevistados relataram casos de intoxicação por uma ou mais plantas comprovadamente tóxicas como: Palicourea marcgravii (12 surtos, Palicourea grandiflora e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (sete surtos cada e Palicourea juruana, Brachiaria radicans, Brachiaria brizantha e Manihot esculenta (dois surtos cada. Em ovinos, foram relatados dois surtos de fotossensiblização por Brachiaria decumbens e um surto de mortalidade por Palicourea grandiflora. Dos 34 surtos relatados em bovinos pelos entrevistados, 374 (8,9% animais foram afetados e 311 (7,4% morreram, de um total de 4.192 de ambos os sexos sob risco. De um total de 250 ovinos sob risco, três surtos de intoxicação por plantas foram relatados e afetaram 28 animais, dos quais 20 morreram. Amorimia sp., previamente desconhecida como tóxica, foi identificada como causa de morte súbita em 32% das propriedades. Quinze surtos de cólica em equídeos que pastavam cultivares de Panicum maximum ('Massai', 'Tanzânia' e 'Mombaça' durante o período das chuvas foram, também, observados. Os resultados do presente trabalho demonstram a importância significativa das intoxicações por plantas como causa de perdas econômicas para a pecuária da região central do Estado de Rondônia. Com a realização deste trabalho, o número de plantas tóxicas para ruminantes com a confirmação de ocorrência de surtos com mortalidade na região passou de um para nove, o que confirma que um trabalho sistemático de investigação é necessário para o conhecimento da import

  1. Laser-assisted biosynthesis for noble nanoparticles production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtarev, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Kukhtareva, Nickolai; Moses, Sherita

    2014-08-01

    Extracellular Biosynthesis technique (EBS) for nanoparticles production has attracted a lot of attention as an environmentally friendly and an inexpensive methodology. Our recent research was focused on the rapid approach of the green synthesis method and the reduction of the homogeneous size distribution of nanoparticles using pulse laser application. Noble nanoparticles (NNPs) were produced using various ethanol and water plant extracts. The plants were chosen based on their biomedical applications. The plants we used were Magnolia grandiflora, Geranium, Aloe `tingtinkie', Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera), Eucalyptus angophoroides, Sansevieria trifasciata, Impatiens scapiflora. Water and ethanol extract, were used as reducing agents to produce the nanoparticles. The reaction process was monitored using a UV-Visible spectroscopy. NNPs were characterized by Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and the Dynamic Light Scattering technique (DLS). During the pulse laser Nd-YAG illumination (λ=1064nm, 532nm, PE= 450mJ, 200mJ, 10 min) the blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed from ~424nm to 403nm for silver NP; and from ~530nm to 520 nm for gold NPs. In addition, NNPs solution after Nd-YAG illumination was characterized by the narrowing of the surface plasmon absorption resonance band, which corresponds to monodispersed NNPS distribution. FTIR, TEM, DLS, Zeta potential results demonstrated that NNPs were surrounded by biological molecules, which naturally stabilized nanosolutions for months. Cytotoxicity investigation of biosynthesized NNPs is in progress.

  2. Vase life and rehydration capacity of dry-stored gladiolus flowers at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cavalcante da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Normally, it is not recommended the conditioning of gladiolus stems in water during storage or transport. Hydration of petals may accelerate flower opening, even at a low temperature, which compromises quality at marketing moment. However, for this species, neither the effect of prolonged dry cold storage nor its behavior when transferred to water at room temperature has been evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the vase life and the rehydration capacity of gladiolus flowers ( Gladiolus grandiflora Hort. after dry storage at low temperature. Flower stems of cultivars Blue Frost, Gold Field, Traderhorn, and Jester were dry-stored at a temperature of 5 ± 1 ºC and relative humidity of 85% for 12, 24, 36, and 48h. Control stems remained always in deionized water. After storage, they were returned to the water at room temperature and evaluated for vase life (adopting the discard criterion when 50% of the basal flowers displayed loss of color and wilting, fresh weight change (%, water uptake rate and transpiration rate, as well as relative water content of the petals (%. In dry cold storage conditions, for up to 36h, the vase life was not affected although incomplete rehydration of the flowers. Rehydration capacity of the stem is linked to the staggered opening of flowers along the inflorescence.

  3. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  4. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  5. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J.D. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L. Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl. Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L. L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  6. Ultrastructure and pollen morphology of Bromeliaceae species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa J D; Ribeiro, Ester M; Luizi-Ponzo, Andrea P; Faria, Ana Paula G

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grain morphology of Bromeliaceae species collected in areas of the Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazil was studied. The following species were analyzed: Aechmea bambusoides L.B.Sm. & Reitz, A. nudicaulis (L.) Griseb., A. ramosa Mart. ex Schult.f., Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.) Schult.f., Billbergia distachia (Vell.) Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. zebrina (Herb.) Lindl., Portea petropolitana (Wawra) Mez, Pitcairnia flammea Lindl., Quesnelia indecora Mez, Tillandsia polystachia (L.) L., T. stricta Sol., T. gardneri Lindl., T. geminiflora Brongn. and Vriesea grandiflora Leme. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used and the species were grouped into three pollen types, organized according to aperture characteristics: Type I - pantoporate pollen grains observed in P. petropolitana, Type II - 2-porate pollen grains, observed in the genera Ananas, Aechmea and Quesnelia, and Type III - 1-colpate pollen grains, observed in the genera Billbergia, Pitcairnia, Tillandsia and Vriesea. Pollen data led to the construction of an identification key. The results showed that the species analyzed can be distinguished using mainly aperture features and exine ornamentation, and that these characteristics may assist in taxonomic studies of the family.

  7. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šilić, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  9. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  10. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  11. Spatial heterogeneity in post-dispersal predation on Prunus and Uvularia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara L; Willson, Mary F

    1985-08-01

    We investigated effects of seed density, distance from parent, and habitat (woods, open field) on post-dispersal predation risk (chiefly by rodents) for seeds of Prunus virginiana (Rosaceae). Additional study of the habitat effect (woods, open field, treefall gap) was made with seeds of Prunus avium (Rosaceae) and Uvularia grandiflora (Liliaceae). Density of Prunus seeds (range 2-40 seeds/group) did not affect predation risk for individual seeds. Distance from parent plants did influence predation risk, which was greatest directly beneath parents. This distance effect primarily comprised a sharp drop in risk within 2 m of parents, a distance too small to generate a "spacing rule" for conspecifics.We found that habitat strongly influenced predation intensity. Rates of removal of Prunus seeds were higher in woods than in open fields, except when overall predation intensity was very low and no pattern could be discerned. Prunus seed removal rates were higher in closed woods than in treefall gaps. Consequently, a Prunus seed will more likely escape predation if dispersed to an open site. In contrast, Uvularia seed removal rates were higher in open fields than in woods but did not differ between closed woods and tree-fall gaps.Predation intensity was spatially patchy between and within experimental arrays, but was consistent over time at some specific points in space, possibly reflecting home ranges of seed predators.

  12. IN SITU AND EX SITU CONSERVATION OF RARE AND ENDANGERED GEOPHYTES OF THE HIRKAN NATIONAL PARK (AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBADLI Oruc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hirkan National Park consists of natural region of Talish Mountains characterized with their unique natural complex. This research was carried out from 2004 to 2007 in order to study the floristic and taxonomical composition of geophytes, elaborate optimal measures of biosafety and their sustainable use. According to floristic composition of the National Park it is a valuable forest which includes 150 endemic species of trees and bushes out of 435 species of trees and bushes. As a result of researches for the first time were found that more than 15 geophyte species are endemic plants of Caucasus or Azerbaijan. Some geophyte species are Allium lenkoranicum Miscz. ex Grossh., A. talyschense Miscz. ex Grossh., Bellevalia fominii Woronow, Ornithogalum hyrcanum Grossh., Fritillaria grandiflora Grossh., Crocus caspius Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Iris helena (C. Koch C. Koch, Himantoglossum formosum (Stev. C. Koch, Ophrys oestrifera M. Bieb., etc. among many others. Isolation of a geographical position of Talish, which vegetation differ a variety of life forms, allows considering geophytes as a group of independent bioecological value. 92 species of geophytes identified and registered in the Hirkan National Park is grouped into 21 families and 46 genera, including 33 rare and endangered species, of which 11 species are included into the “Red Data Book” of Azerbaijan.

  13. Genetic signatures from amplification profiles characterize DNA mutation in somatic and radiation-induced sports of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigiano, R.N.; Scott, M.C.; Caetano-Anolles, G.

    1998-01-01

    The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivars 'Dark Charm', 'Salmon Charm', 'Coral Charm' and 'Dark Bronze Charm' are either radiation-induced mutants or spontaneous sports of 'Charm' and constitute a family or series of plants that primarily differ in flower color. These cultivars, which were difficult to differentiate genetically by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), were easily identified by using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). Genomic DNA was first amplified with three standard octamer arbitrary primers, all of which produced monomorphic profiles. Products from each of these DNA fingerprints were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. The 12 primer combinations produced signatures containing approximately 37% polymorphic character loci, which were used to estimate genetic relationships between cultivars. Forty-six (32%) unique amplification products were associated with individual cultivars. The number of ASAP polymorphisms detected provided an estimate of the mutation rate in the mutant cultivars, ranging from 0.03% to 1.6% of nucleotide changes within an average of 18 kb of arbitrary amplified DAF sequence. The ASAP technique permits the clear genetic identification of somatic mutants and radiation-induced sports that are genetically highly homogeneous and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of plant breeders rights of varieties or cultivars

  14. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  15. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  16. Latex peptidases of Calotropis procera for dehairing of leather as an alternative to environmentally toxic sodium sulfide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopéz, Laura M I; Viana, Carolina A; Errasti, María E; Garro, María L; Martegani, José E; Mazzilli, Germán A; Freitas, Cléverson D T; Araújo, Ídila M S; da Silva, Rafaela O; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-09-01

    Dehairing of crude leather is a critical stage performed at the beginning of its processing to obtain industrially useful pieces. Tanneries traditionally apply a chemical process based on sodium sulfide. Since this chemical reactive is environmentally toxic and inefficiently recycled, innovative protocols for reducing or eliminating its use in leather depilation are welcomed. Therefore, latex peptidases from Calotropis procera (CpLP) and Cryptostegia grandiflora (CgLP) were assayed for this purpose. Enzyme activity on substrates representative of skin such as hide powder azure (U HPA ), elastin (U E ), azocollagen (U AZOCOL ), keratin (U K ), and epidermis (U EP ) was determined, while depilation activity was assayed on cow hide. Only CpLP was active against keratin (13.4 U K ) and only CgLP was active against elastin (0.12 U E ). CpLP (93.0 U HPA , 403.6 U AZOCOL , 36.3 U EP ) showed higher activity against the other substrates than CgLP (47.6 U HPA , 261.5 U AZOCOL , 8.5 U EP ). In pilot assays, CpLP (0.05% w/v with sodium sulfite 0.6% w/v as activator) released hairs from cow hide pieces. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the hide revealed that the dehairing process was complete and the leather structure was preserved. The proteolytic system of C. procera is a suitable bioresources to be exploited by tanneries.

  17. Hydrocarbon footprints as a record of bumblebee flower visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, Sebastian; Eltz, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Bumblebees leave traces of cuticular hydrocarbons on flowers they visit, with the amount deposited being positively related to the number of visits. We asked whether such footprint hydrocarbons are retained on flowers for sufficiently long periods of time so as to reflect bee visitation in pollination studies. In laboratory experiments, flower corollae (Primula veris, Digitalis grandiflora) visited by Bombus terrestris workers retained bee-derived nonacosenes (C(29)H(58)) in near-unchanged quantities for 24 hours, both at 15 and 25 degrees C. Additionally, synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene applied to flower corollae of the deadnettle Lamium maculatum was retained for 48 hours in an unchanged quantity. In a field survey, the amount of footprint alkenes on flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) plants was positively correlated with the number of bumblebee visits that those plants had received during the day. Together, these data suggest that flowers retain a long-term quantitative record of bumblebee visitation. The analysis of petal extracts by gas chromatography could provide a cheap and reliable way of quantifying bumblebee visits in landscape scale studies of pollination.

  18. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  19. Simple methods for in vitro pollen germination and pollen preservation of selected species of the genus Agave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigifredo López Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple methods to evaluate the viability and to preserve Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and A. angustifolia Haw pollen were established. Pollen viability was assessed by improving a growing media and evaluating three common pollen germination media components: sucrose, boric acid, and calcium ion. Optimal germination of pollen was obtained at 0.300 M sucrose, 0.324 mM boric acid, and 1.219 mM calcium nitrate and incubated at a temperature of 25°C. Agave pollen was preserved in olive oil and organic solvents. Olive oil, which is immiscible with water, provides an anhydrous environment and limits available oxygen, conditions similar to those provided by some organic solvents. Fresh pollen was put into eppendorf tubes containing n-butanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, extra virgin olive oil and preserved at -20, 4, and 25°C. The germination of the preserved pollen was scored at different time periods during preservation employing the optimal germination medium. The viability of pollen grains preserved at -20°C in olive oil, proved olive oil as an efficient medium for agave pollen preservation for at least 6 months.

  20. Diversity and structure of landraces of Agave grown for spirits under traditional agriculture: A comparison with wild populations of A. angustifolia (Agavaceae) and commercial plantations of A. tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Coello-Coello, Julián; Colunga-Garcíamarín, Patricia

    2009-02-01

    Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural practices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management of wild populations. These systems, rooted in a 9000-year-old tradition of using agaves as food in Mesoamerica, are endangered by the expansion of commercial monoculture plantations of the blue agave variety (A. tequilana Weber var. Azul), the only agave certified for sale as tequila, the best-known mezcal. Using intersimple sequence repeats and Bayesian estimators of diversity and structure, we found that A. angustifolia traditional landraces had a genetic diversity (H(BT) = 0.442) similar to its wild populations (H(BT) = 0.428) and a higher genetic structure ((B) = 0.405; (B) =0. 212). In contrast, the genetic diversity in the blue agave commercial system (H(B) = 0.118) was 73% lower. Changes to agave spirits certification laws to allow the conservation of current genetic, ecological and cultural diversity can play a key role in the preservation of the traditional agroecosystems.

  1. Removal of actinide elements from high level radioactive waste by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chongli; Yang Dazhu; He Longhai; Xu Jingming; Zhu Yongjun

    1992-03-01

    The modified TRPO process for removing actinide elements from synthetic solution, which was taken from reprocessing of power reactor nuclear fuel, was verified by cascade experiment. Neptunium valence was adjusted in the process for improving neptunium removing efficiency. At 1 mol/L concentration of HNO 3 of feed solution and after a few stages of extraction with 30% t=TRPO kerosene, over 99.9% of Am, Pu, Np and U could be removed from HAW (high level radioactive waste) solution. The stripping of actinides loaded in TRPO are accomplished by high concentration nitric acid, oxalic acid and sodium carbonate instead of amino carboxylic complexing agents used in previous process. The actinides stripped were divided into three groups, which are Am + RE, Np + Pu, and U, and the cross contamination between them is small. Behaviours of F.P. elements are divided into three types which are not extracted, little extracted and extracted elements. The extracted elements are rare earth and Pd, Zr and Mo which are co-extracted with actinides. The separation factor between actinides and other two types of F.P.elements will increase if more scrubbing sections are added in the process. The relative concentration profile of actinide elements and Tc in various stages as well as the distribution of actinides and F.P. elements in the process stream solutions are also presented

  2. Program nuclear safety research: report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehl, B.

    2001-09-01

    The reactor safety R and D work of forschungszentrum karlsruhe (FZK) had been part of the nuclear safety research project (PSF) since 1990. In 2000, a new organisational structure was introduced and the Nuclear Safety Research Project was transferred into the nuclear safety research programme (NUKLEAR). In addition to the three traditional main topics - Light Water Reactor safety, Innovative systems, Studies related to the transmutation of actinides -, the new Programme NUKLEAR also covers Safety research related to final waste storage and Immobilisation of HAW. These new topics, however, will only be dealt with in the next annual report. Some tasks related to the traditional topics have been concluded and do no longer appear in the annual report; other tasks are new and are described for the first time. Numerous institutes of the research centre contribute to the work programme, as well as several external partners. The tasks are coordinated in agreement with internal and external working groups. The contributions to this report, which are either written in German or in English, correspond to the status of early/mid 2001. (orig.)

  3. A Conversation About Health Care Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Victor R.

    1994-01-01

    Professor Victor R. Fuchs is the Henry J. Kaiser Jr Professor at Stanford (California) University, where he applies economic analysis to social problems of national concern, with special emphasis on health and medical care. He holds joint appointments in the Economics Department and the School of Medicine's Department of Health Research and Policy. Professor Fuchs is a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association and a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He was the first economist to receive the Distinguished Investigator Award of the Association for Health Services Research and has also received the Baxter Foundation Health Services Research Prize. Professor Fuchs is president-elect of the American Economic Association. His latest book, The Future of Health Policy, was published by Harvard University Press in 1993. The following edited conversation between Professor Fuchs and Linda Hawes Clever, MD, Editor of the journal, took place on April 8, 1994. PMID:7941523

  4. Sappinia sp. (Amoebozoa: Thecamoebida) and Rosculus sp. (SAR: Cercozoa) Isolated From King Penguin Guano Collected in the Subantarctic (South Georgia, Salisbury Plain) and their Coexistence in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyml, Tomáš; Dyková, Iva

    2018-01-16

    Two amoeboid organisms of the genera Sappinia Dangeard, 1896 and Rosculus Hawes, 1963 were identified in a sample containing king penguin guano. This sample, collected in the Subantarctic, enlarges the list of fecal habitats known for the presence of coprophilic amoebae. The two organisms were co-isolated and subcultured for over 6 mo, with continuous efforts being invested to separate each one from the mixed culture. In the mixed culture, Rosculus cells were fast growing, tolerated changes in culturing conditions, formed cysts, and evidently were attracted by Sappinia trophozoites. The separation of the Rosculus strain was accomplished, whereas the Sappinia strain remained intermixed with inseparable Rosculus cells. Sappinia cell populations were sensitive to changes in culturing conditions; they improved with reduction of Rosculus cells in the mixed culture. Thick-walled cysts, reportedly formed by Sappinia species, were not seen. The ultrastructure of both organisms was congruent with the currently accepted generic characteristics; however, some details were remarkable at the species level. Combined with the results of phylogenetic analyses, our findings indicate that the ultrastructure of the glycocalyx and the presence/absence of the Golgi apparatus in differential diagnoses of Sappinia species require a critical re-evaluation. © 2018 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2018 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. Current status of the active test at RRP and development programs for the advanced melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehira, Norio

    2016-01-01

    The vitrification facility in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant started the active tests to solidify HAW into the glass in 2007 which was the examination of the final stage before the operation, but the active test had to be discontinued due to the trouble of glass melter operation with down of pouring by deposit of noble metals on the melter bottom. After the equipment and operating conditions were improved in response to the result of the mock-up tests, a series of active tests were restarted active tests in May, 2012. These tests were finished with enough confirmation of stability in the state such as glass temperature and controlling the noble metals. JNFL has been developed the advanced melter, Joule heated ceramic melter, and the design of the advanced melter is largely different from the existing one. For the confirmation of the advanced melter performances, the full-scale inactive tests had been performed and successfully finished. This paper describes outline of development for advanced melter in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  6. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  7. Bergenin Content and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Bergenia Extracts. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrychová, Helena; Martin, Jan; Tůmová, Lenka; Kočevar-Glavač, Nina

    2015-07-01

    Our research was focused on the evaluation of bergenin content and free radical scavenging activity of extracts prepared from three different species of Bergenia - B. crassifolia (L.) Fritsch., B. ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. and B. x ornata Stein. collected during different seasons. Using an HPLC method, the highest total amount of bergenin was revealed in the leaves of B. x ornata and B. crassifolia (4.9 - 5.1 mg x g(-1)). Free radical scavenging power was determined by two methods--FRAP and NADH. The best free radical scavengers were B. crassifolia (FRAP: 6.7 - 15.9 mg GAE. 100g(-1); NADH: 20.3 - 50.9%) and B. ornata (FRAP: 13.7 - 15.2 mg GAE. 100g(-1); NADH: 29.3 - 31.1%). The lowest content of bergenin and the weakest radical scavenger was B. ciliata (bergenin: 3.1 mg x g(-1); FRAP: 5.5 - 11.0 mg GAE.100g(-1); NADH: 23.2 - 25.6%). The presence of a large percentage of bergenin is responsible for the radical scavenging activity, as shown by the results from the FRAP and NADH assays. Significant, positive correlation was found between bergenin content and radical scavenging activity in both methods.

  8. Methodological developments and materials in salt-rock preparation for irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Celma, A.; Van Wees, H.; Miralles, L.

    1991-01-01

    For the first time synthetic salt-rock samples have been produced. Production and preparation of those samples and of other types of rock-salt for experiments and observation require many special handlings. We applied technical knowledge already developed by the HPT Laboratory of the Geology Department of the Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (high pressure techniques, salt-rock preparation), and by the workshops of the ECN, Petten, and FDO, Amsterdam (mechanical precision). Procedures have been applied and/or modified to solve specific problems. Many of them were never reported before. Moreover, new techniques have been developed. Rock-salt samples have been machined, sawn, ground, glued, etc., with a maximum of precision, a minimum of damage and in dry conditions (without water). Etching, peeling and thin section production has been carried out on irradiated and unirradiated samples. Valves, end pieces, jackets, etc. have been tested and/or produced. These handlings were directed to produce samples for the HAW experiment. Their development required not only knowledge, but also a lot of trial, failures and time. To avoid repetition of this effort, the procedures, materials, instruments and their characteristics are described in detail in this report

  9. Long-term risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; D'Alessandro, M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for long-term safety analysis of waste from nuclear power production in the European Community are under study at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra, Italy. Aim of the work is to develop a suitable methodology for long-term risk assessment. The methodology under study is based on the assessment of the quantitative value of a system of barriers which may be interposed between waste and man. The barriers considered are: a) quality of the segregation afforded by the geological formation, b) chemical and physical stability of conditioned waste, c) interaction with geological environments (subsoil retention), d) distribution in the biosphere. The methodology is presently being applied to idealized test cases based on the following assumptions: waste are generated during 30 years of operations in a nuclear park (reprocessing + refabrication plant) capable of treating 1000 ton/yr of LWR fuel. High activity waste is conditioned as borosilicate glass (HAW) while low- and medium-level wastes are bituminized (BIP). All waste is disposed off into a salt formation. Transport to the biosphere, following the containment failure occurs by groundwater, with no delay due to retention on adsorbing media. Distribution into the biosphere occurs according to the terrestrial model indicated. Under these assumptions, information was drawn concerning environmental contamination, its levels, contributing elements and pathways to man

  10. Microbial community dynamics in the rhizosphere of a cadmium hyper-accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. L.; Zhang, C.; Mathews, E. R.; Tang, C.; Franks, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Phytoextraction is influenced by the indigenous soil microbial communities during the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil microbial communities can affect plant growth, metal availability and the performance of phytoextraction-assisting inocula. Understanding the basic ecology of indigenous soil communities associated with the phytoextraction process, including the interplay between selective pressures upon the communities, is an important step towards phytoextraction optimization. This study investigated the impact of cadmium (Cd), and the presence of a Cd-accumulating plant, Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes, on the structure of soil-bacterial and fungal communities using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Whilst Cd had no detectable influence upon fungal communities, bacterial communities underwent significant structural changes with no reduction in 16S rRNA copy number. The presence of C. rossii influenced the structure of all communities and increased ITS copy number. Suites of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed in abundance in response to either Cd or C. rossii, however we found little evidence to suggest that the two selective pressures were acting synergistically. The Cd-induced turnover in bacterial OTUs suggests that Cd alters competition dynamics within the community. Further work to understand how competition is altered could provide a deeper understanding of the microbiome-plant-environment and aid phytoextraction optimization.

  11. Monitoring and inspection techniques for long term storage of higher activity waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, following recent changes in United Kingdom (UK) Government Policy, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) identified a knowledge gap in the area of long term interim storage of waste packages. A cross-industry Integrated Project Team (IPT) for Interim Storage was created with responsibility for delivering Industry Guidance on the storage of packaged Higher Activity Waste (HAW) for the current UK civil decommissioning and clean-up programmes. This included a remit to direct research and development projects via the NDA's Direct Research Portfolio (DRP) to fill the knowledge gap. The IPT for Interim Storage published Industry Guidance in 2012 which established a method to define generic package performance criteria and made recommendations on monitoring and inspection. The package performance method consists of the following steps; identification of the package safety function, identification of evolutionary processes that may affect safety function performance, determination of measurable indicators of these evolutionary processes and calibration of the indicators into package performance zones. This article provides an overview of three projects funded by the NDA's DRP that the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have completed to address monitoring and inspection needs of waste packages in interim storage. (orig.)

  12. Propuesta de proyecto de estadística: un modelo de regresión lineal simple para pronosticar la concentración de co2 del volcán Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alfredo López Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aplica un modelo predictivo de regresión lineal para analizar la contaminación atmosférica de dióxido de carbono (CO2 producida por el volcán Mauna Loa de Hawái. Los datos fueron extraídos de un repositorio de internet que contiene múltiples casos de geología, climatología, física, etcétera. El modelo se utilizó para predecir la tendencia de emisiones de CO2 con respecto al tiempo; se estimó la contaminación promedio de dicha tendencia, la cual descubrimos ha crecido aproximadamente 0.1 partes por millón por mes; así como también se obtuvieron los intervalos de predicción para una emisión puntual que existió en un momento determinado. Se recomienda el trabajo para estudiantes de ciencias exactas y naturales, como prototipo de artículo de investigación donde se aplique específicamente el modelo de regresión lineal simple; aunque la estructura también puede servir en otras áreas donde se enseñen los modelos de regresión.

  13. Conditioning of ashes from incineration plant in special furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganser, B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report we describe the development of a melting process for radioactive ashes. After a literature survey about the state of the art and investigated ash compositions the in-can-melting was elected for further work. Based on literature data lab experiments with inactive simulates were performed to investigate different additives (net work formers and transformers) for melting point reduction. Na-Tetraborate was most effective. An addition of 50% by weight (concerning ash weight) was sufficient to melt all simulates at 1000 0 C. The products showed similar low leach rates like vitrified HAW. With two different melting furnaces (Naber, LINN) full scale experiments were performed. The results were not quite sufficient because of uncomplete melting (Naber) resp. unsufficient operation (LINN). Nevertheless the results of the lab experiments could be nearly verified (Compressive strength 60-160 N/mm 2 , Diffusion coefficient for Boron E-17 - E-19 m 2 /s). Based on the technical experiments a plant was designed for hot operation. A cost estimation for conditioning and final disposal amounted to 19 DM/kg ash. (orig.) [de

  14. Logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle. Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Horst; Schymke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH (NCS) offers logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle to fuel manufacturers, reactor operators, and waste management companies. Transport equipment and interim stores are part of the company's facilities. The firm's Front End unit conducts transnational transports of yellow cake, uranium hexafluoride, and enriched uranium and uranium from reprocessing. In the Back End unit, the company performs worldwide transports of spent fuel elements of research reactors. Another key area of activity is shipment of radioactive waste ranging from low-level waste to HAW (highly active waste generating heat). In its Component Disposal area, NCS offers a variety of transport services up to and including large components, e.g. reactor pressure vessels, both on the road and by rail and ship. NCS operates storage halls of its own for storing radioactive materials including radioactive waste. The technical equipment of NCS comprises a large pool of road and rail transport vehicles as well as a great number of vessels for radioactive materials. (orig.)

  15. Geological and geotechnical limitations of radioactive waste retrievability in geologic disposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Leon-Vargas, Rocio; Mintzlaff, Volker; Treidler, Ann-Kathrin [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

    2015-07-01

    The capability of retrieving radioactive waste emplaced in deep geological formations is nowadays in discussion in many countries. Based on the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in deep geological repositories there is a number of possible scenarios for their retrieval. Measurements for an improved retrieving capability may impact on the geotechnical and geological barriers, e.g. keeping open the access drifts for a long period of time can result in a bigger evacuation damage zone (EDZ) in the host rock which implies potential flow paths for ground water. Nevertheless, to limit the possible scenarios associated to the retrieval implementation, it is necessary to take in consideration which criteria will be used for an efficient monitoring program, while clearly determining the performance reliability of the geotechnical barriers. In addition, the integrity of the host rock as geological barrier has to be verified. Therefore, it is important to evaluate different design solutions and the most appropriate measurement methods to improve the retrievability process of wastes from a geological repository. A short presentation of the host rocks is given is this paper.

  16. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2018-02-15

    This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.

  17. Research on transmutation and accelerator-driven systems at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Heusener, G.

    2000-01-01

    Transmutation is considered a promising technology worldwide for significantly reducing the amount and, thereby, the long-term radiotoxicity of high active waste (HAW) produced by the operation of nuclear power plants such as light water reactors (LWR). The maximum reduction of radiotoxicity could be by a factor of about 100. Transmutation is thus an alternative to the direct deposition of large volumes of highly radioactive waste. Transmutation presents the possibility of closing the fuel cycle including the minor actinides. Plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products can be transmuted in a so called Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS), which consists of an accelerator, a target module and a subcritical blanket. This paper describes the work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe which is critically evaluating an ADS mainly with respect to its potential for transmuting minor actinides, to its feasibility and to safety aspects. The work is being done in the area of core design, neutronics, safety, system analyses, materials and corrosion. (orig.) [de

  18. CINE-CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CINE-CLUB

    2010-01-01

    Thursday 28 October 2010 at 20:30 / Jeudi 28 Octobre 2010 à 20:30 CERN Main Auditorium / Amphithéâtre Principal Death at a Funeral   By/de : Frank Oz (USA/Germany/UK/Netherlands, 2007) 90min With/avec: Matthew Macfadyen, Rupert Graves, Alan Tudyk, Keely Hawes, Andy Nyman, Ewen Bremner Daniel is a decent young man, married to Jane, still living at his father’s home. When his father dies, it is up to him to organize his funeral. On this painful morning, the suitable grave expression on his face, Daniel is ready to welcome his father’s friends and relatives. But preserving the dignity inherent in such circumstances will be a hard task. Particularly with an undertaker who botches his work, the return from the USA of his famous but selfish brother, his cousin’s fiancé who has accidentally ingested drugs, the presence a moron who takes advantage of the sad event to win back the heart (or rather the body) of a woman who...

  19. Active and Passive Microrheology: Theory and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Roseanna N.

    2018-01-01

    Microrheological study of complex fluids traces its roots to the work of the botanist Robert Brown in the early nineteenth century. Indeed, passive microrheology and Brownian motion are one and the same. Once thought to reveal a fundamental life force, the phenomenon was ultimately leveraged by Einstein in proof of the atomic nature of matter ( Haw 2006 ). His work simultaneously paved the way for modern-day passive microrheology by connecting observable particle motion—diffusion—to solvent properties—the viscosity—via the well-known Stokes-Einstein relation. Advances in microscopy techniques in the last two decades have prompted extensions of the original model to generalized forms for passive probing of complex fluids. In the last decade, active microrheology has emerged as a means by which to interrogate the nonequilibrium behavior of complex fluids, in particular, the non-Newtonian rheology of dynamically heterogeneous and microscopically small systems. Here we review theoretical and computational approaches and advances in both passive and active microrheology, with a focus on the extent to which these techniques preserve the connection between single-particle motion and flow properties, as well as the rather surprising recovery of non-Newtonian flow behavior observed in bulk rheology.

  20. Remuneration of limited partners with regard to the base for retirement pension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The papes deals with possible forms of the remuneration of limited partner. There are defined differences between types of his incomes (remuneration such as dividend, remuneration and wage, in relation to czech tax law. With the aid of calculation was determined their combination, both in light of maximum his after-payment-tax income with the inclusion of payments of social and medical insurence, and with respect to computing base for his future retirement pension. The comparison of the forms of the remuneration of limited partner was performed by using the model situations. Mo­dels were configured to represent the possible ways of the remuneration of the partner and also with regard to the social and health insurance. These models highlight the advantages of the different options in terms of the tax burden, partner’s net income and the pension paid in the future. Evalutes haw the forms and amount of incomes influence the amount of the old-age pension. Those models were the basis for the determining the optimum combination of the payment of the profit sharing and the wage of the Partner.

  1. Interest - “Loan Cost” or “Sin”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Interest has appeared from the people need to borrow main agricultural products. Over the time, it has been the subject for many theories - for interest, and against interest- all of them having various reasons. Church has, in general, forbidden interest, but the economic reasons have won, considering fair to reward the creditor for the time passed from the moment of loaning, for the monetary devaluation because of inflation, and for the reason that money is a good which must produce profit. Nowadays, the interest rate and the way haw it modifies the report between demand and supply, is a very debated subject. The interest rate is an instrument in the hand of Governments and International Financial Organisms, and interest is used in the conventional banks from the entire world. But, in the system of Islamic Economy, interest is considered “a sin”, and the appearance of Islamic Banks is a proof for the efforts to introduce in the banking system of Muslim countries, a modality of financing which respects, from the religious point of view, what is allowed and what is forbidden.

  2. Chemical Composition Analysis of INEEL Phase 3 Glasses: Task Technical and QA Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.

    2000-01-01

    For about four decades radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive waste from decontamination, laboratory activities and fuels storage activities have also been collected and stored as liquid. These liquid high-activity wastes (HAW) are collectively called Sodium Bearing Wastes (SBW). Currently about 5.7 million liters of these wastes are temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Vitrification is being considered as a treatment option for SBW. The resulting glass can be sent to either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as remote handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) or to the federal geologic repository for final disposal. In addition to the SBW, roughly 4,000 m3 of calcined high-level wastes (HLW) are currently being stored at INEEL in stainless steel bin sets. These calcined HLW may also be vitrified, either with or without a dissolution and separation process, and sent to the federal geologic repository for final disposal

  3. 15 years return transport of vitrified high-level waste from France. The long way from La Hague to Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The operators of German nuclear power plants have contracts since 1977 with the French company AREVA NC (former COGEMA) and since 1980 with the British company NDA (former BNFL) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Since July 2005 the delivery of irradiated fuel element into a reprocessing plant is prohibited. Until 2005 fuel elements with about 6.080 tSM were shipped abroad, about 5.309 tSM to France. The contribution deals with the history of the transports from La Hague to Gorleben, including the contamination problems in 1988 that caused restrictions by the German authorities. A catalogue of safety requirements had to be fulfilled for the allowance of further return transports. The development of appropriate transport casks to cope with changing heat generation of the high-level waste is described. During the complete transport cycle extensive radiological measurements were performed. By the end of 2011 the HAW (high-level waste) glass coquilles were completely returned to Gorleben.

  4. Testing and evaluation of the properties of various potential materials for immobilizing high activity waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malow, G.; Beran, V.; Lutze, W.

    1980-01-01

    Second joint annual report of the work performed on the testing and evaluation of materials for immobilizing high activity waste under Community contracts. At Marcoule, active block samples containing HAW from the Marcoule reprocessing plant were cast to the specification of five of the six original reference samples and leach tested at ambient temperature. Phosphate glass -bead samples produced by the Gelsenberg/DWK PAMELA process- were included in the test programme at HMI-Berlin and UKAEA Harwell. Leaching tests of inactive samples with leachants of various pH-values, with ionized water and with natural water compositions representative of certain repository conditions (salt, clay and granite) were added to the Harwell programme. The studies of radiation and thermal effects and the investigation of devitrification phenomena, started in 1977, continued, as samples reached annealing times of 2400 h and doses 4 x 10 17 dpg. The results achieved have so far confirmed most of the favourable preliminary assessments of glass based solidification products. At this stage the programme aims primarily at the understanding of physical and chemical phenomena rather that at verification under realistic waste storage and disposal conditions

  5. Effectiveness of vegetable extracts for the control of Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer (Gastropoda: Polygyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Verónica Martín Vasallo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molluscs have become a serious problem for vegetable crops, especially the species Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the percentage of mortality of the plant extracts on P. griseola in both laboratory and field conditions. An "in vitro" assay was performed with vegetable extracts of maguey (Furcraea hexapetala (Jacq. Family: Agavaceae, spiny güirito (Solanum globiferum L., Family: Solanaceae, chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae, cardon (Euphorbia lactea Haw., Family: Euphorbiaceae. When evaluating three concentrations of the extract of each botanical species, a completely randomized design was used in "in vitro" conditions and random blocks on the field. The extraction of the chili pepper extract was carried out using the fruit baking method, the S. globiferum was obtained from the milling of the dried fruits and the F. hexapetala and E. lactea were obtained through the fragmentation of stalks. Extracts of F. hexapetala, S. globiferum, C. frutescens, E. lactea, are alternatives to be used by producers in the control of P. griseola. The highest percentages of mortality are reached with the extracts of C. frutescens and S. globiferum at 72 hours of application.

  6. 15 years return transport of vitrified high-level waste from France. The long way from La Hague to Gorleben; 15 Jahre Rueckfuehrung von verglasten hochaktiven Abfaellen aus Frankreich. Der lange Weg von La Hague nach Gorleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Thomas [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The operators of German nuclear power plants have contracts since 1977 with the French company AREVA NC (former COGEMA) and since 1980 with the British company NDA (former BNFL) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Since July 2005 the delivery of irradiated fuel element into a reprocessing plant is prohibited. Until 2005 fuel elements with about 6.080 tSM were shipped abroad, about 5.309 tSM to France. The contribution deals with the history of the transports from La Hague to Gorleben, including the contamination problems in 1988 that caused restrictions by the German authorities. A catalogue of safety requirements had to be fulfilled for the allowance of further return transports. The development of appropriate transport casks to cope with changing heat generation of the high-level waste is described. During the complete transport cycle extensive radiological measurements were performed. By the end of 2011 the HAW (high-level waste) glass coquilles were completely returned to Gorleben.

  7. Activation analysis of microelement contents in food stuff of traditional children food in Republics Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Recent years Hematogists and Pediatricians pay more attention to the issue of disturbance of microelement homeostasis which is the most important in formation of microelementosis in children. To prevent and to treat the deficient forms of microelementosis the determination of microelement contents in traditional food of the population in any particular region is an issue of great importance. Provision of school age children with essential microelements and deficiency of many micronutrients are not sufficiently studied. In this aspect the issue of microelement contents in food stuffs of the children of Zarafshan valley is not enough investigated. Therefore, it is advisable to study the specific weight of microelements such as iron, zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese in vegetable and animal products and phytomedium which are consumed as the traditional food of the population of this region. We have studied 47 types of food stuffs mainly of vegetable and animal origin as well as widely used phytomedium. Microelement concentration in food stuffs were defined by neutron-activation analysis method worked out at Nuclear Physics Institute Republic of Uzbekistan. For the first time we have investigated national dishes - sumalak, halisa, shinni which are the essential part of traditional food of Central Asian population and the contents of microelements being studied. As per results of investigation it was found out that the most highest contents of iron was in dried apricot (358 mg/kg), then in black (180 mg/kg) and white (110 mg/kg) raisins. National dish - shinni ( the grapes syrup) contained iron equal to 103 mg/kg, local apple - 100 mg/kg. It should be noted that not only raisins and shinni are rich with iron but the decoction from wild vineyard stalks too which contains 366 mg/l. Moderate iron contents ( 50-100 mg/kg) was found in the following dried fruits: blackberry, haw, bitter and sweet almond, dried fig, and mulberry. Low concentration of iron (less

  8. Comparative anatomy of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata and K. crenata in sun and shade conditions, as a support for their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattacha S. Moreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Pers. and K. crenata (Andrews Haw., Crassulaceae, are popularly used in the treatment of many diseases. Their biological activities, such as anti-leishmaniasis and analgesic, can be useful in phytotherapy. Both species are often misidentified as the other, because of their similar popular uses and names, and the similar external morphology of the leaves. We investigated the existence of anatomical characters that will permit correct identification of the species grown in shade and in sun conditions. We also contribute with new observations on the leaf anatomy of K. pinnata and K. crenata. Fixed (FAA70 leaves were used, and their sections were embedded in Leica historesin. Hydathodes were observed in both species, and for the first time were anatomically described in K. crenata. The species showed anatomical differences in relation to the presence of epidermal idioblasts only in K. crenata, the different pattern of distribution of subepidermal idioblasts, and the presence of leaf buds only in K. pinnata.

  9. Characterization of the rheological behavior of heavy crude oils for the optimization of their transport; Caracterisation du comportement rheologique des bruts lourds en vue de l'optimisation de leur transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coustet Pierre, C.

    2003-10-01

    Despite their huge reserves, production of heavy crude oils remains weak, partially because of the high viscosity. This work aims to understand the origin of this viscosity in a view of diminishing In this context, we performed structural (SAXS) and rheological studies (under shearing and oscillatory regime) in order to link macroscopic and microscopic properties of heavy oils. investigated the effect of asphaltenes and resins which are the two most polar and the high molecular mass components of heavy oils. Most of the literature work performed measures organic solvents which are considered as model solvents in a first assumption. These media haw structure too simple compared to oils. That is why we decided to complete this work by experiments in the crude. We shed some light on asphaltenes described as colloidal particles with fractal dimension of 2. Their overlapping, due to numerous polar and hydrogen bonds, responsible for the high viscosity. The contribution of asphaltenes on viscosity is lowered by resins who are able to dissociate aggregates and to reduce the interactions, so to diminish the overlapping The kinetics of formation of bonds involved in asphaltenes overlapping are strongly slower at low temperatures, which implies a shear thinning behavior under sufficiently high shearing. This allow us to describe the crude as a transient network of fractal aggregates. (author)

  10. Augmenting Scheffe Linear Mixture Models With Squared and/or Crossproduct Terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Szychowski, Jeffrey M.; Loeppky, Jason L.

    2001-01-01

    A glass composition variation study (CVS) for high-level waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is being statistically designed and performed in phases over several years. The purpose of the CVS is to investigate and model how HLW-glass properties depend on glass composition within a glass composition region compatible with the expected range of INEEL HLW. The resulting glass property-composition models will be used to develop desirable glass formulations and other purposes. Phases 1 and 2 of the CVS have been completed so far, and are briefly described. The main focus of this paper is the CVS Phase 3 experimental design (test matrix). The Phase 3 experimental design was chosen to augment the Phase 1 and 2 data with additional data points, as well as to account for additional glass components of interest not studied in Phases 1 and/or 2. The paper describes how these Phase 3 experimental design augmentation challenges were addressed using the previous data, preliminary property-composition models, and statistical mixture experiment and optimal experimental design methods and software. The resulting Phase 3 experimental design of 30 simulated HAW glasses is presented and discussed

  11. Growth and gas exchange in white pitaya under different concentrations of potassium and calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Cajazeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agriculture in Brazil has improved at a fast pace in recent years, given the growing demand for quality and the need for new products. In this respect, white pitaya [Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose] has become a feasible alternative for Northeast farmers. The limiting factors include a small amount of data on plant mineral nutrition and crop growth (phenology. Therefore, this study goal was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of potassium (K and calcium (Ca on crop development and gas exchange in white pitaya grown in the coastal region of the state of Ceará, in Brazil. Sixteen treatments with three repetitions were organized in a completely randomized block design and a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of various concentrations of K (0; 125; 250 and 375 mg dm-3 and Ca (0, 53, 106, and 159 mg dm-3. Biometric characteristics and gas exchange were determined after 270 and 240 days of treatment, respectively. For morphometric characteristics, the most significant nutrient combination was 250 mg dm-3 of K and 159 mg dm-3 of Ca. Net photosynthesis was higher at the dose of 125 mg dm-3 of K and 0 mg dm-3 of Ca. Our results indicate that, for the environmental conditions under which the test was conducted, an optimum nutrient combination for the analyzed variables was 250 mg dm-3 K and 159 mg dm-3 Ca.

  12. Floração e frutificação em diferentes tipos de cladódios de pitaia-vermelha em Lavras -MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente, algumas espécies de cactáceas têm-se destacado quanto ao potencial como frutíferas, sendo suas frutas utilizadas como alimento para o homem. dentre essas, a pitaia tem despertado grande interesse. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a floração e a frutificação em diferentes tipos de cladódios (tamanho e presença ou ausência de frutificação em safras anteriores de pitaia-vermelha em Lavras-MG. As observações foram realizadas em plantas de pitaia-vermelha [Hylocereus undatus (haw. Britton & Rose], com quatro anos de idade, tutoradas em mourões de eucalipto com 1,80 m de altura, no espaçamento de 3 x 3 m. Do surgimento do botäo floral até a abertura da flor, decorreram cerca de 21 dias, e da antese até a colheita do fruto, cerca de 35 dias. Cladódios que já haviam produzido frutos em anos anteriores e com tamanho entre 40 e 60 cm de comprimento apresentaram maior porcentagem de cladódios com frutos e maior número de frutos por cladódio.

  13. The influence of baboon predation and time in water on germination and early establishment of Opuntia stricta (Australian pest pear in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Lotter

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alien invader weed, Opuntia stricta Haw (family Cactaceae, is seriously threatening biodiversity in veld habitats of the Kruger National Park. Basic biological and ecological information on the establishment, growth and reproduction of the species is necessary for the development of effective strategies for its control. The rapid spread of the plant is apparently mainly due to seed dispersal by baboon (Papio ursinus. Sixty percent of seed taken from baboon faeces resulted in seedlings that established. Although palatability criteria for ripe fruit were more favourable than for unripe or medium-ripe fruit, seed from fruit at all three degrees of ripeness germinated equally well, and seedling establishment was similar. Despite their lower acidity, as well as higher total soluble sugar content and pH, cladodes are not subject to herbivory to near the extent that ripe fruit are. Freshly collected seed kept in Sabie River water showed significantly better germination/emergence after seven days submersion (83 than at 14 or 28 days (52 and 66 , respectively. Results suggest that seed dispersal of the species by animals, principally baboon, is an important cause of rapidly expanding infestations, and that dissipation in water will intensify the problem. Current findings should contribute toward the development of long-term weed management strategies aimed at con- tainment/eradication of the weed.

  14. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae) on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F

    2017-01-01

    Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat). The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote) and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife), this west-east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation. The evolutionary scenario with highest posterior probabilities suggests Gran Canaria as oldest population with a westward colonization path to Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and EI Hierro, and eastward dispersal path to Lanzarote through Fuerteventura. In the western islands, there is a slight decrease in the effective population size toward areas of recent colonization. However, in the eastern islands, the effective population size increase in Lanzarote relative to Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. These results further our understanding of the evolution of widespread endemic plants within Canarian archipelago.

  15. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae on the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In the present study, genetic diversity and population structure of K. neriifolia were investigated using chloroplast gene sequences and nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeat. The differentiation among island populations, the historical demography, and the underlying evolutionary scenarios of this species are further tested based on the genetic data. Chloroplast diversity reveals a strong genetic divergence between eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, and Lanzarote and western islands (EI Hierro, La Palma, La Gomera, Tenerife, this west–east genetic divergence may reflect a very beginning of speciation. The evolutionary scenario with highest posterior probabilities suggests Gran Canaria as oldest population with a westward colonization path to Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and EI Hierro, and eastward dispersal path to Lanzarote through Fuerteventura. In the western islands, there is a slight decrease in the effective population size toward areas of recent colonization. However, in the eastern islands, the effective population size increase in Lanzarote relative to Gran Canaria and Fuerteventura. These results further our understanding of the evolution of widespread endemic plants within Canarian archipelago.

  16. A new Sigelgaita Heinrich (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae feeding on cacti in Brazil

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    Ricardo F. Monteiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Description and biological aspects of a new species of Sigelgaita Heinrich, 1939, the first known to occur east of the Andes, S. cerei Becker, are presented. S. cerei larvae were collected on "restinga" ecosystems feeding on Pilosocereus arrabidae (Lem. Byles & Rowl. (Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba-Macaé and Área de Proteção Ambiental de Barra de Marica, Rio de Janeiro and rarely on Cereus obtusus Haw. (PNRJ. Life cycle and behavior of larvae are presented. Larvae are found singly on flower buds, on fruit or more frequently on stem of the plants. They build chambers in the cladodium where they complete their larval development, then droping to the ground in order to pupate. Trichogramma sp. was parasitizing 72% of eggs and a species of braconid was parasitizing half out of ten larvae collected from fruits of Cereus obtusus. S. cerei larvae develop a special role in the colonization and establishment of a diverse fauna associates with the hosts such as insects, spiders and yeasts. Ants, such as Camponotus crassus Mayr, 1862 and C. cingulatus Mayr, 1862 are among the insects which most frequently nest in the chambers abandoned by the larvae of this moth species.

  17. Development of an assessment methodology for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste into deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Stanners, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical study concerning the option of disposal of vitrified high activity waste (HAW) into deep ocean sediments. The development of a preliminary methodology is presented which concerns the assessment of the possible effects of a release of radioactivity on the ecosystem and eventually on man. As the long-term hazard is considered basically to be due to transuranic elements (and daughter products) the period studied for the assessment is from 10 3 to 10 6 years. A simple ecosystem model is developed so that the transfer of activity between different compartments of the systems, e.g. the sediment column, sediment-water interface, deep sea water column, can be estimated. A critical pathway analysis is made for an imaginary critical group in order to complete the assessment. A sensitivity analysis is undertaken using the computed minimum-maximum credible values for the different parameters used in the calculations in order to obtain a minimum-maximum dose range for a critical group. (Auth.)

  18. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony in high temperature processes for waste conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Weyers, C.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The fission products and the actinides of high level radioactive liquid wastes can be immobilized by incorporation into a glass matrix prior to disposal. The behaviour of so-called semi-volatile products during the vitrification process has been studied by the C.E.N./S.C.K. in Mol since 1979 in the framework of a contract with DWK of Germany in support to the HAW technological program PAMELA. The experiments were performed on laboratory and semi-pilot scale using simulated LEWC solutions tagged with radioisotopes of three suspected volatile fission products, namely ruthenium, cesium and antimony. The releases of these semi-volatile compounds to the off-gases have been investigated for a liquid fed melter as a function of the operational conditions. The study of a wet purification system, comprising in series of a dust scrubber, a condensor, an ejector venturi and an NOsub(x) column, has shown that cesium appears to be the reference isotope for the volatile elements released from the melter. Ruthenium seems not to be a problem from the point of view of gas purification although local radiation problems caused by deposits on metal surfaces cannot be excluded. (Auth.)

  19. Application of a qualitative image analysis on the evaluation of microbial process parameters of biogas plants; Einsatz einer quantitativen Bildanalyse zur Beurteilung mikrobieller Prozessparameter von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Scherer, Paul [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Hamburg-Bergedorf (Germany). Faculty of Life Sciences

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate efficiency and microbial activity of biogas or anaerobic waste water treatment plants, the number of microorganisms per gram or per milliliter is supposed to be a crucial factor. Since some years ago our research group at HAW-Hamburg has struggled to develop a simple and rapid technique for quantification and classification of environmental microbes with a semi-automatic digital image analysis. For detection of methanogens, the methanogenic fluorescence coenzyme F420 was used, which represents the vitality of methanogens. Furthermore this technique has been supplemented with morphological classification resulting in a Quantitative Microscopic Fingerprinting (QMF). The technique facilitates to find out microbial reasons for some problems of reactor performances. In addition QMF allows differentiating between H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} and acetate consuming methanogens according to their morphology. At the moment, this study focusses on some relationships between QMF and plant operation parameters. As an example, a thermophilic biogas plant fed by 65% liquid cow manure, maize silage, grass silage and solid cow manure was analyzed for more than 22 weeks. Here some basic background and methodical procedures were presented as well as validation of this technique. (orig.)

  20. El cultivo de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Marley Ruiz Gaitan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available La uchuva (Physalis peruviana L., es una planta herbácea que tiene una amplia distribución en américa del sur, actualmente se cultiva en Perú, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, California, Sudáfrica, Kenia, Egipto, el Caribe, Asia, Hawái y Costa Rica. Colombia se ha situado cómo el mayor productor y exportador a nivel mundial lo que hace que el cultivo de la uchuva se destaque como un potencial de desarrollo promisorio para las diferentes regiones productoras del país, esto se debe a los excelentes precios del mercado extranjero y la viabilidad de la fruta en pos cosecha. La uchuva es un cultivo que requiere labores agronómicas tales como la poda, fertilización, tutorado, y además de esto condiciones ambientales determinadas para su óptimo desarrollo. Los distintos derivados de esta baya se comercializan con facilidad además de todos los beneficios que aportan al cuerpo. Palabras clave: Cultivo, uchuva, exportación, labores agronómicas.

  1. Composição florística da vegetação arbórea de um trecho de floresta estacional semidecídua em Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e espécies de maior ocorrência na região Floristic composition of trees in a seasonal semidecious forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, and species of greater ocurrence in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walnir Gomes Ferreira Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available É grande a demanda por estudos ecológicos em florestas que possam embasar trabalhos de recuperação, conservação da biodiversidade e apoio à legislação ambiental. Entre esses estudos, primordialmente está o levantamento da flora. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a composição florística de um trecho da Reserva da Biologia, em Viçosa, MG, em regeneração natural há 80 anos, bem como realizar uma análise comparativa com outros trabalhos conduzidos na região, fornecendo, assim, informações que poderão embasar estudos sobre recuperação e conservação da biodiversidade dos fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Os dados florísticos foram obtidos mediante a amostragem fitossociológica em 1 ha, pelo método de parcelas contíguas, em que todos os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência de tronco >15 cm a 1,30 m do solo foram amostrados. Registraram-se 130 espécies, distribuídas em 94 gêneros, pertencentes a 38 famílias botânicas. A análise desses dados conjuntamente com de outros levantamentos realizados em trechos distintos da Reserva da Biologia, no campus da UFV, denota a marcante influência de variáveis ambientais locais (topografia, declividade, face de exposição solar e disponibilidade hídrica na distribuição da riqueza florística desse fragmento. Casearia decandra, Guapira opposita, Apuleia leiocarpa, Dalbergia nigra, Jacaranda macratha, Matayba elaeagnoides, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Bathysa nicholsonii, Carpotroche brasiliensis, Luehea grandiflora, Mabea fistulifera, Ocotea odorifera, Sorocea bonplandii e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium foram as espécies de maior ocorrência nos fragmentos estudados na região de Viçosa e adjacências, apresentando potencial para uso na recuperação florestal de áreas degradadas.There is a great demand for ecological studies on forests focusing on biodiversity conservation and establishment of environmental laws. The major need, however, is

  2. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  3. Solos e vegetação nativa remanescente no Município de Campinas Soil and native vegetation remnant in Campinas, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos de Moraes Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar atributos e classes de solos associados à ocorrência de remanescentes de cerrado e de floresta nativa em Campinas, SP, e identificar espécies indicadoras desses ambientes. Vinte e sete fragmentos de vegetação nativa foram estudados. Foi realizada a caracterização morfológica, classificação e coleta do solo para análises, bem como o levantamento florístico-fitossociológico do estrato arbóreo. A análise de correspondência canônica identificou as variáveis mais bem correlacionadas com a distribuição das espécies e identificou 15 variáveis que explicaram 31% da variância nos dois primeiros eixos. A classificação dos solos discriminou as fitofisionomias estudadas, Argissolos associados às matas e Latossolos aos cerrados, indício de que baixa fertilidade, baixa retenção de água e drenagem acentuada do solo favorecem o estabelecimento de cerrado. Parâmetro "n" da curva de retenção de água, densidade, H+Al, Ca, Al, K e Mg trocáveis, macroporos e matéria orgânica do solo foram os atributos dos solos mais efetivos nessa diferenciação fitofisionômica. A barreira química imposta pelo excesso de Al e deficiência de Ca no horizonte B e a baixa retenção de água nos solos sob cerrado favorecem as espécies Luehea grandiflora, Persea willdenovii, Xylopia aromatica e Erythroxylum daphnites, abundantes e exclusivamente encontradas nos fragmentos de cerrado.The objective of this work was to identify soil attributes and classes associated to the occurrence of forest and tropical savannah remnants in Campinas, SP, Brazil. Twenty seven native vegetation fragments were studied. Soil morphological, chemical, and physical characterization were carried out, along with floristic-phytosociological survey of the tree stratum. Canonic correspondence analysis identified variables better correlated with plant species distribution. Fifteen environment variables explained 31% of the variance of

  4. Análise fitossociológica de um remanescente de vegetação na microbacia do Córrego Criminoso (Bacia do Rio Taquari, Coxim, MS, Brasil: subsídios para a recomposição da vegetação Phytosociological analysis of a vegetation remnant in the Córrego Criminoso Basin (Taquari River Basin, Coxim District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: data for vegetation recovery studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise florística e fitossociológica preliminar em um remanescente de vegetação na área de entorno do Córrego Criminoso, visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recomposição da vegetação. A área total do remanescente foi determinada com o auxílio de GPS e dos programas Pathfinder e Autocad. Amostragens de indivíduos com CAP maior ou igual a 20 cm foram realizadas em 20 parcelas de 300 m² distribuídas na área. Foram encontradas 26 famílias botânicas contendo 36 gêneros e 49 espécies. A família Leguminosae foi a mais rica em espécies, seguida da família Annonaceae. A espécie Xylopia aromatica foi a mais freqüente, apresentando valores de IVI e IVC de 99,77 e 85,73, respectivamente. Observou-se que mais de 50% das espécies presentes na área são pioneiras ou secundárias, sendo cinco consideradas típicas de matas ciliares: Tapirira guianenses, Cecropia pachystachya, Terminalia argentea, Ocotea pulchellae e Luehea grandiflora. O remanescente de vegetação do entorno do Córrego Criminoso encontra-se fortemente degradado, necessitando de ações de manejo específicos nos fragmentos vegetados e nas áreas destituídas de vegetação, cujas recomendações são propostas.The aim of this study was to complete a preliminary, floristic, phytosociological analyses of a vegetation remnant in the Criminoso Stream Basin, in order to provide data for future projects focusing on vegetation recovery. The total area of the remnant was determined using a GPS and the software Pathfinder and Autocad. Samples of individuals larger or equal to 20 cm CBH were made in 20 quadrats that were 300 m². Thirty-six genera and 49 species, within 26 botanical families, were found. The family Leguminosae was the richest in species, followed by the Annonaceae. Xylopia aromatica was the most frequent species, presenting values of IVI and IVC of 99.77 and 85.73, respectively. More than 50% of the species present

  5. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas em algodoeiro de fibra colorida 'BRS Safira' Weeds interference periods in naturally colored cotton 'BRS Safira'

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    Gleibson Dionízio Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho, identificar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas no algodoeiro de fibra colorida (BRS Safira, bem como avaliar a comunidade infestante nesta cultura. O experimento foi realizado no município de Missão Velha, CE, região do Cariri, na safra 2007/2008. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo os fatores: modalidades de competição (com e sem competição de plantas daninhas e período de interferência das plantas daninhas. A comunidade infestante foi avaliada por meio de dois índices fitossociológicos (Dominância relativa e Importância relativa. Os períodos iniciais de controle ou de convivência após a emergência da cultura foram 0-20; 0-40; 0-60; 0-80 dias após a emergência (DAE e 0-colheita. Os períodos de interferência foram determinados considerando-se perdas na produtividade de 2; 5 e 10%; realizando-se análise de regressão pelo modelo sigmoidal de Boltzman, utilizando-se os dados de produtividade para cada modalidade de competição. Dentre as 21 espécies observadas na comunidade infestante, destacaram-se: Richardia grandiflora, Amaranthus deflexus, Eleusine indica, Merremia aegyptia, Eragrotis pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus e Waltheria indica. Os períodos críticos anteriores à interferência foram, respectivamente, 8; 14 e 20 DAE, para perdas na produtividade de 2; 5 e 10%; e os períodos críticos de prevenção a interferências, foram, respectivamente, 100; 82 e 60 dias.This study aimed to determine the late-season presence of weeds in reddish brown cotton (cultivar BRS Safira and the critical times for removing weeds. The experiment was carried out in the area of Embrapa in Missão Velha-CE, Brazil, located at 7º42'07" S latitude and 39º24'18" WGr. longitude, during the 2007/2008 season. The treatments consisted of two control groups: weed-free crop during the initial period after crop emergency

  6. Estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de dois estádios sucessionais de floresta estacional semidecidual na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Structure of the tree-shrub component in two successional stages of semideciduous forest in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo das variações estruturais do componente arbustivo- arbóreo em dois estádios sucessionais - inicial e madura - de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, MG, Brasil. A Reserva Florestal está situada nas coordenadas 20º45'S e 42º55'W e a uma altitude média de 689 m. O clima da região é classificado como Cwb pelo sistema de Köppen. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, sendo 10 parcelas em cada estádio sucessional, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP > 4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostrados 399 indivíduos, distribuídos em 27 famílias e 55 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Piptadenia gonoacantha, Vernonanthura diffusa, Miconia cinnamomifolia, Piptocarpha macropoda e Luehea grandiflora. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,31 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,83. No estádio floresta madura foram amostrados 623 indivíduos, distribuídos em 31 famílias e 78 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Euterpe edulis, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Nectandra lanceolata, Myrcia sphaerocarpa e Guapira opposita. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,46 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,79. As distribuições diamétricas das quatro espécies mais abundantes em cada estádio sucessional apresentaram padrões distintos, aparentemente relacionados ao estádio sucessional.The study of the floristic and structural variations of the tree-shrub component was carried out in two successional stages of Semideciduous Forest, initial and mature, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Forest Reserve is located at 20º45'S and 42º55'W, with average altitude of 689 m. The regional climate is classified as Cwb by the Köppen system

  7. Banco de sementes como indicador de restauração de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG Seed bank as indicator of restoration of a kaolin mining - degraded area in Brás Pires, MG

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    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o banco de sementes sob vegetação secundária em uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG. Foram coletadas 40 amostras de solo de 0,5 x 0,5 m até a profundidade de 5,0 cm. As amostras foram mantidas em viveiro por quatro meses, sendo metade em sombreamento de 11,5% (luz e metade em sombreamento de 60% (sombra. A germinação das sementes foi comparada nas duas condições de sombra (11,5% e 60%, utilizando-se o teste t para amostras independentes. Foram amostradas 36 espécies pertencentes a 17 famílias botânicas. As famílias com maior riqueza específica foram Asteraceae, com nove espécies, Rubiaceae com cinco e Poaceae com quatro. A maioria das espécies (66,7% e dos indivíduos (82,2% amostrados no banco foi de herbácea. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos germinados do banco foram as herbáceas Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D. Webster, Cenchrus sp. e Eragrostis sp. e a arbustiva Leandra niangaeformis Cogn. Entre as arbóreas, destacaram-se em número de indivíduos Luehea grandiflora Mart. e Trema micranta (L. Blume. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas oriundas de áreas antropizadas do entorno indicou baixa resiliência da vegetação presente na área degradada em caso de ocorrer alguma perturbação severa.This study aimed to characterize the soil seed bank under secondary vegetation in an area degraded by kaolin mining in Brás Pires, MG, Brazil. Forty soil samples of 0.5 x 0.5 m were collected to the depth of 5.0 cm. The soil samples were maintained in nursery for four months, half in shading of 11.5% (light, and half in shading of 60% (shade. Seed germination was compared under the two shade conditions (11.5% and 60%, utilizing the t test for independent samples. Thirty-six species belonging to 17 botanical families were sampled. The families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae with 9, Rubiaceae with 5, and Poaceae with 4. Most of the

  8. In vitro screening of Amazonian plants for hemolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood Testes in vitro de plantas Amazônicas para atividade hemolítica e inibição da agregação plaquetária em sangue humano

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    Viviana Maria Araújo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different aerial parts from twelve Amazonian plant species found in the National Institute for Amazon Research's (INPA's Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were collected. Separate portions of dried, ground plant materials were extracted with water (by infusion, methanol and chloroform (by continuous liquid-solid extraction and solvents were removed first by rotary evaporation, and finally by freeze-drying which yielded a total of seventy-one freeze-dried extracts for evaluation. These extracts were evaluated initially at concentrations of 500 and 100 µg/mL for in vitro hemolytic activity and in vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood, respectively. Sixteen extracts (23 % of all extracts tested, 42 % of all plant species, representing the following plants: Chaunochiton kappleri (Olacaceae, Diclinanona calycina (Annonaceae, Paypayrola grandiflora (Violaceae, Pleurisanthes parviflora (Icacinaceae, Sarcaulus brasiliensis (Sapotaceae, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards human platelet aggregation. A group of extracts with antiplatelet aggregation activity having no in vitro hemolytic activity has therefore been identified. Three extracts (4 %, all derived from Elaeoluma nuda (Sapotaceae, exhibited hemolytic activity. None of the plant species in this study has known use in traditional medicine. So, these data serve as a baseline or minimum of antiplatelet and hemolytic activities (and potential usefulness of non-medicinal plants from the Amazon forest. Finally, in general, these are the first data on hemolytic and inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation for the genera which these plant species represent.No presente estudo, partes aéreas obtidas de doze (12 espécies vegetais da Amazônia encontradas na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (localizada na cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia foram coletadas, secadas e mo

  9. Synopsis Of The subfamily Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) In Colombia, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas Gomez, Hilda del Carmen; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    As second and last contribution to the synoptic treatment of the Spiranthoideae for Colombia, the synopsis of the tribes Spirantheae (subtribes Cyclopogoninae: 3 genera, 41 species and Stenorrhynchidinae: 9 genera, 15 species) and Cranichideae (5 genera, 53 species), is presented. The most diverse genera in these tribes are: Cranichis (20 species), Cyclopogon (17), Ponthieva (15) and Pelexia (14). As part of the results of this study: a)- The transfer of Cybebus from the subtribe Spiranthinae (where it was commonly placed) to the subtribe Stenorhinchidinae, is proposed, based on the floral morphology (the rostellum and viscidium structure). b)- two genera are reported for Colombia as new records, each one with one species: Lyroglossa (L. grisebachii) and Helonoma; for the latter the new combination Helonoma peruviana (Szlach.) Salazar, Duenas and Fern. Alonso is proposed. c) New records in the previously known list of Colombian orchids are presented: Coccineorchis (C. cristata, C. navarrensis), Cyclopogon (C. maldonadoanus, C. olivaceus, C. rimbachii), Pelexia (P. hirta, P. palmorchidis), Ponthieva (P. venusta), and Sarcoglottis (S. grandiflora, S. maasorum, S. neglecta, S. stergiosii). d)- And additional 19 new records of species belonging to Aspidogyne and Microchilus, not reported in Duenas and Fernandez-Alonso (2007), are also included. e)- Finally an analysis of the distribution and diversity of the genera of this subfamily, according to altitude ranges in Colombia is presented. This group has predominant Andean distribution, being found mainly between 1300 and 3600 m of altitude. Genera broadly distributed as Microchilus, Gomphichis, Cyclopogon, Pelexia, Sarcoglottis, Coccineorchis, Stenorrhynchos, Cranichis and Ponthieva, are found almost from the level up to 3000 m, in all the regions of the country. In contrast, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Cybebus, Eltroplectris, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Kreodanthus, Pteroglossa and Sauroglossum

  10. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  11. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia Batista Barra Medeiros; de Oliveira, Julliete Medeiros; Chagas, Juliana Macêdo; Rabelo, Luciana Maria Araujo; de Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Giodani, Raquel Brant; da Silva, Elizeu Antunes; Uchôa, Adriana Ferreira; de Fátima de Freire Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever, currently the most important arbovirus, is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Given the absence of a prophylactic vaccine, the disease can only be controlled by combating the vector insect. However, increasing reports of resistance and environmental damage caused by insecticides have led to the urgent search for new safer alternatives. In this regard, plants stand out as a source of easy-to-obtain biodegradable insecticide molecules. Twenty (20) plant seed extracts from the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, were prepared. Sodium phosphate (50 mM, pH 8.0) was used as extractor. The extracts were used in bioassays and submitted to partial characterisation. A Probit analysis of insecticides was carried out, and intergroup differences were verified by the Student's t test and ANOVA. All the extracts exhibited larvicidal and ovipositional deterrence activity. The extracts of Amburana cearenses, Piptadenia viridiflora, Erythrina velutina, Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis were also pupicides, while the extracts of P. viridiflora, E. velutina, A. cearenses, Anadenanthera colubrina, Diocleia grandiflora, Bauhinia cheilantha, Senna spectabilis, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Mimosa regnelli and Genipa americana displayed adulticidal activity. Egg laying was compromised when females were fed extracts of Ricinus communis, Croton sonderianus and S. brasiliensis. At least two proteins with insecticidal activity were found in all the extracts. Phenol compounds were identified in all the extracts and flavonoids, triterpenes or alkaloids in 14 of them. The results show the potential of plant seed extracts from the Caatinga as a source of active molecules against A. aegypti mosquitos.

  12. Modified atmosphere treatments as a potential disinfestation technique for arthropod pests in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, D W; Potter, D A; Gates, R S; Anderson, R G

    2001-04-01

    Incidental transport of arthropods on plant material can be a significant mode of pest entry into greenhouses. We evaluated the use of controlled atmosphere treatments as a potential way to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules (i.e., cuttings or small rooted plants). Lethal exposures to CO2 or N2 were determined for common greenhouse pests including fungus gnat larvae, Bradysia sp.; green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia sp.; twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We also studied the effect of pest species, life stage, and presence or absence of plants on efficacy of modified atmosphere treatments. Finally, effects of modified atmospheres on plant quality were evaluated for several bedding plant species including begonia, Begonia semperflorens-cultorum Hort. 'Cocktail Series', chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., geranium, Pelargonium X hortorum L.H. Bailey, and impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook f., and among cultivars of geranium and chrysanthemum. Exposure for 12-18 h to >99% N2 or CO2 caused complete mortality of aphids, mites, thrips, and whiteflies. Fungus gnat larvae were more tolerant of hypoxic conditions. Adult mites and eggs were equally susceptible. For most pests, there was no difference in response to atmospheres modified by CO2 or N2. However, there was variation in response among plant species and cultivars, with effects ranging from delayed flowering to mortality. Despite the possibility of adverse effects on some plants, this work indicates that use of modified atmospheres has potential to eliminate arthropod pests on plant propagules before they are introduced into greenhouses.

  13. Mutações induzidas e uso de podas repetidas in vitro visandoao melhoramento de crisântemo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rocha Latado

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi induzir mutações em plantas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. in vitro, seguido de podas repetidas in vitro. Aproximadamente 105 plantas in vitro do cultivar Ingrid foram irradiadas com dose de 22,5 Gy de raios-gama e o avanço das gerações foi realizado por meio de podas repetidas in vitro com o subcultivo de ápices caulinares e segmentos de caule contendo gemas axilares. Durante o período de florescimento avaliou-se a freqüência de obtenção de mutantes e o tamanho de setores mutados, em plantas da geração Mv,-meristema apical até m 1 v 3' Como resultado, observou-se um total de 93 plantas mutantes (1 3,3 % do total de plantas avaliadas, sendo a maioria, mutantes de coloração de inflorescência. Não se observaram plantas mutantes no controle. Como efeito das podas, notou-se uma tendência à redução na freqüência de mutantes e ao aumento no tamanho dos setores mutados, a partir da geração MV,-gema axilar até a geração M1V3' Entre os nove diferentes tipos, três mutantes de coloração de inflorescência (marrom-avermelhado, chá-rosa e variegado estão sendo multiplicados para possível lançamento como novos cultivares.

  14. Seasonal water stress tolerance and habitat associations within four neotropical tree genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraloto, Christopher; Morneau, François; Bonal, Damien; Blanc, Lilian; Ferry, Bruno

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between habitat association and physiological performance in four congeneric species pairs exhibiting contrasting distributions between seasonally flooded and terra firme habitats in lowland tropical rain forests of French Guiana, including Virola and Iryanthera (Myristicaceae), Symphonia (Clusiaceae), and Eperua (Caesalpiniaceae). We analyzed 10-year data sets of mapped and measured saplings (stems >150 cm in height and or =10 cm dbh) across 37.5 ha of permanent plots covering a 300-ha zone, within which seasonally flooded areas (where the water table never descends below 1 m) have been mapped. Additionally, we tested the response of growth, survival, and leaf functional traits of these species to drought and flood stress in a controlled experiment. We tested for habitat preference using a modification of the torus translation method. Strong contrasting associations of the species pairs of Iryanthera, Virola, and Symphonia were observed at the sapling stage, and these associations strengthened for the tree stage. Neither species of Eperua was significantly associated with flooded habitats at the sapling stage, but E. falcata was significantly and positively associated with flooded forests at the tree stage, and trees of E. grandiflora were found almost exclusively in nonflooded habitats. Differential performance provided limited explanatory support for the observed habitat associations, with only congeners of Iryanthera exhibiting divergent sapling survival and tree growth. Seedlings of species associated with flooded forest tended to have higher photosynthetic capacity than their congeners at field capacity. In addition, they tended to have the largest reductions in leaf gas exchange and growth rate in response to experimental drought stress and the least reductions in response to experimental inundation. The corroboration of habitat association with differences in functional traits and, to a lesser extent, measures of performance

  15. Design and development of green roof substrate to improve runoff water quality: plant growth experiments and adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Raja, Franklin D

    2014-10-15

    Many studies worldwide have investigated the potential benefits achievable by transforming brown roofs of buildings to green roofs. However, little literature examined the runoff quality/sorption ability of green roofs. As the green roof substrate is the main component to alter the quality of runoff, this investigation raises the possibility of using a mixture of low-cost inorganic materials to develop a green roof substrate. The tested materials include exfoliated vermiculite, expanded perlite, crushed brick and sand along with organic component (coco-peat). Detailed physical and chemical analyses revealed that each of these materials possesses different characteristics and hence a mix of these materials was desirable to develop an optimal green roof substrate. Using factorial design, 18 different substrate mixes were prepared and detailed examination indicated that mix-12 exhibited desirable characteristics of green roof substrate with low bulk density (431 kg/m(3)), high water holding capacity (39.4%), air filled porosity (19.5%), and hydraulic conductivity (4570 mm/h). The substrate mix also provided maximum support to Portulaca grandiflora (380% total biomass increment) over one month of growth. To explore the leaching characteristics and sorption capacity of developed green roof substrate, a down-flow packed column arrangement was employed. High conductivity and total dissolved solids along with light metal ions (Na, K, Ca and Mg) were observed in the leachates during initial stages of column operation; however the concentration of ions ceased during the final stages of operation (600 min). Experiments with metal-spiked deionized water revealed that green roof substrate possess high sorption capacity towards various heavy metal ions (Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd). Thus the developed growth substrate possesses desirable characteristics for green roofs along with high sorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND FLORISTIC DIVERSITY IN A CERRADO AREA UNDER DIFFERENT ANTROPIZATION LEVELS, RIO PARDO DE MINAS, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Henrique do Couto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate diversity and floristic similarity of Cerrado environments, under different levels of anthropization for agricultural usage and extractivism, and to generate a database to subsidize sustainable development proposals for the North region of Minas Gerais State, and traditional agriculture systems. Four areas with different levels of anthropization were sampled, in the following environments: “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, whose identifications had been made from key informers in the Água Boa Community, in Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, Brazil. The sampled units were distributed in 8 parcels of 20 x 50 m, with 5 subplots. The trees with circumference at ground level of 15 cm or bigger were measured. For analysis of the phytosociology indexes the following parameters were calculated for each environment: density, dominance, frequency, basal area, and importance value. For the floristic diversity the Shannon (H' was calculated, and for the analysis of similarity the index of Jaccard index (Sij. In all the environments, it was found a total of 477 individuals, distributed in 21 families, with 48 botanical species identified, and 27 individuals not identified. The five most important (importance value families was Fabaceae/Papilionoideae, Apocynaceae, Vochysiaceae, Sapotaceae and Fabaceae/Caesalpinoideae. And the ten most important species was Pouteria ramiflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Hancornia speciosa, Macherium opacum, Sclerolobium paniculatum var. subvelutinum, Qualea grandiflora, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Byrsonima pachyphylla, Vochysia thyrsoidea and Hymenaea stigonocarpa. The H' index was of 3.01; 2.72; 2.48 and 2.09 for “Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro”, respectively. The Sij index indicated a small floristic similarity for all the combinations between the environments.

  17. FITOSSOCIOLOGIA E DIVERSIDADE FLORÍSTICA EM ÁREA DE CERRADO SOB VÁRIOS NÍVEIS DE ANTROPIZAÇÃO, RIO PARDO DE MINAS, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Henrique do Couto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate diversity and floristic similarity of Cerrado environments, under different levels of anthropization for agricultural usage and extractivism, and to generate a database to subsidize sustainable development proposals for the North region of Minas Gerais State, and traditional agriculture systems. Four areas with different levels of anthropization were sampled, in the following environments: "Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro", whose identifications had been made from key informers in the Água Boa Community, in Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, Brazil. The sampled units were distributed in 8 parcels of 20 x 50 m, with 5 subplots. The trees with circumference at ground level of 15 cm or bigger were measured. For analysis of the phytosociology indexes the following parameters were calculated for each environment: density, dominance, frequency, basal area, and importance value. For the floristic diversity the Shannon (H' was calculated, and for the analysis of similarity the index of Jaccard index (Sij. In all the environments, it was found a total of 477 individuals, distributed in 21 families, with 48 botanical species identified, and 27 individuals not identified. The five most important (importance value families was Fabaceae/Papilionoideae, Apocynaceae, Vochysiaceae, Sapotaceae and Fabaceae/Caesalpinoideae. And the ten most important species was Pouteria ramiflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Hancornia speciosa, Macherium opacum, Sclerolobium paniculatum var. subvelutinum, Qualea grandiflora, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Byrsonima pachyphylla, Vochysia thyrsoidea and Hymenaea stigonocarpa. The H' index was of 3.01; 2.72; 2.48 and 2.09 for "Areião, Areiãozinho, Chapada de Latossolo and Tabuleiro", respectively. The Sij index indicated a small floristic similarity for all the combinations between the environments.

  18. The prioritisation of a short list of alien plants for risk analysis within the framework of the Regulation (EU No. 1143/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven alien plant species, pre-identified by horizon scanning exercises were prioritised for pest risk analysis (PRA using a modified version of the EPPO Prioritisation Process designed to be compliant with the EU Regulation 1143/2014. In Stage 1, species were categorised into one of four lists – a Residual List, EU List of Minor Concern, EU Observation List and the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants. Only those species included in the latter proceeded to the risk management stage where their priority for PRA was assessed. Due to medium or high spread potential coupled with high impacts twenty-two species were included in the EU List of Invasive Alien Plants and proceeded to Stage 2. Four species (Ambrosia trifida, Egeria densa, Fallopia baldschuanica and Oxalis pes-caprae were assigned to the EU Observation List due to moderate or low impacts. Albizia lebbeck, Clematis terniflora, Euonymus japonicus, Lonicera morrowii, Prunus campanulata and Rubus rosifolius were assigned to the residual list due to a current lack of information on impacts. Similarly, Cornus sericea and Hydrilla verticillata were assigned to the Residual List due to unclear taxonomy and uncertainty in native status, respectively. Chromolaena odorata, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Sphagneticola trilobata were assigned to the Residual List as it is unlikely they will establish in the Union under current climatic conditions. In the risk management stage, Euonymus fortunei, Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii were considered a low priority for PRA as they do not exhibit invasive tendencies despite being widely cultivated in the EU over several decades. Nineteen species were identified as having a high priority for a PRA (Acacia dealbata, Ambrosia confertiflora, Andropogon virginicus, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Celastrus orbiculatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cortaderia jubata, Ehrharta calycina, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hakea sericea, Humulus scandens, Hygrophila polysperma

  19. The role of birds and insects in pollination shifts of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pérez, María L; López, Josefa; Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Vargas, Pablo; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana

    2013-10-01

    The mixed vertebrate-insect pollination system is rare in Holarctic plants. Phylogenetic relationships of 116 Scrophularia taxa were investigated based on two plastid (ndhF and trnL-trnF) and one nuclear (ITS) DNA regions. A wider time-calibrated analysis of ndhF sequences of the Lamiales revealed that Scrophularia diverged as early as in the Miocene (<22 Ma). Results of maximum-likelihood optimizations supported wasp pollination as the ancestral pollination system from which other systems derived (hoverfly, mixed vertebrate-insect and bird systems). Four origins for a mixed vertebrate-insect (MVI) pollination system were inferred, in which two western Mediterranean species (S. sambucifolia and S. grandiflora) and two island species (the Tirrenian S. trifoliata and the Canarian S. calliantha) were involved. S. calliantha is the only species in which a more complex MVI system, including pollination by the lizard Gallotia stehlini, has evolved. In addition, bird (hummingbird) floral traits found in the New Mexican S. macrantha appear to have been independently acquired. In contrast, we failed to find evidence for an ancient role of hummingbirds in the evolution of European Scrophularia. Indeed, paleontological data revealed that extinction of European hummingbirds (30-32 Ma) occurred earlier than the divergence of European MVI lineages of Scrophularia. In conclusion, our results showed that a role of birds in pollination of Scrophularia may not have been effective in the Miocene-Pliocene, but bird pollination that shows its origin in the Pliocene-Pleistocene is still operating independently in different islands and continents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphological and agronomical characterization and estimates of genetic parameters of sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasey E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two accessions of seven Sesbania (Leguminosae species: S. emerus, S. rostrata, S. tetraptera, S. exasperata (annuals, S. grandiflora, S. sesban and S. virgata (perennials, used for ruminant fodder, firewood, wood products, soil improvement, and human food, were investigated, with the aim of characterizing both inter- and intraspecific genetic variability, estimating genetic parameters for the characters evaluated and appraising the forage potential of the accessions. These were planted at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with 22 treatments and four replications. Seventeen morphological and 17 agronomic characters were evaluated. Genetic parameters coefficient of intraspecific genetic diversity (bi and coefficient of intraspecific genetic variation (CVgi were obtained for the species represented by more than one accession. Highly significant differences were observed among as well as within species for most characters, showing considerable genetic variability. S. exasperata showed intraspecific genetic variability for the largest number of morphological characters. The same was observed for S. sesban for the agronomic characters. Most of the characters gave high bi values, above 0.80, indicating the possibility of selecting superior genotypes. The CVgi values, on the other hand, which indicate the magnitude of the existing genetic variability relative to the character mean, varied according to the species and character evaluated. Differences between annual and perennial species were observed, with higher biomass yields presented by the annuals at the first cut and by the perennials after the second cut, reaching the highest yield at the third cut. The annual species had higher seed production. Accession NO 934 of S. sesban gave the highest biomass yields and regrowth vigor, showing promise as a forage legume plant.

  1. Genomic signature of successful colonization of Eurasia by the allopolyploid shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A; Salcedo, A; Kryvokhyzha, D; Glémin, S; Holm, K; Wright, S I; Lascoux, M

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidization is a dominant feature of flowering plant evolution. However, detailed genomic analyses of the interpopulation diversification of polyploids following genome duplication are still in their infancy, mainly because of methodological limits, both in terms of sequencing and computational analyses. The shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is one of the most common weed species in the world. It is highly self-fertilizing, and recent genomic data indicate that it is an allopolyploid, resulting from hybridization between the ancestors of the diploid species Capsella grandiflora and Capsella orientalis. Here, we investigated the genomic diversity of C. bursa-pastoris, its population structure and demographic history, following allopolyploidization in Eurasia. To that end, we genotyped 261 C. bursa-pastoris accessions spread across Europe, the Middle East and Asia, using genotyping-by-sequencing, leading to a total of 4274 SNPs after quality control. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed three distinct genetic clusters in Eurasia: one cluster grouping samples from Western Europe and Southeastern Siberia, the second one centred on Eastern Asia and the third one in the Middle East. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) supported the hypothesis that C. bursa-pastoris underwent a typical colonization history involving low gene flow among colonizing populations, likely starting from the Middle East towards Europe and followed by successive human-mediated expansions into Eastern Asia. Altogether, these findings bring new insights into the recent multistage colonization history of the allotetraploid C. bursa-pastoris and highlight ABC and genotyping-by-sequencing data as promising but still challenging tools to infer demographic histories of selfing allopolyploids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Dario Patiño Uribe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  3. Energy saving in greenhouses can be obtained by energy balance-controlled screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, N. E. (Univ. of Aarhus, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Horticulture, Aarslev (Denmark)), e-mail: niels.andersson@agrsci.dk

    2011-03-15

    The energy screens in two greenhouses, one clad with double acrylic and one with single glass, were controlled by an energy balance model. The parameters in the model were heat transmission coefficients, air temperature in the greenhouse and outdoors, irradiance and a single constant for the solar energy efficiency. The energy consumption, screen movements and daily light integral were compared with a glass greenhouse in which the energy screens were controlled by irradiance. In the greenhouse with light-controlled screens the set point for opening and closing of the screens was 5 Wm-2. The energy-saving screens controlled by the energy balance model opened later and closed earlier than in the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. When using the energy balance model the energy saving was 14% for the glass greenhouse and 41% for the double acrylic greenhouse compared with the glass greenhouse with light-controlled screens. The air temperature was on average similar in the three greenhouses, but when the screens were controlled by energy balance the daily light integral was approximately 10% lower and the number of hours the screens were closed was prolonged with 35% for the glass-covered greenhouse and 25% for the double acrylic-covered greenhouse compared with the greenhouse with light-controlled screens. Energy peaks in connection with operation of the screens were not reduced. During the experiment Begonia elatior, Dendranthema grandiflora (Chrysanthemum), Hedera helix, Helianthus annuus, Gerbera jamesonii and Kalanchoe blossfeldiana were grown in the greenhouses. There was a trend in prolongation of the production time when the plants were grown in the glass greenhouse with energy balance control of the screens. A lower number of flowers or inflorescences were observed for some of the plant species produced in the greenhouses with energy balance-controlled screens

  4. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on time of flowering in four short-day and four long-day species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reekie, J.Y.C.; Hicklenton, P.R. (Agriculture Canada Research Station, Kentiville, NS (Canada)); Reekie, E.G. (Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if the effect of elevated CO[sub 2] on flowering phenology is a function of the photoperiodic response of the species involved. Four long-day plants, Achillea millefolium, Callistephus chinensis, Campanula isophylla, and Trachelium caeruleum, and four short-day plants, Dendranthema grandiflora, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pharbitis nil, and Xanthium pensylvanicum, were grown under inductive photoperiods (9 h for short day and 17 h for long day) at either 350 or 1000 [mu]l/l CO[sub 2]. Time of visible flower bud formation, flower opening, and final plant biomass were assessed. Elevated CO[sub 2] advanced flower opening in all four long-day species and delayed flowering in all four short-day species. In the long-day species, the effect of CO[sub 2] was primarily on bud initiation; all four species formed buds earlier at high CO[sub 2]. Bud development, the difference in time between flower opening and bud initiation, was advanced in only one long-day species, Callistephus chinensis. Mixed results were obtained for the short-day species. Elevated CO[sub 2] exerted no effects on bud initiation but delayed bud development in Dendranthema and Kalanchoe. In Xanthium, bud initiation rather than bud development was delayed. Data on bud initiation and development were not obtained for Pharbitis. The negative effect of CO[sub 2] upon phenology in the short-day species was not associated with negative effects on growth. Elevated CO[sub 2] increased plant size in both long-day and short-day species. 26 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Liquid Nitrogen (-196°C effect under pollen of some cultured or ornamental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina GLIGOR

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The criopreservation involve the stock of the vegetal material at low temperatures (-196°C in liquid nitrogen, in thermal conditions in which the division of cells and metabolic processes slow down, thus that the samplings may be conserved for long periods without suffering any genetic modifications. This stock technique is applied till present only on 80 vegetal species, keeping their seeds and vitrocultures preponderantly; researches were made regarding the maintenance of pollen in liquid nitrogen.The mature pollen, able to resist a higher degree of desiccation, may be conserved at low temperatures, without criopreservation. It was made researches on criopreservation of rise, maize, wheat, roses, sun flower and soy pollen. Our study purpose was to follow the impact of liquid nitrogen (-196°C about on viability of some cultured and ornamental species. The designed time of criopreservation it was 30 minutes and 7 days, using the TTC (tripheniltetrazole chloride method which allows testing the viability of vegetal material based on dehydrogenase activity.It was observed at Petunia hybrida species, that the pollen viability was low - in relevance with the witness represented from the pollen which was not resigned to the nitrogen liquid treatment - between percentage limits of 3.5-8%, in the case when the vegetal material was submersed 30 minutes in liquid nitrogen and 7.5-14.5% 7 days at (-196°C. The submersing of Nicotiana alata var. grandiflora species at 7 days, determined a low viability with 11.53%. The following two studied species Cucurbita and Hosta were proved to be the most resistant at submersing and maintenance in liquid nitrogen. The most affected pollen was Campsis radicans species. At Datura stramonium species was observed 2.59% a low viability of pollen, after 30 minutes of liquid nitrogen treatment, was 19.56%, after 7 days of submersing, the most pollen granules losing completely their viability.

  6. A first telecoupling analysis of multi-species poaching trade in Nepal: When outside demands seek and distribute a local resource in times of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, G. R.; Lama, R. P.; Puri, G.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Asia remains one of the last wilderness resources in the world. It's widely praised for those resources and they are in a global appreciation and demand. Considering open borders, many of them virtually uncontrollable in Asia, and globalization in full swing, precious local resources become available to a global audience without much constraint though. Nepal and its unique biodiversity presents us with one of such cases while hard data remain elusive. Here we present a first telecoupling analysis based on poaching and crime statistics presented in the public print national daily newspapers (Kantipur and Gorkhapatra) in Nepal. This review highlights a few high-profile species (timber: Sal Shorea robusta , Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo, Pine Pinus species; aromatic and medicinal plants: Red Sandal Wood Santalum album, Orchid Orchid species, Paris Paris polyphylla, Jatamashi Nardostachys grandiflora, Kutki Picrorhyza scrophulariiflora and wildlife: Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris, Rhino Rhinoceros unicornis, Pangolin Manis species, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Snow Leopard Panthera uncia) in Nepal, traded out directly and illegally to India and China. We provide a wider perspective regarding sending, receiving and spill-over agents. Arguably, the western world as the spill-over agent set up a globalization framework that allows for items, virtually any items, to be shipped across borders, e.g. done on foot, by car or plane. It further allows to create and satisfy a demand by the receiver (=nations in wider Asia), and a system that circumvents the legal structure in the sending location (=Nepal and its biodiversity hotspots and wilderness). We extend the traditional telecoupling analysis with a flow analysis of money, remittance payments and banking networks. This research describes for the first time such a system which is by now essentially found worldwide, how it operates, what devastating impacts it leaves behind on landscapes, and

  7. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  8. Mechanosensing of stem bending and its interspecific variability in five neotropical rainforest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Catherine; Chevolot, Malia; Lacointe, André; Rowe, Nick; Scotti, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    In rain forests, sapling survival is highly dependent on the regulation of trunk slenderness (height/diameter ratio): shade-intolerant species have to grow in height as fast as possible to reach the canopy but also have to withstand mechanical loadings (wind and their own weight) to avoid buckling. Recent studies suggest that mechanosensing is essential to control tree dimensions and stability-related morphogenesis. Differences in species slenderness have been observed among rainforest trees; the present study thus investigates whether species with different slenderness and growth habits exhibit differences in mechanosensitivity. Recent studies have led to a model of mechanosensing (sum-of-strains model) that predicts a quantitative relationship between the applied sum of longitudinal strains and the plant's responses in the case of a single bending. Saplings of five different neotropical species (Eperua falcata, E. grandiflora, Tachigali melinonii, Symphonia globulifera and Bauhinia guianensis) were subjected to a regimen of controlled mechanical loading phases (bending) alternating with still phases over a period of 2 months. Mechanical loading was controlled in terms of strains and the five species were subjected to the same range of sum of strains. The application of the sum-of-strain model led to a dose-response curve for each species. Dose-response curves were then compared between tested species. The model of mechanosensing (sum-of-strain model) applied in the case of multiple bending as long as the bending frequency was low. A comparison of dose-response curves for each species demonstrated differences in the stimulus threshold, suggesting two groups of responses among the species. Interestingly, the liana species B. guianensis exhibited a higher threshold than other Leguminosae species tested. This study provides a conceptual framework to study variability in plant mechanosensing and demonstrated interspecific variability in mechanosensing.

  9. Water and bed-material quality of selected streams and reservoirs in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, 1988-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, C.J.; Treece, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    greater than all other site categories. Phosphorus was significantly greater than for reservoir sites or headwater streams. Few concentrations of trace metals were greater than the minimum reporting limit, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards were rarely exceeded. Detections, when they occurred, were most frequent for sites below urban areas and wastewater-treatment plant effluents. A small number of samples for analysis of acetanilide, triazine, carbamate, and chlorophenoxy acid pesticides indicate that some of these compounds are generally present in area waters in small concentrations. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides are ubiquitous in the study area in very small concentrations. Trihalomethanes were detected at sites below urban areas and wastewater-treatment plants. Otherwise, volatile organic compounds and semivolatile compounds were generally not detected. Suspended-sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, lead, and zinc loads into Falls Lake, Jordan Lake, University Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, Little River Reservoir, and Lake Michie were calculated. In general, reservoirs act as traps for suspended sediment and constituents associated with suspended sediments. During 1989-94, annual suspended-sediment load to Falls Lake ranged from 29,500 to 88,200 tons. Because Lake Michie trapped from 83 to 93 percent of the suspended sediment delivered by Flat River, Flat River is a minor contributor of suspended sediment to Falls Lake. Yields of suspended sediment from Little River, Little Lick Creek, and Flat River Basins were between 184 and 223 tons per square mile and appear to have increased increased slightly from yields reported in a study for the period 1970-79. Annual suspended-sediment load to Jordan Lake ranged from 271,000 to 622,000 tons from 1989 through 1994 water years. The Haw River contributed more than 75 percent of the tota load to Jordan Lake. The suspended-sediment yields for Haw River and Northeast Cree

  10. "Racial bias in mock juror decision-making: A meta-analytic review of defendant treatment": Correction to Mitchell et al. (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Reports an error in "Racial Bias in Mock Juror Decision-Making: A Meta-Analytic Review of Defendant Treatment" by Tara L. Mitchell, Ryann M. Haw, Jeffrey E. Pfeifer and Christian A. Meissner ( Law and Human Behavior , 2005[Dec], Vol 29[6], 621-637). In the article, all of the numbers in Appendix A were correct, but the signs were reversed for z' in a number of studies, which are listed. Also, in Appendix B, some values were incorrect, some signs were reversed, and some values were missing. The corrected appendix is included. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-00971-001.) Common wisdom seems to suggest that racial bias, defined as disparate treatment of minority defendants, exists in jury decision-making, with Black defendants being treated more harshly by jurors than White defendants. The empirical research, however, is inconsistent--some studies show racial bias while others do not. Two previous meta-analyses have found conflicting results regarding the existence of racial bias in juror decision-making (Mazzella & Feingold, 1994, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1315-1344; Sweeney & Haney, 1992, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 179-195). This research takes a meta-analytic approach to further investigate the inconsistencies within the empirical literature on racial bias in juror decision-making by defining racial bias as disparate treatment of racial out-groups (rather than focusing upon the minority group alone). Our results suggest that a small, yet significant, effect of racial bias in decision-making is present across studies, but that the effect becomes more pronounced when certain moderators are considered. The state of the research will be discussed in light of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Implementación de la filosofía hooponopónica modificada en el programa terapéutico para pacientes que funcionan a nivel neurótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Anselmo Ramos Valverde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se fundamenta la implementación de la filosofía hooponopónica, modificada en el programa terapéutico de los pacientes que funcionan a nivel neurótico en el Hospital de Día de Las Tunas, lo cual responde a una de las líneas de investigación del proyecto institucional FiloArtMed. La filosofía hooponopónica de fundamento idealista, exotérico y negador de la realidad, de orígenes milenarios en Hawái, fue modificada teniendo en cuenta el significado de sus palabras claves: perdóname, gracias, lo siento, te amo, de acuerdo a los preceptos dialécticos materialistas de la Medicina y la Psicología cubanas, insertándola en el programa terapéutico integral del hospital de día para pacientes neuróticos como técnica cognitiva conductual reguladora del comportamiento, rectorizando las terapias a manera de núcleo terapéutico. Se desecharon sus preceptos acientíficos tradicionales y se incluyó, además, el ejercicio de meditación, derivado de esta filosofía, basado en el principio de la neuroplasticidad cerebral, como técnica de relajación y de limpieza mental, fungiendo como la entrada B de la psicoterapia grupal sistémica de regulación emocional

  12. The health of the poor: women living in informal settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, G; Arku, R; Montana, L

    2012-06-01

    A large share of the urban population in developing countries lives in informal settlements or "slums" today. This study investigates the association between slum residence and health among adult Ghanaian women residing in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Health data collected as part of the Women's Health Study of Accra round II (WHSA-II) was combined with data from the Household and Welfare Study of Accra (HAWS) to compare the health of female slum dwellers to the health of female non-slum dwellers living in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Group means were calculated and multivariate linear regression models were estimated to compare eight domains of health as measured by the short-form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Women living in informal settlements were found to display consistently better health. Conditional on all observable characteristics, women living in informal settlements scored higher on all self-reported health outcomes than women living in non-slum areas. The differences appear largest for general health as well as for the physical role functioning domains, and appear smallest for the social role functioning and bodily pain domains. The results presented suggest that slum residence does not have a negative effect on self-reported health among women in Accra. Three factors may contribute to the generally positive association between slum residence and observed outcomes: i) self-selection of individuals with strong health into informal settlements and an accordingly small impact of environmental factors on health ii) self-selection of more driven and ambitious individuals into slum neighborhoods who may have a generally more positive view of their health and iii) the geographic placement of slum neighborhoods in central neighborhoods with relatively easy access to health facilities.

  13. The Honey-lips et The Guarani : les romans de José de Alencar en langue anglaise à la fin du XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina Bezerra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans les dernières décennies du XIXe siècle, deux romans de José de Alencar ont été traduits et obtenu circulation dans des pays de langue anglaise. Iraçéma : the honey-lips, version de Isabel Burton, est apparue en 1886 à Londres, em suscitant la réception critique dans des journaux du Royaume-Uni. The Guarany, traduit par James William Hawes, est sorti de façon découpée en 1893 dans le jornal Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, de San Francisco, aux États-Unis, pays où Alencar a aussi été mentionné par la presse locale. Ce travail se propose d’analyser la réception de ces ouvrages et de José de Alencar dans le Royaume-Uni et les États- Unis. Il a également pour but de vérifier le rôle des traducteurs, éditeurs, critiques et de la presse dans la configuration de l’évaluation de cet écrivain et de ses oeuvres dans ces pays, en considérant, toujours que possible, le rapport de ces passeurs avec la culture brésilienne. La réception critique de Alencar dans ces pays révèle sa bonne évaluation aussi bien que la traduction de ses romans semble avoir répondu à l’intérêt du public étranger à s’illustrer.

  14. From the reactor to waste disposal: the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1988-05-01

    The oxide fuels discharged from LWRs represent the bulk of spent fuels to be managed. For a 1 GWe LWR about 27 tonnes of spent fuels are discharged each year. This makes the total amount of spent LWR oxide fuels discharged worldwide in 1986 close to 4500 tonnes. For France, 750 tonnes of spent oxide fuels were discharged in 1986. Three alternatives are available: final disposal, interim storage, and reprocessing. This paper focusses on reprocessing option. The reprocessing is based on the PUREX Process comprising: 1/ fuel dissolution in nitric acid after shearing the fuel assembly, 2/ separation of uranium and plutonium by TBP extraction. After purification, the major actinides can be reused. A wide gap exists today between the amount of fuels discharged from LWRs and the reprocessing capacities. France has the broadest experience in reprocessing commercial LWR oxide fuels, with more than 2200 tonnes already reprocessed at La Hague. This plant will have a total reprocessing capacity of 1600 t/y in the early nineties. The minor actinides present in the spent fuels, neptunium, americium and curium, will be packaged with the fission products in glass blocks. For a 1 Gwe LWR, about 3.5 m 3 of vitrified HAW and 83 m 3 of MAW will be produced each year. All the wastes produced during reprocessing operations with an alpha activity > 0.1 Ci/t will be stored in deep geological repositories in the future. Studies are underway to determine the ideal geological sites. The solution to this problem is undoubtedly a key to the progress in the production of nuclear electricity

  15. Hábitos alimenticios y migratorios del tiburón blanco Carcharodon carcharias (Lamniformes: Lamnidae de Isla Guadalupe inferidos por el análisis de isótopos estables de δ15N and δ13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jaime-Rivera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La composición isotópica de los tejidos de los depredadores tope en el ambiente marino provee información sobre su ecología trófica y su comportamiento migratorio. Estudios previos han mostrado que el tejido dérmico puede registrar patrones largos de movimiento y caza. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los hábitos tróficos y migratorios de los tiburones blancos de Isla Guadalupe realizando un análisis de isótopos estables de su tejido dérmico. Consideramos un pequeño grupo de muchos posibles taxa que los tiburones pudieron haber comido a lo largo de su migración: pinípedos, calamares y atunes. Estas presas fueron agrupadas en cinco áreas focales: Golfo de California, Isla Guadalupe, Costa de California, SOFA y Hawái. Realizamos un modelo de mezcla bayesiano para estudiar la ecología trófica de este depredador tope. Los promedios del valor isotópico de la dermis del tiburón blanco fueron δ13C (-14.5‰ y δ15N (19.1‰. Los promedios del valor isotópico de la dermis transformada para semejar músculo fueron δ13C (-16.6 ‰ y δ15N (21.2‰. El modelo de mezcla mostró una probable depredación de los tiburones en áreas oceánicas como el SOFA y confirmó la importancia de los pinnípedos como presa principal del tiburón blanco en Isla Guadalupe.

  16. Competitive Traits Are More Important than Stress-Tolerance Traits in a Cadmium-Contaminated Rhizosphere: A Role for Trait Theory in Microbial Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer L; Tang, Caixian; Franks, Ashley E

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how biotic and abiotic factors govern the assembly of rhizosphere-microbial communities is a long-standing goal in microbial ecology. In phytoremediation research, where plants are used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils, a deeper understanding of rhizosphere-microbial ecology is needed to fully exploit the potential of microbial-assisted phytoremediation. This study investigated whether Grime's competitor/stress-tolerator/ruderal (CSR) theory could be used to describe the impact of cadmium (Cd) and the presence of a Cd-accumulating plant, Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes, on the assembly of soil-bacterial communities using Illumina 16S rRNA profiling and the predictive metagenomic-profiling program, PICRUSt. Using predictions based on CSR theory, we hypothesized that Cd and the presence of a rhizosphere would affect community assembly. We predicted that the additional resource availability in the rhizosphere would enrich for competitive life strategists, while the presence of Cd would select for stress-tolerators. Traits identified as competitive followed CSR predictions, discriminating between rhizosphere and bulk-soil communities whilst stress-tolerance traits increased with Cd dose, but only in bulk-soil communities. These findings suggest that a bacterium's competitive attributes are critical to its ability to occupy and proliferate in a Cd-contaminated rhizosphere. Ruderal traits, which relate to community re-colonization potential, were synergistically decreased by the presence of the rhizosphere and Cd dose. Taken together this microcosm study suggests that the CSR theory is broadly applicable to microbial communities. Further work toward developing a simplified and robust strategy for microbial CSR classification will provide an ecologically meaningful framework to interpret community-level changes across a range of biomes.

  17. CASTOR(r) and CONSTOR(r) type transport and storage casks for spent fuel and high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, B.; Sowa, W.

    2002-01-01

    The German company GNB has developed, tested, licensed, fabricated, loaded, transported and stored a large number of casks for spent fuel and high-level waste. CASTOR(r) casks are used at 18 sites on three continents. Spent fuel assemblies of the types PWR, BWR, VVER, RBMK, MTR and THTR as well as vitrified high active waste (HAW) containers are stored in these kinds of casks. More than 600 CASTOR(r) casks have been loaded for long-term storage. The two decades of storage have shown that the basic requirements, which are safe confinement, criticality safety, sufficient shielding and appropriate heat transfer have been fulfilled in each case. There is no indication that problems will arise in the future. Of course, the experience of 20 years has resulted in improvements of the cask design. One basic improvement is GNB's development since the mid 1990s of a sandwich cask design using heavy concrete and steel as basic materials, for economical and technical reasons. This CONSTOR(r) cask concept also fulfils all design criteria for transport and storage given by the IAEA recommendations and national authorities. By May 2002 40 CONSTOR(r) casks had been delivered and 15 had been successfully loaded and stored. In this paper the different types of casks are presented. Experiences gained during the large number of cask loadings and more than 4000 cask-years of storage will be summarised. The presentation of recent and future development shows the optimisation potential of the CASTOR(r) and CONSTOR(r) cask families for safe and economical management of spent fuel. (author)

  18. Un hombre llamado pez: la historia de Duke Kahanamoku, el nadador más rápido del mundo y el padre del surf moderno. [A Man Called Fish: the History of Duke Kahanamoku, the fastest swimmer of the World and the father of modern surfing].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Esparza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Duke Kahanamoku (1890-1968 forma parte del Salón de la Fama de la natación, y también del Salón de la Fama del surf. Es la única persona que tiene ese doble mérito. Las razones no son difíciles de entender: fue el nadador más rápido de entre los humanos hasta que llegó otro que no lo era: Tarzán, o mejor dicho, Johnny Weissmüller; y en cuanto al arte de montar las olas tuvo el mérito de expandir por otros mares y océanos esa actividad milenaria surgida en el Hawái arcaico hasta el punto de ser considerado por casi todos el padre del surf moderno. ¿Cuáles fueron sus éxitos en la natación? ¿Qué había de innovador en su técnica que le hizo el más rápido? ¿Cómo expandió el surf al mismo tiempo que realizaba exhibiciones de natación? ¿De qué energía carismática estaba dotado este hombre, que hasta el propio JFK en su visita a Honolulu en 1962 se saltó absolutamente todo el protocolo entre las autoridades norteamericanas para dirigirse directamente hacia él y saludarle efusivamente? He aquí su historia.

  19. Assessment of color parameters of composite resin shade guides using digital imaging versus colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanel, Kivanc; Caglar, Alper; Özcan, Mutlu; Gulsah, Kamran; Bagis, Bora

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color parameters of resin composite shade guides determined using a colorimeter and digital imaging method. Four composite shade guides, namely: two nanohybrid (Grandio [Voco GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany]; Premise [KerrHawe SA, Bioggio, Switzerland]) and two hybrid (Charisma [Heraeus Kulzer, GmbH & Co. KG, Hanau, Germany]; Filtek Z250 [3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany]) were evaluated. Ten shade tabs were selected (A1, A2, A3, A3,5, A4, B1, B2, B3, C2, C3) from each shade guide. CIE Lab values were obtained using digital imaging and a colorimeter (ShadeEye NCC Dental Chroma Meter, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test. Overall, the mean ΔE values from different composite pairs demonstrated statistically significant differences when evaluated with the colorimeter (p 6.8). For all shade pairs evaluated, the most significant shade mismatches were obtained between Grandio-Filtek Z250 (p = 0.021) and Filtek Z250-Premise (p = 0.01) regarding ΔE mean values, whereas the best shade match was between Grandio-Charisma (p = 0.255) regardless of the measurement method. The best color match (mean ΔE values) was recorded for A1, A2, and A3 shade pairs in both methods. When proper object-camera distance, digital camera settings, and suitable illumination conditions are provided, digital imaging method could be used in the assessment of color parameters. Interchanging use of shade guides from different composite systems should be avoided during color selection. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  20. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women’s health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women’s Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  1. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of some South African medicinal plants against multidrug resistant etiological agents of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Johnson, Mary A; Obi, Chikwelu L; Samuel, Babatunde B; Eloff, Jacobus N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-06-19

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of some plants used in folklore medicine to treat diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The acetone extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild., Aloe arborescens Mill., A. striata Haw., Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz, Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., E. comosa (Houtt.) Wehrh., Hermbstaedtia odorata (Burch. ex Moq.) T.Cooke, Hydnora africana Thunb, Hypoxis latifolia Wight, Pelargonium sidoides DC, Psidium guajava L and Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch.) van der Merwe were screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, multi-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Isangi, S. typhi, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri type 1b and Sh. sonnei phase II. A qualitative phytochemical screening of the plants extracts was by thin layer chromatography. Plants extracts were screened for antibacterial activity using serial dilution microplate technique and bioautography. The TLC fingerprint indicated the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids in the herbs. Most of the tested organisms were sensitive to the crude acetone extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.018-2.5 mg/mℓ. Extracts of A. striata, C. uncinulata, E. autumnalis and P. guajava were more active against enteropathogens. S. aureus and Sh. flexneri were the most sensitive isolates to the crude extracts but of significance is the antibacterial activity of A. arborescens and P. guajava against a confirmed extended spectrum betalactamase positive S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The presence of bioactive compounds and the antibacterial activity of some of the selected herbs against multidrug resistant enteric agents corroborate assertions by traditional healers on their efficacies.

  2. Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dunlap, Tareisha L; Bolton, Judy L

    2016-10-01

    Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger). Pregnant women have also used ginger for relief from nausea. Natural galactagogues for lactating women include Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle); however, rigorous safety and efficacy studies are lacking. Older women suffering menopausal symptoms are increasingly likely to use botanicals, especially since the Women's Health Initiative showed an increased risk for breast cancer associated with traditional hormone therapy. Serotonergic mechanisms similar to antidepressants have been proposed for Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian). Plant extracts with estrogenic activities for menopausal symptom relief include Glycine max (soy), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), Humulus lupulus (hops), Glycyrrhiza species (licorice), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed), Epimedium species (herba Epimedii, horny goat weed), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Some of the estrogenic botanicals have also been shown to have protective effects against osteoporosis. Several of these botanicals could have additional breast cancer preventive effects linked to hormonal, chemical, inflammatory, and/or epigenetic pathways. Finally, although botanicals are perceived as natural safe remedies, it is important for women and

  3. TRUEX partitioning from radioactive ICPP sodium bearing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Southeast Idaho is currently evaluating several treatment technologies applicable to waste streams generated over several decades of-nuclear fuel reprocessing. Liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), generated primarily during decontamination activities, is one of the waste streams of interest. The TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process developed at Argonne National Laboratory is currently being evaluated to separate the actinides from SBW. On a mass basis, the amount of the radioactive species in SBW are low relative to inert matrix components. Thus, the advantage of separations is a dramatic decrease in resulting volumes of high activity waste (HAW) which must be dispositioned. Numerous studies conducted at the ICPP indicate the applicability of the TRUEX process has been demonstrated; however, these studies relied on a simulated SBW surrogate for the real waste. Consequently, a series of batch contacts were performed on samples of radioactive ICPP SBW taken from tank WM-185 to verify that actual waste would behave similarly to the simulated waste. The test results with SBW from tank WM-185 indicate the TRUEX solvent effectively extracts the actinides from the samples of actual waste. Gross alpha radioactivity, attributed predominantly to Pu and Am, was reduced from 3.14E+04 dps/mL to 1.46 dps/mL in three successive batch contacts with fresh TRUEX solvent. This reduction corresponds to a decontamination factor of DF = 20,000 or 99.995% removal of the gross a activity in the feed. The TRUEX solvent also extracted the matrix components Zr, Fe, and Hg to an appreciable extent (D Zr > 10, D Fe ∼ 2, D Hg ∼6). Iron co-extracted with the actinides can be successfully scrubbed from the organic with 0.2 M HNO 3 . Mercury can be selectively partitioned from the actinides with either sodium carbonate or nitric acid (≥ 5 M HNO 3 ) solutions

  4. The INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory: INTEGRAL Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.ubertini@iaps.inaf.it; Bazzano, Angela

    2014-04-01

    The INTEGRAL Space Observatory was selected as the second Medium size mission (M2) of the ESAs Horizon 2000 vision programme. INTEGRAL is the first high angular and spectral resolution hard X-ray and soft γ-ray observatory with a wide band spectral response ranging from 3 keV up to 10 MeV energy band. This capability is supplemented by an unprecedented sensitivity enhanced by the 3 days orbit allowing long and uninterrupted observations over very wide field of view (up to ∼1000 squared degrees to zero response) and sub-ms time resolution. Part of the observatory success is due to its capability to link the high energy sky with the lower energy band. The complementarity and synergy with pointing soft X-ray missions such as XMM-Newton and CHANDRA and more recently with NuSTAR is a strategic feature to link the “thermal” and the “non-thermal” Universe observed at higher energies by space missions such as Fermi and AGILE and ground based TeV observatories sensitive to extremely high energies. INTEGRAL was launched on 17 October 2002 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakistan) aboard a Proton rocket as part of the Russian contribution to the mission, and has successfully spent almost 11 years in orbit. In view of its successful science outcome the ESA Space Programme Committee haw recently approved its scientific operation till the end of 2016. To date the spacecraft, ground segment and scientific payload are in excellent state-of-health, and INTEGRAL is continuing its scientific operations, originally planned for a 5-year technical design and scientific nominal operation plan. This paper summarizes the current INTEGRAL scientific achievements and future prospects, with particular regard to the high energy domain.

  5. Remedial investigation report on waste area grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 4, Appendix C, Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 is part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is located on the United States Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR). The site lies southeast of Haw Ridge in Melton Valley and comprises approximately 32 ha (80 ac) [12 ha (30 ac) of forested area and the balance in grassed fields]. Waste Area Grouping 5 consists of several contaminant source areas for the disposal of low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and fissile wastes (1959 to 1973) as well as inorganic and organic chemical wastes. Wastes were buried in trenches and auger holes. Radionuclides from buried wastes are being transported by shallow groundwater to Melton Branch and White Oak Creek. Different chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) were identified (e.g., cesium-137, strontium-90, radium-226, thorium-228, etc.); other constituents and chemicals, such as vinyl chloride, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, trichloroethene, were also identified as COPCs. Based on the results of this assessment contaminants of concern (COCs) were subsequently identified. The objectives of the WAG 5 Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment (BHHRA) are to document the potential health hazards (i.e., risks) that may result from contaminants on or released from the site and provide information necessary for reaching informed remedial decisions. As part of the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), ORNL and its associated waste/contamination sites fall under the auspices of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). The results of the BHHRA will (1) document and evaluate risks to human health, (2) help determine the need for remedial action, (3) determine chemical concentrations protective of current and future human receptors, and (4) help select and compare various remedial alternatives.

  6. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reorienting health services with capacity building: a case study of the Core Skills in Health Promotion Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, H R; Nove, T

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of the application of a framework for capacity building [Hawe, P., King, L., Noort, M., Jordens, C. and Lloyd, B. (2000) Indicators to Help with Capacity Building in Health Promotion. NSW Health, Sydney] to describe actions aimed at building organizational support for health promotion within an area health service in New South Wales, Australia. The Core Skills in Health Promotion Project (CSHPP) arose from an investigation which reported that participants of a health promotion training course had increased health promotion skills but that they lacked the support to apply their skills in the workplace. The project was action-research based. It investigated and facilitated the implementation of a range of initiatives to support community health staff to apply a more preventive approach in their practice and it contributed to the establishment of new organizational structures for health promotion. An evaluation was undertaken 4 years after the CSHPP was established, and 2 years after it had submitted its final report. Interviews with senior managers, document analysis of written reports, and focus groups with middle managers and service delivery staff were undertaken. Change was achieved in the three dimensions of health infrastructure, program maintenance and problem solving capacity of the organization. It was identified that the critically important elements in achieving the aims of the project-partnership, leadership and commitment-were also key elements of the capacity building framework. This case study provides a practical example of the usefulness of the capacity building framework in orienting health services to be supportive of health promotion.

  8. Bulk simulation for establishing the potential within the planning of load distribution and load shifting of an enhanced number of electrical consumers; Massensimulation zur Potenzialermittlung bei der Lastverlaufsplanung und -verlagerung einer hohen Anzahl elektrischer Verbraucher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunagel, Johannes; Schaefers, Hans; Renz, Wolfgang [Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg (Germany). Center for Demand Side Integration (C4DSI); Wiechmann, Holger [EnBW Vertrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The shift to a renewable electricity production requires a reconstruction of the current electricity supply system. In a system with a big share of fluctuating electricity producers using renewable resources the production as well as the consumption has to be able to react flexibly to the current supply situation. This applies for the grid as a whole and in particular for parts of the distribution grid. In this context there is a demand for a robust, cheap and flexible control system which enables a utility to activate large numbers of consumers in the low power range. In this context the Center for Demand Side Integration at the University of Applied Sciences (HAW) Hamburg has been contracted by Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg (EnBW) (Germany's 3{sup rd} largest utility) to conduct a study on the development of control algorithms to control a large number (several tens of thousands) of decentralized applications. These algorithms were tested in an extensive modeling and simulation approach in which the behavior of the system was analyzed. The focus was on electric heating systems like domestic heat pumps and night storage heating. Thermal models of the applications and of domestic buildings were developed using Matlab/Simulink. Compiled as dynamic-link libraries these models were transferred to the multi-agent framework Jadex. This way it was possible to test the developed control algorithms on a network of up to 100,000 consumers. The mass simulation model was analyzed in terms of potentials, scale effects and reliability of load schedules and load shifting potentials. (orig.)

  9. Laboratory investigations on continuous bio-methanization of energy crops as mono-substrate without supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, Burak

    2009-01-01

    Continuous bio-methanization of an energy crop, namely the beet silage, was investigated in this laboratory-scale work as mono-substrate, using a mesophilic biogas digester controlled by a fuzzy logic control (FLC) technique and without using any supplementing or buffering agent, despite the low pH of the substrate around 3.80. The temperature, pH, redox potential (ORP), daily biogas production and composition of digester biogas were continuously measured online. During the operation, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 24.8 and 9 days, as the organic loading rate (OLR) ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 g L -1 d -1 . The average pH, specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) and volumetric gas production rate (vol. GPR) were determined to be 7.12, 0.31 L g VS -1 d -1 and 1.084 L L -1 d -1 , respectively. The average methane (CH 4 ) content of digester biogas was about 56%. The FLC technique, which was developed at HAW Hamburg for anaerobic conversion of acidic energy crops to methane, determined the daily feeding volume (∼ OLR/HRT) for the biogas digester, depending on the feedback from online pH and methane measurements, and on the calculation of the spec. GPR. The spec. GPR was calculated by the corrected daily biogas production. Through online monitoring of pH, biogas production rate and composition, and by use of the FLC technique, the acidic beet silage could continuously be converted to biogas, without using manure or any other kind of buffering or supplementing agent(s). The lab-scale anaerobic biogas digester performed stable and safe, without encountering any problems of instability, as indicated by an adequate amount of buffering capacity, a VFA content below 0.5 g L -1 and a neutral pH range throughout the study.

  10. Healthy Life Style Beheviours of The Nurses and The Determination of Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Curcani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out descriptively with the aim of determining the variables affecting healthy life style behaviors of the nurses. METHOD: The study was carried on between the date’s may-June 2007 at Ataturk University Yakutiye Research Hospital on Suleyman Demirel Training and Research Hospitals. The research was carried out with 205 nurses. In the collection of the data survey form including personal behaviors of the nurses, and the Health Promotion Life-Style Profile prepared by researchers were used in the direction of literature. RESULTS: Total score of Health Promotion Life-Style Profile of the nurses participating in the research was 121.20±18.30, and sub-group scale scores; health responsibility is 20.88±3.76 and physical activities is 14.04±4.22, and nutritional habit is 19.57±3.80, and mental development is 25.36±4.47, and relations between persons is 24.04±4.07, and stress management is 17.09±3.59. There was statistically significant distinction between total score average and the situation of hawing children, and working duration and education level of the nurses (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: At the end of the result, it was determined that average of Health Promotion Life-Style Profile of the nurses was middle level and that the most common and most noticeable health life style behaviors of the nurses was mental development, and that the least applied health life style behaviors of the nurses was physical activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 487-492

  11. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 4: Appendix C, Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 is part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and is located on the United States Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR). The site lies southeast of Haw Ridge in Melton Valley and comprises approximately 32 ha (80 ac) [12 ha (30 ac) of forested area and the balance in grassed fields]. The western and southern boundaries of WAG are contiguous with the WAG 2 area which includes White Oak Creek and Melton Branch and associated floodplains. Waste Area Grouping 5 consists of several contaminant source areas for the disposal of low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and fissile wastes (1959 to 1973) as well as inorganic and organic chemical wastes. Wastes were buried in trenches and auger holes. Radionuclides from buried wastes are being transported by shallow groundwater to Melton Branch and White Oak Creek. Different chemicals of potential concern (COPCS) were identified (e.g., cesium-137, strontium-90, radium-226, thorium-228, etc.); other constituents and chemicals, such as vinyl chloride, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, trichloroethene, were also identified as COPCS. Based on the results of this assessment contaminants of concern (COCS) were subsequently identified. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) (EPA 1989). First, the data for the different media are evaluated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting COPCS, contaminants to be considered in the BHHRA are identified for each media, and the representative concentrations for these contaminants are determined. Third, an assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of the exposure and toxicity assessments are combined and summarized in the risk characterization section

  12. In vivo diabetic wound healing effect and HPLC–DAD–ESI–MS/MS profiling of the methanol extracts of eight Aloe species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. El Sayed

    Full Text Available Abstract Genus Aloe, Xanthorrhoeaceae, is well distributed all over Egypt, and many species have been used as medicinal plants; mainly reported to prevent cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes. This study attempts to analyze the secondary metabolites in the methanol extract of the leaves of eight Aloe species; A. vera (L. Burm. f., A. arborescens Mill., A. eru A. Berger, A. grandidentata Salm-Dyck, A. perfoliata L., A. brevifolia Mill., A. saponaria Haw. and A. ferox Mill. growing in Egypt. For this aim HPLC–DAD–MS/MS in negative ion mode was used. Although belonging to the same genus, the composition of each species presented different particularities. Seventy one compounds were identified in the investigated Aloe species, of which cis-p-coumaric acid derivaties, 3,4-O-(E caffeoylferuloylquinic acid and caffeoyl quinic acid hexoside were the most common phenolic acids identified. Aloeresin E and isoaloeresin D, 2'-O-feruloylaloesin were the common anthraquinones identified. Lucenin II, vicenin II, and orientin were the common identified flavonoids in the investigated Aloe species. 6'-Malonylnataloin, aloe-emodin-8-O-glucoside, flavone-6,8-di-C-glucosides could be considered as chemotaxonomic markers for the investigated Aloe species. The eight Aloe species had significant anti-inflammatory activity, in addition to the significant acceleration of diabetic wound healing in rats following topical application of the methanol extracts of their leaves. This is the first simultaneous characterization and qualitative determination of multiple phenolic compounds in Aloe species from locally grown cultivars in Egypt using HPLC–DAD–MS/MS, which can be applied to standardize the quality of different Aloe species and the future design of nutraceuticals and cosmetic preparations.

  13. Synthesis of Some O-Substituted Derivatives of Natural 6-hydroxymethyl-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (opuntiol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzadi, T.; Akhtar, M.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, T.; Ashraf, M.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript reports the synthesis of a series of new O-substituted derivatives of opuntiol (1) which is a naturally occurring compound isolated from a plant Opuntia dillenii Haw belonging to family Cactaceae. These derivatives 3a-t, were characterized by FAB-MS, IR, and 1H-NMR and then screened against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase and H-chymotrypsin enzymes. The screening results revealed that 6-(acetyloxy) methyl- 4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (3b) and N-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-((4-methoxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl) methoxy)acetamide (3p) were found to be the inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase while 6-(acetyloxy) methyl- 4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (3b), 6-(ethoxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (3c), 4-methoxy-6-((phenylmethoxy)methyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (3g), 6-((2-bromoethyloxy)methyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one (3j), N-(5-chloro-2-ethoxyphenyl)-2-((4-methoxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy) acetamide (3r), N-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)-2-((4-methoxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy)acetamide (3s) N-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-((4-methoxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy)acetamide (3t) were found to be active against H-chymotrypsin and among these 3s was the good inhibitor of this enzyme having IC50 value of 142.71 +- 0.22 micro moles/L. (author)

  14. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  15. Surface geometry of three packable and one hybrid composite after polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Martin; Bruegger, Hilka; Klimek, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the surface quality of four composite materials after polishing with six different polishing techniques. Eighty specimens were made using three packable composites (Definite/Degussa, SureFil/ Dentsply and Solitaire/Heraeus-Kulzer) and one hybrid composite (Herculite XRV/Kerr). Five specimens of each material were polished using flexible Sof-Lex discs. The remaining 75 specimens of each composite were prepared using three finishing protocols: a single 30 microm diamond (n = 25), two finishing diamonds (30/20 microm; n = 25) and a 30 microm diamond followed by a tungsten carbide finishing bur (n = 25). Final polishing of each of the three finishing groups was accomplished with SuperBuff, Diafix-oral, OneGloss, Astropol and HaWe Composite Polishers (n = 5, each). Surface roughness was evaluated quantitatively by laser-stylus profilometry. Average roughness (R(a)) was calculated; statistical analysis of the data was performed with two-way ANOVA and Scheffé post-hoc tests. The polished surfaces were examined qualitatively by SEM. The results showed significant effects on surface roughness from the different composites (p = 0.011) and polishing systems (p < 0.001). After polishing, the Solitaire surfaces (R(a) = 0.72 microm) were smoother than Definite (R(a) = 0.87 microm) and SureFil (R(a) = 0.89 microm) and significantly smoother than Herculite (R(a) = 0.92 microm; p = 0.011). Three of the polishing methods (SuperBuff, Diafix-oral and Astropol) achieved lower R(a)-values than Sof-Lex discs. The polishing quality of the one-step systems SuperBuff and Diafix-oral was strongly affected by the initial finishing protocol.

  16. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Behxhet; Hajdari, Avni; Krasniqi, Feriz; Hoxha, Esat; Ademi, Hatixhe; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-28

    Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2) to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old) for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations.Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the most quoted wild medicinal taxa recorded in Kosovo often include those

  17. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Behxhet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1 to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2 to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Methods Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Results and Conclusion The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations. Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the

  18. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nilangani N; Javellana, John; Davies, Kevin M; Lewis, David H; Jameson, Paula E; Deroles, Simon C; Calcott, Kate E; Gould, Kevin S; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2012-03-12

    Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenases (DODs), and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA), was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato) and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria) or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora), and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA) was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin) in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction of a DOD and an enzyme capable of converting

  19. Anomalously high activities of 137Cs in soils and vegetation on and near a diabase outcrop in La Sierra de Lema, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Alfonso, J.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of routine soil sampling to determine the 137 Cs background activities country-wide in Venezuela, it was decided to further investigate El Mirador (Lookout) area at the base of the Sierra de Lema mountain range. In April 2003 (A), soil samples were collected at eight sites on and around the edge of the diabase outcrop to confirm that this area had anomalously high 137 Cs activities. In July 2003 (B), not only soil samples were collected again, but also black mat, palm tree leaves and trunks, fruit bushes leaves and its fruit and fern leaves. The 137 Cs content was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy by a comparative method with reference materials. The 137 Cs activity values range from 16.3 to 30.8 Bq x kg -1 in the soil samples collected in July 2003, 20.7-32.1 Bq x kg -1 for the black mat, 26.3-38.4 Bq x kg -1 for the palm leaves, 16.8-31.2 Bq x kg -1 for the palm trunks and 17.6-27.3 Bq x kg -1 for the fruit bush leaves, while, the 137 Cs activity values for the whole fruit were between 23.4 and 30.7 Bq x kg -1 ; but, the value of the 137 Cs activity in the center of the fruit (the edible part) was 51.6 Bq x kg -1 , and the value of the 137 Cs activity for the fern leaves was 51.8 Bq x kg -1 . Thus, most of the 137 Cs activity values determined in the soil, black mat and vegetation samples from El Mirador (Lookout) were considered anomalously high with respect to those found near the equator and in other areas of Venezuela. Only the center of the fruit from the Clusia grandiflora bushes and the fern leaves had high activity ratios, about a factor of three and could be considered as biomonitors that concentrate and retain the 137 Cs. Finally, these anomalously high 137 Cs activities have been attributed not only to the rich organic soils, as sinks, but also due to the affect of the cloud forests. (author)

  20. Methyl halide fluxes from tropical plants under controlled radiation and temperature regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, Emanuel; Yokouchi, Yoko; Saito, Takuya; Nozoe, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    Methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I) contribute significantly to the halogen burden of the atmosphere and have the potential to influence the stratospheric ozone layer through their catalytic effect in the Chapman cycle. As such they have been studied over the years, and many plants and biota have been examined for their potential to act as a source of these gases. One of the potentially largest terrestrial sources identified was tropical vegetation such as tropical ferns and Dipterocarp trees. Most of these studies concentrated on the identification and quantification of such fluxes rather than their characteristics and often the chambers used in these studies were either opaque or only partially transparent to the full solar spectrum. Therefore it is not certain to which degree emissions of methyl halides are innate to the plants and how much they might vary due to radiation or temperature conditions inside the enclosures. In a separate development it had been proposed that UV-radiation could cause live plant materials to be become emitters of methane even under non-anoxic conditions. As methane is chemically very similar to methyl halides and had been proposed to be produced from methyl-groups ubiquitously found in plant cell material there is a relatively good chance that such a production mechanism would also apply to methyl halides. To test whether radiation can affect elevated emissions of methyl halides from plant materials and to distinguish this from temperature effects caused by heat build-up in chambers a set of controlled laboratory chamber enclosures under various radiation and temperature regimes was conducted on four different tropical plant species (Magnolia grandiflora, Cinnamonum camphora, Cyathea lepifera, Angiopteris lygodiifolia), the latter two of which had previously been identified as strong methyl halide emitters. Abscised leaf samples of these species were subjected to radiation treatments such UV-B, UV-A and broad spectrum radiation

  1. Pollination implications of the diverse diet of tropical nectar-feeding bats roosting in an urban cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Voon-Ching; Ramli, Rosli; Bhassu, Subha; Wilson, John-James

    2018-01-01

    Intense landscaping often alters the plant composition in urban areas. Knowing which plant species that pollinators are visiting in urban areas is necessary for understanding how landscaping impacts biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea , is an important pollinator for many plants and is often recorded in human-dominated habitats. Previous studies of the diet of E. spelaea relied on morphological identification of pollen grains found in faeces and on the body of bats and by necessity disregarded other forms of digested plant material present in the faeces (i.e., plant juice and remnants). The main objective of this study was to examine the diet of the nectarivorous bat, E. spelaea, roosting in an urban cave at Batu Caves, Peninsular Malaysia by identifying the plant material present in the faeces of bats using DNA metabarcoding. Faeces were collected under the roost of E. spelaea once a week from December 2015 to March 2016. Plant DNA was extracted from the faeces, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified at ITS2 and rbcL regions and mass sequenced. The resultant plant operational taxonomic units were searched against NCBI GenBank for identification. A total of 55 species of plants were detected from faeces of E. spelaea including Artocarpus heterophyllus, Duabanga grandiflora and Musa spp. which are likely to be important food resources for the cave nectar bat. Many native plant species that had not been reported in previous dietary studies of E. spelaea were detected in this study including Bauhinia strychnoidea and Urophyllum leucophlaeum , suggesting that E. spelaea remains a crucial pollinator for these plants even in highly disturbed habitats. The detection of many introduced plant species in the bat faeces indicates that E. spelaea are exploiting them, particularly Xanthostemon chrysanthus, as food resources in urban area. Commercial food crops were detected from all of the faecal samples, suggesting that E

  2. Efeito de ácido giberélico, GA3, e GA4 + GA7 em pós-colheita de crisântemo e solidago.

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    Denise Laschii

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado no laboratório do Departamento de Horticultura da FCA/ UNESP, no período de 14 de novembro a 3 de dezembro de 1998. As hastes de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev e solidago (Solidago canadensis L. foram selecionadas e colocadas em solução de "pulsing", por 24 horas, visando avaliar as respostas aos seguintes tratamentos: Água (testemunha, GA3 10 mg.L-1 (Pro-Gibb; GA3 20 mg.L-I; GA3 30 mg.L-I; GA4 + GA7 10 mg.L-1 (Pro-Vibe, GA4 + GA7 20 mg.L-1 e GA4 + GA7 30 mg.L-1. Após os tratamentos de "pulsing", as hastes foram colocadas em recipientes contendo 1.000 mL de água, que foi trocada a cada dois dias. Avaliou-se o número de dias até o descarte, tanto para hastes de solidago quanto para crisântemo, para cada tratamento testado. Avaliou--se também a qualidade das folhas de solidago conforme o seguinte critério: índice de qualidade (IQ = 3 (folhas verdes, IQ = 2 (folhas em início de amarelecimento e IQ = 1 (folhas amarelas ou queimadas. Pelos resultados concluiu-se que: hastes cortadas de solidago e crisântemo diferiram quanto às respostas aos tratamentos pós-colheita, em relação ao tipo de giberelina utilizada; GA4 + GA7 10 mg.L-1 foi eficiente na manutenção da qualidade de hastes cortadas de solidago, e GA3 nas concentrações utilizadas no experimento apresentaram efeito deletério nas folhas de solidago; GA3 10 e 20 mg.L-1 foram mais eficientes na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemo.

  3. Plantas medicinais referenciadas por raizeiros no município de Jataí, estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. SOUZA

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho objetivou pesquisar as plantas medicinais referenciadas por raizeiros do município de Jataí-GO, evidenciando o Valor de Uso Reportado (VUR e a conexão com os níveis filogenéticos atuais. Com cerca de 200 anos de história, Jataí localiza-se no Planalto Central do Brasil, Sudoeste de Goiás (17°52’53’’S e 51°42’52’’W, tendo atualmente, como principal fonte de renda o agronegócio. Para a seleção dos raizeiros e coleta dos dados aplicou-se o método bola de neve e a técnica de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Determinou-se a etnoespécie, parte usada, uso, modo de preparo, sintomas / doenças relacionando aos sistemas corporais. Foram reportadas 515 referências etnobotânicas para 112 etnoespécies principalmente dos clados Fabídeas, Lamídeas, e Campanulídeas. Sobressaíram as etnoespécies Pé-de-perdiz (Croton antisyphilliticus, Sangra-dágua (C. urucurana, Pau-terra-de-folha-larga (Qualea grandiflora, Erva-de-Santa Maria (Chenopodium album, Amaro-leite (Operculina alata, Algodãozinho-do-campo (Cochlospermum regium, Cavalinha (Equisetum hiemale e Jaborandi (Piper aduncum, com VUR maior que 10. Os sistemas corporais mais importantes com relação ao número de etnoespécies relatadas foram respiratório, digestivo, circulatório e tegumentar. As etnoespécies mais versáteis em uso nos sistemas corporais foram Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii, Pé-de-perdiz (Croton antisyphiliticus, Cavalinha (Equisetum hiemale, Alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis e Fruta-de-lobo (Solanum paniculatum. A prática da medicina tradicional em Jataí evidencia a conexão entre a escolha de plantas e os níveis filogenéticos derivados. Algumas destas etnoespécies estão na listagem de plantas medicinais que o Ministério da Saúde do Brasil escolheu para a realização de monografias, fato que fortalece o valor do conhecimento do uso da flora nas práticas da medicina tradicional.

  4. Pollination implications of the diverse diet of tropical nectar-feeding bats roosting in an urban cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voon-Ching Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Intense landscaping often alters the plant composition in urban areas. Knowing which plant species that pollinators are visiting in urban areas is necessary for understanding how landscaping impacts biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea, is an important pollinator for many plants and is often recorded in human-dominated habitats. Previous studies of the diet of E. spelaea relied on morphological identification of pollen grains found in faeces and on the body of bats and by necessity disregarded other forms of digested plant material present in the faeces (i.e., plant juice and remnants. The main objective of this study was to examine the diet of the nectarivorous bat, E. spelaea, roosting in an urban cave at Batu Caves, Peninsular Malaysia by identifying the plant material present in the faeces of bats using DNA metabarcoding. Methods Faeces were collected under the roost of E. spelaea once a week from December 2015 to March 2016. Plant DNA was extracted from the faeces, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplified at ITS2 and rbcL regions and mass sequenced. The resultant plant operational taxonomic units were searched against NCBI GenBank for identification. Results A total of 55 species of plants were detected from faeces of E. spelaea including Artocarpus heterophyllus, Duabanga grandiflora and Musa spp. which are likely to be important food resources for the cave nectar bat. Discussion Many native plant species that had not been reported in previous dietary studies of E. spelaea were detected in this study including Bauhinia strychnoidea and Urophyllum leucophlaeum, suggesting that E. spelaea remains a crucial pollinator for these plants even in highly disturbed habitats. The detection of many introduced plant species in the bat faeces indicates that E. spelaea are exploiting them, particularly Xanthostemon chrysanthus, as food resources in urban area. Commercial food crops were

  5. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Faruque

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF, Use Value (UV, Frequency of Citation (FC, Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC and Relative Importance Index (RI. The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI. A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28% whereas pastes (63.03% were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species and the Lamiaceae (12 species. The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43, Zingiber officinale (0.41, Congea tomentosa (0.40, Matricaria chamomilla (0.33 and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28. The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25. The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83. Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  6. ombrófila mista montana no período entre 1979 e 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Budant Schaaf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The floristic and structure alterations were studied in an Ombrophyllous Mixed Forest located in São João do Triunfo (Paraná State - Brazil. Nine plots of 1ha, first evaluated in 1979, were recovered and, measured in 2000. In 1979, all the trees with dbh ≥ 20 cm were identified and tagged, and they had their commercial height and diameter measured. In 2000, based on the same criteria described before, the trees which had not been counted in 1979 were considered as ingrowth, and the missing ones were considered mortality. In 1979, 2133 individuals, 51 species and 29 families were found and in the 2000 survey, 2202 individuals, 55 species and 31 families ware journal. In both surveys, the families Araucariaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae and Canellaceae were the most represented in terms of quantity of individuals. Although in both times more than 50 species were counted, in 1979 only 7 species (Araucaria angustifolia, Ilex dumosa, Matayba elaeagnoides, Ocotea porous, Capsicodendron dinisii, Nectandra grandiflora and Campomanesia xanthocarpa represented 80.4% of the individuals and, in 2000, the same 7 species plus Ocotea corymbosa covered 80.9% of the total number of individuals. Hovenia dulcis, exotic specie, based on the number of adult and regeneration individuals, became to be seen as a threat to the autocnons species. All the structural indicators which were analyzed showed that the community has become more mature during the studied period and that the Araucaria angustifolia increased its dominance. There was a sensible increase of the occupancy grade, indicated by the absolutely dominance that changes from 23.52 m2/ha in 1979, to 28.53 m2/ha, in 2000, an increase of 21.3%. These results indicate that this community is still in development, and has not yet found its equilibrium. It also demonstrates that the Araucaria dominance increased in this period, suggesting that this profile can even increase future in the

  7. Medicinal plants of the genus Anthocleista--A review of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Gabriel O; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Onyeneke, Chukwu E; Rauf, Khalid

    2015-12-04

    The genus Anthocleista of the Gentianaceae family contains 14 species of trees and shrub-like plants distributed in tropical Africa, in Madagascar and on the Comoros. Traditionally, they are commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, malaria, typhoid fever, obesity, diarrhea, dysentery, hyperprolactinemia, abdominal pain, ulcer, jaundice, asthma, hemorrhoids, hernia, cancer, wounds, chest pains, inflammations, rheumatism, STDs, infertility and skin diseases. They serve as an anthelmintic, laxative, diuretic and contraceptive. This review aims to provide for the first time a repository of ethnopharmacological information while critically evaluating the relation between the traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Anthocleista species so as to unveil opportunities for future research. A search for relevant information on Anthocleista species was performed on scientific databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Web of Science, Scopus, PubChem and other web sources such as The Plant List, Kew Botanical Garden and PROTA) and books, PhD and MSc dissertations for un-published resources. Out of the 14 species of Anthocleista, 6 have been reported in literature to be widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The six species include: A. djalonensis, A. vogelii, A. nobilis, A. grandiflora, A. schweinfurthii, and A. liebrechtsiana. The chemical compounds isolated from Anthocleista species fall into the class of phytochemicals such as secoiridoids, nor-secoiridoids, xanthones, phytosterols, triterpenes, alkaloids, and others of which majority of the compounds were isolated from A. djalonensis and A. vogelii. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies on the crude extracts, fractions and few isolated compounds of Anthocleista species showed antidiabetic, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, hypotensive, spasmogenic, anti-obesity, antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti

  8. Molecular phylogenetics, historical biogeography, and chromosome number evolution of Portulaca (Portulacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Gilberto; Columbus, J Travis

    2012-04-01

    Portulaca is the only genus in Portulacaceae and has ca. 100 species distributed worldwide, mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Molecular data place the genus as one of the closest relatives of Cactaceae, but phylogenetic relationships within Portulaca are barely known. This study samples 59 species of Portulaca, 10 infraspecific taxa, and three cultivars, including multiple samples of widespread species. The sampled taxa represent all subgenera in the classifications of von Poellnitz (1934), Legrand (1958), and Geesink (1969) and come from around the world. Nuclear ITS and chloroplast ndhF, trnT-psbD intergenic spacer, and ndhA intron DNA sequences were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to produce a hypothesis of relationships within Portulaca. Divergence times were estimated using Hawaiian endemics for calibration, and biogeographical patterns were examined using a Bayes-DIVA approach. In addition, the evolution of chromosome numbers in the genus was investigated using probabilistic models. The analyses strongly support the monophyly of Portulaca, with an age of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of 23 Myr. Within Portulaca are two major lineages: the OL clade (comprising opposite-leaved species) distributed in Africa, Asia, and Australia, and the AL clade (comprising alternate to subopposite-leaved species), which is more widespread and originated in the New World. Sedopsis, a genus sometimes recognized as distinct from Portulaca based on a long corolla tube, is nested within the OL clade and does not merit taxonomic recognition. Samples of Portulaca grandiflora, Portulaca halimoides, and Portulaca oleracea were found to be non-monophyletic. It is hypothesized that the ancestral distribution area of Portulaca included southern hemisphere continents and Asia. The OL clade remained restricted to the Old World (except Portulaca quadrifida, a pantropical weed), while the AL clade, with a South American origin, was able to disperse multiple

  9. Influencia de diferentes especies de fungo micorrizico arbuscular no desenvolvimento do crisântemo Influence of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chrysanthemum growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento e florescimento do crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora na presença de micorriza arbuscular, foi instalado, em casa de vegetação, um experimento, empregando-se os fungos Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama. Utilizou-se terra roxa estruturada, da Série Luiz de Queiroz, esterilizada (por autoclavagem e não esterilizada. No florescimento, colheram-se as plantas e determinaram-se a altura, a matéria seca da parte aérea, a matéria fresca da raiz, o teor de P e K na parte aérea, a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos do fungo micorrízico. O desenvolvimento e o florescimento foram favorecidos pela inoculação de G. leptotichum e G.macrocarpum, quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo esterilizado, superando o efeito dos fungos micorrízicos nativos. Entretanto, no solo não esterilizado, a inoculação dessas espécies de fungo não promoveu aumento no desenvolvimento da planta.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to verify the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. Rooted plants were inoculated with Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama or non-inoculated. Plants were grown in a autoclave sterilized, and non-sterilized soil of the type "Terra Roxa Estruturada". At the flowering stage, plants were harvested and measured for plant height, shoot dry matter, root fresh matter, shoot P and K content, mycorrhizal root colonization and number of mycorrhizal fungi spores. Plants colonized with G.leptotichum and G. macrocarpum presented higher growth and flowering than control plants, in sterilized soil, overcoming the effect of native mycorrhizal fungi. However, there was no effect of introduced mycorrhizal fungi on non-sterilized soil.

  10. Ecological status of high altitude medicinal plants and their sustainability: Lingshi, Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey; Dorji, Kinley

    2016-10-11

    Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks. Out of the 16 priority species identified by the expert group, collectors' perception on ecological status of the priority species differed from survey findings. Chrysosplenium nudicaule (clumps) ranked as most threatened species followed by Corydalis dubia, and Meconopsis simplicifolia. Onosma hookeri, Corydalis crispa and Delphinium glaciale were some of the species ranked as threatened species followed by Halenia elliptica (not in priority list). Percent relative abundance showed irregular pattern of species distribution. High species evenness was recorded among Nardostachys grandiflora, Chrysosplenium nudicaule, Saussurea gossypiphora and Aconitum orochryseum with average species density of 8 plant m -2 . Rhodiola crenulata, and Dactylorhiza hatagirea followed by Meconopsis horridula and Meconopsis simplicifolia were ranked as most threatened species with average species density of 0.4, 0.4, 5.6 and 6.0 plant m -2 , respectively. The most abundant (common) species was Onosma hookeri (plant m -2 ). Species composition and density also differed with vegetation, altitude, slope and its aspects. Priority species identified by expert group were found vulnerable and patchy in distribution. Survey results and collectors' perceptions tally to an extent. Some of the species (Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Rhodiola crenulata

  11. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Mohammad O.; Uddin, Shaikh B.; Barlow, James W.; Hu, Sheng; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Importance Index (RI). The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI). A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28%) whereas pastes (63.03%) were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species) and the Lamiaceae (12 species). The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43), Zingiber officinale (0.41), Congea tomentosa (0.40), Matricaria chamomilla (0.33) and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28). The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25). The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83). Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  12. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    -natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora. Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.

  13. Quantitative Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Communities in the Bandarban District of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Mohammad O; Uddin, Shaikh B; Barlow, James W; Hu, Sheng; Dong, Shuang; Cai, Qian; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2018-01-01

    This study documents information on significant ethnomedicinal plants, which was collected from the traditional healers of three indigenous communities of Bangladesh. The documented data were quantitatively analyzed for the first time in this area. The information was obtained through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. The benefits, importance and coverage of ethnomedicine were expressed through several quantitative indices including Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Importance Index (RI). The agreement of homogeneity between the present and previous studies and among the indigenous communities was evaluated using the Jaccard Index (JI). A total of 159 ethnomedicinal plant species, which were distributed in 132 genera under 62 families, were documented from 174 informants. Of these, 128 plants were native and 31 were exotic. Of a majority of documented species, herbs and leaves were the most utilized plant parts for the preparation of ethnomedicines (45.28%) whereas pastes (63.03%) were the most popular formulations. Among the documented species, the dominant families were the Asteraceae (14 species) and the Lamiaceae (12 species). The highest ICF value was 0.77 for digestive system disorders. Based on UVs, the five most commonly used ethnomedicinal plant species in the study area were Duabanga grandiflora (0.43), Zingiber officinale (0.41), Congea tomentosa (0.40), Matricaria chamomilla (0.33) and Engelhardtia spicata (0.28). The highest RFC was recorded for Rauvolfia serpentina (0.25). The highest RI value was calculated for both Scoparia dulcis and Leucas aspera (0.83). Importantly, 16 species were reported with new therapeutic uses and to our knowledge, 7 species described herein have never been ethnobotanically and pharmacologically studied, viz: Agastache urticifolia, Asarum cordifolium, C. tomentosa, E. spicata, Hypserpa nitida, Merremia vitifolia and

  14. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  15. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes

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    Cho YY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Yeon Cho,1 Hyeon-Uk Jeong,1 Jeong-Han Kim,2 Hye Suk Lee1 1College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Korea; 2Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT, and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1, were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 µM increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 µM did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1 in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. Keywords: honokiol, human hepatocytes, drug interactions, cytochrome P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

  16. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA

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    Harris Nilangani N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. Results The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenases (DODs, and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA, was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora, and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. Conclusions The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction

  17. Dinâmica da estrutura da comunidade de lauráceas no período 1995-2004 em uma floresta de araucária no sul do estado do Paraná, Brasil.

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    Geise de Góes Canalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies da família Lauraceae estão entre as mais comuns na Floresta de Araucária. Elas possuem bom potencial silvicultural e econômico, mas são pouco estudadas. Este trabalho trata das mudanças estruturais no período 1995-2004 de oito espécies da família Lauraceae ocorrentes em um fragmento florestal localizado no centro-sul do estado do Paraná. As espécies foram analisadas pelos indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos: IVI, abundância, área basal, volume, distribuição diamétrica, distribuição espacial, recrutamento, mortalidade e incrementos. Os resultados demonstraram que, em 10 anos de dinâmica estrutural, a família Lauraceae, de maneira geral, manteve inalterada sua posição de importância na comunidade. Observou-se que as Lauráceas passam por aumento de densidade, porque o recrutamento está sendo maior que a mortalidade. Já o crescimento das Lauráceas tem sido muito baixo, tanto em diâmetro como em área basal e volume. Embora a maior parte das Lauráceas apresente um padrão dinâmico lento, algumas espécies passam por um intenso processo de mudanças, como é o caso da canela-amarela (Nectandra grandiflora Nees & Mart. ex Nees, que aumentou a maioria dos seus indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos, constituindo-se na espécie de maior destaque entre as analisadas. Essa espécie apresenta recrutamento muito superior à mortalidade, distribuição diamétrica decrescente e ampla distribuição espacial. Esses elementos estão tornando essa espécie em uma das três mais importantes em toda a comunidade, juntamente com a araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze e a erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.. Concluiu-se que, em 10 anos, já é possível distinguir processos ecológicos importantes que podem servir como indicativos em Planos de Manejo para Florestas semelhantes de Araucária.

  18. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  19. Estimación de huella de carbono del sistema de producción de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán J. Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El vínculo entre el cambio climático actual y la producción agrícola ha dispuesto que la huella de carbono sea usada como indicador mundial para evaluar la cantidad de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI emitidos por unidad de producto. El sector azucarero en Colombia es privilegiado gracias a los climas de sus regiones, y al contrario de lo que sucede en el resto del mundo con excepciónde Hawái y el norte de Perú, se puede sembrar y cosechar caña durante todos los meses del año, no obstante es un sistema productivo netamente emisor de GEI. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la huella de carbono producida por la caña de azúcar en el municipio de Palmira, Valle del Cauca, a partir de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero durante el proceso de cultivo de caña de azúcar y la molienda. El uso de combustibles fósiles, químicos y fertilizantes orgánicos y los datos de biomasa de caña de azúcar durante el cultivo se obtuvieron a partir de estudios de campo, cuestionarios y entrevistas. Los resultados muestran que la producción de azúcar tiene una huella de carbono que emite aproximadamente 947 ± 1381 kg CO2e/ha/ciclo. Los fertilizantes nitrogenados fueron los que más aportaron a las emisiones de GEI, en un 73% del total, en contraste con el uso de combustibles fósiles y energía, cuya contribución está en 17% y 10%, respectivamente.

  20. Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Expander Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Flap after Skin Sparing Mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, H.M.; Shallan, M.A.; Fouad, F.A.; Elsayed, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The latissimus dorsi my-ocutaneous flap (LDMF) used to. be the standard practice far breast reconstruction; haw ever, with the increased use of tissue expanders and the development of the transverse rectus-abdomen's myocutaneaus flap for autologous tissue breast reconstruction, its use has decreased. To. reassess the role of the LDMF in breast reconstruction, a prospective study was performed to. evaluate women who. had a skin sparing mastectomy followed by immediate reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi flap and tissue expander implant. Patients and Methods: Twenty-five women with early breast cancer underwent immediate latissimus dorsi my-ocutaneaus flaps with tissue expander after skin sparing mastectamy. The ancalagic safety at skin sparing mastectamy, the pastaperative aesthetic results and camplicatians were evaluated. Results: Between May 2003 and April 2005, 25 can-secutive wamen diagnased with breast cancer underwent skin sparing mas tecta my and expander assisted immediate latissimus darsi breast recanstructian. Their median age was 42 years, ranging fram 34 to 48 years. The pracedure duratian ranged fram 2.5 to. 6 haurs, with a median at 3.9 haurs, hawever, expansian was campleted by 4 manths (range I to. 8 manths). Patients were discharged 7 days after surgery with a range af 5 to. 15 days. The camplicatian rate was law, manifesting with skin flap necrosis in 12%, waund infectian in 4%, and part site extrusian in 4%. There was no. flap lass. With the exceptian af serama farmatian, the danar site marbidity was law (seroma 40%, hematama 4%, back pain 8%, and limited arm mavement 4%). No. lacal recurrence was recorded. The aesthetic result af surgery was rated as excellent in 20%, gaad in 60%, fair in 24%, and paar in 4% af cases. The duratian af past-aperative fallaw up was 14.7 manths, ranging fram 6 to 24 manths. Conclusions: Skin sparing mastectamy and immediate breast recanstructian is an ancalagically safe technique. The use

  1. Diversidade genética intra e interespecífica de pitaya com base nas características físico-químicas de frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Andréa de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade genética intra e interespecífica de 21 acessos de duas espécies de pitaya, Hylocereus undatus (Haw Britton & Rose e Selenicereus setaceus Salm-Dyck. A. Bereger ex Werderm., com base nas características físico-químicas dos frutos. Foram avaliadas as características: comprimento, diâmetro, sólidos solúveis, massa total da casca e da polpa dos frutos. Com base na média das características físico-químicas de cada acesso, foram calculados índices de distância genética entre cada par de acessos com base na distância euclidiana média padronizada. A partir da matriz de distâncias genéticas, realizaram-se análises de agrupamento por meio de dendograma e dispersão gráfica baseada em escalas multidimensionais. As variáveis analisadas apresentaram diferentes contribuições relativas para a diversidade genética. O diâmetro do fruto foi a variável que teve maior contribuição no índice de diversidade genética (27,45 %, seguido pela massa total do fruto (25,43 % e pela massa da polpa do fruto (24,67 %. As distâncias genéticas entre os 21 acessos de pitaya variaram entre 2,2 e 540,1. A análise de agrupamento permitiu subdividir os 21 acessos em dois grupos de similaridade genética, Hylocereus e Selenicereus, a uma distância genética relativa de 100. As características físico-químicas dos frutos evidenciaram alta diversidade genética entre os acessos das espécies H. undatus e S. setaceus.

  2. Partitioning of actinides from high active waste solution of Purex origin counter-current extraction studies using TBP and CMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalkrishnan, V.; Wattal, P.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Murali, M.S.; Mathur, J.N.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2000-10-01

    A solvent extraction scheme has been formulated for the partitioning of actinides from Purex high level waste (HLW). The scheme is based on the results of earlier studies carried out with simulated waste solutions. In the present studies, the scheme was tested with high active waste (HAW) solution generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel from research reactors using laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The proposed process involved two-step extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamolylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO). In the first step, uranium, neptunium and plutonium were removed from the waste using TBP as extractant. The minor actinides left in the raffinate were extracted using a mixture of CMPO and TBP in the second step. The results showed complete extraction of actinides from the waste solution. Plutonium and neptunium extracted in TBP, were stripped together using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid in 2 M nitric acid medium, leaving uranium in the organic phase. Uranium can later be stripped using dilute nitric acid. Actinides extracted in CMPO-TBP phase were stripped using a mixture of formic acid, hydrazine, hydrate and citric acid. The stripping was quantitative in both the stripping runs. An additional extraction step for the preferential recovery of uranium, neptunium and plutonium from the waste solution using TBP is a modification over the conventional Truex process. Selective stripping of neptunium and plutonium from large quantities of uranium. The extraction of uranium using TBP eliminates the possibility of third phase and undesired loading of CMPO-TBP in the following step. Use of citrate-containing strippant allows the recovery of actinides from loaded CMPO-TBP mixture without causing any reflux of the actinides during stripping. The process has been developed with due consideration to minimising the generation of secondary wastes. The proposed strippants are effective even in presence of

  3. Significant association between renal function and area of amyloid deposition in kidney biopsy specimens in both AA amyloidosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis and AL amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Hasegawa, Eriko; Wakamatsu, Ayako; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Wada, Yoko; Ito, Yumi; Imai, Naofumi; Ueno, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    2017-06-01

    The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis, which results in proteinuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. The clinical manifestations and precursor proteins of amyloid A (AA) and light-chain (AL) amyloidosis are different, and the renal damage due to amyloid deposition also seems to differ. The purpose of this study was to clarify haw the difference in clinical features between AA and AL amyloidosis are explained by the difference in the amount and distribution of amyloid deposition in the renal tissues. A total of 119 patients participated: 58 patients with an established diagnosis of AA amyloidosis (AA group) and 61 with AL amyloidosis (AL group). We retrospectively investigated the correlation between clinical data, pathological manifestations, and the area occupied by amyloid in renal biopsy specimens. In most of the renal specimens the percentage area occupied by amyloid was less than 10%. For statistical analyses, the percentage area of amyloid deposition was transformed to a common logarithmic value (Log 10 %amyloid). The results of sex-, age-, and Log 10 %amyloid-adjusted analyses showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher in the AA group. In terms of renal function parameters, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (Ccr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) indicated significant renal impairment in the AA group, whereas urinary protein indicated significant renal impairment in the AL group. Pathological examinations revealed amyloid was predominantly deposited at glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and easily transferred to the mesangial area in the AA group, and it was predominantly deposited at in the AL group. The degree of amyloid deposition in the glomerular capillary was significantly more severe in AL group. The frequency of amyloid deposits in extraglomerular mesangium was not significantly different between the two groups, but in AA group, the degree amyloid deposition was significantly more severe, and

  4. TREATMENT OF DOGS WITH ORAL MELANOMA RECURRENCE BY DIODE LASER EXCISION

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    Cornel Igna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of oral melanomas utilizes the surgical excision-resection (Culp et al., 2013 and/or radiation therapy (Proulx et al., 2003, chemotherapy with carboplatin (Brockley et al., 2013, immunotherapy (Ottnod et al., 2013. Treatment based on surgical excision is usually palliative (Freeman et al., 2003. Aims: In the literature even though there are data concerning the prognosis of oral melanomas in dogs after surgery, are missing data after laser excision. Taking into account these findings we wished to present our experience regarding three cases of oral melanoma recurrence and immediate and long term laser surgery results. Materials and Methods: The casuistry consisted of three dogs with recurrent oral malignant melanomas, subjected to surgical reintervention. The initial diagnosis was melanotic melanoma in stage I or II. The animals were brought back at different time intervals from originally excision with electric scalpel. Before reintervention, dogs were subjected to clinical, paraclinical exam and biopsy. Excision of the tumor mass was made with an optical fiber hawing a diameter of 400µm, at a power of 10W and a wavelength of 940 nm with a diode laser. At 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months after laser reintervention the dogs were reexamined. Results: Average time in which appeared canine oral melanoma relapse was 58.6 days. After reexamination all cases where reinstatement in stage I. Operators times were held in conditions of comfort with wide access, minimum bleeding, effective hemostasis. After surgery at 24 hours on the intervention place a slight local redness, without swelling and bleeding was observed. Palpation revealed initially also a slight local sensitivity which completely disappeared in 48 hours. There were no grasping and chewing disturbances. Macroscopic healing occurred in 7-9 days. At last recheck performed at 12 months there were no evidences of tumour recurrence or metastasis. Conclusion: Diode laser excision

  5. Preliminary Survey on TRY Forest Traits and Growth Index Relations - New Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubenova, Mariyana; Kattge, Jens; van Bodegom, Peter; Chikalanov, Alexandre; Popova, Silvia; Zlateva, Plamena; Peteva, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Forest ecosystems provide critical ecosystem goods and services, including food, fodder, water, shelter, nutrient cycling, and cultural and recreational value. Forests also store carbon, provide habitat for a wide range of species and help alleviate land degradation and desertification. Thus they have a potentially significant role to play in climate change adaptation planning through maintaining ecosystem services and providing livelihood options. Therefore the study of forest traits is such an important issue not just for individual countries but for the planet as a whole. We need to know what functional relations between forest traits exactly can express TRY data base and haw it will be significant for the global modeling and IPBES. The study of the biodiversity characteristics at all levels and functional links between them is extremely important for the selection of key indicators for assessing biodiversity and ecosystem services for sustainable natural capital control. By comparing the available information in tree data bases: TRY, ITR (International Tree Ring) and SP-PAM the 42 tree species are selected for the traits analyses. The dependence between location characteristics (latitude, longitude, altitude, annual precipitation, annual temperature and soil type) and forest traits (specific leaf area, leaf weight ratio, wood density and growth index) is studied by by multiply regression analyses (RDA) using the statistical software package Canoco 4.5. The Pearson correlation coefficient (measure of linear correlation), Kendal rank correlation coefficient (non parametric measure of statistical dependence) and Spearman correlation coefficient (monotonic function relationship between two variables) are calculated for each pair of variables (indexes) and species. After analysis of above mentioned correlation coefficients the dimensional linear regression models, multidimensional linear and nonlinear regression models and multidimensional neural networks models are

  6. Assessment of intake and nutritional status of vitamin b1, b2, and b6 in men and women with different physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, M; Hübner-Wozniak, E; Lewandowska, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to

  7. Análise química de folhas de cactáceas do gênero Pereskia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Soares Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cactáceas do gênero Pereskia são utilizadas na alimentação como hortaliça, ainda considerada não convencional. Neste contexto, faz-se necessário estudar as características nutricionais das plantas através de análises químicas visando possível consumo humano. Com o objetivo de caracterizá-las, determinou-se a composição centesimal, teor de fenólicos e nitrato nas três espécies de cactáceas do gênero Pereskia, em três tratamentos pós-colheita (seca in natura, liofilizada e cozida e seca, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, resultando em trinta e seis amostras analisadas. Foram utilizadas quatro plantas-matrizes para cada espécie, cultivadas em vasos no mesmo viveiro. O teor de fenólicos foi determinado com uso do reagente Folin-Ciocalteau, a partir de extrato etanólico; o teor de nitrato foi determinado após extração com água, por espectrofotometria. A análise da composição centesimal foi realizada de acordo com métodos do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. O teor de fenólicos foi influenciado tanto pela espécie quanto pelo tratamento pós-colheita, apresentando-se maior nas folhas liofilizadas. O teor de nitrato também foi influenciado pela espécie e pelo tratamento pós-colheita, apresentando-se maior nas folhas secas in natura e na espécie Pereskia grandifolia Haw. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as espécies em nenhum dos nutrientes avaliados pela composição centesimal. Em relação ao processamento houve diferença significativa somente no teor de cinzas, que foi maior nas plantas secas in natura. Os nutrientes avaliados apresentaram resultados próximos aos já determinados para a espécie mais consumida como alimento, a Pereskia aculeata Miller.

  8. Determination of flow losses in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington, North Carolina, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. Curtis; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2013-01-01

    During 2008-2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation in cooperation with the Triangle J Council of Governments Cape Fear River Flow Study Committee and the North Carolina Division of Water Resources to collect hydrologic data in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington in central North Carolina to help determine if suspected flow losses occur in the reach. Flow loss analyses were completed by summing the daily flow releases at Jordan Lake Dam with the daily discharges at Deep River at Moncure and Buckhorn Creek near Corinth, then subtracting these values from the daily discharges at Cape Fear River at Lillington. Examination of long-term records revealed that during 10,227 days of the 1983-2010 water years, 408 days (4.0 percent) had flow loss when conditions were relatively steady with respect to the previous day's records. The flow loss that occurred on these 40 days ranged from 0.49 to 2,150 cubic feet per second with a median flow loss of 37.2 cubic feet per second. The months with the highest number of days with flow losses were June (16. percent), September (16.9 percent), and October (19.4 percent). A series of synoptic discharge measurements made on six separate days in 2009 provided "snapshots" of overall flow conditions along the study reach. The largest water diversion is just downstream from the confluence of the Haw and Deep Rivers, and discharges substantially decrease in the main stem downstream from the intake point. Downstream from Buckhorn Dam, minimal gain or loss between the dam and Raven Rock State Park was noted. Analyses of discharge measurements and ratings for two streamgages-one at Deep River at Moncure and the other at Cape Fear River at Lillington-were completed to address the accuracy of the relation between stage and discharge at these sites. The ratings analyses did not indicate a particular time during the 1982-2011 water years in which a consistent bias occurred in the

  9. Is it possible to design universal multi-phase flow analyzer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov Kolev, N.

    2005-01-01

    Transient 3D-multiphase flows consisting of many chemical constituents in nature and technology (Figs. 1 and 2) are the common case of flows. In many technical applications we have to do with particular realization of the multi-phase flows like steady state flows, or single component flows or single phase flows etc. Engineers and scientists created hundreds of computer codes for description of more or less specific realizations of multi-phase flows. If one compares the structure of these codes one is astonished by the waste of the human resources for programming repeating model elements like equations of state, friction lows in variety of geometry, heat transfer coefficients, mathematical equation solvers, data handling procedures, graphical environment etc. It is hardly to expect, that the best solution for the specific sub-phenomenon is available in all codes. Looking in other branches of the technology like computer chips production we realize that the revolutionary idea of having common ''chips'' within complex applications is very far from its practical realization in the computational multi-phase flow dynamics. Following this line of arguments I expressed several times in my publications explicitly or implicitly the idea, that it is possible to create a universal multi-phase flow analyzer in the sense of computer architecture, that is capable to absorb the adequate multi-phase knowledge data base specified in Appendix 1. The subject of this paper is to summarize some of the main ideas, some of them already realized by this author, on the way of creating such computer code architecture, to illustrate haw they work, and to make an outlook regarding what are the challenges in the future developments. We confine deliberately our attention to the solution of the so called local volume and time averaged system of PDE's for a simple reason: Direct numerical resolution of interacting fluids is possible as demonstrated for small scales by many researchers, but for

  10. Ecological aspects of black-pincelled marmoset (Callithrix penicillata in the cerradão and dense cerrado of the Brazilian Central Plateau Aspectos da ecologia do mico-estrela (Callithrix penicillata em cerradão e cerrado denso no Planalto Central brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. B. de MIRANDA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological data about three free-ranging groups of C. penicillata (black-pincelled marmoset were observed between March and December 1996, in one cerradão patch (in the Ecological Reserve of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, RECOR and two patches of dense cerrado (one in the Recor and another in the Botanical Garden of Brasília, JBB, situated in the APA (area of environmental protection of the Gama/Cabeça-de-Veado, Distrito Federal. Each area was visited weekly during three periods of two months -- end of the rainy season (01/04 to 31/05, dry season (16/06 to 15/08 and beginning of the rainy season (14/10 to 15/12 -- and instantaneous scan records at fifteen minute intervals were made for the vertical and horizontal position of each visible individual of the target group. The group size ranged between 4 and 11 elements. In September, the birth of twins in both groups of the Recor was observed. Home-range varied from 8.25 to 18.5 hectares, while density ranged from 0.4 to 0.82 ind/ha. Twenty two species of nine tree families were identified as exudate sources. Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae, Vochysia thyrsoidea (Vochysiaceae, Scheflera macrocarpum (Araliaceae and Qualea parviflora (Vochysiaceae were more explored. Fruits (14 species, two of which were exotics, nectar, honey, arthropods (mainly orthopterans and bird eggs complete their diet. The main sleep-tree species was Emmotum nitens (Icacinaceae. Data from different seasons and studied groups/areas were compared along previous data from this primate species in gallery forests. In the cerradão and dense cerrado areas C. penicillata had a similar group size, however a larger home-range and smaller density than in gallery forests were observed in this study.Entre março e dezembro de 1996 foi observada a ecologia de três grupos naturais de C. penicillata: em uma mancha de cerradão (na Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, RECOR e em duas manchas de cerrado denso (uma na Recor e

  11. Monazite-type ceramics for conditioning of minor actinides. Structural characterization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babelot, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The minor actinides (MA) neptunium, americium, and curium are mainly responsible for the long-term radiotoxicity of the High Active Waste (HAW) generated during the nuclear power operation. If these long-lived radionuclides are removed from the HAW by partitioning and converted by neutron fission (transmutation) into shorter-lived or stable elements, the remaining waste loses most of its long-term radiotoxicity. Thus, partitioning and transmutation (P and T) are considered as attractive options for reducing the burden on geological disposals. As an alternative, these separated MA can also be conditioned (P and C strategy) in specifically adapted ceramics to ensure their safe final disposal over long periods. At the moment, spent fuel elements are foreseen either for direct disposal in deep geological repositories or for reprocessing. The highly active liquid waste that is produced during reprocessing is conditioned industrially using a vitrification process before final disposal. Although the widely used borosilicate glasses meet most of the specifications needed, ceramic host matrices appear to be even more suitable in terms of resistance to corrosion. The development of new materials based on tailor-made highly specific ceramics with extremely stable behavior would make it possible to improve the final storage of long-lived high-level radiotoxic waste. In the framework of this PhD research project, monazite-type ceramics were chosen as promising host matrices for the conditioning of trivalent actinides. The focus on the monazite-type ceramics is justified by their properties such as high chemical durability. REPO 4 ceramics are named monazite for RE = La - Gd (monoclinic symmetry) and xenotime for RE = Tb - Lu and Y (tetragonal symmetry). The objective of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the alteration behavior of such ceramics under the repository conditions. REPO 4 (with RE = La, Eu) is prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 200 C. Structural

  12. Monazite-type ceramics for conditioning of minor actinides. Structural characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babelot, Carole

    2013-07-01

    The minor actinides (MA) neptunium, americium, and curium are mainly responsible for the long-term radiotoxicity of the High Active Waste (HAW) generated during the nuclear power operation. If these long-lived radionuclides are removed from the HAW by partitioning and converted by neutron fission (transmutation) into shorter-lived or stable elements, the remaining waste loses most of its long-term radiotoxicity. Thus, partitioning and transmutation (P and T) are considered as attractive options for reducing the burden on geological disposals. As an alternative, these separated MA can also be conditioned (P and C strategy) in specifically adapted ceramics to ensure their safe final disposal over long periods. At the moment, spent fuel elements are foreseen either for direct disposal in deep geological repositories or for reprocessing. The highly active liquid waste that is produced during reprocessing is conditioned industrially using a vitrification process before final disposal. Although the widely used borosilicate glasses meet most of the specifications needed, ceramic host matrices appear to be even more suitable in terms of resistance to corrosion. The development of new materials based on tailor-made highly specific ceramics with extremely stable behavior would make it possible to improve the final storage of long-lived high-level radiotoxic waste. In the framework of this PhD research project, monazite-type ceramics were chosen as promising host matrices for the conditioning of trivalent actinides. The focus on the monazite-type ceramics is justified by their properties such as high chemical durability. REPO{sub 4} ceramics are named monazite for RE = La - Gd (monoclinic symmetry) and xenotime for RE = Tb - Lu and Y (tetragonal symmetry). The objective of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the alteration behavior of such ceramics under the repository conditions. REPO{sub 4} (with RE = La, Eu) is prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 200 C

  13. CRUZAMIENTOS INTRA E INTERESPECIFICOS EN TURNERA , SERIE CANALIGERAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Arbo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Canaligerae es una de las 9 series del género Turnera. Las especies de esta serie tienen la morfología floral más avanzada, y son la única serie conocida hasta ahora con número básico x = 5. Un programa de cruzamientos controlados se llevó a cabo entre  13 especies, cuatro de ellos con citotipos diploides y tetraploides,totalizando 17 accesiones de las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de América. La producción de híbridos se utilizó para determinar el grado de afinidad entre las entidades. La producción de los híbridos no viables, buenas semillas que no germinan, semillas vanas y el éxito de los cruces no fueron considerados como fracasos Sólo la producción de híbridos viables fue consideradas como éxitos. De las 136 combinaciones posibles (contando cada cruce y su recíproco a ser una cruz 53 híbridos y fracasos 83 fueron recuperados. La capacidad de cruzamiento entre las especies diploides indica que las especies con flores de color azul-blanca (T.caerulea, T.sunnamensis y T.grandiflora son un grupo estrechamente relacionado, y lo mismo ocurre con las especies de flores amarillas (T.scabra, T.subulata, T. Krapovickasii y T.concinna. Las especies con flores de color azul-blanco son genéticamente aisladas no sólo de las especies con flores amarillas, sino también del resto de las especies estudiadas aquí. T.coriacea y T.hermannioides parecen estar también genéticamente aisladas del resto de las especies consideradas aquí. T.aff.coriacea y T.hermannioides parecen también estar genéticamente aisladas del resto de las especies consideradas aquí. Por otro lado, los híbridos intraespecíficos entre citotipos señala la continuidad genética entre los individuos 2x y 4x que pertenecen a la misma especie. Alopolyploids (T.grandidentata, T.orientalis, T.ulmifolia y T. Aurelii tener una gama más amplia de cruzabilidad probablemente debido a la presencia de genomas diferentes en sus cromosomas

  14. [Investigations on the inheritance of the charactergrandiflora inPetunia×hybrida Vilm : II. The use of tetraploidgrandiflora lines for the breeding of newsuperbissima forms, especially those with yellow flowers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann-Philipp, R

    1968-01-01

    1. In the diploid petunias of the class ofgrandiflora the dominant alleleG at thegrandiflora locus which determines the character of large flowers is normally linked to a recessive lethal genel which eliminates zygotes and simultaneously diminishes the chance of fertilization of the pollen transferring it. Large flowered petunia plants in the class ofgrandiflora are therefore normally heterozygous with respect to the alleles of thegrandiflora locus and have the genotypeGl/gL. Grandiflora homozygotesGl/GL orGL/GL originate from rare crossover events, and so does the genotypeGL/gl. 2. Since the very bright leaf color of thegrandiflora homozygotes reduces their vigor, the breeding of homozygous large flowered varieties has no practical importance. A special interest therefore arises for the genotypeGL/gl because, in spite of heterozygosity, the offspring do not include undesirable small-flowered plants with the exception of some originating from rare combinations of crossover gametes. 3. The tetraploid genotypeGL/GL/gl/gl was produced by colchicine treatment. Analysis of the offsprings of the next two generations showed that in tetraploid material the zygotic effect of the lethal gene works in the same way as in diploids, producing again automatic elimination of small-flowered plants. Moreover, it was found that gametes of the genotypegl/gl can be transferred not only by egg-cells but also by the pollen. 4. Consequently, it is possible to achieve an automatic elimination of the small-flowered plants also in the tetraploid class ofsuperbissima. This may be done by replacing the linkage groupgL ofsuperbissima petunias by thegl type of the artificially produced new tetraploid material. Homozygous large-flowered plants do not occur in tetraploid material because gametes of the genotypeGG are not transferable by the pollen. 5. Particularly the above mentioned qualities, that is the crossability to tetraploid petunias of the class ofsuperbissima and the possibility of

  15. Micorrizas arbusculares no crescimento pós-transplantio de mudas de árvores em solo com excesso de metais pesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Siqueira

    1999-