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Sample records for rhenan france impact

  1. Estimating biogenic contributions to secondary pollutants: formation at regional scale (Fosse Rhenan, France); Impact des emissions naturelles sur les episodes de pollution photochimique: application a la region du Fosse Rhenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukhtar, S.

    2005-02-15

    Biotic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a significant role in the formation and development of photochemical pollution events. In this context, the integration of biotic VOCs in the CHIMERE chemical transport model has been improved by the use of a double numerical and experimental approach. Field measurements have permitted to determine the flux of emissions of biotic VOCs from three tree species particularly abundant in France: Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Pseudotsuga menziesii. A database has been updated and used to estimate the annual VOC emissions by the French forestry system. A critical synthesis of the bibliography about the reactivity of biotic VOCs has led to the elaboration of a new chemical mechanism which has been implemented in the CHIMERE model. The results of this model have been compared to the observations available for the region of the Rhine through (Fosse Rhenan) characterized by strong biotic VOC emissions. These modifications does not change much the ozone concentrations but they have strong impacts on the modeling of peroxy-acetyl-nitrate (PAN) and formaldehyde concentrations. (J.S.)

  2. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The French energy system, like that of most energy-importing nations, was profoundly transformed by the first oil shock. But France was more vulnerable than any other industrialized country besides Japan to oil supply disruption: in 1973, the nation imported 77 percent of total primary energy requirements of 7.6 EJ, and 98 percent of its petroleum. Two imperatives have since formed the 'French response' to the threat of external energy supply disruptions: augmentation of the rate of energy self-sufficiency, and minimization of major macroeconomic dislocations. These two objectives displaced a high priority in France in the early 1970s - protection of the natural environment. Because France has embraced nuclear power, it is often viewed by its European neighbors as having feeble ecological sensibility. At that time, France had a rather advanced policy in this field: sulfur emissions laws were enacted in 1967 and a Ministry of Environment was created in January 1971. Now that environmental concerns have re-emerged as an important force, France finds itself with a plausible greenhouse response in a mix of policies - without environmental protection having been the objective envisioned

  3. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, K.

    1991-01-01

    The grandeur of the nation is the most important national concern in the France of the Fifth Republic. National independence and maximum world status have been (and still are) characteristic imperatives of French policy. Any asset or resource which promises to strengthen the nation, which seems suitable for improving the global status and glory of France, becomes a worthwhile policy device. Of course, the sots incurred in the pursuit of these objectives are frequently the subject of critical discussion, but all in all these costs are accepted. This has been the case with numerous prestige projects including the French nuclear deterrent, the force de frappe. This paper reports that an analysis of the French ambition to possess nuclear weapons must begin with the complete loss of world status which France suffered as a consequence of World War II. Throughout the post-war period, French political leaders have concentrated their efforts on reversing this loss of status and on preventing a similar occurrence

  4. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document reports the works of an inter-departmental group and of sector-based and transverse groups which aimed at assessing the impacts of climate change. After a first contribution about the assessment methodology, the works of sector-based groups and transverse groups are reported. These groups are dealing with agriculture, forest, infrastructures and built environment, tourism, energy, health, water, natural risks (and insurance and adaptation to climatic change in metropolitan France), biodiversity and land. For each of them, challenges, assessment approaches, first results and perspectives are discussed

  5. U-Pb dating of two granite types from Soultz (Rhine Graben, France); Datation U-Pb des deux facies du granite de Soultz (fosse rhenan, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocherie, A.; Guerrot, C.; Genter, A. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Fanning, C.M. [Research School of Earth Sciences, ANU, Canberra, (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    Deep boreholes drilled in the basement of the Rhine Graben at Soultz-sous-Forets have shown the presence of an ubiquitous monzogranite. Borehole GPK-2, with a total depth of 5090 m, also intersected a more leucocratic fine-grained two-mica granite, locally present below 4860 m depth and continuously found between 5047 and 5090 m. Thanks to trace elements and in particular to REE (rare-earth elements), it could be shown that the leucocratic rock is a differentiated expression of the potassic magma that was at the origin of the monzogranite pluton. This model agrees with Sr-Nd isotope data, even though a slight contribution from the pre-existing basement should be considered as well. Use of the U-Pb method on monzogranite from EPS-1 - after zircon dissolution - has yielded an emplacement age of 334.0 + 3.8/-3.5 Ma (2 {sigma}). Point dates obtained by SHRIMP II on the rare zircons from the fine-grained granite showed that it was emplaced in a basement with very heterogeneous ages, ranging from Early Proterozoic to Silurian. (author)

  6. Nonlinear Impact of Temperature on Mortality in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is posing unprecedented challenges to human welfare, yet there is much uncertainty about the cost of its impact. Accurate quantification of the social cost of carbon is crucial for designing effective climate policies that reduce emissions and mitigate the adverse impact of global warming, and human health is an important component of the calculation. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the relationship between temperature and mortality in the U.S., similar results using nationwide data have not been clearly established in other countries. Using random monthly variations in temperature for over a decade, this paper finds a statistically significant nonlinear relationship between monthly mortality rate and daily temperature in France between 1998 and 2012. Extremely hot days are associated with significantly higher mortality rates: One additional day with a mean temperature above 30°C, relative to a day in the 12°C to 15°C range, leads to 10 extra all-age, all-gender monthly deaths per 100,000. The effect of cold temperatures is milder: An extremely cold day with an average temperature from -9 °C to -6 °C increases all-age, all-gender mortality rate by about 1.2 per 100,000 each month. There is also notable heterogeneity in the observed nonlinear relationship across age groups and gender, in which males and the elderly are generally more susceptible to extreme temperatures than females and the young. This highlights that children and youth may be well protected through adaptive behaviors, such as spending more time indoors in temperature-controlled rooms and staying hydrated. Compared to studies done in the U.S., extremely hot days >30°C leads to considerably more deaths in France. Preliminary evidence suggests that there has been very limited adaptation despite two prominent heat waves in 2003 and 2006, although further analysis of electricity consumption and air conditioning usage is needed to ascertain the extent to

  7. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study; Impacts du changement climatique sur le potentiel eolien en France: une etude de regionalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-15

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  8. Climate change impact on the activities of Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoha, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Dupeyrat, A.; Bertier, Ch.; Parey, S.

    2008-01-01

    Water resource is of prime importance for a producer of electricity like Electricite de France. As a matter of fact, EDF manages about 75 % of the French surface waters through hydro electricity which represents about 13 % of its production. EDF also needs access to water for the cooling of its thermal power plants, especially nuclear power plants which represent between 75 and 80 % of its electric production. Climate change is then studied with much care in order to be able to predict its effects on the future water repartition in time and place. The paper presents the results of studies carried out on the French Loire and Rhone rivers, using different climate models, with the assumption of doubling CO 2 in the atmosphere (which could happen during the second half of the century). Future river temperatures and flows have been quantified, showing in particular an increase of river flows in winter, and a rather large decrease in summer. These results will have to be taken into account for the future management of the power plants (some experience has already been drawn after the very hot 2003 summer), especially during dry periods when scarce waters will have to be shared between the various users (drinking water, irrigation, tourism, industries and hydroelectricity). (authors)

  9. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Adam; Schey, Carina; Dutton, Richard; Achana, Felix; Antonov, Karolina

    2014-02-13

    The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs.

  10. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  11. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances

  12. The economic impact of giving up nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnot, N.; Gallon, St.

    2001-01-01

    French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite de France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value and would penalize its shareholders, the State. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas-price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially-amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (author)

  13. The economical impact of a nuclear renunciation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnot, N.; Gallon, St.

    2001-11-01

    French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite De France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value for its shareholders. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (authors)

  14. Nuclear energy in France: assessing its impacts on the economy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1994-12-31

    As environmental matters become the focus of increasing concern, the implementation of major nuclear power programme has allowed France to enjoy the benefits of a comfortable position. Emissions of carbon dioxide per head in France are among the lowest in the industrialized world. On a worldwide level, Atomic Energy Commission forecasts have shown that the impact of the resumption of nuclear power programmes on the greenhouse effect would be limited. Nuclear power might have a useful role to play in the achievement of a more realistic reduction of these emissions.

  15. Nuclear energy in France: assessing its impacts on the economy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1994-01-01

    As environmental matters become the focus of increasing concern, the implementation of major nuclear power programme has allowed France to enjoy the benefits of a comfortable position. Emissions of carbon dioxide per head in France are among the lowest in the industrialized world. On a worldwide level, Atomic Energy Commission forecasts have shown that the impact of the resumption of nuclear power programmes on the greenhouse effect would be limited. Nuclear power might have a useful role to play in the achievement of a more realistic reduction of these emissions

  16. The Sibling Size Impact on the Educational Achievement in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adli, Rhonya; Louichi, Ahmed; Tamouh, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of sibling size on children's education. The theoretical framework shows an opposite relationship between the number of children within family and their school performance. Empirical works diverge between those corroborating this theory and those leading to ambiguous results such a positive correlation or the absence of any…

  17. The impact of nuclear power on jobs in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boitier, B.; Lemiale, L.; Buba, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today nuclear industry represents 0.7% of the French GNP and employs 125.000 people directly. We have also to add jobs generated by subcontracting in the non nuclear sector, about 114.000. A major change in the energy mix out disfavor of nuclear power, would imply a loss of jobs in the nuclear industry, this loss may be compensated more or less by the jobs generated in the development of alternative energies, but the cost of electricity is an important parameter. If the change goes with an increase of power cost, the French industry will lose competitiveness and jobs will disappear at a scale far more important than in the nuclear sector alone. The article details the jobs in the nuclear industry and analyses the impact of employment of various scenarios: nuclear production at 70%, 50% and 20% of electricity. (A.C.)

  18. Impact of Energy Production on Respiratory Outcomes: Evidence from the Flandres Refinery in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaine, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of sulphur dioxide (SO_2) concentration on respiratory admissions in the north of France at municipal level from 2007 to 2011. The Flandres refinery closure in the north of France, in September 2009, is used as a natural experiment. First, this study shows that the halt in the refinery's operations, followed by its closure in 2010, reduces SO_2 concentration. We then use this exogenous shock to analyse the health impact of the high SO_2 concentration generated by energy production. Our estimates highlight that the reduction in SO_2 concentration has significantly reduced the severity of respiratory outcomes. Additionally, the refinery closure has had statistically significant effects on the revenue of municipalities in the area

  19. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  20. Impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle over France and associated uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayon, Gildas; Boé, Julien; Martin, Éric; Gailhard, Joël

    2018-05-01

    This study deals with the evolution of the hydrological cycle over France during the 21st century. A large multi-member, multi-scenario, and multi-model ensemble of climate projections is downscaled with a new statistical method to drive a physically-based hydrological model with recent improvements. For a business-as-usual scenario, annual precipitation changes generally remain small, except over southern France, where decreases close to 20% are projected. Annual streamflows roughly decrease by 10% (±20%) on the Seine, by 20% (±20%) on the Loire, by 20% (±15%) on the Rhone and by 40% (±15%) on the Garonne. Attenuation measures, as implied by the other scenarios analyzed, lead to less severe changes. However, even with a scenario generally compatible with a limitation of global warming to two degrees, some notable impacts may still occur, with for example a decrease in summer river flows close to 25% for the Garonne.

  1. Impact of urbanization and gardening practices on common butterfly communities in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Benoît; Bergerot, Benjamin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the interacting impacts of urban landscape and gardening practices on the species richness and total abundance of communities of common butterfly communities across France, using data from a nationwide monitoring scheme. We show that urbanization has a strong negative impact on butterfly richness and abundance but that at a local scale, such impact could be mitigated by gardening practices favoring nectar offer. We found few interactions among these landscape and local scale effects, indicating that butterfly-friendly gardening practices are efficient whatever the level of surrounding urbanization. We further highlight that species being the most negatively affected by urbanization are the most sensitive to gardening practices: Garden management can thus partly counterbalance the deleterious effect of urbanization for butterfly communities. This holds a strong message for park managers and private gardeners, as gardens may act as potential refuge for butterflies when the overall landscape is largely unsuitable.

  2. [Economic impact of lung cancer screening in France: A modeling study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendarme, S; Perrot, É; Reskot, F; Bhoowabul, V; Fourre, G; Souquet, P-J; Milleron, B; Couraud, S

    2017-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial found that, in a selected population with a high risk of lung cancer, an annual low-dose CT-scan decreased lung cancer mortality by 20% and overall mortality by 7% compared to annual chest X-Ray. In France, a work group stated that individual screening should be considered in this setting. However, the economic impact of an organized and generalized (to all eligible individuals) screening in France was never reported. This is a modeling study using French population demographic data and published data from randomized screening trials. We used the same selection criteria as NLST: 55-74-year-old smokers for at least 30 pack-years, current smoker or quit less than 15 years. We computed a second model including also 50-54-year-old individuals. Then, we used different participation rates: 65%, 45%, and 32%. According to the considered model, there would be 1,650,588 to 2,283,993 subjects eligible to screening in France. According to the model and participation rate, lung cancer screening would diagnose 3600 to 10,118 stages 1/2 lung cancer each year. There would be 5991 to 16,839 false-positives, of whom 1416 to 3981 would undergo unnecessary surgery. Screening policy would cost 105 to 215 € million per year. However, increasing the price of a cigarette pack by 0.05 to 0.10 € would fully cover the screening costs. Participation rate is a key point for screening impact. Screening could be easily funded by a small increase in cigarette prices. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. What will be the impacts of climate change on surface hydrology in France by 2070?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Mathilde; Chazot, Sebastien; David, Julian; Norotte, Thomas; Perrin, Charles; Bourgin, Pierre-Yves; Sauquet, Eric; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Rouchy, Nathalie; Martin, Eric; Maugis, Pascal; De Lacaze, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Within the Explore 2070 project, an evaluation of the possible impacts of climate change on surface water between the 1961-1990 reference period and the 2046-2065 period was carried out in continental France and i n overseas departments on the basis of the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario, seven general circulation models an d two hydrological models (Isba-Modcou and GR4J). In continental France, results indicate: (1) a possible increase in ai r temperature between +1.4 deg. C and +3 deg. C; (2) an uncertain evolution of precipitation, most models however agreeing on a decreasing trend in summer precipitation; (3) a significant decrease (10% to 40%) of mean annual flows at the country scale, especially pronounced in the Seine-Normandie and Adour-Garonne districts; (4) a strong decrease in summer lo w flows in most basins; (5) more heterogeneous and less significant evolutions for floods. A special care was given to the quantification of the uncertainties linked to these results. They provide an indication of the significance of projected changes. The evolutions calculated in the overseas zones can be considered non-significant given the level of uncertainty linked to the hydro-climatic modelling chain. These results urge to implement adaptation strategies based on a better management of water resources, among others. (authors)

  4. Health impacts of climate change in France. Which challenges for the InVS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Based on a literature survey, this report proposes a synthetic overview of the main health risks which might be induced by climate change in France. For each of them, it identifies the existing surveillance and alert systems, and proposes orientations for their adaptation. After a description of the climate and environment context, and a presentation of the adopted method of selection of health risks potentially impacted by climate change, the report gives an overview of these risks and of the associated surveillance systems. It discusses the evolution perspectives in terms of surveillance and alert tools, of relationship with research activities, of surveillance of health effects of actions which reduce greenhouse gas emissions, of interdisciplinary development, and of international cooperation

  5. Impact of the 1998 Football World Cup on Suicide Rates in France: Results from the National Death Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, Gaelle; Contrand, Benjamin; Leffondre, Karen; Queinec, Raphaelle; Aouba, Albertine; Jougla, Eric; Miras, Alain; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in 1998 had a short-term impact on the number of suicides in France. Exhaustive individual daily data on suicides from 1979 to 2006 were obtained from the French epidemiological center on the medical causes of death (CepiDC-INSERM;…

  6. Outbreaks of health care-associated influenza-like illness in France: Impact of electronic notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier-Marion, Elodie; Bénet, Thomas; Dananché, Cédric; Soing-Altach, Sophan; Maugat, Sylvie; Vaux, Sophie; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Mandatory notification of health care-associated (HA) infections, including influenza-like illness (ILI) outbreaks, has been implemented in France since 2001. In 2012, the system moved to online electronic notification of HA infections (e-SIN). The objectives of this study are to describe ILI outbreak notifications to Santé publique France (SPF), the French national public health agency, and to evaluate the impact of notification dematerialization. All notifications of HA ILI outbreaks between July 2001 and June 2015 were included. Notifications before and after e-SIN implementation were compared regarding notification delay and information exhaustiveness. Overall, 506 HA ILI outbreaks were reported, accounting for 7,861 patients and health care professionals. Median delay between occurrence of the first case and notification was, respectively, 32 and 13 days before and after e-SIN utilization (P < .001). Information exhaustiveness was improved by electronic notification regarding HA status (8.5% of missing data before and 2.3% after e-SIN, P = .003), hypotheses of cause (25.4% of missing data before vs 8.0% after e-SIN, P < .001), and level of event control (23.7% of missing data before vs 7.5% after e-SIN, P < .001). HA influenza notifications, including HA ILI or influenza, to health authorities are essential to guide decisional instances and health care practices. Electronic notifications have improved the timeliness and quality of information transmitted. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conference on landscape impacts of wind energy and local acceptance: France-Germany crossed views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouscatel, Jerome; Olagne, Regis; Derkenne, Chantal; Galiano, Mila; Mayer, Joerg; Ratzbor, Guenter; Laborgne, Pia; Nadai, Alain; Ratouis, Marie-Odile; Schoebel-Rutschmann, Soeren; Petit, Jean-Francois; Guennewig, Dieter; Portales, David

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the landscape impacts of wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 100 participants exchanged views on the environmental impact of wind farms and the opinion of residents. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - French people and wind energy (Mila Galiano); 2 - Wind energy acceptance in Germany: an essential factor for the wind industry development (Joerg Mayer); 3 - Taking into account landscapes and residents in the development of wind farms: a France-Germany comparison (Pia Laborgne, Alain Nadai); 3 - Wind energy development supervision thanks to territorial planning in Germany (Guenter Ratzbor); 4 - Landscape challenges in wind energy development: point of view and role of a state decentralised department (Marie-Odile Ratouis); 5 - Park or landscape - Wind turbines as elements of the cultural landscape (Soeren Schoebel-Rutschmann); 6 - How should a developer approach the 'landscape' aspect when foreseeing a wind energy project installation (Jean-Francois Petit); 7 - More consensual wind energy projects along highways, railways and overhead power lines? (Dieter Guennewig); 8 - The 'wings top': un example of participatory and citizen's project (David Portales)

  8. Nutritional Quality of School Meals in France: Impact of Guidelines and the Role of Protein Dishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Vieux

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., “starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20” in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess, for the first time, the nutritional impact of complying with French school food FC. Based on 40 series of meals actually served in primary schools (“observed series”, several scenarios (1600 series per scenario of compliance or non-compliance with FC were simulated, and nutritional quality was assessed via the mean adequacy ratio (MAR/2000 kcal. In the observed series, only 9.7 FC on average (range 4–14 were fulfilled. In the simulated series: (i MAR was positively associated with FC compliance level, with the highest MAR obtained with complete compliance; (ii MAR decreased when meat or fish-based dishes were replaced by dishes without meat or fish; and (iii removing the protein dish without replacement led to the lowest MAR. This study demonstrates that French school food guidelines ensure good nutritional quality of food services. It also shows that generalizing the service of meals without meat or fish would deteriorate overall nutritional quality, highlighting the need to define the composition of vegetarian dishes and their frequency of service to children.

  9. Negative impacts of climate change on cereal yields: statistical evidence from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammans, Matthew; Mérel, Pierre; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel

    2017-05-01

    In several world regions, climate change is predicted to negatively affect crop productivity. The recent statistical yield literature emphasizes the importance of flexibly accounting for the distribution of growing-season temperature to better represent the effects of warming on crop yields. We estimate a flexible statistical yield model using a long panel from France to investigate the impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on wheat and barley yields. Winter varieties appear sensitive to extreme cold after planting. All yields respond negatively to an increase in spring-summer temperatures and are a decreasing function of precipitation about historical precipitation levels. Crop yields are predicted to be negatively affected by climate change under a wide range of climate models and emissions scenarios. Under warming scenario RCP8.5 and holding growing areas and technology constant, our model ensemble predicts a 21.0% decline in winter wheat yield, a 17.3% decline in winter barley yield, and a 33.6% decline in spring barley yield by the end of the century. Uncertainty from climate projections dominates uncertainty from the statistical model. Finally, our model predicts that continuing technology trends would counterbalance most of the effects of climate change.

  10. Nutritional Quality of School Meals in France: Impact of Guidelines and the Role of Protein Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Dubois, Christophe; Duchêne, Christelle; Darmon, Nicole

    2018-02-13

    In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC) expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., "starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20") in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess, for the first time, the nutritional impact of complying with French school food FC. Based on 40 series of meals actually served in primary schools ("observed series"), several scenarios (1600 series per scenario) of compliance or non-compliance with FC were simulated, and nutritional quality was assessed via the mean adequacy ratio (MAR/2000 kcal). In the observed series, only 9.7 FC on average (range 4-14) were fulfilled. In the simulated series: (i) MAR was positively associated with FC compliance level, with the highest MAR obtained with complete compliance; (ii) MAR decreased when meat or fish-based dishes were replaced by dishes without meat or fish; and (iii) removing the protein dish without replacement led to the lowest MAR. This study demonstrates that French school food guidelines ensure good nutritional quality of food services. It also shows that generalizing the service of meals without meat or fish would deteriorate overall nutritional quality, highlighting the need to define the composition of vegetarian dishes and their frequency of service to children.

  11. Policies to contend with climate change : positive impacts on employment in Europe and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, T.; Bouchereau, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the evolution of our society and economy was discussed. Studies have shown that the fight against climate change could result in the creation of many jobs. This article proposed several strategies to undertake, with particular reference to investment in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy. It promoted the frugal use of energy resources, notably fossil fuels, which are becoming scare. It also argued that investment in energy conservation and renewable energy sources is no long a luxury, but a necessity. It provided examples of how these investments are guided by profitability. For example, an investment to insulate a house in 1998 will be completely recuperated by 2005 due to savings in energy costs, after which time energy savings will continue. In addition to environmental protection and energy conservation, another benefit associated with the fight against climate change is job creation in areas such as insulating houses or the production of biofuels. By nature, renewable energy is local and decentralized. As such, it offers the opportunity for local jobs at or near the site of consumption. Examples of direct employment were depicted. In the transportation sector, half the amount of energy is needed to move in mass transit compared to individual cars, while creating twice the employment. Although the initial investment in mass transit is costly, the advantages are far from limited to energy conservation and employment. They include security, and improved health of people in cities which results in lower social costs. In France, the insulation of old buildings constructed before the introduction of new laws on thermal standards also generated employment. It is expected that 20,000 to 30,000 perennial jobs in agriculture and industrial manufacturing will been created in France by 2010 for the biofuel industry alone. Energy conservation will result in a drop in traditional energy consumption, this being the first goal

  12. The impact of economic complexity on carbon emissions: evidence from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Muhlis; Gozgor, Giray

    2017-07-01

    This paper reanalyzes the determinants of the CO 2 emissions in France. For this purpose, it considers the unit root test with two structural breaks and a dynamic ordinary least squares estimation. The paper also considers the effects of the energy consumption and the economic complexity on CO 2 emissions. First, it is observed that the EKC hypothesis is valid in France. Second, the positive effect of the energy consumption on CO 2 emissions is obtained. Third, it is observed that a higher economic complexity suppresses the level of CO 2 emissions in the long run. The findings imply noteworthy environmental policy implications to decrease the level of CO 2 emissions in France.

  13. Impact of IFRS on the quality of financial information in the United Kingdom and France: Evidence from a new perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Perafán Peña, Héctor Fabio; Benavides Franco, Julián

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the mandatory adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on the quality of the financial information available on listed companies in the UK and France. Design/methodology: This research uses panel regressions to analyze the relationship between the idiosyncratic risk of stock returns and the opacity of financial reports, before and after the mandatory adoption of IFRS. Opacity calculations include different proxies of ...

  14. Impact of boat generated waves over an estuarine intertidal zone of the Seine estuary (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Water movements in macrotidal estuaries are controlled by the tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is also reported at the mouth. Besides estuaries are frequently man altered our knowledge on the human impact on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is less extended. As an example on the Seine estuary (France) port authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity over the last century. These developments led to secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. Consequences of boat generated waves are varied: increased water turbidity and sediment transfer, release of nutrient and contaminants in the water column, harmful to users, ecosystems and infrastructures generating important maintenance spending. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of boat generated waves on sediment transport over an intertidal area. The studied site is located on the left bank in the fluvial part of the Seine estuary. On this site the maximum tidal range ranges between 1.25 and 3.5m respectively during neap and spring tide. The sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV acquisition at 4Hz coupled with turbidimeter and altimeter measurements (1 measurement every minute) in order to decipher sediment dynamics during one year. Our results indicate that sediment dynamics are controlled by river flow while medium term scale evolution is dependent on tidal range and short term dynamics on sea-vessels waves. 64% of boat passages generated significant sediment reworking (from few mm.min-1 to 3cm.min-1). This reworking rate is mainly controlled by two parameters: (i) water height on the site and (ii) vessels characteristics; in particular the distance between seabed and keel that generate a Bernoulli wave (with maximum amplitude of 0.6m

  15. Celiac disease diagnosis: impact of guidelines on medical prescription in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Bach Nga; Musset, Lucile; Chyderiotis, Georges; Olsson, Nils Olivier; Fabien, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune disease affecting patients of any age, who may present a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Different guidelines for the diagnosis and management of celiac disease have been recently published. The aim of this study was to determine whether the recommendations issued in these guidelines have been adopted by physicians in France when celiac disease was suspected. A total of 5521 physicians were asked to fill in a detailed questionnaire on diagnosing celiac disease to evaluate their medical practice, as to the type of symptoms leading to the suspicion of celiac disease, the prescription of duodenal biopsy or serological tests, the type of serological tests (anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-endomysium, anti-gliadin and anti-reticulin antibodies, total immunoglobulin A measurement) prescribed to diagnose celiac disease. The analysis of the responses of 256 general practitioners (GPs), 221 gastroenterologists and 227 pediatricians showed that the protean clinical presentations of celiac disease might be better recognized by gastroenterologists and pediatricians than by GPs. Gastroenterologists asked for duodenal biopsy much more often than GPs and pediatricians when celiac disease was suspected. Serological testing and knowledge of critical markers, prescribed to diagnose celiac disease, differed among GPs, gastroenterologists and pediatricians. Analysis of medical prescriptions showed that the recommendations for celiac disease diagnosis are not necessarily followed by physicians, emphasizing the fact that the impact of national or international guidelines on medical behavior should be evaluated. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Discriminating impacts of geomorphological and human factors on vineyard soil erosion (Burgundy, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevigny, Emmanuel; Quiquerez, Amélie; Petit, Christophe; Curmi, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Burgundy vineyards have been recognized for the high diversity of Terroirs, controlled by complex interactions between natural features, historical parameters and soil management practices. Vineyards are known to undergo substantial soil loss in comparison with other types of agricultural land. Hydric erosion on vineyards is controlled by complex interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors leading to intra-plot spatial heterogeneities of topsoil at a scale of a metre. Studying the relationship between soils and their degradation is crucial in this situation where soil sustainability is threatened. This study explores the relative influences of historical and present-day anthropogenic factors and geomorphological processes controlling soil erosion on vineyard hillslopes. The selected area was located in the Monthelie vineyard (Côte de Beaune, France) where intensive erosion occurred during high-intensity rainfall events. Soil erosion quantification was performed at a square-metre scale using dendrogeomorphology. This method is based on the measurement of the unearthing of the stock located on the vine plants, considered as a passive marker of soil-surface vertical displacement since the year of plantation. The obtained maps, together with various complementary datasets, such as geological and geomorphological data, but also historical documents (cadastral plans, cadastral matrices and old aerial photographs) allow landscape evolution to be assessed. The combination of all these data shows that spatial distribution and intensity of erosion are controlled mainly by lithology and slope value. However, our study highlights that the sediment dynamics in this vineyard plot is highly related to historical former plot limits and present-day management practices. Nonetheless, quantification of sediment dynamic for the last decade reveals that the impacts of historical structures are disappearing gradually, in response to present-day management practices and

  17. And what if France banned nuclear energy: what would be the economic impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the different consequences of a supposed ban of nuclear energy in France. Natural gas burnt in combined-cycle plants would be the best surrogate to nuclear energy. This would imply a deterioration of the foreign trade balance (30 milliard F.Francs of purchase of foreign gas each year) and a dramatic increase in the emission of greenhouse effect gases (+ 40.10 6 tons). The rise of electricity costs might trigger a general rise of the cost of the work and then a higher unemployment rate. The global effect to the French economy could be similar to that of a major worldwide oil crisis. (A.C.)

  18. Impacts of the Grenelle de l'Environnement: must France reduce its greenhouse gas emissions of 30% by 2020?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Within the international context (Copenhagen agreement), this text analyses efforts made by France to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and compares them to those of other countries, notably the United States. Using the NEMESIS model, it also analyses the possible consequences of the present crisis for energy demand and CO 2 emissions. It proposes an assessment of additional efforts to be made to go from 20% to 30% of reduction of these emissions. It tries to assess impacts of investments foreseen by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' on activity, GNP, employment, and competitiveness

  19. Modeling the impact of oyster culture on a mudflat food web in Marennes-Oleron Bay (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Leguerrier, D; Niquil, Nathalie; Petiau, A; Bodoy, Alain

    2004-01-01

    We used a carbon-based food web model to investigate the effects of oyster cultivation on the ecosystem of an intertidal mudflat. A previously published food web model of a mudflat in Marennes-Oleron Bay, France, was updated with revised parameters, and a realistic surface area and density of existing oyster cultures on the mudflat. We developed 2 hypothetical scenarios to estimate the impact of oyster cultivation on the food web structure of the ecosystem: one with no oysters, the other with...

  20. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France. Second phase report. September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, this report presents the context and challenges of works dealing with climate change adaptation assessment: observations and perspectives of climate change, concepts and definitions of adaptation to climate change, adaptation within national, European and international context, objectives and organisation of the France's inter-departmental Group. It describes the chosen methodology: hypothesis, methodological tools (climate model), bibliographical tool, and heat wave counting methodology. It discusses the present results, outlines the encountered difficulties and discusses the perspectives for future work

  1. Modeled dietary impact of industry-wide food and beverage reformulations in the United States and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressier, Mathilde; Privet, Lisa; Mathias, Kevin Clark; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Vieux, Florent; Masset, Gabriel

    2017-07-01

    Background: Food reformulation has been identified as a strategy to improve nutritional intakes; however, little is known about the potential impact of industry-wide reformulations. Objective: The aim of the study was to model the dietary impact of food and beverage reformulation following the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS) standards for children, adolescents, and adults in the United States and France. Design: Dietary intakes of individuals aged ≥4 y were retrieved from nationally representative surveys: the US NHANES 2011-2012 ( n = 7456) and the French Individual and National Survey on Food Consumption ( n = 3330). The composition of all foods and beverages consumed were compared with the NNPS standards for energy, total and saturated fats, sodium, added sugars, protein, fiber, and calcium. Two scenarios were modeled. In the first, the nutrient content of foods and beverages was adjusted to the NNPS standards if they were not met. In the second, products not meeting the standards were replaced by the most nutritionally similar alternative meeting the standards from the same category. Dietary intakes were assessed against local nutrient recommendations, and analyses were stratified by body mass index and socioeconomic status. Results: Scenarios 1 and 2 showed reductions in US adults' mean daily energy (-88 and -225 kcal, respectively), saturated fats (-4.2, -6.9 g), sodium (-406, -324 mg), and added sugars (-29.4, -35.8 g). Similar trends were observed for US youth and in France. The effects on fiber and calcium were limited. In the United States, the social gradient of added sugars intake was attenuated in both scenarios compared with the baseline values. Conclusions: Potential industry-wide reformulation of the food supply could lead to higher compliance with recommendations in both the United States and France, and across all socioeconomic groups. NNPS standards seemed to be especially effective for nutrients consumed in excess. © 2017 American

  2. Technical-economic-social impact of a photovoltaic installation - Paomia (Corsica) - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.G. de; Peri, G.

    1990-01-01

    The solar photovoltaic policy is taken into account in the great international market. Applying this high-technology, France encourages its industrial potentialities due to its former colonies closed market. This policy is enforced by CEE aids. The Paomia photovoltaic plant - 44 K W p - is the french CEE project. It is the principal European photovoltaic R and D programme. This plant originally unadapted to users' needs is now under used: on one side, because of its operational cost and on the other side, because of the arrival of the grid in this utilization area. Customers prefer at last the use of the conventional electricity for convenience sake. (author)

  3. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14–23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544–1,020 million vs. EUR 177–538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306–380 million savings (37–56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13–33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71–89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types. PMID:23563511

  4. The Impact of Institutions on Foreign Policy Think Tanks in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon; Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Even though France is an active player on the world stage, its foreign and security think tank milieu is smaller than that of similar powers, most notably the United Kingdom. Comparing French think tanks with those in Denmark illustrates how French institutional structures constrain think tank...... activities. France’s political tradition of centralisation, its non-academic civil service education, and separation of academia and administration create an environment in which think tanks are underfunded and walk a fine line between an over-controlling administration and a suspicious academia. Some French...... think tanks perform well in spite of these structures, which indicates that they could flourish and compete at the highest international level if given better structural conditions....

  5. Cogeneration and CO2 emissions. Impact of the low power decentralized cogeneration development on the CO2 emissions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Facing the economic growth leading the increase of the energy demand, the new european organization of the electric Industry and the development of the renewable energies sources, the cogeneration is developing in France. The aim of this study is the impacts of these cogeneration technologies on the raw materials consumption and on the environment. In a first part the energy profile of the buildings, agriculture and Industry sectors are evaluated. Each sector is divided in sectoral parts of specific thermal and electrical needs. In a second part scenario, established in the study, present significant developments of decentralized technologies of simultaneous production of heat and electric power in the range of few kW to 1 MW. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nuclear energy in France : Assessing its impacts on the economy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J-G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that an environmental assessment of the French nuclear industry is meaningless without an economic assessment, such as is provided here, using the Micro-Melodie macro-economic model. Nuclear power has led to cheap electricity, and price stability resulting from increasing energy self-sufficiency (from 22% in 1973 to 47% in 1989). Moreover, nuclear exports have had a significant favourable effect on France's balance of payments. The only feasible alternative to nuclear is coal, with all its disadvantages. The most spectacular effect of the nuclear program has been the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 at the time of the conference. Although forecasts have shown that a resumption of nuclear programs would cause world-wide annual carbon dioxide emissions to be reduced by only 4% by the year 2020, nevertheless, nuclear has a part to play in environmental amelioration, particularly in the developed countries, which use most of the world's energy production. 9 refs., 13 tabs., 13 figs

  7. The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths.

  8. The net employment impact of energy transition in France: An input-output analysis of the 'negaWatt' scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We study the impact on employment in France of the implementation of the energy transition scenario built by negaWatt (2011), which provides a massive development of energy savings (through measures of sufficiency and energy efficiency) and renewable energy between 2012 and 2050. Compared to 2010, this scenario results in a halving of CO 2 emissions from energy sources in France in 2030 and a division by 16 in 2050, without capture and storage of CO 2 , without implementation of new nuclear power plant and closing existing plants after 40 years of operation at maximum. We calculate the effect on employment of the implementation of this scenario compared to a baseline scenario that extends recent developments and considers the policies already decided. The method used to calculate the effect on employment of each scenario is to calculate the cost of the main technical and organizational options used, to allocate these costs among the 118 branches of the French economy and multiply these costs by the employment content of each branch. The latter is estimated by input-output analysis, which enables the recording of jobs generated by the production of all inputs. One of two scenarios being more expensive than the other, one must take into account the negative effect on employment of funding such costs. For this, it is assumed that this additional cost is borne by households and that they decrease their consumption accordingly by the same amount. This avoids biasing the results in favour of the most expensive scenario. The implementation of negaWatt scenario leads to a positive effect on employment, on the order of 240 000 full-time equivalent jobs in 2020 and 630,000 in 2030. We study the sensitivity of results to assumptions on prices of imported energy, the evolution of labour productivity, the distribution of costs between households and governments, and finally the consumption-savings decision. The effect on employment is largely positive in all cases. (author)

  9. Climatic change impacts, adaptation and associated costs in France. Intermediate report. June 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report aims at promoting the awareness of sector-based and land challenges of climate change in terms of impacts. It gives a wide overview of the present knowledge on sector-based vulnerabilities, and allows the identification of some paths for the alleviation of these vulnerabilities. After a discussion of objectives and context, of methodological choices (data, modalities to take impacts and adaptation into account, impact assessment approach) thematic woks are reported. They are dealing with health (population vulnerability to climate change with the example of 2006 heat wave), agriculture, forest and water, energy, tourism, natural risks and insurance, territories. For each of these topics, the reports discusses vulnerability aspects, the present knowledge about the impact of climate change, and identifies the core problems as well as studies which remain to be performed

  10. The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France: hydrological analyses, inundation mapping and impact estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Bourgin, François; Lebouc, Laurent; Le Bihan, Guillaume; Gaume, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France caused more than twenty fatalities, high damages and large economic losses in high density urban areas of the Mediterranean coast, including the cities of Mandelieu-La Napoule, Cannes and Antibes. Following a post event survey and preliminary analyses conducted within the framework of the Hymex project, we set up an entire simulation chain at the regional scale to better understand this outstanding event. Rainfall-runoff simulations, inundation mapping and a first estimation of the impacts are conducted following the approach developed and successfully applied for two large flash-flood events in two different French regions (Gard in 2002 and Var in 2010) by Le Bihan (2016). A distributed rainfall-runoff model applied at high resolution for the whole area - including numerous small ungauged basins - is used to feed a semi-automatic hydraulic approach (Cartino method) applied along the river network - including small tributaries. Estimation of the impacts is then performed based on the delineation of the flooded areas and geographic databases identifying buildings and population at risk.

  11. Impact of a Computer System and the Encoding Staff Organization on the Encoding Stays and on Health Institution Financial Production in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Marianne; El Merini, Amine; Staccini, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In France, medicalization of information systems program (PMSI) is an essential tool for the management planning and funding of health. The performance of encoding data inherent to hospital stays has become a major challenge for health institutions. Some studies have highlighted the impact of organizations set up on encoding quality and financial production. The aim of this study is to evaluate a computerized information system and new staff organization impact for treatment of the encoded information.

  12. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    the western district eroded by deflation. The eastern platières that have a more continuous sand cover are support much less wet zones and only very few sites with protected plant species. Therefore, aeolian landscape evolution still triggers development and distribution of peculiar ecological sites. It suits to continue and to deepen the cartographic studies and the inventories to highlight these very particular landscapes of the Fontainebleau Massif and to protect them. Indeed, with 17 millions visitors per year, the problems are now mainly of managing natural areas, let them accessible, while protecting them. In the future, with forecasted climatic changes, a main concern will be how to preserve the biodiversity, knowing that the foresters manage generally the forest with a 150 years plan. Education and awareness campaign of the public and of the local actors of the sustainable development are essential, they require the knowledge of these fragile environments inherited from the past. References Barillon d'Amoncourt P., 1664-1665. Réformation générale de la forest de Bière et des autres bois dépendants de la maîtrise des Eaux et Forets du Baillage de Melun établie à Fontainebleau. Archives Départementales de Seine et Marne, France. Liron M.N., Thiry M., 2005, Peaty micro-zones on the sandstone ridges of the Fontainebleau Massif (France): hydrology and vegetation biodiversity. in : Ch. Ries & Y. Krippel (eds.), Sandstone landscapes in Europe. Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the 2nd Intern. Conference on Sandstone Landscapes, Vianden (Luxembourg), 25-28 may 2005, Ferrantia, Luxembourg, 44, p. 215-220. Testut A., Hermeline M., Rey G., 1998. Lettres de la Forêt. Fontainebleau, abcédaire photographique. Textuel Ed., Paris, 223 p. Thiry M., Liron M.N., 2007, Fontainebleau Sandstones (France). In : Härtel H., Cílek V., Herben T., Jackson A. and Williams R. (eds.): Sandstone Landscapes.- Academia, Praha, p. 359-361.

  13. Search for impact remains at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in the stratotype area, southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, C; Robin, E; Rocchia, R; Froget, L; Feist, R

    1997-08-01

    In order to detect whether the end-Frasnian worldwide biotic crisis is related to an extraterrestrial impact, the global stratotype section of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary and auxiliary sections within the stratotype area have been examined for impact indicators: iridium. Ni-rich spinel bearing spherules and glassy microtektites. This area is particularly well suited to the search for discrete events because it exhibits biostratigraphically continuous sections of sedimentologically homogenous off-shore deposits. Different environmental settings on oxygenated deep-water seamounts, such as the stratotype section at Coumiac, and in oxygen-depleted depressions (La Serre section) are available. The latter is investigated in more detail because it is the least condensed across the boundary, which is determined by the first occurrence of the typical morphotype of Palmatolepis triangularis, the indicator of the first Famennian conodont biozone. Samples from the biostratigraphically defined boundary and adjacent levels failed to provide significantly high Ir values and no Ni-rich spinel or microtektite has been recovered. This is in contradiction with the results of earlier investigations carried out by H. Geldsetzer on the same section. In contrast, the values of Ir concentrations that we measured are always very low or not detectable. The small overabundances observed in some samples, which are about two orders of magnitude lower than what is currently observed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, are probably due to the accumulation of the normal flux of cosmic dust during periods of relatively low depositional rates or to a terrestrial origin. At present, we have no evidence that an extraterrestrial impact occurred at the F-F transition.

  14. A Budget Impact Model for Paclitaxel-eluting Stent in Femoropopliteal Disease in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cock, Erwin; Sapoval, Marc; Julia, Pierre; Lissovoy, Greg de; Lopes, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent (Cook Ireland Ltd., Limerick, Ireland) represents an advance in endovascular treatments for atherosclerotic superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. Clinical data demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to bare-metal stents (BMS). This analysis assessed the likely impact on the French public health care budget of introducing reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent. A model was developed in Microsoft Excel to estimate the impact of a progressive transition from BMS to Zilver PTX over a 5-year horizon. The number of patients undergoing SFA stenting was estimated on the basis of hospital episode data. The analysis from the payer perspective used French reimbursement tariffs. Target lesion revascularization (TLR) after primary stent placement was the primary outcome. TLR rates were based on 2-year data from the Zilver PTX single-arm study (6 and 9 %) and BMS rates reported in the literature (average 16 and 22 %) and extrapolated to 5 years. Net budget impact was expressed as the difference in total costs (primary stenting and reinterventions) for a scenario where BMS is progressively replaced by Zilver PTX compared to a scenario of BMS only. The model estimated a net cumulative 5-year budget reduction of €6,807,202 for a projected population of 82,316 patients (21,361 receiving Zilver PTX). Base case results were confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Adoption of Zilver PTX could lead to important savings for the French public health care payer. Despite higher initial reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent, fewer expected SFA reinterventions after the primary stenting procedure result in net savings.

  15. A Budget Impact Model for Paclitaxel-eluting Stent in Femoropopliteal Disease in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cock, Erwin, E-mail: erwin.decock@unitedbiosource.com [United BioSource Corporation, Peri- and Post-Approval Services (Spain); Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: Marc.sapoval2@egp.aphp.fr [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Rene Descartes, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (France); Julia, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.julia@egp.aphp.fr [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Rene Descartes, Cardiovascular Surgery Department (France); Lissovoy, Greg de, E-mail: gdelisso@jhsph.edu [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management (United States); Lopes, Sandra, E-mail: Sandra.Lopes@CookMedical.com [Cook Medical, Health Economics and Reimbursement (Denmark)

    2013-04-15

    The Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent (Cook Ireland Ltd., Limerick, Ireland) represents an advance in endovascular treatments for atherosclerotic superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. Clinical data demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to bare-metal stents (BMS). This analysis assessed the likely impact on the French public health care budget of introducing reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent. A model was developed in Microsoft Excel to estimate the impact of a progressive transition from BMS to Zilver PTX over a 5-year horizon. The number of patients undergoing SFA stenting was estimated on the basis of hospital episode data. The analysis from the payer perspective used French reimbursement tariffs. Target lesion revascularization (TLR) after primary stent placement was the primary outcome. TLR rates were based on 2-year data from the Zilver PTX single-arm study (6 and 9 %) and BMS rates reported in the literature (average 16 and 22 %) and extrapolated to 5 years. Net budget impact was expressed as the difference in total costs (primary stenting and reinterventions) for a scenario where BMS is progressively replaced by Zilver PTX compared to a scenario of BMS only. The model estimated a net cumulative 5-year budget reduction of Euro-Sign 6,807,202 for a projected population of 82,316 patients (21,361 receiving Zilver PTX). Base case results were confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Adoption of Zilver PTX could lead to important savings for the French public health care payer. Despite higher initial reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent, fewer expected SFA reinterventions after the primary stenting procedure result in net savings.

  16. The Impact of Crunchy Wednesdays on Happy Meal Fruit Orders: Analysis of Sales Data in France, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Michels, Serge; Leroy, Diane

    2017-03-01

    Beginning in September, 2010, all McDonald's restaurants in France offered free fruit with every Happy Meal sold on the first Wednesday of the month. Sales data were used to determine the impact of free fruit promotion on the proportion of regular Happy Meal fruit desserts sold. Trend analyses examined the proportion of fruit desserts for 2009-2013. Analyses also compared fruit orders on Crunchy Wednesdays with other weekdays. Happy Meal fruit desserts rose from 14.5% in 2010 to 18.0% in 2011 and to 19.4% in 2013 (P < .001). More Happy Meal fruit desserts were ordered on Crunchy Wednesdays compared with other weekdays (P < .001). Orders of cherry tomato sides and water as a beverage on Crunchy Wednesdays were unaffected. Based on sales transactions data across multiple years, this study provides evidence of the long-term effectiveness of menu promotions aimed at increasing children's consumption of vegetables and fruit. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Work schedules of home care workers for the elderly in France: fragmented work, deteriorating quality of care, detrimental health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doniol-Shaw, Ghislaine; Lada, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Like most Western countries, France is faced with rapid changes in how social welfare and care regimes are being organized. Home care for the elderly has been closely affected by such trends. This study will analyse the consequences of such developments on work schedules and working conditions of female home care workers. We carried out 55 biographical interviews with experienced female home care workers employed by six associations as well as 13 interviews with representatives of those associations. The findings reveal an increase in time pressure linked to a reduction in care time per care recipient as well as the fragmentation of care work. These conditions negatively affect the provision of quality care as well as care workers' physical and mental well-being and blur the distinction between workers' professional and home lives. The negative impacts observed call for a change in perspective in relation to how home care work for fragile, elderly people is organized. Our research bears out the necessity of drawing on the experience of the most highly-qualified care workers and entrusting them with the autonomy needed to manage the care time allotted to each care recipient.

  18. Conflict of interest in Health Technology Assessment decisions: case law in France and impact on reimbursement decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frybourg, Sandrine; Remuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    The slow reaction of French authorities to the so-called Mediator® saga in 2009 in France led to investigations that questioned the way conflicts of interest are reported. France implemented the Loi Bertrand ('Bertrand Law') in May 2013, known as the 'French Sunshine Act', with the aim of specifying the scope of disclosure obligations. This policy research reviewed the Loi Bertrand and reported case law from the French Council of State (COS) related to conflicts of interest in French Health technology assessment (HTA) opinion. The Loi Bertrand requires the publication of most of the agreements concluded between health-care professionals and companies and covers a vast range of health products. Commercial sales agreements of goods and services concluded between manufacturers and health-care professionals are a strong exception to this disclosure obligation. Six cases examined by the COS were analyzed, most of them related to the publication of guidelines or the removal of products from the list of reimbursed drugs and devices. These cases have been reviewed, as well as the impact of the ruling on reimbursement decisions. Four cases led to suspension or invalidation of decisions based on the Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) recommendations due to conflicts of interest. In the two other cases, the HAS provided post hoc declarations of interest when required by the COS, and the COS considered the conflicts of interest as irrelevant for the decision. It appears that the COS based its decisions on two main criteria: the acknowledgement of negative conflicts of interest (a link with competitors) and the absence of declarations of conflicts of interest, which have to be presented when required by legal authorities irrespective of when they were completed (even posterior to the HAS opinion). However, the number of cases that have been decided against the HAS remains very limited with respect to the volume of assessments performed yearly. The strengthening of the regulation

  19. On the competitiveness of electric driving in France: Impact of driving patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duigou, A.; Amalric, Y.; Guan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The environmental issues in the transport sector are numerous and CO 2 capture is not even plausible for vehicles at the moment. This report describes a number of different emergent power train technologies (ICE, BEV, PHEV, FCEV) before providing an inter-comparison of these technologies within a technical and economic context. The economical benefits are discussed in terms of the 'Difference of Total Cost of Ownership' (DTCO) and take: electric driving distances, energy (fuel, electricity, hydrogen) prices, batteries and fuel cells costs. To simulate electric driving distances, the model uses several functional parameters such as the battery range and the 'range anxiety' based on the assumption of one recharge per day. The potential electric driving distances are evaluated according to the segmentation statistics of daily trips. The results show the yearly mileages, as well as the range and cost of batteries and fuel cells, together with their relative impact on the DTCO and on the competitiveness of electric vehicles. The price of electric vehicles remains high with strong dependency on the battery's capacity, but the benefits in terms of fuel cost savings can be considerable. The price of electricity is currently noticeably lower than petroleum-based fuels, which balances the high costs of the batteries. 50% or more of LDV yearly mileages can be electric-driven, even for limited battery ranges (ca.under 50 km). There are stakes for the battery costs (competitiveness under euros-215/kWh) and lifetimes, while the low battery ranges (100 km in our case) provide the best margins. As regards FCEVs, the hydrogen target price at the pump should be achievable (less than euros-6.5/kg) with reasonable gasoline prices (Euros-1.7/liter at the pump) and fuel cell costs (euros-20/kW). CO 2 taxes and ICE efficiency gains will lead to opposite impacts of the H 2 target prices at the pump. (authors)

  20. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, M; Burlet, N; Fardellone, P; Al-Daghri, N; Reginster, J-Y

    2017-03-01

    The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years. This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60 years. We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life years gained, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained of the recommended intake of dairy products in the general French population over 60 years for 1 year (2015). A validated microsimulation model was used to simulate three age cohorts for both women and men (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years). The incremental cost per QALY gained of vitamin D-fortified dairy products compared to the absence of appropriate intake was estimated in different populations, assuming the cost of two dairy products per day in base case. The total lifetime number of fractures decreased by 64,932 for the recommended intake of dairy products in the general population over 60 years, of which 46,472 and 18,460 occurred in women and men, respectively. In particular, 15,087 and 4413 hip fractures could be prevented in women and men. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products also resulted in 32,569 QALYs and 29,169 life years gained. The cost per QALY gained of appropriate dairy intake was estimated at €58,244 and fall below a threshold of €30,000 per QALY gained in women over 70 years and in men over 80 years. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products have the potential to substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in France and seem an economically beneficial strategy, especially in the general population aged above 70 years.

  1. [User Associations and Multiple Sclerosis: Impact of Neoliberalism in France on the trajectory of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Séverine

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disease that induces limitation of bodily performance. It has a major impact on the work and social life of affected persons because the patient's disability, often in the absence of visible symptoms, is o source of incomprehension in a society marked by the neoliberal dogma of performance. Patient associations often provide support for patients in their trajectory. The aim of this research was to identify how the principles of neoliberalism manifest themselves in the discourse of multiple sclerosis subjects, to understand the effects of neoliberal integration, and to clarify the role played by the association involvement in the trajectories of life. This qualitative study was based on 30 individual interviews and 4 group interviews with patients, as well as 23 observations of patient group meetings and focus groups. Ten people met in interviews also kept a mini-diary, in order to record their daily involvement in a patient association. Data were analysed thematically, initially independently then by cross-linked AtlasTi software. The association constitutes two forms, practical and ideological, an illustration of the resistance to neoliberalism, particularly in the form of individual and collective responsibilities. However, to a certain extent, it also recreates performance spaces. From a practical point of view, this research re-affirms the need to create collective activities to accompany people with chronic illness.

  2. Impact of water overstock on groundwater quality of the Bassee plain area (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcy, L.; Pettenati, M.; Baran, N.; Durand, P. Y.

    2009-04-01

    The project, inspired by the structural flood plain management measures of the Rhine River, consists in the temporal removal of a maximum amount of water from the Seine River in order to leave priority to the water from the River Yonne. Yonne River and the Seine are presenting their maximum water flow usually at a same time. The space located between Bray-sur-Seine and Montereau-Fault-Yonne corresponding to the La Bassée plain (agricultural area of 23 km2) is well adapted to this project of temporary and artificial flood. The objective of the project financed by the Institution Interdépartementale des barrages Réservoirs du Bassin de la Seine (IIBRBS), the BRGM, the Seine-Normandie Water Agency, the European Communauty through the Interreg IIIB SAND project is the evaluation, at a local scale, of the impact on groundwater quality of the temporal Seine water storage. Indeed, the water over storage i) changes hydraulic conditions and therefore modify water and pollutants transfers through the unsaturated and saturated zones and ii) bring at soil surface a water (Seine River) potentially containing contaminants that may move to groundwater and consequently changed physico-chemicals conditions (redox) of groundwater. The estimation of the vulnerability of groundwater to changes and loads needs hydraulic and geochemical modelling of transfer through the unsaturated zone as well as the study of pollutants fate in static conditions. Retention properties of some metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn) in soils and materials of the unsaturated zone by chemical processes were performed determining adsorption coefficient (Kd) by laboratory experiments. These experiments are showing that nickel mobility is lower in the argillous layers than in the sandy part of the unsaturated zone. Ni mobility is controlled by iron hydroxides and precipitation of other secondary minerals. Its complexation on organic ligands increases its mobility in soils. Copper concentration is influenced by CaCO3

  3. Hybrid imaging, PET-CT and SPECT-CT: What impact on nuclear medicine education and practice in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundler, O.

    2009-01-01

    To define the policy of our specialty with a consensus opinion, a questionnaire entitled 'hybrid imaging' was sent to practicing nuclear medicine specialist physicians in France to obtain their opinion on the impact of this recent method in training and in the practice of nuclear medicine and on the relations between nuclear medicine specialists and other medical imaging specialists. This questionnaire, written by the office of the French Society of Nuclear Medicine (F.S.N.M.) and molecular imaging, was divided into four parts: Profile and experience in hybrid imaging, Relations with radiologists, Practice of CT scans with hybrid equipment, and the Future of the specialty and of training in nuclear medicine. The response rate was 60%, i.e. 374 completed questionnaires. Overall, the responses were uniform, whatever the respondent's experience, type and place of practice. Regular participation in hybrid imaging practice was the reply provided by the majority of respondents. In terms of relations with radiologists, such contacts existed in over 85% of cases and are considered as being of high quality in over 90% of cases. The vast majority of practitioners believe that hybrid imaging will become the standard. Opinions on the diagnostic use of CT scans are divided, as well as their interpretation by a radiologist, a nuclear medicine specialist or by both. In the opinion of the vast majority, hybrid equipment systems should be managed by nuclear medicine specialists. With regard to the future, nuclear medicine should remain an independent specialty with enhanced training in morphological imaging and a residency training program whose length should be increased to 5 years. (author)

  4. ATTRACTIVITE TERRITORIALE: L’IMPACT DE LA DIFFERENCE CULTURELLE. COMPARAISON ENTRE LES TERRITOIRES DE IASI (ROUMANIE ET DE GRENOBLE (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain SPALANZANI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article cherche à comprendre si la culture, plus particulièrement économique, a un impact sur la capacité d’attractivité des activités économiques d’un territoire. Les territoires comparés sont les métropoles ou régions urbaines de Iasi1 en Roumanie et de Grenoble en France. Ces territoires sont sensiblement de taille comparable : 840 000 habitants pour Iasi, 750 000 pour Grenoble. Après avoir recueilli les perceptions d’acteurs économiques, une hiérarchisation de plus de 71 critères considérés comme importants dans la localisation des activités économiques est établie pour chacune des deux régions. La comparaison de l’importance accordée aux critères montre à la fois une certaine convergence des perceptions mais aussi de réelles divergences, en particulier au niveau des critères financiers. La vision lowcost et de sous-traitance des yèchennï, liée à un positionnement de l’industrie roumaine sur les marchés de biens intermédiaires, n’est absolument pas partagée par les grenoblois qui semblent orientés vers des stratégies plus offensives, en direction des marchés finaux.

  5. Didactical Engineering in France; An Insider's and an Outsider's View on Its Foundations, Its Practice and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolinas, Claire; Drijvers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The notion of didactical engineering has influenced and characterized contemporary research in mathematics education in France to an important extent. In this paper, we address the following from an insider's and an outsider's perspective: (1) the way this notion is theoretically grounded, (2) the kinds of design research practices it has led to…

  6. Potential impact of global warming on the range of Spruce, Fir, Beech and sessile Oak in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedallu, Christian; Perez, Vincent; Gegout, Jean-Claude; Lebourgeois, Francois; Bertrand, Romain

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies all over the world that forecast the impact of global warming on vegetation but there is little information currently available to assess its consequences on French forests. The authors studied the range of four common species - spruce, fir, beech and sessile oak - so as to determine their ecology as accurately as possible and assess their sensitivity to global warming. Their range over the period from 1961-1990 was modelled and mapped for the whole of France using ecological variables that characterize climate, water supply, and soil nutrition. The models constructed predict effects from temperature, the water resource, water-logging and the trophic level of soils that are consistent with empirical knowledge about these species. Changes in the probabilities of presence during the 21. century investigated by simulating the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadCM3 climate model. Changes in climate as predicted by this model would lead to a decrease of the probabilities of presence for all four species initially in the first part of the 21. century at the outer limits of their ranges and then a very significant drop in most plains and medium altitude upland areas, even according to the most optimistic forecasts under scenario B2. The reduction in the forest surface areas that are favourable to the species investigated for the period 2070-2100 is estimated, depending on the scenario, to be between 92% and 99% for spruce, 80% and 93% for beech, 63% and 83% for fir and 43% and 83% for sessile oak. These forecasted changes are very significant in comparison with the current conditions that are favourable to the presence of these species for which edaphic variables act as a local filter within the overall climate envelope. The authors conclude by underscoring the value of these tools for identifying and mapping the most vulnerable areas so as to be in a position to track the behaviour of these species in these areas and determine the appropriate

  7. Governance restructuring in the cut flower trade in France and its impacts on the producers in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroza Filho, Manoel Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to examine how retailers play a powerful role in shaping the governance in cut flower trade in France. Global Value Chain analysis has been used to explain why a distribution system originally based on spot markets has been replaced by tightly integrated supply chains. It allowed an exploration of the consequences of these changes on the structure of the value chain and the inclusion and exclusion of different agents in the chain. Fieldwork were carried out betwe...

  8. Tidal energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2010-01-01

    The author first discusses the potential theoretical production of tidal energy in the world and more particularly in France, and compares this potential production with that of hydroelectric energy. He discusses the existence of potentially interesting sites in France in terms of sizing and exploitation modes. He describes the main associated works for turbines and sea walls, impacts on the environment, on the economy and on employment. He discusses the production possibilities and their cost, and the issue of energy storage. He indicates sites which could be built before 2025: Saint-Brieuc, Portbail-Coutainville or Granville, Mers or Cayeux, Penly or Saint-Valery en Caux. For each of this site, the author describes the project implantation, gives an gross assessment of the construction cost, and therefore of the kWh cost

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV-1 transmission in France (1999-2014) and impact of targeted prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillon, Antoine; Essat, Asma; Frange, Pierre; Smith, Davey M; Delaugerre, Constance; Barin, Francis; Ghosn, Jade; Pialoux, Gilles; Robineau, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Goujard, Cécile; Meyer, Laurence; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2017-02-21

    Characterizing HIV-1 transmission networks can be important in understanding the evolutionary patterns and geospatial spread of the epidemic. We reconstructed the broad molecular epidemiology of HIV from individuals with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) enrolled in France in the ANRS PRIMO C06 cohort over 15 years. Sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, biological and pol sequence data from 1356 patients were collected between 1999 and 2014. Network analysis was performed to infer genetic relationships, i.e. clusters of transmission, between HIV-1 sequences. Bayesian coalescent-based methods were used to examine the temporal and spatial dynamics of identified clusters from different regions in France. We also evaluated the use of network information to target prevention efforts. Participants were mostly Caucasian (85.9%) and men (86.7%) who reported sex with men (MSM, 71.4%). Overall, 387 individuals (28.5%) were involved in clusters: 156 patients (11.5%) in 78 dyads and 231 participants (17%) in 42 larger clusters (median size: 4, range 3-41). Compared to individuals with single PHI (n = 969), those in clusters were more frequently men (95.9 vs 83%, p turnaround time for sample processing, targeting prevention efforts based on phylogenetic monitoring may be an efficient way to deliver prevention interventions but would require near real time targeted interventions on the identified index cases and their partners.

  10. Distribution géographique de la morille dans l’Est de la FranceImpact du GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Seguy, Nathalie; Geoffroy, Dominique; Bert, Georges; Dangien, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Ce travail consiste à inventorier et préciser la distribution géographique des Morilles, champignon emblématique du Nord-Est de la France, comme peut l’être aussi la truffe de Bourgogne. A l’issu d’une étude bibliographique réalisée sur 100 ans, et à l’aide de relevés de terrain effectués par les membres de la Société Mycologique de la Côte-d’Or ou de la Société Lorraine de Mycologie ou par des mycologues confirmés, une cartographie est établie afin de présenter une répartition géographique c...

  11. Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and carabids in intertidal salt marshes (Western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétillon, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize spider (Araneae and ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae communities in managed (cutting and sheep grazing and non-managed salt marshes and to assess the efficiency of management regimes in these particular ecosystems. The two groups were studied during 2002 in salt marshes of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (NW France using pitfall traps. By opening soil and vegetation structures cutting and grazing enhanced the abundances of some halophilic species of spiders and ground beetles. Nevertheless, grazing appeared to be too intensive as spider species richness decreased. We discuss the implications of management practices in terms of nature conservation and their application in the particular area of intertidal salt marshes.

  12. Gender as a prognostic factor and its impact on the incidence of multiple sclerosis in Lorraine, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouverie, M

    2009-11-15

    We sought to identify (a) the change of incidence rates among gender from 1990 to 2002 from the LORSEP (Lorraine Multiple Sclerosis) population-based cohort, and (b) the role of gender as a predictive demographic factor of disability during the initial course of the disease among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The incidence rates of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Lorraine, France, have significantly increased in women, but not in men, from 1990 to 2002 but this increase in incidence of MS was not related to a better ascertainment of patients with mild disability. A total of 2871 MS patients were analyzed. For relapsing-remitting (RR) patients, a multivariate analysis showed that a shorter time to the assignment of an EDSS score of 3 and 4 was associated with the late onset MS, incomplete recovery from the first relapse and a high number of relapses during the first 5 years after the MS onset. Median times were not influenced by gender or by time between the first two relapses. The data were very different for the time between the assignment of scores of 4 and 6, since the median times were not influenced by any of the predicting variables.

  13. Budget impact analysis of heparin-bonded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts (Propaten) against standard polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for below-the-knee bypass in patients with critical limb ischaemia in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Simon; Riche, Valéry-Pierre; Tessier, Philippe; Mauduit, Nicolas; Kaladji, Adrien; Gouëffic, Yann

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the budget impact of progressive replacement of standard polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts by heparin-bound PTFE (Propaten) for below-the-knee (BTK) bypass in patients with critical limb ischaemia (CLI). Design From a review of the scientific literature, we calculated a theoretical BTK primary patency for Propaten grafts. Using the French hospital expenditure database (PMSI), we retrospectively estimated a rehospitalisation rate for standard PTFE grafts. From these data, a model was created to assess the budget impact of a progressive replacement from standard PTFE grafts to Propaten grafts over a 5-year horizon. We performed an univariate sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness of our results. Setting French National Health Insurance (FNHI) perspective. Participant Patients with CLI. Main outcome measures Budget impact analysis. Results Data extraction from the PMSI revealed that 656 patients were treated with PTFE grafts in 2011 in French public hospitals for a BTK bypass. Assuming a 2-year survival rate of 76.8%, observed reinterventions rate for standard PTFE grafts at 24 months from the PMSI was 35.1%. The mean rehospitalisation cost was €10 689. The budget impact analysis based on these data found a net cumulative 5-year payer budget reduction of €112 420 in favour of Propaten, under the assumption of a 75.6% primary patency for Propaten grafts for a projected population of 3215 patients of which 801 received a Propaten graft. Conclusions Our budget impact analysis showed a positive impact on the national health insurance budget of the replacement of standard PTFE grafts by Propaten grafts for BTK bypass in patients with CLI in France. This supports the enactment of a reimbursement policy by the FNHI. PMID:29490953

  14. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish, F.

    2004-11-01

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  15. Potential impacts of radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays on childhood leukemia in France: a quantitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Olivier [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); University of California, Irvine, Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Irvine, CA (United States); Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Richardson, David B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hemon, Denis; Demoury, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline [Inserm, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer Team, Villejuif (France); Paris-Sud University, UMRS 1018, Villejuif (France); Ielsch, Geraldine [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Assessment Unit for Risks Related to Natural Radioactivity, IRSN, PRP-DGE, SEDRAN, BRN, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2013-05-15

    Previous epidemiological studies and quantitative risk assessments (QRA) have suggested that natural background radiation may be a cause of childhood leukemia. The present work uses a QRA approach to predict the excess risk of childhood leukemia in France related to three components of natural radiation: radon, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma rays, using excess relative and absolute risk models proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Both models were developed from the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Previous risk assessments were extended by considering uncertainties in radiation-related leukemia risk model parameters as part of this process, within a Bayesian framework. Estimated red bone marrow doses cumulated during childhood by the average French child due to radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays are 4.4, 7.5 and 4.3 mSv, respectively. The excess fractions of cases (expressed as percentages) associated with these sources of natural radiation are 20 % [95 % credible interval (CI) 0-68 %] and 4 % (95 % CI 0-11 %) under the excess relative and excess absolute risk models, respectively. The large CIs, as well as the different point estimates obtained under these two models, highlight the uncertainties in predictions of radiation-related childhood leukemia risks. These results are only valid provided that models developed from the LSS can be transferred to the population of French children and to chronic natural radiation exposures, and must be considered in view of the currently limited knowledge concerning other potential risk factors for childhood leukemia. Last, they emphasize the need for further epidemiological investigations of the effects of natural radiation on childhood leukemia to reduce uncertainties and help refine radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  16. Potential impacts of radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays on childhood leukemia in France: a quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Olivier; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Richardson, David B.; Hemon, Denis; Demoury, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline; Ielsch, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies and quantitative risk assessments (QRA) have suggested that natural background radiation may be a cause of childhood leukemia. The present work uses a QRA approach to predict the excess risk of childhood leukemia in France related to three components of natural radiation: radon, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma rays, using excess relative and absolute risk models proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Both models were developed from the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Previous risk assessments were extended by considering uncertainties in radiation-related leukemia risk model parameters as part of this process, within a Bayesian framework. Estimated red bone marrow doses cumulated during childhood by the average French child due to radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays are 4.4, 7.5 and 4.3 mSv, respectively. The excess fractions of cases (expressed as percentages) associated with these sources of natural radiation are 20 % [95 % credible interval (CI) 0-68 %] and 4 % (95 % CI 0-11 %) under the excess relative and excess absolute risk models, respectively. The large CIs, as well as the different point estimates obtained under these two models, highlight the uncertainties in predictions of radiation-related childhood leukemia risks. These results are only valid provided that models developed from the LSS can be transferred to the population of French children and to chronic natural radiation exposures, and must be considered in view of the currently limited knowledge concerning other potential risk factors for childhood leukemia. Last, they emphasize the need for further epidemiological investigations of the effects of natural radiation on childhood leukemia to reduce uncertainties and help refine radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  17. Early screening for type 2 diabetes following gestational diabetes mellitus in France: hardly any impact of the 2010 guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueslard, K; Cottenet, J; Mariet, A-S; Sagot, P; Petit, J-M; Quantin, C

    2017-07-01

    Women who had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the years following pregnancy. Most follow-up screening studies have been conducted in limited geographical areas leading to large variability in the results. The aim of our investigation was to measure how the publication of guidelines affected early screening for T2DM after a pregnancy with GDM during the period 2007-2013, in France. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a representative sample of 1/97th of the French population using data from the "National Health Insurance Inter-Regime Information System," which collects individual hospital and non-hospital data for healthcare consumption. The sample included 49,080 women who gave birth in 2007-2013. In the following 3 months, only 18.49% of women with GDM had an oral glucose tolerance test or a blood glucose test in 2007. This rate had not significantly increased in 2013 (p = 0.18). The proportion of women with GDM who had the recommended glycemic follow-up at 3 months (20.30 vs. 21.58%, p = 0.19) and 6 months (32.48 vs. 37.16%, p = 0.08) was not significantly different before the guidelines (2008-2009) and after the guidelines (2012-2013). At 12 months, the difference was significant (46.77 vs. 54.05%, p = 0.009). Postpartum screening has improved only slightly since the guidelines and remains largely insufficient, with less than 25% of women with GDM screened in the first 3 months. In the first year after delivery, less than 60% of women were screened for T2DM.

  18. Comparison of the Tritium permeated from ITER Blanket in normal operation and its short range impact of HT over France, Swiss or Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Velarde, M.; Ardao, J.; Perlado, J.; Sedano, L.; Xiberta, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we assumes the hydrogen isotopes permeation from a liquid metal ITER breeder blanket (assuming normal operation and a LM as DCLL or HCLL blanket) as one of the possible sources of a leak and tritium release,mainly but not only. The paper presents a short range low impact of HT gas activity over France, Swiss or Spain from same cases in 2014 and 2015 releases from ITER. The permeation of hydrogen isotopes is an important experimental issue to take into account into the development of a Tritium Breeder Module for ITER [1]. Tritium cannot be confined -without an uncertainty of 5% in the flux permeation- and therefore HT can be detected (e.g. by ionization chamber) as permeates though the structure of RAFM steel towards the coolant [1]. HT from Pb15.7Li and permeated in Eurofer97 can contaminate the other parts of the system and may be delivered though the normal-vent detritiation system (NVDS). Real time forecast of transport of tritium in air from the fusion reactor towards off-site far downwind though extended tritium clouds into the low levels of the atmosphere is calculated for the short range (up to 24 hours) by the coupling of 2 models the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) [2] model and the FLEXPART lagrangian dispersion model [3] verified with NORMTRI simulation [4] and implemented in many different cases and scenarios [5, 6, 7]. As a function of daily weather conditions the release will affect just France or already can be delivered towards Swiss when cyclonic circulation, or towards the Iberian Peninsula or Balearic Islands (Spain) when high produce anticyclonic circulation of the air over the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  19. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, M.; Burlet, N.; Fardellone, P.; Al-Daghri, N.; Reginster, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60?years. Introduction This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60?years. Methods We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life...

  20. The effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in environmental impact studies on marine ecosystems: A case study in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Céline, E-mail: celine.jacob@cefe.cnrs.fr [CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, Route de Mende 34 199 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); CREOCEAN, Les Belvédères, Bâtiment B, 128, Avenue de Fès, 34080 Montpellier (France); Pioch, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.pioch@gmail.com [CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, Route de Mende 34 199 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Thorin, Sébastien, E-mail: thorin@creocean.fr [CREOCEAN, Les Belvédères, Bâtiment B, 128, Avenue de Fès, 34080 Montpellier (France)

    2016-09-15

    While the development of maritime economic activity is increasingly encouraged, the consideration of its impacts constitutes a real challenge. The limitations of the implementation of the mitigation hierarchy have been widely discussed in scientific literature, yet data on marine biodiversity offset practices remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the use of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) as suitable instruments to achieve the No Net Loss objective. Drawing on a French approach developed for the initial assessment of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive, we examined the pressures and impacts related to various marine development projects and the effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in limiting these. An analysis of 55 recent French environmental impact studies showed that only 7% of the proposed measures had the aim of offsetting predicted degradation of sites of remarkable biodiversity. This can be partly explained by the lack of a clear definition of ‘significant impact’, which varies greatly depending on what is impacted, in turn allowing socio-economic activities to benefit more easily from offset. Furthermore, offsetting does not always constitute the final step of the mitigation hierarchy, highlighting the need to reinforce avoidance and reduction steps. Although we acknowledge the role of EIA in mitigating the negative impacts of development projects, synergies with other European marine environmental policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the Maritime Spatial Planning directive (MSP) should be developed in order to improve current practices. - Highlights: • Avoidance measures were not well represented in the Environmental Impact Assessments studied. • Few significant residual impacts and measures to offset these were described. • Common biodiversity did not benefit from offset measures. • The equivalency of proposed marine offsets is questionable.

  1. The effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in environmental impact studies on marine ecosystems: A case study in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Céline; Pioch, Sylvain; Thorin, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    While the development of maritime economic activity is increasingly encouraged, the consideration of its impacts constitutes a real challenge. The limitations of the implementation of the mitigation hierarchy have been widely discussed in scientific literature, yet data on marine biodiversity offset practices remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the use of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) as suitable instruments to achieve the No Net Loss objective. Drawing on a French approach developed for the initial assessment of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive, we examined the pressures and impacts related to various marine development projects and the effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in limiting these. An analysis of 55 recent French environmental impact studies showed that only 7% of the proposed measures had the aim of offsetting predicted degradation of sites of remarkable biodiversity. This can be partly explained by the lack of a clear definition of ‘significant impact’, which varies greatly depending on what is impacted, in turn allowing socio-economic activities to benefit more easily from offset. Furthermore, offsetting does not always constitute the final step of the mitigation hierarchy, highlighting the need to reinforce avoidance and reduction steps. Although we acknowledge the role of EIA in mitigating the negative impacts of development projects, synergies with other European marine environmental policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the Maritime Spatial Planning directive (MSP) should be developed in order to improve current practices. - Highlights: • Avoidance measures were not well represented in the Environmental Impact Assessments studied. • Few significant residual impacts and measures to offset these were described. • Common biodiversity did not benefit from offset measures. • The equivalency of proposed marine offsets is questionable.

  2. Impact of pozzolanic binder addition on stabilization of polluted dredged sediments on its potential reuse as a new material resource for road construction in Basse Normandie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, E.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the increase of the amount of marine dredged sediments (MDS) and the cost of managing the disposal site is very high, a reutilization of dredged sediment is urgently needed in France. The primary goal of this research is to find a domain for reuse of MDS materials as a new material regarding the environmental issues, and other requirement needed. In this study, the MDS was used as replacement material in road construction. Hence, various tests need to be realized to identify if MDS could achieve the requirement needed in this domain. The secondary objective is to enhance the geotechnical characteristic and to reduce the pollution content of the MDS, by incorporating binders and sediments, and revealed the geotechnical characteristic. The geotechnical test result shows that the stabilization by hydraulics binders improve the geotechnical characteristic and could fulfil the requirement needed. The present of Fly Ash and Silica Fume in this study is aimed to reduce the pollution level, especially the heavy metal content. After the geotechnical study in laboratory results shows as expected then the study to identify the chemical characteristic was realized. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts, leaching test was performed. The Leaching test result shows that with 7% of Silica Fume and 10% of Fly Ash capable to fulfil the criteria needed, hence, the use of MDS is consider safe in term of geotechnical and environmental impact, as a new material in road construction

  3. Future health impact assessment of air pollution at the global, European and Ile-de-France scales: the Air Pollution Climate Health Impact Assessment (A-C HIA) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhvar, Victoria; Hauglustaine, Didier; Kinney, Patrick; Colette, Augustin; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstandinos; Pascal, Mathilde; Medina, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Ozone and fine particles are current risk factors for premature death all over the globe. In coming decades, substantial improvements in public health may be achieved by reducing air pollution. The overall objective of the A-C HIA project (2011-2014) was to apply state of the art climate, air quality, and health modelling tools to assess future health impacts of O 3 and PM2.5 under different scenarios of emissions for the period 2030-2050. A-C HIA created an interdisciplinary team to study the impacts of climate change on health through air quality changes, and to establish longer-term collaborations between communities. This question has been explored at three spatial scales: global, regional (Europe), and urban (ile-de-France). We f ind that 1.5 millions of cardio-vascular deaths could be delayed each year in 2030 compared to 2010. In Europe, air-pollution-related mortality should decrease in 2030 compared to 2010. At the finer scale (ile-de-France) we found that the respiratory mortality should increase over the highly populated area of Paris. In the coming years, substantial benefits to public health could be achieved through coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and improving air quality. (authors)

  4. Integrative modelling approaches for analysis of impact of multifunctional agriculture: a review for France, Germany and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Zander, P.; Josien, E.; Groot, J.C.J.; Meyer, B.C.; Knierim, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews integrative modelling approaches which were developed to analyze the impact of multifunctional agriculture, or which may be used as such. The approaches are integrative in combining multiple goals of agriculture, and confronting these with current or potential performance of

  5. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Geography and clear political leadership have combined to put France in the forefront of both nuclear and hydro-electric generation and energy efficiency so that about 90% of France's electricity is generated by non-fossil fuels. This article explains how and why France has developed its energy mix. (Author)

  6. Impact of multiple sclerosis on employment and use of job-retention strategies: The situation in France in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Kwiatkowski, Arnaud; Vermersch, Patrick; Roux, Bastien; Hautecoeur, Patrick; Leroyer, Ariane

    2016-06-13

    The main objective of this survey of persons with multiple sclerosis was to describe their employment situation. Secondary objectives were to ascertain when and how multiple sclerosis symptoms first impact employment per se and what strategies persons with multiple sclerosis use to cope with their employment problems. A retrospective survey was conducted to collect data from persons with multiple sclerosis aged 18 years and over, using a computer-assisted web tool. A total of 941 respondents were working at the time of multiple sclerosis diagnosis or had worked subsequently. Median time since diagnosis was 10 years. Multiple sclerosis had an impact on employment for 74.3% of respondents. The overall employment rate at the time of the survey was 68.1%; 27.2% had discontinued their occupational activity for a multiple sclerosis-related reason. Median time from diagnosis to multiple sclerosis-related cessation of occupational activity was 24.0 years (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-26.3 years). Respondents were poorly aware of available tools designed to assist them in retaining employment. This study highlights the importance of early intervention by the occupational medicine physician in order to favour job retention and use of available tools by all workers with MS and not only those with a recognized status as a disabled worker.

  7. Impact of socio-economic position on health and quality of care in adults with Type 2 diabetes in France: the Entred 2007 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse-Edorh, S; Fagot-Campagna, A; Detournay, B; Bihan, H; Eschwege, E; Gautier, A; Druet, C

    2015-11-01

    To describe the association between socio-economic position, health status and quality of diabetes care in people with Type 2 diabetes in France, where people may receive full healthcare coverage for chronic disease. Data from a national cross-sectional survey performed in people pharmacologically treated for diabetes were used. They combined data from medical claims, hospital discharge, questionnaires for patients (n = 3894 with Type 2 diabetes) and their physicians (n = 2485). Socio-economic position was assessed using educational level (low, intermediate, high) and ability to make ends meet (financial difficulties vs. financially comfortable). People with diabetes reporting financial difficulties were more likely to be smokers (adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.6) and obese (adjusted odds ratio 1.3; 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and to have poorer glycaemic control (HbA1c > 64 mmol/mol (8%); adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8), than those who were financially comfortable. They were more likely to have their diabetes diagnosed because of complications (adjusted odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0). They were also more likely to have coronary and podiatric complications (adjusted odds ratios 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6 and 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.2, respectively). They benefited more often from full coverage (adjusted odds ratio 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6), visited general practitioners more often (ratio of estimated marginal means 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.2) but specialists less often (adjusted odds ratio 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.8 for a visit to private ophthalmologist). They also felt less well informed about their condition. Despite frequent access to full healthcare coverage, socio-economic position has an impact on the diagnosis of diabetes, health status and quality of diabetes care in France. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  8. Impacts of Climate Change and of Anthropisation on Water Resources: from the Risk Assessment to Adaptation, the Case of the Seine Basin (including Paris, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, F.; Viennot, P.; Thierion, C.; Vergnes, J. P.; Ait Kaci, A.; Caballero, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Seine river, located in the temperate climate of northern France and flowing over a large sedimentary basins that hosts multilayer aquifers, is characterized by small temporal variations of its discharge. However, the presence of a megacity (Paris) and a wide area of intensive agriculture combined with climate change puts pressure on the water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. Previous research projects have estimated the impact of climate change on the water resource of the Seine basin, with the uncertainties associated to climate projections, hydrological models or downscaling methods. The water resource was projected to decrease by -14 % ± 10 % in 2050 and -28 +/-16% in 2100. This led to new studies that focus on the combined impact of climate change and adaptations. The tested adaptations are: a reduction of the groundwater abstractions, evolution of land use, development of small dams to « harvest water » or artificial recharge of aquifers. The communication of the results of these projects to stakeholders have led to the development on new indicators that better express the risk on the water resource management, especially for the groundwater. For instance maps of the evolution of piezometric head are difficult to interpret. To better express the risk evolution, a new indicator was defined: the evolution of the groundwater crisis duration, ie, the period when the charge of the aquifer is below the crisis piezometric level defined by the stakeholders. Such crisis piezometric levels are used to help defining the period when the groundwater abstraction should be reduced. Such maps are more efficient to communicate with water resources managers. This communication will focus on the results from the MEDDE Explore 2070 and ANR Oracle projects.

  9. Urbanization impact on sulfur content of groundwater revealed by the study of urban speleothem-like deposits: Case study in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, E; Roy-Barman, M; Jean-Soro, L; Guillerme, A; Branchu, P; Fernandez, M; Dumont, E; Douville, E; Michelot, J L; Phillips, A M

    2017-02-01

    Speleothem-like deposits that develop underground in urban areas are an archive of the environmental impact of anthropic activities that has been little studied so far. In this paper, the sulfate content in shallow groundwater from northern Paris (France) is compared with the sulfur content in two 300-year-old urban carbonate deposits that grew in a historical underground aqueduct. The present-day waters of the aqueduct have very high sulfur and calcium contents, suggesting pollution from gypsum dissolution. However, geological gypsum levels are located below the water table. Sulfur content was measured by micro-X-ray fluorescence in these very S-rich carbonate deposits (0.5 to 1% of S). A twofold S increase during the second half of the 1800s was found in both samples. These dates correspond to two major periods of urbanization above the site. We discus three possible S sources: anthropic sources (industries, fertilizers…), volcanic eruptions and input within the water through gypsum brought for urbanization above the studied site (backfill with quarry waste) since the middle of the 19th century. For the younger second half of the studied section, S input from gypsum brought during urbanization was confirmed by the study of isotopic sulfur composition (δ 34 S=+15.2‰ at the top). For the oldest part, several sulfur peaks could be related to early industrial activity in Paris, that caused high local air pollution, as reported in historical archives but also to historical gypsum extraction. This study provides information on the origin and timing of the very high SO 4 2- levels measured nowadays within the shallow groundwater, thus demonstrating the interest in using carbonate deposits in urban areas as a proxy for the history of urbanization or human activities and their impact on water bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental and human impact on the sedimentary dynamic in the Rhone Delta subaquatic canyons (France-Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantegui, A.; Corella, J. P.; Loizeau, J. L.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Girardclos, S.

    2012-04-01

    Deltas are very sensitive environments and highly vulnerable to variations in water discharge and the amount of suspended sediment load provided by the delta-forming currents. Human activities in the watershed, such as building of dams and irrigation ditches, or river bed deviations, may affect the discharge regime and sediment input, thus affecting delta growth. Underwater currents create deeply incised canyons cutting into the delta lobes. Understanding the sedimentary processes in these subaquatic canyons is crucial to reconstruct the fluvial evolution and human impact on deltaic environments and to carry out a geological risk assessment related to mass movements, which may affect underwater structures and civil infractructure. Recently acquired high-resolution multibeam bathymetry on the Rhone Delta in Lake Geneva (Sastre et al. 2010) revealed the complexity of the underwater morphology formed by active and inactive canyons first described by Forel (1892). In order to unravel the sedimentary processes and sedimentary evolution in these canyons, 27 sediment cores were retrieved in the distal part of each canyon and in the canyon floor/levee complex of the active canyon. Geophysical, sedimentological, geochemical and radiometric dating techniques were applied to analyse these cores. Preliminary data show that only the canyon originating at the current river mouth is active nowadays, while the others remain inactive since engineering works in the watershed occurred, confirming Sastre et al. (2010). However, alternating hemipelagic and turbiditic deposits on the easternmost canyons, evidence underflow processes during the last decades as well. Two canyons, which are located close to the Rhone river mouth, correspond to particularly interesting deeply incised crevasse channels formed when the underwater current broke through the outer bend of a meander in the proximal northern levee. In these canyons, turbidites occur in the sediment record indicating ongoing

  11. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  12. Contrasting isotopic signatures between anthropogenic and geogenic Zn and evidence for post-depositional fractionation processes in smelter-impacted soils from Northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillot, Farid; Maréchal, Chloe; Morin, Guillaume; Jouvin, Delphine; Cacaly, Sylvain; Telouk, Philipe; Benedetti, Marc F.; Ildefonse, Philippe; Sutton, Steve; Guyot, François; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2011-05-01

    Zinc isotopes have been studied along two smelter-impacted soil profiles sampled near one of the largest Pb and Zn processing plants in Europe located in northern France, about 50 km south of Lille. Mean δ 66Zn values along these two soil profiles range from +0.22 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) to +0.34 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) at the lowest horizons and from +0.38 ± 0.45‰ (2 σ) to +0.76 ± 0.14‰ (2 σ) near the surface. The δ 66Zn values in the lowest horizons of the soils are interpreted as being representative of the local geochemical background (mean value +0.31 ± 0.38‰), whereas heavier δ 66Zn values near the surface of the two soils are related to anthropogenic Zn. This anthropogenic Zn occurs in the form of franklinite (ZnFe 2O 4)-bearing slag grains originating from processing wastes at the smelter site and exhibiting δ 66Zn values of +0.81 ± 0.20‰ (2 σ). The presence of franklinite is indicated by EXAFS analysis of the topsoil samples from both soil profiles as well as by micro-XANES analysis of the surface horizon of a third smelter-impacted soil from a distant site. These results indicate that naturally occurring Zn and smelter-derived Zn exhibit significantly different δ 66Zn values, which suggests that zinc isotopes can be used to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of Zn in smelter-impacted soils. In addition to a possible influence of additional past sources of light Zn (likely Zn-sulfides and Zn-sulfates directly emitted by the smelter), the light δ 66Zn values in the surface horizons compared to smelter-derived slag materials are interpreted as resulting mainly from fractionation processes associated with biotic and/or abiotic pedological processes (Zn-bearing mineral precipitation, Zn complexation by organic matter, and plant uptake of Zn). This conclusion emphasizes the need for additional Zn isotopic studies before being able to use Zn isotopes to trace sources and pathways of this element in surface environments.

  13. DGT as a useful monitoring tool for radionuclides and trace metals in environments impacted by uranium mining: Case study of the Sagnes wetland in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, Martine; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Drozdzak, Jagoda; Gao, Yue; Nos, Jérémy; Descostes, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique was used to analyse U, (226)Ra and other trace metals in stream water and soil porewater in a wetland in France impacted by uranium mining. High resolution profiles of metals in soil porewater obtained by DGT could be measured for the first time up to a depth of 75 cm by the construction of a novel DGT holder. In stream water, the DGT technique was compared to speciation carried out by filtration (0.45 μm) and ultrafiltration (UF) (500 kDa/100 kDa/10 kDa) and DGT porewater profiles were compared with piezometer data obtained in a parallel study. An increase in the trace concentrations of dissolved (0.45 μm) and particulate U, (226)Ra, and elements such as Al, Fe, Mn and Ba was observed in the stream water as it passes through the bog as a results of mobilization from the wetland. The porewater results indicate DGT labile metals species to be present in porewater and mobilization of uranium and other elements linked to the presence of enriched clays. In stream water, colloids and particles govern the behavior of U, Al and Fe, whereas Mn, Ba and Ra are essentially transported as truly dissolved metal species with DGT labile concentrations accounting for 100% of the dissolved fraction. The combined approaches of DGT and UF allow us to obtain a better understanding on the biogeochemical processes involved in the retention and mobility of U and (226)Ra in the wetland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Spirit of France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Jr, Philip

    1994-01-01

    .... Demonstrating unyielding perseverance to elevate France to a position of respect in the world arena, de Gaulle aggressively pursued national interest objectives to restore French national identity...

  15. Radioecological impact of Saharan dusts fallout. Case study of a major event on the 21. of february 2004 in south part of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, O.; Pourcelot, L.; Gurriaran, R.; Paulat, P.

    2005-01-01

    Lithometeors, Sirocco or more commonly 'red mud' are all in fact related to a single phenomenon which affects France every year: the wind transport and deposit of desert particles from the Sahara. On the 21. of February 2004, the southern part of France is swept by a weather event of wind transport of Saharan particles. The recordings of atmospheric dust contamination and the deposit of dust, which results from it, make an episode of exceptional width. In a few hours, the thickness of the deposit exceeds 1 mm (up to 4 mm in Corsica) with a maximum density of surface charge of 50 g.m -2 (50 tons per km 2 ). The loads of the PM 10 type particles in the air, recorded by associations of monitoring of the quality of the air, indicate concentrations multiplied to the maximum by 10 and an influence on the ground of the plume ranging between 300 000 and 350 000 km 2 . To the end, 2 million tons are deposited on a portion of the territory located at the south of a line from Nantes to Besancon. This event also had a significant radio-ecological impact, leading to significant 137 Cs, (239+240) Pu, 241 Am, activity levels of 38 Bq. kg -1 sec, 1 Bq. kg -1 sec and 0,46 Bq. kg -1 sec, respectively. Quality of air monitoring organisations recorded 10-fold increases in the concentration of charged PM 10 2 type particles within the cloud; ground coverage stretched over a 300 000 km 2 surface area. Across this whole area, the artificial radioactivity deposits are estimated to 37.10 10 Bq. In term of flow of deposit, this episode represents, with him only, i.e. in a few hours, a 137 Cs deposition equivalent to that recorded on average in a cumulated time of one year. Data from this study show that these weather-climatic episodes generate today, environmental samples which on average, present the highest levels and flux of artificial radioactivities, more than those in the sediments of the Rhone river deposited by flood events, for example. Changes in artificial radionuclide activity

  16. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  17. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  18. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  19. Assessment of Public Health and Economic Impact of Intranasal Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccination of Children in France Using a Dynamic Transmission Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlier, L; Lamotte, M; Grenèche, S; Lenne, X; Carrat, F; Weil-Olivier, C; Damm, O; Schwehm, M; Eichner, M

    2017-04-01

    We estimated the epidemiological and economic impact of extending the French influenza vaccination programme from at-risk/elderly (≥65 years) only to healthy children (2-17 years). A deterministic, age-structured, dynamic transmission model was used to simulate the transmission of influenza in the French population, using the current vaccination coverage with trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in at-risk/elderly individuals (current strategy) or gradually extending the vaccination to healthy children (aged 2-17 years) with intranasal, quadrivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (QLAIV) from current uptake up to 50% (evaluated strategy). Epidemiological, medical resource use and cost data were taken from international literature and country-specific information. The model was calibrated to the observed numbers of influenza-like illness visits/year. The 10-year number of symptomatic cases of confirmed influenza and direct medical costs ('all-payer') were calculated for the 0-17- (direct and indirect effects) and ≥18-year-old (indirect effect). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated for the total population, using a 4% discount rate/year. Assuming 2.3 million visits/year and 1960 deaths/year, the model calibration yielded an all-year average basic reproduction number (R 0 ) of 1.27. In the population aged 0-17 years, QLAIV prevented 865,000 influenza cases/year (58.4%), preventing 10-year direct medical expenses of €374 million. In those aged ≥18 years with unchanged TIV coverage, 1.2 million cases/year were averted (27.6%) via indirect effects (additionally prevented expenses, €457 million). On average, 613 influenza-related deaths were averted annually overall. The ICER was €18,001/life-year gained. The evaluated strategy had a 98% probability of being cost-effective at a €31,000/life-year gained threshold. The model demonstrated strong direct and indirect benefits of protecting healthy children against influenza with

  20. Accident response in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1988-07-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  1. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  2. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1995-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  4. Case study - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture concerns the training of the personnel of the PWR 900 MW twin units nuclear power station which is located in the Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China. The following points are covered: General organization of the training; preparation and recruitment of personnel trained in France; training and qualification of the personnel trained in France; complementary training in PRC for the above personnel; training of additional personnel in PRC; attended retraining. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper outlines the organizational and technical aspects of nuclear safety in France. From the organization point of view, the roles of the operator, of the safety authority and of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety are developed. From the technical viewpoint, the evolution of safety since the beginning of the French nuclear programme, the roles of deterministic and probabilistic methods and the severe accident policy (prevention and mitigation, venting containment) in France are explained

  6. Assessment by regional modelling of the impact of monopile foundations on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport: case of Courseulles-sur-Mer (France) wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Aurélie; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Pinon, Grégory; Magar, Vanesa; Gross, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Offshore monopile foundations of wind turbines modify hydrodynamics and sediment transport at local scale and also at regional scale. The aim of this work is to assess these changes and to parametrize them in a regional model. These modifications were previously evaluated using the regional circulation model MARS3D (Lazure and Dumas, 2008) in tests-cases (Rivier et al., 2014) using two approaches: in the first approach, monopiles are explicitly modelled in the mesh as dry cells and in the second approach a sub-grid parametrization which considers the drag force exerted by a monopile on the flow is used. The sub-grid parametrization is improved close to the bed in this paper by adding a drag force term in the momentum equations, source terms in the turbulence model and by increasing the bed shear stress at monopile location. Changes in hydrodynamics regime, especially near-bed, affect sediment transport regime and modifications due to monopiles on sediment dynamics is also investigated using the MARS3D sediment transport module (Le Hir et al., 2011) which solves the advection-diffusion equations. Test-cases are run using hydrodynamical conditions and sediment grain sizes typical from the area located off Courseulles-sur-Mer (Normandy, France) where an offshore wind farm is planned to be built. Velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and bed thickness changes due to the monopile simulated by both approaches are compared to each other and to experimental measurements made in a flume at the University of Caen or to published data (e.g. Roulund et al., 2005; Dargahi,1989). Then the model is applied in a real configuration on an area including the future offshore wind farm of Courseulles-sur-Mer. Four monopiles are represented in the model using both approaches and modifications of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport are assessed along a tidal cycle. Currents increase at the side edge of the monopile and decrease in front of and downstream the monopile. Turbulent kinetic

  7. Impact of acute geriatric care in elderly patients according to the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment criteria in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frély, Anne; Chazard, Emmanuel; Pansu, Aymeric; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François

    2016-02-01

    In France, over 20% of hospitalizations of elderly people are a result of adverse drug events, of which 50% are considered preventable. Tools have been developed to detect inappropriate prescriptions. The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria are innovative and adapted to French prescriptions. This is one of the first French prospective studies to evaluate the impact of acute geriatric care on prescriptions at discharge in elderly patients using the STOPP/START criteria. The evaluation of prescriptions according to STOPP/START was carried out on admission and at discharge of patients in acute geriatric units at three hospitals in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, France. A total of 202 elderly hospitalized patients were included during the 4.5 months of the study (1.5 months per center). The mean number of drugs was seven on admission and at discharge. Over half of the prescriptions at admission contained at least one potentially inappropriate medication or one potential prescription omission. The prescriptions at discharge contained significantly fewer potentially inappropriate medications than prescriptions on admission (P < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference between prescriptions at discharge in terms of potential prescription omissions. Acute geriatric hospitalization in France improves prescriptions in terms of potentially inappropriate medication, but has no impact on potential prescription omissions. Further studies must be carried out to see if STOPP/START could be used as a tool in French prescription. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. The French wind fleet and its impacts on avifauna. Study of mortality follow-ups performed in France from 1997 to 2015. June 2017 - Updated in September 2017 - LPO France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Geoffroy

    2017-06-01

    The present French policy for energy transition comprises a contribution to the struggle against climate change and to the protection of the environment, notably based on a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through a decrease of energy consumption (notably fossil energies) and a development of renewable energies, notably ground-based and offshore wind energy. But wind turbines have a potential impact on biodiversity, particularly habitats and flying vertebrates. As the number of wind turbines is to strongly increase, this report proposes a study of bird mortality directly due to collisions with wind turbines, and recommendations for a better environmental integration of ground-based wind farms. Illustrated by figures and tables, the report first proposes a presentation of the French wind turbine fleet (evolution, farm size, machine size, comparison with other countries, distribution on the French territory and within areas of special protection or ZPS). It describes various follow-up studies and data, and outlines their weaknesses and limitations. It reports an analysis of found carcasses, of impacted species, and of species exhibiting no mortality. It proposes an assessment of bird mortality, and discusses impact factors (machine size, distribution in time of carcass discoveries, habitat type, vicinity of ZPS)

  9. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  10. Salinity levels as a factor of phyto planktonic structure and diversity remediation in a lagoon impact by human activities. (Bolmon Lagoon, Mediterranean Coast, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, S.; Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Ollivier, A.; Maasri, A.; Franquet, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Bolmon lagoon (south-eastern France) is located in the coastal hinterland of the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the salty Berre pond and in the other hand receives fresh waters from the La Cadiere River. This hyper-shallow lagoon has been classified in the early 70's as β mixo-mesohaline. Bolmon lagoon is important for human activities (tourism, fishing) and for the preservation of the diversity of marine and birds species. In the last decades, the intensive urbanisation of its drainage basin induced a high eutrophication of its waters and, as a consequence, drastic modifications in the biodiversity and in the functioning os this ecosystem. (Author)

  11. The technological, economical and social impacts of a Paomia photovoltaic plant in Corsiga, France; Impacto tecno-economico-social de uma instalacao fotovoltaica, Paomia (Corsega), Franca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Moreira, J.G. de [Univ. de Corse (France). Lab. d` Helioenergetique; Peri, G [CNRS, (France). Lab. d` Helioenergetique

    1991-12-31

    The solar photovoltaic policy is taken into account in the great international market. Applying this high technology, France encourages its industrial potentialities due to its former colonies closed market. This policy is enforced by European Common Market aids. The `Paomia` photovoltaic plant (44 Kw) is the French project. This plant originally unadapted to users needs is now under used: on one side, because of its operational cost and on the other side, because of the arrival of the grid in this utilization area. Costumers prefer at last the use of conventional electricity for convenience sake. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Technical-economic-social impact of a photovoltaic installation - Paomia (Corsica) - France. Impacto tecno-economico-social de uma instalacao fotovoltaica - Paomia (Corsega) - Franca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J.G. de; Peri, G

    1990-01-01

    The solar photovoltaic policy is taken into account in the great international market. Applying this high-technology, France encourages its industrial potentialities due to its former colonies closed market. This policy is enforced by CEE aids. The Paomia photovoltaic plant - 44 K W p - is the french CEE project. It is the principal European photovoltaic R and D programme. This plant originally unadapted to users' needs is now under used: on one side, because of its operational cost and on the other side, because of the arrival of the grid in this utilization area. Customers prefer at last the use of the conventional electricity for convenience sake. (author).

  13. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge; La France, l'Allemagne et l'enjeu nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkish, F

    2004-11-15

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  14. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport environnement 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  15. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  16. Radioecological impact of Saharan dusts fallout. Case study of a major event on the 21. of february 2004 in south part of France; Impact radioecologique des retombees de poussieres sahariennes. Episode majeur du 21/02/2004 dans le sud de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson, O.; Pourcelot, L.; Gurriaran, R.; Paulat, P

    2005-07-01

    Lithometeors, Sirocco or more commonly 'red mud' are all in fact related to a single phenomenon which affects France every year: the wind transport and deposit of desert particles from the Sahara. On the 21. of February 2004, the southern part of France is swept by a weather event of wind transport of Saharan particles. The recordings of atmospheric dust contamination and the deposit of dust, which results from it, make an episode of exceptional width. In a few hours, the thickness of the deposit exceeds 1 mm (up to 4 mm in Corsica) with a maximum density of surface charge of 50 g.m{sup -2} (50 tons per km{sup 2}). The loads of the PM{sub 10} type particles in the air, recorded by associations of monitoring of the quality of the air, indicate concentrations multiplied to the maximum by 10 and an influence on the ground of the plume ranging between 300 000 and 350 000 km{sup 2}. To the end, 2 million tons are deposited on a portion of the territory located at the south of a line from Nantes to Besancon. This event also had a significant radio-ecological impact, leading to significant {sup 137}Cs, {sup (239+240)}Pu, {sup 241}Am, activity levels of 38 Bq. kg{sup -1} sec, 1 Bq. kg{sup -1} sec and 0,46 Bq. kg{sup -1} sec, respectively. Quality of air monitoring organisations recorded 10-fold increases in the concentration of charged PM{sub 10} {sup 2}type particles within the cloud; ground coverage stretched over a 300 000 km{sup 2} surface area. Across this whole area, the artificial radioactivity deposits are estimated to 37.10{sup 10} Bq. In term of flow of deposit, this episode represents, with him only, i.e. in a few hours, a {sup 137}Cs deposition equivalent to that recorded on average in a cumulated time of one year. Data from this study show that these weather-climatic episodes generate today, environmental samples which on average, present the highest levels and flux of artificial radioactivities, more than those in the sediments of the Rhone river

  17. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: purpose and context (includes information about France's energy supplies, use and responsible organizations); evolution of relationships among institutions; review of prevailing preoccupations of sectors (separate headings for oil, gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and unconventional energy sources: under the nuclear heading information is given about the organization of the nuclear industry in France, mining, enrichment, reprocessing, reactor construction); nature and operation of government control; energy in the plans; formulation of policy; opposition to the nuclear policy. (U.K.)

  18. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  19. France - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of France is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  20. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  1. The action of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a selection of energy statistics in France on, the energy in the economy, all energies, oil, gas, coal, electricity, renewable energies, district heating systems, rational use of energy, prices, energy and the environment and some useful addresses. (A.L.B.)

  3. France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The monthly (May 1991) energy situation analysis in France is presented: the energy consumption rise is lowered and especially, oil imports have fallen from -3.1 pc; natural gas imports and domestic electric power production have risen. The energy import dependence rate have very slightly risen, around 50 pc. Diagrams for 1989, 1990, 1991 are presented [fr

  4. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France). Impact of diagenesis on reservoir properties of the Upper Jurassic carbonate sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhloufi, Yasin; Rusillon, Elme; Brentini, Maud; Clerc, Nicolas; Meyer, Michel; Samankassou, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Diagenesis of carbonate rocks is known to affect the petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability) of the host rock. Assessing the diagenetic history of the rock is thus essential when evaluating any reservoir exploitation project. The Canton of Geneva (Switzerland) is currently exploring the opportunities for geothermal energy exploitation in the Great Geneva Basin (GGB) sub-surface. In this context, a structural analysis of the basin (Clerc et al., 2016) associated with reservoir appraisal (Brentini et al., 2017) and rock-typing of reservoir bodies of potential interest were conducted (Rusillon et al., 2017). Other geothermal exploitation projects elsewhere (e.g. Bavaria, south Germany, Paris Basin, France) showed that dolomitized carbonate rocks have good reservoir properties and are suitable for geothermal energy production. The objectives of this work are to (1) describe and characterize the dolomitized bodies in the GGB and especially their diagenetic history and (2) quantify the reservoir properties of those bodies (porosity, permeability). Currently, our study focuses on the Upper Jurassic sedimentary bodies of the GGB. Field and well data show that the dolomitization is not ubiquitous in the GGB. Results from the petrographical analyses of the Kimmeridgian cores (Humilly-2) and of field analogues (Jura, Saleve and Vuache mountains) display complex diagenetic histories, dependent of the study sites. The paragenesis exhibits several stages of interparticular calcite cementation as well as different stages of dolomitization and/or dedolomitization. Those processes seem to follow constrained path of fluid migrations through burial, faulting or exhumation during the basin's history. These complex diagenetic histories affected the petrophysical and microstructural properties via porogenesis (conservation of initial porosity, moldic porosity) and/or poronecrosis events. The best reservoir properties appear to be recorded in patch reef and peri

  5. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  6. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. La titrisation en France.

    OpenAIRE

    BIROUK, O.; CASSAN, L.

    2012-01-01

    La crise financière a justifié une surveillance accrue de la titrisation dans le refinancement de l’économie. Les créances titrisées en France sont en grande majorité représentatives de crédits octroyés par les banques aux ménages et aux sociétés non financières résidents.

  8. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  9. Parliamentary Office of technological and scientific choices evaluation. Document on the evaluation of climatic changes fullness, cause and foreseeable impacts on the France geography for 2025,2050 and 2100; Office parlementaire d'evaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques. Rapport sur l'evaluation de l'ampleur des changements climatiques, de leurs causes et de leur impact previsible sur la geographie de la France a l'horizon 2025, 2050 et 2100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneux, M

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive and detailed report illustrates the importance of the climatic change and the impacts on the agricultural, energetic, industrial and the transport activities, in France. The effects on the biodiversity and the people are also studied. It is presented in four main parts: the climatology where the author details the climate and the greenhouse effect; the origins and the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases and the aerosols; a socio-economical analysis of the climatic changes facing the human liabilities; solutions and stakes of these solutions. The second volume collects the sixty seven auditions of experts interviewed on the topic. It allows the reader a possible research to trump up its own opinion. (A.L.B.)

  10. Parliamentary Office of technological and scientific choices evaluation. Document on the evaluation of climatic changes fullness, cause and foreseeable impacts on the France geography for 2025,2050 and 2100; Office parlementaire d'evaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques. Rapport sur l'evaluation de l'ampleur des changements climatiques, de leurs causes et de leur impact previsible sur la geographie de la France a l'horizon 2025, 2050 et 2100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneux, M.

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive and detailed report illustrates the importance of the climatic change and the impacts on the agricultural, energetic, industrial and the transport activities, in France. The effects on the biodiversity and the people are also studied. It is presented in four main parts: the climatology where the author details the climate and the greenhouse effect; the origins and the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases and the aerosols; a socio-economical analysis of the climatic changes facing the human liabilities; solutions and stakes of these solutions. The second volume collects the sixty seven auditions of experts interviewed on the topic. It allows the reader a possible research to trump up its own opinion. (A.L.B.)

  11. The radiological impact of 50 years of uranium mining in France. The necessity of a site satisfying restructuring by Cogema-Areva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In a first text, the author briefly describes the radioprotection risks related to uranium mining, gives an overview of the characteristics of extraction residues in uranium extraction factories. Then, after having presented the case of the Limousin region in France, he outlines the high level of contamination of the environment of the mining sites, recalls the extraction process and discusses the careless use of the extracted radioactive rocks and materials. He outlines the insufficient management and processing of liquid effluents, the risk associated with the dispersal of contaminated scrap metals and of radioactive ores. He also discusses air contamination due to dusts and radioactive gases. He comments the issue of long term storage of uranium mining residues. He outlines the responsibility of the Administration and comments the trial against Cogema which took place in 2005. He outlines how restructuring of all the concerned sites is a challenging issue for our future. A second text in English describes radiological hazards from uranium mining (uranium by-products, radiological situation before and during extraction, long term contamination after mines closure, problems posed by tailing disposal)

  12. Hospital staffing and local pay: an investigation into the impact of local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay on the staffing of hospitals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Jean-Baptiste; Delattre, Eric; Elliott, Bob; Skåtun, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Spatial wage theory suggests that employers in different regions may offer different pay rates to reflect local amenities and cost of living. Higher wages may be required to compensate for a less pleasant environment or a higher cost of living. If wages in a competing sector within an area are less flexible and therefore less competitive this may lead to an inability to employ staff. This paper considers the market for nursing staff in France where there is general regulation of wages and public hospitals compete for staff with the private hospital and non-hospital sectors. We consider two types of nursing staff, registered and assistant nurses and first establish the degree of spatial variation in the competitiveness of pay of nurses in public hospitals. We then consider whether these spatial variations are associated with variation in the employment of nursing staff. We find that despite regulation of pay in the public and private sector, there are substantial local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay. We find evidence that the spatial variations in the competitiveness of pay are associated with relative numbers of assistant nurses but not registered nurses. While we find the influence of the competitiveness of pay is small, it suggests that nonpay conditions may be an important factor in adjusting the labour market as might be expected in such a regulated market.

  13. Final report of the project CARBOFOR. Carbon sequestration in the big forest ecosystems in France. Quantification, spatialization, vulnerability and impacts of different climatic and forestry scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loustau, D.

    2004-06-01

    The main outcomes of the project allowed to revise the carbon stock estimate of the national french forests, to clarify the interactions between climate and sylviculture according to the ecological profile of main species, to describe the changes in species area distribution for forest trees and pathogens. Different approaches for estimating the national carbon stock in forest biomass were investigated such as biomass equations and architectural models. Some conclusions in terms of adaptation scenario can be drawn. The global production potential of the french forest will be changed. This change is rapid and will occur a time interval shorter than average tree life duration. Species substitution and changing practices must be considered from now. The soil water holding capacity and the nutrient availability interact strongly with the climate effects and are therefore target factors for adapting forest stands to future changes. The dramatic change in the potential area distribution of most pathogens over France lead to recommend strong regulations for avoiding dissemination of fungal diseases and to anticipate the pathogen risks through species distribution. (A.L.B.)

  14. Pharmacy education in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  15. Nuclear Education in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of nuclear engineering training in France. The nuclear sector is very active and developed in France and covers all the aspects of the fuel cycle which implies a strong demand for highly skilled and trained staff. There are both an active involvement of industry in the education process through the design of adequate curricula and a strong support of the State. There are 5 masters dedicated to Science Nuclear Energy (Paris), Nuclear Waste Management (Nantes), Separation Chemistry (Montpellier), Materials for Nuclear Engineering (Grenoble), and 1 engineer degree in nuclear engineering (Saclay). In 2010-2011 there were about 1000 students completing a nuclear energy curriculum (nuclear engineering or specialized nuclear domains) at the master-engineer level throughout France. The detailed curriculum of the Master of Science Nuclear Energy is given. The National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (INSTN) plays an important role, it has trained a large fraction of the French leading nuclear practitioners through its 50 years old 'Genie Atomique' curriculum. INSTN proposes also high level courses in nuclear disciplines including training of nuclear physicians, radio-pharmacists and medical physicists and is a major player for continuing education in nuclear sciences. (A.C.)

  16. Energy options in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid rise of oil price and the future shortage of oil are the problems, to which those in charge of energy must face. The method of maintaining and increasing energy consumption without destroying financial balance must be found. As the common points in Japan and France, domestic energy resources are scarce, coal reserves are small and the cost is high, the room for expanding water power generation hardly remains, and the atomic energy projects of large scale seem to be the only solution, but actually, they encountered many difficulties. In France, Energy Conservation Agency was established in 1974. The energy consumption per man was 4500 kWh in 1979, and it is not high level, accordingly it is difficult to reduce the present consumption further. The growth of electricity consumption in 1979 slowed down remarkably. The present crisis is oil crisis instead of energy crisis. Therefore electric power is the most suitable medium to get rid of the bondage of oil. The breakdown of heat production is as follows: coal 41%, oil 32%, gas 4%, and uranium 23%. Since 1976, 15 power plants of 3.5 million kW were converted to coal burning, but more staffs are required for the operation and maintenance. Water power generation is valuable to supplement nuclear power generation which lacks flexibility. As the nucleus of energy projects in France, PWR development project is in progress. Six 900 MW PWR plants are in operation. (Kako, I.)

  17. Taxation in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  18. Impact of toxic cyanobacteria on gastropods and microcystin accumulation in a eutrophic lake (Grand-Lieu, France) with special reference to Physa (= Physella) acuta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Emilie; Brient, Luc; Carpentier, Alexandre; Acou, Anthony; Marion, Loic; Bormans, Myriam; Gerard, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria are known to accumulate in gastropods following grazing of toxic cyanobacteria and/or absorption of MCs dissolved in water, with adverse effects on life history traits demonstrated in the laboratory. In the field, such effects may vary depending on species, according to their relative sensitivity and ecology. The aims of this study were to i) establish how various intensities of MC-producing cyanobacteria proliferations alter the structure of gastropod community and ii) compare MC tissue concentration in gastropods in the field with those obtained in our previous laboratory experiments on the prosobranch Potamopyrgus antipodarum and the pulmonate Lymnaea stagnalis. We explored these questions through a one-year field study at three stations at Grand-Lieu Lake (France) affected by different intensities of cyanobacteria proliferations. A survey of the community structure and MC content of both cyanobacteria and gastropods was associated with a caging experiment involving P. antipodarum and L. stagnalis. In total, 2592 gastropods belonging to 7 prosobranch and 16 pulmonate species were collected. However, distribution among the stations was unequal with 62% vs 2% of gastropods sampled respectively at the stations with the lowest vs highest concentrations of MC. Irrespective of the station, pulmonates were always more diverse, more abundant and occurred at higher frequencies than prosobranchs. Only the pulmonate Physa acuta occurred at all stations, with abundance and MC tissue concentration (≤ 4.32 μg g DW -1 ) depending on the degrees of MC-producing cyanobacteria proliferations in the stations; therefore, P. acuta is proposed as a potential sentinel species. The caging experiment demonstrated a higher MC accumulation in L. stagnalis (≤ 0.36 μg g DW -1 for 71% of individuals) than in P. antipodarum (≤ 0.02 μg g DW -1 for 12%), corroborating previous laboratory observations. Results are discussed in

  19. Differential impact of parental region of birth on negative parenting behavior and its effects on child mental health: Results from a large sample of 6 to 11 year old school children in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton

    2016-05-04

    In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting behaviors of French residents from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds 2) to examine the relationship between parental region of origin and child mental health, and 3) to investigate the extent to which ethno-cultural context moderates the effect of parenting styles on child mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 in 100 schools in South-East France. The Dominic Interactive and the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess child psychopathology. The Parent Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess parenting styles. The final sample included data on 1,106 mother and child dyads. Caring and punitive attitudes were significantly different across mothers as a function of region of origin. This association was stronger for punitive attitudes with the highest prevalence in the Caribbean/African group, while mothers from Maghreb were more similar to French natives. Differences in caring behaviors were similar though less pronounced. Among children of Maghrebian descent, punitive parenting was associated with an increased risk of internalizing disorders while this association was weaker among children of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Parental region of origin is an important component of both parenting styles and their effect on child mental health. Interventions on parenting should consider both the region of origin and the differential impact of origin on the effect of parenting styles, thus allowing for a finer

  20. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France: descriptive fact sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory

  1. France country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouillot, Dominique [Onet Technologies, 36, Bd des Oceans 13009 Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in France - Electricity share: 78%. Electricity production by Electricite de France: 419 TWh, 63,260 GWe installed. Number of Reactors: 58 NPPs type PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) in operation; One under construction: EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) Flamanville 3, on time. Others nuclear installations: The AREVA NC La Hague fuel treatment and recycling plant - Capacity: 1700 tons (Facilities UP2 and UP3). COMURHEX is number one worldwide in the conversion of uranium mine concentrates into UF{sub 6} and has a processing capacity of 14,000 tonnes of uranium per year. EURODIF Production site, with the construction of the Georges Besse II plant, Centrifugation is the highest performance technology today. Others nuclear installations: MELOX production site - Mox fuel production; FBFC:fuel rods manufacturing; Waste Storage in Surface and Subsurface: The Aube department storage center in Soulaines, which houses short-lived low- to medium-level waste; the VLL storage centre in Morvilliers (Aube), which houses very low-level waste. Public acceptance: An opinion poll published in June 2007, commissioned by the OE (Observatoire de l'Energie) shows that a majority of French people support nuclear. The respondents were asked whether nuclear energy, which produces 78% of total electricity, is an asset: 51% of them backed the idea, 39% a disadvantage, 10% did not have an opinion. Energy policy: The new President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Nuclear energy is necessary for France. (Organisation of so called 'Grenelle of environment'). Projects: EPR Flamanville 3: Due to be commissioned in 2012, Commercial FBR (Fast Breeders reactor) in 2040, EURODIF will ended in 2012 and Georges Besse 2 (centrifugation) should be operational in 2012, Decommissioning of 6 UNGG reactors, Superphenix and Brennillis within 25 years. (estimated at 3 billion Euros). Nuclear waste management policy: The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible

  2. Energy statistics. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  3. Literatures of Medieval France

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Dear Mr Administrator,Dear colleagues, Deep forests, enchanted castles, monsters, damsels in distress, stout-hearted heroes and boundless love. The literature of the Middle Ages has everything it takes to appeal to the imagination of children and teenagers. However, can it do more than that? And does it even still have this appeal? Anatole France claims that, to the loves of Abeille des Clarides and Georges de Blanchelande and to the magnanimity of the King of the Dwarves, his pretty little n...

  4. Planeteria: news from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, J.; Acker, A.; Delfosse, X.

    2011-10-01

    France has a good network of planetaria. They are linked through a network called Association of the French Speaking Planetaria. In this talk, I will present this organization and its different activities. I will also report on the making of a Art and Science museum in Grenoble which will include a planetarium. The grand opening is foreseen in 2014. Finally, I will present an astronomical show which has been adapted for planetaria and demonstrate how this benefits both to the show and the planetarium.

  5. Mael-e(st-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mée, Mael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A performance of Mael Le Mée and France Geoffroy Photos and videos (France: Denis Louis Photo (Montreal: Alexandre Cv France Geoffroy’s assistant: Rosalie Chrétien Production: Espace Projet and Dorsa Barlow Performance co-developed within the project BIOGRAPHIES, with the support of CNC – DICRéAM, Aquitaine Regional Council and the City of Bordeaux.

  6. Gas de France international strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the main international objectives of Gaz de France, and actions taken to achieve them. The safety and the reliability of natural gas supplies is the priority-holder axis of the international strategy of Gaz de France. The second axis is to obtain a consolidated position in Europe on natural gas markets and valorize the know-how of Gaz de France in foreign countries

  7. Role of treatment for depressive symptoms in relieving the impact of fatigue in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: ANRS Co13 Hepavih, France, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Villes, V; Dabis, F; Spire, B; Winnock, M; Loko, M-A; Poizot-Martin, I; Valantin, M A; Bonnard, P; Salmon-Céron, D; Carrieri, M P

    2010-09-01

    Fatigue is a major component of quality of life (QOL) and is associated with depression in HIV-HCV co-infected individuals. We investigated whether treating depressive symptoms (DS) could mitigate the impact of fatigue on daily functioning in co-infected patients, even those at an advanced stage of disease. The analysis was conducted on enrollment data of 328 HIV-HCV co-infected patients recruited in the French nationwide ANRS CO 13 HEPAVIH cohort. Data collection was based on medical records and self-administered questionnaires which included items on socio-behavioural data, the fatigue impact scale (FIS) in three domains (cognitive, physical and social functioning), depressive symptoms (CES-D classification) and use of treatments for depressive symptoms (TDS). After multiple adjustment for gender and unemployment, CD4 cell count <200 per mm(3) was associated with a negative impact of fatigue on the physical functioning dimension (P = 0.002). A higher number of symptoms causing discomfort significantly predicted a higher impact of fatigue on all three dimensions (P < 0.001). This was also true for patients with DS receiving TDS when compared with those with no DS but receiving TDS. A significant decreasing linear trend (P < 0.001) of the impact of fatigue was found across the categories 'DS/TDS', 'DS/no TDS', 'no DS/TDS' and 'no DS/no TDS'. Despite limitations related to the cross-sectional nature of this study, our results suggest that routine screening and treatment for DS can reduce the impact of fatigue on the daily functioning of HIV-HCV co-infected patients and relieve the burden of their dual infection.

  8. L’émergence de l’âge adulte : de l’impact des référentiels institutionnels en France et au Québec 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Moulin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La théorie de l’âge adulte émergeant soutient que la période de 18 à 25 ans constitue un nouvel âge des parcours de vie qui n’est pas structurée par les institutions. Cet article vise à mettre cette affirmation à l’épreuve de la comparaison internationale à travers une analyse qualitative comparée de l’entrée des étudiants dans l’âge adulte au Québec et en France. Un contraste important est observé dans le processus d’émergence du sentiment d’être adulte : les étudiants se déclarent adultes dès le début du post-secondaire au Québec mais seulement à la fin de leurs études en France. Ce contraste est expliqué par des référentiels institutionnels nationaux qui structurent des conceptions différenciées de l’être adulte, du rôle des parents ainsi que du travail rémunéré.Emerging Adulthood: differential impacts of institutional referentials in France and QuébecThe theory of ‘Emerging Adulthood’ argues that the period between 18 and 25 years of age constitutes a new stage of the life-course that is unstructured by institutions. This article seeks to put this statement to the test of international comparison by a qualitative comparison of student entry to adulthood in France and Québec. A gap is observed between the two processes of emerging adulthood: Quebec students tend to identify themselves as adults at the very beginning of their postsecondary studies while French students declare themselves adults only after their postsecondary studies. We suggest that this gap is explained by national institutional referentials that shape differential conceptions of adulthood, role of parents and remunerative work.La accesión a la edad adulta. Impacto de los elementos de referencia institucionales en Francia y en Quebec (CanadaLa teoría de la “adultez emergente” afirma que el periodo comprendido entre los 18 y los 25 años no está estructurado por las instituciones. Este artículo intenta poner a

  9. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  10. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1991-01-01

    As coal production declined and France found herself in a condition of energy dependency, the country decided to turn to nuclear power and a major construction program was undertaken in 1970. The consequences of this step are examined in this article, by imagining where France would be without its nuclear power. At the end of the sixties, fuel-oil incontestably offered the cheapest way of producing electricity; but the first petroleum crisis was to upset the order of economic performance, and coal then became the more attractive fuel. The first part of this article therefore presents coal as an alternative to nuclear power, describing the coal scenario first and then comparing the relative costs of nuclear and coal investment strategies and operating costs (the item that differs most is the price of the fuel). The second part of the article analyzes the consequences this would have on the electrical power market, from the supply and demand point of view, and in terms of prices. The third part of the article discusses the macro-economic consequences of such a step: the drop in the level of energy dependency, increased costs and the disappearance of electricity exports. The article ends with an analysis of the environmental consequences, which are of greater and greater concern today. The advantage here falls very much in favor of nuclear power, if we judge by the lesser emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and especially carbon dioxide. 22 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  11. Post-mining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This plentifully illustrated book aims at showing how new equilibria are building up during the transition between mining activity and post-mining, and at stressing on the necessity to keep up the cultural elements, the competencies and knowledge of mining works. The first chapter - mine and men - shows the importance of mineral substances in the objects of the everyday life, illustrates the importance of the mining tradition in France and describes the technical and administrative organisation of the end of the mining activity (works, rehabilitation, regulation, monitoring..). Chapter two - exploitation methods - presents the surface and underground facilities and their impact on the environment (extraction machines, workshops, ore processing plants, decantation ponds..). The third chapter deals with the rehabilitation and monitoring aspects: impact of mining activity stoppage on underground and surface waters, land stability, soils cleansing.. The last chapter summarizes the history of French mining region by region: Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lorraine-Alsace, Massif central, Bretagne-Normandie, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Pyrenees

  12. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  13. The Future of the CEMAC CFA Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Agbor Agbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 currency boards have come into existence at some point since the mid-19th century, but to date only about 15 of them still exist, among which is the CFA franc monetary zone. The future sustainability of the CFA franc zone, to which the CEMAC CFA franc belongs, is increasingly questioned in the light of increasing asymmetries in exposure to external shocks, differential speeds of adjustment of the real exchange rate following shocks, differential impacts in economic fundamentals, and low levels of intra-regional trade and financial flows between CEMAC and WAEMU. For the CEMAC bloc of countries in particular, the future sustainability of the fixed exchange regime depends crucially on continued oil exports, which currently represent about 90percent of export revenues and 40 percent of GDP. Should oil reserves deplete in the near future or oil prices decline significantly, a substantial source of foreign reserves would be lost, thereby exposing the regime to collapse. Even without resource depletion, continued volatility in global financial markets is increasing the risks of collapse of the fixed exchange regime as oil and commodity price swings ignite currency speculation as well as render reserves much more volatile. Against this backdrop, the present study examines the stakes facing the CEMAC CFA franc, discusses the exit options from the currency board and makes recommendations towards a sustainable monetary policy framework for CEMAC countries going forward. The analysis points to the imperative of pursuing a full monetary union with a single CEMAC franc pegged to the U.S. dollar and further suggest that, like the experience of the eurozone, the CEMAC monetary arrangement can be best implemented only by complying with the principle of political union.

  14. Recent progress towards climate services in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deandreis, C.; Lemond, J.; Dandin, P.; Braconnot, P.

    2013-01-01

    Important efforts have been made in recent years to develop climate services in France. Many initiatives have emerged to build an adapted System of information. This development is consistent with legislative and regulatory obligations, with a concern for economic advance, or a citizen questioning related to global change. The web portal 'DRIAS, les futurs du climat' provides an easy access to climate scenarios for France, opened to everyone concerned by impact and adaptation to climate change. This achievement results of a close co-operation between the major French climate modelling groups and the operational services of Meteo-France. It has been benefiting from the support of the Ministry in charge of Sustainable Development namely through its GICC program. The next steps with DRIAS will be defined both by a strong consistency with the scientific community work and by the requirements and expectations of users. In this, it is a real service. Following a different approach more focused on the specific and advanced needs of particular users, the French projects INVULNERABLe and SECIF sought to create a relevant and tailored to the industrial sector. This kind of products requires a support to educate operational users to climate change issue, and then to enhance the interface between climatologists and skilled users within the concerned companies. Both approaches are representative of current efforts of the French national scientific community to provide a useful part of the knowledge developed by the Academia and Meteo-France. The various initiatives are carried out with the wish to share and be consistent with research community work. They are mutually enriching, and with all stakeholders involved, they gradually build a real climate service in France. (authors)

  15. Environmental impacts of hydroelectric power and other anthropogenic developments on the hydromorphology and ecology of the Durance channel and the Etang de Berre, southeast France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Robin F

    2012-08-15

    The generation of electricity through hydropower can, along with other anthropogenic activities, degrade river hydromorphology and ecosystems. In this case, water for power generation is diverted from the River Durance to a canal, which services a chain of 17 power stations, with the lower three being in the catchment of the Etang de Berre. This means that excess water and sediments are discharged into the salt-water lagoon with enormous consequences for ecosystems there. This paper summarizes the impacts of HEP and other human activities on both the river and lagoonal systems. It also considers agency and government attempts to understand and counter the degradation of these systems, both to date and in the future, with the latter catering for the potential impacts of future human development and global warming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Les ombres noires de Saint Domingue: The Impact of Black Women on Gender and Racial Boundaries in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century France

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Robin

    2010-01-01

    AbstractLes ombres noires de Saint Domingue: The Impact of Black Women on Gender & Racial Boundaries in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century FrancebyRobin MitchellDoctor of Philosophy in HistoryUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Tyler Stovall, ChairThere were few black women on French soil in the nineteenth century, yet images of and discussions about them are found in political, artistic, scientific, and various social milieus. This paradox is explored for its symbolic and nationali...

  17. The Palaeoenvironmental Impact of Prehistoric Settlement and Proto-Historic Urbanism: Tracing the Emergence of the Oppidum of Corent, Auvergne, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Paul M.; Miras, Yannick; Poux, Matthieu; Milcent, Pierre Yves

    2015-01-01

    Early human societies and their interactions with the natural world have been extensively explored in palaeoenvironmental studies across Central and Western Europe. Yet, despite an extensive body of scholarship, there is little consideration of the environmental impacts of proto-historic urbanisation. Typically palaeoenvironmental studies of Bronze and Iron Age societies discuss human impact in terms of woodland clearance, landscape openness and evidence for agriculture. Although these features are clearly key indicators of human settlement, and characterise Neolithic and early to Middle Bronze Age impacts at Corent, they do not appear to represent defining features of a protohistoric urban environment. The Late Iron Age Gallic Oppidum of Corent is remarkable for the paucity of evidence for agriculture and strong representation of apophytes associated with disturbance. Increased floristic diversity – a phenomenon also observed in more recent urban environments – was also noted. The same, although somewhat more pronounced, patterns are noted for the Late Bronze Age and hint at the possibility of a nascent urban area. High percentages of pollen from non-native trees such as Platanus, Castanea and Juglans in the late Bronze Age and Gallic period also suggest trade and cultural exchange, notably with the Mediterranean world. Indeed, these findings question the validity of applying Castanea and Juglans as absolute chronological markers of Romanisation. These results clearly indicate the value of local-scale palaeoecological studies and their potential for tracing the phases in the emergence of a proto-historic urban environment. PMID:25853251

  18. The palaeoenvironmental impact of prehistoric settlement and proto-historic urbanism: tracing the emergence of the Oppidum of Corent, Auvergne, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Paul M; Miras, Yannick; Poux, Matthieu; Milcent, Pierre Yves

    2015-01-01

    Early human societies and their interactions with the natural world have been extensively explored in palaeoenvironmental studies across Central and Western Europe. Yet, despite an extensive body of scholarship, there is little consideration of the environmental impacts of proto-historic urbanisation. Typically palaeoenvironmental studies of Bronze and Iron Age societies discuss human impact in terms of woodland clearance, landscape openness and evidence for agriculture. Although these features are clearly key indicators of human settlement, and characterise Neolithic and early to Middle Bronze Age impacts at Corent, they do not appear to represent defining features of a protohistoric urban environment. The Late Iron Age Gallic Oppidum of Corent is remarkable for the paucity of evidence for agriculture and strong representation of apophytes associated with disturbance. Increased floristic diversity - a phenomenon also observed in more recent urban environments - was also noted. The same, although somewhat more pronounced, patterns are noted for the Late Bronze Age and hint at the possibility of a nascent urban area. High percentages of pollen from non-native trees such as Platanus, Castanea and Juglans in the late Bronze Age and Gallic period also suggest trade and cultural exchange, notably with the Mediterranean world. Indeed, these findings question the validity of applying Castanea and Juglans as absolute chronological markers of Romanisation. These results clearly indicate the value of local-scale palaeoecological studies and their potential for tracing the phases in the emergence of a proto-historic urban environment.

  19. The palaeoenvironmental impact of prehistoric settlement and proto-historic urbanism: tracing the emergence of the Oppidum of Corent, Auvergne, France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Ledger

    Full Text Available Early human societies and their interactions with the natural world have been extensively explored in palaeoenvironmental studies across Central and Western Europe. Yet, despite an extensive body of scholarship, there is little consideration of the environmental impacts of proto-historic urbanisation. Typically palaeoenvironmental studies of Bronze and Iron Age societies discuss human impact in terms of woodland clearance, landscape openness and evidence for agriculture. Although these features are clearly key indicators of human settlement, and characterise Neolithic and early to Middle Bronze Age impacts at Corent, they do not appear to represent defining features of a protohistoric urban environment. The Late Iron Age Gallic Oppidum of Corent is remarkable for the paucity of evidence for agriculture and strong representation of apophytes associated with disturbance. Increased floristic diversity - a phenomenon also observed in more recent urban environments - was also noted. The same, although somewhat more pronounced, patterns are noted for the Late Bronze Age and hint at the possibility of a nascent urban area. High percentages of pollen from non-native trees such as Platanus, Castanea and Juglans in the late Bronze Age and Gallic period also suggest trade and cultural exchange, notably with the Mediterranean world. Indeed, these findings question the validity of applying Castanea and Juglans as absolute chronological markers of Romanisation. These results clearly indicate the value of local-scale palaeoecological studies and their potential for tracing the phases in the emergence of a proto-historic urban environment.

  20. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  1. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  2. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  3. Women in physics in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  4. Women in physics in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives

  5. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  6. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  7. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  8. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  9. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  10. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  11. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  12. Energy in France. References

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet is a compilation of key data about the energy in France: energy and economy (energy industries and gross internal product, employment, investments), overall energies (primary energy production and consumption, sectoral consumption, energy bill, price of imported crude oil), petroleum (primary production, sectoral consumption of refined petroleum products, automotive fuels demand, import and export of petroleum products), natural gas (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of origin), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports), electric power (production per origin, classical thermal production per type of fuel, sectoral consumption), renewable energies (overall production, heat networks supplied with non-conventional energy sources, wood consumption, wind power production, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, cumulated energy saving), energy prices (in industries and households, automotive fuel prices, energy consumptions in households), energy and environment (CO 2 emissions). A synthesis of the main energy tariffs and prices is given in a separate folder. (J.S.)

  13. Nuclear prospects in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    At the present time, then, we are on the threshold of the second phase of nuclear development, in the. course of which nuclear activities will play a more telling role in the economic cycle. We must therefore consider the development of nuclear energy during its first two decades in the light of the above conclusions and in the realization that for some time to come we shall find ourselves in a delicate transitional stage, during which various influences from the period behind us and the period ahead will make themselves felt. This train of events is not restricted to France, where in 1970 the CEA undertook a complete restructuring of its departments. It is also taking place in other countries, where the various atomic energy commissions are feeling the need to reorganize in order to fit themselves for essential changes. We must therefore be prepared to act in the most effective way possible during this nuclear industrial period. To this end we must establish structures and adopt ways of thinking that art in keeping with the objectives of the period, which will be accompanied by a large growth of investment in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Success will depend to a large extent on timely joint efforts in the public and private sectors. Taken together, these requirements imply that we must follow a long-term policy covering at least the next 20 years. As our remarks are to concern the peaceful applications of nuclear energy in France, leaving aside questions of fundamental research and military applications, we shall concentrate ori the fuel cycle and the production of nuclear power, enlarging the subject at each step to encompass the necessary and increasing international co-operation.

  14. Shielding research in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P

    1964-10-01

    Shielding research as an independent subject in France dates from 1956. The importance of these studies has been reflected in the contribution which they have made to power reactor design and in the resultant savings in expenditure for civil engineering and machinery for the removal of mobile shields. The Reactor Shielding Research Division numbers approximately 60 persons and uses several experimental facilities. These include: NAIADE I, installed near the ZOE reactor and operating with a natural uranium slab 2 cm thick (an effective diameter of 60 cm is the one most commonly used); the TRITON pool-type reactor, mainly used in shielding studies, includes an active-water loop, by means of which the secondary shields required for light-water reactors can be studied; core, NEREIDE, which is situated near a 2 m x 2 m aluminium window enables a large neutron source to be placed in a compartment without water in which large-scale mock-ups can be mounted for the study, in particular, of neutron diffusion in large cavities, and of reactor shielding of greater thickness than that in NAIADE I; SAMES 600 keV accelerator is used for monoenergetic neutron studies. Instrumentation studies are an important part of the work, mainly in the measurement of fast neutrons and their spectra by activation detectors. Of late, attention has been directed towards the use of (n, n') (rhodium) reactions and of heavy detectors for low-flux measurements. The simultaneous use of a large number of detectors poses automation problems. With our installation we can count 16 detectors simultaneously. Neutron spectrum studies are conducted with nuclear emulsions and a lithium-6 semiconductor spectrometer. As to the materials used, the research carried out in France involves chiefly graphite, iron and concrete at various temperatures up to 800 deg C. Different compounds, borated and non-borated and of densities up to between 1 and 9 are under consideration. Problems connected with applications are

  15. Producing in France: nuclear energy in the service of buying power and of the fight against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    While maintaining a strong industry in France is agreed by the vast majority, it appears irresponsible to advocate the phasing-out of nuclear energy in the French territory. Nuclear energy is undoubtedly France's best competitive advantage. The Concorde foundation recommends to avoid any change in France's energy mix which would have a significant impact on French citizens' standard of living

  16. Analysis of the Fukushima accident impact in France (mainland and overseas territories) from the results of the reinforced environmental radioactivity monitoring; Analyse de l'impact de l'accident de Fukushima en France (metropole et DROM-COM) a partir des resultats de la surveillance renforcee de la radioactivite de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaptal-Gradoz, N.

    2011-07-01

    The enhanced environmental radioactivity monitoring settled in France (and the country's overseas territories) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident detected trace levels of the main radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the accident (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137, and smaller quantities of tellurium 132) and monitored their evolution until May. In mainland France, the various measurement results relating to air, rainwater and terrestrial products revealed that no traces of radionuclides attributable to the Fukushima accident were detected prior to 24 March. Airborne particulate iodine 131 was detected for the first time in a sample collected on 24 March at the summit of the Puy-de-Dome mountain, and this observation was confirmed nationwide with effect from 25 March. In the other compartments of the environment, the first significant results for iodine 131 were obtained over the following days. The maximum iodine 131 levels detected were of the order of: - a few milli-becquerels per cubic metre of air (mBq/m{sup 3}); - approximately 10 becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of plant matter (grass or leafy vegetables); - a few becquerels per litre (Bq/L) in rainwater or milk. Caesium 137 (together with an equivalent level of caesium 134) was also detected, generally at concentrations ten times lower than those observed for iodine 131. Tellurium 132 was occasionally detected in the air in late March. The various observations revealed that all French regions were affected to the same extent, albeit with some geographic and chronological fluctuations due to the movements of air masses. These levels are consistent with the forecasts based on modelling by IRSN in association with the French meteorological institute, Meteo-France. These concentrations were between 500 and more than 1, 000 times lower than those measured in France in early May 1986, following the Chernobyl accident. The maximum potential exposures (thyroid equivalent dose in one year

  17. Arsenic Scavenging by Al-Substituted Ferrihydrites in a Circumneutral pH River Impacted by the Acid Mine Drainage of Carnoulès, Gard, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADRA, A.; Morin, G.; ona-Nguema, G.; Maillot, F.; Casiot, C.; Bruneel, O.

    2013-12-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is a nanocrystalline ferric oxyhydroxide involved in the retention of pollutants in natural systems and in water-treatment processes. The status and properties of major chemical impurities in natural Fh is however still scarcely documented. Here we investigated the structure and reactivity of aluminum-rich Fh from river-bed sediments collected in a circumneutral river (pH 6-7) impacted by an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge shows that Fh is the predominant mineral phase forming after neutralization of the AMD, in association with minor amount of schwertmannite transported from the AMD. EXAFS analysis indicates that Al(III) substitutes for Fe(III) ions into the Fh structure in the natural sediment samples, with local aluminum concentration within the 20-37×7 mol%Al range, in agreement with bulk chemical compositions. Synthetic aluminous Fh analogues prepared in the present study are found to be less Al-substituted (14-18×4 mol%Al). Finally, EXAFS analysis at the arsenic K-edge indicates that As(V) form similar inner-sphere surface complexes on the natural and synthetic Al-substituted Fh studied. Our results provide direct evidences for the scavenging of arsenic by natural Al- Fh, with possible implications for other pollutants in natural or engineered systems.

  18. Adaptation to climate change in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This report first comments some data and facts illustrating climate change. It discusses its various impacts (extreme meteorological events, dramatic impacts on ecosystems with the possible disappearance of some vegetal and animal species, crisis regarding food resources, health risks, population migrations notably because of sea level rise), and briefly evokes these impacts in France. It outlines the need for adaptation and describes the different adaptation principles: reduction of vulnerability, and anticipation of changes and of their impacts. It comments how adaptation and mitigation are two complementary approaches. It presents the French State strategy with its national adaptation strategy, its national adaptation plan, the mandatory elaboration of regional schemes for climate, air and energy, and the action of local communities

  19. Gaz de France. Operation note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  20. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  1. Hydro energy at Electricite De France; L'energie hydraulique a Electricite De France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    Hopeful the hydroelectric power, the France holds the first place of the renewable energies producers at the European Union. This document presents measures taken by EDF to reach this quality level and conciliate the hydroelectricity production with other uses of water. In this framework, the first part presents the operating advantages and the social impact of the hydroelectricity, the second part deals with the water management and the last part deals with the safety downstream from the dam. (A.L.B.)

  2. France looks to biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-22

    France's Solar Energy Commission has announced a series of measures it is backing to increase the country's production of energy from biomass. Following consultations on suitable equipment, it has decided to go ahead with experiments of 15 systems designed to produce methane from animal wastes. Its eventual target is the production of between 1 million and 1.5 million tons per year of oil equivalent (toe) from this source. Secondly, it has launched a tender for the supply of domestic and industrial heating equipment capable of functioning on straw. It has calculated that the amount of straw available for this end use is in the region of 6 million ton per year, equivalent to about 2 million tons per year toe. Finally, tests are to be carried out in 14 different areas to determine the best variety of Jerusalem artichoke for the production of ethanol. Together with the Institut Francais du Petrole the Commission is building a demonstration unit for the production of acetone/butyric acid by fermentation of sugars from Jerusamlem artichoke and beet roots.

  3. Nuclear electricity from France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.

    1987-01-01

    This second volume of the Berlin series presents the papers and discussion of the eleventh discussion meeting on energy law, for the first time held in Berlin, on May 12-13, 1987. The leading subject of the first conference day, namely electricity imports from France, has since then widely been discussed in the media or at other meetings, although the legal problems or obstacles revealed at this Berlin meeting are far from being solved. There is EdF's wish to export electricity to West Germany on the other hand, and there is the West German coal industry's scepticism on the other hand. Much is at stake for West Germany's national concept of enhanced use of coal for electricity generation, and the related system of subventions. Supply concepts and franchise charges, a standing topic of the power sector for quite a time now, have been discussed on the second conference day. The papers read there gave an account of the situation and also presented some new aspects. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverie, M.

    1981-02-01

    The principles and rules governing the safety of nuclear installations are defined as from three fundamental principles and three practical rules as follows: First principle: the operator is responsible and of the highest order. Second principle: the public authorities exercise their control responsibility with respect to the design, construction and running of the installations. Third principle: nuclear safety, this is to accept that man and his technique are not infallible and that one must be prepared to control the unpredictable. First rule: the installations must include several 'lines of defence' in succession and to the extent where this is possible these must be independent of each other. Second rule: procedures are required and supervised by the Government Departments. Third rule: nuclear safety requires that any incident or anomaly must undergo an analysis in depth and is also based on a standing 'clinical' examination of the installations. The definition is given as to how the public authorities exercise their intervention: terms and conditions of the intervention by the safety authorities, authorization procedures, surveillance of the installations, general technical regulations. Two specific subjects are presented in the addendum, (a) the choice of nuclear power station sites in France and (b) the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  5. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  6. Outreach in southern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-01-01

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mer site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year

  7. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  8. Final report of the project CARBOFOR. Carbon sequestration in the big forest ecosystems in France. Quantification, spatialization, vulnerability and impacts of different climatic and forestry scenario; Rapport final du projet CARBOFOR. Sequestration de carbone dans les grands ecosystemes forestiers en France. Quantification, spatialisation, vulnerabilite et impacts de differents scenarios climatiques et sylvicoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loustau, D

    2004-06-15

    The main outcomes of the project allowed to revise the carbon stock estimate of the national french forests, to clarify the interactions between climate and sylviculture according to the ecological profile of main species, to describe the changes in species area distribution for forest trees and pathogens. Different approaches for estimating the national carbon stock in forest biomass were investigated such as biomass equations and architectural models. Some conclusions in terms of adaptation scenario can be drawn. The global production potential of the french forest will be changed. This change is rapid and will occur a time interval shorter than average tree life duration. Species substitution and changing practices must be considered from now. The soil water holding capacity and the nutrient availability interact strongly with the climate effects and are therefore target factors for adapting forest stands to future changes. The dramatic change in the potential area distribution of most pathogens over France lead to recommend strong regulations for avoiding dissemination of fungal diseases and to anticipate the pathogen risks through species distribution. (A.L.B.)

  9. The nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the nuclear energy in France is done. The great centers and the great research lines of the French nuclear program, as well as its present status and prospects for the future are presented. (EG) [pt

  10. Electricite de France in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menage, G.; Bergougnoux, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes financial results of a french electric utility (Electricite de France) in 1992. Statistical data on investments, tariffs, and prices of electric power in Europe are also given. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Gaz de France. Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  12. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  13. In brief...France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Among the different news we can find information about the situation of the radiation accidents at the hospital of Epinal in the east of France. The medical surveillance of the irradiated patients has allowed to find others cases of over exposure.These new cases add to a series of events enlightened in this service: 24 patients treated for a prostate cancer between may 2004 and august 2005 have been over exposed of about 20 % because of a bad use of the treatment planning software. 4 hundred patients treated for a prostate cancer between 2001 and 2006 have been over exposed of about 8% by an excessive use of the imaging controlling the positioning during the treatment. Among 4500 patients treated for different cancers between september 1987 and july 2000 and concerned by a programming error of an internal software, 312 patients have received an overexposure of about 7%. The Authority of nuclear safety and the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) publish the report of management 2006 on the Internet gate of the National network of environmental radioactivity measurements. The Internet site of the pluralist expertise group on the uranium mines sites of the Limousin opens at the address :www.gep-nucleaire.org. The high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety is officially created. The Asn has classified at the level 4+ of the experimental scale Asn-S.F.R.O. the accident occurred at the teaching hospital of Toulouse between the 11. april 2006 and the 18. april 2007 implying 145 patients treated by intracranial radiosurgery. (N.C.)

  14. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  15. France's 2010 energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    2010 in Europe was marked by a moderate economic upturn after the crisis year of 2009, when consumption dropped. At the global level, the energy demand from emerging countries continued to push up prices. In France, 2010 was a year in which the winter months were particularly cold, causing additional consumption for heating of more than 10 per cent, estimated at 4.6 millions tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). National primary energy production was 138.6 Mtoe, 0.2 Mtoe higher than the previous record year 2008. Nearly all forms of energy contributed to the increase. Nuclear power increased its output by 4.6 per cent and was only 5 per cent below its maximum, reached in 2005. Hydro production returned to a regime almost in line with the average. Wind power once again increased significantly (+19%) and photovoltaic electricity tripled, although it still only accounts for 0.6 Mtoe. Extraction of conventional fossil fuels was stable at 2.5 Mtoe. Thermal renewable energy and energy recovered from waste also increased markedly, by 10.7 per cent (+1.7 Mtoe). Total primary energy consumption increased by 3.8 per cent. Once corrected for climatic variations, it increased slightly (+1.7%) but remained well below its pre-crisis level. With 266 Mtoe it was even below its 2000 level. It progressed by 4 Mtoe per year on average in the 1990's, then by only 2 Mtoe in 2001 and 2002. Since then, despite a rebound in 2004, it had remained stable until the clear drop in 2009. Aggregated renewable thermal energy and energy recovered from waste continued their progression (+5.1%). The pace dipped slightly, but progress has been permanent since 2006 (+37% in 4 years). However, this group of sources still only accounts for 6.4 per cent of primary consumption. Stimulated by the rigours of the climate, gas beat all its records. However, after correction, its level was close to that around which it was fluctuating before the crisis, between 2002 and 2008. Primary electricity consumption (+2

  16. The environment in France. Synthesis edition 2006; L'environnement en France. Synthese edition 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    This document takes stock on the environment in France and the evolution from the most recent data and information. It offers analysis on all the domains of the environment. The nature and the territories are examined among the evolutions of our society and impacts of the economical activities and households. The impacts on the biodiversity, the climate and the human being are also presented. Finally it examines the human, enterprises and public actors actions. Published every four years, this document answers the national and international obligations to inform the public in the environment domain. (A.L.B.)

  17. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  18. Charbonnages de France group. Annual report 99; Groupe Charbonnages de France. Rapport annuel 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 1999 annual report of the French national collieries 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF) presents the turnover and financial data of the group, the situation of coal mining in France, the management of manpower, the rehabilitation of abandoned mine and plant sites, the impact of power market deregulation on the activities of the coal-fired power plants and cogeneration units of the national society of electric and thermal power (SNET) and of the SIDEC company, and the management of the real estate patrimony of the group in mining regions. Some conference texts written by engineers of the group are added at the end of the document and present the competences of CDF in environmental engineering (valorization of coal fly ash, cleansing of polluted sites, phyto-remediation) and development of biomass energy. (J.S.)

  19. France energy status for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    2001 was marked by a lifeless global economic context: growth in output, and especially in world trade, slowed sharply. The euro zone was particularly affected. In a tense geopolitical context, especially in the Middle East, international prices of raw materials rose sharply in 2011, in particular oil prices. This affected France's energy bill which, at euro 61.4 billion, increased by almost one-third and accounted for 88% of the country's trade deficit. It thus represents 3.1% of GDP, compared with just 1% in the 1990's. The bill for oil alone is now more than euro 50 billion. The impact could have been even greater if 2011 had not been the warmest year on record since 1900, with an average annual temperature 1.3 deg. C above the reference (1981-2010). As a result, energy needs for heating were much lower than average. The physical trade deficit decreased by 4%, as imports of gas and coal decreased. In terms of consumption, 6.6 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) were saved. Corrected for climate variations, total primary energy consumption continued its rise in 2011 (+0.8%) after the dip registered in 2009, a consequence of the economic crisis. It thus exceeded 266 Mtoe, but still remains below pre-crisis levels. In spite of lower growth than in the previous year (+ 3.6% against + 4.5% in 2010), consumption of thermal energy from renewable sources and energy recovered from waste showed the strongest increase in 2011. However, at 17.1 Mtoe, this still represents only 6.4% of total primary energy consumption. After two years of reduction, oil showed an upturn (+ 2 %). Primary electricity, also on the rise, consolidated its share of total primary consumption (almost 44%). Conversely, coal dropped by 14 % and its share in primary consumption has been quartered since the 1970's, at less than 4%. The structure of France's primary energy mix has thus stabilised since the mid 2000's. According to European directive indicators, and contrary to the situation in 2010

  20. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  1. Electricity consumption in France: the 2011 big surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    During the last ten years, the evolution of electricity consumption in France has been slow but constant. In 2011, however, the consumption, not corrected for seasonal variations, has suddenly drop by 7% to reach the level of the year 2004, thus impacting the economic balance of the production means

  2. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  3. Electricity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Historical background; The Nationalisation Law of 1946 and the present electricity regulatory framework; Other regulations and policies having an impact on the French electricity system; Forces for and against Liberalisation; The legislative framework in preparation; Electricity costs and prices; The main industrial player. EdF; Key nuclear issues; EdF and the HV transmission network; The non-nationalised distributors; Other players on the generation side; Conclusions. (Author)

  4. Approach and institutions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.

    1989-01-01

    In France, safety training for workers is compulsory under general legislation, supplemented in some cases by specific regulations on certain individual hazards. The radiation protection training for exposed workers is largely left to the initiative of the qualified officers, and there are regulations governing the training of the officers themselves. Qualified officers play a fundamental part in France in disseminating the radiation protection training and information which the regulations require them to have. It should be pointed out that qualification for the purposes of these regulations, implies having a clear grasp of the mechanisms involved rather than the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and requires a thorough understanding of the relevant legislation

  5. Gas directive. Which deregulation for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This study deals with the following aspects of natural gas market: deregulation of the French market; status and perspectives of the gas market: overview of the gas supplies in Europe at the 2010/2015 vista; situation of regulations: status of the gas directive at the European level and impact on member states market, transposition of the gas directive in France: present day legislation, main stakes and situation of the dialogue with the actors; consequences and actors' strategy: testimony of suppliers, past and future situation, development of new activities in the gas/power industry, possible contractual evolutions, position of the supplier; testimony of clients: new suppliers, new contracts, new risks; legal stakes for the clients: impact of deregulation on contracts, future contractual organization of the market, evolution of 'take or pay' contracts, impairment of contracts obligations, negotiation of supply contracts. (J.S.)

  6. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Impact of land use, soil and DEM databases on surface runoff assessment with GIS decision support tool: A study case on the Briançon vineyard catchment (Gard, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, C.; Payraudeau, S.

    2012-04-01

    Runoff and associated erosion represent a primary mode of mobilization and transfer of pesticides from agricultural lands to watercourses and groundwater. The pesticides toxicity is potentially higher at the headwater catchment scale. These catchments are usually ungauged and characterized by temporary streams. Several mitigation strategies and management practices are currently used to mitigate the pesticides mixtures in agro-ecosystems. Among those practices, Stormwater Wetlands (SW) could be implemented to store surface runoff and to mitigate pesticides loads. The implementation of New Potential Stormwater Wetlands (NPSW) requires a diagnosis of intermittent runoff at the headwater catchment scale. The main difficulty to perform this diagnosis at the headwater catchment scale is to spatially characterize with enough accuracy the landscape components. Indeed, fields and field margins enhance or decrease the runoff and determine the pathways of hortonian overland flow. Land use, soil and Digital Elevation Model databases are systematically used. The question of the respective weight of each of these databases on the uncertainty of the diagnostic results is rarely analyzed at the headwater catchment scale. Therefore, this work focused (i) on the uncertainties of each of these databases and their propagation on the hortonian overland flow modelling, (ii) the methods to improve the accuracy of each database, (iii) the propagation of the databases uncertainties on intermittent runoff modelling and (iv) the impact of modelling cell size on the diagnosis. The model developed was a raster approach of the SCS-CN method integrating re-infiltration processes. The uncertainty propagation was analyzed on the Briançon vineyard catchment (Gard, France, 1400 ha). Based on this study site, the results showed that the geographic and thematic accuracies of regional soil database (1:250 000) were insufficient to correctly simulate the hortonian overland flow. These results have to

  8. Estimation of the impacts of different homogenization approaches on the variability of temperature series in Catalonia (North Eastern-Spain), Andorra and South Eastern - France. An experiment under the umbrella of the HOME-COST action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, E.; Prohom, M.; Mestre, O.; Esteban, P.; Kuglitsch, F. G.; Gruber, C.; Herrero, M.

    2008-12-01

    The almost unanimously accepted fact of climate change has brought many scientists to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability and change in instrumental climatic records. Unfortunately, these records are nearly always affected by homogeneity problems caused by changes in the station or its environment. The European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) is sponsoring the action COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME), which aims amongst others to investigate the impacts of different homogenisation ap-proaches on the observed data series. In this work, we apply different detection/correction methods (SNHT, RhTest, Caussinus-Mestre, Vincent Interpolation Method, HOM Method) to annual, sea-sonal, monthly and daily data of a multi-country quality controlled dataset (17 stations in Catalonia (NE Spain); 3 stations in Andorra and 11 stations in SE France). The different outputs are analysed and the differences in the final se-ries studied. After this experiment, we can state that - although all the applied methods im-prove the homogeneity of the original series - the conclusions extracted from the analysis of the homogenised annual, seasonal, monthly data and extreme indices derived from daily data demonstrate important differences. As an exam-ple, some methods (SNHT) tend to detect fewer breakpoints than others (Caussinus-Mestre). Even if metadata or a pre-identified list of breakpoints is available, the correction factors calculated by the different approaches differ both in annual, seasonal, monthly and daily scales. In the latter case, some methods like HOM - based on the modelling of a candidate series against a reference series - present a richest solution than others based on the mere in-terpolation of monthly factors (Vincent Method), although the former are not al-ways applicable due to lack of good reference stations. In order to identify the best performing

  9. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, J.

    1979-12-01

    The main areas of nuclear safety are considered in this paper, recalling the laws and resolutions in force and also the appropriate authority in each case. The following topics are reviewed: radiological protection, protection of workers, measures to be taken in case of an accident, radioactive effluents, impact on the environment of non-nuclear pollution, nuclear plant safety, protection against malicious acts, control and safeguard of nuclear materials, radioisotopes, transport of radioactive substances, naval propulsion, waste management, nuclear plant decommissioning and export of nuclear equipment and materials. Finally, the author describes the role of the general Secretariat of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nuclear Safety

  10. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France - Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory. ADEME presents you a synthesis of this survey in this document

  11. 2004 energy accounting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  12. 2003 energy situation of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    This short document summarizes the key data of the 2003 energy status of France: real and climate-corrected total primary energy consumption, end-use energy consumption (demand per energy source and per sector of use), power supply and demand, and CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  13. Human coronavirus NL63, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vabret, Astrid; Mourez, Thomas; Dina, Julia; van der Hoek, Lia; Gouarin, Stéphanie; Petitjean, Joëlle; Brouard, Jacques; Freymuth, François

    2005-01-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first identified in The Netherlands, and its circulation in France has not been investigated. We studied HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections. From November 2002 to April 2003, we evaluated 300 respiratory

  14. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  15. Temperature and extreme rainfalls on France in a climatic change scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deque, M.

    2007-01-01

    Impact of an anthropogenic climate change scenario on the frequency distribution of temperature and precipitation over France is studied with a numerical simulation calibrated with observed daily data from the synoptic network. (author)

  16. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  17. France under a microscope - Nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The first French nuclear power plant was built in 1956, but it was only after the 1970's oil shock that nuclear power gained an important place in the French energy sector. Planning Act 2005-781 of 13 July 2005 laying down French energy policy orientations confirmed that nuclear energy was to remain the primary source of electricity supply in France. The Act also encourages diversification of sources of electricity production through renewable energies (wind power, biomass) and the security of electricity supply from oil, gas and coal. Nuclear energy accounted for 78.4% of electricity production in France in 2006. French nuclear capacity includes 58 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that produced 450 billion nuclear kilowatt-hours (kWh) in 2006, i.e. 78.4% of total electricity production which is of 574 billion kWh. The lifetime of a third of currently operating nuclear plants will end in around 2020 and, with a view to the renewal of its nuclear capacity, France is about to deploy new-generation reactors that meet requirements in terms of production, environmental protection and enhanced nuclear safety. In April 2007, France started building a third-generation EPR reactor at Flamanville in the Manche Department. The EPR is to be operational by 2012. France is also devoting research programmes to fourth generation reactor technology with a view to those reactors being operational by 2040. There are a number of reasons for choosing nuclear power: it enables France to ensure its national energy independence (France imports less than 50% of its energy resources) and environmental protection (France is one of the European countries which emits the least greenhouse gases) at a stable and competitive price. Decree 2008-378 of 21 April 2008 instituted a council on nuclear policy presided by the President of the Republic. The council will define the broad lines of nuclear policy and monitor their implementation, particularly with regard to exports and international

  18. FAB - Underwater and underground electric connection between France and Great Britain via Aurigny. File of presentation of the project and of its investigation area. Project synthesis. Impact study constituting an incidence document under the Law on Water. Ground brochure + Sea brochure. Non technical summary. Deliberated opinion of the Environmental Authority on the underwater and underground electrical interconnection between France and Great-Britain via Aurigny (FAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    This document gathers several reports. The first one indicates the actors involved in the project of electrical interconnection between France and Great-Britain via Aurigny, presents various technical aspects and works of this project, and proposes a definition and a description of the concerned area. The second report proposes a synthetic presentation of the project: agreement process, project interest, project definition and equipment locations, project technical components and aspects, onshore and offshore environmental aspects, project status and planning. The third report analyses the various onshore aspects of the interconnection project: project description, initial situation of the environment, analysis of the project effects on the environment and on health, analysis of cumulated effects with other known projects, sketches of examined substitution solutions and reasons for the selection of the project, elements of analysis of compliance with land uses and various planning documents, measures aimed at avoiding, reducing or compensating project effects, methods to assess initial status and effects, faced difficulties. The fourth report addresses the same issues as the previous one but for offshore aspects. The fifth report is a non technical summarised presentation of the project which presents the French side, describes the elaboration approach, the offshore and onshore legs of the project, an assessment of impacts on Natura 2000 sites. It notably contains several detailed geographical and geological maps to illustrate and to highlight the various environmental, geological, economic, social, urban or landscape impacts. The last document is the detailed opinion of the Environmental Authority on this project. It addresses the context, the project principle, implementation and cost, environmental stakes and challenges, and impacts

  19. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report - Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This 1998 annual report of the Charbonnages de France group presents the environmental actions carried out by the group after the Kyoto summit for the reduction of greenhouse gases and the preservation of fossil resources: the goals of the group and its environmental strategy; the use of waste products (bagasse-coal-fueled power plants, recovery of methane from coal mines, valorization of coal washing wastes, valorization of fly-ashes in cement industry); the reduction of pollutant emissions (development of supercritical, combined and hybrid cycles, fluidized bed boilers, reduction of pollutants during the dismantling of shutdown installations); water preservation (processing of acid mine waters, purification of waters from coke factories, cleansing of abandoned sites); sites rehabilitation (backfilling of abandoned mines, soil cleansing of dismantled coal processing facilities, reinforcing of abandoned cavities, prevention of erosion of spoil heaps etc..); improvement of landscapes (rehabilitation, revegetation); research and innovation (hydrological and geological impact studies, soil cleansing processes, phyto-remediation..). (J.S.)

  20. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  1. Coal: a revival for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brones, W.

    2007-01-01

    All energy consumption forecasts indicate a world production peak of fossil fuels around 2030 followed by a rapid decline. The oil peak should probably occur earlier. In this context the huge worldwide reserves of coal represent a fantastic opportunity to meet the world power demand which should double between 2002 and 2030 with in particular a huge growth in China and India. If promising alternate technologies (coal liquefaction..) exist which would allow to replace petroleum by coal, the main question remains the management of CO 2 . Capture and sequestration techniques are already implemented and tested and the search for new coal deposits is going on, in particular in France in the Nievre area. Economic studies about the profitability of coal exploitation in France stress on the socio-economical advantage that a revival of this activity would represent, in particular in terms of employment. (J.S.)

  2. User's inspection authorities in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robault, B.; Paquet, D.

    2004-01-01

    The article 14 of the directive 97/23 EC concerning pressure equipment has been introduced in french regulation. Electricite de France (EDF) and Gaz de France (GDF) decided to become user inspectorates. The EDF user inspectorate was authorized by the departmental order of 10/10/2000 re-conducted by departmental order of 19/12/2002. The GDF user inspectorate was authorized by the departmental order of 10/07/2002 re-conducted by departmental order of 09/02/2004. The presentation of user inspectorates evaluation methods associated with the experience of firsts evaluations shows the interest of user inspectorates. This interest concerned specific equipments with experience accumulated in manufacturing and plant working. (authors)

  3. Nuclear safety organisation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report outlines the public authorities responsible for the safety of nuclear installations in France. The composition and responsibilities of the Central Safety Service of Nuclear Installations within the Ministry of Industry, the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety within the CEA, the Central Service of Protection Against Ionising Radiation and the Interministerial Committee of Nuclear Safety are given. Other areas covered include the technical safety examination of large nuclear installations, the occurrence of accidents, treatment and control of release of radioactive wastes and decommissioning. The section on regulations covers the authorisation procedure, plant commissioning, release of radioactive effluents, surveillance and protection of workers exposed to ionising radiation. The situation is compared with the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany. A list of commercial nuclear installations in France is given

  4. Training at Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1985-01-01

    With 41 nuclear power units operating and another 21 units under construction, France is serious about improving personnel training for the 3000 new employees each year. Electricite de France (EdF) takes a paternalistic approach to personnel training and to recruitment and advancement from within the organization. Courses in the training program range from one day to one year in length, and may take place either on or off the site. The author describes the training centers and schedule, but emphasizes the training is an ongoing process. Most instructors come from operating power stations. The courses use simulators to train operators in the use of fault analysis during an emergency. Computer-aided teaching systems are also widely used. 1 figure

  5. Developing solar energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alary-Grall, L.

    2003-01-01

    3 years ago the 'Soleil' program was launched and today 660.000 m 2 of solar cells have been installed which has made France to rank 4 behind Germany, Greece and Austria in terms of the use of solar energy. The 'Soleil' program, that will end in 2006, aims at developing solar energy in France and is composed of 4 axis: 1) the contribution to the funding of solar equipment through enticing financial helps, 2) the implementation of a quality plan for the installers of solar equipment, 3) the setting of a quality label for innovative and efficient solar equipment and 4) the promoting of solar energy to the professionals of the construction sector. (A.C.)

  6. Regional indexes for France. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of regional weather indexes for France. Each regional index covers an homogenous area in terms of temperature represented by the biggest city. Five reference cities are used to represent the 22 economical regions of France (Paris Orly, Lyon, Marignane, Bordeaux and Strasbourg). (J.S.)

  7. Jihadists’ Grievance Narratives against France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Bindner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available France ranks first in the EU as a provider of foreign terrorist fighters in Syria and Iraq, and as the most-targeted European country in the context of the Syrian-Iraqi conflict. France has a longstanding history related to jihadism, correlated with multiple grievances from jihadist groups: it has been depicted as an enemy of Islam because of its foreign policy, its domestic policy towards religion, and, last but not least, its very essence. These grievances have been conveyed, like the baton of a relay race, from the first generations of North-African Islamist networks and the “elder brothers of jihad” to contemporary jihadists. The French jihadist media ecosystem has been instrumental in attracting a particularly large contemporary following. From the French perspective, a range of social, cultural, religious, economic, political, demographic drivers and identity factors converged to create a fertile ground for receptive radicals to emerge and break away from democratic values. Informed by these issues, this Policy Brief aims to identify avenues of further development for the French counter-terrorism strategic communication strategy. It concludes by stressing the need for this communication strategy to strive for positive, alternative messaging to re-create a continuum between individuals in the jihadist milieu and France as a nation state.

  8. 2035: a no nuclear France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; James, O.; Moragues, M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a prospective scenario: the newly elected French president decides of a 20-year program to give up nuclear energy production. First, the Fessenheim and Gravelines reactors are closed. The others are to be closed by 2035. Investments are decided for offshore wind energy production, methanation projects, housing thermal insulation. Employees of the nuclear energy sector are taken into account. The authors describe the situation in 2020: energy supply problems, 5 more years of lifetime awarded to some nuclear power stations, decision to build only positive energy buildings, mandatory housing renovation, job creation, decision to develop carbon capture and storage projects. In 2025: the dismantling of nuclear reactors is going on and its cost is assessed, always more electrical vehicles, drastic cost reduction for lithium batteries. In 2035: renewable energies represent the half of the energy mix, the dismantling activity is a success for Areva. In parallel, current figures are given for energy consumption per year and per person in France and Germany, for energy French exports and imports, for electricity cost associated with the different energy sources, for the energy mix in France, for the number of jobs in the nuclear sector. In an interview, a member of the CEA comments the Italian, German and Swiss decisions to give up nuclear energy, the possibilities of its replacement by renewable energies, and the challenges associated with such a decision in France

  9. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  10. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  11. Climate index for France - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of France. (J.S.)

  12. Electrical energy statistics for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, national electrical consumption reached 494.5 TWh, an increase of 2.9 % compared with 2007 (480.4 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies and leap year, its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +1.3 % Consumption by business and private customers came to 198.0 TWh, an increase of 5.9 % compared with 2007 (187.0 TWh); consumption by Large-scale industry and SME/SMIs came to 263.0 TWh, an increase of 0.7 % compared with 2007 (261.3 TWh). Generation in France came to 549.1 TWh, as in 2006, an increase of 4.3 TWh or +0.8 % compared with 2007 (544.8 TWh). Hydro-electric generation reached 68.0 TWh, an increase of 7.5 % compared with 2007 (63.3 TWh). Renewable energy sources generation but hydro reached 9.7 TWh, an increase of 23.8 % compared with 2007 (7.8 TWh), mainly due to an increase of 37.5 % of wind energy (5.6 TWh in 2008 compared with 4.0 TWh in 2007). This progression is coherent with the increase of 48% of the installed capacity for wind generation. Nuclear generation came to 418.3 TWh in 2008, a decrease of 0.1 % compared with 2007 (418.6 TWh). Fossil thermal generation came to 53.1 TWh, a decrease of 3.5 % compared with 2007 (55.1 TWh). The heaviest load in terms of capacity reaches 92.4 GW during winter 2008/2009. Its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +3.8 % with a temperature lower by 2.2 deg. C. Since 2001, the heaviest load in winter has increased by 16% whereas the national electrical consumption has increased by 10%. The year 2008 is marked by the commissioning of the 400 kV line VIGY-MARLENHEIM. Besides, the underground circuits lengths grow by 118 km over the entire network. In terms of physical exchanges of electrical energy between France and the neighbouring countries France exported a net total of 48.0 TWh, a decrease of 15.4 % compared with 2007 (56.7 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries came to a cumulative value for exports and imports of 116.2 TWh, an increase of 5.1 % compared with 2007 (110.5 TWh

  13. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  14. Climate index for France - Methodology; Indice climatique France - Methodologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of France. (J.S.)

  15. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  16. Statistical data on energy. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy status of France for the year 2001: supplies, consumption and uses, national production, evolution per energy source and per sector of the national production and consumption since 1973, general indicators (evolution of the energy bill, prices, energy independence and gross internal product since 1973), projections. Details about the resources, uses and prices are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electricity and solid mineral fuels and compared with the average data of the European Union. (J.S.)

  17. Electricity 2030 - Which choices for France?; Electricite 2030 - Quels choix pour la France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    After having outlined the French leadership in Europe in the struggle against climate change, and the impact of the Fukushima accident on political choices, this report proposes an assessment of the evolution of electricity consumption in France by 2030, discusses three possible scenarios for electricity production and their consequences for the grid, compares these scenarios in terms of carbon dioxide, of investments, of impact on prices. Thirty key points are identified. They related to the electric energy mix and its relationship with the environment, with electricity tariff for consumers, with electricity uses, with investment financing, or with the balance of payments, to the relationship between the electric system and renewable energies, to European interconnections

  18. Fashion Industry Supply Chain Issues: Zara (Azel France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of retail business is to continuously maintain the responsiveness to the changing trends in consumer fashion tastes through quickly creating new designs that are suitable for all customers with an affordable price. Hence, the importance of Supply Chain (Management has appeared. The objectives of this study are to analyze the impact of purchasing and supply chain management strategies in retail industry and identify the way of success of AZEL FRANCE Retailer Company of ZARA clothing in Bosnia and Herzegovina from supply chain perspective management by conducting a survey study. AZEL FRANCE is found to be successful in that it can control and streamline the highly consumable fashion items in their supply chains so that they can greatly decrease their lead time and thus increase be responsive enough for fast changes in fashion customer needs and desires by minimizing the industry risks. The retailer stores of AZEL FRANCE are also found to be confident about the future profitability. However, some technical inabilities of the company are also identified. It can be suggested that AZEL FRANCE can easily leverage more its successfully implemented supply chain activities by increasing its technical abilities.

  19. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  20. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  1. Probabilistic evaluation of risks associated with aviation, road, railway and river traffic adjacent to nuclear power plants in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procaccia, H.; Gobert, T.

    1978-01-01

    Electricite de France has developed a methodology to calculate the potential impact of risks to a nuclear power plant subsequent to an accident occurring on transportation networks in the vicinity of a nuclear site. Risks entailed in aviation, and in road, rail, and river traffic have been estimated. This methodology has been applied to all sites planned in France

  2. Nuclear materials transport in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korycanek, J.

    1990-01-01

    About 1.5 million tons of uranium ore, 8000 tons of uranium concentrate, 1000 tons of UF 6 , 340 spent fuel containers, and 30 000 m 3 of nuclear wastes are transported annually by trucks, trains and ships in France. Annual costs of this transportation amount to 500-600 million FRF, and about 200 employees are engaged in this activity. Transportation of spent fuel to the La Hague and Marcoule fuel reprocessing plants, and the transport of plutonium are dealt with in detail. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  3. Energy statistics. France. August 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the statistical data relative to the production, consumption, supplies, resources, and prices of energies in France: 1 - all energies (coal, oil, gas, electric power, renewable energies): supplies, uses per sector, national production and consumption of primary energies, final consumption, general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices index, prices of imported crude oil, energy independence, internal gross product, evolution between 1973 and 2000, and projections for 2020). 2 - detailed data per energy source (petroleum, natural gas, electric power, solid mineral fuels): resources, uses, and prices. An indicative comparison is made with the other countries of the European Union. (J.S.)

  4. Electricite de France: Lifetime Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Jean-Pierre

    1991-01-01

    Electricite de France produces almost 80% of its electricity by means of standardized PWR nuclear power stations. Starting in 1986, therefore, a project known as the 'Lifetime Project' was developed, whose aim was initially to ensure that the lifetime defined at design stage (40 years in general) could be attained without major difficulty (follow up of the aging process). It then became apparent that it would be useful to know just how far it would be technically and economically possible to go. As a result, the project is now working towards increasing the lifetime of power stations. (author)

  5. [Health and politics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  6. France's Climate Plan - update 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosciusko-Morizet, Nathalie

    2011-07-01

    After a presentation of the background of the French climate policy and of prospective data regarding carbon emissions by 2020 (global evolution, sector-based analysis, vigilance items, scenario by 2030), this report presents the different policies and measures implemented in France. After the transverse policies and measures, it presents the current status and policies and measures for different sectors: housing and office building, transports, industry, agriculture and forest, energy (energy demand and management of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy production), wastes, public authorities and local communities

  7. The energy future in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, Paul Henri

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, the author indicates figures for primary energy sources in France, outlines what is expected from a source of energy, and discusses the energy transformation efficiency. He addresses the case of electricity production and consumption, production costs for the different sources, nuclear energy, primary fluid mechanical energies, issue of intermittency and storage, photovoltaic, storage, subsidies and purchase obligation for EDF, fossil energies and carbon dioxide production. He questions the possibility of reduction of energy consumption, evokes and criticizes the French energy policy concerning electricity production, and possibilities of energy saving in housing and in transports, and by developing smart grids

  8. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioli, S.; Manet, M.

    1985-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled France to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsibilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  9. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.; Brignon, P.

    1986-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled FRANCE to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning, and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsabilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  10. [Violence against persons in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The violence against persons in France are various, from those inflicted by society against human groups or individuals, from those, almost unrecognizable, occurring inside the families. It is an important public health problem and need population-based surveys to evaluate and to prevent it. The numerous publications about violence, and particularly about violence against women which have been recently published reflect the actual awareness. But they demonstrate also the diversity and the evolution of the policies which do not simplify the the ways to find solutions.

  11. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  12. France's Climate Plan. Implementation of the Grenelle Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report discusses the greenhouse gas emission reduction objectives by 2020 set by the French government within the frame of the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' and also in compliance with France's commitments within international agreements and conferences, and indicates the share of each sector for these reductions (housing and office building, industry, energy, transports). This report first recalls the conclusions of the IPCC, indicates the observed evolutions and tendencies in the case of France, and describes the expected impacts of climate change. It gives an overview of the French climate policy and presents the methodology adopted to update the Climate Plan (scenarios, global assessment, assessment of the impact of some specific measures, cost assessment). Then, it describes French emission evolutions (globally and per sector) according to two scenarios by 2020. Global and transverse policies and measures are discussed, as well as those per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture and forests, energy, wastes, public authorities and local communities, information and education). A global method of assessment of scenarios is presented, and an assessment of policies and measures is reported. A sensitivity study of the impact of the present crisis on France's emissions is also reported. The Kyoto protocol mechanism is described as well as the adaptation process

  13. Solar energy perspectives in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In a context combining climate change, energy supply crisis, an increased interest in solar energy, a strongly increasing market of solar installations, new technologies, a promotion of the development of the use solar energy in France and a fast development of the water heater and photovoltaic generator markets in France, this report proposes a wide overview of the past, present and future development of solar energy. It discusses the evolution of the French national energy policy and of the solar energy within this policy. It presents and discusses the solar energy resources, their strengths and weaknesses, their geographical and time distribution. It describes the various uses and applications of solar energy in buildings, discusses different aspects of this market (actors, economical data, evolutions, public incentives, perspectives). Then, it describes and discusses technical and economical aspects of two important technologies, the photovoltaic solar energy and the thermodynamic conversion of solar energy. Public incentives, laws and regulations, technical and economic aspects of the connection to the distribution network are then discussed. Some recommendations and ideas are formulated concerning research activities, industrial development, quality of equipment and facilities, personnel education, investment needs

  14. Management of mycetomas in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioni, S; Develoux, M; Brun, S; Martin, A; Jaureguy, F; Naggara, N; Bouchaud, O

    2013-07-01

    Mycetomas are chronic sub-cutaneous tropical infections in which exogenous causative agents, fungal (eumycetes) or bacterial (actinomycetes), generate grains. The typical presentation is multi-fistulized pseudotumors. This disease, particularly eumycetoma, is difficult to treat. It is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. In France, the disease is rare, but patients have access to a broader range of treatments. The authors had for objective to present the cases of mycetomas diagnosed in developed country and their management. A retrospective study was made on the clinical presentation and management of mycetomas from 1995 to 2011, in the Bobigny Avicenne teaching hospital. Six patient files were studied. The patients were men with a median age of 31 years (16-70). Five patients were from Sub Saharan Africa, one from Sri Lanka. The etiologies were one actinomycetoma and five eumycetomas. There was bone involvement in five cases. There was one atypical presentation: a primary intra-osseous mycetoma. Three patients were cured including two by surgical management and one by medical treatment (actinomycetoma). Antifungal therapy failed (four patients) in every case (voriconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine, caspofungin). The results of this study made in a non-epidemic zone revealed that despite a typical clinical presentation, the diagnosis and management were delayed because this imported disease is rare in France. The patients received new broad-spectrum triazole and caspofungin, but none were cured with antifungal therapy alone. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007.

  16. What share for hydroelectricity in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongrand, Th.; Bouvier, E.; Francois, M.; Martin, J.M.; Tardieu, B.; Vogien, M.; Cruchon, Ph.; Miquel, J.; Gariel, A.; Levasseur, L.; Mallet, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers 10 presentations (articles) given at the 2. meeting on hydroelectricity, held at Grenoble on May 2004. The papers present some examples of realizations in the domain of small-hydropower, the R and D in progress and some recent advances in hydraulic engineering, the safety and quality aspects, and the environmental impacts and sustainable development of hydroelectric power: 1 - examples of small hydropower plants in France and in progress at SOGREAH (T. Bongrand); 2 - the pico-power plants implemented on drinkable water networks (E. Bouvier); 3 - MINI-AQUA: the mini-hydro solution (M. Francois); 4 - Grenoble and the Alpine valley, pole of hydraulic and hydroelectric competences (J.M. Martin); 5 - history and R and D (B. Tardieu); 6 - advances in engineering for a forefront industry (M. Vogien); 7 - improvement of hydraulic safety (P. Cruchon); 8 - a ISO 14001 certification experience in the domain of hydroelectricity (A. Gariel); 9 - the Rhone river development, reserved flow rate and sustainable development (L. Levasseur); 10 - small hydropower: impact and integration (J.P. Mallet). (J.S.)

  17. Gaz de France: first half 2007 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, 29 August 2007, Gaz de France Group presents its first half 2007 results (billion euros): Sales revenue 13.78 (-11% with respect to 2006), EBITDA 3.11 (-4.9%), Operating income 2.33 ( -8.7%), Net income Group share 1.51 (-11%), Net income Group share per share 1.53 euro (-11%). The half-year results are attributable primarily to three factors: - A very difficult environment with exceptionally mild climate conditions in the first half, impacting nearly all of the businesses, and unfavourable market conditions, reflected in particular in the low gas prices on the markets; - A tariff context which did not negatively impact the sales margins following a very difficult year 2006; - Good performance in international activities. Despite the environment, the Group is maintaining its financial target for 2007, as announced in March this year: 2007 will be a year of consolidation. EBITDA is expected to be in line with that of 2006. This target assumes average climate conditions during the second half 2007

  18. Conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ronny; Furois, Timothee; Nolte, Nico; Lanoe, Frederic; Lehmann-Matthaei, Bjoern; Ifflaender, Andree; Courcambeck, Alexandre; Giese, Norbert; Kavafyan, Philippe; Bjaert, Niels; Wagner, Andreas; Guillet, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the planning and authorisation procedures implemented in both countries and on the installation, connection to the grid and maintenance of offshore wind turbines. environmental impacts and usage conflicts linked with offshore wind farms exploitation were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Update: Offshore Wind In Germany (Ronny Meyer); 2 - Offshore wind development in France (Timothee Furois); 3 - The Licensing Procedure for Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ (Nico Nolte); 4 - Spatial Planning and Permitting in France: What leverage for more efficiency? (Frederic Lanoe); 5 - Results of 10 years environmental research on FINO-platforms (Bjoern Lehmann-Matthaei); 6 - Offshore Grid Connection - Status Quo and Overview (Andree Ifflaender); 7 - Grid connection of Offshore Wind in France: Situation, perspectives and recommendations (Alexandre Courcambeck); 8 - Controlling risks and warranting safety: Best practices for the installation, exploitation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines (Norbert Giese); 9 - Offshore wind Bremerhaven experience: An essential asset for the development of a complete Wind Offshore industry in France (Philippe Kavafyan); 10 - Standardizing and Cost Reduction -Lessons Learned from London Array (Niels Bjaert); 11 - Offshore Wind energy in Germany: System Benefits and Cost Reduction Potentials. Presentation of study results from prognos/fichtner and Fraunhofer-IWeS (Andreas Wagner); 12 - Offshore Wind energy financing - opportunities and risks (Jerome Guillet)

  19. Electrical energy in France 2002; Energie electrique en France 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This report presents the provisional results of power flows on the French power system (RTE) in 2002: generation, national consumption, physical exchanges with foreign countries (instantaneous exchange balances measured by metering on each interconnection line, recorded as imports or exports, depending on the sign), adjusted consumption (for climate contingencies and leap years), energy balance (generated and imported, consumed), noteworthy data (all flows on the RTE network as well as generation auto-consumed by the industrial customers connected to this network), electricity market (contractual exchanges with foreign countries, base load blocks exchanged between balance responsible entities), power facilities (thermal, hydro-, transmission lines), main transmission facilities commissioned during the year (interconnections between France and Spain, Italy, Germany and Belgium). (J.S.)

  20. A safe energy supplying for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffin-Payne, J.

    2001-01-01

    Contrarily to other European nations like United-kingdom, Germany or Norway, France has no important fossil energy resources. The 2 major oil crisis (in 1973 and 1979) made public opinion abruptly aware of the urgent necessity for the diversification of energy supplying. Today the French production of electricity rests on nuclear energy, fossil energy and renewable energies (hydroelectricity). France is the first European country for nuclear energy (88 millions tons of oil equivalent in 1999) and for renewable energy (29 millions toe). The energy independence rate has sharply increased in 20 years from 26% in 1973 it reaches now 49%. France has developed an important capacity of fossil fuels storage about 10.5 milliards m 3 , it means that France can face a 30% decrease in its energy imports for a year without reducing its industrial output. Because of their energy choices Switzerland and France are the European countries the least sensible to price fluctuations of oil and gas. The doubling of oil price has implied a 0.32 francs rise of kWh cost in France and a 1.8 francs rise elsewhere in Europe. (A.C.)

  1. France intends to raise electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotelueschen, M.; Boiteux.

    1986-01-01

    In this interview with the Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Electricite de France (EdF), the promotion of nuclear power in France, the chances on the export sector, and the structure of electric power supply are discussed and compared with the situation in West Germany. (UA) [de

  2. Teaching with "Voix et Images de France"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrow, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    A report on the classroom use of Voix et Images de France," the French text prepared by the Centre de Recherche et d'Etude pourla Diffusion du Francais (CREDIF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint-Cloud in France. (FB)

  3. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France... U.S.C. 1675d(c)) (the Act), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on sorbitol from France... views of the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4164 (June 2010), entitled Sorbitol from...

  4. Administrative and Judicial Cooperation in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    There is very little knowledge in the Netherlands of how economic private law and public law are enforced in France. In France too, however, scant information can be gleaned. There is little if any contact in the university community between criminal law and administrative law, partly because

  5. Which energy transition for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    While recalling the five main objectives of the French bill project for energy transition, the author proposes some critical reflections. He notices that economic, political and financial means to reach the expected decrease of energy consumption are not sufficient. He notably comments the content of the various retained scenarios, discusses and explains the fact that there will always be a gap between the expected optimal energy efficiency and the obtained results: economic actors are not ready to make the required investments, France lacks of a culture of territorial energy governance, and a way of paying the produced carbon emissions is missing. He discusses the introduction of a carbon tax. He states that the Efficiency scenario seems difficult to be reached and briefly discusses the associated consequences. He finally outlines that the nuclear issue is not clearly addressed, either in the Ademe's scenario or by the bill project

  6. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  7. France energy assessment for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the economic and energetic context for 2010: revival of activity and trade at the world level but moderate in the euro zone and in France, an exceptionally cold year, a new increase of energy prices. It briefly comments the moderate demand resumption. It comments the evolutions of productions, trade and consumptions of different energies (coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and renewable energies). It comments the resumption of energy final consumption in the main sectors (industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture and fishery, transports). It outlines a slight improvement of energy efficiency, the slight decrease of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy consumption, and a 20% increase of the French energy bill

  8. Wind energy in France: impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Josette, R.

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of 2004, the European Union is the first producer of wind energy in the world (34205 MW), far beyond the USA (6740 MW) and India (2110 MW). Three countries are in the pole position: Germany (16629 MW), Spain (8263 MW) and Denmark (3117 MW). On the other hand, despite a voluntarist policy, the other countries encounter administrative and local difficulties in the development of wind energy. This is the case with France which has the second biggest potential wind resource of Europe, behind the UK. The French situation is explained by its centralized energy system, by the priority given to nuclear power, by important wind variations, and by a bad image of wind turbines in general (aesthetic, environmental). This situation should change in the future with the scheduling of pluri-annual investments, with adapted tariffs and with improved administrative procedures. (J.S.)

  9. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for radioactive waste management are already in existence and applied on an industrial scale for short-lived wastes. France has acquired an aknowledged expertise on the international level and several foreign contemporaries are interested in the relevant techniques developed. An intensive international cooperation has allowed to define bases for an underground deep repository for long-lived wastes. It is therefore important to choose a site which meets the expected storage conditions. This development work has been started in several countries in a similar way and which should be completed by the beginning of the next century. An 'open channel' with the public about this emotional topic can smooth the way for solutions by which mankind can master its technological challenges

  10. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  11. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report - Environment; Charbonnages de France. Rapport annuel 1998 - Environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This 1998 annual report of the Charbonnages de France group presents the environmental actions carried out by the group after the Kyoto summit for the reduction of greenhouse gases and the preservation of fossil resources: the goals of the group and its environmental strategy; the use of waste products (bagasse-coal-fueled power plants, recovery of methane from coal mines, valorization of coal washing wastes, valorization of fly-ashes in cement industry); the reduction of pollutant emissions (development of supercritical, combined and hybrid cycles, fluidized bed boilers, reduction of pollutants during the dismantling of shutdown installations); water preservation (processing of acid mine waters, purification of waters from coke factories, cleansing of abandoned sites); sites rehabilitation (backfilling of abandoned mines, soil cleansing of dismantled coal processing facilities, reinforcing of abandoned cavities, prevention of erosion of spoil heaps etc..); improvement of landscapes (rehabilitation, revegetation); research and innovation (hydrological and geological impact studies, soil cleansing processes, phyto-remediation..). (J.S.)

  12. History of gas fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizing the history of gas fuels in France consist essentially in the description of an economic and tax adventure with shortage constraints. The technology itself was developed long time ago and its principle do not raise any problem except for its optimization. The first LPG car was built in 1912 in the USA and fixed engines using town-gas as fuel were developed earlier. The French experience started during the second World War liquid fuels shortage and with the discovery of the Saint-Marcet gas field. The following history is directly related to the geopolitical fluctuations of energy supplies such as the independence of Algeria and the successive petroleum crashes. This short paper describes separately the evolution of natural gas for vehicles (NGV) and LPG fuels. The development of LPG fuels for public use vehicles started in 1979 but did not reached its expected impact due to the single-fuel constraint for vehicle design, applied until 1985, and to an unfavourable tax policy. Only public companies were capable to develop their own LPG vehicles fleet. The tendency of LPG development has recently changed as a consequence of the reinforcement of the environmental and economical policies initiated during the 70's. (J.S.)

  13. The PermaFRANCE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneich, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    A French long term monitoring network of permafrost and frost related processes, named PermaFRANCE, is being built since two years. It will represent the French contribution to the Alpine wide PermaNET network. The PermaFRANCE network will focus not only on permafrost, but on all frost related phenomena at different altitudinal levels, including both thermal monitoring and process observation and monitoring : 1) continuous and discontinuous permafrost in rock walls : - thermal monitoring is mainly performed at the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc massif) and includes rock surface temperature (RST) and temperature profils in medium depth boreholes (10 m) ; - inventory and observation of rockfall activity in high mountain rock walls : this action concerns the whole Mont Blanc area and is based on a hitorical inventory and an observation of current activity based on a network of observers and contributors ; 2) discontinuous permafrost is surficial deposits and flat bedrock : - thermal monitoring is performed on five rockglacier sites and includes ground surface temperature (GST) and annual BTS campaigns on some sites. Two medium depth boreholes (15 m) have been made in 2009 on one site, and equipped for thermal profile monitoring. A deep borehole (100 m) will be made in 2010 at 45° N latitude ; - geophysical monitoring is performed on 4 sites : repeated vertical electrical soundings exist for some sites since 20 years, and have been complemented since 2007 by eletrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismics ; - surficial displacements of rockglaciers : surficial displacements are measured either by classical geodesy or by DGPS on 6 rockglaciers ; 3) sporadic permafrost at middle altitudes : - an inventory of cold scree slopes and biological investigations on soil and tree growth (dendrogeomorphology) have already been achieved ; - a thermal monitoring should be initiated on selected sites in 2010 ; 4) seasonal frost and frost/thaw cycles at middle and low

  14. Gaz de France annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  15. Report on the environmental and sanitary impacts of the nuclear tests performed by France between 1960 and 1996 and elements of comparison with the tests performed by the other nuclear Powers; Rapport sur les incidences environnementales et sanitaires des essais nucleaires effectues par la France entre 1960 et 1996 et elements de comparaison avec les essais des autres puissances nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Ch; Revol, H

    2002-07-01

    This report makes a comprehensive presentation of the French atmospheric and underground nuclear tests performed in Sahara and Polynesia between 1960 and 1996 with their possible impact on the health of populations and personnel and on the environment. A comparison is made with similar tests performed by other nuclear Powers: US (Marshall islands, Nevada), former Soviet union (Semipalatinsk, Novaya Zemlya), UK (several atmospheric test-sites), China, India, Pakistan. (J.S.)

  16. Renewable energies: it is time to choose for the France; Energie renouvelables: la France a l'heure du choix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This colloquium takes stock on the renewable energies situation in France. What is the renewable energies place in the today french energy policy and in the developing countries? It presents also the renewable energies possibilities facing of the climatic change, their economical and environmental impact, the french people opinion and demand and the legal aspects of the renewable energies implementation. (A.L.B.)

  17. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  18. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  19. Severe accident research in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; Reocreux, M.; Tattegrain, A.

    1988-01-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. Nevertheless, an overall safety objective was issued in 1977 by the safety authority which set an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences; this resulted, in particular, in the elaboration of the ''H'' procedures, aimed at reducing significantly the risk of core uncovery subsequent to the loss of redunbant safety-related systems. The U1 symptom-oriented procedure, based on the nuclear steam supply system ''cooling states'', was introduced later, in order to prevent core melting in situations where the operating crew was confused by multiple failures and/or inappropriate previous actions. In the event that a core-melt should occur, the ultimate procedures U2, U4 and U5 - the latter providing a venting of the containment through a filtration system - should enable the radioactive releases to be limited to characteristics compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans. Such emergency management procedures necessitate a significant study effort in order to be elaborated and qualified; this also presupposes that an adequate level of scientific knowledge has been gained as regards the response of specific components of a PWR under beyond-design conditions. The purpose of severe accident research in France is to attain a level of basic knowledge such that emergency procedures may be conceived and ultimately tested

  20. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  1. France's energy balance for 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, Jean-Paul; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Louati, Sami; Mordant, Guillaume; Rouquette, Celine; Cadin, Didier; Collet, Isabelle; Fratacci, Lisa; Lauverjat, Jean; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Rabai, Yacine; Reynaud, Didier; Wong, Florine; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    As in 2012, activity in France increased slightly (+0.3%), thanks to an upturn in the second half. Fossil energy prices on the international markets took a downward turn in 2013 under the influence of the morose world economic climate, dropping sharply for oil and coal and rising, but at a slowed rate, for gas. Quoted prices nonetheless remained high: the Brent price remained well above US$100/barrel and steam coal above US$ 80/ton. Conversely, the price of natural gas took an upward path three years ago in continental Europe. Electricity prices dropped on the European markets, notably as a result of strong production of renewable energy in Germany and Spain. Energy prices in France continued to increase but at a slowed rate and more slowly than the prices for goods and services as a whole for the first time in 10 years. Prices for oil products saw a downturn, something which had not happened since 2009 but gas and electricity prices rose sharply. French households' average gasoline and diesel oil expenditure was euro 60 less in 2013 than in 2012, due almost entirely to the price drop. Spending on energy for household use increased by euro 100 under the combined effect of price increase and greater heating needs. French people's expenditure for energy represented 6.2% of their effective consumption. 2013 was characterised by a colder first half which induced an additional need for heating of 3.1 Mtoe in 2013 in relation to the previous year. The physical foreign trade gap, structurally biased towards imports, accordingly widened slightly in 2013 to 124 Mtoe, as a result of the refined oil products, and additional purchasing of coal made necessary by greater use of thermal power plants. The effect of decreasing international energy prices outweighed the physical flows: France's energy bill reduced by 4.6% in relation to the record 2012, reaching euro 66 billion. The oil bill was therefore significantly reduced as a result of the dual decrease in volume and price

  2. France's energy assessment for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This report first gives a description of the world economic context in 2007 (GDP evolutions of several countries), and of the French macro-economic context in 2007 (GDP, goods production, demographic, household consumption, and trade evolutions). It comments the evolution of international oil product prices and of other energy prices (gas, coal) during the same year, and since 1980, and evokes other factors influencing the French energy bill (money market, climate). It briefly comments the evolution of the total primary energy consumption from 1973 to 2007. It describes the evolution of the national energy production, globally and for each energy source (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, renewable energies and wastes), indicating the energy independence rate for each of them, as well as the import origins. Energy consumption is then analysed in the same way, i.e., globally and for each energy source, and also by economic sectors (non-energetic uses, industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, electricity production). Some comments are made on the opening of the electricity market in France. The evolutions of the energy intensity and of carbon emissions related to energy consumption are finally discussed

  3. Energy in France. Reference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This small guidebook summarizes the main statistical data on energy for France. Data are presented in tables and graphs for the last decades up to the year 2000: energy in economy (contribution of energy industries to the national gross product, employment and investments in the energy sector), overall energies (average monthly price of crude oil, public opinion about nuclear energy, supplies and consumptions, primary energy production, consumption per energy and per sector, energy bill, import crude oil prices), petroleum (primary production, sectoral end-consumption of refined petroleum products, consumption per type of product, automotive fuels demand, imports and exports of petroleum products, petroleum bill), natural gas (total production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of production, imports bill), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of production), electricity (gross production, classical thermal production per type of fuel, simplified status, sectoral final consumption, nuclear sites, electricity trades with foreign countries), renewable energies (total production, district heating networks, wood consumption, installed wind power, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, compared evolutions of the national gross product with the energy consumption, cumulated energy savings), prices (energies in the industry and in the domestic sectors, automotive fuels, energy consumptions in households), environment (sectoral and net CO 2 emissions). An energy units conversion table is added at the end of the booklet. (J.S.)

  4. France's energy balance for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louati, Sami; Ouradou, Frederic; Rouquette, Celine; Cadin, Didier; Korman, Bernard; Lauverjat, Jean; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Rabai, Yacine; Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene; Wong, Florine; Albertini, Jean-Paul; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Economic activity in France stagnated in 2012. Energy prices continued to increase globally, sweeping along with them the prices of energy products imported into France, notably oil products and natural gas. In addition, the difference in temperatures between 2011 and 2012 created an additional energy need for 5.7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2012 in relation to the previous year. The volume of imports of refined oil products and coal increased to meet the additional needs of thermal power stations. The physical trade deficit thus increased for refined oil products (+29%) and for coal (+7%). In parallel, exports of electricity decreased. Nonetheless, the overall physical trade deficit decreased in 2012 (-1.5%). However, this apparent improvement was actually due to difficulties in the refining sector, resulting in a 12% decrease in crude oil imports. Increased imported energy prices and additional needs therefore explain the new peak in France's energy bill, which reached almost euro 69 billion, an increase of more than euro 7 billion in relation to 2011. National primary energy production settled back in 2012 at a little over 136 Mtoe, a decrease of 1.2% in relation to the record reached in 2011. This can be attributed almost entirely to the nuclear power sector which reduced production by more than 4 Mtoe as a result of decreased availability of nuclear power plants. National production of fossil energies, already marginal, continued to decline. Conversely, all of the renewable sources saw an upturn, after a year in 2011 marked by severe contrasts. After reaching a historical low in 2011, hydropower production increased by 25% as a result of the end of the period of drought. Installations continued to increase, with wind-generated and photovoltaic electricity and energy from renewable thermal sources and from waste all increasing their production in 2012. In all, the renewable energy sectors combined produced around 4 Mtoe more than in 2011. In 2012

  5. LPG fuels in France in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This short note gives a statement of the sales of butane, propane and LPG fuels in France during the year 1997. Details are given for conditioned butane and propane products, cylinders and fixed reservoirs. (J.S.)

  6. Energy data book. France in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catz, H.

    1999-01-01

    This memento about energy provides a series of tables with numerical data relative to energy resources and uses in France, in the European Union and in the rest of the world: energy consumption and demand (primary energy demand, consumption, and efficiency per region and per source; forecasting, CO 2 emissions, energy independence, supplies, uses and imports, demand scenarios, energy savings..), power production (production per geopolitical region, in OECD countries and in France; peak load demand, power consumption and generation in France; hydro-power and thermal plants in France; total capacity, forecasts and exports), nuclear power (production, forecasting, reactors population, characteristics of French PWRs, uranium needs and fuel cycle), energy resources (renewable energies, fossil fuels and uranium reserves and production), economic data (gross national product, economic and energy indicators, prices and cost estimations), energy units and conversion factors (counting, calorific value of coals, production costs, energy units). (J.S.)

  7. Energy bill of France in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The energy situation in France is presented. Data and charts illustrate the prices evolution at the import for the petroleum and the other energies, the exchanged energies volume and the bill for each energy sector. (A.L.B.)

  8. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dana Lofgren (202...

  9. Energy transition in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  10. The gas de France group in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1999-01-01

    The speech by the Chairman of France's largest gas company is always a highlight of the Gas Conference's closing session. This year, Pierre Gadonneix outlined the gas supply context in which Gaz de France will be running its business operations, and revealed the group's development strategy in a Europe-wide market soon to become a reality, with the implementation of the gas directive in August 2000. (authors)

  11. Evolution of maintainability in France since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make the point of maintainability in France since 1971. The importance of maintainability is recalled. Publications in France from 1971 to 1975 show the interest arose by maintainability; their analysis permits to make clear the general plan followed by the studies and gives indications on the directions of actual efforts. Conclusion is drawn on the orientation of work at short, medium and long term [fr

  12. Status of food irradiation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Yves

    1985-01-01

    The situation regarding food irradiation in France is one of cautious progress, with clearance of specific food items including onions, garlic, shallots, deboned poultry meats and 72 spices. A general clearance for the use of ionizing radiation treatment up to 1 kilogray is under consideration. A most important guiding principle has apparently been accepted in France that no further toxicological studies are required for food irradiation dose levels up to ten kilograys

  13. France's energy assessment for 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussud, Xavier; Guggemos, Fabien; Riedinger, Nicolas; Cavaud, Denis; Delamare, Karine; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Gong, Zheng; Hagege, Claire; Lepoittevin, Daniel; Lauverjat, Jean; Misak, Evelyne; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Mombel, David; Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This accounting document has been elaborated in compliance with standards defined by the European Union, the International Agency of Energy, and the United Nations. It gives a global overview of the supply and usage chain for each energy source (coal, oil, gas, electricity, thermal renewable energies and wastes). It also gives data related to energy efficiency, supply dependence on other countries, and carbon dioxide emissions. A first part presents the economic and climatic context for 2015: slow world economic growth and an oil market always in surplus, GDP growth at a higher rate, the third hottest year since 1900 with rainfall deficit and sunshine higher than normal. The second part analyses the weight of energy in the French economy: evolutions of energy and oil markets, decrease of energy bill, stronger decrease of oil product prices, higher energy expenses and lower fuel expenses for households. The third part analyses France's energy supply: slight increase of primary production, further decrease of coal imports, recovery of crude oil imports but decrease of refined product trade deficit, moderate increase of natural gas imports, moderate increase of some renewable productions (biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal, heat pumps), slight increase of electricity production with increased use of natural gas. The fourth part analyses quantities and forms of consumed energy: globally, for coal, oil, gas, biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal and heat pumps, and electricity. The fifth part analyses usages and sectors of energy consumption: global final energy, and case of housing and office building, transports, industry, agriculture and fishery. The sixth part proposes an assessment for overseas territories, globally and for the different energy sources. The seventh part discusses other energy-related issues: evolution of energy intensity, of CO_2 emissions due to energy combustion, co-generated heat and heat networks. Numerous data and methodological

  14. Key data for climate. France and the World. Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouradou, Frederic; Wong, Florine; Delalande, Daniel; Delbosc, Anais

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes figures, tables, graphs and maps which illustrate climate change (greenhouse effect, impact of human activity, greenhouse gas tanks, fluxes and concentrations), emissions of greenhouse gases (at the world, European and French levels), emissions of greenhouse gases due to energy production in the world, the sector-based distribution of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and in France (energy combustion, energy production and transformation, transports, industry, other sectors). Then, it presents the climate policies: Kyoto protocol, the emission permit market, Kyoto protocol project mechanisms, other initiatives aimed at emission reduction, the European trading scheme (EU ETS), carbon price in the EU ETS, French climate policy

  15. The national legal framework in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touitou-Durand, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Ms Touitou-Durand presented the French legal framework regarding public participation. The 2005 Charter for the Environment, which has constitutional value, lays down the principle of public participation in decisions likely to affect the environment. These include, among others, Nuclear Safety Authority decisions on technical prescriptions or on modifications requested by licensees. France is a Party to the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions and applies the relevant European directives related to the matter. Whereas the Aarhus Convention covers access to environmental information held by public authorities, French provisions go further by creating obligations also for the operator of a nuclear installation, which must grant access to information on the risks related to ionising radiation that can result from its activity and on the measures taken to prevent or reduce these risks. The principle of transparency in the nuclear field was introduced in French law in 2006 and further incorporated in the Environmental Code. It grants the public the right to reliable and accessible information on nuclear safety, radiological protection, the prevention of and fight against malicious acts, and civil security actions in the event of an accident. Two bodies are called to deal with stakeholder involvement, namely the High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Security and the Local Information Committees, the latter being mandatory for any site comprising one or several nuclear installations. The Local Information Committees are composed of representatives of local authorities, environmental protection organisations, trade unions, experts and residents of the area where the site is located. Regarding involvement of the public in project-level decisions, Ms Touitou-Durand explained that the eventual authorisation by decree of the creation of a nuclear installation must be preceded by a formal public debate (when located on a new site), an environmental impact

  16. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet, P.A.

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  17. [Kidney transplantation epidemiology in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesse, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Kidney transplantation activity in France is among the most important worldwide: in 2011, 2976 transplants have been performed (47.5 per million population), and the number of patients living with a functional graft is estimated around 30,000, representing 44.7% of all patients (n = 67,270) treated for end-stage renal failure. However, the rate of preemptive kidney transplants remains very low, only 3.3% of incident patients starting renal replacement therapy. The analysis of demand showed a progressive increase in recent years, as demonstrated by the registration rate on the kidney transplantation waiting list, increasing by 5% yearly between 2006 and 2010, but with huge differences according to age categories and regional registration areas, reflecting discrepant appreciations in indications for kidney transplantation. The median waiting time between registration and transplantation increased progressively in recent years, reaching 22.3 months with considerable variations according to regional areas and transplantation teams. Kidney transplantation activity, while increasing continuously, is far to cover the rising demand, and inexorably patients accumulate on the waiting list (around 9000 patients were registered by January 2012). This situation is the consequence of insufficient organ procurement activity. The deceased organ procurement rate remained high: 1572 harvested donors in 2011 (24.1 per million population), but the proportion of older donors rose in recent years, to reach the rate of 26% of donors older than 65 years in 2011. The procurement activity of donors after cardiac arrest was reintroduced in 2006, but increased slowly: 65 transplants were performed in 2011 using kidney procured in non heart-beating donors. The living donor kidney transplantation activity has markedly increased recently: 302 living donor transplantations were performed in 2011, representing 10.1% of the kidney transplantations. Facing the predictable increase in the number of

  18. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  19. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France; Geologie des gites uraniferes et filoniens en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcia, J A; Carrat, J; Poughon, A; Sanselme, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [French] La note presente est un expose des caracteres generaux des principaux gites uraniferes filoniens de France; elle insiste sur les similitudes structurales, petrographiques et metallogeniques de ces gisements. (auteur)

  20. Gaz de France 2006 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary

  1. Report on the environmental and sanitary impacts of the nuclear tests performed by France between 1960 and 1996 and elements of comparison with the tests performed by the other nuclear Powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Revol, H.

    2002-01-01

    This report makes a comprehensive presentation of the French atmospheric and underground nuclear tests performed in Sahara and Polynesia between 1960 and 1996 with their possible impact on the health of populations and personnel and on the environment. A comparison is made with similar tests performed by other nuclear Powers: US (Marshall islands, Nevada), former Soviet union (Semipalatinsk, Novaya Zemlya), UK (several atmospheric test-sites), China, India, Pakistan. (J.S.)

  2. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect; Agriculture et effet de serre: regulation economique des impacts croises et combinaison des politiques agricole et environnementale - Analyse pour la France et extension pour l'Union Europeenne. Analyse economique des interactions agriculture - effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2002-09-15

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  3. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activities in Languedoc (Southern France)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Azuara; N. Combourieu-Nebout; V. Lebreton; F. Mazier; S. D. Müller; L. Dezileau

    2015-01-01

    Holocene climate fluctuations and human activities since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediterranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to reconstruct Mediterranean paleoenvironments over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High resolution pollen analyses were undertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamics ove...

  4. The production of photovoltaic electricity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The author presents, comments and discusses various data related to photovoltaic energy production in France: evolution of installed power until 2013, installed power, production, hours per year and load factor for different countries (France, Spain, Germany and Italy) and for the different French regions. He highlights and comments the intermittency of photovoltaic production in France. This intermittency is related to the difference between day and night, to the difference between seasons, and to weather conditions. He discusses the possible solutions to this intermittency. In this respect, he outlines that the expansion of the photovoltaic production and the use of interconnection do not solve the problem, and discusses the possibility of massive storage and the possible interest of local consumption

  5. Nuclear safety in France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This press dossier summarizes the highlights of nuclear safety in France in 2001: the point-of-view of A.C. Lacoste, director of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN), the new organisation of the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection, the ASN's policy of transparency, the evolutions of nuclear fuels and the consistency of the fuel cycle, the necessary evolutions of the nuclear crisis management, the harmonizing work of safety approaches carried out by the WENRA association. The following documents are attached in appendixes: the decrees relative to the reformation of the nuclear control in France, the missions of the ASN, the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, the organization of ASN in March 2000, the incidents notified in 2001, the inspections performed in 2001, and the list of the main French nuclear sites. (J.S.)

  6. Electrical energy in France in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The figures presented on this document account for the electricity flows recorded in Metropolitan France, including Corsica. Contents: national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries; electrical energy balance in France in 2008; net generation; noteworthy data for the year 2008 (daily maximum values of National consumption, Hydroelectric generation and non-Hydroelectric generation, Balance of physical exchanges); electricity market: cross-border contractual exchanges, balance responsible entities (Energy amount exchanged between balance responsible entities through the block exchange notifications), balancing mechanism (Global amount of energy activated upwards and downwards); power facilities: generating facilities in France (Nuclear, Fossil fuel thermal, Hydro-electric, Wind and Other renewable energy sources), transmission lines (circuit length in operation), transmission - transformers (installed capacity in operation); main transmission facilities commissioned during the year 2008 (substations connected to the RTE network and new or refurbished circuits)

  7. Energy use and planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaon, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Energy planning in France must compensate for a lack of natural resources and a 77% dependence on imports with conservation, an increased use of domestic sources, and diversified supplies. One problem is a high per-capita energy consumption that, although only half that of the US, has been a financial drain in recent years. Current plans to reduce oil consumption 25% by 1990 and energy dependence to less than 50% include conservation goals set for each sector. Nuclear energy is a cost-effective energy source that is compatible with France's energy goals and is the focus of much energy research. The emphasis on realistic goals and continuity are basic to France's continued success in energy planning. 4 figures, 10 tables

  8. Electrical energy in France in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The figures presented on this document account for the electricity flows recorded in Metropolitan France, including Corsica. Contents: national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries; electrical energy balance in France in 2009; net generation; noteworthy data for the year 2009 (daily maximum values of national consumption, thermal generation, hydro-electric generation, wind generation and balance of physical exchanges); electricity market: cross-borders contractual exchanges, balance responsible entities (Energy amount exchanged between balance responsible entities through the block exchange notifications), balancing mechanism (global amount of energy activated upwards and downwards), daily market coupling; power facilities: generating facilities in France (Nuclear, Fossil fuel thermal, Hydro-electric, Wind and Other renewable energy sources), transmission lines owned by RTE (circuit length in operation), transmission - transformers owned by RTE (installed capacity in operation); main transmission facilities commissioned during the year 2009 (substations connected to the RTE network and new or refurbished circuits)

  9. Gaz de France annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution, services

  10. Nuclear energy education and training in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its continuing use of nuclear power, France faces numerous challenges, including the operation and maintenance of its existing array of reactors, waste management, the decommissioning of obsolete reactors, and research and development for future nuclear systems. All of these efforts must recognize and conform to international requirements. These activities mean that all participants in the French nuclear industry must continually update their approaches and skills, with respect to both domestic and worldwide nuclear power development. This requirement calls for the hiring and training of thousands of scientists and engineers each year in France and its partner or customer countries. Over the next ten years, domestic and international nuclear power activities in France will call for the recruitment of about 13,000 engineers with Master of Science or Ph.D. degrees, and 10,000 science technicians and operators with Bachelor of Science degrees. The chief employers will be EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez, national agencies such as the Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (ANDRA), sub-contractors, and R and D agencies such as the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), and the technical safety organization, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). France has made a commitment to support countries that are ready to create the human, institutional, and technical conditions required to establish a civilian nuclear energy programme that meets all the requirements of safety, security, non-proliferation and environmental protection for present and future generations. These efforts are conducted through the France International Nuclear Agency (AFNI). In response to the need for competence-building in nuclear energy production, France now offers training opportunities in both French and English education programmes. Partnerships created by French nuclear energy participants and by AFNI can provide dedicated programmes

  11. Panorama de la Dendrochronologie en France.

    OpenAIRE

    Astrade, Laurent; Miramont, Cécile

    2010-01-01

    Actes du colloque "Panorama de la dendrochronologie en France", octobre 2009, Digne les Bains. Ce nouveau numéro de la Collection Edytem accueille les contributions du colloque qui s'est déroulé, il y a moins d'un an, à Digne-les-Bains, autour de la dendrochronologie en France. Les différents textes de ce numéro et leur articulation en cinq grands thèmes (dendroécologie, dendroclimatologie, dendrogéomorphologie, dendroarchéologie, méthodes de la dendrochronologie) mettent en avant la diversit...

  12. Oil in France: main results in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article comments the evolution of oil product prices in France in 2008 and of the global oil product consumption in 2008. This consumption and its evolutions are also analysed with respect to the different consuming sectors: non-energetic uses (petrochemical industry and lubricants), industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, and electricity thermal production. Crude oil imports and their origins are the commented, as well as refined product imports and exports. The evolution of price of imported crude oil, the national oil production, the refining activity in France, and the amount of crude and refined oil stocks are also briefly commented

  13. Nuclear energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The peculiarities and the differences in the development of nuclear energy in the two neighboring countries are described. The development in France could be promoted more easily which was also due to the government structure. Uncomplicated licensing procedures and other factors permitted a less difficult realisation of the nuclear energy programme. Serious economic consequences in our country are pointed out. In this summary, the most important results and statements of a memorandum worked out by the KWU with the headline 'Germany/France - the electricity supply in comparison' are listed. (UA) [de

  14. General presentation of the biomass in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The biomass is the first source of renewable energy in France. It allows the thermal (heat, fuels) and electrical energy recovery.It satisfies many stakes in the energy, the environment and the employment. This document presents the energy stake, the environmental stake and the economic and social stake. It discusses also the wood energy recovery in France, provides statistical data, definitions and methodologies of evaluation. It analyzes the production and consumption of the wood energy for the industrial and domestic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  15. Overview of the forestry and forest-based industry in France at the end of 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitton, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the forestry and forest-based industry in France, examining the component sectors on the basis of several sources including the report made every year by France to the Wood Committee of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. It begins with an assessment of the 2013 logging harvest compared to previous years and in relation to the potential of French forests, and then goes on to examine the production of wood-based processed products in 2013 compared to consumption and foreign trade flows, ending with a review of the factors that will impact future developments (construction, energy, innovations, foreign markets). (authors)

  16. Gaz de France annual report 2003; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  17. France: energy prospects for 2050; France: perspectives energetiques pour 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P

    2005-07-01

    This study analyzes 4 simple energy policy scenarios and their impact on the abatement of carbon dioxide emissions. The first scenario considers the same consumption rates as today and assumes that no oil and gas shortage and no environmental policy pressure will lead to a significant abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions. Two other extreme scenarios, on the contrary, consider a maximum reduction of the use of fossil fuels, one with the development of nuclear energy and the other without. The last scenario is intermediate between the extreme ones and considers the development of renewable energy sources and the implementation of important energy saving. The backward analysis of these scenarios indicates that nuclear energy and the development of renewable energies is necessary to reach the CO{sub 2} abatement goals expected for 2050 and that energy saving must be a priority. (J.S.)

  18. Which sustainable energy policy in France?; Quelle politique energetique durable en France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Concurrently to the National Debate on the energies, a real debate has been proposed by seven associations of the environment protection and improvement. This debate, international, wonders on the energy choices in France. Presentations of the interveners and working documents are provided on the following topics: energy choices for the economic development, renewable energies, the possibilities and the development of the solar energy in France, the economic interest of the cogeneration, quick overview of the wind energy in France, energy production data, the transport and the greenhouse effect, the sustainable development and the energy policy and the local governments. (A.L.B.)

  19. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  20. Conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodineau, Luc; Menzen, Georg; Arnold, Peter Erich; Mauberger, Pascal; Roentzsch, Lars; Poggi, Philippe; Gervais, Thierry; Schneider, Guenther; Colomar, David; Buenger, Ulrich; Nieder, Babette; Zimmer, Rene; Jeanne, Fabrice; Le Grand, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 200 participants exchanged views on the different perspectives for use of hydrogen, in particular in transportation and energy storage applications. The technical production, transport and storage means were addressed too, as well as the technological models and the conditions for a large-scale industrial deployment. The economic prospects of hydrogen-energy in tomorrow's energy mix were also considered during the conference. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Hydrogen energy and Fuel Cells in France Today, and prospective (Luc Bodineau); 2 - The situation of energy Policy in Germany and the challenges for the Hydrogen Technology (Georg Menzen); 3 - Unlocking the Hydrogen Potential for Transport and Industry (Peter Erich Arnold); 4 - Hydrogen, a new energy for our planet - Hydrogen storage possibilities: example of solid storage (Pascal Mauberger); 5 - Innovative Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for H 2 Production and H 2 Storage (Lars Roentzsch); 6 - Scientific development and industrial strategy: experience feedback from the Myrte platform and energy transition-related perspectives (Philippe Poggi, Thierry Gervais); 7 - 'Power to Gas' - Important partner for renewables with big impact potential (Guenther Schneider) 8 - Developing a Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport in France and Germany - A Comparison (David Colomar, Ulrich Buenger); 9 - H 2 and Fuel-Cells as Key Technologies for the Transition to Renewable energies - The example of Herten (Babette Nieder); 10 - Social acceptance of hydrogen mobility in Germany (Rene Zimmer); 11 - Hydrogen - A development opportunity for regions? (Fabrice Jeanne)

  1. Key figures for climate in France and in the World - 2013 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouradou, Frederic; Wong, Florine; Delalande, Daniel; Morel, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Graphs and figures related to different aspects of climate in France and in the World are presented and briefly commented. The different parts respectively address climate change (global warming, consequences, forecasts, greenhouse effect, impact of human activity, carbon reservoirs, evolution and concentrations of greenhouse gases, temperatures), emissions of greenhouse gases (in the world, in Europe, in France), CO 2 emissions due to energy and to electricity production, the shares of sectors in greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and in France (energy production and transformation, transports, industry, other sectors, without energy combustion, CO 2 emission factors), and climate policies (international negotiations, Kyoto protocol and its flexibility mechanisms, the European Union commitments, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme and its carbon price, the French climate policy)

  2. Child-related Career Interruptions and the Gender Wage Gap in France

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique MEURS; Ariane PAILHE; Sophie PONTHIEUX

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the extent of the effects of children and child-related time out of the labor market on the gender wage gap in France, with special attention to its impact on the accumulation and composition of human capital. Measuring this impact requires detailed information on the individuals‟ activity history that is rarely available. The French survey "Families and Employers" (Ined, 2005) provides this information. We first look at men's and women's wage determinants, inclu...

  3. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central li...

  4. Southern Europeans in France: Invisible Migrants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremenko, T.; El Qadim, N.; Steichen, E.; Lafleur, J.-M.; Stanek, M.

    2016-01-01

    France fared relatively well at the start of the current economic crisis, but has experienced low economic growth and high unemployment rates in the recent years. As a result it has been a less popular destination with Southern Europeans and EU migrants in general in search of economic

  5. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  6. Lombroso in France. A paradoxical reception

    OpenAIRE

    Renneville, Marc

    2013-01-01

    International audience; La réception paradoxale de Lombroso en France. Initialement positive voire enthousiaste, cette réception est rapidement devenue critique tout en donnant une large audience à la théorie du criminel-né

  7. Medical physics in France, stakes and necessities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    2004-01-01

    This series of slides presents the situation of medical physics in France: - role of the medical physicist with respect to the medical procedures in radiotherapy, radiology and nuclear medicine; - responsibility in the treatment chain; - professional qualification and training; - present day and future situation of the profession; - authorities answer; - a profession in great precariousness situation. (J.S.)

  8. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  9. Gaz de France annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  10. World Foods. The Flavor of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Helen; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of France and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of French geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies French food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  11. CERN craftsman named Best in France

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Didier Lombard, metal worker in EST Division, was crowned 'France's Top Craftsman' during the 21st edition of the contest, which covered the period 1997 to 2000. CERN employs some of Europe's top crafts people to work on construction of components for experiments that are designed to a high degree of precision.

  12. Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France Altarelli Guido, CERN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France. Altarelli Guido, CERN, Switzerland. Ananthanarayan Balasubramanian,. IISc, Bangalore, India. Antoniadis Ignatios, CERN, Switzer- land. Aziz T, TIFR, Mumbai, India. Babu K S, Oklahoma State Univ., USA. Bailey Stephen, Harvard/BaBar, USA. Bailin David, University of Sussex, UK.

  13. The wind energy in danger in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The law project of march 2005, concerning the energy policy in France is dangerous for the wind power development. The new regulation favor the big installations in order to protect the environment. In fact this decision will limit the wind turbines installations. (A.L.B.)

  14. Limits to expression on religion in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a

  15. Tables of energies consumption in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    This short paper presents the evolution of the energy consumption by sector (industry, domestic, tertiary industry, transports, agriculture and all sectors together), since 1973. It gives an abstract of a more complete book: tableaux des consommations d'energie en France; edition 1999. (A.L.B.)

  16. 2004 energy bill of the France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  17. [The vision of welders in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, J P; Peyresblanques, J; Rollin, J P; Marini, F; Beaufils, D

    2002-10-01

    A study was conducted to measure the impact of welding on the vision of welders. This study was conducted in France by the occupational medicine staff of large companies on 1.131 people, namely 850 welders and 281 control subjects. This investigation included two examinations at the beginning and the end of a year. The investigative procedure examined the different welding processes, the percentage of working time spent on welding activity, the length of exposure in years, as well as the medical variables: the optical correction type and history of ocular traumatology. The Visiotest or the Ergovision were used for the visual examination, equipment in common use by occupational medicine departments. The welders were comparatively young (59.53% of them were less than 45 years old). Moreover, for 69.75% of the welders, more than 75% of their activity was devoted to welding. All currently used welding processes were represented, including the modern PLASMA-TIG welding process. No excessive blood alcohol levels were observed in all subjects, but welders did smoke slightly more than the control subjects (40% vs 33%). Self-medication was rather less frequent among the welders, except as regards the use of eye drops, where the proportions were clearly inverted. Optical correction for hyperopia was similar between the two groups; however, as regards myopia, the welders were corrected less often. Lastly, contact lens use was exceptional among the welders. Nearsightedness varied logically with age, but also, inexplicably, with the welding processes. Vision recovery time after exposure to glare was much longer among the welders, except for the PLASMA-TIG processes. No difference was observed in the other parameters of the study. No change in the visual functions studied was noted between the two examinations. The examination techniques used showed no impairment of the studied visual functions, probably because companies use protective and preventive eye care methods. Moreover

  18. France: energy prospects for 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes 4 simple energy policy scenarios and their impact on the abatement of carbon dioxide emissions. The first scenario considers the same consumption rates as today and assumes that no oil and gas shortage and no environmental policy pressure will lead to a significant abatement of CO 2 emissions. Two other extreme scenarios, on the contrary, consider a maximum reduction of the use of fossil fuels, one with the development of nuclear energy and the other without. The last scenario is intermediate between the extreme ones and considers the development of renewable energy sources and the implementation of important energy saving. The backward analysis of these scenarios indicates that nuclear energy and the development of renewable energies is necessary to reach the CO 2 abatement goals expected for 2050 and that energy saving must be a priority. (J.S.)

  19. Non-linear response of the Golo River system, Corsica, France, to Late Quaternary climatic and sea level variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forzoni, A.; Storms, J.E.A.; Reimann, T.; Moreau, J.; Jouet, G.

    2015-01-01

    Disentangling the impact of climatic and sea level variations on fluvio-deltaic stratigraphy is still an outstanding question in sedimentary geology and geomorphology. We used the Golo River system, Corsica, France, as a natural laboratory to investigate the impact of Late Quaternary climate and sea

  20. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  1. Gaz de France. Source document; Gaz de France. Document de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  2. Critical acidity loads in France; Charges critiques d`acidite en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, A.; Party, J.P.; Fevrier, C. [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface (UPR 06251 du CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Dambrine, E. [Centre de Recherches Forestieres, INRA, 45 - Orleans (France); Thomas, A.L.; King, D. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomique (INRA), 45 - ORDON (France); Stussi, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Based on results from several systematic forest and surface water monitoring programs, carried out in various parts of France as well as in Europe, acidity critical loads have been calculated for soils and surface waters; critical loads are presented for water and soils in crystalline mountainous regions such as Ardennes, Vosges and Massif Central; links with geochemistry, ecosystems and types of trees are discussed and perspectives are given for the calculation of acid and nitrogen critical loads on the whole France

  3. Information on nuclear energy in France during and after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgraupes, P.

    1991-01-01

    In France, the CHERNOBYL accident created a confidence crisis about nuclear energy. This crisis affected the entire population and its results can still be seen today in the many debates about the direction of the electronuclear program. The restoration of confidence had to involve the installation of a complete and permanent communications network between the nuclear institution and the population. All types of actions which have a unique objective: to make the general public aware of nuclear energy, how it works, the men that operate it, the real impact it has on the environment, its real risks and the procedure to be followed in case of an accident. This is a long term effort which requires permanent mobilization of nuclear professionals, a training effort on the part of educational organizations, media and the medical professions, and a strong involvement of local communities and associations. For this purpose, new structures and new information tools were implemented in France, with the emphasis on information transparency and pluralism

  4. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Communal analysis of the tramway accidentology in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentama Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of communes size on the number and severity of tram accidents in France. Methodology: For this we calculated the average densities of accidents and serious victims of trams per line kilometer for each class of commune between 2012 and 2014. While adverting to the official data of accidentology and population. Results: The study has shown that almost one third of the municipalities served by the tram have known no accident. The study also showed that the size of the communes is proportional to the accidents density per kilometer of the tram line. The study has also concluded that the density of serious victims per line kilometer is maximum in the communes of average size. Conclusion: To carry out the modal shift toward the urban public transport, it is necessary to deepen our knowledge of the specificities of insecurity of these modes. This study is part of this framework, and made the link between the size of the communes and trams accidentology in France.

  6. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  7. Fukushima accident: the consequences in Japan, France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, N.; Sorin, F.

    2011-01-01

    This document begins with a description of the Fukushima accident, the second article reviews the main consequences in Japan of the accident: setting of a forbidden zone around the plant, restriction of the exports of food products, or the shutdown of the Hamaoka plant. The third article is the reporting of an interview of L. Oursel, deputy general director of the Areva group, this interview deals mainly with the safety standard of the EPR and with the issue of passive safety systems. The last part of the document is dedicated to the consequences in France (null sanitary impact, cooperation between Areva, EdF, CEA and the Japanese plant operator Tepco...) and in the rest of the world: the organization of resistance tests in the nuclear power plants operating in the European Union, the decision about the agreement of EPR and AP1000 reactor has been delayed in United-Kingdom, acceleration of the German program for abandoning nuclear energy, Italy suspends its nuclear program, China orders a general overhaul of the safety standard of its nuclear power plants, Poland and Romania reaffirm their trust in nuclear energy, France wishes a 'mechanism' allowing a quick international intervention in case of major nuclear accident, Russia proposes measures to improve nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  8. Inside France: Three Missing Pages from Your Students' Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conniffe, Patricia, Ed.

    This mini-unit seeks to fill the gap in textbooks that exists when teaching about modern France. Many textbooks end their coverage of France with the chapter on World War II. This unit offers high school students a unique introduction to France in the mid-1990s. The mini-unit includes a two-sided poster, teaching tips, and student pages. Student…

  9. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  10. Impact de la forêt sur l’évolution des ressources en eau en moyenne montagne alpine depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle (massif de Chartreuse, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Dumas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la révolution industrielle, une grande partie des terres des espaces de moyenne montagne a été abandonnée au profit d’une extension de la couverture forestière. Or, la forêt intercepte et retient un pourcentage plus ou moins élevé des pluies sur son feuillage, diminuant du même coup la quantité d’eau réellement reçue par le sol. Le transfert de l’eau atmosphérique en une eau utilisable comme ressource a donc été progressivement modifié au cours de ces dernières décennies par la transformation progressive du paysage. Dans cette étude, conduite à l’échelle du massif de Chartreuse, la pluviométrie annuelle, le rôle de la forêt dans l’interception des pluies et l’extension de la forêt, sont appréciés tour à tour. L’impact de l’extension de la forêt depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle sur les quantités d’eau perdues pour l’écoulement et les réserves souterraines peut ainsi être évalué. Cette étude montre que, depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle, l’extension de la couverture forestière en Chartreuse aurait accru de presque 100 mm les pertes en eau par les processus d’interception. Et, sur cette même période, cette quantité d’eau perdue n’a pas été compensée par une hausse des précipitations. Au total, le bilan hydrologique a donc été notablement modifié, avec une quantité d’eau disponible pour l’écoulement, ou les réserves souterraines, plus réduite que celle définie traditionnellement à partir des uniques relevés météorologiques.

  11. Transposing an active fault database into a fault-based seismic hazard assessment for nuclear facilities - Part 2: Impact of fault parameter uncertainties on a site-specific PSHA exercise in the Upper Rhine Graben, eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Thomas; Scotti, Oona; Clément, Christophe; Jomard, Hervé; Baize, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    We perform a fault-based probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) exercise in the Upper Rhine Graben to quantify the relative influence of fault parameters on the hazard at the Fessenheim nuclear power plant site. Specifically, we show that the potentially active faults described in the companion paper (Jomard et al., 2017, hereafter Part 1) are the dominant factor in hazard estimates at the low annual probability of exceedance relevant for the safety assessment of nuclear installations. Geological information documenting the activity of the faults in this region, however, remains sparse, controversial and affected by a high degree of uncertainty. A logic tree approach is thus implemented to explore the epistemic uncertainty and quantify its impact on the seismic hazard estimates. Disaggregation of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) hazard at a 10 000-year return period shows that the Rhine River fault is the main seismic source controlling the hazard level at the site. Sensitivity tests show that the uncertainty on the slip rate of the Rhine River fault is the dominant factor controlling the variability of the seismic hazard level, greater than the epistemic uncertainty due to ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Uncertainty on slip rate estimates from 0.04 to 0.1 mm yr-1 results in a 40 to 50 % increase in hazard levels at the 10 000-year target return period. Reducing epistemic uncertainty in future fault-based PSHA studies at this site will thus require (1) performing in-depth field studies to better characterize the seismic potential of the Rhine River fault; (2) complementing GMPEs with more physics-based modelling approaches to better account for the near-field effects of ground motion and (3) improving the modelling of the background seismicity. Indeed, in this exercise, we assume that background earthquakes can only host M 6. 0 earthquakes have been recently identified at depth within the Upper Rhine Graben (see Part 1) but are not accounted

  12. G8 global partnership. France's contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    During the G8 summit at Kananaskis (Canada) in June 2002, G8 Leaders decided to launch the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Under this initiative, partners support specific cooperation projects to address non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safety issues. Since then, thirteen other donor countries have joined the initiative from which the Ukraine may also now benefit. France intends to make an effective contribution, up to 750 million euros, to the implementation of this initiative, giving priority to a genuine partnership between France and Russia covering projects in the nuclear, chemical and biological fields. France intends to be involved in the various fields identified at Kananaskis: in the nuclear field, it is participating in nuclear submarine dismantling actions and contributes to the improvement of nuclear safety and security. It also supports the program for the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes. France is also involved in the destruction of chemical weapons and intends to develop responses to bio-terrorist threats, while promoting reemployment of scientists. To optimise its action, France has committed itself to both multilateral and bilateral programs. In the multilateral framework, France contributes to: - the NDEP fund (Northern Dimension Environment Partnership) which will finance projects related to the dismantling of nuclear submarines and remediation of the sites concerned; - the MPDG (Multilateral Plutonium Disposition Group), whose objective is to enable the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes; - the construction of the new Chernobyl shelter in the Ukraine. France is also developing bilateral cooperation, primarily with Russia: - in the nuclear field, the implementing agreement negotiated in the framework of the Multilateral Environmental

  13. Present and future environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident. Study monitored by an International Advisory Committee under the project management of the Institut de protection et de surete nucleaire (IPSN), France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This report presents the results of studies of the radiological and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The studies, carried out by experts from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine during the period 1986-1995, covered the current and likely radiological situation; the effects of the accident on human life in the contaminated regions; radiobiological consequences of the irradiation of flora and fauna in the exclusion zone; and remedial actions to reduce long term human exposure. The radiological data include recent estimates of the radionuclide releases in April-May 1986 from the damaged reactor and of soil contamination levels in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. It is shown that most of the long lived radionuclide activity is still concentrated in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer. The report describes the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in surface water, in agricultural produce of vegetable and animal origin, in forest litter/soil and trees, and in mushrooms consumed by the local population. The results of reconstructions of the external and internal doses received by inhabitants of contaminated areas during the period 1986-1995 and dose forecasts for 1996-2056 are presented. For most of the population, external irradiation due to 137 Cs will be the main contributor to the total future, dose. The report discusses the social and economic impact of the Chernobyl accident on the well-being of the people in the affected countries caused by reduced collective and private production and by trade restrictions due to the radioactive contamination of produce. Increased morbidity has been reported, attributable especially to thyroid cancer in children. The psychological state of people is characterized by high anxiety; the demographic situation is worsening because of the departure of young families. Radiation protection, medical services and economic aid are being provided and the affected areas are being rehabilitated through State

  14. Present and future environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident. Study monitored by an International Advisory Committee under the project management of the Institut de protection et de surete nucleaire (IPSN), France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    This report presents the results of studies of the radiological and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The studies, carried out by experts from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine during the period 1986-1995, covered the current and likely radiological situation; the effects of the accident on human life in the contaminated regions; radiobiological consequences of the irradiation of flora and fauna in the exclusion zone; and remedial actions to reduce long term human exposure. The radiological data include recent estimates of the radionuclide releases in April-May 1986 from the damaged reactor and of soil contamination levels in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. It is shown that most of the long lived radionuclide activity is still concentrated in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer. The report describes the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in surface water, in agricultural produce of vegetable and animal origin, in forest litter/soil and trees, and in mushrooms consumed by the local population. The results of reconstructions of the external and internal doses received by inhabitants of contaminated areas during the period 1986-1995 and dose forecasts for 1996-2056 are presented. For most of the population, external irradiation due to {sup 137} Cs will be the main contributor to the total future, dose. The report discusses the social and economic impact of the Chernobyl accident on the well-being of the people in the affected countries caused by reduced collective and private production and by trade restrictions due to the radioactive contamination of produce. Increased morbidity has been reported, attributable especially to thyroid cancer in children. The psychological state of people is characterized by high anxiety; the demographic situation is worsening because of the departure of young families. Radiation protection, medical services and economic aid are being provided and the affected areas are being rehabilitated through State

  15. La propagande anti-britannique en France pendant l’Occupation Anti-British Propaganda in France during the Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Passera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Left to fight alone after France signed the armistice on the 22nd of June 1940, Great Britain became enemy number one in the eyes of the German occupying forces and the Vichy government. This hostility found expression in a considerable quantity of propaganda in the guise of posters, tracts, booklets and brochures meant to denounce British responsibility for the conflict in the eyes of French public opinion. Propaganda was particularly intense from June to December 1940 and from January to June 1944 but the German and French propaganda services waged this psychological warfare against Great Britain throughout the war. In 1940, the anti-British brainwashing campaigns aimed at ridding the defeated French of their guilt by accusing the ex-ally of being the cause of the conflict and of deceit during the Battle of France. In 1941-1942, the Allies’ military setbacks were the subject of tracts and brochures that ridiculed British strategic skills. Propaganda was also based on the painful history of France and Great Britain so as to convince the French that England had always tried to deprive France of her colonies and that it was what she was trying to do by maintaining her presence in Africa. The major part of this propaganda was promoted by the German authorities, only to a lesser degree by the French collaboration parties. Till 1942, the Information Secretariat of the Vichy government distributed few anti-British tracts, concentrating its efforts on the promotion of the National Revolution. On the other hand, the first Anglo-American bombings in the Paris area provoked strong reactions in the Vichy government which then relied on the French population’s confusion and anxiety to denounce British policy. What was the impact of these anti-British speeches on the French population? The prefects’ reports on public opinion show that the plugging of Anglophobic sentiment had little influence on the French who were globally in complete support of the

  16. Colbert's shadow: trade liberalisation and France's energy giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The slow pace of liberalisation in France's state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies are examined, and complaints from the British, Austrian, and Spanish power companies that France has failed to implement the EU directives while EdF has not been slow to expand overseas are considered. The climate of change in France illustrated by the hostile takeover battles, and suspicion of spot and futures trading as speculation rather than offsetting risks are noted. (UK)

  17. Acerca de Juana Francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Orgaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la desigual visibilidad de Juana Francés frente al resto de compañeros de su generación, el artículo considera algunos de los factores que provocaron esta injusta situación. Así mismo se aborda un recorrido por la intensa y variada trayectoria creativa de la artista que incluye sus etapas más significativas analizadas.Taking into account the poor visibility of Juana Francés compared to tfie rest of tier generation colleagues, ttie article reflects on some of tfie causes ttiat provoked this unfair situation. In addition to that, tfie article explores the intense and diverse artistic career including her most significant stages.

  18. Second births in western Germany and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Köppen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that work and family life are more compatible in France, where highly educated women can turn their education more often into work opportunities and income. West German women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners' earning potential that influences fertility.

  19. Postglacial dispersal of Phlebotomus perniciosus into France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrotey S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomus perniciosus was identified morphologically in samples from France and northeast Spain, and individuals were then characterized at three polymorphic isoenzyme loci (by isoelectrofocusing and at the mitochondrial DNA locus (by comparative DNA sequence analysis of a fragment of the Cytochrome b gene. The four polymorphic loci gave conflicting patterns of population relationships, which can be explained by hypothesizing different amounts of gene introgression at each locus when two distinctive lineages met in southern France or northeast Spain after isolation in southern Italy and Spain during the Pleistocene Ice Ages. P. perniciosus is an important vector of Leishmania infantum and so these population differentiation studies are relevant for predicting the emergence and spread of leishmaniasis in relation to environmental changes, including climate.

  20. A study of nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1981-01-01

    It is stated that the purpose of the study is to identify and explain, for a British audience, what the author perceives to be the combination of forces and events that have led France to adopt the most thrustful nuclear programme in the world at the present time. The subject is discussed under the headings: nuclear perspectives (energy needs and supplies - forecasts and programmes); the national interest (government policies in relation to energy; reactor types - gas-graphite and LWR); the structure of the French nuclear industry; the State (the French corps of scientists; the existence of an Administrative Elite; the role of the State and its function in industrial management); decision making; the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique); Electricite de France; electricity growth and prices; financing the expansion; the international dimension (cooperation). (author)

  1. Research on hydrogen by Gaz de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donat, G.; Lecoanet, A.; Roncato, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    With the increasing energy needs of mankind and the earth's necessarily limited resources of fuel, the time will come when the demand for hydrocarbons will exceed the world production capacity. This situation will subsequently get even worse because of the depletion of recoverable reserves. Massive recourse to nuclear and solar energy thus appears indispensable, and the use of hydrogen as a vector for such energies has been under consideration for several years, especially in France where petroleum resources are very limited. Gaz de France has been doing research on the mass production of hydrogen by the decomposition of water and has just come to rather pessimistic conclusions as to the competitiveness of thermochemical processes in comparison with electrolytic methods. However, the electrolysis of water offers interesting prospects providing its efficiency and economics can be improved. Furthermore research on the storage and transportation of hydrogen has already enabled some conclusions to be drawn in these fields where gaseous vectors have very encouraging possibilities [fr

  2. Nuclear safety in France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the milestones of 2001 concerning nuclear safety in France: 1) the new organization of nuclear safety in France, IPSN (institute of protection and nuclear safety) and OPRI (office for protection against ionizing radiation) have merged into an independent organization: IRSN (institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety); 2) a draft bill has been proposed by the government to impose to nuclear operators new obligations concerning the transfer of information to the public; 3) nuclear safety authorities have drafted a new procedure in order to cope with the demand concerning modification of nuclear fuel management particularly the increase of the burn-up; 4) new evolutions concerning the management of a major nuclear crisis as a consequence of the terrorist attack on New-york and the accident at the AZF plant in Toulouse; 5) a point is made concerning the work of the WENRA association about the harmonization of the nuclear safety policies of its different members. (A.C.)

  3. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  4. Irradiation and the food industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on food irradiation. The historical development in France of some industrial applications of food irradiation resulting from efficient technology transfer to the food industry is discussed. The 4 basic steps in successfully marketing any technology transfer, including irradiated foods, are that research must define conditions of the product's application, legislation must specify conditions of its application, consumers must accept the product, and appropriate processing capacity must exist

  5. France's Nuclear Arsenal: What Sort of Renewal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustlein, Corentin

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of the next few years, France will have to renew its nuclear arsenal to ensure that it remains a credible deterrent in the eyes of its potential enemies. This update must occur within an unfavourable context: the strategic environment, marked by the multiplication of Jihadi fronts, has deteriorated, and budgetary discipline is the order of the day. Sacrificing nuclear deterrence at the altar of the fight against terrorism would, however, be a fatal error

  6. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  7. Frances Keesler Graham (1918-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    Frances Keesler Graham, noted psychophysiologist and developmental researcher, died on April 16, 2013. Fran was born in Canastota, New York, on August 1, 1918. Fran's high-quality research, her success in obtaining 39 years of uninterrupted funding, and the very high regard in which she was held among her colleagues led to numerous awards and honors. Fran was demanding but equally willing to provide extensive assistance to students willing to work hard. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Spent fuel management in France: Programme status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudat, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    France's programme is best characterized as a closed fuel cycle including reprocessing, Plutonium recycling in PWR and use of breeder reactors. The current installed nuclear capacity is 52.5 GWe from 55 units. The spent fuel management scheme chosen is reprocessing. This paper describes the national programme, spent nuclear fuel storage, reprocessing and contracts for reprocessing of spent fuel from various countries. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  9. France's action plan for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first presents the French strategy for energy efficiency which is notably based on several commitments and an energy conservation policy. The second part describes the various policies and measures which have been implemented in France for different sectors: energy demand, housing and office building, transports, industry, exemplary State and local communities, agriculture, wastes, public information and sensitization. Several large appendices complete this report. They address assessment methods, policies and measures, and a European directive

  10. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This annual report of the Charbonnages de France (CdF) group presents the financial results of the group for 1998: coal market, CdF's financial results (turnover, exploitation result, financial result, debt); power production (Snet, Cerchar, Surschiste, Sidec, and CdF Ingenierie activities); coal industry activities (coal mines, coke factories, coal products, environment); progressive ceasing of coal extraction (safety, manpower, reduction of working time, training, management of abandoned sites, rehabilitation, cleansing); management of industrialization and patrimony. (J.S.)

  11. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesson Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  12. Shielding design for PWR in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, G.; Charransol; Le Dieu de Ville, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T.

    1983-05-01

    Shielding calculation scheme used in France for PWR is presented here for 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants built by EDF the French utility giving electricity. Neutron dose rate at areas accessible by personnel during the reactor operation is calculated and compared with the measurements which were carried out in 900 MWe units up to now. Measurements on the first French 1300 MWe reactor are foreseen at the end of 1983

  13. A survey of renewable energies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals set by the Grenelle agreement was to reach a ratio of 23% for the part of renewable energies in the final energies consumed in France by 2020. In 2005 this ratio was 10 per cent. In this article the situation in 2010 for wind energy, solar energy, biomass, wood heating and geothermal energy are reported. It appears that the results are promising but the reduction of fiscal incentives might jeopardize the objective for 2020. (A.C.)

  14. Tables of energy consumptions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This work presents in a detailed way important data about the evolution of energy in France during the last twenty years. for the totality of economic sectors, then for each of them ( industry, residential, transports and agriculture sector), this analysis brings to light the part that each form of energy takes to the supply of the French market, the importance of equipment parks and the energy economies that have been realized. (N.C.)

  15. Limits to expression on religion in France

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a certain religion in society. They often initiate judicial proceedings seeking to prohibit certain kinds of speech on their religion. This practice has resulted in a rich case law on the limits of expre...

  16. Insurance of the Nuclear Risk in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassard, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This March, Japan commemorated the first anniversary of the Fukushima tragedy, when an unhappy combination of natural disasters led to a nuclear accident. The material and human damage was enormous and it will be decades before memories fade and the Japanese can try to forget this tragedy, which attests to the great vulnerability of - even the most advanced - economies to natural and technological risks. In the wake of the accident, there has been much debate on the pertinence of the use of nuclear fission in energy production, particularly in France. Without going over these debates once again, it is nonetheless legitimate to ask not just how well equipped we are to prevent nuclear risks, but also how the consequences of a potential nuclear disaster would be dealt with in this country. It is this question that Guy Brassard latches on to. After reminding us of the limits of the responsibility of EDF (Electricite de France) and the state in France regarding the indemnification of the damage that would ensue from such a disaster, Brassard stresses the inadequacy of the guarantees in force and calls for the creation of a reserve fund for exceptional events. He stresses the need to mitigate the nuclear risk through a clear assessment of power stations on the basis of uniform security parameters, a publicly avail able economic analysis of the electricity mix, and the establishment of measures of efficiency and prudence in the use of France's nuclear resources. He ends by proposing a model, based on a large number of international studies, for calculating the costs of a scheme for insuring against exceptional risks. From these it emerges that a very moderate increase in the price of electricity would make it possible to set aside 100 billion euros over 18 years to meet a risk that would arise only once every century. A relatively negligible investment for the future by comparison with the cost to the public finances of such a disaster occurring. (author)

  17. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  18. Offshore wind power: does France remain ashore?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongrain, T.

    2015-01-01

    France benefits from favorable geographical conditions for offshore wind power but the development of a dedicated industrial sector is slow. 6 projects of wind power farms where turbines are rooted in the seabed are expected to operate progressively from 2018, they represent a cumulated power capacity of 2920 MW. A call for projects has been launched by French authorities for floating offshore wind farms off Brittany and in the mediterranean sea but it will not be sufficient to help to fulfill the declared goal of 40% of the electricity produced in France should be of renewable origin. The main weakness is the cost and countries like Germany benefit from the shallow waters of the North sea to install wind farms at lower costs. The solution could be the development in France of an industrial sector dedicated to floating wind turbines that are easier to install in deep water and can be settled farther off the coast to meet the demand of environmentalists for seascape preservation. More sites could become available for floating wind turbines than for seabed-rooted ones and as the consequence the market for floating systems may become more important. (A.C.)

  19. A decade of nuclear development in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renon, G.

    1984-01-01

    After the first energy crisis, in France depended heavily on oil import, the broad lines of strategy were the improvement of efficiency in energy use, the diversification of energy sources and the development of domestic substitute energy sources. The energy conservation policy achieved in 1983 up to 35 million tons of oil equivalent saving. The coal and natural gas output in France decreased during the last ten years, but the national energy production covered 38.7 % of the national needs in 1983. This result is mainly due to the implementation of electro-nuclear program whose contribution to the total energy consumption was more than 17 % in 1983. In 10 reference years, 29 PWR units of 900 MWe and 17 PWR units of 1300 MWe have been launched, and 27 units of 900 MWe each have been commissioned. The power cost per kWh generated by nuclear energy remained about 2/3 of that by coal. The cumulative production of 900 MWe PWRs is already equivalent to 50 reactor-years at full power. The average availability of the units was 68 % in 1983, which showed that the problems have been solved. Also the state of nuclear fuel cycle in France, the trend of reactor improvement and the long term plan are explained. (Kako, I.)

  20. The history of tidal power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The first known use of tidal power in France concerns the tidal mills in general use during the Middle Age along the French coasts. The first research studies of tidal power plants started at the end of the first world war but it is only in 1940 with the stimulus of Robert Gibrat that was created the Research Society for the use of Tides and the Rance plant project. In 1946, Electricite de France (EdF) started again the studies of this company for a greater size project in the Chausey archipelago which was abandoned for the benefit of the Rance project in the 1960's. The start up of the plant took place in 1967 but the other projects were abandoned during the 1980's. This short paper recalls the historical aspects of the development of tidal power in France and focusses on the research and development studies and on the economical, political and legal factors that led to retain the Rance project among others proposed. (J.S.)

  1. [Increase of Hantavirus infections in France, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V; Haeghebaert, S; Fradet, M R; Capek, I; Zeller, H

    2005-02-01

    Hantaviral infections causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are endemic in North Eastern France. Humans are contaminated by the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by rodent faeces. In February 2003, the National reference centre (NRC) for hemorrhagic fevers detected an increased number of cases. An investigation was carried out to confirm the outbreak and take appropriate control measures. Cases were collected by the NRC. A case was defined as a person living in France with symptoms compatible with hantaviral infection and a positive blood test both for specific Puumala IgM, and IgG. Clinical information and at-risk exposures during the 2 weeks before onset were recorded. In 2003, 128 cases were diagnosed (61 in 2002). The median age of patients was 38, 77% were men and 82% were hospitalized. Patients were living in North-Eastern France. Clusters were detected in the Ardennes and Oise districts. Occupation (35%) (in agriculture, forestry, and construction work), manipulation of firewood (35%), gardening (29%), and outdoors leisure (14%) were identified as at-risk exposures in these cases. An increased number of positive diagnoses of hantaviral infections was confirmed. The location and at-risk exposures of the cases were identical in previous investigations. Exclusion and prevention of rodents' access to houses and avoiding the inhalation of contaminated dust are the only possible prevention measures of hantaviral infections. Information about the disease and its prevention needs to be made widely available to both healthcare professionals and the general population living in endemic areas.

  2. Gaz de France 2006 annual report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary.

  3. The potential of liquid biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, Etienne

    1999-01-01

    The objective fixed by the European Commission in 1995 was that 5% of the fuel used for transport in Fance should be produced from renewable energy by 2005. As opposed to some other European countries, there is no environmental tax on fossil fuels in France, but the Government has agreed to a tax incentive system on biofuels. Experimental work on liquid biofuels as a transport fuel started in France in the early 80's, but the use of biofuels on a commercial basis really started to develop when the setaside rules and tax incentives came into force in 1991. Out of the two routes originally considered for development; bioethanol and its ETBE derivative, and vegetable oils and their methyl ester derivatives, priority has now been given to: ETBE produced from sugar beet and wheat and now from sub-products of starch industry, which are widely grown in France; ETBE is blended with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. Production of wheat and beet for energy purposes is very similar to food production. In France, ethanol produce from sugar beet is a traditional industry; this was the first route to be developed. The results of a life cycle analysis made for ETBE produce from sugar beet will be given, showing advantages and limitations. Alcohol produced from wheat is a more recent activity; two industrial plants have been built since beginning of the 90's and other projects are planned like for example a production from starch industry. RME (rapeseed methyl ester) for use in diesel engines at various blend rates. Vegetable oils or their derivatives such as esters can be used directly in diesel engines. Pure, filtered and degummed oils can be used in pre-chamber engines. Relatively advanced knowledge has now been gained about esters; because their characteristics are very similar to those of conventional diesel fuel, they are considered suitable for use in direct injection diesel engines without engine modification. In France, methyl ester is at present produced mainly

  4. Radiological impact of radioactive materials transport in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation doses of personnel and populations are estimated between 1983 and 1985 during road transport of radiopharmaceuticals, spent fuels, wastes and other radioactive materials. Dose equivalent received by air transport and others are difficult to know. Results are summed up in 8 tables. Radioactive materials transport represents less than 1% of exposures related to the fuel cycle [fr

  5. Nuclear safety in France in 2001; La surete nucleaire en France en 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This press dossier summarizes the highlights of nuclear safety in France in 2001: the point-of-view of A.C. Lacoste, director of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN), the new organisation of the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection, the ASN's policy of transparency, the evolutions of nuclear fuels and the consistency of the fuel cycle, the necessary evolutions of the nuclear crisis management, the harmonizing work of safety approaches carried out by the WENRA association. The following documents are attached in appendixes: the decrees relative to the reformation of the nuclear control in France, the missions of the ASN, the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, the organization of ASN in March 2000, the incidents notified in 2001, the inspections performed in 2001, and the list of the main French nuclear sites. (J.S.)

  6. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution, services

  7. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution

  8. General presentation of the biomass in France; Presentation generale de la biomasse en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The biomass is the first source of renewable energy in France. It allows the thermal (heat, fuels) and electrical energy recovery.It satisfies many stakes in the energy, the environment and the employment. This document presents the energy stake, the environmental stake and the economic and social stake. It discusses also the wood energy recovery in France, provides statistical data, definitions and methodologies of evaluation. It analyzes the production and consumption of the wood energy for the industrial and domestic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  9. Activities of Gaz de France Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The Board of Directors of Gaz de France approved the Group's consolidated accounts for 2004. In a more dynamic economic environment than in 2003, the Gaz de France Group reports enhanced results and has continued to pursue its growth in Europe. Increase in net sales driven by sustained growth in sales (+ 8.9%): In 2004, net sales rose 8.9% compared with the 2003 financial year to reach a total of euro 18,129 m. This strong increase in business activities was driven by sustained growth in sales volumes both in France and Europe. Total Group sales volumes amounted to 730 TWh (approximately 66 billion cubic metres), equal to growth of 10.3%. Natural gas sales volumes increased by approximately 10% in France, and are almost 18% higher in Europe, notably in the United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands. The Group has pursued the profitable development of its activities outside France. As a result, international activities account for 29% of total sales in 2004, against 23% in 2003. The contribution made by international subsidiaries - particularly those specializing in exploration and production - grew by a very substantial 44.3% to reach a total of euro 502 m in 2004. Energy and Services Offering Branch: this core business line, which includes natural gas and oil exploration and production, energy trading and sales, and services associated with the supply of energy, boasts net sales of euro 16,498 m, equal to growth of 10.8% compared with 2003. Infrastructures Branch: this division, which groups together all activities related to the management of transmission and distribution infrastructures in both the French domestic and international markets, generated net sales of euro 6,794 m in 2004, virtually unchanged from the previous year. This situation is the result of higher sales generated by the distribution subsidiaries operating outside France (+9.2%) offset by a decline in the sales performance of the Transmission, Storage and Distribution in France

  10. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  11. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Christine Girard

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce.The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts.Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation.Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having 'some university' was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France.While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors.

  12. The construction of PWR steam generators in France. Techniques for reducing the corrosion risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassal, J.M.; Remond, A.

    1980-03-01

    The generators used in France are very similar to those made by Westinghouse at the same period. The objectives pursued were to build well, keeping as much as possible to the rules of the codes and the recommendations of Westinghouse, to acquire as much knowledge as possible on that which conditions the good behaviour of the IN 600 tubular bundles and to limit the environmental impacts [fr

  13. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activity in Languedoc (southern France)

    OpenAIRE

    Azuara , J; Combourieu-Nebout , N; Lebreton , V; Mazier , F; Müller , S D; Dezileau , L ,

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Holocene climate fluctuations and human activity since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediter-ranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to better understand Mediterranean pale-oenvironmental changes over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High-resolution pollen analyses were un-dertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamic...

  14. Fathers and work-life balance in France and the UK:Policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Abigail; Milner, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the role of organizations in mediating the impact of national work-life balance (WLB) policy on employees, in particular fathers. Design/methodology/approach – It presents existing research about WLB policy implementation in organizations as well as the findings of empirical work in insurance and social work in France and the UK (questionnaire survey, case study analysis, interviews with national and sector-level trade union officials). Findings – These indicat...

  15. Electrical Energy Statistics for France 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Detailed statistics on electricity flows in France and on facilities. Regional data / Consumption per sector of activity / Records over last 10 years (definitive results). In 2002, national electrical consumption reached 449.9 TWh, an increase of 0.3% compared with 2001 (448.6 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies, its growth rate was 0.9% compared with 2001. Consumption by customers connected at high or medium voltage levels came to 254.2 TWh, an increase of 0.8% compared with 2001 (252.3 TWh); consumption by customers connected at low voltage levels came to 165 TWh, a decrease of 0.8% compared with 2001 (166.4 TWh). Generation in France reached 534.3 TWh, an increase of 11.5 TWh or 2.2% compared with 2001 (522.8 TWh). This increase broke down between nuclear generation and conventional thermal generation. Net nuclear generation injected, as measured by RTE, came to 415.5 TWh in 2002, an increase of 4.0% compared with 2001 (399.6 TWh). Conventional thermal generation came to 51.1 TWh, an increase of 15.4 % compared with 2001 (44.3 TWh). Hydro-electric generation amounted to 65.5 TWh, a fall of 15.3% compared with 2001 (77.3 TWh). In terms of physical exchanges with foreign countries, France exported a net total of 77 TWh, an increase of 12.6% compared with 2001 (68.4 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries, recorded by RTE, fell by 9.9 % to reach a cumulative value for exports and imports of 107.8 TWh (compared with 120 TWh in 2001)

  16. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  17. The studies of historical seismicity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levret, A.

    1987-11-01

    Since 1975 in order to be in conformity with the requirements of the French nuclear program, a review of historical seismicity was undertaken in France. The method adopted for reviewing historical earthquakes who entails a systematic consultation of the original sources and their critical analysis in order to obtain a new interpretation, led to compile a computer file covering a period of time of about a millenary. The abundant contributions result of continuous researches involve annualy up-date of the file where macroseismic data each one assigned with a degree of reliability are recorded [fr

  18. Status of the methanization sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    This report aims at describing the status of methanization installations, either operating or under construction, on the French national territory, all sectors included (industry, agriculture, sewage treatment, municipal wastes). In a first part, the authors propose a definition of methanization, a presentation of the various implementation techniques, a presentation of the different sectors using methanization (industry, agriculture and breeding, sewage treatment plants, household wastes), and a presentation of a survey. Then, they comment and discuss more precisely the different sectors, their history, their geographical distribution in France, their technologies, their effluents, their production, their economic data, their perspectives

  19. Nuclear energy research and development in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    1981-02-01

    Having described the general organization and main participants in charge of nuclear energy development in France, headed by the C.E.A. since the start of this activity at the end of World War II, the author gives a glimpse of the programmes shared out between four main headings: fundamental research, reactors, fuel cycle and nuclear safety. Two tables sum up the financial means of the C.E.A. in 1981 on the one hand and the personnel strengths on the other. A graph also shows the operational framework of the C.E.A. and its main subsidiaries and participations [fr

  20. Gaz de France. 2006 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents the relevant informations relative to the annual consolidated financial statements of the group according to IFRS and French standards for the year 2005 (selected financial information, business overview, liquidity and capital resources, profit forecasts or estimates, compensation and benefits, issuer assets etc..). It includes also some complementary information about the activities of the group, its estate property, plants and equipments, its R and D and patenting activities, its management and administration, its 2005 and 2006 contracts etc.. (J.S.)

  1. Annual report ''nuclear safety in France''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). It summarizes the highlights of the year 2000 and details the following aspects: the nuclear safety in France, the organization of the control of nuclear safety, the regulation relative to basic nuclear facilities, the control of facilities, the information of the public, the international relations, the organisation of emergencies, the radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive wastes, the PWR reactors, the experimental reactors and other laboratories and facilities, the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and the shutdown and dismantling of nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  2. The production of transplutonium elements in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Sontag, R.; Kertesz, C.

    1980-08-01

    The development of the program for the production of transplutonium elements, 241 Am, 243 Am and 244 Cm, in France, required a major effort from the technological and chemical standpoints. Pre-existing hot cells were reconditioned and others specially built for these production operations. From the chemical standpoint, the development of extractive chromatography on the preparative scale has allowed the definition of simple processes. This type of process, initially developed for the treatment of Pu/Al targets, is ideal for the treatment of industrial wastes for their decontamination and for the production of 241 Am

  3. Energy in France. Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic but comprehensive outlook of the energy situation in France: the importance of energy and its various forms; the production and transformation of energy (energy sources, production means, other sources of energy); the transport and the distribution of energy (transportation systems, energy losses, the case of electric power transportation and distribution systems), energy utilization (demand and supply, energy management), the energy policy (historical aspects, the nowadays energy policy and its transition towards a sustainable and renewable energy policy

  4. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  5. Emergencies and emergency planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1986-01-01

    The organization for dealing with radiation emergencies in France is complex and centralized. It consists of the Radiation Security Council with participants from the Premier Ministre and the Ministers of Interior, Industry, Health, and Defense. A permanent general secretary for radiation security coordinates the work of the various departments. Planning for nuclear power emergencies is divided between on-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibilities of the manager of the plant, and off-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibility of the regional governor. Both on-site and off-site planning have models integrated into a special code of practice called the radiation emergency organization

  6. EDF - Electricite de France, 2004 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2004. It is made of several reports: The Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2004, the 2004 Half-year results presentation, and The Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2004

  7. Plant upgrading and backfitting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxley, Nigel; Raimondo, Emile

    1992-01-01

    The service life of a nuclear power plant is linked to good operating and maintenance practices and effective management which should begin when the plant starts operating. In France the construction of two series of virtually identical reactors has enabled Framatome to use feedback from early units to modify and improve later ones. The intention is to keep the plants safe and to extend life as far into the next century as is feasible. Remedial measures that can be applied include improvements to plant operation itself, plant modifications and the implementation of effective preventive and corrective maintenance operations which may cover planned provision for the replacement of obsolete or susceptible components. (author)

  8. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation's electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study's methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared

  9. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensing, I.; Nolden, A.; Riechmann, Ch.; Schulz, W.

    1998-01-01

    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  10. EDF - Electricite de France, 2005 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2005. It is made of several reports: the 2005 Annual Results presentation, the consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2005, the 2005 Half-year results presentation, and the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2005

  11. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  12. Autochthonous Chikungunya Transmission and Extreme Climate Events in Southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, David; Boussès, Philippe; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Extreme precipitation events are increasing as a result of ongoing global warming, but controversy surrounds the relationship between flooding and mosquito-borne diseases. A common view among the scientific community and public health officers is that heavy rainfalls have a flushing effect on breeding sites, which negatively affects vector populations, thereby diminishing disease transmission. During 2014 in Montpellier, France, there were at least 11 autochthonous cases of chikungunya caused by the invasive tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in the vicinity of an imported case. We show that an extreme rainfall event increased and extended the abundance of the disease vector Ae. albopictus, hence the period of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya. We report results from close monitoring of the adult and egg population of the chikungunya vector Ae. albopictus through weekly sampling over the entire mosquito breeding season, which revealed an unexpected pattern. Statistical analysis of the seasonal dynamics of female abundance in relation to climatic factors showed that these relationships changed after the heavy rainfall event. Before the inundations, accumulated temperatures are the most important variable predicting Ae. albopictus seasonal dynamics. However, after the inundations, accumulated rainfall over the 4 weeks prior to capture predicts the seasonal dynamics of this species and extension of the transmission period. Our empirical data suggests that heavy rainfall events did increase the risk of arbovirus transmission in Southern France in 2014 by favouring a rapid rise in abundance of vector mosquitoes. Further studies should now confirm these results in different ecological contexts, so that the impact of global change and extreme climatic events on mosquito population dynamics and the risk of disease transmission can be adequately understood.

  13. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France pour 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  14. The energy in France benchmark; L'energie en France reperes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This book provides data on the following topics, concerning the France: the energy in the economy, the different energies, the petroleum, gas, coal and electric power, the renewable energies, the cogeneration, the rational use of the energy, the prices, the energy and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  15. The international development of Electricite de France; Le developpement international d'Electricite de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 2001, Electricite de France (EdF) has pursued and increased its international development with a portfolio of participations in foreign electricity companies (Germany, Italy, UK, Brazil, Argentina etc..) that reached 6 billions of euros. This development has been tainted with poor results in South America and has led to some hostile reactions from the Italian and Spanish governments. (J.S.)

  16. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  17. 2004 energy accounting in France; Bilan energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  18. The private vehicles in France: data and references; Les vehicules particuliers en France: donnees et references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catania, S.

    2004-03-01

    Each year the ADEME establishes and actualizes data bases from data provided by the UTAC and the Auxiliary Association of the Automobile. These data concern the emissions and consumptions of private vehicles approved and sold in France. The last part deals with the technological evolutions of vehicles concerning the fuel consumption decrease. (A.L.B.)

  19. The action of France; L'action de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  20. 2004 energy bill of the France; Facture energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  1. Radioactive waste treatment and handling in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    Classification of radioactive wastes customary in France and the program of radiation protection in handling them are discussed. Various methods of radioactive waste processing and burial are considered. The French classification of radioactive wastes differs from one used in the other countries. Wastes are classified under three categories: A, B and C. A - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with short-lived radionuclides (half-life - less than 30 years, negligible or heat release, small amount of long-lived radionuclides, especially such as plutonium, americium and neptunium); B - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (considerable amounts of long-lived radionuclides including α-emitters, low and moderate-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, low and moderate heat release); C - high-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (high-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, high heat release, considerable amount of long-lived radionuclides). Volumetric estimations of wastes of various categories and predictions of their growth are given. It is noted that the concept of closed fuel cycle with radiochemical processing of spent fuel is customary in France

  2. Gaz de France and market regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriere, J.F.; Balard, Th.

    2004-01-01

    Following an overview of the specific features of the European gas sector (characterised by highly concentrated production and increasing levels of production outside Europe and over long distances), the article describes the lead up to the opening of the market place in France. Following the application of the first directive in 2000, Gaz de France has carried out various measures, the aim of which was to achieve immediate efficiency (with the organizational separation of the transport and trading divisions, the separation of activities from an accounting viewpoint and the publication of a transparent TPA tariff as opposed to a discriminatory one). This opening of the gas sector has seen the start of a gradual process based on this experience. In addition to these initial measures, the opening of the gas markets has been subject to a regulatory framework as from January 2003, and the task of regulating the French gas sector has been given to the CRE (Commission de regulation de l'electricite). Thanks to the ongoing dialogue initiated by the latter with all key players in the market, progress has been achieved in various fields related to regulation. Even if this process is not complete, the French example demonstrates that the combined actions of the regulator and the market operators working together in a constructive manner and in stages, makes it possible to successfully introduce a genuinely open market. (authors)

  3. The Dismantling of Nuclear Installations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaure, P.

    2011-01-01

    As we saw in the previous article by Pierre Bonnaure, though it has long been decried for the dangers inherent in its production structures and the very long-lived waste that it generates, nuclear power may yet recover its credibility, particularly in France. However, on close examination, we see that the nuclear industry is beset by a number of unresolved questions, beginning with the dismantling of installations that have become obsolete or are set to become so. Nuclear power took off after the Second World War, but several generations of technology have been developed since then, and most currently functioning power-stations - mainly second-generation installations - are theoretically nearing the end of their useful lives, at least in terms of what was said when they were being built. The problem therefore arises of their dismantling and the clean-up of the sites on which they were built, a thorny question on which Pierre Bonnaure casts light in this article (prospects, strategies, financing, management of waste etc.). Unfortunately, it emerges that in France nothing has really been resolved, that public debate on the matter is decidedly limited and that investment (both financial investment and research) is not commensurate with the needs of a sector which is, after all, the source of three quarters of national electricity production. (author)

  4. The photovoltaic sector in France Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick; Jacquin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    According to statistics drawn up in 2009 by the Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables (SER, France's professional association of bodies involved in renewable energies), 250 MW of generating capacity were added during the year. This brings France's total installed photovoltaic capacity up to 430 MW. France's photovoltaic market grew from the world's 12. largest in terms of market size to 7. The broad guidelines which followed on from the legislation that emerged from the 'Grenelle of the Environment' are influencing the ways in which the market is to grow over the next few years: largest by the end of 2009. This was due to growth that was sustained by high feed-in tariffs and a drop in the price of equipment. - a target of 1100 MW of photovoltaic installed capacity by 2012, reaching 5 400 MW by 2020; - confirmation that tariff incentives will remain in place until 2012 and creation of an additional tariff for photovoltaic installations in large-sized buildings, such as commercial premises and industrial warehouses. This tariff has been fixed at 0,45 EUR per kWh; however, adjustment measures were announced at the end of 2009 to reduce a speculative approach that could ultimately lead to an hardening of access conditions to the higher tariffs. - the issuing of an invitation to tender for the construction of a least one photovoltaic power plant per region in France by 2011, providing a total of 300 MW of power. 2009 was mainly marked by an increase in the number of medium- and high-power plants, together with the emergence of a number of new organizations in the photovoltaic sector. The market continues to be strongly influenced by the priorities given to the integration of photovoltaics into buildings. The effects of the incentive measures that have been in place since 2006 (feed-in tariffs and fiscal measures) are still being felt. They continue to stimulate investment - both from private individuals and manufacturing organizations. In

  5. Gaz de France interim financial report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This financial report contains the unaudited condensed financial statements of Gaz de France Group for the first half ended June 30, 2007, which were reviewed by the audit committee on August 27, 2007 and by the board of directors at its meeting on August 28, 2007. It includes forward-looking statements concerning the objectives, strategies, financial position, future operating results and the operations of Gaz de France Group. These statements reflect the Group's current perception of its activities and the markets in which it operates, as well as various estimates and assumptions considered to be reasonable. Content: interim management report (highlights of the first half of 2007, revenues and results for the period, financial structure, data on outstanding stock, outlook); interim consolidated financial statements (consolidated statements of income, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of cash flows, recognized income and expenses, statements of changes in shareholders' equity, note to the consolidated financial statements); statement by the person responsible for the interim financial report; statutory auditors' report. (J.S.)

  6. Next step, the Tour de France?

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour de France, the Annecy-Semnoz time-trial, has already been won – by a CERN staff member!     In keeping with tradition, the organisers of the Tour de France organise another race, the Étape du Tour, which is open to the general public and follows the actual route of an official stage of the Tour proper. This year, the chosen venue was Annecy and its neighbouring mountain, Le Semnoz, which played host to 11,000 cycling enthusiasts from all parts. This penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour will be raced by the professionals on 20 July. The public race was won by Nicolas Roux, an experienced cyclist and member of CERN’s GS-IS Group, who devoured the 128-km course in just 4 hours and 15 minutes, nine seconds ahead of cycling champion Julien Absalon. “I just managed to overhaul Julien Absalon 500 m before the finishing line,” Nicolas recounts. “It was a fantastic race!” Come rain o...

  7. Commercial applications of food ionization in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Pierre-Louis

    1994-01-01

    Due to the long history of nuclear energy in France, French public is not frightened by nuclear applications in its everyday life. The first industrial initiative on food ionization dates back to 1956. In 1980, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Ionization concluded that food ionization up to a certain maximum dose presented neither toxicological nor nutritional hazard. This opened the new era for the industrial development. But in 1988, a draft directive to harmonize national legislations was issued by the Commission of European Communities. This stopped many industrial initiatives due to uncertainty. It is estimated that nearly 14,000 tons of various food items have been ionized in France in 1991. About 40% are spices, followed by dry fruit, vegetables, and deboned poultry meat. Most of the present applications are intended to eliminate microorganisms. In 1992, 8 industrial facilities were in operation, mostly using gamma sources. Local research associations were founded to promote food ionization. Food ionization development in the past 30 years has been rapid and important, but the future of this process depends on the European harmonization of legislations. (K.I.)

  8. The development of nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendryes, G.

    1985-01-01

    The author of this contribution, who read a paper on the same subject on the evening he was appointed Honorary Member of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG), has been continuously engaged in a wide variety of activities within the French Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, for the past 32 years and has been in charge of the French breeder program since the late fifties. His analysis of the nuclear power situation in France and his survey of problems and development goals therefore is not only based on expert knowledge, but also reflects the official French idea of the rank nuclear power in the French energy supply policy and in the French economy. It shows that the foreseeable pronounced slowdown, due to declining demand, in the expansion of the network of nuclear power plants - a slowdown at a high level of capacity - does not detract from the growing importance of nuclear power in France. The awareness exists that this program can be, and must be, continued in its subareas. The French Government is convinced that the nuclear option was the only possible choice and that having decided in favor of it will pay even more in the future than it does already. (orig.) [de

  9. The chemical industry of uranium in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1955-01-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  10. Shale gases, a windfall for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    After having recalled the definition and origin of shale gases, the different non conventional gases and their exploitation techniques (hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) this report examines whether these gases are an opportunity for France. Some characteristics and data of the fossil and gas markets are presented and commented: world primary energy consumption, proved reserves of non conventional gases and their locations, European regions which may possess reserves of shale gases and coal-bed methane, origins of gas imports in France. The second part addresses shale gas deposits and their exploitation: discussion of the influence of the various rock parameters, evolution of production. The third part discusses the exploitation techniques and specific drilling tools. The issue of exploitation safety and security is addressed as well as the associated controversies: about the pollution of underground waters, about the fact that deep drillings result in pollution, about the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and injections of chemical products, about the hold on ground and site degradation, about water consumption, about pollution due to gas pipeline leakage, about seismic risk, about noise drawbacks, about risks for health, about exploration and production authorization and license, and about air pollution and climate. The last part addresses the French situation and its future: status of the energy bill, recommendations made by a previous government, cancellation of authorizations, etc. Other information are provided in appendix about non conventional hydrocarbons, about shale gas exploitation in the USA, and about the Lacq gas

  11. Fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.; Le Bouhellec, J.; Eymery, R.; Viala, M.

    1984-08-01

    Simultaneous with the effort on fast breeder reactors launched several years ago in France, equivalent investigations have been conducted on the fuel cycle, and in particular on reprocessing, which is an indispensable operation for this reactor. The Rapsodie experimental reactor was associated with the La Hague reprocessing plant AT1 (1 kg/day), which has reprocessed about one ton of fuel. The fuel from the Phenix demonstration reactor is reprocessed partly at the La Hague UP2 plant and partly at the Marcoule pilot facility, undergoing transformation to reprocess all the fuel (TOR project, 5 t/y). The fuel from the Creys Malville prototype power plant will be reprocessed in a specific plant, which is in the design stage. The preliminary project, named MAR 600 (50 t/y), will mobilize a growing share of the CEA's R and D resources, as the engineering needs of the UP3 ''light water'' plant begins to decline. Nearly 20 tonnes of heavy metals irradiated in fast breeder reactors have been processed in France, 17 of which came from Phenix. The plutonium recovered during this reprocessing allowed the power plant cycle to be closed. This power plant now contains approximately 140 fuel asemblies made up with recycled plutonium, that is, more than 75% of the fuel assemblies in the Phenix core

  12. Ensemble reconstruction of spatio-temporal extreme low-flow events in France since 1871

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Devers, Alexandre; Graff, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    The length of streamflow observations is generally limited to the last 50 years even in data-rich countries like France. It therefore offers too small a sample of extreme low-flow events to properly explore the long-term evolution of their characteristics and associated impacts. To overcome this limit, this work first presents a daily 140-year ensemble reconstructed streamflow dataset for a reference network of near-natural catchments in France. This dataset, called SCOPE Hydro (Spatially COherent Probabilistic Extended Hydrological dataset), is based on (1) a probabilistic precipitation, temperature, and reference evapotranspiration downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France, called SCOPE Climate, and (2) continuous hydrological modelling using SCOPE Climate as forcings over the whole period. This work then introduces tools for defining spatio-temporal extreme low-flow events. Extreme low-flow events are first locally defined through the sequent peak algorithm using a novel combination of a fixed threshold and a daily variable threshold. A dedicated spatial matching procedure is then established to identify spatio-temporal events across France. This procedure is furthermore adapted to the SCOPE Hydro 25-member ensemble to characterize in a probabilistic way unrecorded historical events at the national scale. Extreme low-flow events are described and compared in a spatially and temporally homogeneous way over 140 years on a large set of catchments. Results highlight well-known recent events like 1976 or 1989-1990, but also older and relatively forgotten ones like the 1878 and 1893 events. These results contribute to improving our knowledge of historical events and provide a selection of benchmark events for climate change adaptation purposes. Moreover, this study allows for further detailed analyses of the effect of climate variability and anthropogenic climate change on low-flow hydrology at the scale of France.

  13. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The areas that extend in the Mediterranean basin have a long fire history. The climatic conditions of wet winters and long hot drying summers support seasonal fire events, mainly ignited by humans. Extended land fragmentation hinders fire spread, but seasonal winds (e.g. Mistral in South France or Meltemia in Greece) can drive fire events to become uncontrollable fires with severe impacts to humans and the environment [1]. Prediction models in these areas should incorporate both natural and anthropogenic factors. Several indices have been developed worldwide to express fire weather conditions. The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is currently adapted by many countries in Europe due to the easily observable input weather parameters (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation) and the easy-to-implement algorithms of the Canadian formulation describing fuel moisture relations [2],[3]. Human influence can be expressed directly by human presence (e.g. population density) or indirectly by proxy indicators (e.g. street density [4], land cover type). The random nature of fire occurrences and the uncertainties associated with the influencing factors motivate probabilistic prediction models. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model of fire occurrence probability under natural and anthropogenic influence in Southern France and to compare it with earlier developed predictions in other Mediterranean areas [5]. Fire occurrence is modeled as a Poisson process. Two interpolation methods (Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighting) are used to interpolate daily weather observations from weather stations to a 1 km² spatial grid and their results are compared. Poisson regression estimates the parameters of the model and the resulting daily predictions are provided in terms of maps displaying fire occurrence rates. The model is applied to the regions Provence-Alpes-Côtes D'Azur und Languedoc-Roussillon in the South of France. Weather data are obtained from

  14. Cost analysis of adverse events associated with non-small cell lung cancer management in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaid C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Christos Chouaid,1 Delphine Loirat,2 Emilie Clay,3 Aurélie Millier,3 Chloé Godard,4 Amira Fannan,4 Laurie Lévy-Bachelot,4 Eric Angevin5 1Chest Department, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Créteil, Créteil, France; 2Institut Curie, Paris, France; 3Creativ-Ceutical, Paris, France; 4MSD France, Courbevoie, France; 5Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France Background: Adverse events (AEs related to medical treatments in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are frequent and need an appropriate costing in health economic models. Nevertheless, data on costs associated with AEs in NSCLC are scarce, particularly since the development of immunotherapy with specific immune-related AEs.Objective: To estimate the costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to NSCLC treatments including immunotherapy in France.Methods: Grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment and reported in at least 1% of patients in Phase III clinical trials for erlotinib, ramucirumab plus docetaxel, docetaxel, pemetrexed plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab, platinum-based chemotherapies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab were identified. When no cost evaluation was reported in literature, estimates on standard treatments and medical resource use for each AE were obtained thanks to an expert panel. Total cost per AE was calculated from a French national health insurance perspective and updated in 2017 Euros. Hospital stay costs were estimated based on public and private weighted tariffs and data from the French Medical Information System (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d’Information. Costs of tests, consultations and treatments were calculated based on national reimbursement tariffs.Results: Overall, costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment ranged from €46 per event to €7,742 per year. Fourteen out of 24 AEs identified had a mean estimated cost over €2,000. The highest mean costs were related to type 1 diabetes (€7,742 per year followed by pneumonitis (€5,786 per event

  15. EdF-Gaz de France. No merger without dismembering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Gathering together the two historical French energy monopolies, Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF), and warranting low electricity and gas prices is still an attractive idea for some political and syndicate representatives. However, such a merger would create a dominating position which is forbidden with respect to Brussels criteria. (J.S.)

  16. Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Arbez-Gindre, Francine; Mantion, Georges; Delabrousse, Eric; Millon, Laurence; Boué, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, liver infections caused by Echinococcus ortleppi tapeworms were diagnosed in 2 humans in France. In 2012, a nationwide slaughterhouse survey identified 7 E. ortleppi infections in cattle. The foci for these infections were spatially distinct. The prevalence of E. ortleppi infections in France may be underestimated. PMID:25417697

  17. The gas tariffing principles in France and the tariffs evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The gas tariffing, in France, is based on the cast tariffing and on the equality of treatment of the consumers. To respect these principles the gas utilities uses two actions: the prices control and the group contract between the State and Gaz de France. To illustrate this policy the tariffs evolution since 1997 are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  18. Energy program and policy about nuclear industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvy, M.

    1985-01-01

    As for the various problems on energy, Japan and France have taken the similar strategy and development program. Both Japan and France lack mineral energy resources, but have the industrial technical ability to make up for this shortage by substitute resources and to limit the dependence on import. Similarly to France, Japan has attained 3 tons in terms of petroleum per 1000 dollars of gross national product, which is about a half of the rate of energy consumption in the U.S., and became one of the advanced countries saving energy most. The consumption of petroleum decreased by 23 % in Japan and 30 % in France from 1973 to 1983. Nuclear power increased to 20 % of the generated output in Japan and to 50 % of that in France. The dependence on imported energy decreased to 80 % in Japan and 60 % in France. The energy policy taken by France was to satisfy demand, to diversity supply sources, to reduce energy cost, and to strengthen stable supply. The total demond of primary energy in 1984 was 191.6 million tons in terms of petroleum. Nuclear power stations generated 182 billion kWh in 1984. The nuclear power program in France, nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel cycle are reported. (Kako, I.)

  19. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  20. Gas de France, a major player in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    1999-01-01

    Present in approximately 20 countries, the Gaz de France group has, for several years now, committed itself to a major program for international development. This trend should speed up as the European gas market opens. Nowadays, GdF has nearly twelve million customers, including two million outside France. (author)

  1. Comparing Exceptionalism in France and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Devienne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges the current scholarship on the history of the death penalty and its abolition by adopting a transatlantic framework and debunking the popular contemporary conception of the “Barbaric Americans” against the “civilised” anti-death penalty French. The article focuses on the short period in the 1970s during which American executions were halted by the Supreme Court, while France was still putting prisoners to death in cases that were widely debated in public opinion. By observing the French media’s reactions to the two major decisions taken by the Supreme Court in the 1970s and their direct consequences, this essay analyzes not only the French gaze on American practices but also how these American decisions were manipulated by the journalists to stoke the French debate about abolition.

  2. The development of fast reactors in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrey, L.

    1982-01-01

    Only minor changes were introduced in the French nuclear programme by the new government in 1981. The operating conditions of Rapsodie were very satisfactory up to January 1982. After a leak in the double primary jacket (nitrogen circuit) the reactor was shut down for investigations. Phenix is continuing to operate smoothly. Construction of Super Phenix (Creys Malville power plant) is proceeding normally though with some delay. The studies for the future (after Creys Malville) are following their way both for the Project 1500 (Super Phenix 2) and for the specific plants of the fuel cycle. Research and development are largely directed toward Super Phenix 1 needs and the prospects of Super Phenix 2. International cooperation remains very intensive. The financial resources devoted to the development of fast reactors are globally stable. Including fuel cycle and safety (but excluding the Phenix operation) about 1300 millions of francs will be devoted to fast reactors by the C.E.A. in 1982. (author)

  3. Measures for recycling plastic wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossais, J C [Ministere de l' Industrie et de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France). Delegation aux Economies de Matieres Premieres

    1978-05-01

    Raw materials crisis and environmental awareness have lead to the question of intensively dealing with the recycling of plastics. Although plastic wastes (residues) industrially occuring have been recycled for a long time, this is certainly not always the case in the subsequent stages. One must particularly give thought to the considerable quantities of agricultural and municipal wastes. Besides the problem of collecting the waste which can only be satisfactorily solved by separate collection or setting up sorting places, it is necessary for the recycling plastic wastes on a large scale to find or develop sellable products. The product for sale is limited by economical aspects and prejudices against recycled materials. The public have taken to a series of measures in France to simplify recycling plastic wastes. Private industry is also beginning to take interest in this new sources of raw materials.

  4. EDF - Electricite de France, 2007 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2007. It is made of several reports: the 2007 Annual Results presentation, the 2007 Financial Report, the press releases for the first and third quarters 2007 quarterly financial information, the 2007 Half-year results presentation, the Management Report for the first half 2007, and the consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2007

  5. FRANCE at CERN - Visit of Firms

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2007-01-01

    From 4 to 5 June 2007 Administration Building Bldg 61 - 1st floor - Room B 09.00 - 17.30 Eighteen companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each department secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies and civil engineering and buildings. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. The list of exhibitors is given below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: 40-30 ACC LA JONCHERE ...

  6. FRANCE AT CERN - VISIT OF FIRMS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2007-01-01

    From 4 to 5 June 2007 Administration Building Bldg 61 - 1st floor - Room B 09.00 - 17.30 Seventeen companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies and civil engineering and buildings. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. You will find below the list of exhibitors. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: 40-30 ACC LA JONCHE...

  7. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  8. Case law: Canada, France, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Canada: Appellate decision upholding nuclear regulatory licensing process and practices for consultation with aboriginal groups: Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation v. Canada (Attorney General). France: Court of Appeal of Nimes regarding the SOCATRI incident in July 2008; Conseil d'Etat regarding the association Reseau 'Sortir du nucleaire'. Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Ltd on the repeal of the time limitation with respect to the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of a US District Court granting a permanent injunction against the State of Vermont in order to prevent certain State laws from prohibiting Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant's continued operation

  9. Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Arrondel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We study financial literacy in France using the PATER survey and following the Lusardi and Mitchell (2011c approach. We find that some subpopulations are less financially literate than others: women, young and old people as well as less-educated people are more likely to face difficulties when dealing with fundamental financial concepts such as risk diversification and inflation and interest compounding. We also find some differences in financial knowledge depending on the political opinion of the respondents. Finally we show that these differences in financial knowledge are correlated with differences in the propensity to plan: people who score higher on the financial literacy questions are more likely to be engaged in the preparation of a clearly defined financial plan.

  10. Electricity tariffs in France: price list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinta, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    On April 20, 1997, Electricite de France (EdF) started the first step of its tariffs change as planned in the 1997-2000 company contractual agreement. A second step followed on May 1, 1998. The 1997 tariffs represent an average decay of 6% explained in constant currency while the 1998 average decay is of 3.5%. The average decay over the whole 1997-2000 period will be of 14%. These decays are followed by changes in the tariffs structure which are summarized in this paper as a series of tables: tariff of sales (domestic customers and farmers, professionals, public, communal and inter-communal organizations, overseas departments and Corsica) and tariffs of purchase (hydraulic and wind producers in mother country and overseas departments). (J.S.)

  11. France Electricity Report for 2014 - Press kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, Carole; Marie, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In compliance with the remits assigned to it by the legislator, every year RTE publishes the electricity report, which provides an overview of the power system for the past year (trends in electricity consumption and generation, power mix, level of market prices, extent of French electricity exports and imports, etc). French electricity consumption fell by 6% in 2014 according to raw data, given the extremely mild weather, and by 0.4% after adjustment for weather contingencies. Renewable energies continued to be developed and accounted for nearly 20% of French electricity consumption. The decrease in electricity consumption in 2014, combined with the boost of renewable energies, enabled CO 2 emissions in the power sector to be further reduced by 40%. With a positive trade balance of 65 TWh, France remained the leading electricity exporter in Europe. Due to the mildness of the weather (2014 was the hottest year since the beginning of the 20. century), gross electricity consumption fell by 6% against 2013, to 465.3 TWh. Adjusted for weather contingencies, French electricity consumption decreased by 0.4%. For the first time, SME-SMI, professional and private consumption also fell by 0.5% (392.4 TWh), while large-scale industrial consumption remained stable (67.4 TWh). This slight drop in electricity consumption not only reflected the economic slowdown but also the effect of energy saving measures deployed in France over the past few years. In 2014, renewable energies (including hydropower) accounted for nearly 20% of French electricity consumption, mirroring 2013 with albeit one difference: renewable energy generation, excluding hydropower, outperformed the fossil fuel share, with 28 TWh of electricity generated. Clarification of the regulatory framework and more favourable economic provisions in 2014 fostered an increase of nearly 1,900 MW in wind power and photovoltaic power generation capacities, with installed capacity of wind power of more than 9,100 MW and that

  12. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  13. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarcat, Noel; Lafon, Alain; Perves, Jean-Pierre; Rosengard, Alex; Sauzay, Guy

    1993-05-01

    France has developed a very complete nuclear industry, from mining to reprocessing and radwastes management, and now has a major electro-nuclear park, with 55 power reactors, supplying 75% of the nation's electricity and representing 32% of its energy requirements. The modern multinational EURODIF enrichment plant in Pierrelatte in the south of the country supplies these reactors with enriched uranium as well as foreign utilities (30% exports). It works smoothly and has continuously been improved to reduce operating costs and to gain flexibility and longevity. Investment costs will be recovered at the turn of the century. The plant will be competitive well ahead of an aging production park, with large overcapacity, in other countries. Meanwhile, world needs will increase only slightly during the next 15 years, apart from the Asian Pacific area, but many world governments are becoming well aware of the necessity to progressively resume nuclear energy development worldwide from the year 2000 on.

  14. The opening of energy markets in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    After the last 2002 change of government in France, the new changes in the energy policy have started to be implemented. These changes will have some consequences on the energy markets, on the rate of development of competition, and on the institutional modifications of the historical electricity and gas utilities and of their respective regulation authority. During the colloquium on energy, organized at the Senate on June 2002, F. Mer, minister of economy, and N. Fontaine, delegate minister of industry, have expressed their will in this way. This article reworks the highlights of the most significant talks given at this colloquium and makes a selection of some key information, opinions and proposals published in the press during summer. (J.S.)

  15. France liberalizes its power supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The French market of power supply to companies is now free. This means that Electricite de France (EdF), the first world electric utility now has competitors in its domestic market. This is an important challenge for EdF because 3 millions of clients (70% of the French power consumption) are now concerned by the opening of the power market. According to A. Merlin, head of the energy transportation network (RTE), the opening of the market does not increase the risk of black-out, it just makes the operation of power networks more complex. The implementation of a single power transportation company (RTE) simplifies the mastery of networks safety but the development of investments is necessary to ensure the maintenance of 400 kV power lines. A comparison of the situation of power market liberalization is made for 6 countries (Germany, UK, Spain, US, Netherlands and Italy). Short paper. (J.S.)

  16. EDF - Electricite de France, 2009 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2009. It is made of several reports: The Annual Results press release, the 2009 Annual Results presentation and its appendices of the presentation the press releases for the first and third quarters 2009 quarterly financial information, the presentation of the Sales for the 3rd quarter 2009, the 2009 Half-year results presentation, the Financial Report for the first half 2009

  17. EDF - Electricite de France, 2008 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2008. It is made of several reports: The Annual Results press release, the 2008 Annual Results presentation, the 2008 Financial Report, the press releases for the first and third quarters 2008 quarterly financial information, the 2008 Half-year results presentation, the Financial Report for the first half 2008

  18. Cinéma en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel VIGOUROUX

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Le cinéma est l’objet de bases de données exhaustives sur les équipements et les fréquentations. Les données sur les salles permettent d’identifier le phénomène de concentration de propriété et d’exploitation. La perspective dynamique peut être observée sur 45 ans. À l’échelle régionale, on peut apprécier le dynamisme du cinéma en haute montagne alpine et la différence de réseaux sur le territoire (France de l’Ouest.

  19. The nuclear safety in France, in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    In the scope of the nuclear safety program, in France, a state of the art of the projects on the 1st August 1988, is given. The different domains related to the nuclear safety are summarized. The purposes, the actions and the available means of the nuclear safety interministerial committee, are examined. The problems concerning the radiation protection of the personnel and reactor components, the application of the regulations and the nuclear materials management, are also examined. In the case of a nuclear accident, the protection operations depend on the responsibilities and on the different fields of action. In the world scale, the international cooperation and the example of the Tchernobyl accident are of relevant importance [fr

  20. EDF - Electricite de France, 2006 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2006. It is made of several reports: the 2006 Annual Results presentation, the 2006 Financial Report, the press releases for the first and third quarters 2006 quarterly financial information, the 2006 Half-year results presentation, the Management Report for the first half 2006, and the consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2006

  1. Situation in France: a step forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Delaunay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The presentation will look at four key issues: The new tobacco control provisions in French Health Law (January 2016, including plain packaging and health warnings; obligation for the tobacconists to control the age of buyers, to make effective the prohibition to sales to minors; prohibition of smoking in a car with a child under 18 years; increasing the share reimbursed by French Social Security system for nicotine replacement therapies; prohibition of tobacco advertising in tobacconists shops. The weaknesses in the law and the priorities of the French Coalition against tobacco, such as the increase tobacco taxes and prices; class action for the tobacco victims; Tobacco Prevention Fund; Ensure enforcement of the law Tobacco lobbying in France: French tobacconists; Ministry of Economy; the tobacco industry… Tackling tobacco: a pre-requisite to save the sustainability of our health system (health and social costs.

  2. Research management at Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feintuch, P.

    1986-01-01

    Electricite de France (EdF) is organized on hierarchic lines. There are four Technical Directions at the top level, the Direction of Studies and Research being one. This Direction has a staff of some 2700 persons, spread over eight Services (six which are Technical Services) that are split into four or five Departments each. The Departments prepare R and D plans for each specific project. These plans are subsequently analysed (and modified, cancelled or extended) by the management of the Studies and Research Direction, the Committee for Research Programmes and the General Management of EdF. This procedure is followed in order to find a balance between the requirements of the various Technical Services, the needs of the Studies and Research Direction itself and the general instructions from the General Management. An Administrative Service performs regular checks in order to detect cancellations, delays or other problems at an early stage. (Auth.)

  3. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the eel (Anguilla anguilla) at the Camargue Nature Reserve - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, C.A.; Vollaire, Y.; Coulet, E.; Roche, H.

    2008-01-01

    Fish consumption is a potential source of human exposure to pollutants. Here, we study residue levels of PCBs in the eel, Anguilla anguilla, from the Nature Camargue Reserve in southern France. Chromatographic analysis (GC-ECD) found seventy identifiable congeners, among which, 10 are considered as dioxin-like PCBs, such as the non-ortho PCB 81 and the mono-ortho chlorobiphenyls PCB105, 114, 118, 123, 156, 157, 167, 170, 180. Toxic Equivalents (TEQ, WHO 2005 TEF-Toxic Equivalent Factors) varied among sites with a maximum in eels from Mornes (29.6 pg g -1 dry weight). Indicator PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) were 22% and 29% of the total PCBs in livers and muscles respectively. Greater homogeneous bioaccumulation in muscle than that in liver suggests an increase risk for humans due to fish consumption. - The reserve of Camargue - South of France is impacted by a myriad of pollutant organic persistent like PCBs

  4. Trend analysis report on energy consumptions and savings in France in 2012 and 2013: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollier, Karine; Gregory, Chedin

    2014-09-01

    This report presents and comments a large set of data regarding CO 2 and energy savings recorded in France since 1990 with a focus on the 2008-2012 period which has been marked by a financial and economic crisis which had a strong impact on energy demand. In its first part, the report presents the French economic and energetic context since 1990 with a focus on years between 2008 and 2013. It is based on the last available energy assessments published by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy and addresses the following issues: a fragile economic context, relatively high energy prices, a decrease of final energy consumption since 2010, and a reduction of industry energy intensity. The second part addresses CO 2 and energy savings generated by France between 1990 and 2012, with a focus on recent years: overview of the evolutions in the industrial sector, in the transport sector, and in the building sector (existing buildings)

  5. Nuclear Power and Climate Change: Construction and Consequences of a Geopolitical Rhetoric in France and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Teva

    2017-01-01

    The political awakening to the climate- change issue in the 1980's has durably de-structured the antinuclear movements. Previously held as the highest global threat, atomic energy became a potential solution to the contemporary environmental challenges thanks to its low emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it appears that these upheavals have not identically impacted every country, as evidenced by the diversity of reactions after the Fukushima accident. Relying on the study of two highly nuclearized countries, France and Sweden, this article intends to analyze the consequences of the climate argument on the balance of power between actors of the conflict over atomic energy's future. While in France, this new issue triggered an internal crisis within the antinuclear movement which did not structurally influence the conflict, it led in Sweden to a complete reorganization of the debate, thus facilitating the return of nuclear power in 2011 in the country

  6. [Injuries in France: trends and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F

    2013-06-01

    Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury

  7. Safety of radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste produced in France vary considerably by their activity level, their half lives, their volume or even their nature. In order to manage them safely, the treatment and final disposal solution must be adapted to the type of waste considered by setting up specific waste management channels. A strong principle in France is that it is the responsibility of the nuclear operators as waste producers to dispose of their waste or have them disposed of in a suitable manner. The competent authorities regulate and control the radioactive waste management activities. At present, only short-lived low and intermediate level waste have a definitive solution, the surface repository, where adequate waste packages are disposed of in concrete structures. Other types of radioactive waste are in interim storage facilities at the production sites. For very low level waste coming mainly from dismantling of nuclear facilities a dedicated repository is planned to be built in the coming years. Dedicated repositories are also planned for radiferous, tritiated and graphite waste. As for high level waste and long-lived waste coming mainly from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel the disposal options are being sought along the lines specified by law 91-1381 concerning research on radioactive waste management, passed on December 30, 1991: research of solutions to partition and transmute long-lived radionuclides in the waste; studies of retrievable and non retrievable disposal in deep geological layers with the help of underground laboratories; studies of processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, the French Parliament will assess the results of the research conducted by ANDRA relative to deep geological disposal as well as the work conducted by CEA in the two other areas of research and, if this research is conclusive, pass a law defining the final disposal option. (author)

  8. France's 2014 energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadin, Didier; Collet, Isabelle; Delamare, Karine; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Gong, Zheng; Hagege, Claire; Lauverjat, Jean; Lepoittevin, Daniel; Louati, Sami; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Misak, Evelyne; Reynaud, Didier; Rouquette, Celine; Wong, Florine; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Mordant, Guillaume; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    2014 was the warmest year since 1900 in France and in the rest of the world. In particular, the mild winter led to heating needs 7 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) lower than the needs in an average year. Real primary energy consumption fell below the symbolic 250 Mtoe level, a low it had not reached since 1995. Although energy demand decreased, national primary energy production increased for the second year running, reaching 139 Mtoe, a little over 1 Mtoe higher than in 2013. This rise in production is explained by nuclear generated electricity. The 2014 physical trade deficit for energy therefore decreased significantly, by 10 Mtoe, to below 114 Mtoe. Such a low level had not been observed since 1988. The level of energy self-sufficiency rose sharply in 2014, to 55.8%, a level not hitherto reached. The decrease in net energy imports was accompanied by a drop in quoted prices for energy products on the European and international markets. As a result, France's energy bill was 17% lower than in 2013. At around euro 55 billion, it fell to a level close to that of the early 1980s. Even excluding the effects of the higher temperatures in 2014, thereby adjusting for climate variations, primary energy went from 275 Mtoe - its maximum, reached in 2005 - to 257 Mtoe, with an average annual decrease of -2 Mtoe, confirming the downward trend initiated in the mid-2000's. Final energy consumption was 150 Mtoe in 2014, the lowest level since 1996. It decreased by a little more than 1% in relation to 2013, with reductions in all sectors except for transport, where consumption remained stable

  9. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m 3 ). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Country policy profile - France. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The European Union has set the goal of meeting 20% of its final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. This ambition is reflected by a target of 23% for France, with a specific targets for heat (geothermal, biomass, solar, heat pumps, renewable portion of waste) of 33%, electricity 27% and transport 10.5%. The state support for the deployment of renewable energy must also meet a goal of development of competitive industrial sectors, accompanying targeted manner and taking account of our comparative advantages to economic maturity. Public support for renewable sectors is indeed necessary to accompany them to the technological and economic maturity so that they become competitive. Public support should as such help to facilitate the lifting of various technical and economic locks with a view to reducing the costs of these technologies, appropriately according to their stage of development from R and D to industrialization. France has set up industry-specific incentives: In the field of heat, the main tools are for individual residential sector, Tax Credit for Sustainable Development, Eco loan at a zero percent interest rate (PTZ), Certificates of Energy Savings. For the other sectors (tertiary, collectivity, industry), the Heat Fund mission is to finance projects for an energy production of 5.5 Mtoe. It has about euro 220 million per year, and its management is delegated to the ADEME. The Government announced on 1 July 2014 that the endowment fund of heat would be doubled by 2017. In the transport sector, the main tools to support renewable energies are the General Tax on Polluting Activities (TGAP) which helps to encourage the uptake and distribution of bio-fuels by penalizing those who place a consumer less than the proportion of bio-fuels threshold, and a reduced bio-fuels from taxation of approved facilities. In the field of electricity, the development of renewable energy power is supported by two complementary systems: feed-in tariffs and tenders

  11. Country policy profile - France. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The European Union has set the goal of meeting 20% of its final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. This ambition is reflected by a target of 23% for France, with a specific targets for heat (geothermal, biomass, solar, heat pumps, renewable portion of waste) of 33%, electricity 27% and transport 10.5%. The state support for the deployment of renewable energy must also meet a goal of development of competitive industrial sectors, accompanying targeted manner and taking account of our comparative advantages to economic maturity. Public support for renewable sectors is indeed necessary to accompany them to the technological and economic maturity so that they become competitive. Public support should as such help to facilitate the lifting of various technical and economic locks with a view to reducing the costs of these technologies, appropriately according to their stage of development from R and D to industrialization. France has set up industry-specific incentives: In the field of heat, the main tools are for individual residential sector, Tax Credit for Sustainable Development, Eco loan at a zero percent interest rate (PTZ), Certificates of Energy Savings. For the other sectors (tertiary, collectivity, industry), the Heat Fund mission is to finance projects for an energy production of 5.5 Mtoe. It has about euro 220 million per year, and its management is delegated to the ADEME. The Government announced on 1 July 2014 that the endowment fund of heat would be doubled by 2017. In the transport sector, the main tools to support renewable energies are the General Tax on Polluting Activities (TGAP) which helps to encourage the uptake and distribution of bio-fuels by penalizing those who place a consumer less than the proportion of bio-fuels threshold, and a reduced bio-fuels from taxation of approved facilities. In the field of electricity, the development of renewable energy power is supported by two complementary systems: feed-in tariffs and tenders

  12. Controlling exposure to radon, France, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Dechaux, E.; Pineau, C.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling exposure to radon, France, December 2006 Exposure to radon, along with medical exposure, is the leading source of the French population exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon is a confirmed cause of lung cancer in man (classified in group I by the international Agency for research on Cancer (I.A.R.C.)). According to available estimates, the numbers of lung cancers attributable to radon exposure in France are far fewer than those caused by tobacco. However, according to a recent European study, around 9% of lung cancers in Europe may be caused by radon. Thus, due to the number of people exposed, radon has become a public health issue which calls for action, considering that exposure can be significantly reduced by implementing measures which are often simple. Since 2002, the Nuclear Safety Authority (Asn) has proceeded in implementing a new regulatory framework for the risk management related to the presence of radon in public places. The new system is now fully operational. In addition, based on the initiatives adopted by the government in June 2004 in the context of the National Health and Environment Plan (P.N.S.E.), the Asn drew up a plan in 2005, in collaboration with the Ministry for Urban Planning and Construction, to coordinate the actions of various national bodies involved in this field. This three-pronged strategy is as follows: - Creation of a new risk management policy related to the presence of radon in existing homes and in new buildings; - Supporting and controlling the implementation of regulations for managing radon related risks in public places; - Improvement and dissemination of knowledge on radon exposure and its related risks. (author)

  13. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France; Repere sur les stocks strategiques petroliers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  14. The renewable energies in France 1970-2005; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This document provides statistical data on the renewable energies situation in France (metropolitan and overseas department) from 1970 to 2005. It concerns 1- the electric power production from renewable energies as the hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy and biomass and 2- the thermal power production from renewable energies as the wood energy, domestic wastes, heat pumps, geothermal energy, crops residues, biogas, thermal solar and biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  15. Tables of energy consumptions in France; Tableaux des consommations d`energie en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This work presents in a detailed way important data about the evolution of energy in France during the last twenty years. for the totality of economic sectors, then for each of them ( industry, residential, transports and agriculture sector), this analysis brings to light the part that each form of energy takes to the supply of the French market, the importance of equipment parks and the energy economies that have been realized. (N.C.)

  16. The energy in France reference data; L'energie en France reperes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document presents statistical data in many tables and charts in the domain of the energy in France. They are grouped in the following topics: the energy in the economy, a comparison of all sources of energy, the petroleum, the natural gas, the coal, the electric power, the renewable energies, the heating networks, the rational energy use, the prices, the energy and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  17. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport Annuel 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This annual report of the Charbonnages de France (CdF) group presents the financial results of the group for 1998: coal market, CdF's financial results (turnover, exploitation result, financial result, debt); power production (Snet, Cerchar, Surschiste, Sidec, and CdF Ingenierie activities); coal industry activities (coal mines, coke factories, coal products, environment); progressive ceasing of coal extraction (safety, manpower, reduction of working time, training, management of abandoned sites, rehabilitation, cleansing); management of industrialization and patrimony. (J.S.)

  18. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Japan; Retour des residus vitrifies de France au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The radioactive wastes resulting from the burnup of nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors represent 3 to 5% of the spent fuel. These wastes cannot be reused nor recycled and thus are vitrified after reprocessing. Japanese power companies have signed contracts with Cogema in France and BNFL in the UK for the reprocessing of their spent fuels. Then, the ultimate reprocessed wastes are sent back to Japan for storage. This information dossier takes stock of different questions relative to the transport of the vitrified wastes from France to Japan: why France sends back containers of vitrified wastes to Japan? What is a vitrified wastes container made of? How containers are transported? What is the regulatory frame applicable to these transports? Which safety measures are taken during transport? Which physical protection is applied? Which temporary storage facilities are used before and after transportation? How is performed the ultimate storage of wastes in Japan? Which quality and safety warranties are taken? Which emergency plans and exercises are provided? What are the applicable civil liability regimes? And what kind of information is given to the public about these transports. Some general information about energy and nuclear power worldwide, energy and environment, radioactivity, BNFL, Cogema and ORC is given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  19. Two centuries of economic territorial dynamics: the case of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Talandier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an analysis of the socio-economic development processes at work in territories at the scale of French communes from 1806 to 2010. This is an extremely fine scale for such analysis, given that there are 36,000 communes in mainland France. The diachronic dimension, spanning two centuries, makes it possible to consider the temporal depth of territorial development. But the primary interest is not so much demographics as the socio-economic dimension of these variations over two centuries. We have analysed demographic changes as the expression of the socio-economic processes that shaped French territory over two centuries. Dynamic mapping of long-term population shifts reflects the industrial expansion of certain territories, decline due to the end of traditional farming practices, the shock produced by two world wars, the Fordist period and the post-war boom; the subsequent impact of an increasingly globalized, metropolitan economy then becomes apparent. We thus identify, map and analyse several historico-socio-economic phases.

  20. Disposal of residue from uranium ore processing in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crochon, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    Between 1949 and 2001, French mines produced 76, 000 metric tons of uranium and 50 million metric tons of ore, processing residues are stored at 17 sites (in ponds enclosed by dykes or in former open-cast mines) subject to ICPE (classified facility for environment protection) regulation. These disposal sites cover surface areas of between one and several tens of hectares and several thousands to several millions of metric tons of waste are stored at them. When uranium mining stopped in France, these sites were redeveloped, with caps placed over the residue to provide mechanical and radiological protection. All these sites are still monitored by AREVA. In the last fifteen years, these sites have been the subject of a number of studies, especially regarding the long-term evolution and impact of the residue. These studies are now being pursued within the framework of the national plan for the management of nuclear materials and waste (PNGMDR). A regulatory and institutional framework regarding long-term management of these disposal sites needs to be defined. (author)

  1. Implementation of DRG Payment in France: issues and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Zeynep

    2014-08-01

    In France, a DRG-based payment system was introduced in 2004/2005 for funding acute services in all hospitals with the objectives of improving hospital efficiency, transparency and fairness in payments to public and private hospitals. Despite the initial consensus on the necessity of the reform, providers have become increasingly critical of the system because of the problems encountered during the implementation. In 2012 the government announced its intention to modify the payment model to better deal with its adverse effects. The paper reports on the issues raised by the DRG-based payment in the French hospital sector and provides an overview of the main problems with the French DRG payment model. It also summarises the evidence on its impact and presents recent developments for reforming the current model. DRG-based payment addressed some of the chronic problems inherent in the French hospital market and improved accountability and productivity of health-care facilities. However, it has also created new problems for controlling hospital activity and ensuring that care provided is medically appropriate. In order to alter its adverse effects the French DRG model needs to better align greater efficiency with the objectives of better quality and effectiveness of care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fast Breeder Reactor Development in France During 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.; Cambillard, E.

    1988-01-01

    On March 8, 1987, a ''sodium leak'' alarm signal was received in the Creys-Malville control room. By the end of March, it had been established beyond all doubt that sodium was, in fact, leaking into the fuel storage drum inter-vessel gap. The reactor has been shut down since May 26. The origin of the leak was located on September 5, after complete drainage of the main tank. Despite the fact that the leak was confined, had had no radiological consequences and cast no doubts on the safe operation of the reactor, the impact of this incident on public opinion, both in France and in the neighbouring European states, was considerable. Two facts would appear to have been decisive. The first was that the reactor had not been shut down immediately, the second was that the leak was only detected and localized in September: it was difficult for people to understand that before its exact position could be determined, certain operations (transfer of a few subassemblies to the reactor core, unloading of the fuel storage drum) had to be performed

  3. Panorama of mining activities in France during 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.C.; Bornuat, M.; Heinry, C.; Le Berre, P.

    1995-01-01

    Demand, and thus prices and activities, in the French mining sector continued to suffer from the effects of the 1993 recession. The moderate economic recovery seen in 1994 has not had an immediate impact on the mining industry partly because of previously built up stocks, but some encouraging signs have appeared: a clear resumption of oil exploration, the anti-dumping measures of the European Union, and a new Chinese pricing policy particularly concerning tungsten, antimony and fluorite. In general, French mining continued its decline as illustrated by the closures of further iron, uranium and zinc mines and the loss of all tungsten, bauxite, lead, zinc and germanium mines. The very marked decrease in zinc, silver, uranium, iron and coal production reflects the programmed closure of certain mines. In detail, the balance is more varied and the situation and outlook are not as bleak for all mineral substances: decline is moderate for potassium, barite and fluorite; oil and gas in France and nickel in new Caledonia are stable; sulphur, talc, salt, kaolin, feldspar and silica production have recorded a slight growth while gold is in clear progression. However, these positive aspects cannot counter-balance the lack of significant new resources (hydrocarbons, potassium) and of sufficient exploration effort relative to the stakes (metal ore mines). The end of the National Mineral Inventory in 1993 and the very long procedures for mining permits obtention do not favor national or international private investment. (J.S.). 14 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Environment and homeland security in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The author comments the impact of extreme events related to global warming and climate change on the French homeland security. He comments the evolution of temperature during the last century, the various transformations notably predicted by IPCC reports, and the various climate evolutions. Then, he discusses impacts of climate change on different economic sectors. He notably addresses the impact on coast lines (risks of submersion and erosion, more particularly for overseas territories), the impact extreme events may have on soft water (a temperature rise would impact the operation of nuclear plants; sewage and water networks will be threatened by more intense rainfalls), the positive and negative impacts on forests (high productivity but loss of diversity, development of parasites, risks of forest fires), and the impacts on various economic activities (agriculture, food supply, tourism, insurance) and on health

  5. How will climate change affect the vegetation cycle over France? A generic modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laanaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of adaptation strategies of agriculture and forestry to climate change is conditioned by the knowledge of the impacts of climate change on the vegetation cycle and of the associated uncertainties. Using the same generic Land Surface Model (LSM to simulate the response of various vegetation types is more straightforward than using several specialized crop and forestry models, as model implementation differences are difficult to assess. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of a LSM to address this issue. Using the SURFEX (“Surface Externalisée” modeling platform, we produced and analyzed 150-yr (1950–2100 simulations of the biomass of four vegetation types (rainfed straw cereals, rainfed grasslands, broadleaf and needleleaf forests and of the soil water content associated to each of these vegetation types over France. Statistical methods were used to quantify the impact of climate change on simulated phenological dates. The duration of soil moisture stress periods increases everywhere in France, especially for grasslands with, on average, an increase of 9 days per year in near-future (NF conditions and 36 days per year in distant-future (DF conditions. For all the vegetation types, leaf onset and the annual maximum LAI occur earlier. For straw cereals in the Languedoc-Provence-Corsica area, NF leaf onset occurs 18 days earlier and 37 days earlier in DF conditions, on average. On the other hand, local discrepancies are simulated for the senescence period (e.g. earlier in western and southern France for broadleaf forests, slightly later in mountainous areas of eastern France for both NF and DF. Changes in phenological dates are more uncertain in DF than in NF conditions in relation to differences in climate models, especially for forests. Finally, it is shown that while changes in leaf onset are mainly driven by air temperature, longer soil moisture stress periods trigger earlier leaf senescence

  6. Territorial integration of the geological repository in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farin, S.; Ouzounian, G.; Miguez, R.; Tison, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    In France, a framework has been drawn up by the National Assembly and implemented by the government, in order to get the best relationship between Andra, among others, and the stakeholders and the inhabitants of the towns and countries where disposal facilities or projects are or could be established. The main threads of the two Acts passed in 2006, being relevant to the relationship with inhabitants are the information exchange and the local economic development. Dealing with the information exchange and diffusion: The Local Information Committee (CLI), for each nuclear facility, has been reinforced and a specific, Local Information and Oversight Committee (for the Underground Laboratory in Meuse-Haute-Marne) has been renewed. The CLI was in charge of a general assignment to inform and consult on nuclear safety, radioprotection and environmental topics. Now, since 2006, the nuclear facility's CLI and the CLIS are able to order study reports, measures and analyses to experts freely selected. Creation of the High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Safety (HCTISN). This new authority aims to inform, consult and debate about the risks relevant to nuclear activities and their impacts on people's health, environment and nuclear safety. Andra contributes to the functioning of CLI in disposal facilities at Manche and Aube Departments, and CLIS of the underground Laboratory at Meuse and Haute-Marne departments. This paper will present these contributions and how Andra's action helps to reach the goals of information and exchange with the people around its facilities. Concerning the local economic development, there are specific organizations or schemes, depending on the facility: Local taxes contributions based on the disposal facilities activities as is usual in France. A High Level Committee (CHN) and two public interest groups (GIP) in Meuse and Haute-Marne departments have been set up since 1991 and 2005. Andra is represented in these three

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, Andre; Jacquin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The overall power of installed PV systems in France in 2007 was 31,3 MW which represents a significant growth compared to 2006. This increase is mainly due to the national fiscal measures (new feed-in tariff and tax credit) launched in 2006. The implemented feed-in tariff model application supports building integration of photovoltaic generators with a much higher financial incentive than other type of photovoltaic installations. In the same way, local authorities like regional councils and departmental councils developed new policies to promote photovoltaics through specific grants. As the building integration of photovoltaic generators is encouraged by a feed-in tariff bonus, innovative products are appearing on the market or are under development. In parallel, actors like architects, designers, engineers are now paying attention to building integration of photovoltaic components (BIPV). New actors such as financial institutions, energy operators, and private investors have developed ambitious projects. With the increase of the market, new firms have been created including engineering, consultancies, electricity producers, PV products distributors and retailers, installation and maintenance companies. Photovoltaic industrial sector is getting stronger and large investments have been undertaken in order to develop a vertical integration of the photovoltaic value chain, from feedstock silicon production to final photovoltaic products. A new private-public consortium called 'PV Alliance Lab Fab' has been set up and an important R and D project under the name of 'Solar Nano Crystal' should start by the end of 2008. At the same time, R and D activities focus on photovoltaic silicon cells/modules conversion efficiency and long term reliability, production costs, new materials and device design, yield, environmental impact of industrial processes and optimisation of control and monitoring of photovoltaic systems. In addition to the ADEME and ANR

  8. Technological Innovation and Climate Change: Where Does France Stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meniere, Yann; Glachant, Matthieu; Pot, Cecile; Le Blanc, Gilles; Dechezlepretre, Antoine; Carrere, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    We analyse France's position on global warming mitigation technology. The methodology draws on a database describing all patents filed between 1980 and 2008 in 17 climate-related technological classes. France is the fifth largest innovator in the world, with 5.2 % of patented inventions, including 20 % from the public sector. More than half of French inventions are protected abroad, 1.5 times more than the global average. France's position is relatively weak in renewable energy, and strong in sectors marked by the presence of national industrial champions and public research organisations

  9. methanization development in Ile-de-France - Ile-de-France region. Synthesis. The Regional Council strategy for methanization development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    A first document reports the study of methanization development in the Ile-de-France region by addressing biomass produced on the region territory. It aimed at identifying and assessing the existing and potential physical resource while introducing mobilisation rates in order to define different scenarios. A situational analysis of operated and projected methanization installations has also been performed. These projects have been classified according to a typology, and analysed according to the proposed scenarios. The position of methanization with respect to other biomass valorisation sectors, as well as the impact of mobilisation with respect to a return-to-soil of organic matters have also been discussed. A second document proposes a synthetic version of this study. The third document presents the Regional Council's policy and strategy regarding methanization development: challenges and prospective scenarios, importance of a sustainable methanization at the service of territory development, regulation for a call for projects, project assessment and selection, project footprint, inputs qualities and supplies, energetic and agronomic valorisation, and grid for project analysis. An appendix contains a synthetic version of the first document

  10. Observatory of photovoltaic solar energy in France. Launching of the 19. edition - Quarterly publication, September 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    After a brief and synthetic overview of trends regarding solar photovoltaic energy in France and in the World (evolution of the numbers of connections and installations), this publication proposes graphs which illustrate the evolution of the distribution of new electricity production capacities in France, in Europe and in the USA, the evolution of connected photovoltaic power in the different World regions, a comparison of levelized cost of electricity between the different production sources, the evolution of the share of photovoltaic electricity in raw power consumption, the quarterly evolution of the number and power of connected photovoltaic installations between 2008 and 2016, the quarterly evolution of connections and purchase prices for different power ranges (less than 9 kW, 9-100 kW, 100-250 kW, 250 kW-1 MW, more than 1 MW), the evolution of the number and power of queuing projects, the quarterly evolution of solar photovoltaic electricity purchase prices in France, the evolution of the impact on the CSPE (contribution to the electricity public service)

  11. Report on the Radiological State of the Environment in France in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Report on the Radiological State of the Environment in France in 2010-2011 marks another major milestone in the French policy of nuclear transparency. More than 300,000 measurement results were analyzed for this report, which also incorporates data acquired between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011 across France to take into account the impact of the events at Fukushima. For the first time, this IRSN report collates and comments on the results sent to the French National Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Network (RNM) by its members. This includes the results of measurements taken by the IRSN as part of its continuous radiation protection monitoring activities. This latest edition of the report includes a number of changes related to the inclusion of data from RNM members, as well as improved content. The RNM network is part of an innovative initiative to improve the quality of radioactive measurements performed by certified laboratories and provide the public with fuller and clearer information on the radiological state of the environment. On February 2, 2010, environmental monitoring organizations in France created the RNM Internet site (www.mesure-radioactivite.fr) as part of an initiative to centralize information on radioactivity and make measurement results more readily available to professionals and the general public alike. The site can thus be consulted for results regarding all environmental compartments, including air, water, flora and fauna, and the food chain

  12. France's Efforts to Promote NPP Exports and the Implications on the Role of Nuclear Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chae-Woon; Chang, Hyun-Sop; Choi, Young-Sung

    2008-01-01

    The global society facing sky-rocketing oil prices, global warming effects, and increased demand for electricity recognizes the comparative advantages of nuclear energy in terms of environmental impact and economic efficiency over the other energy sources of current use. Approximately 300 nuclear power plants (NPPs) expect to be constructed until 2030 worldwide. Accordingly, the global market size of nuclear power industry becomes scaled up to the extent of U$75 billion on the assumption that the construction of one reactor costs around U$2.5 billion. The nations in possession of advanced nuclear technology such as the U.S., France, Japan, etc not only recognized an abounding profitability in nuclear industry and anticipated nuclear renaissance but also prepared long before whatever necessary to expand their nuclear programs beyond their domestic boundaries. Amongst those nations, it seems to be France that has unfolded a remarkable array of government-led activities to export Evolutionary Pressurized Reactors (EPRs) under the cooperation of President, relevant government administration, utilities even a regulatory body. The omni-directional activities of France and its implications are presented in this paper

  13. Range expansion of the Asian native giant resin bee Megachile sculpturalis (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Féon, Violette; Aubert, Matthieu; Genoud, David; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Westrich, Paul; Geslin, Benoît

    2018-02-01

    In 2008, a new species for the French bee fauna was recorded in Allauch near Marseille: the giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis (Smith, 1853). This was the first European record of this species that is native to East Asia. To our knowledge, it is the first introduced bee species in Europe. Here, we provide an overview of the current distribution of M. sculpturalis in France and we describe the history of its range expansion. Besides our own observations, information was compiled from literature and Internet websites, and by contacting naturalist networks. We collected a total of 117 records ( locality  ×  year combinations) for the 2008-2016 period. The geographical range of M. sculpturalis has extended remarkably, now occupying a third of continental France, with the most northern and western records located 335 and 520 km from Allauch, respectively. Information on its phenology, feeding, and nesting behavior is also provided. We report several events of nest occupation or eviction of Osmia sp. and Xylocopa sp. individuals by M. sculpturalis . Our results show that M. sculpturalis is now well established in France. Given its capacity to adapt and rapidly expand its range, we recommend amplifying the monitoring of this species to better anticipate the changes in its geographical range and its potential impacts on native bees.

  14. EDF - Electricite de France, 2012 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2012. It is made of several reports: the Annual Results press release, the 2012 Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Analysts Conference, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 31 December 2012, the Statutory Auditors' report, the Management Report, the 3rd quarter 2012 Sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2012 Sales presentation with its appendices, updated presentation and transcript, the first quarter 2012 Sales press release, the first quarter 2012 Sales updated presentation and regulatory information with its appendices and transcript, The Half-year results press release, the 2012 Half-year results presentation with its appendices, the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2012, the Management Report for the first half 2012, the 2012 Half-year Statutory Auditors' reports, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference

  15. EDF - Electricite de France, 2014 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2014. It is made of several reports: the Annual Results press release, the 2014 Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, the Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2014, the Statutory Auditors' report, the 2014 Management report and Group results, the 2014 financial annual statements, the 3rd quarter 2014 Sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2014 Sales presentation with its appendices and transcript, the first quarter 2014 Sales press release, the first quarter 2014 Sales presentation with its appendices and transcript, the 2014 Half-year Results press release, the 2014 Half-year Results presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 30 June 2014, the 2014 Half-year Statutory Auditors' report, the Financial Report for the first half 2014

  16. EDF - Electricite de France, 2010 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2010. It is made of several reports: The Annual Results press release, the 2010 Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the 2010 Financial Report, the transcript of the analysts conference, the 3rd quarter 2010 sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2010 Sales presentation, the 3rd quarter 2010 Sales transcript, The first quarter 2010 Sales press release, the first quarter 2010 Sales presentation, the 2010 Half-year results press release, the 2010 Half-year results presentation and its appendices, the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2010, the Management Report for the first half 2010, the 2010 Half-year Statutory Auditors' report, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference

  17. EDF - Electricite de France, 2011 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2011. It is made of several reports: The Annual Results press release, the 2011 Annual Results presentation and its appendices, the Consolidated Financial Statements at 31 December 2011, the Statutory Auditors' report, the Management Report, the first quarter 2011 Sales press release, the first quarter 2011 Sales presentation and its appendices and transcript, the 3rd quarter 2011 Sales press release, the 3rd quarter 2011 Sales presentation and its appendices, transcript, and transcription of the questions and answers, the Half-year results press release, the 2011 Half-year results presentation and its appendices, the transcript of the Investors and Analysts conference, the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2011, the Management Report for the first half 2011, the 2011 Half-year Statutory Auditors' report

  18. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme: for RES-E a new support scheme based on a premium in addition to the market price is in place since 2016, whereby the generators sell their electricity directly in the market. For RES-H and C the Heat Fund support is the main tool for collective buildings. For individual housing, a tax credit is the main support scheme. The promotion of bio-fuels in France is mainly provided through fiscal regulation mechanisms. On the one hand, the lower competitiveness of bio-fuels compared to conventional fuels is improved through a partial exemption of the domestic consumption tax. On the other hand, the tax on polluting activities prescribes higher rates for companies trading fuel for consumption, in case they do not respect the national quota of bio-fuels to be blended within conventional fuels, which is defined for each fuel type

  19. [Analysis of generic drug supply in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboulet, F; Haramburu, F; Latry, Ph

    2003-09-01

    The list of generic medicines (LGM), published since 1997 by the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFFSSaPS), the French Medicine Agency, concerns a special part of the medicines reimbursed by the National Health Insurance (Social Security). The objectives of the present study were: i) to describe the components of this list, based on pharmaceutical, economical and therapeutic characteristics, ii) to study differences between generic and reference products (formulations, excipients, prices, etc.), iii) to analyze information on excipients provided to health care professionals. The 21st version of the LGM (April 2001) was used. Therapeutic value was retrieved from the 2001 AFSSaPS report on the therapeutic value of 4490 reimbursed medicines. Information on excipients in the LGM and the Vidal dictionary (reference prescription book in France) was compared. The products included in the LGM represent 20% of all reimbursed medicines. The mean price differences between generics and their reference products vary between 30 and 50% for more than two thirds of the generic groups. The therapeutic value of the products of the LGM was judged important in 71% of cases (vs 63% for the 4409 assessed medicines) and insufficient in 13% of cases (vs 19%). Information on excipients is often missing and sometimes erroneous. Although the LGM is regularly revised and thus the generic market in perpetual change, the 2001 cross description of this pharmaceutical market provides much informations and raises some concern.

  20. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.; Lafon, A.; Perves, J.P.; Rosengard, A.

    1992-01-01

    The main effort in the field of Isotopic Separation Research and Development in France is devoted since 1985 to the 'SILVA' process. A structured organization has been set up, including the following elements: Specific Research and Development for all the functions and components of the process: this work is supported by numerous benches located in Saclay and Pierrelatte. Each bench is mainly devoted to one process function; regarding process and operating performances are optimized. Integrated Experiences in a Pilot facility. Qualified components are integrated in a pilot facility located in Saclay, the capacity of which is steadily increased. At each stage, complete separative experiments demonstrate the improvements attained. Focused Basic Research for each field, often linked with various and relatively original phenomenas. Models have been built up, supported by specific experiments and values attained for intrinsical parameters. An aggregated process performance computing code integrates all the models, possibly under simplified form. Technical, operating and economical data are gradually added. A general assessment will take place in the middle of the nineties with several technical demonstrations and a complete evaluation of the French AVLIS process