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Sample records for rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks

  1. Biology and ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus

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    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the most widespread tick in the world and a well-recognized vector of many pathogens affecting dogs and occasionally humans. This tick can be found on dogs living in both urban and rural areas, being highly adapted to live within human dwellings and being active throughout the year not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in some temperate areas. Depending on factors such as climate and host availability, Rh. sanguineus can complete up to four generations per year. Recent studies have demonstrated that ticks exposed to high temperatures attach and feed on humans and rabbits more rapidly. This observation suggests that the risk of human parasitism by Rh. sanguineus could increase in areas experiencing warmer and/or longer summers, consequently increasing the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents (e.g., Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia rickettsii. In the present article, some aspects of the biology and ecology of Rh. sanguineus ticks are discussed including the possible impact of current climate changes on populations of this tick around the world.

  2. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon felis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks infested on captive lions (Panthera leo).

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    Bhusri, Benjaporn; Sariya, Ladawan; Mongkolphan, Chalisa; Suksai, Parut; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Changbunjong, Tanasak

    2017-09-01

    Hepatozoon spp. are protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals. The infection occurs by ingestion of an infected tick. This study was carried out to detect and characterize Hepatozoon spp. in ticks collected from captive lions ( Panthera leo ) in Thailand based on the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence. A total of 30 ticks were collected and identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus . The collected ticks were separated into 10 tick pools by sex and life stages. Of the 10 tick pools examined, only one (10%) was found to be infected with the Hepatozoon species. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed a clustering of the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence like that of H. felis from the GenBank database. This is the first report of H. felis in R. sanguineus ticks collected from captive lions in Thailand. Our results indicated that R. sanguineus may be a possible vector of feline Hepatozoon in Thailand.

  3. Why are there so few Rickettsia conorii conorii-infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the wild?

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    Cristina Socolovschi

    Full Text Available Rickettsia conorii conorii is the etiological agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, which is transmitted by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The relationship between the Rickettsia and its tick vector are still poorly understood one century after the first description of this disease.An entomological survey was organized in Algeria to collect ticks from the houses of patients with spotted fever signs. Colonies of R. conorii conorii-infected and non-infected ticks were established under laboratory conditions. Gimenez staining and electron microscopy on the ovaries of infected ticks indicated heavy rickettsial infection. The transovarial transmission of R. conorii conorii in naturally infected Rh. sanguineus ticks was 100% at eleven generations, and the filial infection rate was up to 99% according to molecular analyses. No differences in life cycle duration were observed between infected and non-infected ticks held at 25°C, but the average weight of engorged females and eggs was significantly lower in infected ticks than in non-infected ticks. The eggs, larvae and unfed nymphs of infected and non-infected ticks could not tolerate low (4°C or high (37°C temperatures or long starvation periods. R. conorii conorii-infected engorged nymphs that were exposed to a low or high temperature for one month experienced higher mortality when they were transferred to 25°C than non-infected ticks after similar exposure. High mortality was observed in infected adults that were maintained for one month at a low or high temperature after tick-feeding on rabbits.These preliminary results suggest that infected quiescent ticks may not survive the winter and may help explain the low prevalence of infected Rh. sanguineus in nature. Further investigations on the influence of extrinsic factors on diapaused R. conorii-infected and non-infected ticks are required.

  4. Synergism of thymol, carvacrol and eugenol in larvae of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

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    Araújo, L X; Novato, T P L; Zeringota, V; Maturano, R; Melo, D; DA Silva, B C; Daemon, E; DE Carvalho, M G; Monteiro, C M O

    2016-12-01

    The effects of combinations of the monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol and the phenylpropanoid eugenol in larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Acari: Ixodidae) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (Acari: Ixodidae) were assessed by the larval packet test. The CompuSyn program was used to make qualitative assessments of the effects (synergistic, additive and antagonistic) of the associations. The effects of all combinations tested against R. microplus larvae were synergistic, with combination indices (CIs) eugenol and thymol + eugenol have synergistic effects in R. microplus and R. sanguineus s.l. larvae. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. An insight into the sialotranscriptome of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus

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    Maruyama Sandra R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus sanguineus, known as the brown dog tick, is a common ectoparasite of domestic dogs and can be found worldwide. R.sanguineus is recognized as the primary vector of the etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and canine babesiosis. Here we present the first description of a R. sanguineus salivary gland transcriptome by the production and analysis of 2,034 expressed sequence tags (EST from two cDNA libraries, one consctructed using mRNA from dissected salivary glands from female ticks fed for 3-5 days (early to mid library, RsSGL1 and the another from ticks fed for 5 days (mid library, RsSGL2, identifying 1,024 clusters of related sequences. Results Based on sequence similarities to nine different databases, we identified transcripts of genes that were further categorized according to function. The category of putative housekeeping genes contained ~56% of the sequences and had on average 2.49 ESTs per cluster, the secreted protein category contained 26.6% of the ESTs and had 2.47 EST's/clusters, while 15.3% of the ESTs, mostly singletons, were not classifiable, and were annotated as "unknown function". The secreted category included genes that coded for lipocalins, proteases inhibitors, disintegrins, metalloproteases, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory proteins, as Evasins and Da-p36, as well as basic-tail and 18.3 kDa proteins, cement proteins, mucins, defensins and antimicrobial peptides. Comparison of the abundance of ESTs from similar contigs of the two salivary gland cDNA libraries allowed the identification of differentially expressed genes, such as genes coding for Evasins and a thrombin inhibitor, which were over expressed in the RsSGL1 (early to mid library versus RsSGL2 (mid library, indicating their role in inhibition of inflammation at the tick feeding site from the very beginning of the blood meal. Conversely, sequences related to cement (64P, which function has been correlated with tick

  6. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

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    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  7. Direct evidence of Rickettsia typhi infection in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and their canine hosts

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    Karla Dzul-Rosado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Murine typhus is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi, whose transmission is carried out by rat fleas in urban settlements as classically known, but it also has been related to cat fleas in a sub-urban alternative cycle that has been suggested by recent reports. These studies remarks that in addition to rats, other animals like cats, opossums and dogs could be implied in the transmission of Rickettsia typhi as infected fleas obtained from serologically positive animals have been detected in samples from endemic areas. In Mexico, the higher number of murine typhus cases have been detected in the Yucatan peninsula, which includes a great southeastern region of Mexico that shows ecologic characteristics similar to the sub-urban alternative cycle recently described in Texas and California at the United States. To find out which are the particular ecologic characteristics of murine typhus transmission in this region, we analyzed blood and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks obtained from domestic dogs by molecular approaches, demonstrating that both samples were infected by Rickettsia typhi. Following this, we obtained isolates that were analyzed by genetic sequencing to corroborate this infection in 100% of the analyzed samples. This evidence suggests for the first time that ticks and dogs could be actively participating in the transmission of murine typhus, in a role that requires further studies for its precise description.

  8. Developmental profiles in tick water balance with a focus on the new Rocky Mountain spotted fever vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

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    Yoder, J A; Benoit, J B; Rellinger, E J; Tank, J L

    2006-12-01

    Recent reports indicate that the common brown dog tick, or kennel tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) is a competent vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the U.S.A. This tick is of concern to public health because of its high frequency of contact, as it has a unique ability to thrive within human homes. To assess the moisture requirements necessary for survival, water balance characteristics were determined for each developmental stage, from egg to adult. This is the first time that water relations in ticks have been assessed throughout the complete lifecycle. Notably, R. sanguineus is differentially adapted for life in a dry environment, as characterized by a suppressed water loss rate distinctive for each stage that distinguishes it from other ticks. Analysis of its dehydration tolerance limit and percentage body water content provides no evidence to suggest that the various stages of this tick can function more effectively containing less water, indicating that this species is modified for water conservation, not desiccation hardiness. All stages, eggs excepted, absorb water vapour from the air and can drink free water to replenish water stores. Developmentally, a shift in water balance strategies occurs in the transition from the larva, where the emphasis is on water gain (water vapour absorption from drier air), to the adult, where the emphasis is on water retention (low water loss rate). These results on the xerophilic-nature of R. sanguineus identify overhydration as the primary water stress, indicating that this tick is less dependent upon a moisture-rich habitat for survival, which matches its preference for a dry environment. We suggest that the controlled, host-confined conditions of homes and kennels have played a key role in promoting the ubiquitous distribution of R. sanguineus by creating isolated arid environments that enable this tick to establish within regions that are unfavourable for maintaining water balance.

  9. Brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus parasitizing the bird Coereba flaveola in the Brazilian cerrado Carrapato vermelho do cão Rhipicephalus sanguineus parasitando Coereba flaveola no cerrado brasileiro

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    Matias Pablo Juan Szabó

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available During a survey for ectoparasites on birds in a small reserve of the Brazilian cerrado (savannah a male adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick was found attached to the eyelid of the bird Coereba flaveola. Both tick and bird are presently common in Brazil, however, to best of our knowledge, the association of this tick species with this bird species has not been reported before. This observation may be an accidental finding but might also be an unknown route for the dissemination of the tick. The species R. sanguineus was introduced in the country with the colonization and should be considered a research target for the surveillance of tick-borne diseases.Durante um levantamento sobre ectoparasitos em aves, em uma pequena reserva de cerrado, constatou-se um macho adulto do carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus fixado à pálpebra da ave Coereba flaveola. Embora a ave e o parasito sejam abundantes no Brasil, esta associação hospedeiro-parasita não foi previamente relatada. Esta observação pode se referir a um fato isolado e acidental, mas também pode se referir a uma via de disseminação antes desconhecida desta espécie de carrapato. A espécie R. sanguineus foi introduzida no Brasil durante a colonização e deve ser considerada um alvo de pesquisas importante na supervisão de doenças transmitidas por carrapatos.

  10. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

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    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence of Hepatozoon canis and Cercopithifilaria bainae in an off-host population of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks.

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    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Carbone, Domenico; Baneth, Gad; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida, Hepatozoidae) and the filarioid Cercopithifilaria bainae (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) are tick-transmitted infectious agents of dogs, highly prevalent in the Mediterranean basin in association with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from the environment every 25±2 days in a confined location in southern Italy where a community of dogs lives, from August 2012 to July 2013. In order to study the occurrence of H. canis and C. bainae, 1091 tick specimens (770 adults; 271 nymphs, and 50 larvae) were dissected, and oocysts of H. canis and larvae of C. bainae were morphologically identified. Out of 1091 dissected ticks, 13.47% (n=147) were positive for H. canis, with the highest prevalence recorded in unfed adults (16.4%; 126/770), followed by nymphs collected as larvae and allowed to moult (14%; 7/50), unfed nymphs dissected immediately after collection (3%; 8/271), and adults collected as nymphs and allowed to moult (2%; 6/271). The highest number of H. canis-positive ticks (35.5%; 43/121; Pcanis and C. bainae infections in the study area seem to be dependent on the seasonality of vector tick populations. Hence, dogs living in these areas are more exposed to both pathogens during the warmer months. These findings provide new insights into the ecology of both H. canis and C. bainae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Possible Northward Introgression of a Tropical Lineage of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks at a Site of Emerging Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

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    Villarreal, Zachary; Stephenson, Nicole; Foley, Janet

    2018-06-01

    Increasing rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico underscore the importance of studying the ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the vector in that region. This species is reported to comprise distinct tropical and temperate lineages that may differ in vectorial capacity for RMSF and are hypothesized to be limited in their geographical range by climatic conditions. In this study, lineage was determined for ticks from 9 locations in California, Arizona, and Mexico by DNA sequencing of 12S, 16S, and D-loop ribosomal RNA. As expected, sites in northern California and eastern Arizona had temperate-lineage ticks, and phylogenetic analysis revealed considerable genetic variability among these temperate-lineage ticks. However, tropical-lineage ticks extended north from Oaxaca, Mexico were well established along the entire border from San Diego, California to western Arizona, and were found as far north as Lytle Creek near Los Angeles, California (a site where both lineages were detected). Far less genetic variability in the tropical lineage despite the large geographical distances is supportive of a hypothesis of rapid northward expansion. Discovery of the tropical lineage north of the identified climatic limitations suggests that more work is needed to characterize this tick's ecology, vectorial capacity, expansion, possible evolution, and response to climate change.

  13. Life cycle of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

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    Baneth, Gad; Samish, Michael; Shkap, Varda

    2007-04-01

    The life cycle of the apicomplexan protozoon Hepatozoon canis in its natural hosts Rhipicephalus sanguineus (tick) and Canis familiaris (domestic dog) was studied in an experimental infection. Tick nymphs were fed on a naturally infected dog, or they were infected by percutaneous injection of blood. Dogs were inoculated by ingestion of adult ticks containing mature oocysts. Gamonts were in syzygy 24 hr after percutaneous injection of ticks. Early oocysts were detected 96 hr after nymph repletion, and mature oocysts in adult ticks were infective to dogs 40 days postmolt. Merogony was detected in dog bone marrow from 13 days postinoculation (PI) and included meronts containing 20-30 micromerozoites, and a second type with 2-4 macromerozoites. Monozoic cysts were observed in the spleen in conjunction with merogony. Gamontogony with infection of leukocytes by micromerozoites occurred from 26 days PI, and gamont parasitemia, which completed the life cycle, was detected 28 days PI. The length of the life cycle from nymphal attachment to parasitemia in dogs was 81 days. Increased body temperatures were evident from 16 to 27 days PI and paralleled the time of intensive bone marrow merogony. Skeletal pain and recumbency were manifested in 2 dogs. This study further elucidates the life cycle of H. canis and provides a sequential morphologic description of H. canis merogony, gamontogony, and sporogony.

  14. Detection of Babesia spp. in Dogs and Their Ticks From Peninsular Malaysia: Emphasis on Babesia gibsoni and Babesia vogeli Infections in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Prakash, Batah Kunalan; Low, Van Lun; Vinnie-Siow, Wei Yin; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Morvarid, Akhavan Rezaei; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-12

    Canine babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease with a worldwide distribution, including Malaysia. While the prevalence of Babesia has been documented from dogs in Malaysia, occurrence of Babesia has been relatively little studied in their tick vectors. Accordingly, a total of 240 dogs and 140 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from Malaysia were molecularly screened for the presence of Babesia protozoa in the present study. Babesia gibsoni was only detected in ticks (1.4%), whereas Babesia vogeli was detected in both ticks (1.4%) and dogs (2.1%). This study highlights the detection of B. gibsoni and B. vogeli for the first time, in both adult and nymphal stages of R. sanguineus s.l. in Malaysia, suggesting the potential role of this tick species in transmitting canine babesiosis.

  15. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

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    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

  16. Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for treatment and control of induced infestations of brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on dogs.

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    Hunter, James S; Baggott, Derek; Everett, William R; Fourie, Josephus J; Cramer, Luiz G; Yoon, Stephen S; Collidor, Nadia; Mallouk, Yasmina; Lee, Lorne; Blair, Jeffrey; Prullage, Joseph B

    2011-07-15

    Four laboratory studies were conducted to demonstrate that a single topical dose of a novel spot-on combination containing fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) is efficacious against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. In each study, 6-8 male and 6-8 female purpose-bred, laboratory mongrels, terrier cross or Beagles were randomly assigned to one of two study groups (treated and untreated), based on pre-treatment parasite counts. Starting on the day before treatment, each dog was infested weekly with 50 ticks. Ticks were thumb counted at various time points after treatment and weekly infestations starting as early as 6h and continued at 12, 18 and 24h depending on the study. Ticks were removed and counted at 48 h after treatment and weekly infestations. CERTIFECT provided rapid and excellent control of pre-existing and newly acquired infestations of R. sanguineus with efficacy as high as 93% within the first 12h after a single topical treatment. Excellent control (>96%) of R. sanguineus as early as 18 h, following post treatment infestations was maintained for at least 35 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation of susceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicals from a less susceptible host.

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    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille)(Acari: Ixodidae)

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    Fernandes, Fernando F.; D' Alessandro, Walmirton B.; Freitas, Edmeia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica. Lab. de Artropodologia Medica e Veterinaria]. E-mail: fernandesff@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2008-03-15

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n {>=} 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27{+-}1 deg C, RH {>=} 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC{sub 50}) and 9991 ppm (LC{sub 99}) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome. (author)

  19. Toxicity of extract of Magonia pubescens (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) St. Hil. to control the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille)(Acari: Ixodidae)

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    Fernandes, Fernando F.; D'Alessandro, Walmirton B.; Freitas, Edmeia P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The action of crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of the soapberry Magonia pubescens St. Hil. was studied upon larvae of the Brown Dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille). Tick larvae were obtained by maintaining gravid females in an incubator, after collecting them from naturally infested kennels. The tick larvae were placed in envelopes of filter paper impregnated with different concentrations of the extract dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and distilled water. Four tests were repeated with each solution (n ≥ 120). The control was carried out in DMSO and distilled water. The bioassays were performed at 27±1 deg C, RH ≥ 80% and 12:12 light cycle. Mortality was observed after 48h exposure. All motionless larvae were considered to be dead. The extract of M. pubescens showed larvicidal potential against R. sanguineus. The lethal concentrations of 1503 ppm (LC 50 ) and 9991 ppm (LC 99 ) were obtained. There was no mortality in the control group. Based on the results of the current study, M. pubescens should be recognized as an future alternative acaricide for the control of Brown Dog tick. These results reinforce the importance of the preservation of this soapberry in its natural biome. (author)

  20. Immunogenic potential of the recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus aquaporin protein against the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 in domestic dogs

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    Aquaporins regulate water transport through the highly hydrophobic lipid bilayer of cell membranes. As ticks ingest large volumes of host blood in relation to their size, they are required to concentrate blood components and have efficient water transport mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the...

  1. Susceptibility of four tick species, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), to nootkatone from essential oil of grapefruit.

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    Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Behle, Robert W; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays against unfed nymphs of Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille. We determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) of nootkatone by recording tick mortality 24 h after exposure in treated glass vials. Nymphs were susceptible to nootkatone with LC50 values of 0.352, 0.233, 0.169, and 0.197 microg/cm2, and LC90 values of 1.001, 0.644, 0.549, and 0.485 microg/cm2 for A. americanum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis, and R. sanguineus, respectively. The LC50 value for R. sanquineus was not significantly different from D. variabilis or I. scapularis. Other LC50 comparisons were significantly different. The LC90 for A. americanum was higher when compared with the three other tick species, which were not significantly different. Because nootkatone is volatile, we measured the amount of nootkatone recovered from duplicate-treated vials before tick exposure and from vials after tick exposure. Nootkatone recovered from vials before exposure ranged from 82 to 112% of the expected amounts. The nootkatone recovered after the 24-h exposure period ranged from 89% from vials coated with higher concentrations of nootkatone, down to 29% from vials coated with low nootkatone concentrations. Determination of the nootkatone residue after vial coating demonstrated loss of the active compound while verifying the levels of tick exposure. Toxicity of low concentrations of nootkatone to the active questing stage of ticks reported in this study provides a reference point for future formulation research to exploit nootkatone as a safe and environment-friendly tick control.

  2. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

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    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  3. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato(Ixodidae in synantropic rodents in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Kathleen Tavares Winkel

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, is responsible for maintaining and transmitting various pathogens, both in animals and human beings, and it is of great sanitary importance. This communication reports the first occurrence of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato parasitizing Rattus norvegicus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and it is also the first record of this tick species parasitizing Rattus rattus in Brazil. The rodents were captured from the port area, located in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We collected 6 larvae of this tick species from 2 male R. rattus individuals, and 3 larvae from 2 female R. norvegicus individuals; parasitized specimens of both rodent species were captured from different sites within the experimental area. This record broadens the number of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato hosts in urban areas, indicating the need for continued monitoring on population density for both R. sanguineus and synanthropic rodents.

  4. Effect of recombinant glutathione S-transferase as vaccine antigen against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestation.

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    Sabadin, Gabriela Alves; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Kiio, Irene; Xavier, Marina Amaral; da Silva Matos, Renata; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Githaka, Naftaly Wang'ombe; Nene, Vish; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

    2017-12-04

    The ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus are the main vectors of Theileria parva and Babesia spp. in cattle and dogs, respectively. Due to their impact in veterinary care and industry, improved methods against R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus parasitism are under development, including vaccines. We have previously demonstrated the induction of a cross-protective humoral response against Rhipicephalus microplus following vaccination with recombinant glutathione S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis tick (rGST-Hl), suggesting that this protein could control tick infestations. In the present work, we investigated the effect of rGST-Hl vaccine against R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus infestation in rabbits. In silico analysis revealed that GST from H. longicornis, R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus have >80% protein sequence similarity, and multiple conserved antigenic sites. After the second vaccine dose, rGST-Hl-immunized rabbits showed elevated antibody levels which persisted until the end of experiment (75 and 60 days for R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus, respectively). Western blot assays demonstrated cross-reactivity between anti-rGST-Hl antibodies and native R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus GST extracts from ticks at different life stages. Vaccination with rGST-Hl decreased the number, weight, and fertility of engorged R. appendiculatus adults, leading to an overall vaccine efficacy of 67%. Interestingly, histological analysis of organ morphology showed damage to salivary glands and ovaries of R. appendiculatus adult females fed on vaccinated animals. In contrast, rGST-Hl vaccination did not affect R. appendiculatus nymphs, and it was ineffective against R. sanguineus across the stages of nymph and adult. Taken together, our results show the potential application of rGST-Hl as an antigen in anti-tick vaccine development, however indicating a broad difference in efficacy among tick species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  5. Susceptibility of Four Tick Species Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) to Nootkatone

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    The essential oil nootkatone has shown acaricidal activity on ticks. The toxicity of nootkatone was determined in laboratory assays using a vial coating technique against unfed nymphs of four Ixodid ticks: Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, and Rhipicepha...

  6. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks and Ctenocephalides felis Fleas from Southeastern Tunisia by Reverse Line Blot Assay

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    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia. PMID:24226919

  7. Five-month comparative efficacy evaluation of three ectoparasiticides against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on dogs housed outdoors.

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    Varloud, Marie; Hodgkins, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three topical combinations on dogs in outdoor conditions against adult cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), flea egg hatch and emergence, and against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Treatment was performed on day 0 with a placebo; dinotefuran, pyriproxifen and permethrin (DPP); fipronil and (S)-methoprene (FM) or imidacloprid and permethrin (IP). Dogs (n = 32), housed outdoors for 7 months, were treated monthly for four consecutive months (on days 0, 30, 60 and 90) and infested with ~100 unfed adult fleas on days 14, 55, 74, 115 and 150 and with ~50 unfed adult ticks on days 28, 44, 88 and 104. Adult fleas were counted and removed 24 h after infestation. Immediately after flea removal, dogs were reinfested with ~100 new adult fleas 72 h prior to egg collection for up to 48 h. Flea eggs were incubated for 32 days, and newly emerged adults were counted. Ticks were counted and removed 48 h after each infestation. FM had >90 % efficacy against fleas at each time point and variable efficacy against ticks (38.0-99.6 %). Efficacy of IP was 60 days after the last treatment. Despite challenging weather conditions, DPP was highly effective, providing >90 % efficacy against adult ticks as well as adult and immature fleas at every time point of the study.

  8. First identification of natural infection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, in the State of Rio de Janeiro Primeira identificação de infecção natural por Rickettsia rickettsii no carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus no Rio de Janeiro

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    Nathalie C. Cunha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is a zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyomma, more frequently, Amblyomma cajennense. The aim of this paper was to report the first molecular detection of R. rickettsii on R. sanguineus naturally infected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ticks were collected from dogs in a rural region of Resende municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (22º30'9.46"S, 44º42'44.29"WO, where occurred five human cases of BSF in 2006. The ticks were identified under a stereoscopic microscope and separated in pools by stages, species and sex. DNA extraction was carried out using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN®. The DNA was submitted to PCR amplification using 04 set of primers: Rr190.70p/Rr190.602n (OmpA, 532bp, BG1-21/BG2-20 (OmpB, 650bp, Tz15/Tz16 (17 kDa protein-encoding gene, 246bp and RpCS.877p/RpCS.1258n (gltA, 381bp. PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 1% agarose gels and visualized under ultraviolet light with ethidium bromide. PCR products of the expected sizes were purified by QIAquick® and sequenced by ABI PRISM®. The generated nucleotide sequences were edited with using Bioedit® software and compared with the corresponding homologous sequences available through GenBank, using Discontiguous Mega Blast (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. It was confirmed R. rickettsii by sequencing of the material (GenBank FJ356230. The molecular characterization of R. rickettsii in the tick R. sanguineus emphasizes the role of dogs as carriers of ticks from the environment to home. Moreover, this result suggests that there is a considerable chance for active participation of R. sanguineus as one of tick species in the transmission of R. ricketsii to human being in the Brazilian territory.A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose causada por Rickettsia rickettsii e transmitida por carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma, mais freqüentemente pela espécie Amblyomma cajennense. Este

  9. Native strains of Beauveria bassiana for the control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato.

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    Cafarchia, Claudia; Immediato, Davide; Iatta, Roberta; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Porretta, Daniele; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-05

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks are widespread worldwide due to their adaptability to survive under different environmental conditions. They may act as vectors of a wide range of pathogens to humans and animals and their control is based on the use of chemical products on dogs and in the environment. Alternative control strategies, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi as bio-control agents have also been investigated. The ability of native strains of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato in causing mortality in different tick species (e.g., Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus) has been demonstrated. However, limited studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of R. sanguineus s.l. and none of them have employed native strains of this fungus. Here we investigated the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against all developmental stages of R. sanguineus s.l.. Batches of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult ticks were immersed in a suspension of 10(7) conidia/ml of B. bassiana s.l., isolated from a R. sanguineus s.l. engorged female. All treatment and control groups were observed for 20 days, and the biological parameters (i.e., mortality, hatching, moulting percentage, pre-oviposition period, oviposition period and rate, eggs production efficiency, reproductive efficiency and fitness indexes) were assessed. The effect of the B. bassiana strain tested herein on eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults showed a significantly higher mortality than those of the control groups (p bassiana strain is highly virulent towards all life-cycle developmental stages of R. sanguineus s.l. and may be of potential interest as a biological control agent against these ticks.

  10. In Vitro effect of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia Vogelii on Rhipicephalus Sanguineus in Abomey-Calavi

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    Dougnon Tossou Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ticks are vectors of several diseases, of which many are zoonosis transmissible to humans. The use of Tephrosia leafs’ extract as a low cost acaricide is spreading among farmers in central Kenya. Materials and Methods: The present study’s aim is to inventory endogenous control methods against dogs’ ticks among which Rhipicephalus sanguineus, in the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi. From September to October 2013, a survey was made on forty randomly selected breeders and ticks samples were collected on forty dogs. The web platform, www.epicollect.net, was used for the survey. In total, 77.5% (n=40 of examined dogs were infested with ticks Results: Three species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum. They were found on 77.5%, 17.5%, and 15% of examined dogs, respectively. The numerical abundance of the three species was 87.06%, 11.9%, and 1.03%, respectively. The average number of ticks per animal was 16.83±5.04, 2.3±1.64, and 0.2±0.08 for Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum, respectively. Farmers used manual diptank (67.5%, plant ash (37.5%, petroleum (12.5%, motor oil (2.50 %, and sea water (7.5% to fight against ticks. Conclusions: The phytochemical screening of the leafy stem’s powder of Tephrosia vogelii revealed the presence of catechol tannins, saponins, sugars, leuco-anthocyanins, polyterpenes, and sterols. A 100% larval mortality was observed at the concentration of 20% the ethanolic extract of the leafy stem of Tephrosia vogelii. The LC50 of this ethanolic extract against Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae was equal to 2.6%.

  11. Immunogenic potential of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus aquaporin 1 against Rhipicephalus sanguineus in domestic dogs

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    This study evaluated a recombinant aquaporin 1 protein of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (RmAQP1) as antigen in a vaccine against R. sanguineus. Five dogs were immunized with RmAQP1 (10 µg) + adjuvant (Montanide) (G1), and five were inoculated with adjuvant only (G2), three times. Twenty-one da...

  12. Quantification of Leishmania infantum DNA in females, eggs and larvae of Rhipicephalus sanguineus

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    Otranto Domenico

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Leishmania infantum is a widespread parasite that affects dogs and humans worldwide. It is transmitted primarily by phlebotomine sand flies, but recently there has been much discussion on the role of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, as a potential vector for this protozoan. Recent laboratory and field investigations have contributed to this hypothesis, but a proof of the vector capacity of R. sanguineus has yet to be provided. Following a recent study suggesting that L. infantum passes transovarially from the female tick to her progeny the current study provides new evidence of the transovarial transmission of L. infantum in R. sanguineus. Methods Engorged females of R. sanguineus were collected from the environment in a dog shelter of southern Italy, where canine leishmaniosis is endemic. In the laboratory, 97 females that successfully laid eggs, their eggs and the originated larvae were subjected to DNA extraction and then tested by a TaqMan-based real time PCR targeting a fragment of the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA of L. infantum. Results and conclusions L. infantum kDNA was detected in engorged females, their eggs and originating larvae, with a parasite load ranging from 1.8 × 10-4 to 10.0 × 100. Certainly, the current study provides further evidence on the passage of L. infantum from R. sanguineus females to their offspring. The observation of promastigote forms in larvae is necessary to definitively confirm this hypothesis, which would raise interesting questions about the possible role of ticks in the maintenance of L. infantum infection among dogs in certain areas.

  13. Molecular investigations of Hepatozoon species in dogs and developmental stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

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    Aktas, Munir; Ozübek, Sezayi; Ipek, Duygu Neval Sayın

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence and distribution of Hepatozoon species in stray dogs, and the developmental stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus detached from the same dogs in Diyarbakır Province, Turkey is reported. A total of 328 ticks, including 133 adults (55 males and 75 females consist of 63 partially engorged and 15 fully engorged) and 195 nymphs (91 partially engorged and 104 fully engorged) were detached from the dogs. Fully engorged nymphs and females were incubated at 27 °C and relative humidity of 85 % to molt to adult stage and recover eggs. The ticks were pooled according to sex and developmental stage. No Hepatozoon gamonts were found, whereas, by PCR, 15.87 % (10/63) of the dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis. Of the 68 tick pools tested, 14 (20.58 %) pools were infected with Hepatozoon spp., an overall maximum likelihood estimation of prevalence of 4.9 % (95 % confidence intervals (CI) = 2.85-7.93 %) per 100 ticks. Maximum likelihood estimation of the infection rate varied by tick sex and developmental categories, ranging from 1.75 % (95 % CI = 0.11-8.11 %) in fed males to 6.81 % (95 % CI = 2.07-17.46 %) in unfed females. One amplicon from a fed adult female was 99 % identical to the sequence for Hepatozoon felis. The remaining sequences isolated from both dogs and ticks shared 99-100 % similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This is the first detection of H. canis and H. felis in the tick R. sanguineus in Turkey.

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Arizona: documentation of heavy environmental infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus at an endemic site.

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    Nicholson, William L; Paddock, Christopher D; Demma, Linda; Traeger, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Dickson, Jeffrey; McQuiston, Jennifer; Swerdlow, David

    2006-10-01

    A recent epidemiologic investigation identified 16 cases and 2 deaths from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in two eastern Arizona communities. Prevalence studies were conducted by collecting free-living ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from the home sites of RMSF patients and from other home sites within the community. Dry ice traps and flagging confirmed heavy infestations at many of the home sites. Only Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were identified and all developmental stages were detected. It is evident that under certain circumstances, this species does transmit Rickettsia rickettsii to humans and deserves reconsideration as a vector in other geographic areas.

  15. Transstadial transmission of Hepatozoon canis from larvae to nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

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    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Mencke, Norbert; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is an apicomplexan parasite of dogs, which is known to become infected by ingesting Rhipicephalus sanguineus adult ticks. To investigate the possibility of H. canis transovarial and transstadial transmission from larvae to nymphs, engorged adult female ticks were collected from a private animal shelter in southern Italy, where H. canis infection is highly prevalent. Female ticks (n=35) and egg batches were tested by PCR for H. canis. All eggs examined were PCR-negative whereas 88.6% of females from the environment tested positive. Additionally, fed larvae (n=120) from a dog naturally infected by H. canis were dissected at different time points post collection (i.e. 0, 10, 20 and 30 days). Molted nymphs dissected at 20 days post collection revealed immature oocysts displaying an amorphous central structure in 50% of the specimens, and oocysts containing sporocysts with sporozoites were found in 53.3% of the nymphs dissected at 30 days post collection. This study demonstrates that H. canis is not transmitted transovarially, but it is transmitted transstadially from larvae to nymphs of R. sanguineus and develops sporozoites in oocysts that may infect dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ritmo de queda de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae de cães artificialmente infestados Drop off rhythm of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae of artificially infested dogs

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    Gustavo F. Paz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O ritmo de queda de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille foi avaliado para duas populações do Brasil; uma de Monte Negro, Estado de Rondônia, e outra de Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais. Infestações artificiais com carrapatos das duas populações foram realizadas em cães domésticos mantidos em laboratório, sob o regime de luz: escotofase de 12:12 h. O padrão de queda de larvas ingurgitadas do hospedeiro se caracterizou pelo desprendimento de quantidades semelhantes de carrapatos em períodos de luz e de escotofase ou com um predomínio de queda durante o período de luz. No caso de ninfas e fêmeas ingurgitadas, a maioria dos carrapatos se desprendeu dos cães durante o período de escotofase, em todos os casos observados. Desta forma, é possível que em condições naturais, a maioria das ninfas e fêmeas adultas de R. sanguineus tendem a se desprender dos cães durante o período noturno, ao passo que larvas ingurgitadas se desprendem em proporções maiores durante o período diurno. Com base nestes dados, sugere-se que os locais onde os cães freqüentam durante a noite (onde possivelmente estará a maior parte da população de vida livre de R. sanguineus sejam priorizados com os tratamentos ambientais utilizando-se produtos carrapaticidas.The present study evaluated the drop-off rhythm of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille ticks from two populations from Brazil, one from Monte Negro, state of Rondônia, and another from Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. Artificial infestations with ticks were performed on dogs in the laboratory, held in a light: scotophase regimen of 12:12 h. Larval drop-off rhythm was characterized by similar number of engorged larvae detaching during both periods of light and scotophase, or by a larger number of larvae detaching during the light period. In contrast, most of the engorged nymphs and females detached from dogs during the scotophase period. These results indicate that under natural

  17. New molecular data shed light on the global phylogeny and species limits of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex.

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    Hekimoğlu, Olcay; Sağlam, İsmail K; Özer, Nurdan; Estrada-Peña, Agustin

    2016-07-01

    The Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex is a group of closely related tick species distributed all around the world. In this study, using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, new specimens of R sanguineus sensu lato from Turkey and Rhipicephalus camicasi from Kenya, were evaluated together with available sequences of this complex in GenBank. Our objectives were to delimit the complex, re-evaluate its global phylogeny and develop a reconstruction of its biogeographic history. Given Turkey's geographical location and its neighboring status within Africa, Asia and Europe, molecular information of R. sanguineus s.l. species from this region could have important implications both on a regional and global scale. Phylogenetic trees obtained with three methods (Bayesian, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony) were highly similar and consensus trees gave the same branching patterns and similar node support values. A total of four different clades with up to 9 Operational Taxonomic Units formed strong monophyletic groups. Biogeographic reconstructions demonstrated the importance of populations in Middle East (Turkey) in the spread of the group from Europe to Africa and Asia. Data supported previous conclusions on the existence of two species of R. sanguineus s.l. in South America and the strong molecular similarity between R. camicasi and the so-called tropical lineage of R. sanguineus s.l. These results point to the need of a re-evaluation of most specimens designated as R. sanguineus s.l. in East Europe, Middle East, Africa and Asia after an adequate re-description of this taxon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Transstadial Transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Field Conditions.

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    Aktas, M; Özübek, S

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated possible transovarial and transstadial transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks collected from naturally infected dogs in a municipal dog shelter and the grounds of the shelter. Four hundred sixty-five engorged nymphs were collected from 16 stray dogs that were found to be infected with H. canis by blood smear and PCR analyses and maintained in an incubator at 28 °C for moulting. Four hundred eighteen nymphs moulted to adults 14-16 d post collection. Unfed ticks from the shelter grounds comprised 1,500 larvae, 2,100 nymphs, and 85 adults; were sorted according to origin, developmental stage, and sex into 117 pools; and screened by 18S rRNA PCR for Hepatozoon infection. Of 60 adult tick pools examined, 51 were infected with H. canis. The overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of infection rate was calculated as 21.0% (CI 15.80-28.21). Hepatozoon canis was detected in 31 out of 33 female pools (MLE 26.96%, CI 17.64-44.33) and 20 out of 27 male pools (MLE 14.82%, CI 20.15-46.41). Among 42 unfed nymph pools collected from the shelter, 26 were infected with H. canis, and MLE of infection was calculated as 1.9% (CI 1.25-2.77). No H. canis DNA was detected in any of the gDNA pools consisting of larva specimens. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. Our results revealed the transstadial transmission of H. canis by R. sanguineus, both from larva to nymph and from nymph to adult, in field conditions. However, there were no evidence of transovarial transmission. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mutation in the Sodium Channel Gene Corresponds With Phenotypic Resistance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) to Pyrethroids.

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    Klafke, G M; Miller, R J; Tidwell, J; Barreto, R; Guerrero, F D; Kaufman, P E; Pérez de León, A A

    2017-11-07

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille), is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and vector of pathogens that kill humans and animals. Pyrethroids represent a class of synthetic acaricides that have been used intensely to try to control the brown dog tick and mitigate the risk of tick-borne disease transmission. However, acaricide resistance is an emerging problem in the management of the brown dog tick. Understanding the mechanism of resistance to acaricides, including pyrethroids, is important to adapt brown dog tick control strategies. The main objective of this study was to determine if target-site mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in other pests could be associated with phenotypic resistance detected in a brown dog tick population from Florida. We amplified segment 6 of the domain III of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel protein, using cDNAs synthesized from pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant tick strains. A single nucleotide point mutation (SNP) identified in a highly conserved region of domain III S6 in the resistant ticks resulted in an amino acid change from phenylalanine to leucine. This mutation is characteristic of resistance phenotypes in other tick species, and is the first report of this mutation in R. sanguineus. Molecular assays based on this knowledge could be developed to diagnose the risk for pyrethroid resistance, and to inform decisions on integrated brown dog tick management practices. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Descriptions of two new cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, and coincident infection with Rickettsia rickettsii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. in an urban locality of Panama City, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Caballero, A; Moreno, B; González, C; Martínez, G; Adames, M; Pachar, J V; Varela-Petrucelli, J B; Martínez-Mandiche, J; Suárez, J A; Domínguez, L; Zaldívar, Y; Bermúdez, S

    2018-05-01

    The clinical and pathologic characterisation of two fatal cases of tick-borne rickettsiosis in rural (El Valle) and urban (City of Panama) Panama are described. Clinical and autopsy findings were non-specific, but the molecular analysis was used to identify Rickettsia rickettsii in both cases. No ticks were collected in El Valle, while in the urban case, R. rickettsii was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., representing the first molecular finding in this tick in Panama and Central America.

  1. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viol, Milena Araúz; Guerrero, Felix D; de Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; Loiola, Saulo Hudson; de Melo, Guilherme Dias; de Souza Gomes, Aparecida Helena; Kanamura, Cristina Takami; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Andreotti, Renato; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-09-01

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the DNA of Leishmania spp. has been reported in whole ticks. We investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from tick-infested dogs in two cities of Brazil. We used 66 dogs that tested positive and 33 that tested negative for Leishmania spp. according to direct cytological examination assays. Ten ticks were collected from each dog and dissected to collect the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IHC results showed Leishmania spp. in 98, 14, and 8 % of the intestines, ovaries, and salivary glands, respectively. Real-time PCR showed that 89, 41, and 33 % of the tick intestine, ovary, and salivary glands, respectively, were positive for Leishmania spp. The verification of promastigotes of Leishmania spp. by two independent techniques in ticks collected from these urban region dogs showed that there is need for clarification of the role of ticks in the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

  2. Rickettsia rickettsii infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille 1806), in high altitude atlantic forest fragments, Ceara State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; da Costa Cavalcante, Robson; de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; de Lima Duré, Ana Íris; de Melo Iani, Felipe Campos; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2017-09-01

    In Brazil, Spotted Fever (SF) is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic Forest. In recent years, several human cases of a milder SF have been reported from the Maciço de Baturité region of Ceará State. Previous studies in this region found R. parkeri strain Atlantic Forest to be present in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale ticks. The present study isolated and identified the Rickettsia spp. present in this new endemic area in Brazil. In March 2015, R. sanguineus s.l. and A. ovale were collected in rural areas of the Maciço de Baturité region, and subjected to the isolation technique. A bacterium was isolated from one R. sanguineus s.l., which phylogenetic analysis clustered to the R. rickettsii group. In conclusion, R. rickettsii bacteria is circulating in the studied area and may in future have an impact on the clinical diagnoses and consequently cause changes in the profile of the disease in the region. In addition, we suggest the increase of epidemiological and environmental surveillance in the area, in order to prevent Brazilian Spotted Fever cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Analysis of the use of fenthion via epicutaneous in dogs for Rhipicephalus sanguineus control Análise do uso de fenthion via epicutânea em cães para o controle de Rhipicephalus sanguineus

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    Fernando de Freitas Fernandes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of fenthion was studied in a 15% epicutaneous formulation upon Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which may transmit pathogens to men and other animals, such as Ehrlichia, Babesia and Ricketsia. Dogs were artificially infected for the trial. The fenthion bioassays were begun four months after artificial infestation. The test group, having a mean of 186 ticks per dog, received the formulation dosage according to body weight on the neck region. Tick counts were performed, considering diameters > or = 2mm, during 11 days of treatment, in the most affected body areas: back, ears and paws. Before the application of fenthion in the dogs, it were observed an average 43.3% ticks in the ears, 38.1% in the back area and 17.6% in the paws. The number of ticks in dogs decreased by 36.2%, 63.8%, 82.7%, 67%, 40% and 4.9%, respectively on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 after treatment. R. sanguineus anti-tick activity, lower than that officially recommended, was verified. The number of ticks increased progressively after the 5th day, demonstrating residual insecticide inefficacy. The results obtained did not indicate the use of this formulation, at the tested dosage, as an elective measure for R. sanguineus control.Investigou-se a atividade de fenthion em formulação epicutânea a 15% sobre Rhipicephalus sanguineus, transmissor de patógenos ao homem e animais, tais como Ehrlichia, Babesia e Ricketsia. Infestou-se artificialmente cães com larvas deste carrapato. Os bioensaios com o fenthion iniciaram-se 4 meses após a infestação artificial. Constatada a média de 186 ixodídeos/cão, cães do grupo teste receberam na região da nuca a dosagem correspondente ao seu peso. Avaliaram-se a eficiência e a atividade residual através de contagens dos carrapatos com diâmetro > ou = 2mm, durante 11 dias, nas áreas corpóreas mais parasitadas: dorso, orelhas e patas. Anteriormente, à aplicação do fenthion, 44,3% dos carrapatos format observados nas orelhas

  4. High prevalence of Hepatozoon-infection among shepherd dogs in a region considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Tánczos, Balázs; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; de la Fuente, José; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Farkas, Róbert

    2013-09-01

    Blood samples and ticks were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs in southern Hungary, in order to screen them for the presence of Hepatozoon spp. by PCR. Out of 126 blood samples, 33 were positive (26%). Significantly more shepherd dogs (31%) were infected, than hunting (8%) and stray dogs (7%). Three genotypes of Hepatozoon canis were identified by sequencing, differing from each other in up to six nucleotides in the amplified portion of their 18S rRNA gene. In Dermacentor marginatus larvae/nymphs and Dermacentor reticulatus nymphs, H. canis was present only if they had been collected from PCR-positive dogs, and the genotypes were identical in the ticks and their hosts. However, two Haemaphysalis concinna nymphs removed from a PCR-negative dog were found positive for H. canis, and the genotype detected in specimens of this tick species differed from that in the blood of their respective hosts. These results indicate that canine hepatozoonosis may be highly prevalent in regions where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is considered to be non-endemic. In addition, H. canis was identified for the first time in Hungary, as well as in D. marginatus, D. reticulatus and Ha. concinna ticks. Canine hepatozoonosis was significantly more prevalent west of the Danube river (where higher densities of red fox and golden jackal populations occur), suggesting a role of wild carnivores in its epidemiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The combined mode of action of fipronil and amitraz on the motility of Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prullage, Joseph B; Tran, Hai V; Timmons, Phil; Harriman, Jay; Chester, S Theodore; Powell, Kerrie

    2011-07-15

    The motility of adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus was evaluated subsequent to treatments of amitraz, fipronil and the combination of fipronil plus amitraz against a vehicle control in a Petri dish assay using the LemnaTec Scanalyzer Imaging System. The assay was run using a fixed dilution of amitraz (0.32μg/cm(2)); serial dilutions of fipronil (1.3, 0.33, 0.08, 0.02, or 0.005μg/cm(2)); and the same serial dilutions of fipronil in combination with the fixed dilution of amitraz. Measurement of motility was made of unstimulated ticks and then after stimulation at 1, 4, 18-22, and 24h post exposure (hpe) of the Petri dishes. For the unstimulated ticks, there was no difference in motility between the amitraz treatment group and the fipronil plus amitraz treatment group at the early time points. However, these two treatment groups had significantly higher motility than the solvent control and fipronil treatment groups. The unstimulated ticks in the amitraz treatment group had significantly higher motility than the fipronil plus amitraz treatment group at the later time points. Measurements after stimulation demonstrated there was no difference in motility between the amitraz treatment group and the fipronil plus amitraz treatment group at the early time points. By 18 hpe, the fipronil plus amitraz treatment group had significantly lower motility than all other treatment groups and at 21-22 and 24 hpe the other treatment groups did not differ from the control group. The action could be divided in two phases in the combination experiment: phase 1: an early increase in motility due to amitraz is identified in both amitraz alone or fipronil plus amitraz groups; phase 2: the combination of fipronil plus amitraz caused a significantly greater reduction in motility, suggesting mortality of the ticks, compared to fipronil or amitraz alone. These results demonstrate a synergism resulting from the combination of fipronil plus amitraz. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Revision sobre la biologia de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Arthropoda, Chelicerata(Latreille, 1806

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    Romina Alvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las garrapatas, corresponden a un grupo de arácnidos ectoparásitos, los cuales afectan principalmente a vertebrados terrestres, su identificación se hace por medio de análisis morfométricos y moleculares. Dentro de este grupo se encuentra Rhipicephalus sanguineus el cual afecta poblaciones de perros domésticos, esta especie de amplia distribución geográfica en el territorio chileno, y es de alta importancia, porque es un agente transmisor de enfermedades que podrían afectar a los hospedadores, así como a las poblaciones humanas asociadas. En la presente revisión, se describe brevemente el ciclo de vida y la biología de R. sanguineus y se comentan las implicancias para efectos de sanidad ambiental.

  7. Eventos externos e internos da infecção de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae External and internal events of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs infection by Metarhizium anisopliae

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    M.V. Garcia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se a adesão, a germinação, a penetração e a colonização de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae, assim como as lesões infringidas pelo fungo nas respectivas fases do ciclo de vida do ácaro. Realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos contendo 250 larvas e 11 grupos contendo 75 ninfas de R. sanguineus, por meio de banho, durante três minutos sob agitação manual, em suspensão contendo 10(8 conídios/ml do fungo. Nos grupos-controles, o banho foi realizado usando o veículo da suspensão. Larvas e ninfas foram processadas para um estudo histopatológico e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura nos seguintes tempos após a infecção: uma e 18 horas, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e 11 dias. A germinação dos conídios ocorreu em até 18 horas pós-inoculação, e o fungo penetrou nas larvas e ninfas através do tegumento, dois e três dias após a infecção, respectivamente. Após penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo das larvas e ninfas, promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Lesões significativas não foram observadas. A morte das larvas e ninfas ocorreu no terceiro e quarto dias pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver foi iniciada no sexto dia pós-infecção.The adhesion, germination and colonization of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs by Metarhizium anisopliae as well as the lesions caused by the fungus were studied. For this purpose, 11 groups of 250 larvae each and 11 groups of 75 nymphs each were bathed during 3 minutes under manual shaking in a 10(8 conidia/ml suspension. Corresponding control groups were bathed only in the suspension vehicle. Ticks were also submitted to both conventional microscopy and scanning eletronmicrocopy analyses at several post-infection periods (1 and 18 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 days. Conidial germination occurred in less

  8. First detection of Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Dobler, Gerhard; Schaper, Sabine; Küpper, Thomas; Kattner, Simone; Wölfel, Silke

    2017-11-01

    Ticks are important vectors for Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group all around the world. Rickettsia conorii is the etiological agent of boutonneuse fever in the Mediterranean region and Africa. Tick identification was based on morphological features and further characterized using the 16S rRNA gene. The ticks were individually tested using pan-Rickettsia real-time-PCR for screening, and 23S-5S intergenic spacer region, 16S rDNA, gltA, sca4, ompB, and ompA genes were used to analyze the Rickettsia positive samples. Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia was detected in tick collected in Zambia for the first time, thus demonstrating the possibility of the occurrence of human disease, namely Astrakhan fever, due to this Rickettsia ssp. in this region of Africa. The prevalence of R. conorii ssp. caspia was 0.06% (one positive tick out of 1465 tested ticks) and 0.07% (one positive tick out of 1254 tested Rh. sanguineus).

  9. Caracterização dos tipos celulares presentes na hemolinfa de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae em diferentes estados nutricionais Characterization of the celular types present in the Haemolymph of larvae and nimphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae in different nutritional stages

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    Maria Elisa Carneiro

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of characterize morphologically the hemocytes of larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus on different nutritional phases, it was obtained samples of haemolymph were obtained by sectioning the forelegs and collecting the drop there formed. After dried, the samples were fixed by methanol and stained by Giemsa. Microscopical observation resulted in the characterization of five basic cellular types: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids. Moreover, undefined cell types, whose morphological patterns didn't have correlation with the characteristics cited for hemocytes, were found in low frequency. The change in the relative composition of the haemolimph was characterized by decrease of the number of granulocytes and greater variabilily of the cell types present in the hemolymph as the tick evolved. This fact may be linked to the alterations that these cells suffer along the development of the tick.

  10. Colonização e lesão em fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus causadas pelo fungo Metarhizium anisopliae Colonization and lesions on engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus, caused by Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Marcos Valerio Garcia

    2004-10-01

    . (SOROKIN, 1883], in to the Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (LATREILLE, 1806, as well as the lesions caused in the tissues of the acarus. The form of adherence and penetration of the fungus in the deep tissue was studied through scanning microscopy and the fungus action on the internal tissues was evaluated in conventional hystological sections. In order to evaluate these events, experimental infestations were conducted in 11 engorged females groups of the tick R. sanguineus, containing 12 engorged females in each. Aiming this goal the engorged females were submited to a bath in a conidial suspension in a concentration of 108 conidia/mL during three minutes under manual agitation. In case of control groups the bath was done only in the suspension vehicle. Ticks were processed for histological and scanning microscopy surveys at different intervals after the infection: 1 and 18h and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and eleven days. It has been observed that the major part of the conidians have germinated within 18h after the inoculation and that the fungus the penetrated the acarus body, trough it´s tegument 48h after the infection. After the penetration the fungus colonized the tick’s body in a diffuse manner, without any preference for a specific tissue. Among the lesions caused by the fungus, rupture of the tick’s intestinal wall and the dispersion of the fluid into the hemocel were the most outstanding features. Death of the host occurred 96h pos-infection and the sporulation of the pathogen over the dead acarus began 120 to 144h pos-infection. This work aims to contribute to the establishement of techniques for biological control of the ticks by fungus as an ecological alternative for acaricides.

  11. Potencial acaricida do óleo de andiroba Carapa guianensis Aubl. sobre fêmeas adultas ingurgitadas de Anocentor nitens Neumann, 1897 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 Acaricide potencial of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. oil on engorged adult females of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806

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    M.P.O. Farias

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial acaricida in vitro do óleo da semente da andiroba (Carapa guianensis sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Anocentor nitens (n=210 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=140, coletadas manualmente, respectivamente, de equinos e de cães naturalmente infestados. Para o teste de imersão, empregaram-se cinco diluições do óleo de andiroba, 100%, 50%, 30%, 25% e 10%, em água destilada, utilizando-se tween 80 como dispersante. No teste com A. nitens, foram usadas três repetições para cada diluição, utilizando-se 10 fêmeas ingurgitadas para cada tratamento. No teste com R. sanguineus, usaram-se duas repetições, e formaram-se, ainda, dois grupos-controle para cada espécie de ixodídeo, um com água destilada e outro com tween 80 mais água destilada. Após os testes, as fêmeas foram mantidas em laboratório sob temperatura ambiente. Observou-se mortalidade das fêmeas ingurgitadas e redução de postura, neste caso, com ovos inférteis, demonstrando eficácia de 100% nas duas espécies em todas as diluições testadas. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram a potencialidade do uso do extrato de andiroba contra A. nitens e R. sanguineus.In vitro acaricide potential of the oil from andiroba seed (Carapa guianensis was evaluated on engorged females of Anocentor nitens (n=210 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n=140 manually collected, from horses and dogs naturally infested, respectively. Five dilutions, 100%, 50%, 30%, 25%, and 10% of andiroba seed oil in deionized water, using tween 80 as dispersant, were employed for the engorged females immersion test. For A. nitens test, three repetitions were made with each dilution, using 10 engorged females for each treatment, and two repetitions for R. sanguineus test. Two control groups were used for each tick species, one with deionized water and another one with tween 80 and deionized water. After the tests, the females were kept in the laboratory under room temperature. Engorged female mortality and

  12. Parasitismo humano por Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (ACARI: IXODIDAE no Mato Grosso do Sul, Centro-Oeste do Brasil

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    Igor Cunha Lima Acosta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O parasitismo humano pelo carrapato marrom do cão, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. l., um importante parasita para a saúde pública e veterinária, é raramente relatado no continente americano. Este trabalho relata o registro de um macho de R. sanguineus s. l. parasitando um humano na cidade de Campo Grande, estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Essa observação é relevante para a saúde pública, uma vez que os carrapatos desse complexo são conhecidos como vetores de riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa para cães e humanos.

  13. Patogenicidade de isolados de Beauveria bassiana para ovos, larvas e ninfas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolates towards eggs, larvae and engorged nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus

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    Nancy Prette

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a ação dos isolados JAB 07, CB 7 e AM 9 do fungo Beauveria bassiana para ovos, larvas e ninfas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Padronizou-se a concentração de 109 conídios mL-1 para cada isolado e por meio de diluições seriadas, obtiveram-se as suspensões com concentrações de 10(8 e 10(7con. mL-1. Preparou-se um bioensaio para cada fase do ciclo de vida do carrapato. Cada ensaio foi composto por 10 grupos tratamentos, formados por um isolado do fungo e uma concentração de conídios, e um grupo controle contendo apenas o veículo das suspensões. Os isolados do fungo, aplicados nas diferentes concentrações de esporos, causaram redução no percentual de eclosão de larvas oriundas de ovos infectados (0,7 a 12,1% de eclosão e no percentual de ecdise de larvas (4,7 a 33,7% de ecdise e ninfas (0 a 16,7% de ecdise. Não houve diferença entre os isolados (P>0,05 quanto à infecção de ovos, mas a aplicação de 109 con./mL de JAB 07 e AM 9 promoveu redução significativa da eclosão de larvas, em relação à concentração de 10(7con. mL-1. O isolado CB 7 foi o mais eficaz na redução do número de ecdises de larvas. Os isolados e as concentrações de conídios não diferiram (P>0,05 quanto à capacidade de redução do percentual de ecdise de ninfas, mas evidenciou-se intensa atividade patogênica do fungo.The aim of the present study was to determine the action of isolates JAB 07, CB 7 and AM 9 of the fungus Beauveria bassiana on eggs, larvae and engorged nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. A concentration of 109 conidia mL-1 was standardized for each isolate and suspensions containing 10(8 and 10(7 conidia mL-1 were obtained by serial dilution. A bioassay was prepared for each phase of the life cycle of the tick. Each assay comprised 10 treatment groups, consisting of one fungal isolate and one conidial concentration, and one control group containing only the vehicle of

  14. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...

  15. Ethnobotanicals for management of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a study to assess the effect of ethnobotanical products on the behaviour of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the main vector of East Coast fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnoknowledge of the Bukusu people in western Kenya on tick control and

  16. Genome sequencing of Deutsch strain of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus: Raw Pac Bio reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac Bio RS II whole genome shotgun sequencing technology was used to sequence the genome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus. The DNA was derived from 14 day old eggs from the Deutsch Texas outbreak strain reared at the USDA-ARS Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory, Edinburg, TX. Each corre...

  17. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycete), Cypermethrin, and D-Limonene, Alone and Combined, on Larval Mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar Francisco; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Lezama-Gutiérrez, Roberto; García-Márquez, Luis Jorge; Minchaca-Llerenas, Yureida B; Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Tellez, Guillermo; Hargis, Billy; Skoda, Steven R; Foster, John E

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Ma14 strain, D-limonene, and cypermethrin, alone and combined, on the mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille larvae was evaluated. Eight separate groups with 25 tick larvae were inoculated with the fungus, cypermethrin, and D-limonene, and four groups were used as untreated controls. The groups were inoculated with serial dilutions of each treatment material: for example, conidial concentrations were 1 × 101, 1 × 102, 1 × 103, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108. A complete randomized experimental design was used. Significant differences were obtained between fungal concentrations, with larval mortalities ranging from 29 to 100%; the D-limonene concentrations showed significant differences, with mortalities that ranged from 47.9 to 82.6%, and cypermethrin mortalities ranged from 69.9 to 89.9% when each was applied alone. In the combined application, the serial dilution of the Ma14 fungus plus cypermethrin at 0.1% concentration caused mortalities ranging from 92.9 to 100%; the mix of serially diluted Ma14 plus D-limonene at 0.1% caused mortalities from 10.3 to 100%; and the mix consisting of serially diluted D-limonene plus cypermethrin at 0.1% caused mortalities from 7.4 to 35.9%. Further laboratory and field research could show that these materials, alone and in combinations, are useful in future tick management and control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS) enriched with different concentrations of azadirachtin on the integument of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima de Souza, José Ribamar; Remedio, Rafael Neodini; Arnosti, André; de Abreu, Rusleyd Maria Magalhães; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2017-08-01

    Several studies searching for methods to control Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., (dog tick) infestations have been developed aiming to minimize the damages caused by these ectoparasites to the hosts and the environment, which is harmed by the indiscriminate use of toxic acaricide products. In this scenario, neem oil has been used as a natural alternative against ticks, once this chemical has repellent properties and interferes in the growth regulation of these ectoparasites, inhibiting ecdysis. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin-enriched neem oil on the integument of semi-engorged R.sanguineus s.l., females through morphohistological techniques. The results showed the occurrence of significant morphological and histochemical alterations, mainly in the females exposed to higher concentrations, which demonstrates the dose-dependent action of the chemical. A decrease in the cuticle thickness was observed, as well as a modification in the distribution of the epithelial cells, which displayed pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, and intensely vacuolated cytoplasm, indicating that these cells would be undergoing death processes. These morphological alterations observed in the integument of the females exposed to the azadirachtin-enriched neem oil encourage the use of this chemical as a strategy to control these ectoparasites. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Determination of metabolic resistance mechanisms in pyrethroid-resistant and fipronil-tolerant brown dog ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is a three-host dog tick found worldwide that is able to complete its’ entire lifecycle indoors. Options for the management of R. sanguineus are limited and its’ control relies largely on only a few acaricidal active ingredients. Previous stud...

  20. Immune recognition of salivary proteins from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus differs according to the genotype of the bovine host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Nelson, Kristina T; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Maia, Antonio Augusto Mendes; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Kooyman, Frans N J; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads

  1. Cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae), and the quest for discovery of its natural enemies in the Balkan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus annulatus (CFT), is a hard tick native to the Mediterranean region that is invasive in the southwestern USA. The tick is known to develop on cattle and white tailed deer, and it transmits two lethal diseases, piroplasmosis and babesiosis. Extensive use of acaricides...

  2. Research and development of anti-tick vaccines for use in Texas and Puerto Rico Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year marks the first time anti-tick vaccination will be used in the United States and Puerto Rico to control, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus. The 110-year-old Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program has eradicated the southern cattle fever tick from the majority of the Unite...

  3. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  4. Range expansion of the economically important Asiatic blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in South Africa

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    Nkululeko Nyangiwe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, a known vector of bovine babesiosis and bovine anaplasmosis, is of great concern in the cattle industry. For this reason, detailed knowledge of the distribution of R. microplus is vital. Currently, R. microplus is believed to be associated mainly with the northern and eastern Savanna and Grassland vegetation in South Africa. The objective of the study was to record the distribution of R. microplus, and the related endemic Rhipicephalus decoloratus, in the central-western region of South Africa that comprises Albany Thicket, Fynbos and Savanna vegetation. In this survey, ticks were collected from 415 cattle in four provinces (Eastern Cape, Northern Cape and Western Cape and Free State provinces and from the vegetation in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa between October 2013 and September 2015. More than 8000 ticks were collected from cattle at 80 localities of which R. microplus was present at 64 localities and R. decoloratus at 47 localities. A total of 7969 tick larvae were recorded from the vegetation at 20 localities of which 6593 were R. microplus and 1131 were R. decoloratus. Rhipicephalus microplus was recorded in each of the regions that were sampled. Rhipicephalus microplus is now present throughout the coastal region of the Eastern Cape province and at multiple localities in the north-eastern region of the Northern Cape province. It was also recorded in the western region of the Western Cape province and one record was made for the Free State province. The observed range changes may be facilitated by the combined effects of environmental adaptability by the tick and the movement of host animals.

  5. Diversity and distribution of ticks from domestic ruminants in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaja, Mayssaa Fawaz; Tempesta, Maria; Bayan, Ali; Vesco, Gesualdo; Vesco, Gesualdo; Greco, Grazia; Torina, Alessandra; Blanda, Valeria; La Russa, Francesco; Scimeca, Salvatore; Ezzedine, Mohamad; Mortada, Hussein; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Mortada, Mohamad

    2017-06-30

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. A deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. Few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in Lebanon. The study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in Lebanon. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep, and goats farms distributed in 6 Lebanese provinces between June and September 2014. A total of 272 adult hard ticks were randomly collected from domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) located at 37 Lebanese farms, distributed among 30 villages. Ticks belonged to 4 Ixodidae genera: Rhipicephalus (72.4%), Haemaphysalis (11.4%), Dermacentor (8.1%), and Hyalomma (8.1%). They included the following species: Rhipicephalus annulatus (50.7%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (18.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum (8.1%), Haemaphylasis punctata (11.4%), Dermacentor marginatus (8.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.5%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.4%). Rhipicephalus turanicus and H. anatolicum were found on cattle, sheep, and goats, R. annulatus on cattle and sheep, R. sanguineus, D. marginatus and Hea. punctata on sheep and goats, while R. bursa was collected only on sheep. Tick species involved in pathogen transmission were found and some of the identi ed species were recorded in Lebanon for the rst time.

  6. On a Cercopithifilaria sp. transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus: a neglected, but widespread filarioid of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otranto Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed at investigating the distribution of a Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 with dermal microfilariae recently identified in a dog from Sicily (Italy. A large epidemiological survey was conducted by examining skin samples (n = 917 and ticks (n = 890 collected from dogs at different time points in Italy, central Spain and eastern Greece. Results The overall prevalence of Cercopithifilaria sp. in the sampled animal populations was 13.9% and 10.5% by microscopy of skin sediments and by PCR on skin samples, respectively. Up to 21.6% and 45.5% of dogs in Spain were positive by microscopical examination and by PCR. Cumulative incidence rates ranging from 7.7% to 13.9% were estimated in dogs from two sites in Italy. A low level of agreement between the two diagnostic tests (microscopical examination and PCR was recorded in sites where samples were processed in parallel. Infestation rate as determined by tick dissection (from 5.2% to 16.7% was higher than that detected by PCR (from 0% to 3.9%; tick infestation was significantly associated with Cercopithifilaria sp. infestation in dogs from two out of four sites. Developing larvae found in ticks were morphometrically studied and as many as 1469 larvae were found in a single tick. Conclusions Our data suggest that, in addition to the most common species of filarioids known to infest dogs (i.e., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Cercopithifilaria sp. with dermal microfilariae should be considered due to its widespread distribution in southern Europe and high frequency in tick-exposed dogs.

  7. Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus-Host Interface: A Review of Resistant and Susceptible Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala E. Tabor

    2017-12-01

    contained higher numbers of eosinophils, mast cells and basophils with up-regulated proteases, cathepsins, keratins, collagens and extracellular matrix proteins in response to feeding ticks. Here we review immunological and molecular determinants that explore the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus-host resistance phenomenon as well as contemplating new insights and future directions to study tick resistance and susceptibility, in order to facilitate interventions for tick control.

  8. Efficacy of hydroalcoholic extracts of two plantson adult ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Néstor Julián Pulido Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of the natural extract of Verbena officinalisL. and Ruta graveolens L. in vitro monitoring ofadult tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus wasestablished. The extract of each plant was obtained bymaceration. For testing two sizes (small and medium of adult ticks were exposed to extracts of each plant,by immersion technique. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 h ofexposure, mortality was recorded taken as 60% mortality as the effective minimum. Initial tests were conducted with pure extracts, and if efficacy detected, increaseddilutions were made to establish the minimum efficiency. Tests were conducted in cool climates conditions. The extract of R. graveolens (rue, showed effectiveness in small and medium tick only with the pure extract; V. officinalis (common vervain was effective on small and medium-tick in dilution 5:10. V. officinalis showed greater efficacy and found that the best results wereobtained at higher concentrations.

  9. A new method for in vitro feeding of Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Rhipicephalus microplus) larvae: a valuable tool for tick vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Jos J. A.; Kleuskens, Jos A. G. M.; van de Crommert, Jos; Schetters, Theo P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is a hard tick that has a major impact on cattle health in tropical and subtropical regions because it feeds on cattle and is implicated in the transmission of pathogens that cause diseases such as bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Presently, acaricides are used to control

  10. Experimental infection of Rickettsia parkeri in the Rhipicephalus microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; Cepeda, Patricia Barizon; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; de Almeida Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Pinter, Adriano; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate, by means of artificial feeding, the interaction between a pathogenic rickettsia and the hard tick R. microplus. We used partially engorged females fed on calves free of Rickettsia spp. Group 1 (G1), containing 20 ticks, was fed bovine blood only. Group 2 (G2), containing 20 ticks, was fed blood containing uninfected VERO cells, and group 3 (G3), containing 40 ticks, was fed blood containing VERO cells infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase and a possible bacterial transmission to the tick eggs and to guinea pigs were evaluated. At the end of oviposition, all G3 females were PCR-positive for genes specific for the genus Rickettsia. Although no guinea pigs were infected, the experimental infection of R. microplus by R. parkeri caused a deleterious effect on the oviposition and provided the first report of transovarian transmission of rickettsia in this tick. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Parasites and pathogens of ticks ( Rhipicephalus species Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction of ticks with its environment as well as its natural hosts predisposes it to acquiring pathogens that could pose animal and human health risks. Identifying these pathogens could alert dog owners and others to reassess the predisposing factors and ensure control. The aim of the study was to identify the species ...

  12. Global comparative analysis of ESTs from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Pertea Geo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an economically important parasite of cattle and can transmit several pathogenic microorganisms to its cattle host during the feeding process. Understanding the biology and genomics of R. microplus is critical to developing novel methods for controlling these ticks. Results We present a global comparative genomic analysis of a gene index of R. microplus comprised of 13,643 unique transcripts assembled from 42,512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs, a significant fraction of the complement of R. microplus genes. The source material for these ESTs consisted of polyA RNA from various tissues, lifestages, and strains of R. microplus, including larvae exposed to heat, cold, host odor, and acaricide. Functional annotation using RPS-Blast analysis identified conserved protein domains in the conceptually translated gene index and assigned GO terms to those database transcripts which had informative BlastX hits. Blast Score Ratio and SimiTri analysis compared the conceptual transcriptome of the R. microplus database to other eukaryotic proteomes and EST databases, including those from 3 ticks. The most abundant protein domains in BmiGI were also analyzed by SimiTri methodology. Conclusion These results indicate that a large fraction of BmiGI entries have no homologs in other sequenced genomes. Analysis with the PartiGene annotation pipeline showed 64% of the members of BmiGI could not be assigned GO annotation, thus minimal information is available about a significant fraction of the tick genome. This highlights the important insights in tick biology which are likely to result from a tick genome sequencing project. Global comparative analysis identified some tick genes with unexpected phylogenetic relationships which detailed analysis attributed to gene losses in some members of the animal kingdom. Some tick genes were identified which had close orthologues to mammalian genes

  13. Pyrosequencing based assessment of bacterial diversity in Turkish Rhipicephalus annulatus and Dermacentor marginatus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Saban; Dowd, Scot E; Davinic, Marko; Bursali, Ahmet; Keskin, Adem

    2017-03-01

    Ticks continue to be a threat to human and animal health in Turkey, as they are considered important vectors of human and animal diseases. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the microbial communities of two tick species, Rhipicephalus annulatus and Dermacenter marginatus, analyze patterns of co-occurrence among microbial taxa, identify and compare pathogens contributing human diseases, and determine whether avirulent symbionts could exclude human pathogens from tick communities. Furthermore, this study explores a microbiome of the R. annulatus and D. marginatus via the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to describe their bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females isolated from humans from two high-risk Turkish provinces, Sivas and Amasya, during tick outbreaks in 2009. A total of 36,253 sequences were utilized for analyses of the 8 tick samples. Several pathogenic genera such as Francisella, Coxiella, Rickettsia, and Shigella were detected in the ticks tested. The most distinguishable difference between the two species of ticks was the lack of known human pathogen Rickettsia in R. annulatus and in samples 9 and 10 of D. marginatus. These samples had higher relative abundance of Flavobacterium sp., Curvibacter sp., Acidovorax sp., and Bacteroidaceae genera mostly representing symbionts which form a large component of normal tick microbiota. The outcome of this study is consistent with the predictions of the community ecological theory that diversity-rich bacteriomes are more resistant to bacterial invasion (and consequent pathogen dissemination) than diversity-deprived ones.

  14. Anti-tick monoclonal antibody applied by artificial capillary feeding in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsioroski, Andressa Varella; Bezerra, Isis Abel; Utiumi, Kiyoko Uemura; Driemeier, David; Farias, Sandra Estrazulas; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Masuda, Aoi

    2012-04-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus is an ectoparasite harmful to livestock, a vector of disease agents that affects meat and milk production. However, resistance to acaricides reflects the need for alternative tick control methods, among which vaccines have gained increasing relevance. In this scenario, monoclonal antibodies can be used to identify and characterize antigens that can be used as vaccine immunogens. Capillary tube artificial feeding of partially engorged R. microplus females with monoclonal antibodies against proteins from the gut of tick were used to test the effects of immunoglobulins in the physiology of the parasite. The results of artificial feeding showed that female ticks over 25mg and under 60 mg in weight performed better in the artificial feeding process, with a 94-168% weight increase after 24h of feeding. Results showed that artificial feeding of ticks proved to be a viable technique to study the effects of antibodies or drugs in the physiology of the parasite. One monoclonal antibody (BrBm2) induced decreased oviposition. Moreover, the antigen recognized by BrBm2 was identified as a 27-kDa protein and immunolabeled on digestive vesicles membranes of digestive cells of partially and fully engorged females. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongejan Frans

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The morphological and genetic differences among R. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from America/Africa and those from Australia being different species. To test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we performed a series of experiments to characterize the reproductive performance of crosses between R. microplus from Australia, Africa and America and the genetic diversity of strains from Australia, Asia, Africa and America. Results The results showed that the crosses between Australian and Argentinean or Mozambican strains of boophilid ticks are infertile while crosses between Argentinean and Mozambican strains are fertile. These results showed that tick strains from Africa (Mozambique and America (Argentina are the same species, while ticks from Australia may actually represent a separate species. The genetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and microsatellite loci were not conclusive when taken separately, but provided evidence that Australian tick strains were genetically different from Asian, African and American strains. Conclusion The results reported herein support the hypothesis that at least two different species share the name R. microplus. These species could be redefined as R. microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (for American and African strains and probably the old R. australis Fuller, 1899 (for Australian strains, which needs to be redescribed. However, experiments with a larger number of tick strains from different geographic locations are needed to corroborate these results.

  16. An integrative approach to understanding pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus and R. decoloratus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyk, Roelof Dj van; Baron, Samantha; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus decoloratus species occur in regions with savannah and temperate climates, typically in grassland and wooded areas used as cattle pasture. Both species are associated with the transmission of Anaplasma and Babesia spp., impacting livestock health and quality of livestock-associated products. In Africa, tick control is predominantly mediated with the use of acaricides, such as synthetic pyrethroids. After several years on the market, reports of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids escalated but limited field data and validation studies have been conducted to determine the extent of acaricide resistance in Africa. Without this data, knowledge-based tick control will remain problematic and selection pressure will remain high increasing the rate of resistance acquisition. To date, several pyrethroid resistance associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported for arthropods within the voltage-gated sodium channel. Three SNPs have been identified within this channel in pyrethroid resistant R. microplus ticks, but none has been reported for R. decoloratus. This study is the first to report the presence of a shared SNP within the voltage-gated sodium channel in both R. microplus and R. decoloratus, which is directly linked to pyrethroid resistance in R. microplus. As the mode of action by which these SNPs mediate pyrethroid resistance remains unknown, this study aims to set hypotheses by means of predictive structural modelling. This not only paves the way forward to elucidating the underlying biological mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance, but also improvement of existing acaricides and ultimately sustainable tick control management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Immune recognition of salivary proteins from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus differs according to the genotype of the bovine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Nelson, Kristina T; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Maia, Antonio Augusto Mendes; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Kooyman, Frans N J; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K F

    2017-03-14

    Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads with cattle ticks are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, in others, few ticks feed and they reproduce inefficiently. Different patterns of humoral immunity against tick salivary proteins may explain these phenotypes. We describe the profiles of humoral responses against tick salivary proteins elicited during repeated artificial infestations of bovines of a tick-resistant (Nelore) and a tick-susceptible (Holstein) breed. We measured serum levels of total IgG1, IgG2 and IgE immunoglobulins and of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies specific for tick salivary proteins. With liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry we identified tick salivary proteins that were differentially recognized by serum antibodies from tick-resistant and tick-susceptible bovines in immunoblots of tick salivary proteins separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Baseline levels of total IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly higher in tick-susceptible Holsteins compared with resistant Nelores. Significant increases in levels of total IgG1, but not of IgG2 accompanied successive infestations in both breeds. Resistant Nelores presented with significantly higher levels of salivary-specific antibodies before and at the first challenge with tick larvae; however, by the third challenge, tick-susceptible Holsteins presented with significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2 tick salivary protein-specific antibodies. Importantly, sera from tick-resistant Nelores reacted with 39 tick salivary proteins in immunoblots of salivary proteins separated in two dimensions by electrophoresis versus only 21 spots reacting with sera from tick-susceptible Holsteins. Levels of tick saliva

  18. Functional genomics studies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks in response to infection with the cattle protozoan parasite, Babesia bigemina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antunes, S.; Galindo, R. C.; Almazán, C.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Shkap, V.; do Rosário, A.; de la Fuente, J.; Domingos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2012), s. 187-195 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Genomics * Babesia * Rhipicephalus * Boophilus * RNA interference * Vaccine Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751912000033

  19. Cattle Fever Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Acari: Ixodidae): potential control on pastures by the application of urea fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, spends as much as 80–90% of its life cycle as a larva questing for a host. Standard control methods are limited to on-host applications, leaving a need for methods directed at the pasture infesting stages. Reports from Brazil indic...

  20. Effect of immersion time on efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against engorged females of Cattle Fever Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were tested for their effects on virulence and reproductive parameters of engorged females of the cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Deutch strain) using an adult immersion test. The treatments included nematode in the genus Stein...

  1. Transcriptome database derived from the Texas Deutsch outbreak strain population of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, vectors Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are the protozoans causing cattle fever, a disease that is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America, and Australia. We ini...

  2. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pazinato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus. Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10 in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, cedar (Cedrus atlantica, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total, egg’s weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  3. OCORRÊNCIA DE Rhipicephalus sanguineus EM TRABALHADORES DE CLÍNICAS VETERINÁRIAS E CANIS, NO MUNICÍPIO DE GOIÂNIA, GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus sanguineus é um parasito natural de cães que eventualmente pode parasitar outros hospedeiros, entre eles o homem. Para humanos, este carrapato é vetor do agente da febre botonosa (Rickettsia conori na Europa e vetor potencial no Brasil dos agentes da febre maculosa (Rickettsia rickettsii e da borreliose Lyme símile (Borrelia sp.. Considerando a importância deste carrapato, desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a sua ocorrência em humanos no Brasil, uma vez que não se conhecem outros relatos. A presença de carrapatos foi avaliada em 46 trabalhadores de ambos os sexos (25 mulheres e21 homens, de oito clínicas e três canis, por meio de questionário e da identificação dos carrapatos encontrados. Do total de pessoas avaliadas, 68% das mulheres e 71% dos homens relataram já ter encontrado carrapatos andando ou fixados, após contato com cães. Foram colhidos três larvas, uma ninfa e quatro adultos (três machos e uma fêmea sendo todos identificados como da espécie R. sanguineus. Desta forma este é o primeiro relato do parasitismo de humanos por este carrapato no Brasil. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Carrapatos de cão, humanos, Brasil.

  4. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick Rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Rot, A; Ment, D; Barel, S; Glazer, I; Gindin, G

    2014-12-15

    High infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. The present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. It demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of the fungus under field conditions. During the summer, 93% of tick females exposed to fungus-contaminated ground died within 1 week, whereas during the winter, only 62.2% died within 6 weeks. Nevertheless, the hatchability of their eggs was only 6.1% during the summer and 0.0% during winter. Covering the ground with grass, leaves or gravel improved fungal performance. Aside from killing female ticks, the fungus had a substantial effect on tick fecundity. Fungal infection reduced the proportion of female ticks laying full-size egg masses by up to 91%, and reduced egg hatchability by up to 100%. To reduce the negative effect of outdoor factors on fungal activity, its conidia were mixed with different oils (olive, canola, mineral or paraffin at 10% v/v) and evaluated in both laboratory and field tests for efficacy. All tested oils without conidia sprayed on the sand did not influence tick survival or weight of the laid eggs but significantly reduced egghatchability. Conidia in water with canola or mineral oil spread on agarose and incubated for 18 h showed 57% and 0% germination, respectively. Comparing, under laboratory conditions, the effects of adding each of the four oils to conidia in water on ticks demonstrated no effect on female mortality or weight of the laid egg mass, but the percentage of hatched eggs was reduced. In outdoor trials, female ticks placed on the ground sprayed with conidia in water yielded an average of 175 larvae per female and there was no hatching of

  5. Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Felipe Marciano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Marciano A.F., Coutinho-Rodrigues C.J.B., Perinotto W.M.S., Camargo M.G., Gôlo P.S., Sá F.A., Quinelato S., Freitas M.C., Angelo I.C., Nogueira M.R.S. & Bittencourt V.R.E.P. [Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.] Metarhizium anisopliae: influência do pH na atividade enzimática e no controle de Rhipicephalus microplus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:85-90, 2015. Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 47, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: vaniabit@ufrrj.br Rhipicephalus microplus ticks are one of the major agents causing substantial losses to livestock worldwide. In the search for alternative control strategies, both in vitro and in vivo use of the arthropodpathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has shown promising results against this ectoparasite. During host colonization, protease production by M. anisopliae is considered one important virulence factor once it is directly related to the active penetration process carried by the fungus on the full host cuticle. Nevertheless, limitations as environmental pH may modulate the proteases production and/or activity, as well as, the fungal virulence. The current study aimed evaluate the virulence and total protease activity of M. anisopliae CG 148 sensu lato (s.l.. Fungal aqueous suspensions or 5% mineral oil formulations were used in different pH ranges (5, 7, or 9. Suspensions and formulations were prepared using a pH meter and adjusted to 108 spores mL-1. In the bioassay, four groups were formed for each pH range: the aqueous fungal suspension, the oil-based fungal formulation and their respective controls (aqueous and oil-based, totaling 12 groups. Engorged females were immersed for 3 minutes and maintained under optimal conditions for evaluation of biological parameters. Total protease activity of the artificial medium (after

  6. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

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    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals. Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. They were infested with 10,000 larvae in June/20/2011. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers. Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. The heifers remained all the tick parasitic life cycle in individual pens inside a closed shed at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. Tick females bigger than 4.5 mm were counted in the right side from day 20 to 22 after the artificial infestation. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5,000 female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation (day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning (8:30 – 10:00 A.M.. Cortisol was measured by immunoassay (EIA and the D.O. (optical density at 420 nm was converted in ng of cortisol/mL of serum sample. The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. Data from serum cortisol were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using the presence of the artifacts (necklace and chamber and sampling day as independent variables and serum cortisol as the dependent variable. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. The presence of

  7. Filiform papilla of holstein’s tongue and its relation with the Rhipicephalus microplus tick resistance

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    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies describe anatomical, morphological and histological analysis of domestic and wild animals tongue. The tongue is an extendable muscular organ that performs gripping, chewing, and swallowing food actions and executes tasting and mechanical body self-cleaning functions (grooming. The distribution of these tongue characteristics may vary, according to different species, but studies made with different animals classes reveal the filiform papilla acting in mechanical body cleaning function. In order to evaluate these mechanical functions, especially the self-cleaning one, we proposed to investigate filiform papillae length or its base dimensions would be related to the heifers resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Biopsies were performed in eight (8 Holstein heifers’ tongues, with a 6 mm diameter punch, in the anterior third of tongues, at the distance of 3 cm from its tip. The animals were anesthetized with xylazine hydrochloride 2%, a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant and received local anesthetic, hydrochloride 2.0 g lidocaine. After tissue removal, the local lesions received an ointment of triamcinolone acetonide, 1.0 mg g-1. The Holstein heifers were one year and half old and naturally infested with ticks in a paddock situated at “Instituto de Zootecnia”. We monitored their natural infestation by counting females ticks, greater than 4.5 mm, presents in every animal, in four weekly evaluations (from 8 to 28 December – 2011. These samples were submitted to technical process of fixation and dehydration (as required by in the scanning electron microscope study, in the laboratory NAP/MEPA - ESALQ-USP. The papillae were visualized and measured with the aid of the measurement tool between two points of the software in the scanning electron microscope Zeiss LEO 435VP. Statistically analyses were performed by the SPSSP 12.0 program in a complete randomized design. We employed the Oneway method for variance analysis to

  8. Controle de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae no canil da Escola de Veterinária da UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Control of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae in the kennel of the UFMG Veterinary School, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Gustavo F. Paz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como proposta controlar uma infestação natural de Rhipicephalus sanguineus em um canil pertencente à Escola de Veterinária da UFMG, com uma área de 72 m² e 25 cães de diversas raças. Um teste de sensibilidade a produtos acaricidas foi aplicado em uma amostra de carrapatos capturados no canil. Dos produtos testados: Amitraz 12,5% (Produto 1; uma associação de Alfametrina 2% e Dichlorvós 60% (produto 2; Deltametrina 5% (produto 3 e uma associação de Trichlorfon 77,6%, Coumaphós 1% e Cyfluthrin 1% (produto 4; somente os produtos 1 e 4 apresentaram 100% de eficácia. O Amitraz 12,5% foi utilizado no controle dos estádios de R. sanguineus presentes no ambiente do canil, com um esquema de 4 aplicações a cada 7 dias de intervalo. Para os estádios parasitários, um único tratamento com Flumetrina 1.0% pour-on foi empregado em todos os animais. A inspeção e o monitoramento do ambiente e dos animais foram realizados durante um período de um ano. Estas medidas de controle reduziram significativamente a população de carrapatos dentro do canil. O canil não apresentou infestação pelo carrapato nos seis meses seguintes aos tratamentos. Uma infestação leve foi observada no 7º mês pós-tratamento, quando foi realizada uma nova aplicação de Amitraz 12,5% no ambiente do canil e um novo tratamento com Flumetrina 1.0% pour-on nos animais, com resultados satisfatórios.The present work was aimed at proposing a control measure for Rhipicephalus sanguineus in a naturally infected kennel of 72 m² of the UFMG Veterinary School with 25 dogs of different breeds. A sensitivity test to acaricide products was applied in a sample of R. sanguineus. Out of the acaricide products tested: 12.5% Amitraz (product 1; 2% Alfamethrin and 60% Dichlorvos association (product 2; 5% Deltamethrin (product 3 and the association between 77.6% Trichlorfon, 1.0% Coumaphos and 1.0% Cyfluthrin (product 4; only 1 and 4 products showed 100

  9. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

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    Bendele Kylie G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP technique to characterize its bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females, eggs, and gut and ovary tissues from adult females derived from samples of R. microplus collected during outbreaks in southern Texas. Results Raw data from bTEFAP were screened and trimmed based upon quality scores and binned into individual sample collections. Bacteria identified to the species level include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus sciuri, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Finegoldia magna. One hundred twenty-one bacterial genera were detected in all the life stages and tissues sampled. The total number of genera identified by tick sample comprised: 53 in adult males, 61 in adult females, 11 in gut tissue, 7 in ovarian tissue, and 54 in the eggs. Notable genera detected in the cattle tick include Wolbachia, Coxiella, and Borrelia. The molecular approach applied in this study allowed us to assess the relative abundance of the microbiota associated with R. microplus. Conclusions This report represents the first survey of the bacteriome in the cattle tick using non-culture based molecular approaches. Comparisons of our results with previous bacterial surveys provide an indication of geographic variation in the assemblages of bacteria associated with R. microplus. Additional reports on the identification of new bacterial species maintained in nature by R. microplus that may be

  10. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to characterize its bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females, eggs, and gut and ovary tissues from adult females derived from samples of R. microplus collected during outbreaks in southern Texas. Results Raw data from bTEFAP were screened and trimmed based upon quality scores and binned into individual sample collections. Bacteria identified to the species level include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus sciuri, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Finegoldia magna. One hundred twenty-one bacterial genera were detected in all the life stages and tissues sampled. The total number of genera identified by tick sample comprised: 53 in adult males, 61 in adult females, 11 in gut tissue, 7 in ovarian tissue, and 54 in the eggs. Notable genera detected in the cattle tick include Wolbachia, Coxiella, and Borrelia. The molecular approach applied in this study allowed us to assess the relative abundance of the microbiota associated with R. microplus. Conclusions This report represents the first survey of the bacteriome in the cattle tick using non-culture based molecular approaches. Comparisons of our results with previous bacterial surveys provide an indication of geographic variation in the assemblages of bacteria associated with R. microplus. Additional reports on the identification of new bacterial species maintained in nature by R. microplus that may be pathogenic to its vertebrate hosts

  11. Rhipicephalus turanicus, a new vector of Hepatozoon canis.

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    Giannelli, Alessio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Annoscia, Giada; Buonavoglia, Canio; Lorusso, Eleonora; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-05-01

    The distribution of Hepatozoon canis mainly encompasses areas where its main tick vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, is present. However, the detection of this pathogen in dogs, foxes and golden jackals well outside the areas inhabited by this tick species reinforced the hypothesis that additional ixodids are involved in the life cycle and transmission of this protozoon. The present study provides, for the first time, data supporting the sporogonic development of H. canis in specimens of Rhipicephalus turanicus collected from a naturally infected fox from southern Italy. The epidemiological role of R. turanicus as a vector of H. canis is discussed, along with information on the potential use of cell cultures for the experimental infection with H. canis sporozoites. The in vitro infection of canine leucocytes by sporozoites from ticks is proposed as a potential tool for future in-depth studies on the biology of H. canis.

  12. Immune and biochemical responses in skin differ between bovine hosts genetically susceptible and resistant to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

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    Franzin, Alessandra Mara; Maruyama, Sandra Regina; Garcia, Gustavo Rocha; Oliveira, Rosane Pereira; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Bishop, Richard; Maia, Antônio Augusto Mendes; Moré, Daniela Dantas; Ferreira, Beatriz Rossetti; Santos, Isabel Kinney Ferreira de Miranda

    2017-01-31

    Ticks attach to and penetrate their hosts' skin and inactivate multiple components of host responses in order to acquire a blood meal. Infestation loads with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, whereas in others, few ticks feed and reproduce efficiently. In order to elucidate the mechanisms that result in the different outcomes of infestations with cattle ticks, we examined global gene expression and inflammation induced by tick bites in skins from one resistant and one susceptible breed of cattle that underwent primary infestations with larvae and nymphs of R. microplus. We also examined the expression profiles of genes encoding secreted tick proteins that mediate parasitism in larvae and nymphs feeding on these breeds. Functional analyses of differentially expressed genes in the skin suggest that allergic contact-like dermatitis develops with ensuing production of IL-6, CXCL-8 and CCL-2 and is sustained by HMGB1, ISG15 and PKR, leading to expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines that recruit granulocytes and T lymphocytes. Importantly, this response is delayed in susceptible hosts. Histopathological analyses of infested skins showed inflammatory reactions surrounding tick cement cones that enable attachment in both breeds, but in genetically tick-resistant bovines they destabilized the cone. The transcription data provided insights into tick-mediated activation of basophils, which have previously been shown to be a key to host resistance in model systems. Skin from tick-susceptible bovines expressed more transcripts encoding enzymes that detoxify tissues. Interestingly, these enzymes also produce volatile odoriferous compounds and, accordingly, skin rubbings from tick-susceptible bovines attracted significantly more tick larvae than rubbings from resistant hosts. Moreover, transcripts encoding secreted modulatory molecules by the tick were significantly more

  13. Molecular Detection and Characterization of Tick-borne Pathogens in Dogs and Ticks from Nigeria

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    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Eyal, Osnat; Guthmann, Yifat; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Background Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi) collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%), Ehrlichia canis (12.7%), Rickettsia spp. (8.8%), Babesia rossi (6.6%), Anaplasma platys (6.6%), Babesia vogeli (0.6%) and Theileria sp. (0.6%) was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%), H. canis (21.1%), Rickettsia spp. (10.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3%) and A. platys (1.9%) was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents. PMID:23505591

  14. Molecular detection and characterization of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria.

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    Joshua Kamani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%, Ehrlichia canis (12.7%, Rickettsia spp. (8.8%, Babesia rossi (6.6%, Anaplasma platys (6.6%, Babesia vogeli (0.6% and Theileria sp. (0.6% was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%, H. canis (21.1%, Rickettsia spp. (10.5%, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3% and A. platys (1.9% was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents.

  15. Investigation of tick vectors of Hepatozoon canis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondônia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  16. PI3K/PKB signaling in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryo cell line BME26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, L.; Fabres, A.; Logullo, C.; Esteves, E.; Daffre, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropods and important vectors of both human and animal diseases. In order to study the insulin triggered pathway and its possible roles during embryogenesis we are using a culture of embryonic Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus cells (BME26). Besides its metabolic role, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is widely described as crucial for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis and development. In such cascade Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH Kinase (PI3K) is hierarchically located upstream Protein Kinase B (PKB). Exogenous insulin is able to increase the expression level of PI3K's regulatory sub unity (p85), as determined by Real Time RT-PCR. In the presence of PI3K inhibitors (Wortmannin or LY294002) these effects were reversed. This correlates well with the activation of PKB by phosphorylation, as it appears to be PI3K-dependent. Additionally, PI3K inhibition increased the expression level of two insulin-regulated downstream targets from glycogen metabolism (GSK3b) and gluneogenesis (PEPCK) pathways. GSK3b inhibition by phosphorylation diminished in cells treated with PI3K inhibitors. These results strongly suggest the presence of an insulin sensitive PI3K-PKB axis in BME26 cells. The further study of PI3K and PKB activity in egg homogenates during embryogenesis may help us to understand the role of ISP for R. micro plus development

  17. PI3K/PKB signaling in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryo cell line BME26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, L.; Fabres, A.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP)]. E-mail: leoabreu@uenf.br; Esteves, E.; Daffre, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropods and important vectors of both human and animal diseases. In order to study the insulin triggered pathway and its possible roles during embryogenesis we are using a culture of embryonic Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus cells (BME26). Besides its metabolic role, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is widely described as crucial for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis and development. In such cascade Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH Kinase (PI3K) is hierarchically located upstream Protein Kinase B (PKB). Exogenous insulin is able to increase the expression level of PI3K's regulatory sub unity (p85), as determined by Real Time RT-PCR. In the presence of PI3K inhibitors (Wortmannin or LY294002) these effects were reversed. This correlates well with the activation of PKB by phosphorylation, as it appears to be PI3K-dependent. Additionally, PI3K inhibition increased the expression level of two insulin-regulated downstream targets from glycogen metabolism (GSK3b) and gluneogenesis (PEPCK) pathways. GSK3b inhibition by phosphorylation diminished in cells treated with PI3K inhibitors. These results strongly suggest the presence of an insulin sensitive PI3K-PKB axis in BME26 cells. The further study of PI3K and PKB activity in egg homogenates during embryogenesis may help us to understand the role of ISP for R. micro plus development.

  18. Synergistic action of fatty acids, sulphides and stilbene against acaricide-resistant Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceo-Medina, G N; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Borges-Argaez, R

    2016-09-15

    Six compounds in a methanolic extract of Petiveria alliacea stem (cis-stilbene; benzyl disulphide; benzyl trisulphide; and methyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, octadecadienoic acid and octadecenoic acid) are known to exercise acaricide activity against cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus larvae and adults. The synergistic effect of 57 combinations of these six compounds on acaricide activity against R. microplus was evaluated. Larvae immersion tests produced the lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% (LC 50 ) and 99% (LC 99 ) of the population. Adult immersion tests produced rates (%) for mortality, oviposition inhibition and eclosion inhibition. Individually, none of the compounds (1% concentration) exhibited acaricide activity (mortality ≤2.3%). When combined, however, nine mixtures exhibited a synergistic increase in activity, with high mortality rates (≥92%) in larvae. Values for LC 50 ranged from 0.07 to 0.51% and those for LC 99 from 0.66 to 5.16%. Thirty six compound mixtures had no significant activity (mortality ≤30%) against larvae. Two mixtures exhibited synergism against adults, with high rates (≥92%) of oviposition inhibition. The mixtures based on the benzyl disulphide+benzyl trisulphide pairing produced a synergistic effect against acaricide-resistant R. microplus larva and adults, and are therefore the most promising combination for controlling this ubiquitous ectoparasite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Leishmania spp. promastigotes in the intestines, ovaries and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus actively infesting dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand flies are recognized as the major vector of canine visceral leishmaniasis. However, in some areas of Brazil where sand flies do not occur, this disease is found in humans and dogs. There has been speculation that ticks might play a role in transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the D...

  20. TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS IN FAT BODY AND SALIVARY GLAND TISSUES IN THE CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus microplus

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    Sabrina Rita da Fonseca Rezende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Rezende S.deF., Fontenele M.R., Masuda C.A., de Oliveira P.L., Araujo H.M.M., Bittencourt V.R.E.P. & Leite M.de S. Toll-like receptors in fat body and salivary gland tissues in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. [Receptores Toll-like em corpo gorduroso e glândula salivar do carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus microplus]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:47-53, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, KM 47, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: milaneleite@ufrrj.br Toll-like receptors (TLRs play an important role in the recognition of pathogen components and subsequent activation of the innate immune response, which then leads to development of immune responses. In arthropods the fat body and salivary glands are important organs in the defense system against invading pathogens. In this study, we identified for the first time the presence of TLRs in fat body and salivary gland tissues of cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Our results show that the expression of TLRs in fat body tissue are not found in all cells, but is specific to some cell types, in salivary glands TLRs protein expression occur in acini structure. We suggest that immune pathways are active in both fat body and salivary glands in the tick. The potential use of TLRs as a target for vaccine formulations against is discussed.

  1. Atividade in vitro de permetrina, cipermetrina e deltametrina sobre larvas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari, Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes F.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigaram-se os efeitos toxicológicos in vitro de três piretróides em diferentes concentrações, formulados para uso pecuário, domiciliar e em cães, sobre larvas de R. sanguineus, objetivando monitorar sua suscetibilidade e fomentar seu controle. Utilizaram-se 1.604 larvas em jejum, com 15 a 21 dias, obtidas por infestação artificial em cão, imersas nas soluções testadas, contidas em dispositivos constituídos por placa de Petri descartável, papel filtro e parafina, mantidas em incubadoras do tipo BOD e observadas ao estereoscópio por 24h. Observaram-se excitabilidade, movimentação repetitiva, diminuição da locomoção, desprendimento, paralisia, "knock-down" e proliferação cuticular de gases e líquidos. A mortalidade na 24ª hora foi de 86,9%, 100,0%, 80,3%, 86,0%, 68,2% e 78,0%, respectivamente, para permetrina 1250ppm e 2500ppm, cipermetrina 150ppm e 300ppm, e deltametrina 25ppm e 50ppm. Não houve mortalidade no grupo controle.

  2. Molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks, Greece, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2017-11-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is transmitted to humans mainly through the bite of infected ticks. In Greece, only one clinical case has been observed, in 2008, but the seroprevalence in humans is relatively high (4.2%). To have a first insight into the circulation of CCHFV in Greece, 2000 ticks collected from livestock during 2012-2014 were tested. CCHFV was detected in 36 of the 1290 (2.8%) tick pools (1-5 ticks per pool). Two genetic lineages were identified: Europe 1 and Europe 2. Most Europe 1 sequences were obtained from Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks, while most Europe 2 sequences were recovered from Rhipicephalus bursa ticks. The number of collected Hyalomma marginatum ticks (the principal vector of CCHFV) was low (0.5% of ticks) and all were CCHFV negative. Since it is not known how efficient ticks of the Rhipicephalus genus are as vectors of the virus, laboratory studies will be required to explore the role of Rhipicephalus spp. ticks in CCHFV maintenance and transmission.

  3. The ovarian transcriptome of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a bovine host infected with Babesia bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekin, Andrew M; Guerrero, Felix D; Bendele, Kylie G; Saldivar, Leo; Scoles, Glen A; Dowd, Scot E; Gondro, Cedric; Nene, Vishvanath; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Brayton, Kelly A

    2013-09-23

    Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle with the most severe form of the disease caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis. Babesiosis is transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus. The most prevalent species is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. The transmission of B. bovis is transovarian and a previous study of the R. microplus ovarian proteome identified several R. microplus proteins that were differentially expressed in response to infection. Through various approaches, we studied the reaction of the R. microplus ovarian transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. A group of ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf while a second group fed on an uninfected splenectomized control calf. RNA was purified from dissected adult female ovaries of both infected and uninfected ticks and a subtracted B. bovis-infected cDNA library was synthesized, subtracting with the uninfected ovarian RNA. Four thousand ESTs were sequenced from the ovary subtracted library and annotated. The subtracted library dataset assembled into 727 unique contigs and 2,161 singletons for a total of 2,888 unigenes, Microarray experiments designed to detect B. bovis-induced gene expression changes indicated at least 15 transcripts were expressed at a higher level in ovaries from ticks feeding upon the B. bovis-infected calf as compared with ovaries from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. We did not detect any transcripts from these microarray experiments that were expressed at a lower level in the infected ovaries compared with the uninfected ovaries. Using the technique called serial analysis of gene expression, 41 ovarian transcripts from infected ticks were differentially expressed when compared with transcripts of controls. Collectively, our experimental approaches provide the first comprehensive profile of the

  4. Inhibition of the recombinant cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus glutathione S-transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneidy, Rasha A; Shahein, Yasser E; Abouelella, Amira M K; Zaki, Eman R; Hamed, Ragaa R

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is a bloodsucking ectoparasite that causes severe production losses in the cattle industry. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro effects of tannic acid, hematin (GST inhibitors) and different plant extracts (rich in tannic acid) on the activity of the recombinant glutathione S-transferase enzyme of the Egyptian cattle tick R. annulatus (rRaGST), in order to confirm their ability to inhibit the parasitic essential detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase. Extraction with 70% ethanol of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf flowers), Punica granatum (red and white pomegranate peel), Musa acuminata (banana peel) (Musaceae), Medicago sativa (alfalfa seeds), Tamarindus indicus (seed) and Cuminum cyminum (cumin seed) were used to assess: (i) inhibitory capacities of rRaGST and (ii) their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ethanol extraction of red pomegranate peel contained the highest content of phenolic compounds (29.95mg gallic acid/g dry tissue) compared to the other studied plant extracts. The highest inhibition activities of rRaGST were obtained with kenaf and red pomegranate peel (P. granatum) extracts with IC50 values of 0.123 and 0.136mg dry tissue/ml, respectively. Tannic acid was the more effective inhibitor of rRaGST with an IC50 value equal to 4.57μM compared to delphinidine-HCl (IC50=14.9±3.1μM). Gossypol had a weak inhibitory effect (IC50=43.7μM), and caffeic acid had almost no effect on tick GST activity. The IC50 values qualify ethacrynic acid as a potent inhibitor of rRaGST activity (IC50=0.034μM). Cibacron blue and hematin showed a considerable inhibition effect on rRaGST activity, and their IC50 values were 0.13μM and 7.5μM, respectively. The activity of rRaGST was highest for CDNB (30.2μmol/min/mg protein). The enzyme had also a peroxidatic activity (the specific activity equals 26.5μmol/min/mg protein). Both tannic acid and hematin inhibited rRaGST activity non-competitively with respect to GSH and

  5. Analysis of Babesia bovis infection-induced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Heekin Andrew M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world’s tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus, with the most prevalent species being Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. We studied the reaction of the R. microplus larval transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. Methods Total RNA was isolated for both uninfected and Babesia bovis-infected larval samples. Subtracted libraries were prepared by subtracting the B. bovis-infected material with the uninfected material, thus enriching for expressed genes in the B. bovis-infected sample. Expressed sequence tags from the subtracted library were generated, assembled, and sequenced. To complement the subtracted library method, differential transcript expression between samples was also measured using custom high-density microarrays. The microarray probes were fabricated using oligonucleotides derived from the Bmi Gene Index database (Version 2. Array results were verified for three target genes by real-time PCR. Results Ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf and on an uninfected control calf. RNA was purified in duplicate from whole larvae and subtracted cDNA libraries were synthesized from Babesia-infected larval RNA, subtracting with the corresponding uninfected larval RNA. One thousand ESTs were sequenced from the larval library and the transcripts were annotated. We used a R. microplus microarray designed from a R. microplus gene index, BmiGI Version 2, to look for changes in gene expression that were associated with infection of R. microplus larvae. We found 24 transcripts were expressed at a statistically significant higher level in ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf contrasted to ticks

  6. Essential oils of indigenous plants protect livestock from infestations of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and other tick species in herds grazing in natural pastures in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, Wycliffe; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard; Takken, Willem

    2018-01-01

    The effects of formulated essential oils of Tagetes minuta and Tithonia diversifolia on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus infesting livestock were evaluated in semi-field experiments. Forty-five zebu cattle naturally infested with ticks were randomly selected from 15 herds, three animals from each. Of

  7. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) against engorged females of the cattle fever tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a wide geographic distribution across tropical and subtropical regions causing huge economic losses to bovine milk and meat production. Presently, application of chemical acaricide is the most widely used control strategy but d...

  8. Assessment of the repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil and major monoterpenes on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A da Silva; Carvalho, J F de; Peixoto, M G; Blank, A F; Borges, L M F; Costa Junior, L M

    2016-03-01

    The control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is achieved using synthetic acaricides. However, resistant tick populations are widespread around the world. Plant essential oils can act as repellents, keeping ticks away from hosts and decreasing the selection pressure on synthetic acaricides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil on R. microplus larvae. Leaves from two L. alba genotypes maintained under the same agronomic and environmental conditions were collected. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major monoterpenes detected in the chemical analysis were commercially acquired and tested. For the repellency test, a glass rod was vertically fixed to measure active climbing of approximately 30 R. microplus larvae aged 14-21 days in response to essential oils and monoterpenes. Repellency was evaluated at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h after treatment. Variation in repellent action was detected between the genotypes. The major monoterpenes identified in the essential oils (limonene and carvone) showed low repellent effects in comparison with intact essential oils. Thus, the present results showed that L. alba essential oil contains bioactive compounds with great repellent activity against ticks that varies according to the plant genotype. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Maria; Chinikar, Sadegh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Noroozi, Mehdi; Faghihi, Faezeh; Jalali, Tahmineh; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Farhadpour, Firoozeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reservoir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investigated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR. Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H. asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11%) in Rh. sanguineus. Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area. PMID:27308296

  10. Molecular detection of Theileria, Babesia, and Hepatozoon spp. in ixodid ticks from Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Kifaya; Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Baneth, Gad; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-07-01

    Ixodid ticks transmit various infectious agents that cause disease in humans and livestock worldwide. A cross-sectional survey on the presence of protozoan pathogens in ticks was carried out to assess the impact of tick-borne protozoa on domestic animals in Palestine. Ticks were collected from herds with sheep, goats and dogs in different geographic districts and their species were determined using morphological keys. The presence of piroplasms and Hepatozoon spp. was determined by PCR amplification of a 460-540bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene followed by RFLP or DNA sequencing. A PCR-RFLP method based on the 18S rRNA was used in order to detect and to identify Hepatozoon, Babesia and Theileria spp. A total of 516 ticks were collected from animals in six Palestinian localities. Five tick species were found: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Haemaphysalis parva and Haemaphysalis adleri. PCR-based analyses of the ticks revealed Theileria ovis (5.4%), Hepatozoon canis (4.3%), Babesia ovis (0.6%), and Babesia vogeli (0.4%). Theileria ovis was significantly associated with ticks from sheep and with R. turanicus ticks (p<0.01). H. canis was detected only in R. sanguineus s.l. and was significantly associated with ticks from dogs (p<0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of these pathogens in ticks collected from Palestine. Communicating these findings with health and veterinary professionals will increase their awareness, and contribute to improved diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Biocontrol of ticks by entomopathogenic nematodes. Research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Glazer, I

    2000-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are lethal to ticks even though they do not use their normal propagation cycle within tick cadavers. The tick Boophilus annulatus was found to be far more susceptible to EPNs than Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Ticks seem to be less susceptible to nematodes when feeding on a host. Preimaginal tick stages were less susceptible to nematodes than adult ticks. The mortality rate of unfed females was highest, followed by unfed males, and engorged females. The virulence of nematodes to ticks varied greatly among different nematode strains. In most cases, the Heterorhabditis sp. strains were the most virulent strains tested in petri dishes. In buckets containing sandy soil sprayed with 50 nematodes/cm2 and engorged B. annulatus females, the LT50 of the ticks was less than five days. The addition of manure to soil or a manure extract to petri dishes reduced nematode virulence. Since ticks spend most of their life cycle in the upper humid layer of the ground, and many nematode strains share this same ecological niche, the use of EPNs for biocontrol of ticks appears promising.

  12. Tick infestation on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Muthukrishnan, S; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of tick infestation and their predilection sites on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare were studied at various places of Tamil Nadu, India. The prevalence of tick infestation in Madras red sheep, Tellicherry goat and horse was 77.11, 78.21 and 13.33%, respectively. Sheep were heavily infested with Haemaphysalis bispinosa followed by Hyalomma isaaci , Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and H . anatolicum . The ticks from goats were identified as H . bispinosa , R . haemaphysaloides , H . isaaci and R . sanguineus . Horses were infested with Otobus megnini and R . sanguineus . The ticks on wild hare ( Lepus nigricollis ) were identified as R . haemaphysaloides and H . bispinosa . Wild hare acts as a source of infestation to the sheep and goats since these animals shared the same field.

  13. Acaricidal activity of extracts from Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Aguilar-Caballero, A; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Borges-Argaez, R; Garcia-Vazquez, Z; Mendez-Gonzalez, M

    2010-03-25

    The acaricidal activity of crude extracts and fractions from stems and leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) was carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using the larval immersion test (LIT) and adult immersion test (AIT), respectively. Methanolic extracts of stems and leaves of P. alliacea showed 100% mortality on the LIT bioassay. On the other hand, methanolic extracts of leaves and stem on the AIT test showed 26% and 86% of mortality, respectively, egg laying inhibition of 40% and 91%, respectively and hatchability inhibition of 26% and 17%, respectively. Purification of the active stem methanolic extract showed that the activity was present in the n-hexane non-polar fraction. Bioassay-guided purification of the n-hexane fraction produced 10 semi-purified fractions; fraction B had the highest activity against tick larvae (100% mortality). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the chemical composition of the active fraction B samples were mainly composed of benzyltrisulfide (BTS) and benzyldisulfide (BDS). These metabolites might be responsible for the acaricidal activity of stem extract of P. alliacea. However, further experiments to evaluate the acaricidal activity of BTS and BDS on larvae and adults of R. (B.) microplus are needed. Our results showed that P. alliacea is a promising biocontrol candidate as acaricide against R. (B.) microplus resistant strains.

  14. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

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    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  15. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in the Brown Dog Tick and Domestic Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Batah Kunalan; Low, Van Lun; Tan, Tiong Kai; Vinnie-Siow, Wei Yin; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Morvarid, Akhavan Rezaei; Azman, Adzzie Shazleen; Yeong, Yze Shiuan; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-17

    Hepatozoon canis has been widely reported in dogs. Its prevalence in ticks, however, has not been well-established. Here we determine the occurrence of Hepatozoon DNA in the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) sensu lato (s.l.) and domestic dogs from Peninsular Malaysia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA coding sequence. Our results revealed a relatively low prevalence of H. canis DNA in both R. sanguineus s.l. (0.7%) and dogs (3.33%). This study represents the first report of H. canis DNA in R. sanguineus s.l. in Malaysia, highlighting the risk of this infection in dogs.

  16. Molecular biology of amitraz resistance in cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitraz is an important product for the control of cattle ticks around the world. In comparison with other products for the control of ticks, it is quite affordable and it has a rapid knock-down effect. It binds with, and activates adrenergic neuro-receptors of animals and it inhibits the action of ...

  17. A retrospective study of the characterization of Rickettsia species in ticks collected from humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanda, Valeria; Torina, Alessandra; La Russa, Francesco; D'Agostino, Rosalia; Randazzo, Kety; Scimeca, Salvatore; Giudice, Elisabetta; Caracappa, Santo; Cascio, Antonio; de la Fuente, José

    2017-06-01

    Rickettsiae (family Rickettsiaceae, order Rickettsiales) are obligate intracellular bacteria transmitted by arthropod vectors. Several Rickettsia species causing vector-borne rickettsioses belong to the spotted fever group (SFG). Traditionally, Rickettsia conorii has been considered as the main etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever. However, the molecular characterization of rickettsiae allowed identifying other species involved in spotted fever in the Mediterranean region. In this study, 42 ticks collected from humans were subjected to morphological identification and molecular characterization of Rickettsia species potentially involved in human rickettsiosis in Sicily. Fourteen ticks positive to at least two Rickettsia spp. molecular markers were used in the study. Identified Rickettsia spp. included R. conorii, found in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rickettsia aeschlimannii found in Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma lusitanicum, Dermacentor marginatus and Ixodes ricinus, Rickettsia massiliae found in R. turanicus and R. sanguineus s.l., and Rickettsia slovaca found in D. marginatus and R. sanguineus s.l. Our results showed a great variety of zoonotic Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from humans in Sicily. The Rickettsia spp. reported in this study were identified in previously recognized or new potential tick vectors in Europe, highlighting the risk of infection by different Rickettsia spp. for humans bitten by ticks in Sicily. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.

  19. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in Peridomestic and Wild Animals and Ticks in an Endemic Region (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Noe F; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2017-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65). Globally, eight rodents (8%) and two rabbits (1.5%) were found to be positive, with the spleen being the most affected organ. Tick species identified were Hyalomma lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus pusillus. Hyalomma lusitanicum (80%) was the main species identified in vegetation, livestock, and wild animals, whereas Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most prevalent in domestic dogs. Overall, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 6.1% of the processed ticks, distributed between those removed from livestock (11.3%), domestic dogs (6.9%), and from wild animals (6%). Ticks from vegetation were all negative. Results suggest that, in the Canary Islands, C. burnetii develops in a peridomestic rather than a wild cycle.

  20. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

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    Knowles Donald P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifying additional methods to utilize Bm86 to reduce R. microplus infestation and babesia transmission. Additionally, the role played by Bm86 in R. microplus fitness during B. bovis infection is unknown. Results Here we describe in two independent experiments that RNA interference-mediated silencing of Bm86 decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Notably, Bm86 silencing decreased the number and survival of engorged females, and decreased the weight of egg masses. However, gene silencing had no significant effect on the efficiency of transovarial transmission of B. bovis from surviving female ticks to their larval offspring. The results also show that Bm86 is expressed, in addition to gut cells, in larvae, nymphs, adult males and ovaries of partially engorged adult R. microplus females, and its expression was significantly down-regulated in ovaries of ticks fed on B. bovis-infected cattle. Conclusion The R. microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role during tick feeding and after repletion during blood digestion in ticks fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bm86-based vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B. bovis endemic areas.

  1. Molecular Detection and Identification of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from the West Bank, Palestinian Territories.

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    Suheir Ereqat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae. Although Spotted Fever is prevalent in the Middle East, no reports for the presence of tick-borne pathogens are available or any studies on the epidemiology of this disease in the West Bank. We aimed to identify the circulating hard tick vectors and genetically characterize SFG Rickettsia species in ixodid ticks from the West Bank-Palestinian territories.A total of 1,123 ixodid ticks belonging to eight species (Haemaphysalis parva, Haemaphysalis adleri, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma impeltatum were collected from goats, sheep, camels, dogs, a wolf, a horse and a tortoise in different localities throughout the West Bank during the period of January-April, 2014. A total of 867 ticks were screened for the presence of rickettsiae by PCR targeting a partial sequence of the ompA gene followed by sequence analysis. Two additional genes, 17 kDa and 16SrRNA were also targeted for further characterization of the detected Rickettsia species. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 148 out of the 867 (17% tested ticks. The infection rates in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, H. adleri, H. parva, H. dromedarii, and H. impeltatum ticks were 41.7, 11.6, 16.7, 16.2, 11.8 and 20%, respectively. None of the ticks, belonging to the species Rh. bursa and H. aegyptium, were infected. Four SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia africae, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae and Candidatus Rickettsia goldwasserii.The results of this study demonstrate the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae and clearly indicate the presence of at least four of them in collected ticks. Palestinian clinicians should be aware of emerging tick-borne diseases in the West Bank, particularly infections due to R. massiliae and R. africae.

  2. Lavandula angustifolia essential oil as a novel and promising natural candidate for tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus) control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2010-10-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is a well known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of L. angustifolia essential oil (EO) against engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Acari; Ixodidae) females. For this purpose six serial concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0% w/v) of L. angustifolia EO were used. There was considerable mortality in concentrations more than 4.0% although there were no differences between 6.0 and 8.0% in all measured criteria. The mortality rate 24 h after inoculation was 73.26 and 100% in groups treated with 4.0 and 8.0% EO, respectively. Lavender EO also reduced tick egg weight in a concentration-dependent manner. The amount of eggs produced varied from 0.12 g (at 0.5% EO) to 0.00 g (at 8.0% EO) but did not differ statistically from the control. L. angustifolia EO caused 100% failure in egg laying at 6.0 and 8.0% whereas this value in the control group was zero. A positive correlation between L. angustifolia EO concentration and tick control, assessed by relative mortality rate and egg-laying weight, was observed by the EO LC/EC(50), which, when calculated using the Probit test, was 2.76-fold higher than the control. Lavender is a promising acaricidal against R. (B.) annulatus in vitro. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatozoon canis infection in ticks during spring and summer in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Weigl, Stefania; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-02-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a common protozoan of dogs, being among the most prevalent tick-borne pathogens infecting dogs around the world. It is primarily transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick. In this study we tested ticks collected from dogs and from the environment in order to track the origin of an outbreak of H. canis infection detected in October 2009 in a private dog shelter in southern Italy. Ticks from dogs (n = 267) were collected during the spring of 2009, whereas ticks from environment (n = 300) were found on sticky traps placed in the same shelter during the summer of 2009. All ticks were tested by PCR for the detection of a H. canis 18S ribosomal RNA gene fragment. Four (1.5%, one female and three males) ticks collected from dogs were PCR positive. None of the larvae collected from the environment were positive, but a relatively high infection rate (8.0%) was detected in nymphs. These findings point out that dogs became infected during the summer, when ticks were abundant and highly infected by H. canis. Moreover, this study suggests that castor oil sticky traps might be useful to collect engorged immature ticks in highly infested environments (e.g., dog shelters). This might be particularly interesting to evaluate the level of infection by certain pathogens in free-ranging ticks R. sanguineus, as done in the present study.

  4. Ticks on domestic animals in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil Carrapatos em animais domésticos em Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to discuss some aspects of ticks associated with domestic animals in the State of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, based on a literature review and present new data obtained from recent tick collections carried out in this northeastern Brazilian state. From August 2007 to June 2008, 1,405 ticks were collected and five species were identified: Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787, Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844, Dermacentornitens Neumann, 1897, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806. Dogs from urban areas were found exclusively infested by R. sanguineus, whereas dogs from rural areas were found infested by A. cajennense, A. ovale, R. (B. microplus, and R. sanguineus. The only tick species found on cattle and goats was R. (B. microplus. Horses were found infested by D. nitens and at a lesser extent by A. cajennense and R. (B. microplus. The only tick species found on donkeys was D. nitens. This study confirms the presence of A. cajennense inPernambuco and describes for the first time the presence of A. ovale in this state. The medical and veterinary relevance and control of ticks associated with domestic animals in Pernambuco are also briefly discussed.O objetivo desse artigo é discutir alguns aspectos relacionados aos carrapatos que parasitam animais domésticos no Estado de Pernambuco com base numa revisão da literatura e apresentar novos dados obtidos a partir de recentes coletas de carrapatos realizadas nesse estado do nordeste brasileiro. De agosto de 2007 a junho de 2008, 1.405 carrapatos foram coletados e cinco espécies foram identificadas: Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787, Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844, Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806. Cães de áreas urbanas foram encontrados infestados exclusivamente por R. sanguineus ao passo que cães de

  5. Extract of the seeds of the plant Vitex agnus castus proven to be highly efficacious as a repellent against ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and biting flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schmahl, Günter; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2005-03-01

    About 70 plant extracts were tested for their ability to repel the attacks of blood-sucking arthropods. It was found that a CO2 extract of the seeds of the Mediterranean plant Vitex agnus castus (monk's pepper) can be used as a spray to keep away especially Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from animals and humans for at least 6 h. In addition mosquitoes, biting flies and fleas are also repelled for about 6 h.

  6. Taxonomical studies of ticks infesting wild rodents from Asir Province in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I

    2008-04-01

    Ticks infesting rodents in Asir Province, which is about 3000 meter above sea level, were surveyed in Wadi Dalaghan and Wadi Bin Hachbal. They were examined from September to December 2006, where ten local life baited traps were distributed for 3 days each month. The rodents were Acomys c. dimitatus (20), Meriones rex (19) & one Gerbillus cheesmani. Fifty three nymphs were dropped off from the rodents in the laboratory 3 to 12 days post-trapping. Forty eight nymphs were reared to adults for identification and 5 ones died. The reared ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus. The medical and veterinary importance was discussed.

  7. Efficacy of slow-release collar formulations of imidacloprid/flumethrin and deltamethrin and of spot-on formulations of fipronil/(s - methoprene, dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin and (s –methoprene/amitraz/fipronil against Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs

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    Horak Ivan G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two studies evaluating the efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health, IVP, a deltamethrin collar (Scalibor®, MSD, CP1, a fipronil/(s-methoprene spot-on (Frontline Combo®, Merial, CP2, a dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin spot-on (Vectra 3D®, Ceva, CP3 and an amitraz/fipronil/(s-methoprene spot-on (Certifect®, Merial, CP4/CP5 against repeated infestations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs were conducted over periods of 226 days and 71 days respectively. Methods The first study comprised 4 groups of treated dogs and one untreated control group, and the second 3 groups of treated dogs and one control group. Each group consisted of 8 dogs. All dogs were infested with ticks and fleas at regular intervals. Ticks were counted 6 h, 18 h or 48 h after infestations and fleas 24 h after infestations. Efficacies of the treatments were calculated by comparison with the untreated control groups using standard descriptive statistics. Results The protective 48 h tick efficacy was 97.8% to 100% for the IVP (226 days, 69.3% to 97.4% for CP1 (170 days, 99.6% to 43.4% for CP2 (35 days and 98% to 61.4% for CP3 (35 days. The protective 18 h tick efficacy was 98% to 99.6% for the IVP (71 days, 100% to 86.5% for CP4 (29 days, 100% to 72.8% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 98.8% to 54.3% for CP5 (35 days. The protective 6 h tick efficacy was 85.6% at Day 7 and 90.1% to 97.1% from Day 14 onwards for the IVP (70 days, 92.3% to 70.7% for CP4 (35 days, 97.5% to 65.2% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 95.1% to 51.8% for CP5 (35 days. The protective 24 h flea efficacy was 99.5/90.9% to 100% for the IVP (71/226 days, 66.7% to 83% for CP1 (170 days, 100% to 88.5% for CP2 (35 days, 100% to 73.3% for CP3 (35 days, 100% to 98.7% for CP4 (35 days, 100% to 87.5% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 100% to 79.5% for

  8. Detection of Rickettsia hoogstraalii, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia aeschlimannii in ticks from Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisu, Valentina; Leulmi, Hamza; Masala, Giovanna; Piredda, Mariano; Foxi, Cipriano; Parola, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Tick-borne diseases represent a large proportion of infectious diseases that have become a world health concern. The presence of Rickettsia spp. was evaluated by standard PCR and sequencing in 123 ticks collected from several mammals and vegetation in Sardinia, Italy. This study provides the first evidence of the presence of Rickettsia hoogstralii in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis sulcata ticks from mouflon and Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes festai ticks from hedgehog. In addition, Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia aeschlimannii were detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from foxes, swine, wild boars, and mouflon. The data presented here increase our knowledge of tick-borne diseases in Sardinia and provide a useful contribution toward understanding their epidemiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Acaricidal activity of Amburana cearensis on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Anne Caroline dos Santos Dantas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of Amburana cearensis against engorged females of Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus microplus . The crude ethanolic extract from the leaves of A. cearensis was submitted to partition with organic solvents (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate in order of increasing polarity; and evaluated using three treatments at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25mg ml-1. To evaluate the acaricidal activity, engorged females were submitted to the adult immersion test. Parameters analyzed were the weight of females; weight of egg mass; percentage of hatch; reproductive efficiency; expected rate of reproduction; and efficacy. For each extract and concentrating fraction, tests were performed in triplicate. Among all fractions, the hexane (2.5% achieved the best results in all parameters analyzed: 52.7% of inhibition of oviposition; 39% of hatching rate; 3,271 index of reproductive efficiency; and 67.0% effectiveness. The extract obtained gradual dose response with increasing concentration; and could be used as an aid in the control of R. ( B. microplus therapy.

  10. The current status of resistance to alpha-cypermethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz of the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Carrera, Sandra; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.; Madder, Maxime; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world where livestock is a principal activity with great veterinary and economic importance. In Ecuador, this hematophagous ectoparasite has been observed between 0 and 2600 masl. One of the main tick control measures is the use of acaricides, which have been indiscriminately used worldwide and in Ecuador. In this country, no studies on acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus have been published. The current study aims to characterise the level of resistance of R. microplus against three main acaricides commonly used in Ecuador i.e. amitraz, alpha-cypermethrin and ivermectin to determine the level and pattern of dose-responses for R. microplus in 12 field populations (farms). The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using three different bioassays: adult immersion test (AIT), larval package test (LPT) and larval immersion test (LIT), as recommended by the FAO. The predictive dose-responses were analysed by binomial logistics regression of the larval survival rate (resistance). In general, we found resistance of 67% for amitraz; 50% for alpha-cypermethrin and from 25 to 42% for ivermectin in the twelve field populations analysed. Resistance levels were studied in larval and adult bioassays, respectively, which were slightly modified for this study. For larval bioassays based on corrected mortality i.e. high (above 51%), medium (21–50%) and low (11–20%) resistance, percentages less than 10% were considered as susceptible. For the adult test, two resistance levels were used i.e. high (more than 76%) and medium (51 to 75%) resistance. Percentages lower than 50% were considered as susceptible. In this context, for larval bioassays, amitraz showed 21%, 38% and 8% for high, medium and low resistance, respectively. Alpha-cypermethrin presented 8%, 4 and 38% for high, medium and low resistance, respectively. Ivermectin presented 8%, 25% and 8% for high, medium and low

  11. Silencing of a putative immunophilin gene in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus increases the infection rate of Babesia bovis in larval progeny

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    Knowles Donald P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is involved in the transmission of the protozoan Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Interactions between ticks and protozoa are poorly understood and the investigation of tick genes that affect tick fitness and protozoan infection can set the stage for dissecting the molecular interactions between the two species. Results In this study, RNA interference was used to silence R. microplus genes that had been previously shown to be up-regulated in response to B. bovis infection. The silencing of a putative immunophilin gene (Imnp in female ticks fed on a calf acutely infected with B. bovis decreased the hatching rate and survival of larval progeny. Interestingly, Imnp was up-regulated significantly in ovaries of R. microplus in response to B. bovis infection and its silencing in female ticks significantly increased the infection rate of the protozoan in larval progeny. The results also showed that the silencing of a putative Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (Spi gene and a putative lipocalin (Lpc gene decreased the fitness of R. microplus females, but had no significant effect on the infection rate of B. bovis in larval progeny. Conclusion The silencing of the Imnp, Spi or Lpc genes decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on a calf during acute B. bovis infection. The Imnp gene data suggest that this putative immunophilin gene is involved in the defense system of R. microplus against B. bovis and may play a role in controlling the protozoan infection in tick ovaries and larval progeny.

  12. Widespread movement of invasive cattle fever ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus) in southern Texas leads to shared local infestations on cattle and deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a highly-invasive tick that transmits the cattle parasites (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina) that cause cattle fever. R. microplus and Babesia are endemic in Mexico and ticks persist in the United States inside a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Rio Grande. This containment area is threatened by unregulated movements of illegal cattle and wildlife like white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus). Methods Using 11 microsatellite loci we genotyped 1,247 R. microplus from 63 Texas collections, including outbreak infestations from outside the TEQA. We used population genetic analyses to test hypotheses about ecological persistence, tick movement, and impacts of the eradication program in southern Texas. We tested acaricide resistance with larval packet tests (LPTs) on 47 collections. Results LPTs revealed acaricide resistance in 15/47 collections (32%); 11 were outside the TEQA and three were resistant to multiple acaricides. Some collections highly resistant to permethrin were found on cattle and WTD. Analysis of genetic differentiation over time at seven properties revealed local gene pools with very low levels of differentiation (FST 0.00-0.05), indicating persistence over timespans of up to 29 months. However, in one neighborhood differentiation varied greatly over a 12-month period (FST 0.03-0.13), suggesting recurring immigration from distinct sources as another persistence mechanism. Ticks collected from cattle and WTD at the same location are not differentiated (FST = 0), implicating ticks from WTD as a source of ticks on cattle (and vice versa) and emphasizing the importance of WTD to tick control strategies. We identified four major genetic groups (K = 4) using Bayesian population assignment, suggesting multiple introductions to Texas. Conclusions Two dispersal mechanisms give rise to new tick infestations: 1) frequent short-distance dispersal from the TEQA; and 2) rare long

  13. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus embryogenesis and starvation larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.G. de; Mentizingen, L.G.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab.de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, C.P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Daffre, S.; Esteves, E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is considered a key rate controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis is a highly regulated process, catalyzed by several enzymes subject to regulation by insulin. Normally, insulin rapidly and substantially inhibits PEPCK gene transcription and the PEPCK activity is proportional to the rate of gene transcription. The transcriptional regulation of the PEPCK gene has been extensively studied. CREM is the transcription factor that bind efficiently to the putative cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in PEPCK gene. Several other transcription factors can bind to this element and activate transcription. In oviparous animals, such as bovine tick R. microplus, the embryonic development occurs outside the maternal organism, implying that all the nutrients necessary for embryogenesis must be present in the oocytes. We observed the relationship between the main energy sources and the morphogenetic changes that occur during R. microplus tick embryogenesis. Energy homeostasis is maintained by glycogen mobilization in the beginning of embryogenesis, as its content is drastically decreased during the first five days of development. Afterwards, the activity of the gluconeogenesis enzyme PEPCK increases enormously, as indicated by a concomitant increase in glucose content (Moraes et al., 2007). Here, we analyzed PEPCK gene transcription by qPCR during the embryogenesis and starvation larvae. The PEPCK transcription was higher at first and 15th day eggs of the development. In larvae the levels of PEPCK transcripts is increased at fifth day after hatch. However, the activity is continuous increased in larvae the form first up to 15th day. Now we are investigating the involvement of CREM in the PEPCK gene transcription in these cells. In this sense, we obtained CREM sequence from TIGR ESTs R. microplus bank and designed the specific primers to qPCR. Taken together our results suggest the involvement of PEPCK to the

  14. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus embryogenesis and starvation larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, J.G. de; Mentizingen, L.G.; Logullo, C.; Andrade, C.P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara; Daffre, S.; Esteves, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is considered a key rate controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis is a highly regulated process, catalyzed by several enzymes subject to regulation by insulin. Normally, insulin rapidly and substantially inhibits PEPCK gene transcription and the PEPCK activity is proportional to the rate of gene transcription. The transcriptional regulation of the PEPCK gene has been extensively studied. CREM is the transcription factor that bind efficiently to the putative cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in PEPCK gene. Several other transcription factors can bind to this element and activate transcription. In oviparous animals, such as bovine tick R. microplus, the embryonic development occurs outside the maternal organism, implying that all the nutrients necessary for embryogenesis must be present in the oocytes. We observed the relationship between the main energy sources and the morphogenetic changes that occur during R. microplus tick embryogenesis. Energy homeostasis is maintained by glycogen mobilization in the beginning of embryogenesis, as its content is drastically decreased during the first five days of development. Afterwards, the activity of the gluconeogenesis enzyme PEPCK increases enormously, as indicated by a concomitant increase in glucose content (Moraes et al., 2007). Here, we analyzed PEPCK gene transcription by qPCR during the embryogenesis and starvation larvae. The PEPCK transcription was higher at first and 15th day eggs of the development. In larvae the levels of PEPCK transcripts is increased at fifth day after hatch. However, the activity is continuous increased in larvae the form first up to 15th day. Now we are investigating the involvement of CREM in the PEPCK gene transcription in these cells. In this sense, we obtained CREM sequence from TIGR ESTs R. microplus bank and designed the specific primers to qPCR. Taken together our results suggest the involvement of PEPCK to the

  15. Detecção molecular de Ehrlichia canis e Babesia canis vogeli em Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato de carrapatos em Cuba

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    Maylin Gonzalez Navarrete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Os carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae são de importância médica e veterinária relevantes em todo o mundo por causa da variedade de agentes patogênicos que podem transmitir. No presente trabalho, foi realizada uma pesquisa para identificar Babesia spp. e Ehrlichia spp. em carrapatos coletados de cães de Cuba. Foram coletados 431 carrapatos de 378 cães, tendo sido identificados como pertencentes às espécies de Ripicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. 1. O DNA genômico foi extraído com protocolo usando fenol/clorofórmio. Os carrapatos foram organizados em “pools” e o DNA extraído foi testado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (nPCR para amplificar 398 pares de bases (pb do DNA ribossômico 16S (rDNA de Ehrlichia canis e PCR para amplificar aproximadamente 560 pb do DNA ribossômico 18S (rDNA. Dos 49 pools testados, 8,16% (n = 4/49 foram positivos para o E. canis por nPCR visando o gene do 16S rDNA e apenas um pool (n = 1/49; 2,04% foi positivo para o gene 18S rDNA para Babesia canis. As quatro sequências obtidas para o fragmento de 16S rDNA foram idênticas entre si e resultaram em 100% de identidade com E. canis de diferentes países. A sequência obtida do gene do 18S rDNA para Babesia spp. apresentou semelhança de 100% com Babesia canis vogeli quando comparada às sequências depositadas no Genbank. Esta foi a primeira detecção molecular desses agentes no carrapato R. sanguineus s. l. em Cuba.

  16. A Geographical Information System Based Approach for Integrated Strategies of Tick Surveillance and Control in the Peri-Urban Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino (Palermo, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, Alessandra; Blanda, Valeria; Blanda, Marcellocalogero; Auteri, Michelangelo; La Russa, Francesco; Scimeca, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Rosalia; Disclafani, Rosaria; Villari, Sara; Currò, Vittoria; Caracappa, Santo

    2018-02-27

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are bloodsucking arthropods involved in pathogen transmission in animals and humans. Tick activity depends on various ecological factors such as vegetation, hosts, and temperature. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatial/temporal distribution of ticks in six sites within a peri-urban area of Palermo (Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino) and correlate it with field data using Geographical Information System (GIS) data. A total of 3092 ticks were gathered via dragging method from June 2012 to May 2014. The species collected were: Ixodes ventalloi (46.09%), Hyalomma lusitanicum (19.99%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (17.34%), Rhipicephalus pusillus (16.11%), Haemaphisalis sulcata (0.36%), Dermacentor marginatus (0.10%), and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.03%). GIS analysis revealed environmental characteristics of each site, and abundance of each tick species was analysed in relation to time (monthly trend) and space (site-specific abundance). A relevant presence of I. ventalloi in site 2 and H. lusitanicum in site 5 was observed, suggesting the possible exposure of animals and humans to tick-borne pathogens. Our study shows the importance of surveillance of ticks in peri-urban areas and the useful implementation of GIS analysis in vector ecology; studies on temporal and spatial distribution of ticks correlated to GIS-based ecological analysis represent an integrated strategy for decision support in public health.

  17. A Geographical Information System Based Approach for Integrated Strategies of Tick Surveillance and Control in the Peri-Urban Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino (Palermo, Southern Italy

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    Alessandra Torina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae are bloodsucking arthropods involved in pathogen transmission in animals and humans. Tick activity depends on various ecological factors such as vegetation, hosts, and temperature. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatial/temporal distribution of ticks in six sites within a peri-urban area of Palermo (Natural Reserve of Monte Pellegrino and correlate it with field data using Geographical Information System (GIS data. A total of 3092 ticks were gathered via dragging method from June 2012 to May 2014. The species collected were: Ixodes ventalloi (46.09%, Hyalomma lusitanicum (19.99%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (17.34%, Rhipicephalus pusillus (16.11%, Haemaphisalis sulcata (0.36%, Dermacentor marginatus (0.10%, and Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.03%. GIS analysis revealed environmental characteristics of each site, and abundance of each tick species was analysed in relation to time (monthly trend and space (site-specific abundance. A relevant presence of I. ventalloi in site 2 and H. lusitanicum in site 5 was observed, suggesting the possible exposure of animals and humans to tick-borne pathogens. Our study shows the importance of surveillance of ticks in peri-urban areas and the useful implementation of GIS analysis in vector ecology; studies on temporal and spatial distribution of ticks correlated to GIS-based ecological analysis represent an integrated strategy for decision support in public health.

  18. Ixodid ticks and tick-borne infections in the republic of Cuba – literature review and rationale for risk assessment

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    Khasnatinov M.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Cuba is a popular destination for Russian tourists and about 30-50 thousands of Russian citizens visit Cuba annually. However, the recreational activity is often associated with the risk of Ixodid ticks bites and infection with tick-borne pathogens. According to published literature, the fauna of the hard tick in Cuba is represented by nine species including Ixodes capromydis, Amblyomma albopictum, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. quadricavum, A. torrei, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus. Five of these species, i.e. A. cajennense, A. dissimile, D. nitens, R. sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus, were reported as human parasites. Ticks are spread over the most part of the island territory. Several tick-borne pathogens should be considered as a potential threat for the bitten humans in Cuba, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia sp., Anaplasma sp., Ehrlichia sp., Coxiella sp., thogotovirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Implications for the epidemiology of tick-borne infections in the Russian Federation are discussed.

  19. Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir PREVENT BITES Avoid ticks on people, on pets and in the yard. More REMOVE TICKS Find ... Follow the Steps Ticks Home Avoiding ticks On people On pets In the yard Removing a tick Symptoms of ...

  20. Molecular detection of Rickettsia conorii and other zoonotic spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Mariana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Edouard, Sophie; Parola, Philippe; Pfister, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The diverse tick fauna as well as the abundance of tick populations in Romania represent potential risks for both human and animal health. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of emerging human tick-borne diseases worldwide. However, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases has been poorly investigated in Romania. In urban habitats, companion animals which are frequently exposed to tick infestation, play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in ticks infesting dogs in a greater urban area in South-eastern Romania. Adult ixodid ticks (n=205), including Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (n=120), Dermacentor reticulatus (n=76) and Ixodes ricinus (n=9) were collected from naturally infested dogs and were screened for SFG rickettsiae using conventional PCR followed by sequencing. Additionally, ticks were screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. Four zoonotic SFG rickettsiae were identified: Rickettsia raoultii (16%) and Rickettsia slovaca (3%) in D. reticulatus, Rickettsia monacensis (11%) in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia conorii (0.8%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. Moreover, pathogens of veterinary importance, such as B. canis (21%) in D. reticulatus and E. canis (7.5%) in Rh. sanguineus s.l. were identified. The findings expand the knowledge on distribution of SFG rickettsiae as well as canine pathogens in Romania. Additionally, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of R. conorii in ticks from Romania. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever from an unexpected tick vector in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, Linda J; Traeger, Marc S; Nicholson, William L; Paddock, Christopher D; Blau, Dianna M; Eremeeva, Marina E; Dasch, Gregory A; Levin, Michael L; Singleton, Joseph; Zaki, Sherif R; Cheek, James E; Swerdlow, David L; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2005-08-11

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a life-threatening, tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. This disease is rarely reported in Arizona, and the principal vectors, Dermacentor species ticks, are uncommon in the state. From 2002 through 2004, a focus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was investigated in rural eastern Arizona. We obtained blood and tissue specimens from patients with suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ticks from patients' homesites. Serologic, molecular, immunohistochemical, and culture assays were performed to identify the causative agent. On the basis of specific laboratory criteria, patients were classified as having confirmed or probable Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection. A total of 16 patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection (11 with confirmed and 5 with probable infection) were identified. Of these patients, 13 (81 percent) were children 12 years of age or younger, 15 (94 percent) were hospitalized, and 2 (12 percent) died. Dense populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were found on dogs and in the yards of patients' homesites. All patients with confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever had contact with tick-infested dogs, and four had a reported history of tick bite preceding the illness. R. rickettsii DNA was detected in nonengorged R. sanguineus ticks collected at one home, and R. rickettsii isolates were cultured from these ticks. This investigation documents the presence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in eastern Arizona, with common brown dog ticks (R. sanguineus) implicated as a vector of R. rickettsii. The broad distribution of this common tick raises concern about its potential to transmit R. rickettsii in other settings. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  2. Rickettsia species in human-parasitizing ticks in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Kotriotsiou, Tzimoula; Papaioakim, Miltiadis; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2016-05-01

    Ticks serve as vectors and reservoirs for a variety of bacterial, viral and protozoan pathogens affecting humans and animals. Unusual increased tick aggressiveness was observed in 2008-2009 in northeastern Greece. The aim of the study was to check ticks removed from persons during 2009 for infection with Rickettsia species. A total of 159 ticks were removed from 147 persons who sought medical advice in a hospital. Tick identification was performed morphologically using taxonomic keys. DNA was extracted from each individual tick and a PCR assay targeting the rickettsial outer membrane protein A gene of Rickettsia spp. was applied. Most of the adult ticks (132/153, 86.3%) were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Rickettsiae were detected in 23 of the 153 (15.0%) adult ticks. Five Rickettsiae species were identified: R. aeschlimannii, R. africae (n=6), R. massilae (4), R. monacensis (1), and Candidatus R. barbariae (1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. africae, R. monacensis, and Candidatus R. barbariae in Greece. Several Rickettsia species were identified in ticks removed from humans in Greece, including those that are prevalent in northern and southern latitudes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Molecular Detection and Identification of Rickettsia Species in Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected From Belize, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Hoel, David F; Murphy, Jittawadee R; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Motoki, Maysa; Robbins, Richard G; Bautista, Kim; Bricen O, Ireneo; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Ching, Wei-Mei; Chao, Chien-Chung

    2017-11-07

    Little is known about tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in Belize, Central America. We tested ixodid ticks for the presence of Rickettsia species in three of the six northern and western Belizean districts. Ticks were collected from domestic animals and tick drags over vegetation in 23 different villages in November 2014, February 2015, and May 2015. A total of 2,506 collected ticks were identified to the following species: Dermacentor nitens Neumann (46.69%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (19.55%), Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) (19.47%), Amblyomma cajennense complex (9.74%), Amblyomma maculatum Koch (3.47%), Amblyomma ovale Koch (0.68%), Ixodes nr affinis (0.16%), Amblyomma nr maculatum (0.12%), and Amblyomma nr oblongoguttatum (0.12%). Ticks were pooled according to species, life stage (larva, nymph, or adult), and location (n = 509) for DNA extraction and screened for genus Rickettsia by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). All 42 positive pools were found to be positive for spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia in pools of A. cajennense complex (n = 33), A. maculatum (n = 4), A. nr maculatum (n = 1), A. ovale (n = 1), R. sanguineus (n = 1), and I. nr affinis (n = 2). Rickettsia amblyommatis was identified from A. cajennense complex and A. nr maculatum. Rickettsia parkeri was found in A. maculatum, and Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont was detected in I. nr affinis. The presence of infected ticks suggests a risk of tick-borne rickettsioses to humans and animals in Belize. This knowledge can contribute to an effective tick management and disease control program benefiting residents and travelers. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  5. Acute Oral Mammalian Toxicity and Effect of Solvents on Efficacy of Maerua edulis (Gilg. & Ben. De Wolf against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus Koch, 1844 (Acarina: Ixodidae, Tick Larvae

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    Emmanuel T. Nyahangare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy and toxicity of aqueous and organic solvents extracts of Maerua edulis against ticks and mice, respectively, were determined. Ground leaves were extracted separately using cold water, cold water plus surfactant (1% v/v liquid soap, hot water plus surfactant, hexane, or methanol to make 25% w/v stock solutions from which serial dilutions of 5, 10, 20, and 25% were made. For each concentration, 20 Rhipicephalus decoloratus tick larvae were put in filter papers impregnated with extracts and incubated for 48 h at 27°C and 85–90% RH for mortality observation after 24 h and 48 h. In the toxicity experiment, hot water plus surfactant treatments of 5, 10, 20, and 25% (w/v M. edulis were administered in suspension per os to sexually mature Balb/C mice and observed for clinical signs and mortality for 72 h. Larvae mortality was highest (>98% in methanol-extracted M. edulis treatments (20 and 25%, which was not different from the amitraz-based control (Tickbuster®. Mortality was also higher in the hot water than in cold water plus surfactant treatments (P<0.05. No postadministration adverse health effects were observed in the mice. These results suggest that M. edulis is an effective tick remedy best extracted using methanol or hot water plus surfactant.

  6. Sensitivity of Different Cattle Breeds to the Infestation of Cattle Ticks Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Hyalomma spp. on the Natural Pastures of Opkara Farm, Benin

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    Roland Eric Yessinou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the Opkara (Benin cattle farm on 64 cattle of four different breeds (16 individuals per breed from June to December 2016. During this study, three tick species were found in different numbers, Amblyomma variegatum (732, Rhipicephalus microplus (8079, and Hyalomma spp. (208, with parasitic intensity of 11.90, 126.23, and 3.25, respectively. The interracial comparison of the tick infestation between the cattle showed a significant difference (P<0.001. However, Girolando was more infested than all the cattle breeds. Infestation of A. variegatum, R. microplus, and Hyalomma spp. on the Girolando was, respectively, 19.43 ± 2.71, 171.25 ± 23.50, and 7.12 ± 0.63, but the Borgou were less infested. Borgou breed females were more infested by A. variegatum (4.41 ± 1.14 than females Girolando (4.20 ± 0.90. The Crossbred and Azawak females were less infested (P<0.01. The mean of A. variegatum on Borgou, Azawak, Crossbred, and Girolando calves was 1.29 ± 0.35, 0.66 ± 0.26, 1.37 ± 0.37, and 2.25 ± 0.48 (P<0.01, respectively. The results of this study can be exploited to include genetic and nongenetic approaches to tick control.

  7. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A nationwide survey of ixodid tick species recovered from domestic dogs and cats in Japan in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakami, Shinya; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-10-01

    A nationwide survey of ixodid ticks was performed in 2011, during which a total of 4237 and 298 ticks were recovered from 1162 dogs and 136 cats, respectively. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most frequently found tick species on canine hosts (739 dogs), followed by H. flava (166), Ixodes ovatus (139), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (70). H. hystricis, H. japonica, H. megaspinosa, H. formosensis, H. campanulata, H. ias, I. nipponensis, I. persulcatus, and Amblyomma testudinarium were also recovered. H. longicornis was also the most frequently found species on feline hosts (52 cats), followed by I. ovatus (34), A. testudinarium (19), and H. flava (12). H. hystricis, H. japonica, H. megaspinosa, I. nipponensis, I. persulcatus, I. granulatus and R. sanguineus sensu lato were also recovered from cats. The three major species of ticks found on dogs and cats, H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. ovatus, displayed a wide geographical distribution, with specimens found throughout northern and southern Japan. R. sanguineus sensu lato was primarily recovered in Okinawa, but was also found in Kanagawa, Wakayama, Hiroshima, and Yamaguchi Prefectures. A. testudinarium was mainly distributed throughout western Japan, but small numbers were also recovered from Gumma and Shizuoka Prefectures. H. longicornis was more frequently found on dogs in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Exposure to woodland environments was significantly associated with H. flava and I. ovatus in dogs. Dogs in urban or suburban areas encountered R. sanguineus sensu lato more often than other tick species. Most of the cats surveyed in the present study were from rural areas. In the present study, H. hystricis and R. sanguineus sensu lato were found on cats for the first time in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.

  10. Detection of Rickettsia spp in Ticks by MALDI-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yssouf, Amina; Almeras, Lionel; Terras, Jérôme; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown to be an effective tool for the rapid identification of arthropods, including tick vectors of human diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of MALDI-TOF MS to identify tick species, and to determine the presence of rickettsia pathogens in the infected Ticks. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor marginatus Ticks infected or not by R. conorii conorii or R. slovaca, respectively, were used as experimental models. The MS profiles generated from protein extracts prepared from tick legs exhibited mass peaks that distinguished the infected and uninfected Ticks, and successfully discriminated the Rickettsia spp. A blind test was performed using Ticks that were laboratory-reared, collected in the field or removed from patients and infected or not by Rickettsia spp. A query against our in-lab arthropod MS reference database revealed that the species and infection status of all Ticks were correctly identified at the species and infection status levels. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, the present work demonstrates the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for a dual identification of tick species and intracellular bacteria. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS is a relevant tool for the accurate detection of Rickettsia spp in Ticks for both field monitoring and entomological diagnosis. The present work offers new perspectives for the monitoring of other vector borne diseases that present public health concerns. PMID:25659152

  11. Bioinformatic prediction of G protein-coupled receptor encoding sequences from the transcriptome of the foreleg, including the Haller's organ, of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus australis.

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    Sergio Munoz

    Full Text Available The cattle tick of Australia, Rhipicephalus australis, is a vector for microbial parasites that cause serious bovine diseases. The Haller's organ, located in the tick's forelegs, is crucial for host detection and mating. To facilitate the development of new technologies for better control of this agricultural pest, we aimed to sequence and annotate the transcriptome of the R. australis forelegs and associated tissues, including the Haller's organ. As G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are an important family of eukaryotic proteins studied as pharmaceutical targets in humans, we prioritized the identification and classification of the GPCRs expressed in the foreleg tissues. The two forelegs from adult R. australis were excised, RNA extracted, and pyrosequenced with 454 technology. Reads were assembled into unigenes and annotated by sequence similarity. Python scripts were written to find open reading frames (ORFs from each unigene. These ORFs were analyzed by different GPCR prediction approaches based on sequence alignments, support vector machines, hidden Markov models, and principal component analysis. GPCRs consistently predicted by multiple methods were further studied by phylogenetic analysis and 3D homology modeling. From 4,782 assembled unigenes, 40,907 possible ORFs were predicted. Using Blastp, Pfam, GPCRpred, TMHMM, and PCA-GPCR, a basic set of 46 GPCR candidates were compiled and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. With further screening of tertiary structures predicted by RaptorX, 6 likely GPCRs emerged and the strongest candidate was classified by PCA-GPCR to be a GABAB receptor.

  12. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana: A New Potential Agent to Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, a Cattle Tick of Veterinary Significance

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    Carlos Henrique Miguita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effectiveness at a 0.01% concentration. Melianone, isolated from the same phase, yielded unremarkable results in the adult immersion test. From the dichloromethane phase, melianol, melianodiol, meliantriol, and a new protolimonoid, 3β-O-tigloylmeliantriol, were isolated, all of which, in the same manner as melianone, exhibited unremarkable results in the test. The structures of new and known compounds were mostly established by 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses and mass spectrometry data. This is the first report on the bioactivity of protolimonoids on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of R. (B. microplus. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol proved a promising candidate for the development of a biocontrol agent against the cattle tick investigated, as an alternative to environmentally hazardous synthetic acaricides.

  13. A Mitochondrial Membrane Exopolyphosphatase Is Modulated by, and Plays a Role in, the Energy Metabolism of Hard Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Embryos

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    Carlos Logullo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The physiological roles of polyphosphates (polyP recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the relationship between the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase (PPX and the energy metabolism of hard tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryos are investigated. Mitochondrial respiration was activated by adenosine diphosphate using polyP as the only source of inorganic phosphate (Pi and this activation was much greater using polyP3 than polyP15. After mitochondrial subfractionation, most of the PPX activity was recovered in the membrane fraction and its kinetic analysis revealed that the affinity for polyP3 was 10 times stronger than that for polyP15. Membrane PPX activity was also increased in the presence of the respiratory substrate pyruvic acid and after addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Furthermore, these stimulatory effects disappeared upon addition of the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor potassium cyanide and the activity was completely inhibited by 20 µg/mL heparin. The activity was either increased or decreased by 50% upon addition of dithiothreitol or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, suggesting redox regulation. These results indicate a PPX activity that is regulated during mitochondrial respiration and that plays a role in adenosine-5’-triphosphate synthesis in hard tick embryos.

  14. A Mitochondrial Membrane Exopolyphosphatase Is Modulated by, and Plays a Role in, the Energy Metabolism of Hard Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Eldo; Façanha, Arnoldo R.; Costa, Evenilton P.; Fraga, Amanda; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Masuda, Aoi; Logullo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The physiological roles of polyphosphates (polyP) recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the relationship between the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase (PPX) and the energy metabolism of hard tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryos are investigated. Mitochondrial respiration was activated by adenosine diphosphate using polyP as the only source of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and this activation was much greater using polyP3 than polyP15. After mitochondrial subfractionation, most of the PPX activity was recovered in the membrane fraction and its kinetic analysis revealed that the affinity for polyP3 was 10 times stronger than that for polyP15. Membrane PPX activity was also increased in the presence of the respiratory substrate pyruvic acid and after addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Furthermore, these stimulatory effects disappeared upon addition of the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor potassium cyanide and the activity was completely inhibited by 20 μg/mL heparin. The activity was either increased or decreased by 50% upon addition of dithiothreitol or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, suggesting redox regulation. These results indicate a PPX activity that is regulated during mitochondrial respiration and that plays a role in adenosine-5′-triphosphate synthesis in hard tick embryos. PMID:21747692

  15. Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

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    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi, the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Essential Oils Derived from Piper nigrum (Piperaceae and Citrus limonum (Rutaceae against the Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Rafaelle Vinturelle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to study the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of Citrus limonum and Piper nigrum essential oils against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. GC-MS analysis of C. limonum essential oil showed limonene (50.3%, β-pinene (14.4%, and γ-terpinene (11.7% as the major components; P. nigrum oil was mainly composed of β-caryophyllene (26.2%, σ-ocymene (5.8%, and α-pinene (5.5%. Acaricide activity was evaluated at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% (v/v of each plant oil, as well as 1 : 1 combination of both oils (5% : 5%, 2.5% : 2.5%, and 1.25% : 1.25% each, by immersing engorged R. microplus females for one minute. The LC90 of oils from C. limonum, P. nigrum, and the combination were 4.9%, 14.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. C. limonum essential oil caused 100% mortality of engorged females at the highest concentration (10%. P. nigrum essential oil inhibited egg-laying by up to 96% in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting it reduces tick fecundity. When combined, the oils presented toxicity as to C. limonum oil alone, but with stronger inhibition of oviposition (5% : 5%, indicating a possible additive effect against R. microplus. The present data provide support for further investigation of novel natural products to control bovine tick infestations.

  18. Gene-enriched draft genome of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus: assembly by the hybrid Pacific Biosciences/Illumina approach enabled analysis of the highly repetitive genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Roberto A; Guerrero, Felix D; Black, Michael; McCooke, John; Chapman, Brett; Schilkey, Faye; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Miller, Robert J; Bruns, Sara; Dobry, Jason; Mikhaylenko, Galina; Stormo, Keith; Bell, Callum; Tao, Quanzhou; Bogden, Robert; Moolhuijzen, Paula M; Hunter, Adam; Bellgard, Matthew I

    2017-08-01

    The genome of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus, an ectoparasite with global distribution, is estimated to be 7.1Gbp in length and consists of approximately 70% repetitive DNA. We report the draft assembly of a tick genome that utilized a hybrid sequencing and assembly approach to capture the repetitive fractions of the genome. Our hybrid approach produced an assembly consisting of 2.0Gbp represented in 195,170 scaffolds with a N50 of 60,284bp. The Rmi v2.0 assembly is 51.46% repetitive with a large fraction of unclassified repeats, short interspersed elements, long interspersed elements and long terminal repeats. We identified 38,827 putative R. microplus gene loci, of which 24,758 were protein coding genes (≥100 amino acids). OrthoMCL comparative analysis against 11 selected species including insects and vertebrates identified 10,835 and 3,423 protein coding gene loci that are unique to R. microplus or common to both R. microplus and Ixodes scapularis ticks, respectively. We identified 191 microRNA loci, of which 168 have similarity to known miRNAs and 23 represent novel miRNA families. We identified the genomic loci of several highly divergent R. microplus esterases with sequence similarity to acetylcholinesterase. Additionally we report the finding of a novel cytochrome P450 CYP41 homolog that shows similar protein folding structures to known CYP41 proteins known to be involved in acaricide resistance. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  20. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Drexler

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  1. Community-Based Control of the Brown Dog Tick in a Region with High Rates of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003–2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives. PMID:25479289

  2. Perspectives for the use of plant extracts to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Perspectivas para o uso de extratos de plantas para o controle do carrapato de bovinos Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to synthetic acaricides has given rise to the need for new scientific investigations on alternative ways to control this tick. In this regard, various studies on plants have been developed in an attempt to find extracts with acaricidal properties. Evaluations on plant extracts for controlling R. (B. microplus have grown intensely over the last decade. There are many advantages from using plant extracts: for example, they can be used in organic cattle farming or even replace synthetic acaricides and they are associated with lower environmental and food contamination, slower development of resistance and lower toxicity to animals and humans. In vitro studies on plant extracts have shown promising results, but most of these extracts have not been tested on animals to validate their use. Difficulties in preparing proper formulations, differences in the chemical composition of plants of the same species due to extrinsic and intrinsic factors and sparse information on active acaricide compounds are hindrances that need to be addressed in order to enable progress within this scientific field.A evolução da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas sintéticos tem impulsionado novas investigações científicas sobre métodos alternativos para controlar este carrapato. Considerando isso, vários estudos com plantas têm sido desenvolvidos numa tentativa de encontrar extratos com propriedades acaricidas. Avalições de extratos de plantas para o controle de R. (B. microplus tem sido intensificadas nesta última década. Existem muitas vantagens com o uso de extratos de plantas no controle deste carrapato, como: eles podem ser utilizados na produção orgânica de bovinos, ou mesmo substituir os acaricidas sintéticos, além do mais, estão associados com baixa contaminação ambiental e dos alimentos, desenvolvimento mais lento de resistência e baixa toxicidade

  3. Identification and molecular characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from farm ruminants in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Blanda, Valeria; Torina, Alessandra; Dabaja, Mayssaa Fawaz; El Romeh, Ali; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, José

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases have become a world health concern, emerging with increasing incidence in recent decades. Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are tick-borne pathogens recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide. In this study, 88 adult ticks from the species Hyalomma anatolicum, Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rh. bursa, Rh. sanguineus sensu lato, and Rh. turanicus, were collected from farm ruminants in Lebanon, and SFG rickettsiae were molecularly identified and characterized in these ticks. The screening showed a prevalence of 68% for Rickettsia spp., including the species R. aeschlimannii, R. africae, R. massiliae and Candidatus R. barbariae, the latter considered an emerging member of the SFG rickettsiae. These findings contribute to a better knowledge of the distribution of these pathogens and demonstrate that SFG rickettsiae with public health relevance are found in ticks collected in Lebanon, where the widespread distribution of tick vectors and possible livestock animal hosts in contact with humans may favor transmission to humans. Few reports exist for some of the tick species identified here as being infected with SFG Rickettsia. Some of these tick species are proven vectors of the hosted rickettsiae, although this information is unknown for other of these species. Therefore, these results suggested further investigation on the vector competence of the tick species with unknown role in transmission of some of the pathogens identified in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Warmer weather linked to tick attack and emergence of severe rickettsioses.

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    Philippe Parola

    Full Text Available The impact of climate on the vector behaviour of the worldwide dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a cause of concern. This tick is a vector for life-threatening organisms including Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, R. conorii, the agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, and the ubiquitous emerging pathogen R. massiliae. A focus of spotted fever was investigated in France in May 2007. Blood and tissue samples from two patients were tested. An entomological survey was organised with the study of climatic conditions. An experimental model was designed to test the affinity of Rh. sanguineus for biting humans in variable temperature conditions. Serological and/or molecular tools confirmed that one patient was infected by R. conorii, whereas the other was infected by R. massiliae. Dense populations of Rh. sanguineus were found. They were infected with new genotypes of clonal populations of either R. conorii (24/133; 18% or R. massiliae (13/133; 10%. April 2007 was the warmest since 1950, with summer-like temperatures. We show herein that the human affinity of Rh. sanguineus was increased in warmer temperatures. In addition to the originality of theses cases (ophthalmic involvements, the second reported case of R. massiliae infection, we provide evidence that this cluster of cases was related to a warming-mediated increase in the aggressiveness of Rh. sanguineus, leading to increased human attacks. From a global perspective, we predict that as a result of globalisation and warming, more pathogens transmitted by the brown dog tick may emerge in the future.

  5. Recombinant Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut (Ra86 and salivary gland cement (Trp64 proteins as candidate antigens for inclusion in tick vaccines: protective effects of Ra86 on infestation with adult R. appendiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saimo M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Saimo1,2,*, David O Odongo3,4,*, Stephen Mwaura3, Just M Vlak1, Anthony J Musoke5, George W Lubega2, Richard P Bishop3, Monique M van Oers11Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2School of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 3International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 4School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa *These two authors made an equal contribution to this workAbstract: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut protein Ra86 (variants Ra85A and Ra92A and the salivary gland cement protein (Trp64 were expressed in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The recombinant gut proteins expressed as soluble proteins and the recombinant cement protein, as insoluble inclusion bodies, were used to immunize rabbits, which were then challenged with larval, nymphal, and adult stages of R. appendiculatus ticks. High tick mortality (23.3% occurred on adult ticks that fed on rabbits vaccinated with the gut proteins, compared with 1.9% mortality in ticks that fed on unvaccinated naïve control rabbits. The mean weight of engorged female ticks was significantly reduced by 31.5% in rabbits vaccinated with the Ra86 recombinant protein compared with controls, as was egg production. Marked effects on these parameters were also observed in adult ticks as a result from vaccination using Trp64, but these were not statistically significant. For both antigens, there was no demonstrable effect on larval or nymphal ticks. This study demonstrates for the first time the protective efficacy of a homolog of Boophilus microplus Bm86 in reducing tick infestation by the adult stage of the three-host tick R. appendiculatus. The results demonstrate the potential of Ra86 for vaccine development against this tick and for the control of East Coast fever.Keywords: baculovirus, Ra85A, Ra92A, Boophilus

  6. Ixodid Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae in Urban Landscapes. A review

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    Akimov I. А.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 % can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini, Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.

  7. Investigation of the acaricidal activity of the acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 South African plants against the adult ticks of Rhipicephalus turanicus

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    Gerda Fouche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal activity of acetone and ethanol extracts of 12 plant species was evaluated using the contact method on Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae ticks at an initial concentration of 20% (200 mg/mL. Eight of the 12 plants had mortality greater than 50% and the acetone extracts had better acaricidal activity than the ethanol extracts. The acetone extract of Calpurnia aurea (leaves and flowers had the highest corrected mortality (CM of 92.2% followed by Schkuhria pinnata (whole plant with a CM of 88.9%, Ficus sycomorus (bark and stems 86.7% and Senna italica subsp. arachoides (roots, leaves and fruits 83.3%. Selected extracts were tested at five different concentrations using the adult immersion test. From dose–response assays, EC50 values of 61.82 mg/mL, 115.21 mg/mL and 161.02 mg/mL were obtained for the acetone extracts of S. pinnata (whole plant, S. italica subsp. arachoides (roots, leaves and fruits and C. aurea (leaves and flowers respectively. The ethanol extract of Monsonia angustifolia (whole plant had the highest CM of 97.8% followed by S. pinnata (whole plant with a CM of 86.7%, C. aurea (leaves and flowers 81.1% and Cleome gynandra (leaves 77.8%. There is potential for the development of environmentally benign botanicals as natural acaricides against R. turanicus.

  8. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Silva, Dayana Campelo da; Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle), which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti), 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense) were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.

  9. Rhipicephulus sanguineus (Brown Dog Tick)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinaiy Medicine. ... bariierii, Ehrlichia coats, Rickerrsia conorii, .... (TAG) by an enzymatic method coupled with spectrophotometry using assay kit (Randox. Lab. Ltd., Co. Antrim, UK). Statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was performed with the use.

  10. Partial Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Ticks of Southern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Oksana O; Dubina, Dmytro O; Vynograd, Nataliya O; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2017-08-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia; thousands of human cases are annually reported from several European countries. Several tick species are vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), while TBE appears to be spreading from the Eurasian continent westward to Europe. Fifteen study sites were chosen from five territories of southern Ukraine, including Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson Oblast, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol. Tick collection was performed in spring season of three consecutive years (1988-1990) using either flagging technique or direct collection of specimens feeding on cattle. A total of 15,243 tick imagoes and nymphs were collected from nine species, including Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. rossicus, and R. sanguineus, pooled in 282 monospecific samples. Supernatant of grinded pool was used for inoculation to suckling mice for virus isolation. Eight TBEV isolates were identified from ticks among six study sites. Ticks showed a minimum infection rate from 0.11% to 0.81%. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E) protein gene of seven isolates, assigned all to the European subtype (TBEV-Eu) showing a maximum identity of 97.17% to the "Pan" TBEV-Eu reference strain. Compared to 104 TBEV-Eu isolates they clustered within the same clade as the Pan reference strain and distinguished from other TBEV-Eu isolates. Amino acid sequence analysis of the South Ukrainian TBEV-Eu isolates revealed the presence of four amino acid substitutions 67 (N), 266 (R), 306 (V), and 407 (R), in the ectodomains II and III and in the stem-anchor region of the E protein gene. This study confirmed TBEV-Eu subtype distribution in the southern region of Ukraine, which eventually overlaps with TBEV-FE (Far Eastern subtype) and TBEV-Sib (Siberian subtype) domains, showing the heterogeneity of TBEV circulating in

  11. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

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    Maria Mohammadian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reser­voir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran.Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investi­gated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR.Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H.asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11% in Rh. sanguineus.Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area.

  12. Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.

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    Fryxell Rebecca T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n = 2123, canines (n = 173, and white-tailed deer (n = 228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B

  13. Toxicity of Piper aduncum L. (Piperales: Piperaceae) from the Amazon forest for the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; de Souza, Hellen Emília Menezes; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, Maria Verônica; Mato, Mauricio; Albrecht, Francine; de Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2009-10-14

    The mortality of 14-21-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae, and the mortality and fertility of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of spiked pepper (Piper aduncum) were evaluated, using a completely randomized design with five treatment groups, two control groups, and two replicates for the larvae and five replicates for the adult females. Similar methodology was used to investigate the toxicity of the essential oil hydro-distillate (94.84% dillapiole) obtained from the P. aduncum crude hexane extract. The LC(50) of the hexane extract was 9.30 mg ml(-1) for larvae and the reproduction reduction ranged from 12.48% to 54.22%, while 0.1mg/ml(-1) of the essential oil induced 100% mortality in larvae. Literature reports on natural products active against R. microplus were listed and compared with the results presented here. These results indicate that P. aduncum extracts, and particularly its essential oil, are potential alternative control agents for R. microplus.

  14. Epidemiological aspects of the Brazilian spotted fever: seasonal activity of ticks collected in an endemic area in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Elba R.S. de Lemos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were collected from vegetation and animals at monthly intervals during one year (1993-1994 in an endemic area of Brazilian spotted fever in the County of Pedreira, State of São Paulo. Six species of ticks were identified Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus microplus. Only the first species was sufficiently numerous to permit a quantitative study with seasonal activity, although the distribution and source of capture of other species were observed and are reported. This information is correlated with the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsiosis.Carrapatos de vegetação e de animais foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de um ano (1993-1994 em uma área endêmica de febre maculosa brasileira no município de Pedreira, São Paulo. Seis espécies de carrapatos foram identificadas Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma cooperi, Amblyomma triste, Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus e Boophilus microplus. Somente a primeira espécie foi suficientemente abundante para permitir um estudo quantitativo com atividade sazonal, embora a distribuição e fonte de captura de outras espécies fossem observadas e aqui relatadas. Estas informações são correlacionadas com a epidemiologia da rickettsiose transmitida por carrapato.

  15. SCREENING OF THE ACARICIDAL EFFICACY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL EXTRACTS ON THE CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: ixodidae BY LARVAL IMMERSION TEST

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    Jose Alberto Rosado-Aguilar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal efficacy of selected native plants from Yucatán, Mexico on acaricide resistant larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Methanolic extracts from roots, leaves, stems, and stem barks of 15 plants were tested using the modified larval immersion test. A final concentration of 10% (100 mg/ml of plant crude-extract was used. The percentage mortality from different plants and extracts were: Petiveria alliacea  leaves (95.7±2.9 % and stems (99.2±0.5 %; Diospyros anisandra leaves (87.9±8.6 % and stem bark (98.8±1.0 %; Havardia albicans leaves (93.0±12.0 %, Caesalpinia gaumeri (90.1±4.8 % and Capraria biflora (86.6±9.9 %, stems of Solanum tridinamum (98.0±1.7 % and Solanum erianthum (97.8±1.8 %, stem bark of Bursera simaruba (99.1±0.7 % and Cassearia corymbosa (99.5±0.5 %; and the root of Ocimum micrantun (87.0±3.2 %. We concluded that plants from Yucatan, Mexico showed a high acaricidal efficacy that could be used to control R. (B. microplus acaricide resistant larvae. P. alliacea, Havardia albicans and Caesalpinia gaumeri were of the most encouraging plants to be used as an acaricide. Further studies are needed to evaluate these plants on adult ticks (in vivo conditions and to identify the active compound(s on R. (B. microplus.

  16. Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Faulde, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The most common vector-borne diseases in both Europe and North America are transmitted by ticks. Lyme borreliosis (LB), a tick-borne bacterial zoonosis, is the most highly prevalent. Other important tick-borne diseases include TBE (tick-borne encephalitis) and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Europe, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in North America, and numerous less common tick-borne bacterial, viral, and protozoan diseases on both continents. The major etiological agent of LB is Borrelia burgdorferi in North America, while in Europe several related species of Borrelia can also cause human illness. These Borrelia genospecies differ in clinical manifestations, ecology (for example, some have primarily avian and others primarily mammalian reservoirs), and transmission cycles, so the epizootiology of LB is more complex in Europe than in North America. Ticks dwell predominantly in woodlands and meadows, and in association with animal hosts, with only limited colonization of human dwellings by a few species. Therefore, suburbanization has contributed substantially to the increase in tick-borne disease transmission in North America by fostering increased exposure of humans to tick habitat. The current trend toward suburbanization in Europe could potentially result in similar increases in transmission of tick-borne diseases. Incidence of tick-borne diseases can be lowered by active public education campaigns, targeted at the times and places of greatest potential for encounter between humans and infected ticks. Similarly, vaccines (e.g., against TBE) are most effective when made available to people at greatest risk, and for high-prevalence diseases such as LB. Consultation with vector-borne disease experts during the planning stages of new human developments can minimize the potential for residents to encounter infected ticks (e.g., by appropriate dwelling and landscape design). Furthermore, research on tick vectors, pathogens, transmission ecology, and on

  17. Altitudinal and seasonal differences of tick communities in dogs from pastoralist tribes of Northern Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Amico, G.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Široký, P.; Albrechtová, K.; Sloboda, M.; Domsa, C.; Sándor, A.D.; Balázsi, R.; Kanyari, P. W. N.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, 3-4 (2015), s. 318-323 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Altitudinal distribution * Rhipicephalus sanguineus * Rhipicephalus pulchellus * Rhipicephalus armatus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.242, year: 2015

  18. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from livestock in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Velo, Enkeleda; Kadiaj, Perparim; Tsioka, Katerina; Kontana, Anastasia; Kota, Majlinda; Bino, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Albania is a Balkan country endemic for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). It was shown previously that CCHF virus (CCHFV) sequences from Albanian patients cluster into Europe 1 clade. Aim of the present study was to test for CCHFV ticks collected in several regions of Albania, and to determine the genetic lineage(s) of the CCHFV strains in relation with their geographic distribution. A total of 726 ticks (366 Hyalomma marginatum, 349 Rhipicephalus bursa and 11 Rhipicephalus sanguineus) collected from livestock during 2007-2014 were included in the study. Thirty of 215 (13.9%) tick pools were positive for CCHFV. Lineage Europe 1 was detected in H. marginatum ticks collected in the endemic region of Albania, while lineage Europe 2 was detected mainly in R. bursa ticks in various regions of the country. Both genetic lineages were detected in the CCHF endemic area (northeastern Albania), while only Europe 2 lineage was detected in the south of the country. A higher genetic diversity was seen among Europe 2 than Europe 1 Albanian sequences (mean distance 3.7% versus 1%), suggesting a longer evolution of AP92-like strains (Europe 2) in their tick hosts. The present study shows that besides CCHFV lineage Europe 1, lineage Europe 2 is also present in Albania. Combined with results from recent studies, it is concluded that lineage Europe 2 is widely spread in the Balkans and Turkey, and is associated mainly with R. bursa ticks (at least in this region). Its pathogenicity and impact to the public health remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Débora R A; de Melo, Louise M; Lima, Polly-Ana C P; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; de Melo, Adriana V; Ramos, Janaina A C

    2010-02-01

    From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. The following tick-host associations were recorded: Amblyomma fuscum Neumann on Boa constrictor L.; Amblyomma longirostre Koch on Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors and Coendou prehensilis (L.); Amblyomma varium Koch on Bradypus variegates Schinz; Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Chelonoidis denticulata (L.), Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem), Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, Iguana iguana (L.) and B. variegatus; Amblyomma nodosum Neumann on Myrmecophaga tridactyla L. and Tamandua tetradactyla (L.); and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Nasua nasua (L.). The ticks found on the veterinarians were identified as nine Amblyomma larvae. The presence of Am. nodosum in Pernambuco and Am. rotundatum and Am. varium in Paraíba is recorded for the first time and the occurrence of Am. longirostre in Pernambuco is confirmed. Ramphastos vitellinus ariel is a new host record for Am. longirostre whereas M. ibiboboca and B. variegatus are new host records for Am. rotundatum. Finally, the human parasitism by Amblyomma ticks is reported for the first time in Pernambuco, highlighting the potential of tick-borne pathogen transmission in this state.

  1. Hard ticks (Ixodidae and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in south west of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Sharifinia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors of some important arthropod-borne diseases in both fields of veterinary and medicine, such as Lyme, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and some types of encephalitis as well as Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF. Iran is known as one of the main foci of CCHF in west of Asia. This study was conducted in DarrehShahr County because of the development of animal husbandry in this area to detect the fauna and viral infection of the hard ticks of livestock. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2011-2012 with random sampling in four villages. A sample of ticks was subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of viral infection. During the study period, 592 Ixodidae ticks were collected and identified as seven species of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. detritum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rh. sanguineus. More than 20% of these ticks were examined to detect the genome of CCHF virus while 6.6% were positive. All species of Hyalomma were found to be positive. A high rate of livestock was found to be infected with hard ticks, which can act as the vectors of the CCHF disease. Regarding infection of all five Hyalomma species captured in this area, this genus should be considered as the main vector of CCHF. Planning control program can be performed based on the obtained data on seasonal activity of Ixodidae to prevent animal infestation as well as to reduce the risk of CCHF transmission.

  2. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of closely related, uncultivated Coxiella tick endosymbiont population genomes reveals clues about the mechanisms of symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Castro Gordillo, Juan; Mahagna, Mustafa; Gottlieb, Yuval; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the symbiotic interaction between Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLE) and their tick hosts is challenging due to lack of isolates and difficulties in tick functional assays. Here we sequenced the metagenome of a CLE population from wild Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (CRs) and compared it to the previously published genome of its close relative, CLE of R. turanicus (CRt). The tick hosts are closely related sympatric species, and their two endosymbiont genomes are highly similar with only minor differences in gene content. Both genomes encode numerous pseudogenes, consistent with an ongoing genome reduction process. In silico flux balance metabolic analysis (FBA) revealed the excess production of L-proline for both genomes, indicating a possible proline transport from Coxiella to the tick. Additionally, both CR genomes encode multiple copies of the proline/betaine transporter, proP gene. Modelling additional Coxiellaceae members including other tick CLE, did not identify proline as an excreted metabolite. Although both CRs and CRt genomes encode intact B vitamin synthesis pathway genes, which are presumed to underlay the mechanism of CLE-tick symbiosis, the FBA analysis indicated no changes for their products. Therefore, this study provides new testable hypotheses for the symbiosis mechanism and a better understanding of CLE genome evolution and diversity. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Current Status of Tick Fauna in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Shayan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The distribution and ecological preferences of ticks of domestic animals in North of Iran were studied four times a year from 2002 to 2005. Methods: A total of 1720 tick specimens were collected from cattle, sheep and goats from different localities of Caspian Sea areas consisting of Guilan, Mazandaran, Golestan and Ardebil provinces, Iran. Results: Fourteen tick species were identified as Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (5.23%, H.marginatum (20.34%, H.detritum (3.48%, Haemaphysalis punctata (12.79%, Haem. Parva (0.58%, Haem.concinna (0.58%, Haem.choldokovsky (6.97%, Ixodes ricinus (2.32%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.76%, Rh.bursa (4.65%, Boophilus annulatus (9.88%, Dermacentor niveus (6.39%, D. marginatus (1.74% and Ornithodoros lahorensis (5.23%. Both Dermacentor and Ornithodoros were found only in Ardebil with cold climatic conditions and high altitude. The only ticks, which were found in forest area, were Boophilus annulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Conclusion: The veterinary and public health importance of the above species should be emphasized.

  5. Tick parasites of rodents in Romania: host preferences, community structure and geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Sándor, Attila D; Magdaş, Cristian; Oltean, Miruna; Györke, Adriana; Matei, Ioana A; Ionică, Angela; D'Amico, Gianluca; Cozma, Vasile; Gherman, Călin M

    2012-11-21

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of zoonotic diseases in temperate regions of Europe, with widespread distribution and high densities, posing an important medical risk. Most ticks feed on a variety of progressively larger hosts, with a large number of small mammal species typically harbouring primarily the immature stages. However, there are certain Ixodidae that characteristically attack micromammals also during their adult stage. Rodents are widespread hosts of ticks, important vectors and competent reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Micromammal-tick associations have been poorly studied in Romania, and our manuscript shows the results of a large scale study on tick infestation epidemiology in rodents from Romania. Rodents were caught using snap-traps in a variety of habitats in Romania, between May 2010 and November 2011. Ticks were individually collected from these rodents and identified to species and development stage. Frequency, mean intensity, prevalence and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the EpiInfo 2000 software. A p value of Romania for the presence of ticks. Each collected tick was identified to species level and the following epidemiological parameters were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance. The total number of ticks collected from rodents was 483, with eight species identified: Ixodes ricinus, I. redikorzevi, I. apronophorus, I. trianguliceps, I. laguri, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis sulcata. The overall prevalence of tick infestation was 29.55%, with a mean intensity of 3.86 and a mean abundance of 1.14. Only two polyspecific infestations were found: I. ricinus + I. redikorzevi and I. ricinus + D. marginatus. Our study showed a relatively high diversity of ticks parasitizing rodents in Romania. The most common tick in rodents was I. ricinus, followed by I. redikorzevi. Certain rodents seem to host a significantly higher number of tick species than others, the

  6. Molecular epidemiology of the emerging zoonosis agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie, 1949) in dogs and ixodid ticks in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Huarrisson A; Thomé, Sandra M G; Baldani, Cristiane D; Silva, Claudia B; Peixoto, Maristela P; Pires, Marcus S; Vitari, Gabriela L V; Costa, Renata L; Santos, Tiago M; Angelo, Isabele C; Santos, Leandro A; Faccini, João L H; Massard, Carlos L

    2013-12-11

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, dogs and other animals, and it is transmitted by ixodid ticks. The objective of the current study was a) detect A. phagocytophilum in dogs and ixodid ticks using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR); and b) Determine important variables associated to host, environment and potential tick vectors that are related to the presence of A. phagocytophilum in dogs domiciled in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We tested blood samples from 398 dogs and samples from 235 ticks, including 194 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, 15 Amblyomma cajennense, 8 Amblyomma ovale and 18 pools of Amblyomma sp. nymphs. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied by interviewing each dog owner. Deoxyribonucleic acid obtained from ticks and dog buffy coat samples were amplified by qPCR (msp2 gene). The sequencing of 16S rRNA and groESL heat shock operon genes and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. The multiple logistic regression model was created as a function of testing positive dogs for A. phagocytophilum. Among the 398 blood samples from dogs, 6.03% were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in one A. cajennense female tick and in five R. sanguineus sensu lato ticks (four males and one female). The partial sequences of the 16S rRNA, and groESL genes obtained were highly similar to strains of A. phagocytophilum isolated from wild birds from Brazil and human pathogenic strains. The tick species collected in positive dogs were R. sanguineus sensu lato and A. cajennense, with A.cajennense being predominant. Tick infestation history (OR = 2.86, CI = 1.98-14.87), dog size (OR = 2.41, IC: 1.51-12.67), the access to forest areas (OR = 3:51, CI: 1.52-16.32), hygiene conditions of the environment in which the dogs lived (OR = 4.35, CI: 1.86-18.63) and Amblyomma sp. infestation (OR = 6.12; CI: 2.11-28.15) were associated with A. phagocytophilum infection in dogs. This is the

  7. First phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia canis in dogs and ticks from Mexico. Preliminary study

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    Carolina G. Sosa-Gutiérrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Phylogenetic characterization of Ehrlichia canis in dogs naturally infected and ticks, diagnosed by PCR and sequencing of 16SrRNA gene; compare different isolates found in American countries. Materials and methods. Were collected Blood samples from 139 dogs with suggestive clinical manifestations of this disease and they were infested with ticks; part of 16SrRNA gene was sequenced and aligned, with 17 sequences reported in American countries. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method, and Maximum parsimony. Results. They were positive to E. canis 25/139 (18.0% dogs and 29/139 (20.9% ticks. The clinical manifestations presented were fever, fatigue, depression and vomiting. Rhipicephalus sanguineus Dermacentor variabilis and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks were positive for E. canis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences of dogs and ticks in Mexico form a third group diverging of sequences from South America and USA. Conclusions. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of E. canis in Mexico. There are differences in the sequences of Mexico with those reported in South America and USA. This research lays the foundation for further study of genetic variability.

  8. Avaliação in vitro da ação do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre o carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus In vitro evaluation of the action of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.C. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso indiscriminado de produtos químicos no controle do carrapato bovino constitui a principal causa do gradativo aumento do número de cepas resistentes deste parasita às bases disponíveis no mercado. A utilização de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais é uma prática antiga no controle de carrapatos, porém só recentemente tem recebido a devida atenção dos pesquisadores. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficácia in vitro do óleo de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus através do exame de biocarrapaticidograma. Foram testadas seis diluições do óleo de C. citratus (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 e 100% em uma população de carrapatos resistentes a amidínicos e piretróides sintéticos. A inibição de postura foi de 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 e 46%, a eclosão larval foi de 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 e 25% e a eficácia do tratamento foi de 32; 64; 83; 100; 88 e 82%, respectivamente. O óleo de C. citratus apresentou controle parcial do carrapato R. microplus in vitro, mesmo frente a populações resistentes a produtos químicos.The indiscriminate use of chemical products to control the cattle tick is the main cause of the gradual increase in the number of strains of this parasite that are resistant to the bases currently available in the market. The use of essential oils and plant extracts is an ancient practice for tick control; however, only recently has it received due attention by researchers. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through immersion test. Six concentrations of Cymbopogon citratus oil (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 and 100% were tested against a tick population resistant to synthetic formamidines and pyrethroids. The inhibition of egg-laying was 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 and 46%, the hatching was 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 and 25%, and the treatment efficacy was 32

  9. The first report of Hepatozoon canis identified in Vulpes vulpes and ticks from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Simona; Kumlien, Susanna; Calderini, Pietro; Brozzi, Alberto; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report on the presence of Hepatozoon canis in Vulpes vulpes in Italy. During the years 2005 and 2006, a total of 119 foxes were collected and their spleen tissues were screened by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. In the same area, 290 ticks were picked off from dogs or collected from the environment. Microscopy detected inclusion bodies regarded as belonging to the genus Hepatozoon in four samples, whereas molecular diagnostics evidenced 16 foxes (13.4%) and 6 ticks (2.1%) positive to H. canis. The H. canis isolates we found in foxes, compared with the strains we previously detected in dogs from the same area and with the strains found in foxes from other European countries, show a certain genetic heterogeneity. In fact, seven isolates cluster with the Italian dog strain and nine isolates cluster with the fox strain found in Spain and Slovakia; moreover, the dog's strain is closely related to one tick's isolate, and the strain found in three Rhipicephalus sanguineus and in one Ixodes ricinus collected from the environment cluster with the aforementioned Spanish and Slovak fox strains. Our findings confirm the importance of R. sanguineus as final host and suggest that I. ricinus might also be implicated in parasite transmission, explaining in that way the occurrence of hepatozoonosis in areas considered R. sanguineus-free. The peridomestic habits of V. vulpes and the increasing global temperature are expected to amplify the impact of this vector-borne disease and to enforce the transmission of Hepatozoon to domestic animals.

  10. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks of dogs in Cuiaba, Mato GrossoEhrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em carrapatos de cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

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    Valéria Dutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by arthropods such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, are caused by a spectrum of pathogens. Among these are the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclical thrombocytopenia with a cosmopolitan distribution. Aiming to verify the presence of DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in ticks R. sanguineus collected in the period 2008 to 2009 of 380 infected dogs. Ticks, after maceration, were subjected to DNA extraction and then nested PCR was performed for amplification of A. platys and E. canis. Of these, 81 (29.7% amplified DNA from ehrlichiais agents, where 38 (17.9% amplified in E. canis and 32 (15.7% for A. platys. The observation of two pathogens, combined with worldwide distribution of the tick R. sanguineus, demonstrates the high risk of infection with these pathogens in dogs in the city of Cuiaba. Doenças transmitidas por artrópodes, como o Rhipicephalus sanguineus, são causadas por um espectro de patógenos. Dentre estas, estão a erliquiose monocítica canina e trombocitopenia cíclica com distribuição cosmopolita. Com o objetivo de verificar a presença de DNA de Anaplasma platys e Ehrlichia canis em carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados no período de 2008 a 2009 de 380 cães infestados. Os carrapatos, após a maceração, foram submetidos a extração de DNA e, em seguida, foi realizada a Nested PCR para a amplificação da espécie A. platys e E. canis. Destes, 81 (29.7% amplificaram o DNA dos agentes ehrlichiais, onde 38 (17.9% amplificaram para E. canis e 32 (15.7% para A. platys. A observação dos dois patógenos, combinado com distribuição mundial do carrapato R. sanguineus, demonstra o elevado risco de infecção por esses patógenos de cães na cidade de Cuiabá.

  11. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Isolated from Various Ticks in Southeastern and Northwestern Regions of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar Bekloo, Ahmad; Ramzgouyan, Maryam Roya; Shirian, Sadegh; Faghihi, Faezeh; Bakhshi, Hassan; Naseri, Fatemeh; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh

    2018-05-01

    Anaplasma/Ehrlichia species are tick-transmitted pathogens that cause infections in humans and numerous domestic and wild animal species. There is no information available on the molecular characteristics and phylogenetic position of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. isolated from tick species from different geographic locations in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, molecular characteristics, and phylogenetic relationship of both Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in tick species isolated from different domestic animals from two different geographical locations of Iran. A total of 930 ticks were collected from 93 cattle, 250 sheep, and 587 goats inhabiting the study areas. The collected ticks were then investigated for the presence of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. using nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing. Sequence analysis was done based on the data published in the GenBank on Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. isolates using bioinformatic tools such as the standard nucleotide BLAST. Genome of Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. was detected in 14 ticks collected in Heris, including 5 Dermacentor marginatus, 1 Haemaphysalis erinacei, 3 Hyalomma anatolicum, and 4 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, also in 29 ticks collected in Chabahar, including 14 R. sanguineus, 8 D. marginatus, 3 Hyalomma Anatolicum, and 4 Hyalomma dromedarii. Partial analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of positive samples collected from goats and sheep showed that they were infected with Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. that were 94-98% identical to ovine Anaplasma and 91-96% identical to Neoehrlichia and Ehrlichia spp. The various ticks identified in this study suggest the possible emergence of tick-borne diseases in animals and humans in these regions. R. sanguineus and D. marginatus seem to be predominant vectors responsible for anaplasmosis in these regions. Partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. ovis is genetically polymorphic in these regions. Furthermore, an

  12. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of Babesia motasi-like in small ruminants and ixodid ticks from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Yu, Peifa; Pan, Yuping; Zhai, Bintao; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Ovine babesioses, an important tick-borne disease of sheep and goats in China, is caused by the reproduction of intraerythrocytic protozoa of the Babesia genus. Babesia motasi-like is a Babesia parasite that infects small ruminant in China, and two sub-groups of B. motasi-like can be subdivided based on differences in the rhoptry-associated-protein-1 gene. This study aimed to characterize the distribution, epidemiology and genetics of B. motasi-like in animals and ticks. A molecular investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2015 in 16 provinces in China. In total, 1081 blood samples were collected from sheep and goats originating from 27 different regions, and 778 ixodid tick samples were collected from 8 regions; the samples were tested for the presence of B. motasi-like using a specific nested PCR assay based on the rap-1b gene. The results indicated that 139 (12.9%), 91 (8.4%), 48 (4.4%) and 6 (0.7%) of the blood samples were positive for general B. motasi-like, Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan and Ningxian), Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei sub-groups, mixed infections, respectively. Among the collected 778 ixodid ticks (including Haemaphysalis longicornis, Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, Dermacentor silvarum, Ixodes persulcatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus), the most frequently infected with Babesia were D. silvarum and I. persulcatus (35.7%), followed by H. longicornis (26.8%), H. qinghaiensis (24.8%) and R. sanguineus (9.3%). The PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The positive rates of B. motasi-like infection in ticks were found to be higher in China, compared with previous studies in other countries. B. motasi-like infections have not previously been reported in D. silvarum, I. persulcatus or R. sanguineus. The findings obtained in this study could be used for planning effective control strategies against babesiosis in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, northwest of Iran

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    Zahra Ramezani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the ticks (Acari: Ixodidae of livestock and their seasonal activities, in northwest of Iran, including the combination of two of the geographical regions of Iran (Caspian and mountain plateau where the majority of the domestic ruminants in Iran exist. Methods: Fifteen villages of Meshkin-Shahr County were selected randomly from different areas of the county. The animal dwellings were visited and the whole body of sheep, cows, goats and dogs were examined for their probable infestation. Samples were identified at the level of species according to the standard morphological key. Results: In this study 1 208 specimen were collected and totally nine species (Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor niveus, Haemaphysalis erinacei, Haemaphysalis punctata, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were identified in this study. Also 569 host including 40 cows, 450 sheep, 70 goats and 9 dogs were examined for infestation and among them 255 were infested which showed a 44% of infestation among examined livestock. The infestation rate among sheep (46% was higher than other hosts. The infestation rates among the rest of hosts were as: cows (40%, goat (37% and dogs (33%. Conclusions: The results of this study and other studies of the region showed the probability of the establishment and development of the burden of several tick-borne diseases.

  14. High infection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. among tick species collected from different geographical locations of Iran

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    Leila Tajedin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of the Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infections in tick population within four provinces of Iran. Methods: A total of 384 tick specimens were collected from domestic animals inhabiting in four provinces (East Azerbaijan, Gilan, South Khorasan and Yazd. Specimens were identified based on morphological analysis. The detection of Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp. within tick samples was carried out by nested PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene accompanied by DNA sequencing and analysis for verification. Results: A total of 10 tick species were identified as follows: Ornithodoros lahorensis (O. lahorensis (44.8%, Hyalomma dromedarii (15.6%, Dermacentor marginatus (13.5%, Hyalomma anatolicum (11.2%, Hyalomma asiaticum (5.7%, Hyalomma marginatum (4.9%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.3%, Hyalomma detritum (1.0%, Dermacentor niveus (0.5% and Argas persicus (0.3%. The percentage distribution of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia was 55.5% (213 across 384 studied ticks. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma ovis infection in O. lahorensis in Iran. We also conjecture the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Yazd Province based on sequencing results; also, it is suggested that O. lahorensis is a potential vector in the studied area. This survey highlights the importance of Argasidae family to verify and correlate their threat in causing anaplasmosis and other diseases in animals.

  15. Incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

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    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R. (International Lab. for Research on Animal Diseases, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites.

  16. The incorporation of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by Theileria parva in bovine blood and salivary glands of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, A.D.; Boarer, C.D.H.; Kurtti, T.J.; Ocama, J.G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of radio-labelled nucleic acid precursors by blood and tick salivary gland forms of Theileria parva was studied. Piroplasms took up tritiated purines, particularly hypoxanthine, but not pyrimidines. Similar uptake was recorded by T. parva, both in tick saliva and in salivary glands maintained in vitro. Intermediate parasite stages were those most readily labelled in glands; this reflected active nucleic acid synthesis associated with rapid parasite division. Radio-labelling of T. parva in tick salivary glands could be of value in procedures used for concentrating and purifying theilerial sporozoites. (author)

  17. Incidence of Cercopithifilaria bainae in dogs and probability of co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens.

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    Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cercopithifilaria bainae is a filarioid parasite that infects dogs, being transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks in many countries of the Mediterranean basin. This study assessed the incidence density rate (IDR of infection by C. bainae in dogs and the probability of co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis, in an area of high endemicity in southern Italy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 2011 to October 2012, a field study involving 58 young dogs naturally exposed to tick infestation was conducted. Skin and blood samples obtained from each dog six times during an 18-month period were tested for C. bainae by parasite detection within skin snip sediments, with subsequent confirmation through PCR and DNA sequencing. Dogs examined monthly for ticks and A. platys, B. vogeli and H. canis were microscopically and/or molecularly diagnosed and after the first and the second summer seasons, the IDR for positive animal-month at risk was 3.8% and 1.7% in November 2011 and October 2012, respectively. All 58 C. bainae-infected dogs were simultaneously infected with at least one other tick-borne pathogen. After the first summer season (assessment in November 2011, a C. bainae-infected dog had a 33% probability of being infected with H. canis or A. platys, whereas after the second tick season (assessment in October 2012 the probability of co-infection was 78%, 22% and 11% for H. canis, A. platys and B. vogeli, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tick-infested dogs are at risk of acquiring infection by C. bainae. In addition, the detection of C. bainae microfilariae indicates a prior tick exposure and, should stimulate testing for other tick-borne disease causing pathogens.

  18. Ticks circulate Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia and Theileria parasites in North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekloo, Ahmad Jafar; Bakhshi, Hasan; Soufizadeh, Ayoub; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Bekloo, Romina Jafar; Ramzgouyan, Maryam Roya; Chegeni, Asadollah Hosseini; Faghihi, Faezeh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh

    2017-12-15

    Ticks serve as important vectors of some pathogens of medical importance all over the world and identification of their rate of infection plays an important role for further control of diseases. In the current study, we investigated on ticks collected from north of Iran where raising and caring livestock are the main task of the people in order to find evidences of infection of Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia microbial agents. Totally, 609 hard tick species from two genera Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus including; Hy. scupense, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. rufipes, Hy. marginatum, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. anatolicum, R. bursa, R. sanguineus and R. turanicus were identified. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Babesia and Theileria microorganism agents in all collected tick species except Hy. asiaticum and R. turanicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on identification of B. occultans in Hyalomma anatolicum and B. ovis in Hyalomma sp in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Babesia canis vogeli infection in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Andreina C. Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  20. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in hamsters infested with ticks collected from naturally infected dogs

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    Valter dos Anjos Almeida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Almeida V. dos A., da Hora T.N., Leça Júnior N.F., Carvalho F.S., da Silva A.L., Wenceslau A.A., Albuquerque G.R. & Silva F.L. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in hamsters infested with ticks collected from naturally infected dogs. [Detecção do DNA de Leishmania infantum em hamsters infestados com carrapatos coletados de cães naturalmente infectados.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:329-333, 2016. Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazaré de Andrade, Hospital Veterinário, Km 16, Rodovia Jorge Amado, Ilhéus, BA 45662-900, Brasil. E-mail: fabiana.lessa@gmail.com The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, in the transmission of Leishmania infantum. To accomplish this, we used 24 adult golden hamsters of both genders, and divided them into two groups: a control group (n = 4 and an experimental group (n = 20. The animals from the experimental group were infested with ticks obtained from dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. Hamsters of the control group were not infested and were maintained at the same conditions, as the infested animals. After three months of observation, animals were euthanized and they were posted to obtain samples of their blood, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and skin. These samples were then processed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fourteen hamsters (70% of the experimental group tested PCR-positive for L. infantum DNA in samples of buffy coat. The results of this study indicated that R. sanguineus ticks can transmit some forms or parts of L. infantum to parasitized hamsters.

  1. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Immunization of cattle with Ra86 impedes Rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphal-to-adult molting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olds, C.; Mwaura, S.; Crowder, D.; Odongo, D.; Oers, van M.M.; Owen, J.; Bishop, R.; Daubenberger, C.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial vaccines based on the tick gut protein Bm86 have been successful in controlling the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and provide heterologous protection against certain other non-target ixodid tick species. This cross protection, however, does not extend to the three-host

  3. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Seroprevalence of rickettsia spp. and a study of the tick fauna in dogs from the municipality of Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro

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    Matheus Dias Cordeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies, the tick fauna, and the ticks that are carriers of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group (SFG. About 68 (24% of the 283 serum samples tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA reacted against the R. rickettsii crude antigen. The titers varied between 1:64 and 1:512. At the time of collection, 189 (64.5% of the 293 dogs included in this study, were infested with ticks. Ticks classified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Amblyomma sculptum were identified. None of the ticks examined for SFG rickettsiae using polymerase chain reaction (PCR were positive. The presence of the anti-R. rickettsii antibodies detected by IFA, albeit at low titers, suggests the circulation of SFG rickettsiae, which requires permanent surveillance because there are records on human fatalities related to spotted fever and to avoid any future threats to the students moving extensively in the areas near of the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Assessing bovine babesiosis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks and 3 to 9-month-old cattle in the middle Magdalena region, Colombia

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    Sandra Ríos-Tobón

    Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.

  6. Molecular detection and identification of Rickettsiales pathogens in dog ticks from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Calderón, Liliana; Ábrego-Sánchez, Leyda; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Alberti, Alberto; Tore, Gessica; Zobba, Rosanna; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana E; Dolz, Gaby

    2016-10-01

    Although vector-borne diseases are globally widespread with considerable impact on animal production and on public health, few reports document their presence in Central America. This study focuses on the detection and molecular identification of species belonging to selected bacterial genera (Ehrlichia, Anaplasma and Rickettsia) in ticks sampled from dogs in Costa Rica by targeting several genes: 16S rRNA/dsb genes for Ehrlichia; 16S rRNA/groEL genes for Anaplasma, and ompA/gltA/groEL genes for Rickettsia. PCR and sequence analyses provides evidences of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l ticks, and allow establishing the presence of Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes boliviensis. Furthermore, the presence of recently discovered Mediterranean A. platys-like strains is reported for the first time in Central America. Results provide new background on geographical distribution of selected tick-transmitted bacterial pathogens in Costa Rica and on their molecular epidemiology, and are pivotal to the development of effective and reliable diagnostic tools in Central America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemeršić, Lorena; Dežđek, Danko; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzić, Svjetlana; Konjević, Dean; Beck, Relja

    2014-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  9. Comparative analysis of storage conditions and homogenization methods for tick and flea species for identification by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbak, A; El Hamzaoui, B; Berenger, J-M; Bitam, I; Raoult, D; Almeras, L; Parola, P

    2017-12-01

    Ticks and fleas are vectors for numerous human and animal pathogens. Controlling them, which is important in combating such diseases, requires accurate identification, to distinguish between vector and non-vector species. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to the rapid identification of arthropods. The growth of this promising tool, however, requires guidelines to be established. To this end, standardization protocols were applied to species of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Latreille and Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Bouché, including the automation of sample homogenization using two homogenizer devices, and varied sample preservation modes for a period of 1-6 months. The MS spectra were then compared with those obtained from manual pestle grinding, the standard homogenization method. Both automated methods generated intense, reproducible MS spectra from fresh specimens. Frozen storage methods appeared to represent the best preservation mode, for up to 6 months, while storage in ethanol is also possible, with some caveats for tick specimens. Carnoy's buffer, however, was shown to be less compatible with MS analysis for the purpose of identifying ticks or fleas. These standard protocols for MALDI-TOF MS arthropod identification should be complemented by additional MS spectrum quality controls, to generalize their use in monitoring arthropods of medical interest. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Rickettsia amblyommatis infecting ticks and exposure of domestic dogs to Rickettsia spp. in an Amazon-Cerrado transition region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francisco B; da Costa, Andréa P; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Soares, Herbert S; Ramirez, Diego G; Dias, Ricardo A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed in Maranhão state, a transition area two Brazilian biomes, Amazon and Cerrado. During 2011-2013, 1,560 domestic dogs were sampled for collection of serum blood samples and ticks in eight counties (3 within the Amazon and 5 within the Cerrado). A total of 959 ticks were collected on 150 dogs (9.6%). Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was the most abundant tick (68% of all collected specimens), followed by Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (s.l.) (12.9%), Amblyomma parvum (9.2%), and Amblyomma ovale (5.2%). Other less abundant species (Rickettsia species: Rickettsia amblyommatis in 1% (1/100) A. cajennense s.l., 'Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae' in 20.7% (12/58) A. parvum, Rickettsia bellii in 6.8% (3/44) A. ovale and 100% (1/1) A. rotundatum ticks. An additional collection of A. sculptum from horses in a Cerrado area, and A. cajennense s.s. from pigs in an Amazon area revealed R. amblyommatis infecting only the A. cajennense s.s. ticks. Serological analysis of the 1,560 canine blood samples revealed 12.6% canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp., with the highest specific seroreactivity rate (10.2%) for R. amblyommatis. Endpoint titers to R. amblyommatis were significantly higher than those for the other Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that most of the seroreactive dogs were exposed to R. amblyommatis-infected ticks. Highest canine seroreactivity rates per locality (13.1-30.8%) were found in Amazon biome, where A. cajennense s.s. predominated. Lowest seroreactivity rates (1.9-6.5%) were found in Cerrado localities that were further from the Amazon, where A. sculptum predominated. Multivariate analyses revealed that canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp. or R. amblyommatis was statistically associated with rural dogs, exposed to Amblyomma ticks.

  11. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, 10 BAC clone sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. We used labeled DNA probes from the coding reg...

  12. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against five common tick species infesting dogs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Everett, William R; Young, David R; Carter, Lori; Mahabir, Sean P; Honsberger, Nicole A; Myers, Melanie R; Holzmer, Susan; Chapin, Sara; Rugg, Jady J

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral treatment with sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against five tick species known to infest dogs in the United States. A total of 10 laboratory studies, two against each species, were conducted using adult purpose-bred mongrels or Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis or Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg. Tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions during any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly lower (P≤0.0001) in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all timepoints. Treatment with sarolaner resulted in ≥99.6% efficacy against existing infestations of all five tick species within 48h. The efficacy against weekly post-treatment re-infestations of all tick species was ≥96.9% for at least 35 days after treatment. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2mg/kg, resulted in excellent efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and against weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide rapid treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in the US. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schetters, T.P.; Bishop, R.; Crampton, M.; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, A.; Maritz-Olivier, C.; Miller, R.; Mosqueda, J.; Patarroyo, J.; Rodriguez-Valle, M.; Scoles, G.A.; de la Fuente, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 24 (2016), s. 105 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CATVAC * vaccine * cattle * tick * Rhipicephalus microplus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  14. Rickettsiae of the Spotted Fever group in dogs, horses and ticks: an epidemiological study in an endemic region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Costa da Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma ovale, Rhipicephalus microplus and nymphs of Amblyomma sp., R. sanguineus and R. microplus. Adult ticks gathered from horses were A. cajennense, R. microplus and Dermacentor nitens, in addition to nymphs of Amblyomma sp., R. microplus and D. nitens. The results suggest that: (i the habit of dogs entering forests and living in rural environments positively influenced the presence of anti-rickettsiae of the spotted fever group serum antibodies, (ii horses were not good sentinels for this study area and (iii R. sanguineus as well as A. cajennense ticks were the most prevalent ixodidae fauna of the region.

  15. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros

  16. A randomized, controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner (Credelio™ in controlling ticks in client-owned dogs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral administration of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™, Elanco to dogs has been shown to provide a rapid onset of killing activity of infesting ticks, with sustained efficacy for at least 35 days. A study was undertaken in Europe to confirm lotilaner’s safety and anti-tick efficacy in client-owned dogs. Methods In this assessor-blinded study, dogs were enrolled at 19 clinics in Germany, Hungary and Portugal. Qualifying households with no more than three dogs were randomized in an approximate 2:1 ratio to a lotilaner or fipronil/(S-methoprene (FSM (Frontline® Combo Spot-on, Merial treatment group. One household dog with at least three live attached ticks was the primary dog. Treatments were dispensed Days 0, 28 (± 2 and 56 (± 2 for owner administration to all household dogs. Tick counts were performed on primary dogs Days 7 (± 1, and ±2 days on Days 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84; supplementary dogs were assessed for safety ± 2 days on Days 28, 56 and 84. Efficacy was assessed by comparing mean Day 0 live attached tick counts with subsequent counts. Results The most frequently retrieved ticks were Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato, with Ixodes hexagonus also present. In the lotilaner group (n = 127 geometric mean tick count reductions were at least 98% from the first post-treatment visit (Day 7 through Day 56, when efficacy was 100%. For FSM (n = 68, efficacy remained at least 96% through Day 84, but at no point were all dogs free of live attached ticks. Mean counts in lotilaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than FSM-treated dogs on Days 7, 42, 70 and 84 (P  98% effective in eliminating live ticks from the first post-treatment assessment (Day 7 through Day 56 and maintained 100% of dogs tick-free on Days 70 and 84. Lotilaner was safe, providing superior tick control to FSM administered according to the same schedule.

  17. Acetylcholinesterase of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Phlebotomus papatasi: Gene identification, expression, and biochemical properties of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Bm) ticks are vectors of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Tick resistance to organophosphate (OP) acaricide involves acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity to OP and metabolic detoxification. Sequencing and in vitro expression of Bm genes encoding AChE allo...

  18. Effects of anti-tick vaccines, recombinant serine protease inhibitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary trial of a cocktail of recombinant RAS-1-2 and RIM 36 antigens was conducted in Uganda to assess the effects of ant-tick vaccines against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick feeding on Zebu cattle under both experimental and natural conditions. Under experimental conditions, over a period of 28 days, the ...

  19. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXXII. Ixodid ticks on scrub hares in the Transvaal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Spickett, A M; Braack, L E; Penzhorn, B L

    1993-09-01

    A total of 264 scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis) were examined for ixodid ticks at various localities in the Kruger National Park, eastern Transvaal Lowveld. Thirteen tick species were recovered from these hares. The seasonal abundances of the immature stages of Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis and all stages of a Rhipicephalus sp. (near R. pravus) were determined. Three scrub hares, examined in the north-western Transvaal Bushveld, were infested with five ixodid tick species. Ten hares examined in the eastern Transvaal Highveld harboured three species. A total of 15 ixodid tick species were recovered from the scrub hares examined in the three regions of the Transvaal. No haematozoa were found in blood smears made from the hares examined in the southern region of the Kruger National Park.

  20. Molecular detection and characterization of Anaplasma platys in dogs and ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Navarrete, Maylín González; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Gonzalez, Belkis Corona; Zaldivar, Maykelin Fuentes; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Peckle, Maristela; Costa, Renata Lins da; Vitari, Gabriela Lopes Vivas; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, an infectious disease caused by Anaplasma platys is a worldwide dog health problem. This study aimed to detect and characterize A. platys deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in dogs and ticks from Cuba using molecular methods. The study was conducted in four cities of Cuba (Habana del Este, Boyeros, Cotorro and San José de las Lajas). Blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in these cities. The animals were inspected for the detection of tick infestation and specimens were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog blood and ticks using a commercial kit. Genomic DNA samples from blood and ticks were tested by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) to amplify 678 base pairs (bp) from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of A. platys. Positive samples in nPCR were also subjected to PCR to amplify a fragment of 580bp from the citrate synthase (gltA) gene and the products were sequenced. Only Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was found on dogs, and 10.20% (n=5/49) of these ticks plus sixteen percent (16.0%, n=16/100) of dogs were considered positive for A. platys by nPCR targeting the 16S rDNA gene. All analyzed gltA and 16S rDNA sequences showed a 99-100% identity with sequences of A. platys reported in around the world. Phylogenetic analysis showed two defined clusters for the 16S rDNA gene and three defined clusters for the gltA gene. Based on the gltA gene, the deduced amino acid sequence showed two mutations at positions 88 and 168 compared with the sequence DQ525687 (GenBank ID from Italian sample), used as a reference in the alignment. A preliminary study on the epidemiological aspects associated with infection by A. platys showed no statistical association with the variables studied (p>0.05). This is the first evidence of the presence of A. platys in dogs and ticks in Cuba. Further studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiological aspects of A. platys infection in Cuban dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  1. Oocysts of Hepatozoon canis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from a naturally infected dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Renata Lima; de Castro, Jacqueline Ribeiro; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Mundim, Antonio Vicente; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Eyal, Osnat; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Cury, Márcia Cristina; Baneth, Gad

    2011-05-11

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Hepatozoon. Several tick species have been implicated as potential vectors. Therefore, extensive studies are needed to determine the 'natural' endemic cycle of this parasite. This paper presents the first report of the presence of Hepatozoon canis oocysts in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from an infected dog. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ixodid ticks parasitizing wild carnivores in Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Amico, G.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Matei, I.A.; Ionică, A.M.; Gherman, C.M.; Sándor, A.D.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 139-149 ISSN 0168-8162 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dermacentor spp. * Haemaphysalis spp. * Ixodes spp. * Rhipicephalus spp. * wildlife * tick-host associations Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.760, year: 2016

  3. Cluster size influence on the survivability of Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus larvae under low relative humidity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low relative humidity (RH) levels (=63%) have been previously shown to be a determining factor in the survival of southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, larvae, regardless of temperature. Supporting this observation, large larval clusters can retain more water than isolated larvae. Th...

  4. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used ...

  5. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project first submission of genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence difficult. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used to reduce the repetitive fraction of the tick genome and enrich for the fraction of DNA with gene-containing regions. The Cot-selected ...

  6. Facilitative ecological interactions between invasive species: Arundo donax (Poaceae) stands as favorable habitat for cattle ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) along the U.S.-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is a key vector of protozoa that causes bovine babesiosis. Largely eradicated from most of the U.S., the cattle tick continues to infest the Cattle Fever Tick Quarantine Zone in south Texas. Management areas of the souther...

  7. A molecular survey of bovine Theileria parasites among apparently healthy cattle and with a note on the distribution of ticks in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Munir; Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir

    2006-06-15

    A survey of Theileria parasites in cattle in eastern Turkey was carried out using specific polymerase chain reaction. A total of 252 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy cattle between June and July 2004. Of 252 blood samples examined, 41 (16%) were positive for piroplasms by microscopy, whereas 114 (45%) were positive for the presence of at least one species of Theileria by PCR. The percentages of positive animals for Theileria annulata and benign Theileria species (Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis) were 39% (99/252) and 7% (18/252), respectively. By allele-specific PCR examination of 18 field isolates which were positive for benign Theileria parasites, 8 samples were only amplified by B-type specific primers and 10 samples were amplified by both of the B and C-type specific primers, indicating a mixed infection with B and C-type of the parasite. None of the field isolates was amplified by I-type specific primers. Three samples were co-infected with T. annulata and benign Theileria parasites. Two of them which were infected with B-type parasite were also infected with T. annulata, the other sample which was infected both of B and C-type parasites was also infected with T. annulata. A total of 724 ixodid ticks were collected from the cattle. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the dominant species with 32% (230/724) in the region. H. a. excavatum, Boophylus annulatus and Rhipicephalus bursa represented 25% (183/724), 19% (140/724) and 15% (112/724) of the total number of ticks, respectively. R. sanguineus was the minor species and represented 8% (59/724) of the tick population.

  8. Efficient method for extracting DNA of parasites causing bovine babesiosis from tick vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is an economically important pest costing animal agriculture billions of dollars worldwide. This research focuses on a comparison of three different tick DNA extraction methods: phenol-chloroform extraction (method 1), a modified version...

  9. Tick Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control How to Remove a Tick Deer Tick Ecology Tick-Borne Diseases Anaplasmosis Babesiosis Borrelia miyamotoi infections ... repellents containing the active ingredient DEET can be applied to the skin (be sure to strictly follow ...

  10. Tick Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks that bite humans How ticks spread disease Diseases transmitted by ticks Trends in tickborne diseases Tickborne diseases ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  11. Avoiding Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks that bite humans How ticks spread disease Diseases transmitted by ticks Trends in tickborne diseases Tickborne diseases ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  12. Effect of gamma rays on the larvae of Rhipicephalus bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecheva, G.

    1979-01-01

    Rhipicephalus bursa larvae were exposed to a single acute gamma-irradiation from cobalt 60 source in doses from 0.5 to 40 kiloroentgen (kr). Doses higher than 20 kr rilled the larvae, lower than 10 kr produced disturbances in tick development, dependent on radiation; larvae irradiated with 2 to 3 kr started sucking blood as larvae ordinarily do, but could not undergo metamorphosis; larvae irradiated with lower doses (0.5 and 1 kr) had a prolonged metamorphosis, the onset of oviposition was delayed and the percentage of hatched second generation larvae was reduced. (A.B.)

  13. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.

  14. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Mendel, Jan; Blažejová, Hana; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schnittger, Leonhard; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-10-01

    By amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in 0.08 % (4/5057) and 0.04 % (1/2473) of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovakia and Czech Republic, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was also detected in spleen and/or lungs of 4.45 % (27/606) of rodents from Slovakia. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in Myodes glareolus (11.45 %) than in Apodemus spp. (0.28 %) (P Hepatozoon spp. gene amplicons from I. ricinus showed 100 % identity with Hepatozoon canis isolates from red foxes or dogs in Europe. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least two H. canis 18S rRNA genotypes exist in Slovakia of which one was identified also in the Czech Republic. The finding of H. canis in questing I. ricinus suggests the geographical spread of the parasite and a potential role of other ticks as its vectors in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is not endemic. Sequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons from M. glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that 18S rRNA variants SK1 and SK2 correspond to previously described genotypes UR1 and UR2 of H. erhardovae, respectively. The isolate from Apodemus flavicollis (Hepatozoon sp. SK3b) was 99 % identical with isolates from reptiles in Africa and Asia. Further studies are necessary to identify the taxonomic status of Hepatozoon spp. parasitizing rodents in Europe and the host-parasite interactions in natural foci.

  15. Acetylcholinesterases of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Phlebotomus papatasi: Gene identification, expression and biochemical properties of recombinant proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Bm) is a vector of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Tick resistance to organophosphate (OP) acaricide involves acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity to OP and metabolic detoxification. In vitro expression of Bm genes encoding AChE allowed biochemical chara...

  16. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. L. Ixodid ticks infesting horses and donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Ivan G; Heyne, Heloise; Halajian, Ali; Booysen, Shalaine; Smit, Willem J

    2017-02-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in South Africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. Ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria. Ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in Limpopo Province, 2 in Gauteng Province and 1 in North West province. All the ticks were identified by means of a stereoscopic microscope. Horses were infested with 17 tick species, 72.1% with Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, 19.4% with Amblyomma hebraeum and 15.6% with Rhipicephalus decoloratus. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi was recovered from horses in all nine provinces of South Africa and R. decoloratus in eight provinces. Donkeys were infested with eight tick species, and 81.6% were infested with R. evertsi evertsi, 23.7% with A. hebraeum and 10.5% with R. decoloratus. Several tick species collected from the horses and donkeys are the vectors of economically important diseases of livestock. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is the vector of Theileria equi, the causative organism of equine piroplasmosis. It also transmits Anaplasma marginale, the causative organism of anaplasmosis in cattle. Amblyomma hebraeum is the vector of Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative organism of heartwater in cattle, sheep and goats, whereas R. decoloratus transmits Babesia bigemina, the causative organism of babesiosis in cattle.

  17. Prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in different tick species from Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyumagwa, Robert D; Simmler, Pascale; Meli, Marina L; Hoare, Richard; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-04-06

    In 2001, Ngorongoro Crater was infested with high density of ticks on grassland, livestock and wildlife which was also associated with high mortality. Adult ticks were collected, identified, processed for nucleic acids extraction and a molecular analysis was performed to determine the range of tick species harboring Anaplasma marginale. The real-time PCR was used in the amplification of rickettsia DNA in tick pools (n=527) from 11 identified tick species. Six tick species were detected with A. marginale DNA including Amblyomma gemma, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. compositus, R.decoloratus, R. praetextatus and R. pulchellus. The detection rate in each tick species was 3%, 0.7%, 2%, 13%, 1.8%, and 6.2%, respectively. Five of the positive tick species excluding R.decoloratus have previously not been described to transmit A. marginale. High diversity of tick species detected with A. marginale in Ngorongoro Crater is likely to increase a risk to susceptible animals of contracting the infection.

  18. Interaction of plant essential oil terpenoids with the southern cattle tick tyramine receptor: A potential biopesticide target

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) has historically been a devastating pest to the cattle industry worldwide. The use of chemical acaricides has been the mainstay for controlling the southern cattle tick. However, there have been several reports of chemical acaricide resi...

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D F Buccini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities and the toxic effects of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva for elucidating the modulation mechanism between arthropod saliva and host. Methods: For saliva collection, engorged ticks were obtained from a controlled bovine infestation and collected by natural fall. The ticks were fixed and injected pilocarpine 0.2% for induction of salivation. Saliva was collected, lyophilized and stored at - 80 °C. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by the hemolysis method (25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 μ g/mL and MTT cell viability assay (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 μ g/mL for 24, 48 and 72 h. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the method of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity of mice at doses of 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg; antinociceptive activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, and formalin-induced paw-licking in mice at dose of 15 mg/kg. Results: Saliva did not cause erythrocytes hemolysis at any concentration tested, as well as did not decrease cell viability in the MTT assay. Saliva inhibited neutrophil migration by 87% and 73% at doses of 15 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In the nociceptive tests, saliva presented analgesic activity of 69.96% in the abdominal writhing test, and of 84.41% in the formalin test. Conclusions: The study proves that Rhipicephalus microplus saliva has significant in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The data presented herein support the development of further studies to elucidate the active principles of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva and its mechanism of action and, in future, to develop novel anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs.

  20. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Popara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle.

  1. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.

  2. Rhipicephalus microplus dataset of nonredundant raw sequence reads from 454 GS FLX sequencing of Cot-selected (Cot = 660) genomic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reassociation kinetics-based approach was used to reduce the complexity of genomic DNA from the Deutsch laboratory strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, to facilitate genome sequencing. Selected genomic DNA (Cot value = 660) was sequenced using 454 GS FLX technology, resulting in 356...

  3. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, 5 BAC clone sequencing, including two encoding Cytochrome P450s and one encoding CzEst9 carboxylesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. BAC clones give insight into the genome struct...

  4. Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon species in ticks infesting animal hosts in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin O; Tolf, Conny; Tamba, Paula; Stefanache, Mircea; Radbea, Gabriel; Rubel, Franz; Waldenström, Jonas; Dobler, Gerhard; Chițimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2017-08-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. are tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasites that cause several important diseases in animals. To increase current knowledge about the diversity of tick-transmitted pathogens in Romania, we investigated the occurrence of Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Hepatozoon spp. in a wide range of tick species infesting animal hosts. We collected 852 ticks from 10 different animal species from 20 counties in Romania. The assessment was based on detection of parasite DNA by PCR. Five different apicomplexan parasite species were detected; among them three different species of Babesia: B. canis, B. microti, and B. ovis. Hepatozoon canis was the most frequently detected parasite, found predominately in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from domestic dogs. It was also detected in I. ricinus collected from goat, fox, and cat. Furthermore, H. canis was found in Haemaphysalis punctata and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. In addition, Theileria buffeli was detected in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from cattle.

  5. Identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on humans in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Orkun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara.A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph and Ha. parva.This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey

  6. Widespread Rickettsia spp. Infections in Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Seasonal Activity of Ticks and their Importance in Tick-Borne Infectious Diseases in West Azerbaijan, Iran

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    Sh Salari Lak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: West Azerbaijan is considered as a main region for domestic animal breeding. Due to importance of herd as a main host and ticks as a vector of relapsing fever and CCHF, a comprehensive study was undertaken in the region.Methods: Outdoor, indoor collection as well as ticks stick to the animals' body were collected and identified. The study was conducted during the whole seasons in 2004-2005.Results: During four seasons a total of 2728 ticks of two families (Ixodidae and Argasidae were collected compris­ing 7 genera of 5 hard ticks and two genera of soft ticks including Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicepha­lus, Boophilus and Dermacentor. The soft ticks were Ornithodoros and Argas. These 7 genera included 18 species. The main species were Haemaphysalis inermis, H. punctata, H. sulcata, H. numidiana, H. concinna, Hyalomma mar­gi­natum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. schulzei, H. aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sangiuneus, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodoros lahorensis, and Argas persicus. Fre­quency of ticks during different seasons was different. A pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, which is widely used for tick control was tested against soft ticks. The test method was based on WHO recommendation. At the LD50 level A. persicus needs more concentration than O. lahorensis.Conclusion: Ornithodoros and Argas are the more prevalent soft ticks in the region. Distribution and prevalence of hard ticks was varied in different seasons. Results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of tick control.

  8. Ehrlichia minasensis sp nov., isolated from the tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Zweygarth, E.; Vancová, Marie; Broniszewska, M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Friche Passos, L.M.; Barbosa Ribeiro, M.F.; Alberdi, P.; de la Fuente, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2016), s. 1426-1430 ISSN 1466-5026 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cell lines * Anaplasma * genotype * pathogen * Brazil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016

  9. Research project for integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is infested with the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (...

  10. Distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in Free State Province, South Africa

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    Ivan G. Horak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks’ role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed.

  11. Invasive Potential of Cattle Fever Ticks in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors ...

  12. Distribution and phenology of ixodid ticks in southern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speybroeck, N; Madder, M; Van Den Bossche, P; Mtambo, J; Berkvens, N; Chaka, G; Mulumba, M; Brandt, J; Tirry, L; Berkvens, D

    2002-12-01

    Distribution data for epidemiologically important ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Southern Province of Zambia, one of the main cattle areas of the country, are presented. Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) was not recorded in southern Zambia, whereas Boophilus decoloratus (Koch) is present throughout the area. New distribution patterns for less economically important ixodid ticks are also discussed. Southern Zambia is a transition zone because it is the most northern area in Africa where mixed Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis Walker, Norval & Corwin populations were reported. Although a second generation of adult R. appendiculatus/R. zamnbeziensis was encountered, simulations indicated that this phenomenon is very rare in southern Zambia, mainly because of the colder temperatures during the early dry season and lower rainfall. These simulations were supported by a development trial under experimental conditions. Tick body size measurements showed that southern Zambian ticks are larger than eastern Zambian R. appendiculatus. It is hypothesized that body size is related to diapausing intensity in this species. The epidemiological consequences are that a different approach to control Theileria parva (Theiler) (Piroplasmida: Theileriidae) and other tick-borne diseases is needed in southern Zambia, compared to the one adopted in eastern Zambia.

  13. Fibrinogen-related proteins in ixodid ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěrba, J.; Dupejová, J.; Fišer, M.; Vancová, Marie; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2011), e127 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960906; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : AMERICAN DOG TICK * INNATE IMMUNITY * DORIN-M * RHIPICEPHALUS-APPENDICULATUS * MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION * DERMACENTOR-VARIABILIS * ORNITHODOROS-MOUBATA * LECTINS * HEMOLYMPH * BINDING Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.937, year: 2011 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/pdf/1756-3305-4-127.pdf

  14. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

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    Ali Nikpay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Re­cently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle.Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2 respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Fi­nally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA.Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, en­gorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3% and increased duration of feeding, pre-oviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%. All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05. Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation.Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B. annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control.

  15. Molecular survey of Coxiella burnetii in wildlife and ticks at wildlife-livestock interfaces in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeereh, David; Muchemi, Gerald; Thaiyah, Andrew; Otiende, Moses; Angelone-Alasaad, Samer; Jowers, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonotic disease of public health importance. The role of wildlife and their ticks in the epidemiology of C. burnetii in Kenya is unknown. This study analysed the occurrence and prevalence of the pathogen in wildlife and their ticks at two unique wildlife-livestock interfaces of Laikipia and Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) with the aim to determine the potential risk of transmission to livestock and humans. Blood from 79 and 73 animals in Laikipia and MMNR, respectively, and 756 and 95 ixodid ticks in each of the areas, respectively, was analysed. Ticks were pooled before analyses into 137 and 29 samples in Laikipia and MMNR, respectively, of one to eight non-engorged ticks according to species and animal host. Real-time PCR amplifying the repetitive insertion element IS1111a of the transposase gene was used to detect C. burnetii DNA. Although none of the animals and ticks from MMNR tested positive, ticks from Laikipia had an overall pooled prevalence of 2.92% resulting in a maximum-likelihood estimate of prevalence of 0.54%, 95% CI 0.17-1.24. Ticks positive for C. burnetii DNA belonged to the genus Rhipicephalus at a pooled prevalence of 2.96% (maximum-likelihood estimate of prevalence of 0.54%, 95% CI 0.17-1.26). These ticks were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. pulchellus and R. evertsi at pooled prevalence of 3.77, 3.03 and 2.04%, respectively. The presence of C. burnetii in ticks suggests circulation of the pathogen in Laikipia and demonstrates they may play a potential role in the epidemiology of Q fever in this ecosystem. The findings warrant further studies to understand the presence of C. burnetii in domestic animals and their ticks within both study areas.

  16. [Determination of tick species and treatment of cows, sheep and goats in the Sivas-Zara region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamak, Nuri; Gençer, Lütfiye; Ozkanlar, Yunus Emre; Ozçelik, Semra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine tick infestation in cattle, sheep and goats in the Zara-Sivas region for one year and to determine the epizootiology of the tick species as well as to investigate treatment of the infested animals. Tick infestation was detected in 71 (29.6%) out of 240 cattle, 66 (24.0%) out of 275 sheep and 50 (19.9%) out of 252 goats in the Zara region. It has been shown that the tick infestation on cattle included Haemaphysalis parva (33.8%), Dermacentor marginatus (2.8%), Boophilus annulatus (21.1%), Haemaphysalis concinna (15.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.7%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (7%). Those on sheep included Dermacentor niveus (18.2%), Dermacentor marginatus (31.8%), Haemaphysalis parva (13.6%), Haemaphysalis concinna (4.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (4.5%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (27.3%). Those on goats included Dermacentor niveus (4%), Dermacentor marginatus (12%), Haemaphysalis parva (40%), Haemaphysalis concinna (2%), Boophilus annulatum (4%), Hyalomma marginatum (6%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (32%). Ivermectin was administered to the infested animals in a dose of 200 microg/kg subcutaneously. The administration of the ivermectin was effective. As a result, it has been shown that the tick infestation is present in cattle, sheep and goats in Zara region, the tick species differ according to the season and administration of ivermectin was an effective treatment.

  17. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting some small mammals from Northern Turkey with new tick-host associations and locality records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Adem; Selçuk, Ahmet Yesari; Kefelioğlu, Haluk

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are obligate ectoparasites of a vast range of terrestrial vertebrates which may play an important role in the transmission of many zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. In the current study, we performed an investigation on ticks infesting some small mammals captured from Samsun and Tokat provinces, Northern Turkey. One hundred forty-five mammalian samples belonging to four species, namely Cricetulus migratorius (n = 1), Apodemus flavicollis (n = 17), Crocidura suaveolens (n = 102) and Sorex volnuchini (n = 25), were examined for the presence of tick infestations. A total of 273 (74 larvae, 194 nymphs, 5 females) hard ticks were collected from 88 mammalian samples. Ticks were identified as Ixodes laguri (1 nymph), I. redikorzevi (22 larvae, 186 nymphs, 5 females), I. ricinus (52 larvae, 4 nymphs) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (3 nymphs). Here, we also provided new tick mammalian host associations for Turkey. In addition, I. laguri and I. redikorzevi ticks were recorded for the first time in Samsun province of Turkey.

  18. Investigation of Rickettsia, Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella in ticks from animals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halajian, Ali; Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Heyne, Heloise; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Oteo, José A

    2016-03-01

    Ticks are involved in the epidemiology of several human pathogens including spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. Human diseases caused by these microorganisms have been reported from South Africa. The presence of SFG Rickettsia spp., C. burnetii and Bartonella spp. was investigated in 205 ticks collected from domestic and wild animals from Western Cape and Limpopo provinces (South Africa). Rickettsia massiliae was detected in 10 Amblyomma sylvaticum and 1 Rhipicephalus simus whereas Rickettsia africae was amplified in 7 Amblyomma hebraeum. Neither C. burnetii nor Bartonella spp. was found in the examined ticks. This study demonstrates the presence of the tick borne pathogen R. massiliae in South Africa (Western Cape and Limpopo provinces), and corroborates the presence of the African tick-bite fever agent (R. africae) in this country (Limpopo province). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

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    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  20. Assessment and partial purification of serine protease inhibitors from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatuslarvae

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    Sedigheh Nabian

    Full Text Available Ticks are rich sources of serine protease inhibitors, particularly those that prevent blood clotting and inflammatory responses during blood feeding. The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophlus annulatusis an important ectoparasite of cattle. The aims of this study were to characterize and purify the serine protease inhibitors present in R. (B. annulatus larval extract. The inhibitors were characterized by means of one and two-dimensional reverse zymography, and purified using affinity chromatography on a trypsin-Sepharose column. The analysis on one and two-dimensional reverse zymography of the larval extract showed trypsin inhibitory activity at between 13 and 40 kDa. Through non-reducing SDS-PAGE and reverse zymography for proteins purified by trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography, some protein bands with molecular weights between 13 and 34 kDa were detected. Western blotting showed that five protein bands at 48, 70, 110, 130 and 250 kDa reacted positively with immune serum, whereas there was no positive reaction in the range of 13-40 kDa. Serine protease inhibitors from R. (B. annulatus have anti-trypsin activity similar to inhibitors belonging to several other hard tick species, thus suggesting that these proteins may be useful as targets in anti-tick vaccines.

  1. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  2. Pesky Ticks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-09

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of ticks and how to protect yourself from them.  Created: 4/9/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/9/2013.

  3. Ticks: Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks that bite humans How ticks spread disease Diseases transmitted by ticks Trends in tickborne diseases Tickborne diseases ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  4. Comparison of efficiency and reproductive aptitude indexes between a reference and field strains of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, in Sinaloa, Mexico Comparação dos índices de eficiência e aptidão reprodutiva entre uma cepa de referência e outra de campo do carrapato do gado, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, em Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soila Gaxiola-Camacho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the reproductive behavior of two strains of R. (B. microplus, one wild-caught (Native and one reference strain (Media Joya for two years, measuring the reproductive efficiency index (REI and reproductive aptitude index (RAI. Engorged ticks from each strain were collected monthly from February 2002 to February 2004. These were weighed and kept in the laboratory until egg-laying. Oogenic masses were individually weighed and incubated until larvae emergence. REI and RAI were calculated from each sample, grouping ticks by weight in 100 mg range classes. An analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple rank tests were carried out on the data (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a conduta reprodutiva de duas cepas de R. (B. microplus, uma coletada no campo (Nativa e outra de referência (Média Jóia, por dois anos, calculando o índice de eficiência reprodutiva (REI e o índice de aptidão reprodutiva (RAI. Foram coletados mensalmente carrapatos fêmeas engurgitadas de cada cepa no período de Fevereiro de 2002 a Fevereiro de 2004. Estas foram pesadas e conservadas no laboratório até ovipositar. As massas de ovos foram pesadas individualmente e incubadas até a eclosão das larvas. O REI e o RAI foram calculados para cada coleta, agrupando os carrapatos em classe de peso de 100 mg. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e prova de classe múltipla de Duncan (P < 0,05. Foram calculados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson (P < 0,01 para estimar a associação entre o peso dos carrapatos engurgitados e o peso e número de ovos postos e eclosionados. A cepa Nativa mostrou um peso ao engurgitamento mais alto do que a cepa Média Jóia. Os valores de REI e de RAI em ambas cepas foram similares em todos as classes de peso, mostrando tendência cuadrática na Média Jóia e linear-cuadrática na cepa Nativa (P < 0,05. Ambos os índices por classe de peso no engurgitamento foram sempre mais

  5. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fourie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and +7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days+1and +8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  6. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  7. Detection of Theileria and Babesia species in ticks collected from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ica, A; Vatansever, Z; Yildirim, A; Duzlu, O; Inci, A

    2007-09-01

    The present study was carried out to detect tick species that infest cattle, and Theileria and Babesia species transmitted by these ticks in Kayseri province (Turkey). A total of 300 cattle were examined for tick infestations. Of the 300 cattle, 117 (39%) were infested with ticks. A total of 1160 ticks belonging to 11 Ixodid genera were collected from the infested animals and their shelters. The most prevalent tick species was Boophilus annulatus 26.37% (306/1160) followed by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum 21.12% (245/1160) and Rhipicephalus turanicus 18.7% (217/1160). The collected ticks were separated into 43 tick pools, according to their species. These pools were examined for bovine Theileria and Babesia species (Theileria sp., Babesia sp., Theileria annulata, T. buffeli/orientalis, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and B. divergens) by using the reverse line blotting method (RLB). Of the 43 tick pools examined, 6 (14%) were infected with B. bigemina, 4 (9.3%) with T. annulata, and 1 (2.3%) with Babesia sp., whereas 1 (2.3%) displayed mixed infection with T. annulata + B. bigemina. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses of Babesia sp., which could not be identified to the species level by RLB, were performed. In the phylogenetic tree, Babesia sp. (Kayseri 1) grouped with Babesia sp. (Kashi 2), Babesia sp. (Kashi 1), Babesia sp. (Xinjiang) and B. orientalis with 96.8-100% identity.

  8. Novel Rickettsia raoultii strain isolated and propagated from Austrian Dermacentor reticulatus ticks

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    Michiel Wijnveld

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous culture of tick cell lines has proven a valuable asset in isolating and propagating several different vector-borne pathogens, making it possible to study these microorganisms under laboratory conditions and develop serological tests to benefit public health. We describe a method for effective, cost- and labor-efficient isolation and propagation of Rickettsia raoultii using generally available laboratory equipment and Rhipicephalus microplus cells, further demonstrating the usefulness of continuous tick cell lines. R. raoultii is one of the causative agents of tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA and is, together with its vector Dermacentor reticulatus, emerging in novel regions of Europe, giving rise to an increased threat to general public health. Methods Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected in the Donau-Auen (Lobau national park in Vienna, Austria. The hemolymph of ten collected ticks was screened by PCR-reverse line blot for the presence of rickettsial DNA. A single tick tested positive for R. raoultii DNA and was used to infect Rhipicephalus microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. Results Sixty-five days after infection of the tick-cell line with an extract from a R. raoultii-infected tick, we observed intracellular bacteria in the cultured cells. On the basis of microscopy we suspected that the intracellular bacteria were a species of Rickettsia; this was confirmed by several PCRs targeting different genes. Subsequent sequencing showed 99–100 % identity with R. raoultii. Cryopreservation and resuscitation of R. raoultii was successful. After 28 days identical intracellular bacteria were microscopically observed. Conclusions R. raoultii was successfully isolated and propagated from D. reticulatus ticks using R. microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. The isolated strain shows significant molecular variation compared to currently known sequences. Furthermore we show for the first time the successful cryopreservation and

  9. Novel Rickettsia raoultii strain isolated and propagated from Austrian Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnveld, Michiel; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Pintér, Adriano; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-11-03

    Continuous culture of tick cell lines has proven a valuable asset in isolating and propagating several different vector-borne pathogens, making it possible to study these microorganisms under laboratory conditions and develop serological tests to benefit public health. We describe a method for effective, cost- and labor-efficient isolation and propagation of Rickettsia raoultii using generally available laboratory equipment and Rhipicephalus microplus cells, further demonstrating the usefulness of continuous tick cell lines. R. raoultii is one of the causative agents of tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) and is, together with its vector Dermacentor reticulatus, emerging in novel regions of Europe, giving rise to an increased threat to general public health. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected in the Donau-Auen (Lobau) national park in Vienna, Austria. The hemolymph of ten collected ticks was screened by PCR-reverse line blot for the presence of rickettsial DNA. A single tick tested positive for R. raoultii DNA and was used to infect Rhipicephalus microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. Sixty-five days after infection of the tick-cell line with an extract from a R. raoultii-infected tick, we observed intracellular bacteria in the cultured cells. On the basis of microscopy we suspected that the intracellular bacteria were a species of Rickettsia; this was confirmed by several PCRs targeting different genes. Subsequent sequencing showed 99-100 % identity with R. raoultii. Cryopreservation and resuscitation of R. raoultii was successful. After 28 days identical intracellular bacteria were microscopically observed. R. raoultii was successfully isolated and propagated from D. reticulatus ticks using R. microplus BME/CTVM2 cells. The isolated strain shows significant molecular variation compared to currently known sequences. Furthermore we show for the first time the successful cryopreservation and resuscitation of R. raoultii.

  10. Distribution of ticks infesting ruminants and risk factors associated with high tick prevalence in livestock farms in the semi-arid and arid agro-ecological zones of Pakistan.

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    Rehman, Abdul; Nijhof, Ard M; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Schauer, Birgit; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J

    2017-04-19

    Tick infestation is the major problem for animal health that causes substantial economic losses, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. To better understand the spatial distribution of tick species and risk factors associated with tick prevalence in livestock in Pakistan, ticks were counted and collected from 471 animals, including 179 cattle, 194 buffaloes, 80 goats and 18 sheep, on 108 livestock farms in nine districts, covering both semi-arid and arid agro-ecological zones. In total, 3,807 ticks representing four species were collected: Hyalomma anatolicum (n = 3,021), Rhipicephalus microplus (n = 715), Hyalomma dromedarii (n = 41) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 30). The latter species is reported for the first time from the study area. Rhipicephalus microplus was the predominant species in the semi-arid zone, whereas H. anatolicum was the most abundant species in the arid zone. The overall proportion of tick-infested ruminants was 78.3% (369/471). It was highest in cattle (89.9%), followed by buffaloes (81.4%), goats (60.0%) and sheep (11.1%). The median tick burden significantly differed among animal species and was highest in cattle (median 58), followed by buffaloes (median 38), goats (median 19) and sheep (median 4.5). Female animals had significantly higher tick burdens than males and, in large ruminants, older animals carried more ticks than younger animals. The intensity of infestation was significantly lower in indigenous animals compared to exotic and crossbred cows. Analysis of questionnaire data revealed that the absence of rural poultry, not using any acaricides, traditional rural housing systems and grazing were potential risk factors associated with a higher tick prevalence in livestock farms. Absence of rural poultry, not performing acaricide treatments, traditional rural housing systems and grazing were important risk factors associated with higher tick prevalence in livestock farms. Age, gender, breed and animal

  11. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella and Francisella bacteria in ticks collected from Artiodactyla in Thailand.

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    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2016-07-01

    A total of 79 ticks collected from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and Wild boar (Sus scrofa) were examined by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, and Francisella bacteria. Of the 79 ticks, 13% tested positive for Rickettsia, 15% tested positive for Anaplasma, 4% tested positive for Coxiella, and 3% tested positive for Francisella. Interestingly, triple infection with Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Francisella was determined in a Dermacentor auratus tick. Moreover, another triple infection with Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella was found in a Haemaphysalis lagrangei tick. Double infection of Rickettsia with Coxiella was also detected in another H. lagrangei tick. From the phylogenetic analyses, we found a Rickettsia sp. with a close evolutionary relationship to Rickettsia bellii in the H. lagrangei tick. We also found the first evidence of a Rickettsia sp. that is closely related to Rickettsia tamurae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks from Thailand. H. lagrangei and Haemaphysalis obesa ticks collected from Sambar deer tested positive for Anaplasma species form the same clade with Anaplasma bovis. In contrast, other H. lagrangei ticks collected from Sambar deer and D. auratus ticks collected from Wild boar were also reported for the first time to be infected with an Anaplasma species that is closely related to Anaplasma platys. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of Coxiella bacteria revealed that Coxiella symbionts from H. lagrangei formed a distinctly different lineage from Coxiella burnetii (a human pathogen). Additionally, Francisella bacteria identified in D. auratus ticks were found to be distantly related to a group of pathogenic Francisella species. The identification of these bacteria in several feeding ticks suggests the risk of various emerging tick-borne diseases and endosymbionts in humans, wildlife, and domestic animals in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  12. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

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    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expressão e caracterização da Bm86-CG em Pichia pastoris

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    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (GavacTM and TickGardPLUS that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks.O carrapato-do-boi Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas econômicas. Seu controle é principalmente químico e apresenta limitações quanto ao desenvolvimento de resistência aos princípios ativos. As vacinas podem auxiliar no controle deste parasita diminuindo as aplicações de carrapaticidas. Considerando isso, foi realizada a subclonagem do gene da proteína Bm86-CG, proteína homologa a que atualmente é a base das vacinas desenvolvidas (GavacTM e TickGardPLUS contra o carrapato-do-boi, no vetor de expressão pPIC9, para ser transformado em levedura, Pichia pastoris. Esta proteína foi caracterizada pela expressão da cepa recombinante Mut+ que expressou maior quantidade de proteína. A proteína expressa, rBm86-CG, foi reconhecida no ensaio de Western-blot pelos soros policlonais anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti

  14. EFFICACY THE MIXTURE OF TWO STRAINS OF Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes TO CONTROL Rhipicephalus microplus ON NATURAL INFESTATION OF CATTLE

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    Roger Ivan Rodriguez-Vivas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae on the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in cattle infested naturally in the Mexican tropics. The study was carried out on a ranch in the Mexican tropics. Base on the number of adult and immature (larvae and nymphs R. microplus ticks 20 steers were assigned into two groups of 10 cattle. Animals in the treated group (average of 73.4 y 27.5 adult and immature ticks respectively were sprayed with a mixture of Ma14+Ma34 of M. anisopliae at a concentration of 1x108 conidios/ml. The other group remained as untreated control (average of 77.7 y 24.7 adult and immature ticks respectively and treated with water+Tween 80. Each group received 4 applications every 14 days. Adult and immature stages of ticks were recorded on days 0, 3, 5, 7 and 14 post-treatment. From the first application treatment to the end of the experiment, animals in the treated group had lower counts (P < 0.05 of adult (30.9-87% and immature (35.8-72% ticks. The results demonstrate the efficacy of repeated treatment with the strains Ma14+Ma34 of M. anisopliae can be used as an alternative to control natural infestation of R. microplus on cattle in the Mexican tropics.

  15. Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 ± 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617

  16. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

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    Valle Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Rmi a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs. Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA encoding gene sequence (rDNA, related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence

  17. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (Pcows from Groups A and C after treatment (P>0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimates of repeatability and correlations of hemoparasites infection levels for cattle reared in endemic areas for Rhipicephalus microplus.

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    Giglioti, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Bilhassi, Talita Barban; Portilho, Amanda Izeli; Okino, Cintia Hiromi; Marcondes, Cintia Righetti; de Sena Oliveira, Marcia Cristina

    2018-01-30

    Rhipicephalus microplus is a vector of cattle tick fever, a disease caused by the protozoans Babesia bovisand B. bigemina, and also anaplasmosis, produced by the Rickettsiales Anaplasma marginale. These tick-borne pathogens cause considerable losses to Brazilian livestock breeders and represent an obstacle to the expanded use of taurine breeds due to their higher sensitivity to ticks and hemoparasites compared to zebu breeds. Differences in the susceptibility to hemoparasites were also verified within breeds, suggesting that may be possible to select a most resistant phenotype. Therefore, repeatability of R. microplus counts and copy number of hemoparasites DNA were estimated, along with correlations between themselves, aiming to verify if those measures can be used as parameters to classify animals according to their parasite resistance degrees. Forty-two Canchim females kept on pastures naturally infested by ticks were evaluated for the level of infestation by R. microplus and infection by B. bovis, B. bigemina, and A. marginale. Twenty-four evaluations were performed once a month, for adult female ticks counts and blood samplings. The experimental period was divided into four phases, according to the animals age range: Phase 1: 8 to 13 months (collections 1 to 6); phase 2: 14 to 19 months (collections 7 to 12); phase 3: 20 to 25 months (collections 13 to 18), and phase 4: 26 to 31 months (collections 19 to 24). Blood samples were submitted to absolute quantification of hemoparasites DNA sequences using qPCR. The hemoparasite and tick counts data were transformed for normalization and were analyzed using mixed models. Among three species of hemoparasites studied, A. marginale presented the highest level of infection. During phase 3, B. bigemina presented higher infection levels (p hemoparasites and ticks. Moreover, the animal age may be an important factor related to resistance against these pathogens. The data obtained shed more light on the resistance to

  19. Invasive potential of cattle fever ticks in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract' Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors of the subgenus Boophilus. In 1906 an eradication effort was started and by 1943 Boophilus ticks had been confined to a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Texas-Mexico border. However, a dramatic increase in tick infestations in areas outside the TEQA over the last decade suggests these tick vectors may be poised to re-invade the southern United States. We investigated historical and potential future distributions of climatic habitats of cattle fever ticks to assess the potential for a range expansion. Methods We built robust spatial predictions of habitat suitability for the vector species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus across the southern United States for three time periods: 1906, present day (2012), and 2050. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) to identify persistent tick occurrences and analysis of bias in the climate proximate to these occurrences to identify key environmental parameters associated with the ecology of both species. We then used ecological niche modeling algorithms GARP and Maxent to construct models that related known occurrences of ticks in the TEQA during 2001–2011 with geospatial data layers that summarized important climate parameters at all three time periods. Results We identified persistent tick infestations and specific climate parameters that appear to be drivers of ecological niches of the two tick species. Spatial models projected onto climate data representative of climate in 1906 reproduced historical pre-eradication tick distributions. Present-day predictions, although constrained to areas near the TEQA, extrapolated well onto climate projections for

  20. Histoarchitecture of the Ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus during Pre- and Postengorgement Period

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    Kanapadinchareveetil, Sreelekha; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Gopi, Jyothimol; Ranjan Lenka, Dibya; Vasu, Aswathi; KGopalan, Ajith Kumar; Nair, Suresh N.; Juliet, Sanis; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V) of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B.) microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium. PMID:25664337

  1. Association between entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi for control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Matos, Renata Silva; da Silva Golo, Patrícia; Angelo, Isabele Costa; de Souza Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo; Coelho Rodrigues, Camila Aparecida; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the association of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi on Rhipicephalus microplus. The nematodes used were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and the fungi were Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 116 and Beauveria bassiana ESALQ 986. In the groups treated with the fungi, the females were immersed for 3 min in a conidial suspension, while in the groups treated with the nematodes, the ticks were exposed to infective juveniles. To evaluate the interaction between entomopathogens, the females were first immersed in a conidial suspension and then exposed to the nematodes. The egg mass weight and hatching percentage values of the groups treated with M. anisopliae IBCB 116 and B. bassiana ESALQ 986 in the two experiments were statistically similar (p > 0.05) to the values of the control group. In the groups treated only with nematodes, there was a significant reduction (p fungus M. anisopliae IBCB 116.

  2. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel K; Fielding, Burtram C; Kariuki, Edward; Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Mwamuye, Micky M; Ouso, Daniel O; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2017-01-01

    Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April-May; October-December) of 2012-2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma , and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals) by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium , 9.06% Ehrlichia canis ), anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis , 14.36% Anaplasma platys , and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis ,), and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae , 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii , 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali , and 4.95% Rickettsia spp.), as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi , and 1.37% Babesia caballi ) among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7%) and Amblyomma nuttalli (100%) sampled

  3. Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on wild carnivores in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2005-01-01

    species), Dermacentor (1 species), Rhipicephalus (1 species), and Boophilus (1 species). Additional 5 tick species (3 Amblyomma species and 1 species from each of the genera Ixodes and Ornithodoros) were reported in the literature. The most common ticks on Carnivora hosts were Amblyomma ovale (found on 14 host species), Amblyomma cajennense (10 species), Amblyomma aureolatum (10 species), Amblyomma tigrinum (7 species), Amblyomma parvum (7 species), and Boophilus microplus (7 species).

  4. Molecular (ticks) and serological (humans) study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the Iberian Peninsula, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; García-Álvarez, Lara; Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín; Márquez, Francisco J; Romero, Lourdes; Eiros, José M; Oteo, José A

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease, mainly transmitted through tick bite, of great importance in Public Health. In Spain, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in 2010 in Hyalomma lusitanicum ticks collected from deer in Cáceres. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CCHFV in ticks from Cáceres, and from other Spanish areas, and to evaluate the presence of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites. A total of 2053 ticks (1333 Hyalomma marginatum, 680 H. lusitanicum and 40 Rhipicephalus bursa) were analyzed using molecular biology techniques (PCR) for CCHFV detection. The determination of specific IgG antibodies against CCHFV in 228 serum samples from humans with regular contact with ticks (at risk of acquiring the infection) was performed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The CCHFV was not amplified in ticks, nor were antibodies against the virus found in the serum samples analyzed. The absence of the CCHFV in the ticks studied and the lack of antibodies against the virus in individuals exposed to tick bites would seem to suggest a low risk of acquisition of human infection by CCHFV in Spain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. PRODUCTIVITY AND TICK LOAD IN Bos Indicus X B. taurus CATTLE IN A TROPICAL DRY FOREST SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

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    Raquel Sofía Salazar Benjumea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks cause significant economic losses to the Colombian cattle sector: reduction in meat and milk production, blood losses and transmission of blood parasites. The degree of infestation depends on the breed, physiological state and nutrition of the animal and on microclimatic characteristics, which affect the tick life cycle. Diverse studies suggest that given the characteristics of intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS, tick loads within these systems are lower. In this study, the tick loads of grazing animals were monitored for five animal groups: three at an ISS and two at traditional farms located on the Valley of Ibague (Tolima. within the ISS, there were greater tick loads in high production cows (P = 0.026 and a positive relationship (P < 0.05 between milk production and tick load in August sampling. Greater tick counts were also observed in the in San Javier (traditional farm group compared to all other animal groups. We conclude that the dynamics of ticks is a complex phenomenon affected by many factors, whose association determines the observed tick population at any given time.

  6. [Tick-borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot Dupont, H; Raoult, D

    1993-05-01

    Due to their worldwide distribution, from hottest to coldest climates, and due to their behaviour, ticks are capable of transmitting numerous human and animal bacterial viral or parasitous diseases. Depending on the disease, they play the role of biological vector or intermediate host. In France, six tick borne diseases are of epidemiologic importance. Q fever (not often tick-borne), Mediterranean Spotted Fever, Lyme disease, Turalemia (human and animal), Babesiosis and Tick-borne Viral Encephalitis.

  7. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogen Diversities in Ticks from Livestock and Reptiles along the Shores and Adjacent Islands of Lake Victoria and Lake Baringo, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Omondi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents. During the wet months (April–May; October–December of 2012–2013, we surveyed TBP diversity among 4,126 ticks parasitizing livestock and reptiles at homesteads along the shores and islands of Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria in Kenya, regions endemic to diverse neglected tick-borne diseases. After morphological identification of 13 distinct Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, and Hyalomma tick species, ticks were pooled (≤8 individuals by species, host, sampling site, and collection date into 585 tick pools. By supplementing previously established molecular assays for TBP detection with high-resolution melting analysis of PCR products before sequencing, we identified high frequencies of potential disease agents of ehrlichiosis (12.48% Ehrlichia ruminantium, 9.06% Ehrlichia canis, anaplasmosis (6.32% Anaplasma ovis, 14.36% Anaplasma platys, and 3.08% Anaplasma bovis,, and rickettsiosis (6.15% Rickettsia africae, 2.22% Rickettsia aeschlimannii, 4.27% Rickettsia rhipicephali, and 4.95% Rickettsia spp., as well as Paracoccus sp. and apicomplexan hemoparasites (0.51% Theileria sp., 2.56% Hepatozoon fitzsimonsi, and 1.37% Babesia caballi among tick pools. Notably, we identified E. ruminantium in both Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus pools of ticks sampled from livestock in both study areas as well as in Amblyomma falsomarmoreum (66.7% and Amblyomma nuttalli (100

  8. Rickettsia rickettsii isolation from naturally infected Amblyomma parvum ticks by centrifugation in a 24-well culture plate technique

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    K. Dzul-Rosado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii (R. rickettsii and is transmitted by the bite of ticks of the genera Dermacentor, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus. The illness results in a high mortality rate and may be easily confused with other febrile syndromes. In Yucatan State, Mexico, childhood cases with a high mortality have been reported. In this work we report the isolation of a Mexican R. rickettsii strain from a tick egg mass using an alternative method for Rickettsia isolation with 24-well plates. We also identified a potential vector of R. rickettsii in the southeast of Mexico, which is Amblyomma parvum.

  9. Biological control of ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  10. Partial purification and characterization of amylase enzyme under solid state fermentation from Monascus sanguineus

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    Padmavathi Tallapragada

    2017-06-01

    It can be concluded that the fungus M. sanguineus is a good source of amylase production under solid state fermentation. Application of amylase produced by M. sanguineus in detergent industry was also carried out and it was proven very effective in stain removal from the fabrics.

  11. Tick infestation in human beings in the Nilgiris and Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    Thirteen human beings were infested with ticks at Sandynallah and Gudalur of the Nilgiris district and Mottur Suruvakkam of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu from January 2016 to December 2016. The collected ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides , Otobius megnini and Hyalomma isaaci. The tick infestation was observed more on the persons working with animals (sheep and goats) than those working in tea estate. The person infested with R. haemaphysaloides revealed erythematous papule (2 mm size) and inflammatory lesion up to 16 days whereas, the people infested with H. isaaci showed continuous itching and irritation for > 6 months and wound formation (0.5 cm) at the biting site. The people infested with O. megnini showed irritation, vomiting sensation and fever.

  12. In vitro cultivation and cryopreservation of Babesia bigemina sporokinetes in hemocytes of Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Jania; Rangel, Charles P; McIntosh, Douglas; Silveira, Júlia A G; Cunha, Nathalie C; Ramos, Carlos A N; Fonseca, Adivaldo H

    2015-09-15

    Cultures of tick hemocytes represent alternative cell lines for the isolation and cultivation of a variety of hemoparasites. The present study reports the development and evaluation of methods for the in vitro culture and maintenance of sporokinetes of Babesia bigemina in association with hemocytes of the tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Hemolymph, from engorged females infected with B. bigemina sporokinetes, was incubated at 28 °C in L15 culture medium supplemented with 40% fetal bovine serum. Adherence of hemocytes to flask surfaces and the development of B. bigemina sporokinetes commenced on the first day of cultivation. The protozoa demonstrated clear motility and the capacity to adhere to hemocyte membranes for up to 25 days, at which time the hemocytes began to show signs of degeneration. Examination of Giemsa stained hemocyte cultures, revealed the presence of pyriformis forms, as well as mature and immature sporokinetes with dark red nuclei, centralized or near the apical extremities. Sporokinetes harvested from culture supernatants were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Inoculation of parasite-free hemocyte cultures with defrosted sporokinetes, demonstrated the viability and interaction of the protozoa with the hemocytes over 21 days. Cultured hemocytes of R. microplus hold potential for development as a tool in the study of host parasite interactions and as a substrate for the in vitro maintenance of B. bigemina sporokinetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A survey of canine tick-borne diseases in India

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    Coleman Glen T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few published reports on canine Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Hepatozoon and haemotropic Mycoplasma infections in India and most describe clinical disease in individual dogs, diagnosed by morphological observation of the microorganisms in stained blood smears. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of canine tick-borne disease (TBD pathogens using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in four cities in India. Results On microscopy examination, only Hepatozoon gamonts were observed in twelve out of 525 (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.2, 4 blood smears. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, a total of 261 from 525 dogs (49.7%; 95% CI: 45.4, 54.1 in this study were infected with one or more canine tick-borne pathogen. Hepatozoon canis (30%; 95% CI: 26.0, 34.0 was the most common TBD pathogen found infecting dogs in India followed by Ehrlichia canis (20.6%; 95% CI: 17.2, 24.3, Mycoplasma haemocanis (12.2%; 95% CI: 9.5, 15.3, Anaplasma platys (6.5%; 95% CI: 4.5, 8.9, Babesia vogeli (5.5%, 95% CI: 3.7, 7.8 and Babesia gibsoni (0.2%, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.06. Concurrent infection with more than one TBD pathogen occurred in 39% of cases. Potential tick vectors, Rhipicephalus (most commonly and/or Haemaphysalis ticks were found on 278 (53% of dogs examined. Conclusions At least 6 species of canine tick-borne pathogens are present in India. Hepatozoon canis was the most common pathogen and ticks belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus were encountered most frequently. Polymerase chain reaction was more sensitive in detecting circulating pathogens compared with peripheral blood smear examination. As co-infections with canine TBD pathogens were common, Indian veterinary practitioners should be cognisant that the discovery of one such pathogen raises the potential for multiple infections which may warrant different clinical management strategies.

  14. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98%. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5% while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0%, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2%); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-β-ocimene (17.1-49.8%) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5%) and γ-terpinene (33.0%). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1%) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1%, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin

  15. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks that bite humans How ticks spread disease Diseases transmitted by ticks Trends in tickborne diseases Tickborne diseases ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  16. In vitro activity of pineapple extracts (Ananas comosus, Bromeliaceae) on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza

    2013-07-01

    Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular characterization of the recombinant protein RmLTI-BmCG-LTB: Protective immunity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.

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    Bárbara Guimarães Csordas

    Full Text Available The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is found in several tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This parasite transmits pathogens that cause disease, such as babesiosis (Babesia bovis and B. bigemina and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale. Tick infestations cause enormous livestock losses, and controlling tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remains a challenge for the livestock industry. Because the currently available commercial vaccines offer only partial protection against R. (B. microplus, there is a need for more efficient vaccines. Several recombinant antigens have been evaluated using different immunization strategies, and they show great promise. This work describes the construction and immunological characterization of a multi-antigen chimera composed of two R. (B. microplus antigens (RmLTI and BmCG and one Escherichia coli antigen (B subunit, LTB. The immunogenic regions of each antigen were selected and combined to encode a single polypeptide. The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. For all of the experiments, two groups (treated and control of four Angus heifers (3-6 months old were used. The inoculation was performed via intramuscular injection with 200 μg of purified recombinant chimeric protein and adjuvated. The chimeric protein was recognized by specific antibodies against each subunit and by sera from cattle inoculated with the chimera. Immunization of RmLTI-BmCG-LTB cattle reduced the number of adult female ticks by 6.29% and vaccination of cattle with the chimeric antigen provided 55.6% efficacy against R. (B. microplus infestation. The results of this study indicate that the novel chimeric protein is a potential candidate for the future development of a more effective vaccine against R. (B. microplus.

  18. Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

  19. Hepatozoon and Theileria species detected in ticks collected from mammals and snakes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-04-01

    We report the detection of Hepatozoon and Theileria in 103 ticks from mammals and snakes in Thailand. By using a genus-specific 18S rRNA PCR, Hepatozoon and Theileria spp. were detected in 8% and 18%, respectively, of ticks (n=79) removed from mammals. Of the ticks removed from snakes (n=24), 96% were infected with Hepatozoon spp., but none were infected with Theileria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hepatozoon spp. detected from Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks from Wild boar (Sus scrofa) formed a phylogenetic group with many isolates of Hepatozoon felis that were distantly related to a species group containing Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum. In contrast, a phylogenetic analysis of the Hepatozoon sequences of snake ticks revealed that Hepatozoon spp. from Amblyomma varanense from King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Amblyomma helvolum ticks from Indochinese rat snake (Ptyas korros), and Asiatic water snake (Xenochrophis piscator) are grouped with Hepatozoon spp. recently isolated from Monocellate cobras, Reticulated pythons and Burmese pythons, all of Thai origin, and with Hepatozoon sp. 774c that has been detected from a tick species obtained from Argus monitors in Australia. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Theileria spp. from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haemaphysalis obesa, and Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) cluster with the Theileria cervi isolates WU11 and 239, and Theileria sp. Iwate 141. We report for the first time a Hepatozoon species that shares genetic similarity with Hepatozoon felis found in Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from Wild boars in Thailand. In addition, we found the presence of a Theileria cervi-like sp. which suggests the potential role of Haemaphysalis lagrangei as a Theileria vector in Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. A GIS framework for the assessment of tick impact on human health in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, Agustin; Venzal, José M

    2007-05-01

    A framework to evaluate the impact of ticks on human health under various scenarios of climate change is proposed. The purpose is not to provide a comprehensive plan (e.g. the economic impact of ticks on human society is not included), instead we wish to describe a series of indices that would be helpful by obtaining homogeneous comparisons of impact and vulnerability exerted by ticks in different regions, countries or continents, using normalized sets of population, vegetation, climate and physical attributes of the territory. Three tick species, i.e. Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Hyalomma marginatum, have been traced over the territory of Spain to further explain the computation of these indices. The discussion is based on tick habitat suitability, used as a measure of the abiotic (climate) fitness of the habitat for the species in question, and the sensitivity of each tick species to the rate of change of habitat suitability with respect to climate change. The impact is the rate of change in habitat suitability weighted with a fuzzy logic function evaluating the total number of people in an area, percent of rural population and accessibility of the geographical divisions (expressed as hexagons with a 10 km radius) used in the study. The different climate scenarios evaluated in relation to ticks show that the north-western part of Spain would suffer the greatest impact in case the mean temperature would increase, while the Mediterranean region would suffer the highest impact if temperatures decreased. Vulnerability, based on the sanitary structure of the territory and on the impact on human activities due to the change in tick distribution and abundance, is proposed as a measure of adaptation of society to these climate scenarios. The cost is evaluated as a function of land use and tick habitat suitability in a buffer zone surrounding each geographic division. All indices proposed have been obtained by search of common and/or publicly

  1. Bioactivité de l'huile essentielle des feuilles de l'Ageratum houstonianum Mill sur les tiques (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus de la chèvre naine de Guinée dans l'ouest Cameroun

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    Tenekeu, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of the Essential Oil of the Leaves of Ageratum houstonianum Mill on Guinean Dwarf Goat's Ticks (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Western Cameroon. The test of the essential oil of the leaves of Ageratum houstonianum on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was carried out in the Laboratory of Applied and Environmental Chemistry of the University of Dschang in West Cameroon. Five doses of the essential oil (0.00; 0.016; 0.031; 0.062 and 0.125 μl/cm2 in four replicates were used. Each replicate was made up of ten ticks in the Petri dish with filter paper on the bottom and uniformly impregnated with the product. The results of this study indicate that essential oil of the leaves are toxic to R. appendiculatus ticks. The highest mortality in the control group was 10% when the lowest dose (0,016 μl/cm2 of essential oil of the leaves of A. houstonianum had exterminated the ticks after eight days of exposure. The LD50 of the essential oil of the leaves was 0.02949 μl/cm2 at the end of the second day indicating a potentially high efficiency of this product on this parasite.

  2. IN VITRO EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL ACARICIDES INDICATE RESISTANT POPULATIONS OF RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS IN NORTHERN REGION OF MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eckstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are responsible for high economic and production losses on cattle production, and the use of acaricides is the main form of control applied. In recent decades, the resistance of ticks to acaricides was exacerbated by incorrect use of products, compromising the effectiveness of treatments. This study aimed to determine in vitro effectiveness of commercial acaricides in six populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in northern region of Mato Grosso. On average 100 engorged females were collected from each herd, which were selected and separated into homogeneous groups, sanitized, and immersed to acaricide diluted according to the manufacturer's statement, on sequence there was incubated. After the incubation was obtained from female reproductive efficiency and effectiveness of the tested acaricides. The association cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos + citronellal showed satisfactory efficiency (> 95% in all the properties (mean 99.86% in properties, followed by trichlorfon (83.45%, amitraz (72.33%, neem oil (67.23% and cypermethrin (22.97%, which was not effective in any property. It indicates the use of the association cypermethrin +chlorpyrifos+ citronellal on evaluated properties for control of cattle tick effectively.

  3. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craik Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

  4. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

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    Leandro de Oliveira Souza Higa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais and the Distrito Federal (DF of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported.

  5. Reverse transcription PCR-based detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus isolated from ticks of domestic ruminants in Kurdistan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Golmohammadi, Parvaneh; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Davari, Behrooz; Alipour, Hamzeh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2012-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal viral vector-borne zoonosis which has a mortality rate of up to 30% without treatment in humans. CCHF virus is transmitted to humans by ticks, predominantly from the Hyalomma genus. Following the report of two confirmed and one suspected death due to CCHF virus in Kurdistan province of Iran in 2007, this study was undertaken to determine the fauna of hard ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) and their possible infection with CCHF virus using reverse transcription PCR technique. This is the first detection of CCHF virus in ticks from the Kurdistan province of Iran. Overall, 414 ixodid ticks were collected from two districts in this province. They represented four genera from which 10 separate species were identified. The Hyalomma genus was the most abundant tick genus (70%). It was the only genus shown to be infected with the CCHF virus using RT-PCR technique. The number of ticks positive for CCHF virus was 5 out of 90 (5.6%) adult ticks. The three remaining genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, and Dermacentor) were all negative following molecular survey. Four of the five virally-infected ticks were from cattle mainly in the Sanandaj district. We concluded that CCHF virus is present in the Hyalomma ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle) in Kurdistan province of Iran.

  6. Facilitative ecological interactions between invasive species: Arundo donax stands as favorable habitat for cattle ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racelis, A E; Davey, R B; Goolsby, J A; Pérez de León, A A; Varner, K; Duhaime, R

    2012-03-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. is a key vector of protozoa that cause bovine babesiosis. Largely eradicated from most of the United States, the cattle tick continues to infest south Texas, and recent outbreaks in this area may signal a resurgence of cattle tick populations despite current management efforts. An improved understanding of the dynamic ecology of cattle fever ticks along the U.S.-Mexico border is required to devise strategies for sustainable eradication efforts. Management areas of the cattle tick overlap considerably with dense, wide infestations of the non-native, invasive grass known as giant reed (Arundo donax L.). Here we show that stands of giant reed are associated with abiotic and biotic conditions that are favorable to tick survival, especially when compared with other nearby habitats (open pastures of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) and closed canopy native forests). Overhead canopies in giant reed stands and native riparian forests reduce daily high temperature, which was the best abiotic predictor of oviposition by engorged females. In sites where temperatures were extreme, specifically open grasslands, fewer females laid eggs and the resulting egg masses were smaller. Pitfall trap collections of ground dwelling arthropods suggest a low potential for natural suppression of tick populations in giant reed stands. The finding that A. donax infestations present environmental conditions that facilitate the survival and persistence of cattle ticks, as well or better than native riparian habitats and open grasslands, represents an alarming complication for cattle fever tick management in the United States.

  7. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

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    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  8. Invertebrate vectors, parasites, and rickettsial agents in Guam

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    Johnson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a 3-week field study of ectoparasites of humans and domestic animals throughout Guam. Thirteen species of ectoparasitic arthropods were collected. Ectoparasites of medical or veterinary significance included the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus, fleas Ctenocephalides felis and Xenopsylla cheopsis, and the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis. Polymerase chain reaction based screening for rickettsial and protozoan pathogens detected pathogens in eight arthropods. These included Anaplasma platys, Coxiella burnetii, Babesia canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis.

  9. Ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa

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    N.R. Bryson

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks were collected during the period September 1991 to August 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. Three of these were in North West Province and 1 in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Ten tick species were collected in North West Province and 7 in Mpumalanga. The adults of Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in North West Province, while in Mpumalanga Boophilus decoloratus comprised more than 75% of the total population. Amblyomma hebraeum was present on all grazing areas, and heavy infestations of adults occurred during the period October to May on 1 of these. Few B. decoloratus were collected in North West Province, chiefly because the sampling method was inadequate, and most of these were present during early summer (October to December and late summer and autumn (March to May. The initially low population of B. decoloratus in Mpumalanga increased substantially towards the conclusion of the survey, probably because of the cessation of dipping. Boophilus microplus was present in small numbers on 2 grazing areas in the North West Province. Adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes reached peak numbers from December to February and Hyalomma truncatum from February to April in the North West Province. Only H. marginatum rufipes was collected in Mpumalanga. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was present on all the grazing areas, with most adults present from December to April. Most adult Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected from September to April and Rhipicephalus simus was present during the period October-April.

  10. Lab-on-a-chip and SDS-PAGE analysis of hemolymph protein profile from Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) infected with entomopathogenic nematode and fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golo, Patrícia Silva; Dos Santos, Alessa Siqueira de Oliveira; Monteiro, Caio Marcio Oliveira; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Quinelato, Simone; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; de Sá, Fillipe Araujo; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Prata, Marcia Cristina de Azevedo; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis (LoaC) was suggested as an alternative method to the conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions (SDS-PAGE) to analyze raw cell-free tick hemolymph. Rhipicephalus microplus females were exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae senso latu IBCB 116 strain and/or to the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 strain. Hemolymph from not exposed or exposed ticks was collected 16 and 24 h after exposure and analyze by SDS-PAGE or LoaC. SDS-PAGE yielded 15 bands and LoaC electrophoresis 17 bands. Despite the differences in the number of bands, when the hemolymph protein profiles of exposed or unexposed ticks were compared in the same method, no suppressing or additional bands were detected among the treatments regardless the method (i.e., SDS-PAGE or chip electrophoresis using the Protein 230 Kit®). The potential of LoaC electrophoresis to detect protein bands from tick hemolymph was considered more efficient in comparison to the detection obtained using the traditional SDS-PAGE method, especially when it comes to protein subunits heavier than 100 KDa. LoaC electrophoresis provided a very good reproducibility, and is much faster than the conventional SDS-PAGE method, which requires several hours for one analysis. Despite both methods can be used to analyze tick hemolymph composition, LoaC was considered more suitable for cell-free hemolymph protein separation and detection. LoaC hemolymph band percent data reported changes in key proteins (i.e., HeLp and vitellogenin) exceptionally important for tick embryogenesis. This study reported, for the first time, tick hemolymph protein profile using LoaC.

  11. Nigerian Veterinary Journal - Vol 34, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Paper Heart Failure in Small Animals - Advances in Clinical Case Management · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Experimental Infestation of Dogs with Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Brown Dog Tick) and its Effects on Haematological and Biochemical Parameters · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  12. PARTICIPATION OF TICKS IN THE INFECTIOUS CYCLE OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS, IN TERESINA, PIAUÍ, BRAZIL

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    José Henrique Furtado Campos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we detected Leishmania spp. infection in R. sanguineus collected from dogs that were naturally infected with L. (L. infantum. We examined 35 dogs of both sexes and unknown ages. The infected dogs were serologically positive by the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and Quick Test-DPP (Dual Path Platform, as well as parasitological examination of a positive skin biopsy or sternal bone marrow aspiration. Ten negative dogs were included as controls. The ticks that infested these dogs were collected in pools of 10 adult females per animal. The PCR was performed with specific primers for Leishmania spp., which amplified a 720-bp fragment. Of the 35 analyzed samples, a product was observed in eight samples (8/35; 22.9%. We conclude that the presence of parasite DNA suggests that ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of canine visceral leishmaniasis, in the city of Teresina, Piauí.

  13. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixododae Infesting Domestic Ruminants in Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran

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    F. Fayazkhoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae are one of the most important obligate ectoparasites of vertebrates, belonging to class Arachnida, which transmit a wide range of pathological agents such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites to humans and animals in Iran and around the world. Identifying the distribution of hard ticks in a region is important to monitor their control program, and thereby prevent disease transmission. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, sampling was carried out from different parts of the livestock body during four seasons in four geographical directions and five villages of Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran, during 2015-2016. The ticks were initially stimulated by using chloroform solution and then separated from domestic ruminants by forceps. The collected ticks were sent to a laboratory, and then their sex and species were identified by using valid diagnostic keys. Results: We studied 800 domestic ruminants, including cattle, sheep, and goats, and found 150 (18.7% cases of infestation. A total of 274 ticks were collected, 259 of which were hard ticks including four genera of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Repicephlus, and Haemaphysalis. The greatest diversity of species, including Hyalomma scopens (Hy. deteritum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Hyalomma anatolicum belonged to the genus Hyalomma. The frequency rates of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Hemaphysalis genera were 73.74%, 15.05%, 10.03%, and 1.15 %, respectively. The highest abundance of ticks was observed in spring (152. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the diversity of hard ticks in the region and the highest abundance of ticks in spring. Considering the importance of ticks in disease transmission among humans and domestic ruminants, health authorities and respective organizations should take appropriate health measures to control and combat these external parasites.

  14. Immunoregulation of bovine macrophages by factors in the salivary glands of Rhipicephalus microplus

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    Brake Danett K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative strategies are required to control the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, due to evolving resistance to commercially available acaricides. This invasive ectoparasite is a vector of economically important diseases of cattle such as bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. An understanding of the biological intricacies underlying vector-host-pathogen interactions is required to innovate sustainable tick management strategies that can ultimately mitigate the impact of animal and zoonotic tick-borne diseases. Tick saliva contains molecules evolved to impair host innate and adaptive immune responses, which facilitates blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Antigen presenting cells are central to the development of robust T cell responses including Th1 and Th2 determination. In this study we examined changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response of bovine macrophages exposed to salivary gland extracts (SGE obtained from 2-3 day fed, pathogen-free adult R. microplus. Methods Peripheral blood-derived macrophages were treated for 1 hr with 1, 5, or 10 μg/mL of SGE followed by 1, 6, 24 hr of 1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Real-time PCR and cytokine ELISA were used to measure changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression and cytokine response. Results Changes were observed in co-stimulatory molecule expression of bovine macrophages in response to R. microplus SGE exposure. After 6 hrs, CD86, but not CD80, was preferentially up-regulated on bovine macrophages when treated with 1 μg/ml SGE and then LPS, but not SGE alone. At 24 hrs CD80, CD86, and CD69 expression was increased with LPS, but was inhibited by the addition of SGE. SGE also inhibited LPS induced upregulation of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-12 cytokines, but did not alter IL-4 or CD40 mRNA expression. Conclusions Molecules from the salivary glands of adult R. microplus showed bimodal concentration-, and time-dependent effects on

  15. Phylogenetic relationships and acaricidal effects of Beauveria bassiana obtained from cattle farm soils against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Agustin; Alonso Díaz, Miguel Angel; Alonso Morales, Rogelio Alejandro; Lezama-Gutierrez, Roberto; Cervantes-Chávez, José Antonio

    2018-03-16

    The objectives of the present study were to isolate Beauveria bassiana strains from cattle farms soils, to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the isolated fungi strains, and to determine the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana isolates on Rhipicephalus microplus engorged ticks, resistant or susceptible to chemical acaricides. Six strains of Beauveria bassiana were obtained and isolated from cattle farms soils by Galleria bait method in Mexican tropics and the acaricidal effect was assessed against 2 populations of R. microplus ("Media Joya" resistant strain or "CLAR" susceptible strain to chemical acaricides) using the adult immersion test. The BbV03 strain produced an 86.7% and a 60% of mortality on resistant and susceptible ticks on day 20, respectively; whereas the mortality scored with the BbV04 strain was 66.7% and 53.5% on resistant and susceptible ticks at the same day, respectively. The BbV03 and BbV04 strains reduced egg-laying on both R. microplus populations. There were not statistical differences in the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana strains, between the R. microplus susceptible or resistant populations (P > 0.05). The BbV03 strain was the most virulent against R. microplus with a LC50 of 2 x 107 and a LC99 of 7 x 108 conidia/ml. We found that the 6 B. bassiana isolated were clustered into the same clade with other previously reported B. bassiana strains (from GenBank); however, they were separated into 3 different sub-clades. This study shows that some B. bassiana strains might be a promising coadjuvant alternative for biological tick control, including those that are resistant to chemical acaricides. Beauveria bassiana is present in the pastures of tropic cattle farms and there are genetic variations between members of the bassiana specie that are living in this ecosystem. This last showed that B. bassiana might play an important roll in the natural control of R. microplus at paddocks of cattle farms.

  16. A first insight into Pycnoporus sanguineus BAFC 2126 transcriptome.

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    Cristian O Rohr

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Pycnoporus are white-rot basidiomycetes widely studied because of their ability to synthesize high added-value compounds and enzymes of industrial interest. Here we report the sequencing, assembly and analysis of the transcriptome of Pycnoporus sanguineus BAFC 2126 grown at stationary phase, in media supplemented with copper sulfate. Using the 454 pyrosequencing platform we obtained a total of 226,336 reads (88,779,843 bases that were filtered and de novo assembled to generate a reference transcriptome of 7,303 transcripts. Putative functions were assigned for 4,732 transcripts by searching similarities of six-frame translated sequences against a customized protein database and by the presence of conserved protein domains. Through the analysis of translated sequences we identified transcripts encoding 178 putative carbohydrate active enzymes, including representatives of 15 families with roles in lignocellulose degradation. Furthermore, we found many transcripts encoding enzymes related to lignin hydrolysis and modification, including laccases and peroxidases, as well as GMC oxidoreductases, copper radical oxidases and other enzymes involved in the generation of extracellular hydrogen peroxide and iron homeostasis. Finally, we identified the transcripts encoding all of the enzymes involved in terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway, various terpene synthases related to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids precursors, and also cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and epoxide hydrolases with potential functions in the biodegradation of xenobiotics and the enantioselective biosynthesis of biologically active drugs. To our knowledge this is the first report of a transcriptome of genus Pycnoporus and a resource for future molecular studies in P. sanguineus.

  17. Tick-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Robert L; Corey, Ralph

    2005-06-15

    Tick-borne diseases in the United States include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, babesiosis, Colorado tick fever, and relapsing fever. It is important for family physicians to consider these illnesses when patients present with influenza-like symptoms. A petechial rash initially affecting the palms and soles of the feet is associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, whereas erythema migrans (annular macule with central clearing) is associated with Lyme disease. Various other rashes or skin lesions accompanied by fever and influenza-like illness also may signal the presence of a tick-borne disease. Early, accurate diagnosis allows treatment that may help prevent significant morbidity and possible mortality. Because 24 to 48 hours of attachment to the host are required for infection to occur, early removal can help prevent disease. Treatment with doxycycline or tetracycline is indicated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and relapsing fever. In patients with clinical findings suggestive of tick-borne disease, treatment should not be delayed for laboratory confirmation. If no symptoms follow exposure to tick bites, empiric treatment is not indicated. The same tick may harbor different infectious pathogens and transmit several with one bite. Advising patients about prevention of tick bites, especially in the summer months, may help prevent exposure to dangerous vector-borne diseases.

  18. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and ixodid ticks from the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Pourhosseini, Moslem; Yaghfouri, Saeed; Rashidi, Ahmad; Seidabadi, Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Theilerioses and babesioses are important diseases in Iranian sheep. The present study was undertaken to identify and classify/specify Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and vector ticks. Investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. In total, 302 sheep originating from 60 different flocks were clinically examined and their blood collected. In addition, from the same flocks, ixodid ticks were sampled. Stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Theileria and Babesia organisms, and a semi-nested PCR was used for subsequent molecular specification. From the ticks, salivary glands and uterus were isolated and subsequently analyzed by semi-nested PCR. Piroplasm organisms were observed in 29% of the blood smears with low parasitemia, whereas 65% of the blood samples yielded positive PCR findings. The presence of Theileria ovis (55.6%), Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection with Theileria spp. and Babesia ovis were detected by semi-nested PCR in 0.3%, 5.6%, and 0.99%, respectively. In total, 429 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 376; 87.6% of the total), followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 30; 7.0%), Dermacentor raskemensis (n = 12; 2.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 7; 1.6%), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 2; 0.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 1; 0.2%), and Haemaphysalis sp. (n = 1; 0.2%). Of the positive R. turanicus samples, 5 (5.7%) were infected with T. ovis and 2 (2.9%) with T. lestoquardi. Neither Babesia ovis nor Babesia motasi infection was detected in salivary glands or uterine samples of the ticks. The results also suggest that R. turanicus could be the vector responsible for transmission of the 2 Theileria species.

  19. Tick-Host Range Adaptation: Changes in Protein Profiles in Unfed Adult Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum Saliva Stimulated to Feed on Different Hosts

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    Lucas Tirloni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis of how ticks adapt to feed on different animal hosts is central to understanding tick and tick-borne disease (TBD epidemiology. There is evidence that ticks differentially express specific sets of genes when stimulated to start feeding. This study was initiated to investigate if ticks such as Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum that are adapted to feed on multiple hosts utilized the same sets of proteins to prepare for feeding. We exposed I. scapularis and A. americanum to feeding stimuli of different hosts (rabbit, human, and dog by keeping unfed adult ticks enclosed in a perforated microfuge in close contact with host skin, but not allowing ticks to attach on host. Our data suggest that ticks of the same species differentially express tick saliva proteins (TSPs when stimulated to start feeding on different hosts. SDS-PAGE and silver staining analysis revealed unique electrophoretic profiles in saliva of I. scapularis and A. americanum that were stimulated to feed on different hosts: rabbit, human, and dog. LC-MS/MS sequencing and pairwise analysis demonstrated that I. scapularis and A. americanum ticks expressed unique protein profiles in their saliva when stimulated to start feeding on different hosts: rabbit, dog, or human. Specifically, our data revealed TSPs that were unique to each treatment and those that were shared between treatments. Overall, we identified a total of 276 and 340 non-redundant I. scapularis and A. americanum TSPs, which we have classified into 28 functional classes including: secreted conserved proteins (unknown functions, proteinase inhibitors, lipocalins, extracellular matrix/cell adhesion, heme/iron metabolism, signal transduction and immunity-related proteins being the most predominant in saliva of unfed ticks. With exception of research on vaccines against Rhipicephalus microplus, which its natural host, cattle, research on vaccine against other ticks relies feeding ticks

  20. First report of the effect of Ocotea elegans essential oil on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Amanda; Nascimento, Leonor M; Lopes, Louyse G; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Albuquerque, Ricardo D D G; Santos, Marcelo G; Falcão, Deborah Q; Nogueira, Jeane A P; Rocha, Leandro; Chagas, Ana Carolina S

    2018-03-15

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for reducing animal welfare, causing a drop in productive performance and transmitting hemoparasites. The main strategy of tick control is application of synthetic acaricides. However, parasite resistance to these compounds is a major concern. Therefore, the acaricidal and repellent in vitro effect of the Ocotea elegans essential oil on larvae and adult females of R. (B.) microplus were evaluated. The larval packet test (LPT), larval repellency test (RT) and adult immersion test (AIT) were performed. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and the structure of the oil's major constituent (92.2% sesquirosefuran) was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance. In the AIT, efficacy higher than 90% was detected from the concentration 25 mg/mL upward. In both LPTs performed after 48 h, only the 100 mg/mL concentration resulted in mortalities above 70%. On the other hand, the essential oil caused an average of 95.8% repellency from 0.78 to 100 mg/mL. The LC 50 in the two LPT (48 h) tests were 59.68 and 25.59 mg/mL, respectively. The LC 50 and LC 90 in the AIT were 4.96 and 17.37 mg/mL, and in the RT they were 0.04 and 1.24 mg/mL respectively. We conclude that the essential oil of O. elegans leaves has a significant acaricidal effect on engorged females and on larval repellency of R. (B.) microplus ticks, and can be a promising alternative for the control of this ectoparasite. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Tick borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, B R

    2005-11-01

    It is known for many years that tick-borne diseases have worldwide a high economical impact on farming industry and veterinary medicine. But only in the last twenty years the importance of such diseases were notified in human medicine by the medical community and the public with emerging of the tick borne encephalitis virus and the description of Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often forgotten that many other infectious agents as bacteria, virus, Rickettsia or protozoa can be transmitted by ticks. Such diseases are rarely diagnosed in Europe either they are overlooked and misdiagnosed or they are connected with special professional activities. The development of new regions for tourism with different out door activities (adventure trips, trekking, hunting) leads to an exposure to different tick borne diseases, which are often misdiagnosed.

  2. Vaccination against ticks and the control of ticks and tick-borne disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willadsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Economic losses due to ticks and tick-borne disease of livestock fall disproportionately on developing countries. Currently, tick control relies mostly on pesticides and parasite-resistant cattle. Release of a commercial recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus in Australia in 1994 showed that anti-tick vaccines are a feasible alternative. For vaccines, it is important to understand the efficacy needed for a beneficial outcome. In this, it is relevant that some tick antigens affect multiple tick species; that existing vaccines could be improved by the inclusion of additional tick antigens; and that vaccination against ticks can have an impact on tick-borne disease. Practically, although recombinant vaccine manufacture involves relatively few steps, issues of intellectual property rights (IPR) and requirements for registration of a product may affect economic viability of manufacture. Hence practical vaccines for the developing world will require both successful science and a creative 'business solution' for delivery in a cost-effective way. (author)

  3. Phytochemical analysis and acaricidal activity of Aloe arborescens Mill. extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Aldair Calistro de Matos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of chemical acaricides has allowed Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to develop resistance to several active principles. However, botanical extracts have been tested as an alternative method to control those ticks. This experiment studied the chemical fingerprint and acaricidal effect of fresh and dry Aloe arborescens Mill. extracts on R. (B. microplus. The acaricidal activity of extracts was assessed using in vitro assays with engorged females, and phytochemical characterization was performed by infrared (IR spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that fresh and dry A. arborescens extracts prepared with the solvents pure ethanol, ethanol-dichloromethane binary mixture, and ethanol-dichloromethane-acetone ternary mixture, contained water-soluble tannins and had a strong effect on the reproductive parameters of R. (B. microplus demonstrated by a marked decreased in the number of eggs laid and in the larvae hatching rate (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001. In conclusion, A. arborescens Mill. has components with acaricidal activity against R. (B. microplus, and phytotherapy with extracts of this plant may be used as an alternative method of R. (B. microplus control.

  4. Non-Classical Gluconeogenesis-Dependent Glucose Metabolism in Rhipicephalus microplus Embryonic Cell Line BME26

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    Renato Martins da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line. Genetic and catalytic control of the genes and enzymes associated with these pathways are modulated by alterations in energy resource availability (primarily glucose. BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. The results indicate that several genes, such as glycogen synthase (GS, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and glucose-6 phosphatase (GP displayed mutual regulation in response to glucose treatment. Surprisingly, the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes was found to increase alongside that of glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate kinase, with high glucose treatment. In addition, RNAi data from this study revealed that the transcription of gluconeogenic genes in BME26 cells is controlled by GSK-3. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells.

  5. Vitellin- and hemoglobin-digesting enzymes in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Andréia Bergamo; Seixas, Adriana; Teixeira, Vivian de Oliveira Nunes; Pinto, Antônio Frederico Michel; Termignoni, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to address the involvement of Rhipicephalus microplus larval cysteine endopeptidase (RmLCE) in protein digestion in R. microplus larvae and adult females. In this work, an improved purification protocol for native RmLCE was developed. Partial amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme indicates that it is the same enzyme as Boophilus microplus cathepsin-L1 (BmCL1). When vitellin (Vt) degradation by egg and larval enzymes was analyzed, stage-specific differences for RmLCE activity in comparison to vitellin-degrading cysteine endopeptidase (VTDCE) were observed. RmLCE is also able to degrade host hemoglobin (Hb). In agreement, an acidic cysteine endopeptidase activity was detected in larval gut. It was shown that cysteine and aspartic endopeptidases are involved in Vt and Hb digestion in R. microplus larvae and females. Interestingly, we observed that the aspartic endopeptidase Boophilus yolk cathepsin (BYC) is associated with a cysteine endopeptidase activity, in larvae. Synergic hemoglobin digestion by BYC and RmLCE was observed and indicates the presence of an Hb-degrading enzymatic cascade involving these enzymes. Our results suggest that RmLCE/BmCL1 has a continued role in vitellin and hemoglobin digestion during tick development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Suscetibilidade de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus a carrapaticidas em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to acaricides in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gomes

    2011-08-01

    demonstrada aos distintos produtos testados sugere que a resistência do carrapato a diferentes classes esteja amplamente disseminada no Estado, motivo pelo qual recomenda-se a realização rotineira de testes de suscetibilidade antes da seleção e aplicação de produtos acaricidas para controle do carrapato.The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is one of the most important ectoparasites of bovines, requiring adoption of control measures mainly in Bos taurus herds and its crossbreeds. Its control has becoming increasingly difficult due to selection of resistant populations by commercial products. This study aimed to know the status of cattle tick resistance to acaricides in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From October 2003 to October 2006 acaricide bioassays were conducted on cattle ticks from eleven of the most important livestock regions of the state. Adult immersion tests using regular commercial products according to label recommendations were followed by the evaluation of biological parameters. Twelve acaricide products containing one or more of seven active ingredients, from three chemical classes: amidine (amitraz, synthetic pyrethroid (cypermethrin, and organophosphates (chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyriphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and ethion were tested. Low tick susceptibility was observed in all ranches, with several populations showing virtually no susceptibility to one or more products. Despite the great variation of susceptibility shown by the populations to each acaricide, a gradient of efficacy of these products was observed. Regardless of the acaricide class, the average efficacy of products containing a single active ingredient (19.94%-64.27% was generally lower than that showed by the mixtures, pyrethroid-organophosphate (46.38%-82.68% and between organophosphates (85.28%-97.68%. The mixture containing pyrethroid + OF + synergist + repellent (cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronellal + piperonyl butoxide showed 100% efficacy, although it was

  7. Bacterial and protozoal pathogens found in ticks collected from humans in Corum province of Turkey.

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    Djursun Karasartova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are increasing all over the word, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial and protozoan vector-borne pathogens in ticks infesting humans in the Corum province of Turkey.From March to November 2014 a total of 322 ticks were collected from patients who attended the local hospitals with tick bites. Ticks were screened by real time-PCR and PCR, and obtained amplicons were sequenced. The dedected tick was belonging to the genus Hyalomma, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor and Ixodes. A total of 17 microorganism species were identified in ticks. The most prevalent Rickettsia spp. were: R. aeschlimannii (19.5%, R. slovaca (4.5%, R. raoultii (2.2%, R. hoogstraalii (1.9%, R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae (1.2%, R. monacensis (0.31%, and Rickettsia spp. (1.2%. In addition, the following pathogens were identified: Borrelia afzelii (0.31%, Anaplasma spp. (0.31%, Ehrlichia spp. (0.93%, Babesia microti (0.93%, Babesia ovis (0.31%, Babesia occultans (3.4%, Theileria spp. (1.6%, Hepatozoon felis (0.31%, Hepatozoon canis (0.31%, and Hemolivia mauritanica (2.1%. All samples were negative for Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp.Ticks in Corum carry a large variety of human and zoonotic pathogens that were detected not only in known vectors, but showed a wider vector diversity. There is an increase in the prevalence of ticks infected with the spotted fever group and lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, while Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were reported for the first time from this region. B. microti was detected for the first time in Hyalomma marginatum infesting humans. The detection of B. occultans, B. ovis, Hepatozoon spp., Theileria spp. and Hemolivia mauritanica indicate the importance of these ticks as vectors of pathogens of veterinary importance, therefore patients with a tick infestation should be followed for a variety of pathogens

  8. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Bahia state North-Central region Eficiência de acaricidas sobreRhipicephalus (Boophilus microplusna região Centro-Norte, Bahia

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    José Tadeu Raynal

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B. microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas na pecuária brasileira, principalmente devido à redução no desempenho produtivo dos animais. A resistência do parasita a diferentes classes de acaricidas tem sido amplamente relatada, bem como os problemas de ocorrência de resíduos desses compostos em produtos de origem animal e no ambiente. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diversos acaricidas sobre populações de R. (B. microplus provenientes de propriedades rurais da Região Centro-Norte do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Teleóginas ingurgitadas foram colhidas em diferentes propriedades da região e submetidas a ensaio in vitro de eficiência de acaricidas, baseado na

  9. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae as a parasite of pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus and cattle in Brazil's Central Pantanal Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus como parasita de veado-campeiro (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus e do gado bovino no Pantanal Central do Brasil

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    Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pantanal, domestic and wild animals share the same habitats; their parasites and environment interact in a complex and dynamic way. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most important cattle tick in Brazil. In the past two decades, some traditional management practices are being replaced with the aim of intensifying cattle production. Forested areas are being replaced by exotic pasture and ranch owners are replacing Nelore for European breeds. The pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus is a medium-sized cervid that occurs in grasslands of South America. Between December 2005 and January 2007, we captured and collected ticks from 15 pampas deer and 172 bovines. The abundance, intensity, and prevalence of ticks found in cattle were lower than those in pampas deer (p No Pantanal Brasileiro, onde animais domésticos e selvagens compartilham os mesmos habitats; hospedeiros, parasitas e ambientes encontram-se em interação complexa e dinâmica. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é o carrapato bovino mais importante no Brasil. Nas últimas duas décadas práticas de manejo vem sendo substituídas com objetivo de aumentar a produtividade. Áreas de florestas estão sendo substituídas por pastagens exóticas e os produtores começam a utilizar raças européias no lugar do Nelore. O veado-campeiro é um cervídeo que ocorre em áreas de campo na América do sul. Entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, foram coletados carrapatos de 20 veados-campeiros e 172 bovinos. Os valores de abundância, intensidade parasitária e prevalência de carrapatos no gado foram menores que os valores encontrados no veado-campeiro (p < 0,05, indicando que o veado-campeiro é mais susceptível que o bovino. O elevado número de fêmeas ingurgitadas coletadas, sua capacidade de ovipor e o percentual de eclosão indicam que a população veado-campeiro na região de estudo é suficiente para manter o R. (B. microplus, desta maneira participando na

  10. Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease En español Send us your comments When warm ... mainly in the mid-Atlantic and southern states. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness. It’s ...

  11. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian ... viruses are closely related to TBEV and Far-eastern TBE, and include Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus in ...

  12. Modeling of growth and laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Muhammad Naziz; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Alias, Zazali; Chuan, Ling Tau; Chisti, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    Production of extracellular laccase by the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus was examined in batch submerged cultures in shake flasks, baffled shake flasks and a stirred tank bioreactor. The biomass growth in the various culture systems closely followed a logistic growth model. The production of laccase followed a Luedeking-Piret model. A modified Luedeking-Piret model incorporating logistic growth effectively described the consumption of glucose. Biomass productivity, enzyme productivity and substrate consumption were enhanced in baffled shake flasks relative to the cases for the conventional shake flasks. This was associated with improved oxygen transfer in the presence of the baffles. The best results were obtained in the stirred tank bioreactor. At 28 °C, pH 4.5, an agitation speed of 600 rpm and a dissolved oxygen concentration of ~25 % of air saturation, the laccase productivity in the bioreactor exceeded 19 U L(-1 )days(-1), or 1.5-fold better than the best case for the baffled shake flask. The final concentration of the enzyme was about 325 U L(-1).

  13. Nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 {beta} (GSK-3) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzingen, Leticia; Andrade, Josiana G. de; Logullo, Carlos [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, Caroline P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is recognized as a key component of a large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. Recent observations point to functions for phosphorylases several transcription factors in the nucleus. Also, GSK3b participate of the canonical W nt signalling pathway, which has been studied intensively in embryonic and cancer cells. Like in many other signaling pathways, most components in W nt signal transduction were highly conserved during the evolution. More than 40 proteins have been reported to be phosphorylated by GSK3, including over a dozen transcription factors. Although the mechanisms regulating GSK3 are not fully understood, precise control appears to be achieved by a combination of phosphorylation, localization, and interactions with GSK3-binding proteins. Although GSK3 is traditionally considered a cytosolic protein, it is also present in nuclei. Nuclear GSK3 is particularly interesting because of the many transcription factors that it regulates enabling GSK3 to influence many signaling pathways that converge on these transcription factors, thereby regulating the expression of many genes. Our group identified that GSK-3 {beta} could be detected in different stage eggs of R. micro plus. In this work we detected the GSK-3 in isolated nuclear fraction from the egg homogenates of R. micro plus by western-blot analysis, using anti-GSK- 3 {beta} antibodies. The enzyme activity was also detected radiochemically throughout embryogenesis in same fraction. The GSK-3 activity was inhibiting by using SB 216763 (selective molecule inhibitors of GSK-3). Taken together our results suggest that GSK-3 {beta} isoform probably is involved in gene transcription factors during R. micro plus embryo development.

  14. Tick Talk: Tick-borne Diseases of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay

    2017-09-01

    In addition to being a nuisance, ticks can carry disease. This article presents a brief review of ticks and associated tick-borne disease relevant to South Dakota and surrounding regions. Tick-borne diseases of special relevance in South Dakota include tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. A number of others may also be encountered in the state as well. Prompt treatment of suspected cases is important to ensure a successful recovery, and tick-avoidance measures can reduce the risks of acquiring them. Most of these conditions are nationally reportable infectious diseases. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  15. A Two Years Study of Ticks infesting Goats and Sheep in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlKhalifa, Mohamed S.; Khalil, Galila M.; Diab, Fathi M.

    2007-01-01

    The weather in Abha was characterized by a temperature of 11.7-23.7 degree C, a relative humidity 0f 40-92% and rainfall of 0.2-275mm during a study period of 1990 and 1991. More ticks infested the goats in 1990 than in 1991 while more ticks infested sheep in 1991 than in 1990. The tick species collected monthly from 10 goats during these years were, respectively, Rhipicephalus turanicus (95.1 and 67.1%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (4.0 and 25.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (0.2 and 1.0%) and H. impeltatum (0.7 and 6.1%). Goat infestation rate with R. turanicus was 60-100% in 1990 with peaks in January, April, July, November and December when 90-100% of the goats were infested with 6.3-8.3 ticks/goat. In 1991, goat infestation rate was 10-100% with peaks in April, July and December when all goats were infested with 5.6-9.0 ticks/goat, with a sex ratio of 0.40:1-2.00:1 in both years, respectively. The ticks collected monthly from 10 sheep during these years were, respectively, R. turanicus (89.2 and 86.2%), Haem. sulcata (5.7 and 4.9%), H. a. anatolicum (1.2 and 1.0%), H. a. excavatum (0.7 and 1.2%), H. dromedarii (0.9 and 0.4%), H. marginatum rufipes (1.4 and 4.1%), H. m. turanicum (0.0 and 1.2%) and H. impeltatum (0.9 and 1.0%). Sheep infestation rate with R. turanicus was 30-100% in both years with a peak in June in 1990 when all sheep were infested with 13.8 ticks/sheep and 2 peaks in April and June in 1991 when all sheep were infested with 25.0-29.6 ticks/sheep, with a sex ratio of 0.2:1-2.6:1 and 0.6:1-4.5:1 in these years, respectively. The change in R. turanicus infestation in goats and sheep was not correlated with temperature, relative humidity or rainfall during both years except for the infestation in sheep in 1991, which was positively correlated with rainfall. With the exception of R. turanicus and Haem. sulcata, the other tick species infest primarily animals other than sheep and goats. It is recommended that control measures be directed toward the

  16. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2 in ticks in Kosovo, 2012.

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    Kurtesh Sherifi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6% were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29, Rhipicephalus bursa (10, and Ixodes ricinus (1. The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago. After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity.

  17. Strategic control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in a subtropical semi-arid region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Nicolás; Signorini, Marcelo L; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the efficacy of strategic control methods of Rhipicephalus microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in northwestern Argentina. Also, an analysis to discern how the R. microplus population was distributed amongst cattle was also performed to determine if partial selective treatment or cull the small proportion of more heavily infested animals are feasible options to control this tick. The strategic scheme of treatments was designed to act on the small 1st generation of R. microplus in early spring and prevent in that way the appearance of the annual peak of abundance of R. microplus in summer and autumn. Animals of the group 1 were treated with ivermectin 3.15% on day 0 (25th September 2015), with fluazuron on day 32 (27th October 2015) and with fipronil on day 75 (9th December 2015). Animals of group 2 formed the control group. The overall effect of the treatments was positively significant. The number of ticks observed on the control group was significantly higher than the number of ticks observed on the treated group in all post-treatment counts (Pcattle in all counts was adjusted to the negative binomial distribution, but a temporal variation in the tick aggregation levels associated to changes in tick abundance was found. The higher the abundance of R. microplus, the lower the aggregation. It was found that the steers (15.8% of the total number of animals evaluated) belonging to the high infestation group accounted for 23.0% of the total ticks. The strategic control method evaluated during this study provides a remarkable overall effect against R. microplus because it significantly reduces the tick infestation on cattle with only three applications of acaricides in one-year period. The analyses of tick distribution amongst cattle suggest that partial selective treatment and culling do not represent feasible methods to control R. microplus infestation on cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Sialotranscriptomics of Rhipicephalus zambeziensis reveals intricate expression profiles of secretory proteins and suggests tight temporal transcriptional regulation during blood-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Minique Hilda; de Klerk, Daniel; Pienaar, Ronel; Rees, D Jasper G; Mans, Ben J

    2017-08-10

    Ticks secrete a diverse mixture of secretory proteins into the host to evade its immune response and facilitate blood-feeding, making secretory proteins attractive targets for the production of recombinant anti-tick vaccines. The largely neglected tick species, Rhipicephalus zambeziensis, is an efficient vector of Theileria parva in southern Africa but its available sequence information is limited. Next generation sequencing has advanced sequence availability for ticks in recent years and has assisted the characterisation of secretory proteins. This study focused on the de novo assembly and annotation of the salivary gland transcriptome of R. zambeziensis and the temporal expression of secretory protein transcripts in female and male ticks, before the onset of feeding and during early and late feeding. The sialotranscriptome of R. zambeziensis yielded 23,631 transcripts from which 13,584 non-redundant proteins were predicted. Eighty-six percent of these contained a predicted start and stop codon and were estimated to be putatively full-length proteins. A fifth (2569) of the predicted proteins were annotated as putative secretory proteins and explained 52% of the expression in the transcriptome. Expression analyses revealed that 2832 transcripts were differentially expressed among feeding time points and 1209 between the tick sexes. The expression analyses further indicated that 57% of the annotated secretory protein transcripts were differentially expressed. Dynamic expression profiles of secretory protein transcripts were observed during feeding of female ticks. Whereby a number of transcripts were upregulated during early feeding, presumably for feeding site establishment and then during late feeding, 52% of these were downregulated, indicating that transcripts were required at specific feeding stages. This suggested that secretory proteins are under stringent transcriptional regulation that fine-tunes their expression in salivary glands during feeding. No open

  19. Evaluation of In Vivo Acaricidal Effect of Soap Containing Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in the Western Highland of Cameroon

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    Marc K. Kouam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the acaricidal properties of foam soap containing the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves was carried out on Rhipicephalus lunulatus. Four doses (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL of essential oil per gram of soap and a control (soap without essential oil with four replications for each treatment were used for in vitro trial. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in a Petri dish with filter paper impregnated with the foam soap on the bottom. Following in vitro trials, three doses (0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL/g and the control in two replications were selected for in vivo test based on mortality rate recorded from the in vitro trial. Each replication was made up of 10 goats naturally infested with ticks. Results show that soap containing essential oil is toxic to R. lunulatus. The in vivo mortality rate in the control on day 8 was 22.69% whereas the highest dose (0.12 µL/g killed 96.29% of the ticks on day 8. The LD50 of the foam soap containing essential oil was 0.037 and 0.059 µL/g on day 2 in the laboratory and on the farm, respectively. This indicates the potentially high efficiency of this medicated soap on this parasite.

  20. Pigeon tick bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolla, G; Heffler, E; Boita, M

    2018-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction with rapid onset and potentially life-threatening. We report in detail a case of severe nocturnal anaphylaxis due to pigeon tick bite showing the diagnostic value of the extract and the recombinant allergen in the diagnostic procedures (basophil...... reagents. Because of the growing number of pigeons in Middle and Southern Europe cities, some cases of idiopathic anaphylaxis could potentially be caused by A. reflexus in those countries. The identification of pigeon ticks as a trigger of anaphylaxis would greatly improve medical care and advice...

  1. Molecular methods routinely used to detect Coxiella burnetii in ticks cross-react with Coxiella-like bacteria

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    Jourdain Elsa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Ticks may act as vectors, and many epidemiological studies aim to assess C. burnetii prevalence in ticks. Because ticks may also be infected with Coxiella-like bacteria, screening tools that differentiate between C. burnetii and Coxiella-like bacteria are essential. Methods: In this study, we screened tick specimens from 10 species (Ornithodoros rostratus, O. peruvianus, O. capensis, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. decoloratus, R. geigy, O. sonrai, O. occidentalis, and Amblyomma cajennense known to harbor specific Coxiella-like bacteria, by using quantitative PCR primers usually considered to be specific for C. burnetii and targeting, respectively, the IS1111, icd, scvA, p1, and GroEL/htpB genes. Results: We found that some Coxiella-like bacteria, belonging to clades A and C, yield positive PCR results when screened with primers initially believed to be C. burnetii-specific. Conclusions: These results suggest that PCR-based surveys that aim to detect C. burnetii in ticks by using currently available methods must be interpreted with caution if the amplified products cannot be sequenced. Future molecular methods that aim at detecting C. burnetii need to take into account the possibility that cross-reactions may exist with Coxiella-like bacteria.

  2. Are ticks venomous animals?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 47 ISSN 1742-9994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ticks * venom * secreted proteins * toxicoses * pathogens * convergence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.051, year: 2014

  3. Tick Innate Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010

  4. More Trouble from Ticks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-18

    Dr. Chris Paddock, a rickettsiologist and infectious disease pathologist discusses a tick-transmitted bacterium, Rickettsia parkeri.  Created: 8/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/18/2011.

  5. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for comprehensive indexing of East African ixodid tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Julian; Githaka, Naftaly; Kanduma, Esther G; Olds, Cassandra; Pflüger, Valentin; Mwaura, Stephen; Bishop, Richard P; Daubenberger, Claudia

    2016-03-15

    different tick species within the genera Amblyomma, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) based on molecular COI typing and morphology were included into the study analysis. The robustness of the 12 distinct SSp. developed here proved to be very high, with 319 out of 333 ticks used for validation identified correctly at species level. Moreover, these novel SSp. allowed for diagnostic specificity of 99.7 %. The failure of species identification for 14 ticks was directly linked to low quality mass spectra, most likely due to poor specimen quality that was received in the laboratory before sample preparation. Our results are consistent with earlier studies demonstrating the potential of MALDI-TOF MS as a reliable tool for differentiating ticks originating from the field, especially females that are difficult to identify after blood feeding. This work provides further evidence of the utility of MALDI-TOF MS to identify morphologically and genetically highly similar tick species and indicates the potential of this tool for large-scale monitoring of tick populations, species distributions and host preferences.

  6. Evaluation in vitro of the infection times of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain Avaliação in vitro dos tempos de infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barbiéri de Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that ticks are susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes. These studies indicate different susceptibilities of ticks to infection by these fungi, depending on the tick species, development phase, entomopathogenic nematodes species and strains and the time the ticks are exposed to them. Usually this period ranges from 24 to 72 hours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infection times in vitro of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus females by the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema glaseri CCA strain, by analysis of the ticks' biological parameters. The results show that a 2-hour exposure time was sufficient for the engorged R. microplus females to be infected by S. glaseri CCA, but that a minimum exposure time of 24 hours was necessary to generate treatment efficacy above 90%.Os carrapatos são susceptíveis à infecção por nematoides entomopatogênicos. Essa susceptibilidade diverge quanto às espécies de carrapato estudadas, à fase evolutiva, às espécies e estirpes dos nematoides e ao tempo ao qual os carrapatos ficam expostos a estes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os tempos de infecção in vitro de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA, pela análise dos parâmetros biológicos do carrapato. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que um período de duas horas de exposição foi suficiente para que fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus fossem infectadas por S. glaseri CCA e que um período de exposição mínimo de 24h foi necessário para que houvesse infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus por S. glaseri estirpe CCA, capaz de gerar, in vitro, eficácia no tratamento superior a 90%.

  7. Ethanol induction of laccase depends on nitrogen conditions of Pycnoporus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that laccase in P. sanguineus is regulated by a catabolic nitrogen repression mechanism; laccase activity is strongly inhibited by urea used as nitrogen source and it decreases when the amount of urea increases; contrarily, a synergic positive effect was observed between yeast extract and ethanol on laccase production.

  8. Detection of naturally infected vector ticks (acari: ixodidae by different species of babesia and theileria agents from three different enzootic parts of iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran.Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008. Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR.Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province.Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies.

  9. Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROZENTAL Tatiana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp, containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

  10. Travel and disease vector ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, John W

    2011-03-01

    There are approximately twenty species of hard (ixodid) ticks worldwide that frequently affect human populations, many of which are associated with serious, sometimes fatal disease(s). When a tick travel souvenir is presented in the clinic, the risk must be immediately assessed by identifying the tick in question, ascertaining its disease vector status and determining if there has been the opportunity for the transfer of potential pathogens. This short review on identification of disease vector ticks and aspects of blood feeding and disease transmission includes the results of an examination of 59 specimens removed from UK domestic travellers and international travellers between 2002 and 2010. Sixteen tick species belonging to six genera were recorded and almost all showed evidence of blood feeding, which appears to contradict the view that because of their size, adult ticks are found early and therefore present an insignificant risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo efficacy of a biotherapic and eugenol formulation against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Moreira, Gustavo Henrique Ferreira Abreu; Serafini, Matheus Ferreira; Facury-Filho, Elias Jorge; Carvalho, Antônio Último; Faraco, André Augusto Gomes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2017-03-01

    The control of Rhipicephalus microplus is essential to prevent cattle discomfort and economic losses. However, increased resistance and acaricides inefficiency lead producers to adopt strategies that could result in the accumulation of chemical residues in meat and milk with possibilities of poisoning in animals and people. This scenario demonstrates the necessity of research into the identification of novel, effective and environmentally safe therapeutic options for cattle tick control. The objectives of this study were to develop and assess the efficacy of R. microplus biotherapic and of 5% eugenol for the control of R. microplus in artificially infested calves. Eighteen male 6-month-old Holstein calves were divided into three groups of six animals. In Group 1, the animals did not receive medication (control group); in Group 2, the animals received 1 mL of R. microplus biotherapic at dilution 6CH (centesimal Hahnemannian), orally administered twice daily. And in Group 3, they received a single application of eugenol 5% in the pour-on formulation. The median efficacy for biotherapy and eugenol 5% was respectively 10.13 and 13.97%; however, upon analyzing reproductive efficiency, it is noteworthy that the biotherapic had 45.86% efficiency and was superior to the action of eugenol (12.03%) after 37 days of treatment. The ultrastructural study provided information about the effects of R. microplus biotherapic on the ovaries of engorged females and showed disorganization in the deposition of the oocyte exochorion. The results suggest hatchability inhibition of larvae, interference in R. microplus reproduction and future possibilities for eco-friendly control of R. microplus with biotherapic 6CH.

  12. Genetic diversity, acaricide resistance status and evolutionary potential of a Rhipicephalus microplus population from a disease-controlled cattle farming area in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, Luïse; Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Madder, Maxime; Stoltsz, Wilhelm H; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of great veterinary and economic importance. Along with its adaptability, reproductive success and vectoring capacity, R. microplus has been reported to develop resistance to the major chemical classes of acaricides currently in use. In South Africa, the Mnisi community in the Mpumalanga region offers a unique opportunity to study the adaptive potential of R. microplus. The aims of this study therefore included characterising acaricide resistance and determining the level and pattern of genetic diversity for R. microplus in this region from one primary population consisting of 12 communal dip-stations. The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that contribute to acaricide insensitivity. Additionally, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene fragments of collected individuals were sequenced and a haplotype network was constructed. A high prevalence of alleles attributed to resistance against formamidines (amitraz) in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor (frequency of 0.55) and pyrethroids in the carboxylesterase (frequency of 0.81) genes were observed. Overall, the sampled tick population was homozygous resistant to pyrethroid-based acaricides in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGS) gene. A total of 11 haplotypes were identified in the Mnisi R. microplus population from ITS2 analysis with no clear population structure. From these allele frequencies it appears that formamidine resistance in the Mnisi community is on the rise, as the R. microplus populations is acquiring or generating these resistance alleles. Apart from rearing multi-resistant ticks to commonly used acaricides in this community these ticks may pose future problems to its surrounding areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumpis, U; Crook, D; Oksi, J

    1999-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic arbovirus infection endemic to Russia and Eastern and Central Europe. Despite being a common and serious life-threatening disease for which a mass vaccination program was implemented in Austria, there is only limited reference to this disease in the English-language literature. TBE is transmitted to humans usually by the bite of a tick (either Ixodes persulcatus or Ixodes ricinus); occasionally, cases occur following consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. Transmission is seasonal and occurs in spring and summer, particularly in rural areas favored by the vector. TBE is a serious cause of acute central nervous system disease, which may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. Effective vaccines are available in a few countries. The risk for travelers of acquiring TBE is increasing with the recent rise in tourism to areas of endemicity during spring and summer.

  14. Extratos brutos e constituintes de própolis brasileiras: avaliação dos efeitos nos carrapatos Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus microplus e Amblyomma cajennense

    OpenAIRE

    Adne Abbud Righi

    2013-01-01

    Própolis é uma substância resinosa produzida por Apis mellifera, contendo principalmente resinas vegetais e cera das próprias abelhas. É usada na colmeia para diversas finalidades, como vedar aberturas, reparar as células e envolver invasores que foram mortos na colméia, além de contribuir para a quase constância da temperatura dentro da colmeia (28 - 30oC). A própolis é importante para as abelhas, pois é responsável pela manutenção de um ambiente quase estéril, agindo contra bactérias, fungo...

  15. [Ticks and transmission of some important diseases by ticks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazyağci, Aycan Nuriye; Aydenızöz, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Ticks which are commonly found all around the world are ectoparasites which are obliged to suck blood from vertebrates such as mammals and birds during all of their periods of develeopment. They may cause toxicities and paralyses in the course of blood sucking through saliva injection and the attachment sites may become ports of entry for secondary agents. Healthy animals that are severely infested by ticks can show a decreased yield and anemia. Young and sick animals can even die. Besides this, ticks are both biological and mechanical vectors for viruses, bacteria, rickettsias, spirochaetas, protozoons and helminths. Ten percent of the ticks identified in the world are associated with 200 diseases. In this review the taxonomy and morphology of ticks, some of the important diseases they carry and the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are mentioned.

  16. Hemigrapsus sanguineus in Long Island salt marshes: experimental evaluation of the interactions between an invasive crab and resident ecosystem engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Peterson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has recently been observed occupying salt marshes, a novel environment for this crab species. As it invades this new habitat, it is likely to interact with a number of important salt marsh species. To understand the potential effects of H. sanguineus on this ecosystem, interactions between this invasive crab and important salt marsh ecosystem engineers were examined. Laboratory experiments demonstrated competition for burrows between H. sanguineus and the native fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Results indicate that H. sanguineus is able to displace an established fiddler crab from its burrow. Feeding experiments revealed that the presence of H. sanguineus has a significantly negative impact on the number as well as the biomass of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa consumed by the green crab, Carcinus maenas, although this only occurred at high predator densities. In addition, when both crabs foraged together, there was a significant shift in the size of mussels consumed. These interactions suggests that H. sanguineus may have long-term impacts and wide-ranging negative effects on the saltmarsh ecosystem.

  17. Hemigrapsus sanguineus in Long Island salt marshes: experimental evaluation of the interactions between an invasive crab and resident ecosystem engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bradley J; Fournier, Alexa M; Furman, Bradley T; Carroll, John M

    2014-01-01

    The invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has recently been observed occupying salt marshes, a novel environment for this crab species. As it invades this new habitat, it is likely to interact with a number of important salt marsh species. To understand the potential effects of H. sanguineus on this ecosystem, interactions between this invasive crab and important salt marsh ecosystem engineers were examined. Laboratory experiments demonstrated competition for burrows between H. sanguineus and the native fiddler crab, Uca pugilator. Results indicate that H. sanguineus is able to displace an established fiddler crab from its burrow. Feeding experiments revealed that the presence of H. sanguineus has a significantly negative impact on the number as well as the biomass of ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) consumed by the green crab, Carcinus maenas, although this only occurred at high predator densities. In addition, when both crabs foraged together, there was a significant shift in the size of mussels consumed. These interactions suggests that H. sanguineus may have long-term impacts and wide-ranging negative effects on the saltmarsh ecosystem.

  18. A Tick on the Move?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-04

    CDC’s tick expert, Dr. Christopher Paddock, discusses ticks found in a new location.  Created: 8/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2016.

  19. Historical review and insights on the livestock tick-borne disease research of a developing country: The Philippine scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Mingala, Claro N; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee D

    2018-04-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) remain to be a global animal health threat. Developing countries like the Philippines is not exempt to this. Despite the potential impact TBDs can give to these countries, local government initiatives and researches remain to be limited. In the Philippines, most epidemiological studies were confined only to specific areas, and predominantly in the Northern Area. Due to its unique geography and limited studies, the current nationwide status of most TBDs could not be clearly established. This review mainly covered published studies and presented challenges in the conduct of TBD research in the Philippines, which may be similar to other Southeast Asian or developing countries. To date, reported livestock TBD pathogens in the Philippines include Anaplasma, Babesia, Theileria, and Mycoplasma spp. With the ubiquitous presence of the Rhipicephalus microplus ticks in the country, it is highly probable that other pathogens transmitted by these vectors could be present. Despite studies on different TBDs in the livestock sector, the Philippine government has not yet heightened its efforts to implement tick control measures as part of the routine animal health program for local farmers. Further studies might be needed to determine the nationwide prevalence of TBDs and the presence of other possible tick species and TBD pathogens. The Philippine scenario may present situations that are similar to other developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mehmedi, Blerta; Gecaj, Rreze M.; Hoxha, Zamira; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G.

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (n = 218), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. (n = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum (n = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle) from the Prishtina region (Kosovo). B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus, two I. ricinus one female and one male) from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo). Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus, but also in D. marginatus, in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established. PMID:29560357

  1. Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtesh Sherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE. Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (n = 218, Dermacentor marginatus (n = 98, and Haemaphysalis spp. (n = 24 were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo, while Hyalomma marginatum (n = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo and Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 130, 126 from Albania could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle from the Prishtina region (Kosovo. B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus, two I. ricinus one female and one male from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo. Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus, but also in D. marginatus, in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established.

  2. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ticks from Kosovo and Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mehmedi, Blerta; Gecaj, Rreze M; Hoxha, Zamira; Joachim, Anja; Duscher, Georg G

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus ( n  = 218), Dermacentor marginatus ( n  = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. ( n  = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum ( n  = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa ( n  = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants. Ticks were collected in the years 2014/2015 and tested for viral RNA of CCHF and TBE viruses, as well as for DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by real-time PCR. In Kosovo, nine ticks were positive for RNA of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and seven for DNA of B. burgdorferi s. l. None of the ticks tested positive for TBEV. CCHF virus was detected in one H. marginatum male specimen collected while feeding on grazing cattle from the Prizren region and in eight R. bursa specimens (five females and three males collected while feeding on grazing sheep and cattle) from the Prishtina region (Kosovo). B. burgdorferi s. l. was detected in seven questing ticks (four male and one female D. marginatus , two I. ricinus one female and one male) from the Mitrovica region (Kosovo). Our study confirmed that CCHF virus is circulating in Kosovo mainly in H. marginatum and R. bursa in the central areas of the country. B. burgdorferi s. l. was found in its major European host tick, I. ricinus , but also in D. marginatus , in the north of the Kosovo. In order to prevent the spread of these diseases and better control of the tick-borne infections, an improved vector surveillance and testing of ticks for the presence of pathogens needs to be established.

  3. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition.

  4. Transport of Ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eHasle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  5. Characterization of Gut-associated Cathepsin D Hemoglobinase from Tick Ixodes ricinus (IrCD1)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdeněk; Frantová, Helena; Bartošová, Pavla; Horn, Martin; Váchová, Jana; O’Donoghue, A. J.; Eroy-Reveles, A. A.; Craik, C. S.; Knudsen, G. M.; Caffrey, C. R.; McKerrow, J. H.; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 25 (2012), s. 21152-21163 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960911; GA ČR GPP502/11/P682; GA AV ČR IAA400550705; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS * HARD TICK * ORNITHODOROS-MOUBATA * ASPARTIC PROTEINASE * RECOGNITION DOMAIN * MOLECULAR- CLONING * ACTIVE-SITE * EXPRESSION * INHIBITOR * PROTEASE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2012

  6. Rickettsial pathogens and arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary significance on Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durden, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern surveys of ectoparasites and potential vector-borne pathogens in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Wake Island are poorly documented. We report on field surveys of ectoparasites from 2010 with collections from dogs, cats, and rats. Five ectoparasites were identified: the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis, a sucking louse Hoplopleura pacifica, the mites Laelaps nuttalli and Radfordia ensifera, and the brown dog tickRhipicephalus sanguineus. Ectoparasites were screened for rickettsial pathogens. DNA from Anaplasma platys, a Coxiella symbiont of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, anda Rickettsia sp. were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing from ticks and fleas on Kwajalein Atoll. An unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia was detected in a pool of Laelaps nuttalli and Hoplopleura pacifica from Wake Island. The records of Hoplopleura pacifica, Laelaps nuttalli, and Radfordia ensifera and the pathogens are new for Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island.

  7. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar suas eficiências no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato foram coletadas de bovinos e mantidas em placas de Petri. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos alcoólicos 2% (peso/volume de sementes de Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim; e extrato hexânico na mesma concentração de A. indica (sementes. Os grupos-controle foram compostos por fêmeas sem tratamento e fêmeas tratadas com água destilada e esterilizada e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a uma concentração de 1%. O extrato de A. muricata apresentou o maior poder acaricida, com eficácia de 100%, seguido dos extratos de S. malaccensis (75 e 59,24% e A. indica (65 e 38,49%. Houve 100% de redução na eclosão das larvas quando se utilizou o extrato de sementes de A. muricata.Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume of A. indica (seeds. The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24% and A. indica (65 and 38.49%. The seed extract of A. muricata

  8. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  9. The East Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Brachyura: Varunidae in the Mediterranean Sea: an independent human-mediated introduction

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    Christoph D. Schubart

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A single adult male specimen of the East Asian crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835 was collected in August 2001 in the northern Adriatic Sea along the northwest coast of the peninsula of Istra. This is the first record of this genus and species from the Mediterranean Sea. Previously, Hemigrapsus sanguineus had been reported to invade the Atlantic coasts of North America and of western France, while the congeneric East Asian species, Hemigrapsus penicillatus (de Haan, 1835, has established breeding populations along the Atlantic coast of Europe. The current absence of Hemigrapsus sanguineus in southern Europe and the western Mediterranean suggests an independent human-mediated introduction of the Croatian specimen. Preliminary genetic analyses reveal that specimens from Istra, North America, and Japan have identical DNA haplotypes corresponding to the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene (16S mtDNA, while the homologous sequence from a specimen of Taiwan differs in two out of 525 nucleotides.

  10. The immunomodulatory protein RH36 is relating to blood-feeding success and oviposition in hard ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Lu, Xiaojuan; Guo, Fengxun; Gong, Haiyan; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Yongzhi; Cao, Jie; Zhou, Jinlin

    2017-06-15

    An immunomodulatory protein designated RH36 was identified in the tick Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides. The cDNA sequence of RH36 has 844bp and encodes a deduced protein with a predicted molecular weight of 24kDa. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that RH36 presented a degree of similarity of 34.36% with the immunomodulatory protein p36 from the tick Dermacentor andersoni. The recombinant RH36 (rRH36) expressed in Sf9 insect cells suppressed the T-lymphocyte mitogen-driven in vitro proliferation of splenocytes and the expression of several cytokines such as IL-2, IL-12, and TNF-α. Furthermore, the proliferation of splenocytes isolated from rRH36-inoculated mice was significantly lower than that in control mice, suggesting that rRH36 could directly suppress immune responses in vivo. In addition, microarray analysis of splenocytes indicated that the expression of several immunomodulatory genes was downregulated by rRH36. The silencing of the RH36 gene by RNAi led to a 37.5% decrease in the tick attachment rate 24h after placement into the rabbit ears, whereas vaccination with RH36 caused a 53.06% decrease in the tick engorgement rate. Unexpectedly, RNAi induced a significant decrease in the oviposition rate, ovary weight at day 12 after engorgement, and egg-hatching rate. The effects of RH36 on blood feeding and oviposition were further confirmed by vaccination tests using the recombinant protein. These results indicate that RH36 is a novel member of immunosuppressant proteins and affects tick blood feeding and oviposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Statocyst regulation of the heart and statokinetic reflexes in the crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, during linear acceleration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsova, M Ia; Sveshnikov, V G; Timofeeva, E V

    1978-01-01

    In experiments on the shore crab H. sanguineus studies have been made of the effect of variable longitudinal acceleration during swinging (for 15--30 min) upon cardiac activity and gravitational reflexes. High sensitivity of gravitational receptors of the canal statocyst to the effect of acceleration was demonstrated. Removal of the statocysts increases the frequency and amplitude of cardiac contractions as revealed by ECG recording. Changes in stato-kinetic coordinations cause both the disorder of overturning reactions and the disorder of reciprocal inhibition in antagonistic muscles of the dactylopodite. Statocyst regulation of skeletal muscles and heart is presumably realised via contralateral inhibitory canal which is sensitive to linear accelerations.

  12. Do Tick Attachment Times Vary between Different Tick-Pathogen Systems?

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    Stephanie L. Richards

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvements to risk assessments are needed to enhance our understanding of tick-borne disease epidemiology. We review tick vectors and duration of tick attachment required for pathogen transmission for the following pathogens/toxins and diseases: (1 Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis; (2 Babesia microti (babesiosis; (3 Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease; (4 Southern tick-associated rash illness; (5 Borrelia hermsii (tick-borne relapsing fever; (6 Borrelia parkeri (tick-borne relapsing fever; (7 Borrelia turicatae (tick-borne relapsing fever; (8 Borrelia mayonii; (9 Borrelia miyamotoi; (10 Coxiella burnetii (Query fever; (11 Ehrlichia chaffeensis (ehrlichiosis; (12 Ehrlichia ewingii (ehrlichiosis; (13 Ehrlichia muris; (14 Francisella tularensis (tularemia; (15 Rickettsia 364D; (16 Rickettsia montanensis; (17 Rickettsia parkeri (American boutonneuse fever, American tick bite fever; (18 Rickettsia ricketsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever; (19 Colorado tick fever virus (Colorado tick fever; (20 Heartland virus; (21 Powassan virus (Powassan disease; (22 tick paralysis neurotoxin; and (23 Galactose-α-1,3-galactose (Mammalian Meat Allergy-alpha-gal syndrome. Published studies for 12 of the 23 pathogens/diseases showed tick attachment times. Reported tick attachment times varied (<1 h to seven days between pathogen/toxin type and tick vector. Not all studies were designed to detect the duration of attachment required for transmission. Knowledge of this important aspect of vector competence is lacking and impairs risk assessment for some tick-borne pathogens.

  13. Influence of essential oil fractionation by vacuum distillation on acaricidal activity against the cattle tick

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    Fernando Cidade Torres

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of essential oil fractionation on acaricidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus J. and pepper tree (Schinus molle L. essential oils were fractionated by vacuum distillation yielding fractions that were analyzed by the GC/MS. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the total essential oil and fractions on larvae of the cattle tick R. (B. microplus. The fractions 04 and 05 of the C. winterianus essential oil were the most active showing LC50 values of 1.20 and 1.34 μL/mL, respectively. The LC50 of the total oil was 3.30 μL/mL while the effect of the fractions 01, 02 and 03 was less pronounced, with LC50 values of 4.37, 4.24 and 3.49 μL/mL, respectively. The fraction 03 of the S. molle essential oil was the most active showing LC50 value of 8.80 μL/mL while the fractions 01 and 02 did not show toxic effects on the larvae.

  14. Xenobiotic Compounds Degradation by Heterologous Expression of a Trametes sanguineus Laccase in Trichoderma atroviride.

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    Edgar Balcázar-López

    Full Text Available Fungal laccases are enzymes that have been studied because of their ability to decolorize and detoxify effluents; they are also used in paper bleaching, synthesis of polymers, bioremediation, etc. In this work we were able to express a laccase from Trametes (Pycnoporus sanguineus in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride. For this purpose, a transformation vector was designed to integrate the gene of interest in an intergenic locus near the blu17 terminator region. Although monosporic selection was still necessary, stable integration at the desired locus was achieved. The native signal peptide from T. sanguineus laccase was successful to secrete the recombinant protein into the culture medium. The purified, heterologously expressed laccase maintained similar properties to those observed in the native enzyme (Km and kcat and kcat/km values for ABTS, thermostability, substrate range, pH optimum, etc. To determine the bioremediation potential of this modified strain, the laccase-overexpressing Trichoderma strain was used to remove xenobiotic compounds. Phenolic compounds present in industrial wastewater and bisphenol A (an endocrine disruptor from the culture medium were more efficiently removed by this modified strain than with the wild type. In addition, the heterologously expressed laccase was able to decolorize different dyes as well as remove benzo[α]pyrene and phenanthrene in vitro, showing its potential for xenobiotic compound degradation.

  15. Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses and ticks in Maranhão, Brazil

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    Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the intraeytrhocytic protozoans Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. It has been reported as a main equine parasitic disease. In addition, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, causes a seasonal disease in horses. Both diseases, can be detrimental to animal health. In this sense, blood samples and ticks were collected from 97 horses raised in the microregion of Baixada Maranhense, Maranhão State, Brazil. Serum samples were subjected to Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT and blood samples and ticks to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR to evaluate the infection by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The overall seroprevalence was 38.14%, 18.55% and 11.34% for T. equi, B. caballi and A. phagocytophilum, respectively. The results of PCR from blood samples showed 13.40% and 3.09% positive samples to T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. A total of 170 tick specimens were collected and identified as Dermacentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. It was detected 2.35% (4/170 and 0.59% (1/170 positive tick samples by PCR for T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. All samples were negative to A. phagocytophilum. No statically difference (p>0.05 was observed when gender, age, use of ectoparasiticide and tick presence were analyzed. A BLASTn analysis of the sequenced samples indicated 97 to 100% similarity with T. equi 18S rRNA gene sequences in GenBank and 98 to 100% with B. caballi. Genetic analysis classified the obtained sequences as T. equi and B. caballi cluster, respectively. It can be concluded that these pathogens occur and are circulating in the studied area.

  16. First GB records of the invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus from Glamorgan, Wales and Kent, England.

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, B; Sewell, J; Clark, PF

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution reports on the capture of two adult male specimens of the Asian/Japanese shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835) from Glamorgan, south Wales and Kent, southern England. These represent the first records of this species from mainland Great Britain.

  17. Increase in density of genetically diverse invasive Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus) populations in the Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Joshua P; Williams, Larissa M

    2017-04-01

    Hemigrapsus sanguineus , the Asian shore crab, has rapidly replaced Carcinus maenas , the green crab, as the most abundant crab on rocky shores in the northwest Atlantic since its introduction to the United States (USA) in 1988. The northern edge of this progressing invasion is the Gulf of Maine, where Asian shore crabs are only abundant in the south. We compared H. sanguineus population densities to those from published 2005 surveys and quantified genetic variation using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We found that the range of H. sanguineus had extended northward since 2005, that population density had increased substantially (at least 10-fold at all sites), and that Asian shore crabs had become the dominant intertidal crab species in New Hampshire and southern Maine. Despite the significant increase in population density of H. sanguineus , populations only increased by a factor of 14 in Maine compared to 70 in southern New England, possibly due to cooler temperatures in the Gulf of Maine. Genetically, populations were predominantly composed of a single haplotype of Japanese, Korean, or Taiwanese origin, although an additional seven haplotypes were found. Six of these haplotypes were of Asian origin, while two are newly described. Large increases in population sizes of genetically diverse individuals in Maine will likely have a large ecological impact, causing a reduction in populations of mussels, barnacles, snails, and other crabs, similar to what has occurred at southern sites with large populations of this invasive crab species.

  18. El cangrejo litoral del este asiático Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Brachyura: Varunidae) en el mar Mediterráneo: una introducción humana independiente

    OpenAIRE

    Schubart, Christoph D.

    2003-01-01

    Un ejemplar macho adulto del cangrejo del este Asiático Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835) fue recolectado en agosto de 2001 en el norte del Mar Adriático en la costa noroeste de la península de Ístria. Este hallazgo constituye la primera cita de H. sanguineus (y del género Hemigrapsus) en el Mar Mediterráneo. Previamente, H. sanguineus ha invadido las costas atlánticas de Norteamérica y de Francia occidental, mientras que la especie congenérica del este Asiático, Hemigrapsus penicillatus...

  19. Bm86 midgut protein sequence variation in South Texas cattle fever ticks

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    Kammlah Diane M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and R. (B. annulatus, vector bovine and equine babesiosis, and have significantly expanded beyond the permanent quarantine zone established in South Texas. Currently, there are no vaccines approved for use within the United States for controlling these vectors. Vaccines developed in Australia and Cuba based on the midgut antigen Bm86 have variable efficacy against cattle fever ticks. A possible explanation for this variation in vaccine efficacy is amino acid sequence divergence between the recombinant Bm86 vaccine component and native Bm86 expressed in ticks from different geographical regions of the world. Results There was 91.8% amino acid sequence identity in Bm86 among R. microplus and R. annulatus sequenced from South Texas infestations. When South Texas isolates were compared to the Australian Yeerongpilly and Cuban Camcord vaccine strains, there was 89.8% and 90.0% identity, respectively. Most of the sequence divergence was focused in one region of the protein, amino acids 206-298. Hydrophilicity profiles revealed that two short regions of Bm86 (amino acids 206-210 and 560-570 appear to be more hydrophilic in South Texas isolates compared to vaccine strains. Only one amino acid difference was found between South Texas and vaccine strains within two previously described B-cell epitopes. A total of 4 amino acid differences were observed within three peptides previously shown to induce protective immune responses in cattle. Conclusions Sequence differences between South Texas isolates and Yeerongpilly and Camcord strains are spread throughout the entire Bm86 sequence, suggesting that geographic variation does exist. Differences within previously described B-cell epitopes between South Texas isolates and vaccine strains are minimal; however, short regions of hydrophilic amino acids found unique to South Texas isolates suggest that additional unique surface exposed

  20. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

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    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  1. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C.; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Almeida, Igor C.; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  2. Genome characterization of Long Island tick rhabdovirus, a new virus identified in Amblyomma americanum ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Rafal; Sameroff, Stephen; Leon, Maria Sanchez; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2014-02-11

    Ticks are implicated as hosts to a wide range of animal and human pathogens. The full range of microbes harbored by ticks has not yet been fully explored. As part of a viral surveillance and discovery project in arthropods, we used unbiased high-throughput sequencing to examine viromes of ticks collected on Long Island, New York in 2013. We detected and sequenced the complete genome of a novel rhabdovirus originating from a pool of Amblyomma americanum ticks. This virus, which we provisionally name Long Island tick rhabdovirus, is distantly related to Moussa virus from Africa. The Long Island tick rhabdovirus may represent a novel species within family Rhabdoviridae.

  3. Tick size and stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  4. Transfected Babesia bovis Expressing a Tick GST as a Live Vector Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldiges, Daiane P.; Laughery, Jacob M.; Tagliari, Nelson Junior; Leite Filho, Ronaldo Viana; Davis, William C.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Termignoni, Carlos; Knowles, Donald P.; Suarez, Carlos E.

    2016-01-01

    The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan protozoan parasite responsible for bovine Babesiosis. This study describes the development and testing of a live B. bovis vaccine expressing the protective tick antigen glutathione-S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlGST). The B. bovis S74-T3B parasites were electroporated with a plasmid containing the bidirectional Ef-1α (elongation factor 1 alpha) promoter of B. bovis controlling expression of two independent genes, the selectable marker GFP-BSD (green fluorescent protein–blasticidin deaminase), and HlGST fused to the MSA-1 (merozoite surface antigen 1) signal peptide from B. bovis. Electroporation followed by blasticidin selection resulted in the emergence of a mixed B. bovis transfected line (termed HlGST) in in vitro cultures, containing parasites with distinct patterns of insertion of both exogenous genes, either in or outside the Ef-1α locus. A B. bovis clonal line termed HlGST-Cln expressing intracellular GFP and HlGST in the surface of merozoites was then derived from the mixed parasite line HlGST using a fluorescent activated cell sorter. Two independent calf immunization trials were performed via intravenous inoculation of the HlGST-Cln and a previously described control consisting of an irrelevant transfected clonal line of B. bovis designated GFP-Cln. The control GFP-Cln line contains a copy of the GFP-BSD gene inserted into the Ef-1α locus of B. bovis in an identical fashion as the HIGST-Cln parasites. All animals inoculated with the HlGST-Cln and GFP-Cln transfected parasites developed mild babesiosis. Tick egg fertility and fully engorged female tick weight was reduced significantly in R. microplus feeding on HlGST-Cln-immunized calves

  5. Transfected Babesia bovis Expressing a Tick GST as a Live Vector Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane P Oldiges

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan protozoan parasite responsible for bovine Babesiosis. This study describes the development and testing of a live B. bovis vaccine expressing the protective tick antigen glutathione-S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlGST. The B. bovis S74-T3B parasites were electroporated with a plasmid containing the bidirectional Ef-1α (elongation factor 1 alpha promoter of B. bovis controlling expression of two independent genes, the selectable marker GFP-BSD (green fluorescent protein-blasticidin deaminase, and HlGST fused to the MSA-1 (merozoite surface antigen 1 signal peptide from B. bovis. Electroporation followed by blasticidin selection resulted in the emergence of a mixed B. bovis transfected line (termed HlGST in in vitro cultures, containing parasites with distinct patterns of insertion of both exogenous genes, either in or outside the Ef-1α locus. A B. bovis clonal line termed HlGST-Cln expressing intracellular GFP and HlGST in the surface of merozoites was then derived from the mixed parasite line HlGST using a fluorescent activated cell sorter. Two independent calf immunization trials were performed via intravenous inoculation of the HlGST-Cln and a previously described control consisting of an irrelevant transfected clonal line of B. bovis designated GFP-Cln. The control GFP-Cln line contains a copy of the GFP-BSD gene inserted into the Ef-1α locus of B. bovis in an identical fashion as the HIGST-Cln parasites. All animals inoculated with the HlGST-Cln and GFP-Cln transfected parasites developed mild babesiosis. Tick egg fertility and fully engorged female tick weight was reduced significantly in R. microplus feeding on Hl

  6. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, W.W.; Hassanali, A.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia

  7. Experiences in tick control by acaricide in the traditional cattle sector in Zambia and Burkina Faso: possible environmental and public health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele De Meneghi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Livestock, especially cattle, play a paramount role in agriculture production systems, particularly in poor countries throughout the world. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs have an important impact on livestock and agriculture production in Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors review the most common methods used for the control of ticks and TBDs. Special emphasis is given to the direct application of acaricides to the host animals. The possible environmental and public health adverse effects (i.e. risks for the workers, residues in the environment, and in food products of animal origin are mentioned. The authors present two case studies, describing different field experiences in controlling ticks in two African countries. In Zambia (Southern Africa, a strategic dipping regime was used to control Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, vectors of theileriosis, a deadly disease affecting cattle in the traditional livestock sector in Southern Province. The dipping regime adopted allowed to reduce the tick challenge and cattle mortally rate, and at the same time, to employ less acaricide as compared to the intensive dipping used so far, without disrupting the building-up of enzootic stability. In Burkina Faso (West Africa, where dipping was never used for tick control, an acaricide footbath was employed as an alternative method to the traditional technique used locally (portable manual sprayers. This was developed from field observations on the invasion/attachment process of the Amblyomma variegatum ticks –vector of cowdriosis- on the animal hosts, leading to a control method aimed to kill ticks temporarily attached to the interdigital areas before their permanent attachment to the predilection sites. This innovative method has been overall accepted by the local farmers. It has the advantage of greatly reducing costs of treatments and has a minimal environmental impact, making footbath a sustainable and replicable method, adoptable also in other West

  8. Acaricidal activity of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum, hydrolate and eugenol formulated or free on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F M; Delmonte, C C; Novato, T L P; Monteiro, C M O; Daemon, E; Vilela, F M P; Amaral, M P H

    2018-03-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) (Ixodida: Ixodidae), is the most important ectoparasite in cattle-breeding areas and is responsible for severe economic losses. Synthetic acaricides have been used to control this parasite. However, the need for safer products has stimulated the search for new acaricides, such as those to be obtained from medicinal plants. The essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) has many biological properties and shows great potential for use in veterinary applications. In the context of the need for new agents, this study investigated the in vitro properties of the hydrolate, essential oil and the main constituent of S. aromaticum, eugenol, in formulated and free applications against larvae and females of R. microplus. Eugenol and the essential oil caused 100% mortality in larvae at starting applications of 2.5 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. The hydrolate showed no activity. Both eugenol and essential oil had good efficacy in adult immersion tests at 50 mg/mL and achieved 100% efficacy at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. The results of these tests reaffirm the important potential of clove essential oil and eugenol. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. The first assessment of the stress inducible defense of Leucaena leucocephala with acaricidal potential effect against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae

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    Lêdia Feitosa Wanderley

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants respond to wounding caused by mechanical stress or herbivory by synthesizing defense proteins. There are no studies reporting the action of induced plant proteins against ticks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanically wounded Leucaena leucocephala leaves against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Initially, we carried out time course experiments to evaluate the impact of mechanical wounding on the protein content and the peroxidase, catalase and protease inhibitor activities in L. leucocephala. We then evaluated the acaricidal activity on R. (B. microplus from protein extract collected from L. leucocephala after mechanical wounding. L. leucocephala leaves were artificially wounded, and after 6, 12, 24 and 48h, the leaves were collected for protein extraction. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the proteins were performed. The protein content and peroxidase and protease activities increased 12h after wounding, and the acaricidal activity of this protein extract was evaluated using engorged R. (B. microplus females. The protein extract obtained after wounding reduced egg production (8.5% compared to those without wounding. Furthermore, the extract reduced egg hatching by 47.7% and showed an overall efficacy of 56.3% at 0.1 mgP/mL of the protein. We demonstrated that L. leucocephala defensive proteins could be effective against R. (B. microplus.

  10. Immunity against Ticks-A Review

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    Masood Akhtar*, Faqir Muhammad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Iftikhar Hussain and M. Irfan Anwar1

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tick and tick borne diseases cause many problems to man and domestic animals world wide. These problems are most closely associated with domestic animals in tropical and subtropical areas around the globe. Currently tick control depends largely on the use of different chemicals. But the development of resistance against commonly available acaricides has created problem in this regard and animal population is becoming susceptible to both the ticks and diseases they transmit, with disastrous outcomes. The ability of manipulating organisms on molecular level and recent advancement in immunological procedures has provided alternatives for tick control. The objective of this review is to update/summarize the recent advances in the development of immunity against tick infestation in animals.

  11. [Localization of NADPH-diaphorase in the brain of the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiuba, E P

    2005-01-01

    The presence and localization of NADPH-diaphorase in the cerebral ganglion of the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus was investigated with histochemical and electron histochemical methods. The reactivity of this enzyme was found in the deutrocerebrum, mainly in neuropils of olfactory lobes, the lateral antennular neuropil, a laterodorsal group of cells, and in the oculomotor nerve nucleus. Ultrastructural localization of the enzyme was detected in neurons on the perinuclear membrane, and in membranes of endoplasmic reticulum, in mitochondria and cytosol. The enzyme was found in axons of the antennular nerve, and in terminals of receptor axons in the glomerulus. The obtained data testify to participation of NO in perception and processing of the olfactory information.

  12. A Breeding Population of the Western Pacific Crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) Established on the Atlantic Coast of North America.

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    McDermott, J J

    1991-08-01

    The west Pacific grapsid crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus was found in the United States for the first time in 1988. Additional crabs were recovered in 1990 from Townsends Inlet and Cape May Harbor, New Jersey (22 males, 16 females), and four of the females collected from June through September were ovigerous. Thus, H. sanguineus has now established itself in southern New Jersey, the first well-documented case of an exotic brachyuran becoming established along the east coast of the United States.

  13. Biossíntese de vanilina pelo fungo Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

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    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    A vanilina (substância popularmente conhecida como aroma de baunilha é um dos compostos mais utilizados, principalmente pelas indústrias alimentícias e farmacêuticas. Esta substância pode ser obtida da orquídea Vanilla planifolia, porém, este é um processo oneroso e demorado. Por esse motivo, outros métodos para a obtenção da vanilina vêm sendo estudados. Dentro deste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biossíntese de vanilina por três isolados de Pycnoporus sanguineus através do uso de ácido vanílico como precursor. Os isolados foram cultivados em placas de Petri com meio ágar batata dextrose. Fragmentos destes cultivos foram inoculados em Erlenmeyers com meio líquido de caldo de batata e 0,3 g.L-1 de ácido vanílico. Os frascos permaneceram em shaker por oito dias a 28oC e 120 rpm. Foram retiradas diárias (0,8 mL.dia-1 para análise de vanilina, glicose, fenois totais, enzima lacase e proteínas totais. Os resultados revelaram que apenas a cepa MIP 95001 promoveu a biossíntese da vanilina. A maior concentração de vanilina foi detectada no quarto dia de cultivo (8,75 mg.dL-1. De forma geral, os resultados apresentados ilustram a possibilidade de biossintetizar a vanilina pelo Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, evidenciando uma possível rota biotecnológica para a produção deste aroma.

  14. A High Redox Potential Laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15: Potential Application for Dye Decolorization

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    Ana L. R. L. Zimbardi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15 grown in wheat bran and corncob under solid-state fermentation was optimized by response surface methodology using a Central Composite Rotational Design. A laccase (Lacps1 was purified and characterized and the potential of the pure Lacps1 and the crude culture extract for synthetic dye decolorization was evaluated. At optimal conditions (eight days, 26 °C, 18% (w/w milled corncob, 0.8% (w/w NH4Cl and 50 mmol·L−1 CuSO4, initial moisture 4.1 mL·g−1, the laccase activity reached 138.6 ± 13.2 U·g−1. Lacps1 was a monomeric glycoprotein (67 kDa, 24% carbohydrate. Optimum pH and temperature for the oxidation of 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS were 4.4 and 74.4 °C, respectively. Lacps1 was stable at pH 3.0–8.0, and after two hours at 55–60 °C, presenting high redox potential (0.747 V vs. NHE. ABTS was oxidized with an apparent affinity constant of 147.0 ± 6.4 μmol·L−1, maximum velocity of 413.4 ± 21.2 U·mg−1 and catalytic efficiency of 3140.1 ± 149.6 L·mmol−1·s−1. The maximum decolorization percentages of bromophenol blue (BPB, remazol brilliant blue R and reactive blue 4 (RB4, at 25 or 40 °C without redox mediators, reached 90%, 80% and 60%, respectively, using either pure Lacps1 or the crude extract. This is the first study of the decolorization of BPB and RB4 by a P. sanguineus laccase. The data suggested good potential for treatment of industrial dye-containing effluents.

  15. Targeting ticks for control of selected hemoparasitic diseases of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, K M

    1995-03-01

    Development in and transmission of hemoparasites by tick vectors are phenomena closely synchronized with the tick feeding cycle. In all known life cycles, initial infection of tick tissues occurs in midgut epithelial cells and transmission is effected as ticks feed after parasites have developed and multiplied in salivary glands. Many factors reviewed affect development and transmission of hemoparasites by ticks including age of ticks, artificial temperature, climate and/or season, tick stage or sex, hemoparasite variation, concurrent infection of ticks with other pathogens, host cell susceptibility, transovarial transmission, effect of hemoparasites on tick biology, and the effect of infecting parasitemia level in cattle on infection rates in ticks. Four hemoparasites of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Cowdria ruminantium, Theileria parva, and Babesia spp., are all dependent on ticks for biological transmission. Babesia is transmitted transovarially whereas the other three are transmitted transstadially. Mechanical transfer of infective blood via fomites and mouthparts of biting arthropods is also a major means of transmission for Anaplasma marginale but not of the others. Potential control methods for hemoparasites that target parasites as they are developing in their respective tick hosts include tick control, vaccines (against ticks and parasites), and drugs (against ticks and parasites). Successful application of control strategies will be dependent upon thorough understanding of parasite developmental cycles, biology of the tick vectors and the immune response of cattle to ticks and to hemoparasites. The most effective control measures will be those that are targeted against both ticks and the hemoparasites they vector.

  16. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from birds in Taiwan

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    Chi-Chien Kuo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of human diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors, including ticks, are emerging around the globe. Birds are known to be hosts of ticks and can disperse exotic ticks and tick-borne pathogens. In Taiwan, previous studies have focused predominantly on mammals, leaving the role of birds in the maintenance of ticks and dissemination of tick-borne pathogens undetermined. Methods Ticks were collected opportunistically when birds were studied from 1995 to 2013. Furthermore, to improve knowledge on the prevalence and mean load of tick infestation on birds in Taiwan, ticks were thoroughly searched for when birds were mist-netted at seven sites between September 2014 and April 2016 in eastern Taiwan. Ticks were identified based on both morphological and molecular information and were screened for potential tick-borne pathogens, including the genera Anaplasma, Babesia, Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. Finally, a list of hard tick species collected from birds in Taiwan was compiled based on past work and the current study. Results Nineteen ticks (all larvae were recovered from four of the 3096 unique mist-netted bird individuals, yielding a mean load of 0.006 ticks/individual and an overall prevalence of 0.13%. A total of 139 ticks from birds, comprising 48 larvae, 35 nymphs, 55 adults and one individual of unknown life stage, were collected from 1995 to 2016, and 11 species of four genera were identified, including three newly recorded species (Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Ixodes columnae and Ixodes turdus. A total of eight tick-borne pathogens were detected, with five species (Borrelia turdi, Anaplasma sp. clone BJ01, Ehrlichia sp. BL157-9, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis not previously isolated in Taiwan. Overall, 16 tick species of five genera have been recorded feeding on birds, including nine species first discovered in this study. Conclusion Our study demonstrates the paucity of information on ticks of

  17. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. III. Sweating rate

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    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle in a sustainable tropical livestock should be heat tolerant and resistant to ticks. The relationship between Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation and sweating rate, an important heat tolerance characteristic, was studied in six Nellore and four Holstein steers of seven-month-old. They were artificial infested (a.i. with 10,000 (Holstein and 20,000 (Nellore larvae in 16/Apr/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female tick fourteen days after. The sweating rate (SRskin, measured by Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method, in a shaved area of shoulder skin was evaluated in 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and in 05/May (19 days after a.i.. In 14/Apr the Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method was done on the coat not shaved (SRcoat. The sweating rate was measured in the afternoon (from 2 P.M., after 30 minutes of direct sunlight, on April. On May, the animals remained 60 minutes in direct sunlight because this day was colder. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data from the steers’ sweating rate were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using SRskin as dependent variable and breed and sampling date as independent variables. For SRcoat breed was the independent variable. Nellore, a tropical cattle breed, had higher SRskin (1,000.82 ± 64.59 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than Holstein (620.45 ± 79.10 g m-2 h-1. SRskin was higher on May (1,187.33 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than on April (433.93 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1. The correlation between the two different measurements of SR was positive and significant (r= 0,545, P<0,01, Pearson correlation. But in SRcoat the breed effect disappeared because the Holstein SRcoat increased (Holstein: 884.95 ± 472.12 g m-2 h-1 and Nellore: 1,060.72 ± 318.21 g m-2 h-1

  18. Co-circulation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus strains Asia 1 and 2 between the border of Iran and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Nariman; Jafarbekloo, Ahmad; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Chinikar, Sadegh; Haeri, Ali; Nowotny, Norbert; Groschup, Martin H; Fooks, Anthony R; Faghihi, Faezeh

    2017-11-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease that is transmitted by numerous species of ticks, which serve both as a reservoir and vector of CCHF virus (CCHFV). Molecular and serological tests were undertaken on hard ticks (Ixodidae spp.) and samples from livestock were collected in 2015 from Chabahar County in Southeast Iran. Using RT-PCR, the ticks were tested for the presence of CCHFV. In addition, seven livestock were serologically tested for the presence of IgG antibodies using an ELISA test. IgG antibodies against CCHFV were detected in one of 7 of the livestock that were tested. In total, 49 ticks including five species: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma anatolicum , Hy. asiaticum, Hy. dromedarii and Hy. marginatum with a prevalence of 46.9%, 32.7%, 4.1%, 4.1% and 2.1% respectively were identified. CCHFV was detected in three ticks among 49 collected ticks. The ticks infected with CCHFV belonged to the genus Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that two sequences clustered in clade IV (Asia-1) and one sequence was located within clade IV (Asia-2). Most of the animal and human CCHF cases of the country are reported from Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. Regular monitoring programs in the tick population and livestock are needed in the future.

  19. Co-circulation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus strains Asia 1 and 2 between the border of Iran and Pakistan

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    Nariman Shahhosseini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a tick-borne viral disease that is transmitted by numerous species of ticks, which serve both as a reservoir and vector of CCHF virus (CCHFV. Molecular and serological tests were undertaken on hard ticks (Ixodidae spp. and samples from livestock were collected in 2015 from Chabahar County in Southeast Iran. Using RT-PCR, the ticks were tested for the presence of CCHFV. In addition, seven livestock were serologically tested for the presence of IgG antibodies using an ELISA test. IgG antibodies against CCHFV were detected in one of 7 of the livestock that were tested. In total, 49 ticks including five species: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. dromedarii and Hy. marginatum with a prevalence of 46.9%, 32.7%, 4.1%, 4.1% and 2.1% respectively were identified. CCHFV was detected in three ticks among 49 collected ticks. The ticks infected with CCHFV belonged to the genus Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that two sequences clustered in clade IV (Asia-1 and one sequence was located within clade IV (Asia-2. Most of the animal and human CCHF cases of the country are reported from Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. Regular monitoring programs in the tick population and livestock are needed in the future. Keywords: Virology

  20. Detection of Bartonellaspp. and Rickettsiaspp. in fleas, ticks and lice collected in rural areas of Peru

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    Abraham G. Cáceres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartonellosis and rickettsiosis are commonly reported in Peru. In order to detect Bartonella sp. and Rickettsiasp. in fleas, ticks and lice, specimens from five distinct locations in Peru (Marizagua, Cajaruro, Jamalca, Lonya Grande and El Milagro were collected and screened for the presence of these bacteria using PCR and later confirmation by DNA sequencing. The specimens collected were distributed in 102 pools (76 Ctenocephalides felis, 2 Ctenocephalides canis, 16 Pulex irritans, 5 Pediculus humanus, 2 Rhiphicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Boophilus spp., where Bartonellawas detected in 17 pools (6 of C. felis, 9 of P. irritans, 1 of C. canis, and 1 P. humanus. Also, Rickettsiawas detected in 76 pools (62 C. felis, 10 P. irritans, 2 P. humanus, and 2 C. canis. Bartonella clarridgeiaewas detected in C. felis, C. canisand P. irritanspools at 5.3%, 50% and 12.5%, respectively.Bartonella rochalimaewas detected in one C. felisand two P. irritanspools at 1.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Furthermore, B. henselaewas detected in one C. felispool and one P. humanuspool corresponding to 1.3% and 20%, respectively; and Bartonella spp.was also found in 5 pools of P. irritansat 31.3%. Additionally, R. feliswas detected in C. felis, C. canisand P. irritanspools at 76.3%, 100% and 37.5%, respectively; and Rickettsia spp. was detected in C. felis, P. irritansand P. humanuspools at 5.3%, 25% and 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate the circulation of these bacteria in Peru.

  1. Resistance to cypermethrin and amitraz in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus on the Santa Catarina Plateau, Brazil Situação da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus à cipermetrina e amitraz no Planalto Catarinense, Brasil

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    Luana Paula Haubold Neis Veiga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistance to cipermetrina and amitraz, were collected engorged tick females from cattle on 20 farms on the Santa Catarina Plateau, in southern Brazil, between January of 2004 and May of 2006. Were also received 20 groups of engorged R. (B. microplus females, collected by cattle farmers requesting acaricidal efficacy (AE testing. Were performed in vitro tests, which consisted of immersing engorged females in cypermethrin (0.015% and in amitraz (0.025%. An AE >95% was considered indicative of effectiveness. Of the 20 collected groups, 18 (90% showed cypermethrin resistance and 1 (5% showed amitraz resistance. Of the 20 received groups, 19 (95% showed cypermethrin resistance and 2 (10% showed amitraz resistance. The AE of cypermethrin was found to be >95%, 85-94%, and 55-64%, respectively, in 4 (57.1%, 2 (28.6%, and 1 (14.3% of 7 reference groups, collected in the 1997-2001 period. The AE of amitraz was >95% in all of those groups. Among the groups of specimens received for analysis in that period, the AE of amitraz was >95% in 6 (85.71% and 75-84% in 1 (14.28%. R. (B. microplus resistance to acaricides is increasing on the Santa Catarina Plateau.Com os objetivos de avaliar a resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus à cipermetrina e ao amitraz no Planalto Catarinense, no período de janeiro de 2004 a maio de 2006, foram coletadas teleóginas em bovinos de 20 propriedades onde os produtores autorizaram a coleta (amostras por conveniência e recebidas teleóginas de mais 20 propriedades com objetivo de diagnóstico de eficácia. Os testes in vitro foram realizados por imersão de teleóginas em cipermetrina (0,015% e amitraz (0,025%. Considerando a eficácia igual ou superior a 95%, das 20 propriedades amostradas, 18 (90% apresentaram resistência à cipermetrina e uma (5% ao amitraz. Das 20 propriedades com teleóginas para diagnóstico, 19 (95% apresentaram resist

  2. Perceptions of milk producers from Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, regarding Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control Percepção dos produtores de leite de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi-systematized interviews were conducted with 100 dairy cattle producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, with the aim of ascertaining their perceptions regarding the importance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and of combating it. Content analysis was performed and the frequency distribution of each of the variables was used to construct profiles of the producers interviewed. The production losses caused by ticks were perceived incompletely by the producers, who were unaware of the pathogen transmission caused by the parasite and the indirect losses through combating it, such as the cost of acaricide and labor. The combat operations were performed in a traditional manner, with an excessive number of inefficient treatments that aimed to control the level of infestation at that moment. The quality of the acaricide dipping/spraying applied was affected by the quality of the equipment used to apply the products, lack of knowledge of the mode of action of these products, lack of the specific information needed and lack of motivation caused by unawareness of the disadvantages of chemical combat. It was concluded that the lack of knowledge about combat methods and the acceptance of endemicity of the parasitosis were impediments to changing the realities encountered.Entrevistas semissistematizadas foram aplicadas a 100 produtores de bovinos leiteiros do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de verificar a sua percepção sobre a importância de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus e seu combate. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" e a distribuição de frequência de cada uma das variáveis para a construção de perfis dos produtores entrevistados. Os prejuízos causados à produção pelo carrapato são percebidos de forma incompleta pelos produtores, que ignoram a transmissão de patógenos pelo parasito e as perdas indiretas pelo combate, como o custo do carrapaticida e da mão de obra. O combate era feito

  3. Rickettsia sp. strain colombianensi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae): a new proposed Rickettsia detected in Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae) from iguanas and free-living larvae ticks from vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jorge; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Mattar, Salim

    2012-07-01

    From January to December 2009, 55 Amblyomma dissimile (Koch) ticks removed from iguanas in the municipality of Monteria and 3,114 ticks [458 Amblyomma sp. larvae, 2,636 Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) larvae and 20 Amblyomma sp. nymphs] collected over vegetation in Los Cordobas were included in the study. The ticks were pooled into groups from which DNA was extracted. For initial screening of Rickettsia sp., each pool was analyzed by gltA real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive pools were further studied using gltA, ompA, and ompB conventional PCR assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were also conducted. Rickettsial DNA was found in 28 pools of ticks (16 A. dissimile pools and 12 free-living larvae pools) out of 113 (24.7%) using real-time PCR. The same 28 pools were also positive using conventional PCR assays aimed to amplify gltA, ompA, and ompB. For each gene analyzed, PCR products obtained from 4/28 pools (two pools of A. dissimile, one pool of Amblyomma sp. larvae and one pool of Rh. microplus larvae) were randomly chosen and sequenced twice. Nucleotide sequences generated were identical to each other for each of the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB, and showed 99.4, 95.6, and 96.4% identity with those of Rickettsia tamurae. They were deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers JF905456, JF905458, and JF905457, respectively. In conclusion, we present the first molecular evidence of a novel Rickettsia (Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi) infecting A. dissimile ticks collected from iguanas, and also Rh. microplus and unspeciated Amblyomma larvae from vegetation in Colombia.

  4. [NO and H2S brain systems of the Japanese shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus under conditions of anoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiuba, E P

    2012-01-01

    The topography and dynamics of the activity of the enzymes of the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the brain of the Japanese shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus after 1, 6, and 12 h ofanoxia was studied histochemically and immunocytochemically. Changes in the activity and number of NO- and CBS-immune-positive cells that take place due to anoxia and the intensity of which depends on the duration of the influence were revealed. The fact that the balance between the nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide systems in the brain of the crabs H. sanguineus is preserved indicates the joint participation of those systems in the central regulation of adaptive mechanisms under the influence of anoxia and, apparently, plays an important role in the adaptation of these hydrobionts to oxygen deficit.

  5. Discovery of Maritrema jebuensis n. sp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ok-Sik; Lee, Hye-Jung; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Seung-Ha; Park, Il-Yong; Oh, Sang-Ah; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2010-12-01

    Maritrema spp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) are parasites of birds, but have not been found in the Republic of Korea. In this study, metacercariae of Maritrema sp. were discovered in the Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, caught in the mud-flats of Jebu-do, Hwasung-gun, Gyeonggi-do, and the adult flukes were confirmed by experimental infection into mice. Based on the symmetric ribbon-like vitellarium, adult flukes of Maritrema sp. were identified, but did not belong to previously described species in terms of the following morphologic characteristics: ceca reaching to the lateral wall at the anterior border of the ovary; ventral sucker larger than oral sucker; a prominent metraterm; and vitellarium forming a complete ring. Hence, we named this microphallid M. jebuensis n. sp. after the island where the second intermediate hosts were collected. From this study, it has been shown that Maritrema sp. is distributed in Korea and transmitted by the Asian shore crab, H. sanguineus.

  6. Rickettsial and other tick-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicek, Barbara Fouts

    2007-03-01

    Tick bites are best prevented by people avoiding tick-infested areas. When this is not possible, tick bites may be prevented by the wearing of long trousers that are tucked into boots. The best method to avoid tick bites is twofold: application of a topical deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) repellent to exposed skin, and treatment of clothing with permethrin. This system is currently used by the US Army to protect soldiers. Ticks can crawl underneath clothing and bite untreated portions of the body; therefore, treating clothing is imperative. Permethrin is nontoxic to humans, and can be used in any age group. Permethrin is commercially available. Checking clothing regularly while in tick-infested areas is highly recommended to back up the few hours of protection provided by the insect repellents. It is also recommended that the entire body be carefully screened for ticks and other parasites by campers and hunters while they are staying in and after leaving infested areas. Any tick found should be removed immediately. Removing ticks may not be easy. It is best to use blunt, rounded forceps, and a magnifying glass to remove ticks, especially when immature ticks are found. The forceps are used to grasp the mouthparts of the tick as close as possible to the skin, and then the tick is pulled upward, perpendicular to the skin, with a continuous and steady action. Usually any mouth parts of the tick retained in the skin are eliminated uneventfully by the body. Other methods of removing ticks, such as using fingers, lighted cigarettes, petroleum jelly, or suntan oil, should be avoided. Killing the tick in situ may increase the risk of regurgitation by the tick and the transmission of infectious agents. Most stick bites are uncomplicated, and result only in benign cutaneous inflammatory reactions that may be pruritic for a few days. As a result of mouthparts being retained at the feeding site, a granuloma may rarely develop. There are no data to indicate that antimicrobial

  7. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the biocontrol of ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Glazer, I

    2001-08-01

    Entomopathogenic steinemematid and heterorhabditid nematodes are increasingly used to control insect pests of economically important crops. Laboratory and field simulation trials show that ticks are also susceptible to these nematodes. The authors review the potential of entomogenous nematodes for the control of ticks.

  8. Talking to Patients about Preventing Tick Bites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-14

    This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips.  Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  9. Prevalence of ticks infesting grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... Objective: Ticks play a significant role in the transmission of pathogenic agents to animals. In Côte d'Ivoire, ..... dog, grasscutter constitute the new host for adults of this tick species in ... among West African rodent, Thryonomys.

  10. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knap Nataša

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ticks act as vectors of many pathogens of domestic animals and humans. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Europe is transmitted by the ixodid tick vector Ixodes ricinus. A. phagocytophilum causes a disease with diverse clinical signs in various hosts. A great genetic diversity of the groESL operon of A. phagocytophilum has been found in ticks elsewhere. In Slovenia, the variety of the groESL operon was conducted only on deer samples. In this study, the prevalence of infected ticks was estimated and the diversity of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated. On 8 locations in Slovenia, 1924 and 5049 (6973 I. ricinus ticks were collected from vegetation in the years 2005 and 2006, respectively. All three feeding stages of the tick's life cycle were examined. The prevalence of ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum in the year 2005 and in the year 2006 was 0.31% and 0.63%, respectively, and it did not differ considerably between locations. The similarity among the sequences of groESL ranged from 95.6% to 99.8%. They clustered in two genetic lineages along with A. phagocytophilum from Slovenian deer. One sequence formed a separate cluster. According to our study, the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks is comparable to the findings in other studies in Europe, and it does not vary considerably between locations and tick stages. According to groESL operon analysis, two genetic lineages have been confirmed and one proposed. Further studies on other genes would be useful to obtain more information on genetic diversity of A. phagocytophilum in ticks in Slovenia.

  11. The ecology of ticks and epidemiology of tick-borne viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José

    2014-08-01

    A number of tick-borne diseases of humans have increased in incidence and geographic range over the past few decades, and there is concern that they will pose an even greater threat to public health in future. Although global warming is often cited as the underlying mechanism favoring the spread of tick-borne diseases, climate is just one of many factors that determine which tick species are found in a given geographic region, their population density, the likelihood that they will be infected with microbes pathogenic for humans and the frequency of tick-human contact. This article provides basic information needed for microbiologists to understand the many factors that affect the geographic range and population density of ticks and the risk of human exposure to infected ticks. It first briefly summarizes the life cycle and basic ecology of ticks and how ticks and vertebrate hosts interact, then reviews current understanding of the role of climate, sociodemographic factors, agricultural development and changes in human behavior that affect the incidence of tick-borne diseases. These concepts are then illustrated in specific discussions of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuevos enfoques para el control de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Temeyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión describe avances científicos enfocados al control de garrapatas de fiebre bovina (GFB, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y R. (B. annulatus. Evidencia epidemiológica indica que brotes de GFB en los EE.UU. han alcanzado niveles alarmantes debido al aumento de la población del venado cola blanca (VCB y otras especies de ungulados salvajes que son hospedadores alternativos. Investigaciones avanzadas incluyen estudios sobre: inmunología en el VCB, genética molecular de GFB, resistencia a los acaricidas, e interacciones del sistema hospedador-parásito-garrapata. La utilidad del baño garrapaticida con organofosforados (OP en los EE.UU. depende de la inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa (AChE. Tres cADNs que codifican acetilcolinesterasas (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7 en R. (B. microplus se expresaron en un sistema de baculovirus y mostraron valores de Km para acetiltiocolina de aproximadamente 5, 50, y 90 ¿M para rBmAChE1, rBmAChE2, y rBmAChE3, respectivamente. Los rBmAChEs prefirieron acetiltiocolina sobre butiriltiocolina como substrato, y se inhibieron con eserina, paraoxón, y el inhibidor específico de AChE, BW284C51, asi confirmando su identidad bioquímica como AChE. La expresión de mutaciones específicas en cepas resistentes a OP disminuyerón la susceptibilidad de rBmAChE1 y rBmAChE3 a inhibición con OP. Resultados por qRT-PCR indicaron que BmAChEs son expresados en singanglion. Múltiples transcripciones observadas en GFB para los BmAChEs sugiere el empalme alternativo o duplicación genetica. Resultados por qRT-PCR con ADN genómico respaldo la hipótesis de duplicación genetica. Moleculas largas de dsARN específicas para rBmAChEs fueron introducidas en hembras adultas ayunadas por microinyección y la silenciación de genes monitoreada por qRT-PCR y efectos fenotípicos. Los roles específicos para los rBmAChEs quedan por dilucidarse.

  13. Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wellington, Kevin W

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 234: 10-12 Further studies on South African plants: Acaricidal activity of organic plant extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) Wellington, KW Leboho, T Sakong, BM Adenubi, OT Eloff, JN...

  14. Bmcystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor characterized from the tick Boophilus microplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Cassia A.; Sasaki, Sergio D.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.

    2006-01-01

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a blood-sucking animal, which is responsible for Babesia spp and Anaplasma marginale transmission for cattle. From a B. microplus fat body cDNA library, 465 selected clones were sequenced randomly and resulted in 60 Contigs. An open reading frame (ORF) contains 98 amino acids named Bmcystatin, due to 70% amino acid identity to a classical type 1 cystatin from Ixodes scapularis tick (GenBank Accession No. DQ066227). The Bmcystatin amino acid sequence analysis showed two cysteine residues, theoretical pI of 5.92 and M r of 11kDa. Bmcystatin gene was cloned in pET 26b vector and the protein expressed using bacteria Escherichia coli BL21 SI. Recombinant Bmcystatin (rBmcystatin) purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA-agarose column and ionic exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q column presented molecular mass of 11kDa, by SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal amino acid sequenced revealed unprocessed N-terminal containing part of pelB signal sequence. Purified rBmcystatin showed to be a C1 cysteine peptidase inhibitor with K i value of 0.1 and 0.6nM for human cathepsin L and VTDCE (vitellin degrading cysteine endopeptidase), respectively. The rBmcystatin expression analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification of a specific DNA sequence (294bp) in the fat body and ovary cDNA preparation. On the other hand, a protein band was detected in the fat body, ovary, and the salivary gland extracts using anti-Bmcystatin antibody by Western blot. The present results suggest a possible role of Bmcystatin in the ovary, even though the gene was cloned from the fat body, which could be another site of this protein synthesis

  15. An attempt of rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Oczko-Grzesik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are reservoir and transmission vectors of many bacteria, viruses and parasites, which are pathogenic for humans. Early and correct tick removal is crucial as prevention of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study is an attempt at rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister®. In practice, it should enable people to use Tick Twister® in all circumstances contributing to the improvement of efficiency in tick-borne diseases prevention, and as a result, to a decrease in their frequency and after effects.

  16. Prevalence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens: Babesia and Borrelia species in ticks infesting cats of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Saran; Abdullah, Swaid; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine; Newbury, Hannah; Wall, Richard

    2017-09-15

    In a study of tick and tick-borne pathogen prevalence, between May and October 2016, 278 veterinary practices in Great Britain examined 1855 cats. Six-hundred and one cats were found to have attached ticks. The most frequently recorded tick species was Ixodes ricinus (57.1%), followed by Ixodes hexagonus (41.4%) and Ixodes trianguliceps (1.5%). Male cats, 4-6 years of age living in rural areas were most likely to be carrying a tick; hair length and tick treatment history had no significant association with attachment. For cats that were parasitized by ticks in large urban areas, I. hexagonus was the most frequent species recorded. Molecular analysis was possible for 541 individual tick samples, others were too damaged for analysis; Babesia spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified in 1.1% (n=6) and 1.8% (n=10) of these, respectively. Babesia spp. included Babesia vulpes sp. nov./Babesia microti-like (n=4) in I. hexagonus and Babesia venatorum (n=2) in I. ricinus. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. species included Borrelia garinii (n=6) and Borrelia afzelii (n=4). The majority of B. burgorferi s.l. cases were found in I. ricinus, with B. afzelii in one I. hexagonus nymph. No Borrelia or Babesia spp. were present in I. trianguliceps. To determine a true prevalence for ticks on cats, practices that only submitted questionnaires from cats with ticks and practices that submitted fewer than 5 returns per week were removed; amongst those considered to have adhered strictly to the collection protocol, feline tick prevalence amongst cats that had access to the outdoors was 6.6%. These results show that ticks can be found on cats throughout Great Britain, which harbour a range of species of Babesia and B. burgdorferi s.l. and that cats, particularly in green spaces within urban areas, may form an important host for I. hexagonus, a known vector of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome characterization of Long Island tick rhabdovirus, a new virus identified in Amblyomma americanum ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks are implicated as hosts to a wide range of animal and human pathogens. The full range of microbes harbored by ticks has not yet been fully explored. Methods As part of a viral surveillance and discovery project in arthropods, we used unbiased high-throughput sequencing to examine viromes of ticks collected on Long Island, New York in 2013. Results We detected and sequenced the complete genome of a novel rhabdovirus originating from a pool of Amblyomma americanum ticks. This virus, which we provisionally name Long Island tick rhabdovirus, is distantly related to Moussa virus from Africa. Conclusions The Long Island tick rhabdovirus may represent a novel species within family Rhabdoviridae. PMID:24517260

  18. Delay differential systems for tick population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guihong; Thieme, Horst R; Zhu, Huaiping

    2015-11-01

    Ticks play a critical role as vectors in the transmission and spread of Lyme disease, an emerging infectious disease which can cause severe illness in humans or animals. To understand the transmission dynamics of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases, it is necessary to investigate the population dynamics of ticks. Here, we formulate a system of delay differential equations which models the stage structure of the tick population. Temperature can alter the length of time delays in each developmental stage, and so the time delays can vary geographically (and seasonally which we do not consider). We define the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] of stage structured tick populations. The tick population is uniformly persistent if [Formula: see text] and dies out if [Formula: see text]. We present sufficient conditions under which the unique positive equilibrium point is globally asymptotically stable. In general, the positive equilibrium can be unstable and the system show oscillatory behavior. These oscillations are primarily due to negative feedback within the tick system, but can be enhanced by the time delays of the different developmental stages.

  19. Experimental evidence against transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mencke, Norbert; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is among the most widespread tick-borne protozoa infecting domestic and wild carnivores. Its distribution is related to the occurrence of its major vector, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, the role of Ixodes ricinus as a vector of H. canis has been hypothesized. In the present study, the development of H. canis was investigated in I. ricinus and R. sanguineus nymphs collected from a naturally infested dog. All I. ricinus ticks examined (n=133) were negative by cytological examination at days 20, 30, and 90 post collection, although H. canis DNA was detected in one nymph at day 20 and in 2 nymphs at day 30 post collection. On the other hand, H. canis sporogony was documented by cytology, and H. canis DNA was detected by PCR in R. sanguineus at day 30 post collection. These results indicate that H. canis sporogony does not occur in I. ricinus, but in R. sanguineus, suggesting that I. ricinus does not act as a vector of H. canis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. A tetrodotoxin-binding protein in the hemolymph of shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus: purification and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Yuji; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2002-06-01

    The shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus hemolymph contains soluble proteins that bind tetrodotoxin (TTX) and are responsible for high resistance of the crab to TTX. The TTX-binding protein was purified from the hemolymph by ultrafiltration, lectin affinity chromatography and gel filtration HPLC. The purified protein gave only one band in native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), confirming its homogeneity. Its molecular weight was estimated to be about 400k by gel filtration HPLC, while it was estimated to be about 82k under non-reducing conditions and about 72 and 82k under reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE, indicating that the TTX-binding protein was composed of at least two distinct subunits. The TTX-binding protein was an acidic glycoprotein with pI 3.5, abundant in Asp and Glu but absent in Trp, and contained 6% reducing sugar and 12% amino sugar. The protein selectively bound to TTX, with a neutralizing ability of 6.7 mouse unit TTX/mg protein, but not to paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. However, its neutralizing activity was almost lost by treatments with enzymes (protease XIV, thermolysin, trypsin, amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase) and denaturing agents (1% SDS, 1% dithiothreitol, 8 M urea and 6 M guanidine hydrochloride), suggesting the involvement of both proteinaceous and sugar moieties in the binding to TTX and the importance of the steric conformation of the TTX-binding protein. Copright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Two opsins from the compound eye of the crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto; Hisatomi; Tokunaga; Eguchi

    1996-01-01

    The primary structures of two opsins from the brachyuran crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus were deduced from the cDNA nucleotide sequences. Both deduced proteins were composed of 377 amino acid residues and included residues highly conserved in visual pigments of other species, and the proteins were 75 % identical to each other. The distribution of opsin transcripts in the compound eye, determined by in situ hybridization, suggested that the mRNAs of the two opsins were expressed simultaneously in all of the seven retinular cells (R1-R7) forming the main rhabdom in each ommatidium. Two different visual pigments may be present in one photoreceptor cell in this brachyuran crab. The spectral sensitivity of the compound eye was also determined by recording the electroretinogram. The compound eye was maximally sensitive at about 480 nm. These and previous findings suggest that both opsins of this brachyuran crab produce visual pigments with maximal absorption in the blue-green region of the spectrum. Evidence is presented that crustaceans possess multiple pigment systems for vision.

  2. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Vasile

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.

  3. Host specialization in ticks and transmission of tick-borne diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Karen D; Léger, Elsa; Dietrich, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. The question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. Indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptations and that most ticks were specialists. Later work disputed this idea and suggested that ticks are largely limited by biogeographic conditions and tend to use all locally available host species. The work presented in this review suggests that the actual answer likely lies somewhere between these two extremes. Although recent observational studies support the view that phylogenetically diverse host species share ticks when found on similar ecological ranges, theory on host range evolution predicts that host specialization should evolve in ticks given their life history characteristics. Contemporary work employing population genetic tools to examine host-associated population structure in several tick systems support this prediction and show that simple species records are not enough to determine whether a parasite is a true host generalist; host specialization does evolve in ticks at local scales, but may not always lead to speciation. Ticks therefore seem to follow a pattern of being global generalists, local specialists. Given this, the notion of host range needs to be modified from an evolutionary perspective, where one simply counts the number of hosts used across the geographic distribution, to a more ecological view, where one considers host use at a local scale, if we are to better understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens and exposure risks for humans and livestock.

  4. Microbial Invasion vs. Tick Immune Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenshine, Daniel E; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al., 2013). Moreover, the tick's unique intracellular digestive processes allow the midgut to provide a relatively permissive microenvironment for survival of invading microbes. Although tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved over more than 300 million years (Barker and Murrell, 2008), few microbes have been able to overcome the tick's innate immune system, comprising both humoral and cellular processes that reject them. Similar to most eukaryotes, the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response, i.e., the Toll, IMD (Immunodeficiency) and JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase/ Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) also occur in ticks (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the microbial surface triggers one or the other of these pathways. Consequently, ticks are able to mount an impressive array of humoral and cellular responses to microbial challenge, including anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), e.g., defensins, lysozymes, microplusins, etc., that directly kill, entrap or inhibit the invaders. Equally important are cellular processes, primarily phagocytosis, that capture, ingest, or encapsulate invading microbes, regulated by a primordial system of thioester-containing proteins

  5. Microbial Invasion vs. Tick Immune Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Sonenshine

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016. Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al., 2013. Moreover, the tick's unique intracellular digestive processes allow the midgut to provide a relatively permissive microenvironment for survival of invading microbes. Although tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved over more than 300 million years (Barker and Murrell, 2008, few microbes have been able to overcome the tick's innate immune system, comprising both humoral and cellular processes that reject them. Similar to most eukaryotes, the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response, i.e., the Toll, IMD (Immunodeficiency and JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase/ Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription also occur in ticks (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs on the microbial surface triggers one or the other of these pathways. Consequently, ticks are able to mount an impressive array of humoral and cellular responses to microbial challenge, including anti-microbial peptides (AMPs, e.g., defensins, lysozymes, microplusins, etc., that directly kill, entrap or inhibit the invaders. Equally important are cellular processes, primarily phagocytosis, that capture, ingest, or encapsulate invading microbes, regulated by a primordial system of thioester

  6. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej eHajdusek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.

  7. Ten years later: Evaluation of the effectiveness of 12.5% amitraz against a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using field studies, artificial infestation (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Campos, Gabriel Pimentel; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-12-15

    Using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and in vitro adult immersion tests, the present study evaluated the acaricidal efficacy of 12.5% amitraz administered via whole body spraying against a Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population that did not have any contact with chemical products belonging to this acaricide family for 10 years (approximately 40 generations). Two natural infestation trials, two artificial infestation trials (Stall tests) and two adult immersion tests were performed in two different stages in 2005 and 2015. Between 2002 and 2015, the bovine herd of this property was formed by approximately 450 animals from the Simmental breed that were divided into nine paddocks formed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. For the natural infestation experiments in 2005 and 2015, we selected nearly 70 animals naturally infested with ticks from the same herd that belonged to the "São Paulo" farm located in São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil. Field studies were performed in the same paddock (9). To evaluate anti-R. (B.) microplus activity in the artificially infested cattle (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, two experiments of each methodology were performed at CPPAR (the Center of Research in Animal Health located on the FCAV/UNESP campus in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil) in 2005 and 2015. R. (B.) microplus used in the artificial infestation, and adult immersion test experiments were obtained from paddocks 1-9 in 2005 and 2015 from the commercial farm where the field studies were performed. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that amitraz use in rotation with pyrethroids every 28 days for three consecutive years (2002-2004) previous to the beginning of the first trial (2005) was sufficient to generate a R. (B.) microplus strain resistant to amitraz. Moreover, using field trials, artificial infestations (Stall tests) and adult immersion tests, we verified that 40 generations of the tick species with no

  8. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  9. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Miller

    Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology

  10. Tick control: trapping, biocontrol, host management and other alternative strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Edited by Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.

  11. Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... described in humans following bites of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum . The rash may be accompanied ... of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  12. Beware of Ticks … & Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Ticks and Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Lyme Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment for People and Pets How ...

  13. Small risk of developing symptomatic tick-borne diseases following a tick bite in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofhuis Agnetha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was

  14. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  15. Risk of Lyme disease development after a tick bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite numerous research of Lyme disease (LD, there are still many concerns about environmental of infectious agent of LD, as well as its prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this work was to determine the risk of LD in relation to the way of removing ticks and duration of tick attachment. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2007 a prospective study was conducted including persons with tick bite referred to the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, and followed for the occurrence of early Lyme disease up to six months after a tick bite. Epidemiological questionnaire was used to collect relevant information about the place and time of tick bites, the way of a removing tick, duration of tick attachment, remnants of a tick left in the skin (parts of the mouth device and the signs of clinical manifestations of LD. Duration of tick attachment was determined on the basis of size of engorged tick and epidemiological data. Removed ticks were determined by the key of Pomerancev. Professional removing of attached tick was considered to be removing of tick with mechanical means by healthcare personnel. Fisher's exact test, Chi squares test and calculation of the relative risk (RR were used for data analysis. Results. Of 3 126 patients with tick bite, clinical manifestations of LD were demonstrated in 19 (0.61%. In the group of subjects (n = 829 in which a tick was not removed professionally there were 17 (2.05% cases with LD, while in the group of respondents (n=2 297 in who a tick was removed professionally there were 2 (0.09% cases with LD after tick bite (RR, 23.55; p < 0.0001. The disease was most frequent in the group of respondents with incompletely and unprofessionally removed ticks (2.46%. In the groups of patients with unprofessionally but completely removed ticks LD occurred in 0.89%, while in the group of subjects with a tick removed by an expert, but incompletely in 0.78% cases. The disease occurred

  16. In vitro activity of essential oils and extracts from Schinus molle L. against Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rauta de Avelar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Avelar, B. R., Lambert, M.M, Siqueira, R.C.S., Cid, Y.P., Chaves, D.S.A., & Coumendouros K. [In vitro activity of essential oils and extracts from Schinus molle L. against Rhipicephalus microplus]. Atividade in vitro de óleos essenciais e extratos de Schinus molle L. frente a Rhipicephalus microplus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:218 - 228, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Instituto de Veterinária, Anexo 1, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, Ecologia, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: katherinac@gmail.com The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of Schinus molle L. extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and essential oils (leaves and fruit on different evolutionary forms of Rhipicephalus microplus. The immersion test using engorged females was used (Drummond et al., 1973. The extract were obtained from leaves of S. molle by soxhlet and diluted in the concentration ranges between 20,000 and 1,250 ppm (parts per million, and positive and negative controls were used. The S. molle hexane extract showed efficacy in vitro of 57,7% in concentration of 1.250 ppm while other extracts and essential oils showed no significant inhibition.

  17. Laboratory investigations of the effects of predator sex and size on prey selection by the Asian crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, D J.; Filipowicz, A; Baglivo, J A.

    2001-07-30

    Laboratory studies have shown that the nonindigenous Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, readily consumes three species of commercial bivalves: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria, and oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Although crabs can eat bivalves of a wide size range, they preferred the smaller prey (Hemigrapsus that occur in the wild, their effectiveness as predators of juvenile bivalves and their large appetites suggest an important role for these predators in restructuring the prey communities in habitats into which they have been introduced.

  18. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585 ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  19. Impact of climate trends on tick-borne pathogen transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin eEstrada-Pena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in climate research together with a better understanding of tick-pathogen interactions, the distribution of ticks and the diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens raise questions about the impact of environmental factors on tick abundance and spread and the prevalence and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. While undoubtedly climate plays a role in the changes in distribution and seasonal abundance of ticks, it is always difficult to disentangle factors impacting on the abundance of tick hosts from those exerted by human habits. All together, climate, host abundance and social factors may explain the upsurge of epidemics transmitted by ticks to humans. Herein we focused on tick-borne pathogens that affect humans with pandemic potential. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tick-borne encephalitis are transmitted by Ixodes spp. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is transmitted by Hyalomma spp. In this review, we discussed how vector tick species occupy the habitat as a function of different climatic factors, and how these factors impact on tick survival and seasonality. How molecular events at the tick-pathogen interface impact on pathogen transmission is also discussed. Results from statistically and biologically derived models are compared to show that while statistical models are able to outline basic information about tick distributions, biologically derived models are necessary to evaluate pathogen transmission rates and understand the effect of climatic variables and host abundance patterns on pathogen transmission. The results of these studies could be used to build early alert systems able to identify the main factors driving the subtle changes in tick distribution and seasonality and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.

  20. Distribution pattern and number of ticks on lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Skórka, Piotr; Sajkowska, Zofia Anna; Ekner-Grzyb, Anna; Dudek, Monika; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    The success of ectoparasites depends primarily on the site of attachment and body condition of their hosts. Ticks usually tend to aggregate on vertebrate hosts in specific areas, but the distribution pattern may depend on host body size and condition, sex, life stage or skin morphology. Here, we studied the distribution of ticks on lizards and tested the following hypothesis: occurrence or high abundance of ticks is confined with body parts with smaller scales and larger interscalar length because such sites should provide ticks with superior attachment conditions. This study was performed in field conditions in central Poland in 2008-2011. In total, 500 lizards (Lacerta agilis) were caught and 839 ticks (Ixodes ricinus, larvae and nymphs) were collected from them. Using generalised linear mixed models, we found that the ticks were most abundant on forelimbs and their axillae, with 90% of ticks attached there. This part of the lizard body and the region behind the hindlimb were covered by the smallest scales with relatively wide gaps between them. This does not fully support our hypothesis that ticks prefer locations with easy access to skin between scales, because it does not explain why so few ticks were in the hindlimb area. We found that the abundance of ticks was positively correlated with lizard body size index (snout-vent length). Tick abundance was also higher in male and mature lizards than in female and young individuals. Autotomy had no effect on tick abundance. We found no correlation between tick size and lizard morphology, sex, autotomy and body size index. The probability of occurrence of dead ticks was positively linked with the total number of ticks on the lizard but there was no relationship between dead tick presence and lizard size, sex or age. Thus lizard body size and sex are the major factors affecting the abundance of ticks, and these parasites are distributed nearly exclusively on the host's forelimbs and their axillae. Copyright © 2015

  1. Deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel Amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, Albert; Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini

    2013-05-01

    We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C(23)-X7/9-C(33)-X23/24-C(58)-X8-C(67)-X7-C(75)-X23-C(99)-X15-C(115)-X10-C(126)-X24/25/33-C(150)C(151)-X7-C(159)-X8-C(168)-X23/24-C(192)-X9/10-C(202) predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by Western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 and 48 h tick saliva proteins. Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ≈ 160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ≈ 16% and caused ≈ 24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (≈ 44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24h Ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Tick Microbiome: Why Non-pathogenic Microorganisms Matter in Tick Biology and Pathogen Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I. Bonnet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity. Non-pathogenic microorganisms may also play a role in driving transmission of tick-borne pathogens (TBP, with many potential implications for both human and animal health. In addition, the genetic proximity of some pathogens to mutualistic symbionts hosted by ticks is evident when studying phylogenies of several bacterial genera. The best examples are found within members of the Rickettsia, Francisella, and Coxiella genera: while in medical and veterinary research these bacteria are traditionally recognized as highly virulent vertebrate pathogens, it is now clear to evolutionary ecologists that many (if not most Coxiella, Francisella, and Rickettsia bacteria are actually non-pathogenic microorganisms exhibiting alternative lifestyles as mutualistic ticks symbionts. Consequently, ticks represent a compelling yet challenging system in which to study microbiomes and microbial interactions, and to investigate the composition, functional, and ecological implications of bacterial communities. Ultimately, deciphering the relationships between tick microorganisms as well as tick symbiont interactions will garner invaluable information, which may aid in the future development of arthropod pest and vector-borne pathogen transmission control strategies.

  3. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

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    Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non- human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay.Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper.Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus.Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus,Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease.

  4. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Chinikar, Sadegh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Faghihi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper. Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus. Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease. PMID:26623426

  5. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eWikel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence of carefully choreographed host defense responses and tick countermeasures resulting in an environment that facilitates successful blood feeding and establishment of tick-borne infectious agents within the host. Here, we examine diverse patterns of tick attachment to host skin, blood feeding mechanisms, salivary gland transcriptomes, bioactive molecules in tick saliva, timing of pathogen transmission, and host responses to tick bite. Ticks engage and modulate cutaneous and systemic immune defenses involving keratinocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cell subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg , B cells, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, endothelial cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement, and extracellular matrix. A framework is proposed that integrates tick induced changes of skin immune effectors with their ability to respond to tick-borne pathogens. Implications of these changes are addressed. What are the consequences of tick modulation of host cutaneous defenses? Does diversity of salivary gland transcriptomes determine differential modulation of host inflammation and immune defenses and therefore, in part, the clades of pathogens effectively transmitted by different tick species? Do ticks create an immunologically modified cutaneous environment that enhances specific pathogen establishment? Can tick saliva molecules be used to develop vaccines that block pathogen transmission?

  6. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. The pathogens causing these diseases are transmitted by tick species within the Ixodes ricinus complex. These are generalist ticks that have a multi-year lifecycle with thre...

  7. Survey of Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Infesting Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...

  8. Molecular biology of tick Acetylcholinesterases – a minireview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticks are important hematophagous arthropod ectoparasites and like mosquitoes, are vectors for a wide variety of human and animal pathogens. Ticks have significant world-wide health and economic impacts. In the U.S., major impacts include the ability of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, to tr...

  9. Ixodidae ticks in the megapolis of Kyiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ixodidae include the most common tick species encountered in Europe. The ticks transmit a variety of bacterial and protozoan agents of medical and veterinary significance. The aim of the current work was to investigate distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Kyiv, the...

  10. Molecular ecological insights into neotropical bird-tick interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In

  11. Infestation of Royal Python (Python regius) with ticks Amblyomma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Python/Boa Family is found in most part of tropics. It is a highly domesticated pet and can easily be handled (Cansdale 1962). Snakes are commonly infected by ticks more importantly the hand bodied ticks (Fowler, 1986).However, under captive condition, ticks usually exert a lot of burden on their hosts being carriers of ...

  12. IMMUNOTHERAPY OF IXODES TICK BORRELIOSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic information relating to the clinical and immunological features of ixodes tick-borne borreliosis in children living in the Primorsky region. Research objective: to to analyze the effectiveness of the inclusion to the treatment scheme meglumine acridon acetate (cycloferon in pills for the treatment of children with ixodes tick-borne borreliosis.The study included 55 children with ixodes tick-borne borreliosis at the age of 4–12 years: 25 children of the main group and 30 children of the comparison group who received traditional therapy. In the treatment scheme of children of the main group, the drug meglumine acridon acetate (cycloferon was included. The use of cycloferon in the complex therapy of patients with ixodes tick-borne borreliosis resulted in a reduction in the duration of the manifestation of the main clinical symptoms of the disease, facilitated the synthesis of serum interleukine IL-10 by blood cells and inhibited the production of interleukine-1α and γ-interferon, which led to a faster formation of Th1 / Th2 type Immune response. Positive dynamics during treatment persisted in the study of the catamnesis of the patients observed for 5 years after the disease. There were no cases of chronic ixodes tick-borne borreliosis. 

  13. Tick borne illness-Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Larry M; Vazquez-Pertejo, Maria T

    2018-05-01

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borneillness in the United States. Thecausative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by 4 species of Ixodes tick species. Over 90% of US cases occur in northeasternstates from Maine to Virginia, and in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. Infection also takes place in northern California and Oregon. Lyme borreliosis is also diagnosed in parts of Europe, China, and Japan. The white-footed mouse is the primary animal reservoir for B. burgdorferi in the U.S. and the preferred host for nymphal and larval forms of the deer tick. Deer are hosts for the adult ticks but do not carry the spirochete. Signs and symptomsof infection occur in 3 stages; early localized, typified by erythema migrans; early disseminated with a flu-like syndrome, neurologic, and cardiac manifestations; and late, characteristically with arthritis. Although, the term 'Chronic Lyme Disease' has been assigned to many patients with a variety of unexplained symptoms, experts in the field question the validity of this diagnosis and warn against prolonged unproven antimicrobial therapies. Diagnosis relies upon clinical evaluation and is supported by serologic testing using a 2-step process which requires careful interpretation. Treatmentvaries with stage of disease, but normally includes doxycycline, amoxicillin,and ceftriaxone. Currently, no preventative vaccine is available. In some geographic areas, patients may be confected with Babesia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma since the same Ixodes ticks transmit these pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Review of Methods for Detecting Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Tick, Animal, and Human Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ergunay, K.; Tkachev, S.; Kozlova, I.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-12 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * serology * PCR * tick(s) * rodents Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  15. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States.

  16. Removing a tick: proper technique in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rueda Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is medical consensus on the need to remove the tick within 24 hours the mite parasites to the human host, to avoid possible complications. The preferred way is by gently traction the mite, aided by forceps without twisting or chokes with toxic agents, because of the possibility that the mite excretes bacteria mixed with substances. The average time of extraction is estimated between one or three minutes. In children parasitized by ticks this amount of time can be excessive when it’s necessary restraint without the consent of the minor. Using this technique we reduce the time to seconds and the damage caused to the skin is minimal.

  17. MRI in tick-borne encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkadhi, H.; Kollias, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus gives rise to epidemic encephalitis. Mild forms usually manifest as influenza-like episodes or are clinically silent. MRI is usually normal in TBE. We describe severe TBE in a patient who presented with fever and altered mental status after a tick bite and a specific antibody response to TBE. MRI revealed pronounced signal abnormalities in the basal ganglia and thalamus, without contrast enhancement. These findings coincide well with neuropathological studies of severe nerve cell degeneration with inflammatory cell infiltrates, neuronophagia and reactive astrocytosis in the deep grey matter. We review the lite