WorldWideScience

Sample records for rhamnolipid production disabling

  1. Inactivation of the rhlA gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevents rhamnolipid production, disabling the protection against polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Many of the virulence factors produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are quorum-sensing (QS) regulated. Among these are rhamnolipids, which have been shown to cause lysis of several cellular components of the human immune system, e.g. monocyte-derived macrophages and ...

  2. Effect of exogenously added rhamnolipids on citric acid production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of exogenously added rhamnolipids on citric acid production yield. Wojciech Białas, Roman Marecik, Alicja Szulc, Łukasz Ławniczak, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Filip Ciesielczyk, Teofil Jesionowski, Andreas Aurich ...

  3. Mathematical model of rhamnolipid production using E.coli bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Muhammad Fariduddin; Apri, Mochamad; Moeis, Maelita Ramdani

    2018-03-01

    Rhamnolipid is one of biosurfactants that is widely used in many industries. Despite its wide use, production of rhamnolipid usually involves a pathogen that may endanger our health. To tackle this issue, in iGEM (International Genetically Engineered Machine) competition 2015, our team engineered Escherichia coli (E.coli) to produce rhamnolipid. The bacteria were then put into medium containing glucose and lactose. It turned out that bacteria E. coli produced lower rhamnolipid than that by pseudomonas, therefore a good strategy is required to improve their productivity. We present a mathematical model to describe the production of rhamnolipid by the engineered E coli. Using bifurcation analysis, the equilibrium points of the model and their stabilities were analyzed as the amount of lactose was varied. We show that the system produces bistability behavior for some interval values of lactose. From this analysis we found that to guarantee a high production of rhamnolipid, a high level of lactose is required. To maintain the productivity, however, it is sufficient to maintain the lactose level above a certain threshold value.

  4. Genetic improvement of Rhamnolipid Production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Gelawi, Majed Hussain; Al-Makadci, O.A.

    2007-01-01

    Six bacterial isolates (isolated previously) were identified and/or ensured their identification. Results showed that these isolates belong to P. aeruginosa, and all isolates were capable of producing rhamnolipid, and best ones was P. aeruginosa RB67. In order to get rhamnolipid hyper producer mutants, mutagenesis of P. aeruginosa RB 67 using UV light and MNNG were performed. Fifty colonies from each treatment (UV and MNNG) were selected and screened for their ability to produce rhamnolipid semi-quantitatively by replica plated on blood agar and CTAB-methylene blue agar. Based on the last method, twelve colonies from each treatment (UV and MNNG) were selected and used for measuring rhamnose concentration. The results showed that these mutants varied in their ability to produce rhamnolipid and some of them showed an increase in rhamnalipid production. The highest rhamnose concentration (94 ug/mL) was achieved by the mutant (MOM12). Furthermore, FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that there were no apparent qualitative differences in rhamnolipid produced from mutants. (author)

  5. Production of a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant by Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work herewith investigated the effect of the culture medium composition on rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBM10, previously isolated from an estuarine environment in Southern Brazil. Experimental design and surface response methodology were used in order to improve biosurfactant ...

  6. Heterologous production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Shi, R; Zhao, J; Li, G; Bai, X; Han, S; Zhang, Y

    2015-02-01

    The ex situ application of rhamnolipid to enhance oil recovery is costly and complex in terms of rhamnolipid production and transportation, while in situ production of rhamnolipid is restricted by the oxygen-deficient environments of oil reservoirs. To overcome the oxygen-limiting conditions and to circumvent the complex regulation of rhamnolipid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an engineered strain Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl was constructed for heterologous production of rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions. The rhlABRI genes for rhamnolipid biosynthesis were cloned into a facultative anaerobic strain Ps. stutzeri DQ1 to construct the engineered strain Rhl. Anaerobic production of rhamnolipid was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared analysis. Rhamnolipid product reduced the air-water surface tension to 30.3 mN m(-1) and the oil-water interfacial tension to 0.169 mN m(-1). Rhl produced rhamnolipid of 1.61 g l(-1) using glycerol as the carbon source. Rhl anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil up to EI24 ≈ 74. An extra 9.8% of original crude oil was displaced by Rhl in the core flooding test. Strain Rhl achieved anaerobic production of rhamnolipid and worked well for enhanced oil recovery in the core flooding model. The rhamnolipid produced by Rhl was similar to that of the donor strain SQ6. This is the first study to achieve anaerobic and heterologous production of rhamnolipid. Results demonstrated the potential feasibility of Rhl as a promising strain to enhance oil recovery through anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Production of bio surfactants (Rhamnolipids) by pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from colombian sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimienta, A.L; Diaz M, M. P; Carvajal S, F.G; Grosso V, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The bio surfactant production by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Colombian hydrocarbon contaminated sludge has been determined. The methodology included the isolation of microorganisms, standardization of batch culture conditions for good surfactant production and characterization of the produced rhamnolipid. Several carbon sources were evaluated with regard to the growth and production curves. The stability of the rhamnolipid was also determined under variable conditions of pH, temperature and salt concentration. The strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa BS 3 showed bio surfactant production capabilities of rhamnolipid resulting in concentrations up to 2 g-dm with surface tensions of 30 - 32 mN-m in batch cultures with commercial nutrients

  8. Production and characterization of di-rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa TMN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, T. A. A.; Mohamed, M. S.; Samak, N.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa TMN was used to produce rhamnolipid (RL) from a variety of carbon and nitrogen substrates. The most favorable carbon sources for RL production were glucose and glycerol (both at 40 g/L), giving a RL yield of 0.3 and 0.25 g/L, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium nitrate appeared to be the preferable nitrogen source, resulting in a RL production of 0.34g/L. Rhamnolipid production from P. aeruginosa TMN was affected by temperature, pH and agitation rate, with 37 °C, pH 7 and 200 rpm agitation favorable for rhamnolipid production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses indicated that the purified product contained one type of commonly found rhamnolipid, which is L-rhamnosyl-L-rhamnosyl-β- hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate. The rhamnolipid product can reduce the surface tension of water to 34 mN/m with a critical micelle concentration of nearly 18.75 mg/L and emulsified kerosene by 46%. P. aeruginosa TMN strain is a potential source of rhamnolipid biosurfactant, which could be used for the development of bioremediation processes in the marine environment. (author)

  9. Production and characterization of di-rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa TMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, T. A. A.; Mohamed, M. S.; Samak, N., E-mail: mervat_sayed@yahoo.com, E-mail: mervat@sci.cu.edu.eg [Cairo University (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa TMN was used to produce rhamnolipid (RL) from a variety of carbon and nitrogen substrates. The most favorable carbon sources for RL production were glucose and glycerol (both at 40 g/L), giving a RL yield of 0.3 and 0.25 g/L, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium nitrate appeared to be the preferable nitrogen source, resulting in a RL production of 0.34g/L. Rhamnolipid production from P. aeruginosa TMN was affected by temperature, pH and agitation rate, with 37 °C, pH 7 and 200 rpm agitation favorable for rhamnolipid production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses indicated that the purified product contained one type of commonly found rhamnolipid, which is L-rhamnosyl-L-rhamnosyl-β- hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate. The rhamnolipid product can reduce the surface tension of water to 34 mN/m with a critical micelle concentration of nearly 18.75 mg/L and emulsified kerosene by 46%. P. aeruginosa TMN strain is a potential source of rhamnolipid biosurfactant, which could be used for the development of bioremediation processes in the marine environment. (author)

  10. Biofilm as a production platform for heterologous production of rhamnolipids by the non‑pathogenic strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneswaran, Vinoth; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Sternberg, Claus

    2016-01-01

    of the rhlAB operon resulting in different levels of rhamnolipid production. Biosynthesis of rhamnolipids in P. putida decreased bacterial growth rate but stimulated biofilm formation by enhancing cell motility. Continuous rhamnolipid production in a biofilm was achieved using flow cell technology...

  11. Utilization of Crude Glycerol as a Substrate for the Production of Rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraqi, Walaa A; Yassin, Aymen S; Ali, Amal E; Amin, Magdy A

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by bacteria or yeast utilizing different substrates as sugars, glycerol, or oils. They have important applications in the detergent, oil, and pharmaceutical industries. Glycerol is the product of biodiesel industry and the existing glycerol market cannot accommodate the excess amounts generated; consequently, new markets for refined glycerol need to be developed. The aim of present work is to optimize the production of microbial rhamnolipid using waste glycerol. We have developed a process for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants using glycerol as the sole carbon source by a local Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate that was obtained from an extensive screening program. A factorial design was applied with the goal of optimizing the rhamnolipid production. The highest production yield was obtained after 2 days when cells were grown in minimal salt media at pH 6, containing 1% (v/v) glycerol and 2% (w/v) sodium nitrate as nitrogen source, at 37°C and at 180 rpm, and reached 2.164 g/L after 54 hours (0.04 g/L h). Analysis of the produced rhamnolipids by TLC, HPLC, and FTIR confirmed the nature of the biosurfactant as monorhamnolipid. Glycerol can serve as a source for the production of rhamnolipid from microbial isolates providing a cheap and reliable substrate.

  12. Production of microbial rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 for ex situ enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Hossein; Müller, Markus Michael; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Recently, several investigations have been carried out on the in situ bacteria flooding, but the ex situ biosurfactant production and addition to the sand pack as agents for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has little been studied. In order to develop suitable technology for ex situ MEOR processes, it is essential to carry out tests about it. Therefore, this work tries to fill the gap. The intention of this study was to investigate whether the rhamnolipid mix could be produced in high enough quantities for enhanced oil recovery in the laboratory scale and prove its potential use as an effective material for field application. In this work, the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 to grow and produce rhamnolipid on sunflower as sole carbon source under nitrogen limitation was shown. The production of Rha-C10-C10 and Rha2-C10-C10 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The rhamnolipid mixture obtained was able to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water to 26 and 2 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration was 120 mg/L. Maximum rhamnolipid production reached to about 0.7 g/L in a shake flask. The yield of rhamnolipid per biomass (Y RL/x ), rhamnolipid per sunflower oil (Y RL/s ), and the biomass per sunflower oil (Y x/s ) for shake flask were obtained about 0.01, 0.0035, and 0.035 g g(-1), respectively. The stability of the rhamnolipid at different salinities, pH and temperature, and also, its emulsifying activity has been investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pHs, and salt concentrations, and it also has the ability to emulsify oil, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery. With 120 mg/L rhamnolipid, 27 % of original oil in place was recovered after water flooding from a sand pack. This result not only suggests rhamnolipids as appropriate model biosurfactants for MEOR, but it even shows the potential as a

  13. Production of rhamnolipids and diesel oil degradation by bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Giuseppe G F; Figueirôa, Juciane V; Almeida, Thiago C M; Valões, Jaqueline L; Marques, Walber F; Duarte, Maria D D C; Gorlach-Lira, Krystyna

    2016-03-01

    Biosurfactants are microbial secondary metabolites. The most studied are rhamnolipids, which decrease the surface tension and have emulsifying capacity. In this study, the production of biosurfactants, with emphasis on rhamnolipids, and diesel oil degradation by 18 strains of bacteria isolated from waste landfill soil contaminated by petroleum was analyzed. Among the studied bacteria, gram-positive endospore forming rods (39%), gram positive rods without endospores (17%), and gram-negative rods (44%) were found. The following methods were used to test for biosurfactant production: oil spreading, emulsification, and hemolytic activity. All strains showed the ability to disperse the diesel oil, while 77% and 44% of the strains showed hemolysis and emulsification of diesel oil, respectively. Rhamnolipids production was observed in four strains that were classified on the basis of the 16S rRNA sequences as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only those strains showed the rhlAB gene involved in rhamnolipids synthesis, and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia carotovora, and Ralstonia solanacearum. The highest production of rhamnolipids was 565.7 mg/L observed in mineral medium containing olive oil (pH 8). With regard to the capacity to degrade diesel oil, it was observed that 7 strains were positive in reduction of the dye 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (2,6-DCPIP) while 16 had the gene alkane mono-oxygenase (alkB), and the producers of rhamnolipids were positive in both tests. Several bacterial strains have shown high potential to be explored further for bioremediation purposes due to their simultaneous ability to emulsify, disperse, and degrade diesel oil. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:262-270, 2016. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is inhibited by H2S but resumes in a co-culture with P. stutzeri: applications for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Ma, Fang; Shi, Rongjiu; Zhang, Jie; Han, Siqin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria and H2S exist widely in oil production systems, and in situ production of rhamnolipids is promising for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, information of the effect of S(2-) on rhamnolipids production is scarce. Two facultative anaerobic rhamnolipids-producing bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG and WJ-1, were used. Above 10 mg S(2-)/l, both cell growth and rhamnolipids production were inhibited. A large inoculum (9%, v/v) failed to completely relieve the inhibitory effect of 10 mg S(2-)/l. Below 30 mg S(2-)/l, both strains resumed rhamnolipid production through co-culturing with the denitrifying and sulphide-removing strain Pseudomonas stutzeri DQ1. H2S has a direct but reversible inhibitory effect on rhamnolipids production. Control of H2S in oilfields is indispensable to MEOR, and the co-culture method is effective in restoring rhamnolipid production in presence of S(2-).

  15. Medium factors on anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG and a simplifying medium for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Jidong; Han, Siqin; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Aerobic production of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was extensively studied. But effect of medium composition on anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa was unknown. A simplifying medium facilitating anaerobic production of rhamnolipid is urgently needed for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Medium factors affecting anaerobic production of rhamnolipid were investigated using P. aeruginosa SG (Genbank accession number KJ995745). Medium composition for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa is different from that for aerobic production of rhamnolipid. Both hydrophobic substrate and organic nitrogen inhibited rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions. Glycerol and nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen source. The commonly used N limitation under aerobic conditions was not conducive to rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions because the initial cell growth demanded enough nitrate for anaerobic respiration. But rhamnolipid was also fast accumulated under nitrogen starvation conditions. Sufficient phosphate was needed for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. SO4(2-) and Mg(2+) are required for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Results will contribute to isolation bacteria strains which can anaerobically produce rhamnolipid and medium optimization for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Based on medium optimization by response surface methodology and ions composition of reservoir formation water, a simplifying medium containing 70.3 g/l glycerol, 5.25 g/l NaNO3, 5.49 g/l KH2PO4, 6.9 g/l K2HPO4·3H2O and 0.40 g/l MgSO4 was designed. Using the simplifying medium, 630 mg/l of rhamnolipid was produced by SG, and the anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil to EI24 = 82.5 %. The simplifying medium was promising for in situ MEOR applications.

  16. Utilization of Paneer Whey Waste for Cost-Effective Production of Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed at isolating rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize paneer whey, an abundant waste source as sole medium for the production purpose. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, SR17, was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil that could efficiently utilize paneer whey for rhamnolipid production and reduce surface tension of the medium from 52 to 26.5 mN/m. The yield of biosurfactant obtained was 2.7 g/l, upgraded to 4.8 g/l when supplemented with 2 % glucose and mineral salts. Biochemical, FTIR, and LC-MS analysis revealed that extracted biosurfactant is a combination of both mono and di-rhamnolipid congeners. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was measured to be 110 mg/l. Emulsification activity of the biosurfactant against n-hexadecane, olive oil, kerosene, diesel oil, engine oil, and crude oil were found to be 83, 88, 81, 92, 86, and 100 %, respectively. The rhamnolipid was detected to be non-toxic against mouse fibroblastic cell line L292.

  17. Study on fermentation kinetics and extraction process of rhamnolipid production by papermaking wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keer

    2018-01-01

    Paper mill wastewater (PMW) is the outlet water generated during pulp and papermaking process in the paper industry. Fermentation by wastewater can lower the cost of production as well as alleviate the pressure of wastewater treatment. Rhamnolipids find broad placations as natural surfactants. This paper studied the rhamnolipids fermentation by employing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated by the laboratory, and determined to use wastewater which filtered by medium speed filter paper and strain Z2, the culture conditions were optimized, based on the flask shaking fermentation. On the basis of 5L tank fermentation, batch fermentation was carried out, the yield of fermentation reached 7.067g/L and the fermentation kinetics model of cell growth, product formation and substrate consumption was established by using origin software, and the fermentation process could be simulated well. And studied on the extraction process of rhamnolipids, through fermentation dynamic equation analysis can predict the in fill material yield can be further improved. Research on the extraction process of rhamnolipid simplifies the operation of extraction, and lays the foundation for the industrial extraction.

  18. Utilization of Crude Glycerol as a Substrate for the Production of Rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Eraqi, Walaa A.; Yassin, Aymen S.; Ali, Amal E.; Amin, Magdy A.

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by bacteria or yeast utilizing different substrates as sugars, glycerol, or oils. They have important applications in the detergent, oil, and pharmaceutical industries. Glycerol is the product of biodiesel industry and the existing glycerol market cannot accommodate the excess amounts generated; consequently, new markets for refined glycerol need to be developed. The aim of present work is to optimize the production of microbial rhamnolipid using waste glycerol. We...

  19. Production of microbial biosurfactants: Status quo of rhamnolipid and surfactin towards large-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Marius; Geissler, Mareen; Weggenmann, Fabiola; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2017-07-01

    Surfactants are an important class of industrial chemicals. Nowadays oleochemical surfactants such as alkyl polyglycosides (APGs) become increasingly important. This trend towards the utilization of renewable resources continues and consumers increasingly demand for environmentally friendly products. Consequently, research in microbial surfactants has drastically increased in the last years. While for mannosylerythritol lipids and sophorolipids established industrial processes exist, an implementation of other microbially derived surfactants has not yet been achieved. Amongst these biosurfactants, rhamnolipids synthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis are so far the most analyzed biosurfactants due to their exceptional properties and the concomitant possible applications. In this review, a general overview is given regarding the current status of biosurfactants and benefits attributed to these molecules. Furthermore, the most recent research approaches for both rhamnolipids and surfactin are presented with respect to possible methods for industrial processes and the occurring drawbacks and limitations researchers have to address and overcome. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rhamnolipids as platform molecules for production of potential anti-zoospore agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Dashtbozorg, Soroosh Soltani; Callow, Nicholas V; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2015-04-08

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants have potential applications in the control of zoosporic plant pathogens. However, rhamnolipids have not been closely investigated for the anti-zoospore mechanism or for developing new anti-zoospore chemicals. In this study, RhL-1 and RhL-3 groups of rhamnolipids were used to generate the corresponding RhL-2 and RhL-4 groups and the free diacids. Conversion of RhL-3 to RhL-1 was also accomplished in vitro with cellobiase as the catalyst. The anti-zoospore effects of RhL-1-RhL-4 and the diacids were investigated with zoospores of Phytophthora sojae. For RhL-1-RhL-4, approximately 20, 30, 40, and 40 mg/L, respectively, were found to be the lowest concentrations required to stop movement of all zoospores, which indicates that the anti-zoospore effect remains strong even after RhL-1 and RhL-3 are hydrolyzed into RhL-2 and RhL-4. The free diacids required a significantly higher critical concentration of about 125 mg/L. Rhamnose can be obtained as a co-product.

  1. Bioconversion of agro-industrial by-products in rhamnolipids toward applications in enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Alves, Eliana; Domingues, M Rosário; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-02-01

    In this work, biosurfactant production by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was optimized using low-cost substrates. The highest biosurfactant production (3.2 g/l) was obtained using a culture medium containing corn steep liquor (10% (v/v)) and molasses (10% (w/v)). The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water up to 30 mN/m, and exhibited a high emulsifying activity (E24=60%), with a critical micelle concentration as low as 50 mg/l. The biosurfactant produced in this alternative medium was characterized as a mixture of eight different rhamnolipid congeners, being the most abundant the mono-rhamnolipid Rha-C10-C10. However, using LB medium, nine different rhamnolipid congeners were identified, being the most abundant the di-rhamnolipid Rha-Rha-C10-C10. The rhamnolipid mixture produced in the alternative medium exhibited a better performance in removing oil from contaminated sand when compared with two chemical surfactants, suggesting its potential use as an alternative to traditional chemical surfactants in enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production and characterization of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from waste frying coconut oil using a novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S; Jayachandran, K

    2013-02-01

    To improve biosurfactant production economics by the utilization of potential low-cost materials. In an attempt to utilize cost-effective carbon sources in the fermentative production of biosurfactants, various pure and waste frying oils were screened by a standard biosurfactant producing strain. Considering the regional significance, easy availability and the economical advantages, waste frying coconut oil was selected as the substrate for further studies. On isolation of more competent strains that could use waste frying coconut oil efficiently as a carbon source, six bacterial strains were isolated on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-methylene blue agar plate, from a soil sample collected from the premises of a coconut oil mill. Among these, Pseudomonas aeruginosa D was selected as the potential producer of rhamnolipid. Spectrophotometric method, TLC, methylene blue active substance assay, drop collapse technique, surface tension measurement by Du Nouy ring method and emulsifying test confirmed the rhamnolipid producing ability of the selected strain and various process parameters were optimized for the production of maximum amount of biosurfactant. Rhamnolipid components purified and separated by ethyl acetate extraction, preparative silica gel column chromatography, HPLC and TLC were characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as a mixture of dirhamnolipids and monorhamnolipids. The rhamnolipid homologues detected were Rha-Rha-C(10) -C(10) , Rha-C(12) -C(10) and Rha-C(10) -C(8) /Rha-C(8) -C(10) . These results indicated the possibility of waste frying coconut oil to be used as a very effective alternate substrate for the economic production of rhamnolipid by a newly isolated Ps. aeruginosa D. Results of this study throws light on the alternate use of already used cooking oil as high-energy source for producing a high value product like rhamnolipid. This would provide options for the food industry other than the recycling and reuse of waste frying

  3. Rhamnolipids production by multi-metal-resistant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-07-01

    The biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A11, with plant-growth-promoting (PGP) and multi-metal-resistant (MMR) features was isolated from the rhizosphere of a wild plant Parthenium hysterophorus. The strain A11 was able to utilize glycerol as a carbon source and produce 4,436.9 mg/L of biosurfactant after 120 h of incubation. The biosurfactants was characterized as rhamnolipids (RLs) by thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Eight different RLs congeners were detected with RhaRhaC₁₀C₁₀ being most abundant. The purified rhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid, and monorhamnolipid reduced the surface tension of water to 29, 36, and 42 mN/m with critical micelle concentration of 83, 125, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The strain A11 demonstrated resistance against all the metals detected in rhizosphere except Hg and Ni. The strain A11 also possessed plant-growth-promoting features like siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, catalase, ammonia production, and phosphate solubilization. The dirhamnolipids formed crystals upon incubation at 4 °C, thus making separation of dirhamnolipids easy. Biosurfactant-producing ability along with MMR and PGP traits of the strain A11 makes it a potential candidate for application in the bacterial assisted enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites.

  4. Simultaneous inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl: Applications for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Ji-Dong; Ma, Fang; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widely existed in oil production system, and its H2S product inhibits rhamnolipid producing bacteria. In-situ production of rhamnolipid is promising for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Inhibition of SRB, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl were investigated. Strain Rhl can simultaneously remove S(2-) (>92%) and produce rhamnolipid (>136mg/l) under S(2-) stress below 33.3mg/l. Rhl reduced the SRB numbers from 10(9) to 10(5)cells/ml, and the production of H2S was delayed and decreased to below 2mg/l. Rhl also produced rhamnolipid and removed S(2-) under laboratory simulated oil reservoir conditions. High-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that addition of strain Rhl significantly changed the original microbial communities of oilfield production water and decreased the species and abundance of SRB. Bioaugmentation of strain Rhl in oilfield is promising for simultaneous control of SRB, removal of S(2-) and enhance oil recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rhamnolipids--next generation surfactants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus Michael; Kügler, Johannes H; Henkel, Marius; Gerlitzki, Melanie; Hörmann, Barbara; Pöhnlein, Martin; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2012-12-31

    The demand for bio-based processes and materials in the petrochemical industry has significantly increased during the last decade because of the expected running out of petroleum. This trend can be ascribed to three main causes: (1) the increased use of renewable resources for chemical synthesis of already established product classes, (2) the replacement of chemical synthesis of already established product classes by new biotechnological processes based on renewable resources, and (3) the biotechnological production of new molecules with new features or better performances than already established comparable chemically synthesized products. All three approaches are currently being pursued for surfactant production. Biosurfactants are a very promising and interesting substance class because they are based on renewable resources, sustainable, and biologically degradable. Alkyl polyglycosides are chemically synthesized biosurfactants established on the surfactant market. The first microbiological biosurfactants on the market were sophorolipids. Of all currently known biosurfactants, rhamnolipids have the highest potential for becoming the next generation of biosurfactants introduced on the market. Although the metabolic pathways and genetic regulation of biosynthesis are known qualitatively, the quantitative understanding relevant for bioreactor cultivation is still missing. Additionally, high product titers have been exclusively described with vegetable oil as sole carbon source in combination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Competitive productivity is still out of reach for heterologous hosts or non-pathogenic natural producer strains. Thus, on the one hand there is a need to gain a deeper understanding of the regulation of rhamnolipid production on process and cellular level during bioreactor cultivations. On the other hand, there is a need for metabolizable renewable substrates, which do not compete with food and feed. A sustainable bioeconomy approach should

  6. Optimization of culture medium for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Mandlaa, M; Hao, J; Liang, X; Shi, R; Han, S; Zhang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to enhance the anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl. Glycerol is a promising carbon source used to anaerobically produce rhamnolipid. In a Plackett-Burman design, glycerol, KH2 PO4 and yeast extract were significant factors. The proposed optimized medium contained the following: 46·55 g l(-1) glycerol; 3 g l(-1) NaNO3 ; 5·25 g l(-1) K2 HPO4 ·3H2 O; 5·71 g l(-1) KH2 PO4 ; 0·40 g l(-1) MgSO4 ·7H2 O; 0·13 g l(-1) CaCl2 ; 1·0 g l(-1) KCl; 1·0 g l(-1) NaCl; and 2·69 g l(-1) yeast extract. Using this optimized medium, we obtained an anaerobic yield of rhamnolipid of 3·12 ± 0·11 g l(-1) with a 0·85-fold increase. Core flooding test results also revealed that Ps. stutzeri Rhl grown in an optimized medium enhanced the oil recovery efficiency by 15·7%, which was 6·6% higher than in the initial medium. Results suggested that the optimized medium is a promising nutrient source that could effectively mobilize oil by enhancing the in situ production of rhamnolipid. The ex situ application of rhamnolipid for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is costly and complex in terms of rhamnolipid production, purification and transportation. Compared with ex situ applications, the in situ production of rhamnolipid in anaerobic oil reservoir is more advantageous for MEOR. This study is the first to report the anaerobic production optimization of rhamnolipid. Results showed that the optimized medium enhanced not only the anaerobic production of rhamnolipid but also crude oil recovery. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. The Crc protein participates in down-regulation of the Lon gene to promote rhamnolipid production and rhl quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nana; Ding, Shuting; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xue; Xia, Yongjie; Di, Hongxia; Cao, Qiao; Deng, Xin; Wu, Min; Wong, Catherine C L; Tian, Xiao-Xu; Yang, Cai-Guang; Zhao, Jing; Lan, Lefu

    2015-05-01

    Rhamnolipid acts as a virulence factor during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Here, we show that deletion of the catabolite repression control (crc) gene in P. aeruginosa leads to a rhamnolipid-negative phenotype. This effect is mediated by the down-regulation of rhl quorum sensing (QS). We discover that a disruption of the gene encoding the Lon protease entirely offsets the effect of crc deletion on the production of both rhamnolipid and rhl QS signal C4-HSL. Crc is unable to bind lon mRNA in vitro in the absence of the RNA chaperon Hfq, while Crc contributes to Hfq-mediated repression of the lon gene expression at a posttranscriptional level. Deletion of crc, which results in up-regulation of lon, significantly reduces the in vivo stability and abundance of the RhlI protein that synthesizes C4-HSL, causing the attenuation of rhl QS. Lon is also capable of degrading the RhlI protein in vitro. In addition, constitutive expression of rhlI suppresses the defects of the crc deletion mutant in rhamnolipid, C4-HSL and virulence on lettuce leaves. This study therefore uncovers a novel posttranscriptional regulatory cascade, Crc-Hfq/Lon/RhlI, for the regulation of rhamnolipid production and rhl QS in P. aeruginosa. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Optimization of rhamnolipid production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBS towards application for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajni; Singh, Jagdish; Verma, Neelam

    2018-01-01

    The present work reveals the potential of biosurfactant producing P. aeruginosa PBS for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The biosurfactant production medium and culture conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimization of media components and process parameters was consecutively executed in two sets of experimental runs designed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The maximum biosurfactant yield was attained with 2% fresh inoculum of P. aeruginosa PBS in minimal salt medium (pH 7), possessing 2.17% sodium citrate as C-source and 0.5% yeast extract as N-source, after 48 h upon incubation at 30 °C/150 rpm. Under optimum conditions, biosurfactant yield was increased more than threefold and turned out to be 2.65 g/L as compared to 0.82 g/L under previous conditions. The biosurfactant was characterized as a glycolipid comprising of four rhamnolipid homologs (RhaRhaC 10 C 10 , RhaRhaC 8 C 10 , RhaRhaC 12 C 10 /RhaRhaC 10 C 12 , RhaC 10 C 10 ) by thin layer chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The produced biosurfactant was highly efficient for oil recovery application showing extreme reduction in surface tension of medium (71.80 to 23.76 mN/m), immense hydrocarbons emulsification capacity (50-60%) and greater stability at wide range of temperature (4-100 °C) and pH (4-10) along with an excellent (56.18 ± 1.59%) additional oil recovery in sand-pack column lab test.

  9. Production and characterization of rhamnolipids produced by Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 under solid-state fermentation and its application as biocontrol agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, S; Parthasarathi, R

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed at exploring mahua (Madhuca indica) oil cake as a novel substrate for the production of biosurfactant by Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 under solid-state fermentation (SSF). Response surface methodology showed followings as the optimal conditions for the production of biosurfactant: mahua oil cake 7.48 g, 2.5 ml inoculum size (1×10(8) cells/ml), and pH 7.22 and 31 °C temperature. The characterization of the biosurfactant by TLC, FT-IR and GC-MS revealed the presence of rhamnolipid. The presence of rhamnosyl transferase gene responsible for biosynthesis of rhamnolipid was identified. The strain SNAU02 exhibited antifungal activity and demonstrated no toxicity against the seeds of Brassica oleracea and Artemia salina employed as a bio-indicator. The present findings indicated the potential of mahua oil cake as suitable substrate for the production of rhamnolipids in SSF by S. rubidaea SNAU02 and application potential of the biosurfactant produced as biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of environmental factors for improved production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 on glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Manab; Sarma, Hemen

    2012-08-01

    A biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 (identified on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis) with good foaming and emulsification properties has been isolated from crude oil contaminated sites. Optimization of different environmental factors was carried out with an objective to achieve maximum production of biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was estimated in terms of surface tension reduction and emulsification (E24) index. It was recorded that the isolated strain produced highest biosurfactant after 48 h of incubation at 37.5 °C, with a pH range of 7-8 and at salinity biosurfactant (Surface tension, 26.3 and 26.4 mN/m and E24 index, 80 and 79% respectively). The CMC of the biosurfactant was 90 mg/l. Maximum biomass (6.30 g/l) and biosurfactant production (0.80 g/l) were recorded at an optimal C/N ratio of 12.5. Biochemical analysis and FTIR spectra confirmed that the biosurfactant was rhamnolipid in nature. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of C(8) and C(10) fatty acid components in the purified biosurfactant. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Stimulation of rhamnolipid biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U by organosulfur compounds provided as sulfur sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; Shammary, Sultanah Al; El-Sayed, Wael S; Obuekwe, Christian; El Nayal, Ashraf M; Abdul Raheem, Abdul Salam; Al-Humam, Abdulmohsen

    2015-09-01

    A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U strain produced rhamnolipid biosurfactants to variable extents when grown on MgSO 4 or organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources and glucose as a carbon source. Organosulfur cultures produced much higher biosurfactants amounts compared to the MgSO 4 cultures. The surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 72 mN/m to 54 and 30 mN/m in cultures containing MgSO 4 and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT), respectively. AK6U cultures produced different rhamnolipid congener profiles depending on the provided sulfur source. The dibenzothiophene (DBT) culture produced more diverse and a higher number of rhamnolipid congeners as compared to the DBT-sulfone and MgSO 4 cultures. The number of mono-rhamnolipid congeners in the DBT culture was also higher than that detected in the DBT-sulfone and MgSO 4 cultures. Di-rhamnolipids dominated the congener profiles in all the analyzed cultures. The sulfur source can have a profound impact on the quality and quantity of the produced biosurfactants.

  12. Stimulation of rhamnolipid biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U by organosulfur compounds provided as sulfur sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Ismail

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U strain produced rhamnolipid biosurfactants to variable extents when grown on MgSO4 or organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources and glucose as a carbon source. Organosulfur cultures produced much higher biosurfactants amounts compared to the MgSO4 cultures. The surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 72 mN/m to 54 and 30 mN/m in cultures containing MgSO4 and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT, respectively. AK6U cultures produced different rhamnolipid congener profiles depending on the provided sulfur source. The dibenzothiophene (DBT culture produced more diverse and a higher number of rhamnolipid congeners as compared to the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. The number of mono-rhamnolipid congeners in the DBT culture was also higher than that detected in the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. Di-rhamnolipids dominated the congener profiles in all the analyzed cultures. The sulfur source can have a profound impact on the quality and quantity of the produced biosurfactants.

  13. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Bryam, Ana Maria; Lovaglio, Roberta Barros; Contiero, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2.55 g/L) of 192% over wild type (1.3 g/L). The higher rhamnolipid production could be related to a possible mechanism developed after the mutation process at high antibiotic concentrations. Mass spectrometry confirmed the glycolipid nature of the produced biosurfactant, and the homologue composition showed a wide mixture of mono and di-rhamnolipids. These results show that high glycerol concentrations can inhibit microbial metabolism, due to osmotic stress, leading to a better understanding of glycerol metabolism towards its optimization in fermentation media. Since P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed higher conversion yields than P. aeruginosa LBI, the use of a mutant strain associated with a low cost carbon source might improve biosurfactant biosynthesis, therefore yielding an important upstream improvement.

  14. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Salazar-Bryam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1 was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed an increase in rhamnolipid production (2.55 g/L of 192% over wild type (1.3 g/L. The higher rhamnolipid production could be related to a possible mechanism developed after the mutation process at high antibiotic concentrations. Mass spectrometry confirmed the glycolipid nature of the produced biosurfactant, and the homologue composition showed a wide mixture of mono and di-rhamnolipids. These results show that high glycerol concentrations can inhibit microbial metabolism, due to osmotic stress, leading to a better understanding of glycerol metabolism towards its optimization in fermentation media. Since P. aeruginosa LBI 2A1 showed higher conversion yields than P. aeruginosa LBI, the use of a mutant strain associated with a low cost carbon source might improve biosurfactant biosynthesis, therefore yielding an important upstream improvement. Keywords: Biotechnology, Microbiology

  15. Biodegradation of crude oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of rhamnolipids*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guo-liang; Wu, Yue-ting; Qian, Xin-ping; Meng, Qin

    2005-01-01

    The potential biodegradation of crude oil was assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produced 15.4 g/L rhamnolipids when cultured in a basal mineral medium using glycerol as a sole carbon source. However, neither cell growth nor rhamnolipid production was observed in the comparative culture system using crude oil as the sole carbon source instead. As rhamnolipid, an effective biosurfactant, has been reported to stimulate the b...

  16. Potential applications of biosurfactant rhamnolipids in agriculture and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Wu, Qihao; Hua, Yi; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    Rhamnolipids have recently emerged as promising bioactive molecules due to their novel structures, diverse and versatile biological functions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, as well as production from renewable resources. The advantages of rhamnolipids make them attractive targets for research in a wide variety of applications. Especially rhamnolipids are likely to possess potential applications of the future in areas such as biomedicine, therapeutics, and agriculture. The purpose of this mini review is to provide a comprehensive prospective of biosurfactant rhamnolipids as potential antimicrobials, immune modulators, and virulence factors, and anticancer agents in the field of biomedicine and agriculture that may meet the ever-increasing future pharmacological treatment and food safety needs in human health.

  17. Coal induced production of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas stutzeri, isolated from the formation water of Jharia coalbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Durgesh Narain; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri was isolated form an enrichment of perchlorate reducing bacteria from the formation water collected from an Indian coalbed which solubilized coal and produced copious amount of biosurfactant when coal was added to the medium. It produced maximum biosurfactant with lignite coal followed by olive oil and soybean oil which was able to emulsify several aromatic hydrocarbons including kerosene oil, diesel oil, hexane, toluene etc. Haemolytic test, growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis and FTIR analysis showed rhamnolipid nature of the biosurfactant. The stability of the coal induced biosurfactant in pH range of 4-8 and up to 25% NaCl concentration and 100 °C temperature suggests that due to its ability to produce biosurfactant and solubilize coal P. stutzeri may be useful in the coalbed for in situ biotransformation of coal into methane and in the bioremediation of PAHs from oil contaminated sites including marine environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rhamnolipids: solution against Aedes aegypti?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Luiz Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the primary transmitters of dengue fever, urban yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. This mosquito has developed resistance to the insecticides currently used to control their populations. These chemical insecticides are harmful to the environment and can have negative effects on human health. Rhamnolipids are environmentally compatible biological surfactants, but their insecticidal activity has not been extensively studied. The present study evaluated the potential larvicidal, insecticidal and repellent activities of rhamnolipids against Aedes aegypti. At concentrations of 800, 900 and 1000 mg/L, rhamnolipids eliminated all mosquito larvae in 18 hours and killed 100% of adults at 1000 mg/L. According to the results it may be conclude that rhamnolipids should be applied to control larvae and mosquitos besides present the repellency activity against Aedes aegypti.

  19. Isolation of rhamnolipids-producing cultures from faeces: Influence of interspecies communication on the yield of rhamnolipid congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak-Karczewska, Marta; Myszka, Kamila; Sznajdrowska, Agata; Szulc, Alicja; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2017-05-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of bacterial cultures isolated from cattle, poultry or pig faeces and manure to produce rhamnolipids, as well as to investigate the influence of interspecies communication on possible quantitative differences in the production of rhamnolipid congeners. Initial screening methods (oil spreading, drop collapse, haemolytic activity and emulsification activity) showed that approximately 36% of the 51 isolated cultures exhibited the ability to produce biosurfactants. Subsequent studies using a selected culturable mixed culture (which included Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) revealed that only P. aeruginosa was able to produce this biosurfactant. HPLC-MS analysis showed that the surface active compounds were rhamnolipids. Further comparative studies confirmed that the total yield of rhamnolipids was notably higher in the bioreactor inoculated with the selected mixed culture (940.58±1.10mg/L) compared to the bioreactor inoculated with the axenic strain of P. aeruginosa (108.47±0.41mg/L). Twelve rhamnolipid congeners were identified during cultivation of the selected mixed culture, whereas six congeners were detected during cultivation of the sole axenic strain of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, increased production of rhamnolipids was observed when the concentration of autoinducer molecules (AI-2) responsible for interspecies signaling increased, suggesting the influence of quorum-sensing communication on biosynthesis efficiency. This observation may be of importance for large-scale production of this biosurfactant, as it opens new possible solutions based on the use of mixed cultures or external addition of stimulating autoinducers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization and emulsification properties of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T; Sabatini, David A

    2011-02-18

    Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications.

  1. Characterization and Emulsification Properties of Rhamnolipid and Sophorolipid Biosurfactants and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu T. Nguyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications.

  2. Engineering the biosynthesis of novel rhamnolipids in Escherichia coli for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L; Liu, P; Peng, Y; Lin, J; Wang, Q; Ma, Y

    2014-07-01

    The interfacial tension of rhamnolipids and their applications in enhanced oil recovery are dependent on their chemical structures and compositions. To improve their performances of interfacial tension and enhanced oil recovery, the engineered strategies were applied to produce novel rhamnolipids with different chemical structures and compositions. By introducing different key genes for rhamnolipid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli was firstly constructed to produce rhamnolipids that showed different performances in interfacial tension from those from Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to the different fatty acyl compositions. Then, the mutant RhlBs were created by directed evolution and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis and resulted in the production of the novel rhamnolipids with the different performances in interfacial tension as well as enhanced oil recovery. Lastly, computational modelling elucidates that the single amino acid mutation at the position 168 in RhlB would change the volume of binding pocket for substrate and thus affect the selectivity of rhamnolipid formation in E. coli. The novel rhamnolipids that showed the improved performances of interfacial tension and the potential different applications in enhanced oil recovery were successfully produced by engineered E. coli. This study proved that the combination of metabolic engineering and protein engineering is an important engineered strategy to produce many novel metabolites in micro-organisms. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Is rhamnolipid biosurfactant useful in cadmium phytoextraction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jia; Stacey, Samuel P. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; McLaughlin, Mike J. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia); Kirby, Jason K. [CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Successful chelant-assisted phytoextraction requires application of an eco-friendly metal-complexing agent which enhances metal uptake but does not pose a significant risk of off-site movement of metals. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant has been used to enhance cadmium (Cd) removal from contaminated soil by washing. It has a strong affinity for Cd compared to some other hazardous metals, suggesting that rhamnolipid could be useful in Cd phytoextraction. This study investigated the potential use of rhamnolipid to enhance Cd phytoextraction. Adsorption patterns of rhamnolipid in soils were investigated by batch adsorption experiments. Hydrophobicity of rhamnolipid-metal complexes were determined by assessing partitioning in an octanol/water system. Phytotoxicity of rhamnolipid to maize (Zea mays) and chelant-assisted phytoextraction efficiency of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were determined in pot experiments. The results showed that rhamnolipid was prone to adsorb strongly to soil at low application rates (0.1-1.7 mM) possibly due to its hydrophobic interactions with soil organic matter, hence reducing its capacity to complex and transport metals to plant roots. Rhamnolipid mobility increased (i.e. decreased soil phase partitioning) at elevated concentrations ({proportional_to}4.4 mM), which increased soil solution Cd concentrations possibly due to its reduced hydrophobic nature. The use of rhamnolipid at concentrations >4.4 mM severely reduced maize biomass yield, reducing the potential for chelant-assisted phytoextraction. At lower concentrations of rhamnolipid (0.02-1.4 mmol/kg), there was insignificant enhancement of Cd accumulation by plant (Z. mays and H. annuus) shoots, likely through strong retention of the chelant (or Cd-associated rhamnolipid) on soil surfaces. High rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study caused severe phytotoxicity to maize and sunflower. Lower rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study did not improve Cd

  4. Burkholderia thailandensis harbors two identical rhl gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Donald E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhamnolipids are surface active molecules composed of rhamnose and β-hydroxydecanoic acid. These biosurfactants are produced mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and have been thoroughly investigated since their early discovery. Recently, they have attracted renewed attention because of their involvement in various multicellular behaviors. Despite this high interest, only very few studies have focused on the production of rhamnolipids by Burkholderia species. Results Orthologs of rhlA, rhlB and rhlC, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of rhamnolipids in P. aeruginosa, have been found in the non-infectious Burkholderia thailandensis, as well as in the genetically similar important pathogen B. pseudomallei. In contrast to P. aeruginosa, both Burkholderia species contain these three genes necessary for rhamnolipid production within a single gene cluster. Furthermore, two identical, paralogous copies of this gene cluster are found on the second chromosome of these bacteria. Both Burkholderia spp. produce rhamnolipids containing 3-hydroxy fatty acid moieties with longer side chains than those described for P. aeruginosa. Additionally, the rhamnolipids produced by B. thailandensis contain a much larger proportion of dirhamnolipids versus monorhamnolipids when compared to P. aeruginosa. The rhamnolipids produced by B. thailandensis reduce the surface tension of water to 42 mN/m while displaying a critical micelle concentration value of 225 mg/L. Separate mutations in both rhlA alleles, which are responsible for the synthesis of the rhamnolipid precursor 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxyalkanoic acid, prove that both copies of the rhl gene cluster are functional, but one contributes more to the total production than the other. Finally, a double ΔrhlA mutant that is completely devoid of rhamnolipid production is incapable of swarming motility, showing that both gene clusters contribute to this phenotype. Conclusions Collectively, these

  5. Biodiesel byproduct bioconversion to rhamnolipids: Upstream aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Bryam, Ana Maria; Lovaglio, Roberta Barros; Contiero, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on two important aspects of the upstream process: the appropriate use of crude glycerol as a low-cost carbon source, and strain selection. The effect of different crude glycerol concentrations on rhamnolipid biosynthesis by two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (wild type LBI and mutant LBI 2A1) was studied. Finally, the synthesized rhamnolipids were characterized by mass spectrometry. When both strains were compared, 50 g/L was the most favorable concentration for both, but P...

  6. Use of rhamnolipid biosurfactant for membrane biofouling prevention and cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lan Hee; Jung, Yongmoon; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Chang-Min; Yu, Hye-Weon; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, In S

    2015-01-01

    Rhamnolipids were evaluated as biofouling reducing agents in this study. The permeability of the bacterial outer membrane was increased by rhamnolipids while the growth rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not affected. The surface hydrophobicity was increased through the release of lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polymeric substances from the outer cell membrane. Rhamnolipids were evaluated as agents for the prevention and cleaning of biofilms. A high degree of biofilm detachment was observed when the rhamnolipids were used as a cleaning agent. In addition, effective biofilm reduction occurred when rhamnolipids were applied to various species of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater samples. Biofilm reduction using rhamnolipids was comparable to commercially available surfactants. In addition, 20% of the water flux was increased after rhamnolipid treatment (300 μg ml(-1), 6 h exposure time) in a dead-end filtration system. Rhamnolipids appear to have promise as biological agents for reducing membrane biofouling.

  7. Rhamnolipids from non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis E264: Physicochemical characterization, antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy against oral hygiene related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, Mohamed; Funston, Scott; Chebbi, Alif; Ahmed, Syed; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2017-05-25

    Biosurfactants are naturally occurring surface active compounds that have mainly been exploited for environmental applications and consumer products, with their biomedical efficacy an emerging area of research. Rhamnolipids area major group of biosurfactants that have been reported for their antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy. One of the main limiting factors for scaled up production and downstream applications of rhamnolipids is the fact that they are predominantly produced from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this article, we have reported the production and characterisation of long chain rhamnolipids from non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis E264 (ATCC 700388). We have also investigated the antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of these rhamnolipids against some oral pathogens (Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Neisseria mucosa and Streptococcus sanguinis), important for oral health and hygiene. Treating these bacteria with different concentrations of long chain rhamnolipids resulted in a reduction of 3-4 log of bacterial viability, placing these rhamnolipids close to being classified as biocidal. Investigating long chain rhamnolipid efficacy as antibiofilm agents for prospective oral-related applications revealed good potency against oral-bacteria biofilms in a co-incubation experiments, in a pre-coated surface format, in disrupting immature biofilms and has shown excellent combination effect with Lauryl Sodium Sulphate which resulted in a drastic decrease in its minimal inhibitory concentration against different bacteria. Investigating the rhamnolipid permeabilization effect along with their ability to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species has shed light on the mechanism through which inhibition/killing of bacteria may occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lizhong; Zhang Ming

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation

  9. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Ming [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zhangming@zju.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation.

  10. Fatty acid cosubstrates provide β-oxidation precursors for rhamnolipid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as evidenced by isotope tracing and gene expression assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Veres-Schalnat, Tracey A; Somogyi, Arpad; Pemberton, Jeanne E; Maier, Raina M

    2012-12-01

    Rhamnolipids have multiple potential applications as "green" surfactants for industry, remediation, and medicine. As a result, they have been intensively investigated to add to our understanding of their biosynthesis and improve yields. Several studies have noted that the addition of a fatty acid cosubstrate increases rhamnolipid yields, but a metabolic explanation has not been offered, partly because biosynthesis studies to date have used sugar or sugar derivatives as the carbon source. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of fatty acid cosubstrates in improving rhamnolipid biosynthesis. A combination of stable isotope tracing and gene expression assays was used to identify lipid precursors and potential lipid metabolic pathways used in rhamnolipid synthesis when fatty acid cosubstrates are present. To this end, we compared the rhamnolipids produced and their yields using either glucose alone or glucose and octadecanoic acid-d(35) as cosubstrates. Using a combination of sugar and fatty acids, the rhamnolipid yield was significantly higher (i.e., doubled) than when glucose was used alone. Two patterns of deuterium incorporation (either 1 or 15 deuterium atoms) in a single Rha-C(10) lipid chain were observed for octadecanoic acid-d(35) treatment, indicating that in the presence of a fatty acid cosubstrate, both de novo fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation are used to provide lipid precursors for rhamnolipids. Gene expression assays showed a 200- to 600-fold increase in the expression of rhlA and rhlB rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes and a more modest increase of 3- to 4-fold of the fadA β-oxidation pathway gene when octadecanoic acid was present. Taken together, these results suggest that the simultaneous use of de novo fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation pathways allows for higher production of lipid precursors, resulting in increased rhamnolipid yields.

  11. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: evolutionary implications, applications and future prospects from untapped marine resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, George Seghal; Ninawe, Arun Shivanth; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Pandian, Vijayalakshmi; Selvin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipid-biosurfactants are known to be produced by the genus Pseudomonas, however recent literature reported that rhamnolipids (RLs) are distributed among diverse microbial genera. To integrate the evolutionary implications of rhamnosyl transferase among various groups of microorganisms, a comprehensive comparative motif analysis was performed amongst bacterial producers. Findings on new RL-producing microorganism is helpful from a biotechnological perspective and to replace infective P. aeruginosa strains which ultimately ensure industrially safe production of RLs. Halotolerant biosurfactants are required for efficient bioremediation of marine oil spills. An insight on the exploitation of marine microbes as the potential source of RL biosurfactants is highlighted in the present review. An economic production process, solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial and industrial waste would increase the scope of biosurfactants commercialization. Potential and prospective applications of RL-biosurfactants including hydrocarbon bioremediation, heavy metal removal, antibiofilm activity/biofilm disruption and greener synthesis of nanoparticles are highlighted in this review.

  12. Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products.

  13. Effects of rhamnolipid biosurfactants on removal of phenanthrene from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Wouter H.; Ji, Wei; Brusseau, Mark L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    1998-01-01

    Solubilizing agents may enhance remediation of-soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants by diminishing sorption of the contaminants or increasing desorption rates. The effectiveness of rhamnolipid biosurfactants to enhance the removal of sorbed contaminants from soil was determined

  14. Aseptic hydroponics to assess rhamnolipid-Cd and rhamnolipid-Zn bioavailability for sunflower (Helianthus annuus): a phytoextraction mechanism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stacey, Samuel P; Kirby, Jason K

    2016-11-01

    The availability of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated in rhamnolipid- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-buffered solutions in order to evaluate the influence of aqueous speciation of the metals on their uptake by the plant, in relation to predictions of uptake by the free ion activity model (FIAM). Free metal ion activity was estimated using the chemical equilibrium program MINTEQ or measured by Donnan dialysis. The uptake of Cd followed the FIAM for the EDTA-buffered solution at EDTA concentrations below 0.4 μM; for the rhamnolipid-buffered solution, the uptake of both metals in roots was not markedly affected by increasing rhamnolipid concentrations in solution. This suggests rhamnolipid enhanced metal accumulation in plant roots (per unit free metal in solution) possibly through formation and uptake of lipophilic complexes. The addition of normal Ca concentrations (low millimetre range) to the rhamnolipid uptake solutions reduced Cd accumulation in shoots by inhibiting Cd translocation, whereas it significantly increased Zn accumulation in shoots. This study confirms that although rhamnolipid could enhance accumulation of Cd in plants roots at low Ca supply, it is not suitable for Cd phytoextraction in contaminated soil environments where Ca concentrations in soil solution are orders of magnitude greater than those of Cd.

  15. The anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid does not denature industrial enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Kvist Madsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants (BS are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. Their combination of useful properties and sustainable production make them promising industrial alternatives to petrochemical and oleochemical surfactants. Here we compare the impact of the anionic BS rhamnolipid (RL and the conventional/synthetic anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS on the structure and stability of three different commercially used enzymes, namely the cellulase Carezyme® (CZ, the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra® (LT and the α-amylase Stainzyme® (SZ. Our data reveal a fundamental difference in their mode of interaction. SDS shows great diversity of interaction towards the different enzymes. It efficiently unfolds both LT and CZ, but LT is unfolded by SDS through formation of SDS clusters on the protein well below the cmc, while CZ is only unfolded by bulk micelles and on average binds significantly less SDS than LT. SDS binds with even lower stoichiometry to SZ and leads to an increase in thermal stability. In contrast, RL does not affect the tertiary or secondary structure of any enzyme at room temperature, has little impact on thermal stability and only binds detectably (but at low stoichiometries to SZ. Furthermore all enzymes maintain activity at both monomeric and micellar concentrations of RL. We conclude that RL, despite its anionic charge, is a surfactant that does not compromise the structural integrity of industrially relevant proteins. This makes RL a promising alternative to current synthetic anionic surfactants in a wide range of commercial applications.

  16. Effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shudong; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Zhang, Cong; Zhao, Dongwei; Li, Yiming; Sun, Peiyan; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria, Bacillus Lz-2, was isolated from oil polluted water collected from Dongying Shengli oilfield, China. The factors that influence PAH solubilization such as biosurfactant concentration, pH, ionic strength and temperature were discussed. The results showed that the solubilities of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene increased linearly with the rise of rhamnolipid biosurfactant dose above the biosurfactant critical micelle concentration (CMC). Furthermore, the molar solubilization ratio (MSR) values decreased in the following order: naphthalene>phenanthrene>pyrene. However, the solubility percentage increased and followed the opposite order: pyrene>phenanthrene>naphthalene. The solubilities of PAHs in rhamnolipid biosurfactant solution increased with the rise of pH and ionic strength, and reached the maximum values under the conditions of pH11 and NaCl concentration 8 g · L(-1). The solubility of phenanthrene and pyrene increased with the rise of temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbohydrate-based renewable biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, and novel liamocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  18. An Interaction of Rhamnolipids with Cu2+ Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cieśla

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the description of interaction between Cu2+ ions and the 1:1 mono- and dirhamnolipid mixtures in the premicellar and aggregated state in water and 20 mM KCl solution at pH 5.5 and 6.0. The critical micelle concentration of biosurfactants was determined conductometrically and by the pH measurements. Hydrodynamic diameter and electrophoretic mobility were determined in micellar solutions using dynamic light scattering and laser Doppler electrophoresis, respectively. The copper immobilization by rhamnolipids, methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA was estimated potentiometrically for the Cu2+ to chelating agent molar ratio from 16:100 to 200:100. The degree of ion binding and the complex stability constant were calculated at a 1:1 metal to chelant molar ratio. The aggregates of rhamnolipids (diameter of 43–89 nm were negatively charged. Biosurfactants revealed the best chelating activities in premicellar solutions. For all chelants studied the degree of metal binding decreased with the increasing concentration of the systems. The presence of K+ lowered Cu2+ binding by rhamnolipids, but did not modify the complex stability significantly. Immobilization of Cu2+ by biosurfactants did not cause such an increase of acidification as that observed in MGDA and EDTA solutions. Rhamnolipids, even in the aggregated form, can be an alternative for the classic chelating agents.

  19. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR. PMID:27872613

  20. Rhamnolipids produced by indigenous Acinetobacter junii from petroleum reservoir and its potential in enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS. The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9 and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  1. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C 26 H 48 O 9 , C 28 H 52 O 9 , and C 32 H 58 O 13 . The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO 3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  2. A Genealogy of (post-Soviet Dependency: Disabling Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Hartblay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Fraser and Linda Gordon's 1994 article “A Genealogy of Dependency: Tracing a Keyword of the US Welfare State” explored the historical emergence of "dependency" as a moral category of post-industrial American state. In this article, I engage their framework to explore the genealogy of dependency in America's post-industrial sister, the post-Soviet Russian Federation. I also add disability as a core element of 'dependency' that was largely absent from Fraser and Gordon's original analysis. Considering cross-cultural translation, I ask how Russian deployments of three words that all relate to a concept of interdependence align with and depart from American notions of dependency, and trace historical configurations of the Soviet welfare state vis-a-vis disability. To do so, I draw on historical and cultural texts, linguistic comparisons, secondary sources, and ethnographic research. Given this analysis, I argue that rather than a Cold War interpretation of the Soviet Union and the US as oppositional superpowers in the 20th century, a liberatory disability studies framework suggests that in the postindustrial era the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as dual regimes of productivity. I suggest that reframing postsocialism as a global condition helps us to shift considerations of disability justice from a critique of capitalism to a critique of productivity.    Keywords: dependency, disability, citizenship, russia, productivity

  3. Electron microscopy of rhamnolipid (biosurfactant) morphology: Effects of pH, cadmium, and octadecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, J.T.; Gilkey, J.C.; Lamparski, H.; Retterer, J.; Miller, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    A rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 is reported to increase the aqueous dispersion and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and to complex heavy metals. These reports indicate the potential for application of rhamnolipids in remediation of contaminated sites. Effective use of rhamnolipids will require understanding of rhamnolipid morphology and the effects of pH and organic and inorganic contaminants on that morphology. The authors used cryo-transmission electron microscopy to investigate the morphology of vitrified, frozen hydrated suspensions of rhamnolipid over a pH range of 5.5 to 8.0, and to determine the effect of a model alkane, octadecane, and a model heavy metal, cadmium, on rhamnolipid morphology. Micrographs clearly showed that rhamnolipid morphology was a function of pH, changing from lamellar, to vesicular, to micellar as pH increased. The effect of cadmium and octadecane on rhamnolipid morphology was determined at pH 6.8 and 7.0, where maximum cadmium complexation and maximum octadecane dispersion occurs. Cadmium seemed to stabilize rhamnolipid vesicle structures as shown by an increase in vesicle number and a decrease in vesicle diameter. In contrast, octadecane favored the micellar structure as shown by the complete absence of vesicles

  4. On the production of clandestine dis/abled bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Tzokas, Spyros; Tympas, Aristotle

    paper makes a notice of this literature but moves on to discuss the co-production of technological borders and migrants with dis/abilities. In this case, dis/ability may be a cause or consequence of migration, and may become a barrier to both accessing protection and to entering a country. Nonetheless...... of policing technologies, repressive techniques and military technics. Instead, however, of staying at the technology of a fast patrolling boat with electronic eyes, we move on to show how exactly this EU electronic boat has clashed with a humble migrant floating device. We are interested...

  5. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  6. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956. The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  7. Rhamnolipids and lactonic sophorolipids: natural antimicrobial surfactants for oral hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, M; Moya-Ramírez, I; Moens, H; Roelants, S; Soetaert, W; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2017-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of rhamnolipid (mixture of monorhamnolipid and dirhamnolipid congeners), purified monorhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid and lactonic sophorolipid biosurfactants against pathogens important for oral hygiene. Acquired and produced biosurfactants were fully characterized to allow the antimicrobial activity to be assigned to the biosurfactant congeners. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the resazurin-aided microdilution method. Mixed rhamnolipid JBR425 (MR) and lactonic sophorolipids (LSLs) demonstrated the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) which ranged between 100 and 400 μg ml -1 against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Neisseria mucosa and Streptococcus sanguinis. Combining these biosurfactants with standard antimicrobial agents namely chlorhexidine, sodium lauryl sulphate, tetracycline HCl and ciprofloxacin showed a dramatic drop in the MIC values. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated the biosurfactants' ability to prevent and disrupt oral pathogens biofilms. The increased permeability of microorganisms treated with biosurfactant, as shown using bisbenzimide dye, in part explains the inhibition effect. The results demonstrate that rhamnolipids and LSLs have the ability to inhibit oral pathogens both in planktonic and oral biofilm states. The findings indicate the potential value of biosurfactants for both oral hygiene and the pharmaceutical industries since there is a serious need to reduce the reliance on synthetic antimicrobials and antibiotics. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Adaptive Significance of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation of Rhamnolipids by Integration of Growth Rate in Burkholderia glumae: A Trade-Off between Survival and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent mechanism which enables a population of bacteria to coordinate cooperative behaviors in response to the accumulation of self-produced autoinducer signals in their local environment. An emerging framework is that the adaptive significance of QS in the regulation of production of costly extracellular metabolites ("public goods") is to maintain the homeostasis of cooperation. We investigated this model using the phytopathogenic bacterium Burkholderia glumae, which we have previously demonstrated uses QS to regulate the production of rhamnolipids, extracellular surface-active glycolipids promoting the social behavior called "swarming motility." Using mass spectrometric quantification and chromosomal lux-based gene expression, we made the unexpected finding that when unrestricted nutrient resources are provided, production of rhamnolipids is carried out completely independently of QS regulation. This is a unique observation among known QS-controlled factors in bacteria. On the other hand, under nutrient-limited conditions, QS then becomes the main regulating mechanism, significantly enhancing the specific rhamnolipids yield. Accordingly, decreasing nutrient concentrations amplifies rhamnolipid biosynthesis gene expression, revealing a system where QS-dependent regulation is specifically triggered by the growth rate of the population, rather than by its cell density. Furthermore, a gradual increase in QS signal specific concentration upon decrease of specific growth rate suggests a reduction in quorum threshold, which reflects an increase in cellular demand for production of QS-dependent target gene product at low density populations. Integration of growth rate with QS as a decision-making mechanism for biosynthesis of costly metabolites, such as rhamnolipids, could serve to assess the demand and timing for expanding the carrying capacity of a population through spatial expansion mechanisms, such as swarming motility, thus

  9. Sorption and desorption of 17α-ethinylestradiol onto sediments affected by rhamnolipidic biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Ping; Hu, Yong-You; Lin, Hui; Ou, Xue-Lian

    2018-02-15

    Many studies have addressed the desorption and mobilization performances of sorbed contaminants affected by different rhamnolipidic biosurfactants. Study results have been mixed and complicated. Rhamnolipids are always microbial produced with variable homologues. In this study, two representative rhamnolipidic fractions (i.e., RL-F1 and RL-F2, which are mono- and di-rhamnolipids, respectively) were investigated and compared to determine their influence on 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) distribution within sediment-water sorption and desorption systems. In general, the coexistence of RL-F1 and EE2 enhanced EE2 sorption in a wider monorhamnolipidic dosage range when freshly treated sorbate was used. The sorbed EE2 concentration decreased as the RL-F1 dosage increased in the aged sorbate desorption systems. However, RL-F2 facilitated EE2 mobilization in both sorption and desorption processes. Experimental data were estimated using a conceptual model that considered the sorbed rhamnolipids and aqueous micelles for organic partitioning. The model results indicated that the rhamnolipid type is an important factor influencing organic distribution, in addition to sorbate aging process and sediment characteristics. The use of a rhamnolipidic mixture containing both mono- and di-rhamnosyl components may not achieve the desired effect when the biosurfactant-enhanced mobilization or immobilization approach is selected. These results are significant for selecting and applying rhamnolipids to remediate contaminants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of Rhamnolipid and Microbial Inoculants on the Vermicomposting of Green Waste with Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoqiang; Wei, Le; Yu, Xin; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Wang, Xinyu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of adding the biosurfactant rhamnolipid, the lignolytic and cellulolytic fungus Phanerochete chrysosporium, and the free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chrococcum on vermicomposting of green waste with Eisenia fetida was investigated. The addition of rhamnolipid and/or either microorganism alone or in all combinations significantly increased E. fetida growth rate, the number of E. fetida juveniles and cocoons, the population densities of cellulolytic fungi and Azotobacter bacteria, and cellulase and urease activities in the vermicomposts. The quality of the final vermicompost (in terms of electrical conductivity, nutrient content, C/N ratio, humic acid content, lignin and cellulose contents, and phytotoxicity to germinating seeds) was enhanced by addition of rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms. The physical characteristics of vermicomposts produced with rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms were acceptable for agricultural application. The best quality vermicompost was obtained with the combined addition of P. chrysosporium, A. chrococcum, and rhamnolipid.

  11. Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a novel isolate from Malabari goat produces an efficient rhamnolipid type biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priji, Prakasan; Sajith, Sreedharan; Unni, Kizhakkepowathial Nair; Anderson, Robin C; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of a biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a rumen bacterium, and optimization of parameters required for its production. Initial screening of five parameters (pH, temperature, agitation, incubation, and substrate concentration) was carried out employing Plackett-Burman design, which reduced the number of parameters to 3 (pH, temperature, and incubation) according to their significance on the yield of biosurfactant. A suitable statistical model for the production of biosurfactant by Pseudomonas sp. BUP6 was established according to Box-Behnken design, which resulted in 11% increase (at pH 7, 35 °C, incubation 75 h) in the yield (2070 mg L -1 ) of biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found stable at a wide range of pH (3-9) with 48 mg L -1 critical micelle concentration; and maintained over 90% of its emulsification ability even after boiling and in presence of sodium chloride (0.5%). The highest cell hydrophobicity (37%) and emulsification (69%) indices were determined with groundnut oil and kerosene, respectively. The biosurfactant was found to inhibit the growth and adhesion of E. coli and S. aureus significantly. From the phytotoxicity studies, the biosurfactant did not show any adverse effect on the germinating seeds of rice and green gram. The structural characterization of biosurfactant employing orcinol method, thin layer chromatography and FT-IR indicated that it is a rhamnolipid (glycolipid). Thus, Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a novel isolate from Malabari goat is demonstrated as a producer of an efficient rhamnolipid type biosurfactant suitable for application in various industries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Colloidal silver nanoparticles/rhamnolipid (SNPRL) composite as novel chemotactic antibacterial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, P; Saikia, J P; Paul, S; Konwar, B K

    2013-10-01

    The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles and rhamnolipid are well known individually. In the present research, antibacterial and chemotactic activity due to colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP), rhamnolipid (RL) and silver nanoparticles/rhamnolipid composite (SNPRL) were evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC3160), Escherichia coli (MTCC40), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC8163) and Bacillus subtilis (MTCC441) as test strains. Further, the SNPRL nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation clearly indicates that SNPRL shows prominent antibacterial and chemotactic activity in comparison to all of its individual precursor components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants as New Players in Animal and Plant Defense against Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Baillieul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnolipids are known as very efficient biosurfactant molecules. They are used in a wide range of industrial applications including food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical formulations and bioremediation of pollutants. The present review provides an overview of the effect of rhamnolipids in animal and plant defense responses. We describe the current knowledge on the stimulation of plant and animal immunity by these molecules, as well as on their direct antimicrobial properties. Given their ecological acceptance owing to their low toxicity and biodegradability, rhamnolipids have the potential to be useful molecules in medicine and to be part of alternative strategies in order to reduce or replace pesticides in agriculture.

  14. Enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut husk through Pseudomonas aeruginosa AP 029/GLVIIA rhamnolipid preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Cynthia Kérzia Costa; de Oliveira Campos, Alan; de Araújo Padilha, Carlos Eduardo; de Sousa Júnior, Francisco Canindé; do Nascimento, Ruthinéia Jéssica Alves; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Everaldo Silvino

    2017-08-01

    This work investigated the influence of chemical (Triton X-100) and biological surfactant preparation (rhamnolipids) in coconut husk hydrolysis that was subjected to pretreatment with acid-alkali or alkaline hydrogen peroxide. The natural and pretreated biomass was characterized using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory protocol analysis as well as X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that in terms of the total reducing sugars, there was no significant difference between the hydrolysis using Triton X-100 and rhamnolipids, regardless of the pretreatment. A cellulosic conversion value as high as 33.0% was obtained in experiments with rhamnolipids. The coconut husk was observed to be a potential biomass that could produce second generation ethanol, and the rhamnolipid preparation can be used to support for the enzymatic hydrolysis, enhancing the advantage of cellulose conversion into glucose over chemical surfactants because it is an environmentally friendly approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Uranium Leaching from Contaminated Soil Utilizing Rhamnolipid, EDTA, and Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Asselin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants have recently gained attention as “green” agents that can be used to enhance the remediation of heavy metals and some organic matter in contaminated soils. The overall objective of this paper was to investigate rhamnolipid, a microbial produced biosurfactant, and its ability to leach uranium present in contaminated soil from an abandoned mine site. Soil samples were collected from two locations in northern Arizona: Cameron (site of open pit mining and Leupp (control—no mining. The approach taken was to first determine the total uranium content in each soil using a hydrofluoric acid digestion, then comparing the amount of metal removed by rhamnolipid to other chelating agents EDTA and citric acid, and finally determining the amount of soluble metal in the soil matrix using a sequential extraction. Results suggested a complex system for metal removal from soil utilizing rhamnolipid. It was determined that rhamnolipid at a concentration of 150 μM was as effective as EDTA but not as effective as citric acid for the removal of soluble uranium. However, the rhamnolipid was only slightly better at removing uranium from the mining soil compared to a purified water control. Overall, this study demonstrated that rhamnolipid ability to remove uranium from contaminated soil is comparable to EDTA and to a lesser extent citric acid, but, for the soils investigated, it is not significantly better than a simple water wash.

  16. Dual partitioning and attachment effects of rhamnolipid on pyrene biodegradation under bioavailability restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congiu, Eleonora; Parsons, John R.; Ortega-Calvo, José-Julio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different bioavailability scenarios on the rhamnolipid-enhanced biodegradation of pyrene by the representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrader Mycobacterium gilvum VM552. This biosurfactant enhanced biodegradation when pyrene was provided in the form of solid crystals; no effect was observed when the same amount of the chemical was preloaded on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). An enhanced effect was observed when pyrene was sorbed into soil but not with the dissolved compound. Synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and liquid scintillation were used to determine the phase exchange of pyrene. We also investigated the phase distribution of bacteria. Our results suggest that the rhamnolipid can enhance the biodegradation of pyrene by micellar solubilization and increase diffusive uptake. These mechanisms increase substrate acquisition by bacterial cells at exposure concentrations well above the half-saturation constant for active uptake. The moderate solubilization of pyrene from PDMS by the rhamnolipid and the prevention of cell attachment may explain the lack of enhancement for pyrene-preloaded PDMS. - Highlights: • Rhamnolipid biosurfactant can enhance the biodegradation of pyrene. • The enhancement depends on how the bacteria are exposed to the pollutant. • Rhamnolipid stimulates if pyrene is provided by dissolution from crystals. • No effect is observed if pyrene is provided by partitioning from a silicone polymer. • This lack of effect is due to the balance between enhanced dissolution and decreased cell attachment. - Rhamnolipid-enhanced biodegradation of pyrene may depend on the exposure regime. Moderate solubilization from difficult matrices and prevention of cell attachment may have no effect

  17. Mechanisms of the stimulatory effects of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on rice straw hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; He, Guofu; Xu, Yatong [Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Putuo District, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang, Juan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Cai, Weimin [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant, as an addition to rice straw hydrolysis bioprocess, could not only stimulate the hydrolysis rate, but also reduce the requirement for large amount of cellulases and promote its recycling process. In this article, through the observation of the changes of cellulases, microorganism, substrate and their mutual functions, the mechanisms of the stimulatory effect of rhamnolipid on rice straw hydrolysis were investigated. The study found that the addition of rhamnolipid increases the activity of {beta}-glucosidase but stabilizes Cel7A activity. The observed results might be the main mechanisms triggering the stimulatory effect of adding biosurfactants on rice straw hydrolysis. Meanwhile, zeta potential of the substrate increased, which could make the resistance of the cell attached to the substrate weaker. This in turn could facilitate easy adhesion and better retention of the microbial cell in the media. Moreover, we discovered that lignin content played an important role in the stimulatory effect of adding rhamnolipid. The adsorption of rhamnolipid biosurfactant prevented unproductive binding of enzymes to lignin. This could be another important mechanism responsible for the stimulatory effects of adding rhamnolipid on rice straw hydrolysis. (author)

  18. Optimization and modification of the method for detection of rhamnolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tabuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of biosurfactants in bioremediation, facilitates and accelerates microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. CTAB/MB agar method created by Siegmund & Wagner for screening of rhamnolipids (RL producing strains, has been widely used but has not improved significantly for more than 20 years. To optimize the technique as a quantitative method, CTAB/MB agar plates were made and different variables were tested, like incubation time, cooling, CTAB concentration, methylene blue presence, wells diameter and inocula volume. Furthermore, a new method for RL detection within halos was developed: precipitation of RL with HCl, allows the formation a new halos pattern, easier to observe and to measure. This research reaffirm that this method is not totally suitable for a fine quantitative analysis, because of the difficulty to accurately correlate RL concentration and the area of the halos. RL diffusion does not seem to have a simple behavior and there are a lot of factors that affect RL migration rate.

  19. Interpreting wage gaps of disabled men: the roles of productivity and discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Nicoletti, Cheti; Platt, Lucinda

    2010-01-01

    Using the UK Labour Force Survey, we study wage gaps for disabled men after the introduction of the Disability Discrimination Act. We estimate wage gaps at the mean and at different quantiles of the wage distribution, and decompose them into the part explained by differences in workers' and job characteristics, the part that can be ascribed to health-related reduced productivity, and a residual part which we can more confidently interpret as discrimination. For physically disabled workers, mo...

  20. Mass spectrometric study of rhamnolipid biosurfactants and their interactions with cell membrane phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashynska V. A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the formation of supramolecular complexes of biogenous rhamnolipids with membrane phospholipids that is considered as a molecular mechanism of the biosurfactants antimicrobial action. Method. In the present work rhamnolipid biosurfactant samples produced by Pseudomonas sp. PS-17 strain have been investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the first time. Results. As a result of the study, characteristic mass spectra of the rhamnolipid samples were obtained, that can be used as reference spectra for mass spectrometric identification of the compounds in any biological or industrial samples. At the next stage of the experiments the pair systems, containing the biosurfactants and a membrane phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, have been tested. The cationized noncovalent complexes of the rhamnolipids with the phospholipid were observed in the spectra. Conclusions. The results obtained testify to the consideration that rhamnolipids (similar to other membranotropic agents can form stable supramolecular complexes with membrane phospholipids that are able to evoke the biosurfactants antimicrobial action. A great potential of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the biosurfactants identification and study has been demonstrated in the work.

  1. Characterization of rhamnolipids by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Beate; Engelen, Jeannine; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars Mathias; Hayen, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are surface-active agents with a broad application potential that are produced in complex mixtures by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis from fermentation broth is often characterized by laborious sample preparation and requires hyphenated analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to obtain detailed information about sample composition. In this study, an analytical procedure based on chromatographic method development and characterization of rhamnolipid sample material by LC-MS as well as a comparison of two sample preparation methods, i.e., liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, is presented. Efficient separation was achieved under reversed-phase conditions using a mixed propylphenyl and octadecylsilyl-modified silica gel stationary phase. LC-MS/MS analysis of a supernatant from Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 pVLT33_rhlABC grown on glucose as sole carbon source and purified by solid-phase extraction revealed a total of 20 congeners of di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their biosynthetic precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) with different carbon chain lengths from C8 to C14, including three rhamnolipids with uncommon C9 and C11 fatty acid residues. LC-MS and the orcinol assay were used to evaluate the developed solid-phase extraction method in comparison with the established liquid-liquid extraction. Solid-phase extraction exhibited higher yields and reproducibility as well as lower experimental effort.

  2. Synthesis of rhamnolipid biosurfactant and mode of hexadecane uptake by Pseudomonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pooja

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms have devised ways by which they increase the bioavailability of many water immiscible substrates whose degradation rates are limited by their low water solubility. Hexadecane is one such water immiscible hydrocarbon substrate which forms an important constituent of oil. One major mechanism employed by hydrocarbon degrading organisms to utilize such substrates is the production of biosurfactants. However, much of the overall mechanism by which such organisms utilize hydrocarbon substrate still remains a mystery. Results With an aim to gain more insight into hydrocarbon uptake mechanism, an efficient biosurfactant producing and n-hexadecane utilizing Pseudomonas sp was isolated from oil contaminated soil which was found to produce rhamnolipid type of biosurfactant containing a total of 13 congeners. Biosurfactant action brought about the dispersion of hexadecane to droplets smaller than 0.22 μm increasing the availability of the hydrocarbon to the degrading organism. Involvement of biosurfactant was further confirmed by electron microscopic studies. Biosurfactant formed an emulsion with hexadecane thereby facilitating increased contact between hydrocarbon and the degrading bacteria. Interestingly, it was observed that "internalization" of "biosurfactant layered hydrocarbon droplet" was taking place suggesting a mechanism similar in appearance to active pinocytosis, a fact not earlier visually reported in bacterial systems for hydrocarbon uptake. Conclusion This study throws more light on the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We report here a new and exciting line of research for hydrocarbon uptake involving internalization of biosurfactant covered hydrocarbon inside cell for subsequent breakdown.

  3. Application of biosurfactants, rhamnolipid, and surfactin, for enhanced biodegradation of diesel-contaminated water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen G; Ma, Chih-Chung; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2008-02-28

    This study investigated potential application of two biosurfactants, surfactin (SF) and rhamnolipid (RL), for enhanced biodegradation of diesel-contaminated water and soil with a series of bench-scale experiments. The rhamnolipid used in this study, a commonly isolated glycolipid biosurfactant, was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa J4, while the surfactin, a lipoprotein type biosurfactant, was produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. Both biosurfactants were able to reduce surface tension to less than 30 dynes/cm from 72 dynes/cm with critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of 45 and 50 mg/L for surfactin and rhamnolipid, respectively. In addition, the results of diesel dissolution experiments also demonstrated their ability in increasing diesel solubility with increased biosurfactant addition. In diesel/water batch experiments, an addition of 40 mg/L of surfactin significantly enhanced biomass growth (2500 mg VSS/L) as well as increased diesel biodegradation percentage (94%), compared to batch experiments with no surfactin addition (1000 mg VSS/L and 40% biodegradation percentage). Addition of surfactin more than 40 mg/L, however, decreased both biomass growth and diesel biodegradation efficiency, with a worse diesel biodegradation percentage (0%) at 400 mg/L of SF addition. Similar trends were also observed for both specific rate constants of biomass growth and diesel degradation, as surfactin addition increased from 0 to 400 mg/L. Addition of rhamnolipid to diesel/water systems from 0 to 80 mg/L substantially increased biomass growth and diesel biodegradation percentage from 1000 to 2500 mg VSS/L and 40 to 100%, respectively. Rhamnolipid addition at a concentration of 160 mg/L provided similar results to those of an 80 mg/L addition. Finally, potential application of surfactin and rhamnolipid in stimulating indigenous microorganisms for enhanced bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil was also examined. The results confirmed their enhancing capability

  4. Parameters examination of a biosurfactant production at laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosero, Neira Gladys; Pimienta, Astrid Lorely; Dugarte, Fanny; Carvajal, Fredy Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the laboratory-scale experimentation for the optimization of production of rhamnolipid type biosurfactant in a batch process, through the calculation and analysis of yield parameters. Different carbon/nitrogen ratios were studied, for which the production rates of rhamnolipid under nitrogen limitation was defined. Bacterial growth yield parameters Y X/N and Y X/C , were also calculated

  5. High performance liquid chromatography-charged aerosol detection applying an inverse gradient for quantification of rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Beate; Baune, Matthias; Jungkeit, Janek; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars M; Hayen, Heiko

    2016-07-15

    A method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to charged-aerosol detection (HPLC-CAD) was developed for the quantification of rhamnolipid biosurfactants. Qualitative sample composition was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The relative quantification of different derivatives of rhamnolipids including di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) differed for two compared LC-MS instruments and revealed instrument dependent responses. Our here reported HPLC-CAD method provides uniform response. An inverse gradient was applied for the absolute quantification of rhamnolipid congeners to account for the detector's dependency on the solvent composition. The CAD produces a uniform response not only for the analytes but also for structurally different (nonvolatile) compounds. It was demonstrated that n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside or deoxycholic acid can be used as alternative standards. The method of HPLC-ultra violet (UV) detection after a derivatization of rhamnolipids and HAAs to their corresponding phenacyl esters confirmed the obtained results but required additional, laborious sample preparation steps. Sensitivity determined as limit of detection and limit of quantification for four mono-rhamnolipids was in the range of 0.3-1.0 and 1.2-2.0μg/mL, respectively, for HPLC-CAD and 0.4 and 1.5μg/mL, respectively, for HPLC-UV. Linearity for HPLC-CAD was at least 0.996 (R(2)) in the calibrated range of about 1-200μg/mL. Hence, the here presented HPLC-CAD method allows absolute quantification of rhamnolipids and derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Mono and Di-rhamnolipids on Biofilms Pre-formed by Bacillus subtilis BBK006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Martin, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Different microbial inhibition strategies based on the planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilms communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms. In this work, we explore the aspects of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 biofilms and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (rhamnolipids) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006. The ability of mono-rhamnolipids (Rha-C10-C10) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and the di-rhamnolipids (Rha-Rha-C14-C14) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis E264, and phosphate-buffered saline to disrupt biofilm of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was evaluated. The biofilm produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was more sensitive to the di-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis than the mono-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. Rhamnolipids are biologically produced compounds safe for human use. This makes them ideal candidates for use in new generations of bacterial dispersal agents and useful for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies.

  7. Effect of adding low-concentration of rhamnolipid on reactor performances and microbial community evolution in MBBRs for low C/N ratio and antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pengcheng; Huang, Hui; Ren, Hongqiang

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of low-concentration of rhamnolipid in efficient treatment of wastewater with poor biodegradability. Six lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were applied to investigate the effect of rhamnolipid concentration (0, 20, 50 mg/L) on pollutants removal, biomass accumulation, microbial morphology and community evolution in synthetic low C/N ratio (3:1) and antibiotic (50 μg/L tetracycline) wastewater. 20 mg/L rhamnolipid treated groups exhibited significant increase (p poorly biodegradable wastewater by biofilm process with moderate amount of rhamnolipid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production-orientated education and training of the mentally disabled in sheltered employment (PIONIER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicker, A; Schneider, S

    2000-03-10

    The development and realization of a production-orientated education and training system for mentally disabled people in sheltered employment in the course of the project PIONIER. It focuses on the metal and electronic branches of a workshop with a mentally disabled workforce in Alsdorf, Germany. For the development of the modules an assessment tool called MELBA was used to determine the abilities of the disabled people and the requirements of the tasks. Methods for the collection of this information was: observation, questionnaires and documents. Three months after the introduction of educational measures the improvements of the capacity for learning and education of disabled persons was visible. In the same way the development of their self-reliance and social abilities was recorded. The metal working branch was capable of fulfilling every task with respect to quality issues and within set delivery times. The electro working branch was accomplished enough to create new workplaces and to get orders from the computer industry. By the use of a qualification system like PIONIER the tasks of the disabled employees have been enlarged and enriched. In order to cope with the increase competition sheltered workshops have to realize new ways of vocational training for mentally disabled employees.

  9. Knowledge Citizens? Intellectual Disability and the Production of Social Meanings within Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Intellectual disability may appear to many as a barrier to participation in or the production of educational research. Indeed, a common perception of individuals seen as having cognitive impairments, and especially those with minimal or no verbal communication, is that they are incapable of the reasoning or lack the deliberative capacities…

  10. Fluorescence of tautomeric forms of curcumin in different pH and biosurfactant rhamnolipids systems: Application towards on-off ratiometric fluorescence temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Zeinab; Chebl, Mazhar; Patra, Digambara

    2017-08-01

    Medicinal properties of curcumin are widely getting realized. For its applicability as a hydrophobic drug molecule and food spice interaction of curcumin with rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, bears importance. Here we have explored interaction of curcumin with rhamnolipids biosurfactant and its aggregation behavior. The impact of pH on critical micelle concentration (cmc) of rhamnolipids has been studied using fluorescence of curcumin and found that cmc of rhamnolipids increases with increase in pH of the medium. In acidic, neutral and slightly alkaline medium (pH8), at λ ex =355nm (for β-diketone form) curcumin undergoes excited state hydrogen transfer (ESHT) and emits solely from enol form both in the presence and absence of rhamnolipids, but first time we report that in extreme alkaline condition, at pH13, at λ ex =355nm curcumin emits from both β-diketone as well as enolic ESHT forms in absence of rhamnolipids but in the presence of rhamnolipids β-diketone is stabilized and the emission solely comes from β-diketone by completely revoking ESHT process. Fluorescence quenching by hydrophobic cetylpyridinium bromide confirms curcumin penetrates deep inside the hydrophobic pocket of rhamnolipid aggregates/micelle by reducing the distance between N + -atom of pyridinium ion and curcumin. On the other hand hydrophobic molecule like pyrene stays near to the Stern layer of rhamnolipids facilitating electron transfer from pyrene to N + -atom of pyridinium ion. Even in neutral condition, in the presence of rhamnolipids the β-diketone form, though in small proportions, can be stabilized in higher temperature in expense of enolic ESHT form, thus, offering an on off ratiometric fluorescence temperature sensing in solution, which bears significance as ratiometric probe molecules. Interaction of curcumin with rhamnolipids stabilizes curcumin in acidic, neutral and moderate alkaline condition but fails at extreme pH13. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy for studying structure and aging effects in rhamnolipid biosurfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Johannes; Radzuan, Mohd Nazren; Winterburn, James

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by microorganisms and represent amphiphilic compounds with polar and non-polar moieties; hence they can be used to stabilize emulsions, e.g. in the cosmetic and food sectors. Their structure and its changes when exposed to light and elevated temperature are yet to be fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is a useful tool for the analysis of biosurfactants, using rhamnolipids produced by ferme...

  12. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzi; Xiang, Hai; Zhang, Guoliang; Cao, Xia; Meng, Qing

    2009-08-15

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O&G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O&G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O&G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O&G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12h was required for removing approximately 95% of O&G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  13. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongzi; Xiang Hai; Zhang Guoliang; Cao Xia; Meng Qing

    2009-01-01

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O and G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O and G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O and G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O and G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12 h was required for removing approximately 95% of O and G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  14. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tao; Ying, Rongrong; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Shengtian; Li, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Yusuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils. PMID:26087302

  15. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant against Fusarium sacchari--the causal organism of pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debahuti; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Deka, Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane caused by the fungus Fusarium sacchari results considerable damage to the crop leading to top rot, the most serious and advanced stage of pokkah boeng, where the growing point is killed and the entire top of the plant dies. In the present study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant as an antifungal agent against F. sacchari to control pokkah boeng disease was investigated. On the basis of surface tension reduction, 12 bacterial isolates were selected as potent biosurfactant producers and eight of them showed antagonistic effect against F. sacchari. Among the eight, the isolate DS9 was found as the effective inhibitor of the fungus in vitro which was further evaluated using its biosurfactant present in whole culture, cell-free culture supernatant and crude biosurfactant at various concentrations. Reductions of fungal growths were found more with crude biosurfactant. By sequencing 16S rRNA, DS9 was identified as P. aeruginosa and the produced biosurfactant was characterized as rhamnolipid by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant inhibits phytopathogenic fungi F. sacchari and therefore seems to be a good biocontrol agent to control pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Core Flood study for enhanced oil recovery through ex-situ bioaugmentation with thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) employing core field model ex-situ bioaugmenting a thermo- and halo-tolerant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) revealed that the biosurfactant produced was rhamnolipid type. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis showed that the purified rhamnolipids comprised two principal rhamnolipid homologues, i.e., Rha-Rha-C10-C14:1 and Rha-C8-C10. The rhamnolipid was stable under wide range of temperature (4°C, 30-100°C), pH (2.0-10.0) and NaCl concentration (0-18%, w/v). Core Flood model was designed for oil recovery operations using rhamnolipid. The oil recovery enhancement over Residual Oil Saturation was 8.82% through ex-situ bioaugmentation with rhamnolipid. The thermal stability of rhamnolipid shows promising scope for its application at conditions where high temperatures prevail in oil recovery processes, whereas its halo-tolerant nature increases its application in marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fair opportunities, social productivity and wellbeing in disability: Towards a theoretical foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Fekete, Christine

    2016-06-13

    Theory-based approaches provide explanations of the impact of components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) classification on outcomes such as health and wellbeing. Here, one such approach is proposed, focusing on social participation and its association with wellbeing. In addition to elaborating a theoretical approach, a narrative review of research on labour market participation of persons with severe disability, spinal cord injury, is conducted to illustrate the utility of the proposed approach. Availability and good quality of productive activities, in particular paid work, are expected to improve wellbeing by strengthening favourable experiences of personal control and social recognition. As these opportunities are restricted among persons with disabilities, conditions that enable full social participation need to be strengthened. Research identified several such conditions at the individual (e.g. coping, social support, educational skills) and the contextual socio-political level (e.g. quality of care, medical and vocational rehabilitation), although their potential of improving wellbeing has not yet been sufficiently explored. In conclusion, supplementing the established ICF classification by theory-based approaches may advance explanations of adverse effects of reduced functioning and wellbeing in disability. This new knowledge can guide the development of interventions to improve participation in general and social productivity in particular.

  18. Effects of rhamnolipid and initial compost particle size on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a potential alternative to green waste incineration or deposition in landfills. The effects of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) (at 0.0%, 0.15%, and 0.30%) and initial compost particle size (IPS) (10, 15, and 25 mm) on a new, two-stage method for composting green waste was investigated. A combination of RL addition and IPS adjustment improved the quality of the finished compost in terms of its physical characteristics, pH, C/N ratio, nutrient content, cellulose and hemicellulose contents, water-soluble carbon (WSC) content, xylanase and CMCase activities, numbers of culturable microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi), and toxicity to germinating seeds. The production of a stable and mature compost required only 24 days with the optimized two-stage composting method described here rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. The best quality compost was obtained with 0.15% RL and an IPS of 15 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technology supporting written productivity in children with learning disabilities: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batorowicz, Beata; Missiuna, Cheryl A; Pollock, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    Occupational therapists working with school-aged children are often in the position of recommending technology to enhance written productivity. The outcome of using technology on the writing of children with learning disabilities has not been reviewed critically, and this knowledge is necessary for evidence-based practice. To review evidence regarding the use of technology to support written productivity in children with learning disabilities. A systematic search of seven databases, plus a manual search, retrieved 864 papers published between 1985 and March 2012. Twenty-seven papers (28 studies) met inclusion criteria. The evidence is of a moderately low level and results are inconclusive; however, trends suggest a positive influence of some technology on children's performance and behaviour. Methodological limitations exist in most studies and the description of specific technology intervention is often combined with teaching instructions. The available research is encouraging, but high-quality investigations with newer technologies are needed.

  20. Biosurfactant assisted synthesis of Fe3O4@rhamnolipid@BiOBr and its behaviour in plasma discharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yu, Zebin; Hou, Yanping; Peng, Zhenbo; Zhang, Li; Meng, Zhengcheng; Li, Fengyuan; He, Jun; Huang, Junlin

    2016-06-01

    A novel Fe3O4@rhamnolipid@BiOBr (FRB) was synthesized via a modified precipitation method and applied in the plasma discharge system. Rhamnolipid was used as biosurfactant to modify Fe3O4 by interacting with Fe3O4 via its aliphatic chain. The results show that the prepared FRB magnetic photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and Fenton reaction behavior in the plasma discharge system. Meanwhile, the addition of FRB could improve energy efficiency of defluorination by 21.29 mg kW-1 h-1.

  1. Biosurfactant assisted synthesis of Fe3O4@rhamnolipid@BiOBr and its behaviour in plasma discharge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Yu, Zebin; Hou, Yanping; Peng, Zhenbo; Zhang, Li; Meng, Zhengcheng; Li, Fengyuan; He, Jun; Huang, Junlin

    2016-01-01

    A novel Fe 3 O 4 @rhamnolipid@BiOBr (FRB) was synthesized via a modified precipitation method and applied in the plasma discharge system. Rhamnolipid was used as biosurfactant to modify Fe 3 O 4 by interacting with Fe 3 O 4 via its aliphatic chain. The results show that the prepared FRB magnetic photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and Fenton reaction behavior in the plasma discharge system. Meanwhile, the addition of FRB could improve energy efficiency of defluorination by 21.29 mg kW −1 h −1 . (paper)

  2. Solution self-assembly and adsorption at the air-water interface of the monorhamnose and dirhamnose rhamnolipids and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M L; Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Smyth, T J P; Perfumo, A; Marchant, R; Banat, I M; Stevenson, P; Parry, A; Tucker, I; Grillo, I

    2010-12-07

    The self-assembly in solution and adsorption at the air-water interface, measured by small-angle neutron scattering, SANS, and neutron reflectivity, NR, of the monorhamnose and dirhamnose rhamnolipids (R1, R2) and their mixtures, are discussed. The production of the deuterium-labeled rhamnolipids (required for the NR studies) from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture and their separation into the pure R1 and R2 components is described. At the air-water interface, R1 and R2 exhibit Langmuir-like adsorption isotherms, with saturated area/molecule values of about 60 and 75 Å(2), respectively. In R1/R2 mixtures, there is a strong partitioning of R1 to the surface and R2 competes less favorably because of the steric or packing constraints of the larger R2 dirhamnose headgroup. In dilute solution (<20 mM), R1 and R2 form small globular micelles, L(1), with aggregation numbers of about 50 and 30, respectively. At higher solution concentrations, R1 has a predominantly planar structure, L(α) (unilamellar, ULV, or bilamellar, BLV, vesicles) whereas R2 remains globular, with an aggregation number that increases with increasing surfactant concentration. For R1/R2 mixtures, solutions rich in R2 are predominantly micellar whereas solutions rich in R1 have a more planar structure. At an intermediate composition (60 to 80 mol % R1), there are mixed L(α)/L(1) and L(1)/L(α) regions. However, the higher preferred curvature associated with R2 tends to dominate the mixed R1/R2 microstructure and its associated phase behavior.

  3. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect emulsification property and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Yang, Xin-Ping; Ma, Luyan Z

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL) and di-rhamnolipid (DRL) congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67) was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affected the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In line with this finding, rhamnolipids of IMP67 also reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting their synergistic role with the antibiotics.

  4. Analysis of biosurfactants from industrially-viable Pseudomonas strain isolated from crude oil suggests how rhamnolipids congeners affect on emulsification property and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palashpriya eDas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced mainly by Pseudomonas sp. had been reported to possess a wide range of potential industrial application. These biosurfactants are produced as monorhamnolipid (MRL and di-rhamnolipid (DRL congeners. The present study deals with rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates from crude oil. Biosurfactants produced by one of the strains (named as IMP67 was found to be very efficacious based on its critical micelle concentration (CMC value and hydrocarbon emulsification property. Strikingly, antimicrobial and anti-biofilm potential of this biosurfactant were higher than biosurfactants produced by other two strains. Thin layer chromatography (TLC analysis and rhamnose quantification showed that the rhamnolipids of IMP67 had more MRL congeners than biosurfactants of the other two strains. Emulsification and antimicrobial actions were affected by manual change of MRL and DRL congener proportions. Increase of MRL proportion enhanced emulsification index and antimicrobial property to Gram negative bacteria. This result indicated that the ratio of MRL and DRL affect the emulsification potentials of rhamnolipids, and suggested that high emulsification potentials might enhance rhamnolipids to penetrate the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria. In consistent, rhamnolipids of IMP67 reduced the MIC of some antibiotics against bacteria, suggesting the potential of biosurfactant as antibiotics synergist.

  5. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-ACTIVE RHAMNOLIPID BIOCOMPLEX AND ETHYLTHIOSULFANILATE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF PLANTS IN THE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Banya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the influence of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate on field pea and sorghum plants when growing in petroleum contaminated soil. Plant seeds were treated with solutions of rhamnolipid biocomplex or ethylthiosulfanilate (0.01 g/l before planting and grown in containers with soil artificially contaminated with petroleum (5, 8 and 10%. Effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate was determined by the determination of growth (weight, length plants and biochemical parameters (content of photosynthetic pigments, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde. The stimulating effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate on growth parameters of field pea was shown: the shoot mass has significantly increased on 39%, root mass – on 26% if compared with the control. For sorghum somewhat smaller increase of growth parameters was observed. Under the influence of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate the content of photosynthetic pigments in field pea and sorghum has also increased. It was determined that the action rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate promoted the decrease of indicators of plant oxidative reactions if compared with control: the content of hydrogen peroxide – in average on 15% and 16%, malondialdehyde – on 13.5% and 16% respectively. The results of the study testify to the effectiveness of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate as growth stimulators for field pea and sorghum, as well as improvement of adaptive capability of plants to unfavorable conditions. It creates the prospects of their application as effective and ecologically safe substances for the intensification of contaminated soil phytoremediation.

  6. The importance of assistive technology in the productivity pursuits of young adults with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2017-01-01

    Young adults with disabilities often use assistive technology (AT) to address personal needs, engage in communities and pursue educational and vocational goals. Little is known about their personal experiences and challenges of accessing and using AT for productivity-related activities. This study aimed to learn from young adults about their experiences and use of AT in supporting their productivity. Using a qualitative approach, 20 young adult AT users engaged in semi-structured interviews and a photovoice process. Data were analysed inductively. Three primary themes were identified: I Have to Figure it out Myself, With the Right AT, and Relational Aspects of AT Use. Although participants were experienced AT users, they were often left alone to figure out their emerging needs. They relied on AT to participate in productivity pursuits however stigma around AT use in unsupportive work environments were new concerns. Young adults with disabilities draw on their experiences of AT use but may need to develop advocacy skills to ensure their needs are met in productivity-related environments. Employers and supervisors should recognize AT as essential to young adult's engagement with productivity-related activities and have an important role in developing inclusive work environments.

  7. The effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on model bacterial strains and isolates from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Sotirova, Anna; Galabova, Danka

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens on bacterial strains, laboratory strains, and isolates from industrial wastewater was investigated. It was shown that biosurfactant, depending on the concentration, has a neutral or detrimental effect on the growth and protein release of model Gram (+) strain Bacillus subtilis 168. The growth and protein release of model Gram (-) strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1390 was not influenced by the presence of biosurfactant in the medium. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant at the used concentrations supported the growth of some slow growing on hexadecane bacterial isolates, members of the microbial community. Changes in cell surface hydrophobicity and permeability of some Gram (+) and Gram (-) isolates in the presence of rhamnolipid biosurfactant were followed in experiments in vitro. It was found that bacterial cells treated with biosurfactant became more or less hydrophobic than untreated cells depending on individual characteristics and abilities of the strains. For all treated strains, an increase in the amount of released protein was observed with increasing the amount of biosurfactant, probably due to increased cell permeability as a result of changes in the organization of cell surface structures. The results obtained could contribute to clarify the relationships between members of the microbial community as well as suggest the efficiency of surface properties of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas fluorescens making it potentially applicable in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted environments.

  8. Interference in adhesion of bacteria and yeasts isolated from explanted voice prostheses to silicone rubber by rhamnolipid biosurfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, LR; Banat, IM; van der Mei, HC; Teixeira, JA; Oliveira, R

    Aims: The effects and extent of adhesion of four different bacterial and two yeast strains isolated from explanted voice prostheses to silicone rubber with and without an adsorbed rhamnolipid biosurfactant layer obtained from Pseudomonasaeruginosa DS10-129 was studied. Methods and Results: The

  9. High-resolution time series of Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene expression and rhamnolipid secretion through growth curve synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier João B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online spectrophotometric measurements allow monitoring dynamic biological processes with high-time resolution. Contrastingly, numerous other methods require laborious treatment of samples and can only be carried out offline. Integrating both types of measurement would allow analyzing biological processes more comprehensively. A typical example of this problem is acquiring quantitative data on rhamnolipid secretion by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa cell growth can be measured by optical density (OD600 and gene expression can be measured using reporter fusions with a fluorescent protein, allowing high time resolution monitoring. However, measuring the secreted rhamnolipid biosurfactants requires laborious sample processing, which makes this an offline measurement. Results Here, we propose a method to integrate growth curve data with endpoint measurements of secreted metabolites that is inspired by a model of exponential cell growth. If serial diluting an inoculum gives reproducible time series shifted in time, then time series of endpoint measurements can be reconstructed using calculated time shifts between dilutions. We illustrate the method using measured rhamnolipid secretion by P. aeruginosa as endpoint measurements and we integrate these measurements with high-resolution growth curves measured by OD600 and expression of rhamnolipid synthesis genes monitored using a reporter fusion. Two-fold serial dilution allowed integrating rhamnolipid measurements at a ~0.4 h-1 frequency with high-time resolved data measured at a 6 h-1 frequency. We show how this simple method can be used in combination with mutants lacking specific genes in the rhamnolipid synthesis or quorum sensing regulation to acquire rich dynamic data on P. aeruginosa virulence regulation. Additionally, the linear relation between the ratio of inocula and the time-shift between curves produces high-precision measurements of

  10. Acceleration of organic removal and electricity generation from dewatered oily sludge in a bioelectrochemical system by rhamnolipid addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshu; Zhao, Qingliang; Jiang, Junqiu; Wang, Kun; Wei, Liangliang; Ding, Jing; Yu, Hang

    2017-11-01

    Conversion of biomass energy of dewatered oily sludge to electricity is the rate-limiting process in bioelectrochemical system (BES). In this study, 2mgg -1 rhamnolipids were added to dewatered oily sludge, resulting in a significant enhancement in maximum power density from 3.84±0.37 to 8.63±0.81Wm -3 , together with an increase in total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal from 24.52±4.30 to 36.15±2.79mgg -1 and 29.51±3.30 to 39.80±2.47mgg -1 , respectively. Rhamnolipids can also enhance the solubilization and promote the hydrolysis of dewatered oily sludge with increases in SOCD from 14.93±2.44 to 18.40±0.08mgg -1 and VFAs from 1.02±0.07 to 1.39±0.12mgg -1 . Furthermore, bacteria related to substrate degradation were predominant in dewatered oily sludge, and bacteria related to the sulfate/sulfide cycle were significantly enriched by rhamnolipid addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing Writing Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Students with Learning Disabilities Improves Their Writing Processes and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Caso, Ana Maria; Garcia, Jesus Nicasio; Diez, Carmen; Robledo, Patricia; Alvarez, Maria Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The use of self efficacy has been suggested as an effective classroom intervention procedure. The present research examined the use of self-efficacy training on the writing of Spanish elementary student with learning disabilities. Objectives: We present a research study focused on the improvement of the writing product and the…

  12. Research Productivity in Rehabilitation, Disability, and Allied Health Programs: A Focus Group Perspective on Minority-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Fariborz; Manyibe, Edward O.; Washington, Andre L.; Johnson, Jean; Davis, Dytisha; Eugene-Cross, Kenyotta; Moore, Cayla A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The article outlines select individual and institutional factors that could contribute to rehabilitation, disability, and health research productivity among minority-serving institutions (MSIs; i.e., historically Black colleges/universities, Hispanic-serving institutions, and American Indian tribal colleges/universities). Method: We…

  13. Vocal Production of Young Children with Disabilities during Child-Robot Interactions. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of five children with disabilities (4 with autism, 1 with a sensory processing disorder) were the focus of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes and involved…

  14. Disability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  15. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  16. Access Denied: Ending the Exclusion of Disabled Students from Media Production Courses in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbage, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    As the acceptance of media literacy increases among educators, media producers and consumers, one group is often missing from the dialogue--persons with disabilities. This absence is witnessed in the marginalized media depictions of the disabled. To gain entry into the media professions, some form of higher education is required. Using muted group…

  17. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Narayan Borah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.. F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.

  18. Who's counting? Institutional Autonomy and the Production of Activity Data for Disability Policy in France (2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Baudot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the use of figures for public action piloting in disability policy. This particular public action sector seems to lack piloting figures and comparable data for the monitoring of action in institutions in charge of granting social services for disabled persons, the Maisons départementales des personnes handicapées (MDPH. Based on fieldwork carried out since 2011 in this sector, this article reveals that the production of specific activity figures requires resource mobilisation and precise tasks on the part of organisations. The production of activity data therefore can reflect the autonomy of these administrative organisations. In limiting the capacity of these organisations specifically tasked with benefits attribution decisions, political authorities have also limited the autonomy they could in theory have claimed, and, in so doing, have limited their capacity to make these decisions independently of the political configurations and economic situations within which these benefits are recognised

  19. The analysis of suitability of crm product for organizations for disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Jeras, David

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the customization possibilities of Microsof Dynamics CRM, especially the extent and ways of customization. Moreover the goal is also to determine whether Microsoft Dynamics CRM is suitable for usage in organizations with which deal with disabled people and how it needs to be adjusted in order to achieve the best possible functionality for disabled users. Firslty, we discuss the general properties of CRM systems. Afterwords we describe Microsof...

  20. Production of microbial glycolipid biosurfactants and their antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial glycolipids produced by bacteria or yeast as secondary metabolites, such as sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs) and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are “green” biosurfactants desirable in a bioeconomy. High cost of production is a major hurdle toward widespread commercial use of bios...

  1. Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Single and Binary Mixed Rhamnolipid-Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dandan; Liang, Shengkang; Yan, Lele; Shang, Yujun; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-07-01

    Biosurfactants are promising additives for surfactant enhanced remediation (SER) technologies due to their low toxicity and high biodegradability. To develop green and efficient additives for SER, the aqueous solubility enhancements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) by rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) biosurfactants were investigated in single and binary mixed systems. The solubilization capacities were quantified in terms of the solubility enhancement factor, molar solubilization ratio (MSR), and micelle-water partition coefficient (). Rughbin's model was applied to evaluate the interaction parameters (β) in the mixed RL-SL micelles. The solubility of the PAHs increased linearly with the glycolipid concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) in both single and mixed systems. Binary RL-SL mixtures exhibited greater solubilization than individual glycolipids. At a SL molar fraction of 0.7 to 0.8, the solubilization capacity was the greatest, and the MSR and reached their maximum values, and β values became positive. These results suggest that the two biosurfactants act synergistically to increase the solubility of the PAHs. The solubilization capacity of the RL-SL mixtures increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing salinity. The aqueous solubility of phenanthrene reached a maximum value at pH of 5.5. Moreover, the mixed RL-SL systems exhibited a strong ability to solubilize PAHs, even in the presence of heavy metal ions. These mixed biosurfactant systems have the potential to improve the performance of SER technologies using biosurfactants to solubilize hydrophobic organic contaminants by decreasing the applied biosurfactant concentration, which reduces the costs of remediation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  3. Comparing effectiveness of rhamnolipid biosurfactant with a quaternary ammonium salt surfactant for hydrate anti-agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-01-24

    Natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations. Natural gas is coproduced with water from the subsurface forming gas hydrates. Hydrate formation may result in shutdown of onshore and offshore operations. Industry practice has been usage of alcohols--which have undesirable environmental impacts--to affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative to alcohols is changing the surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5-3 wt % of coproduced water. One group of low-dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are anti-agglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, reported work on hydrate anti-agglomeration is very limited. In this paper, our focus is on the use of two vastly different surfactants as anti-agglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. We examine the effectiveness of a quaternary ammonium salt (i.e., quat). Visual observation measurements show that a small concentration of the quat (0.01%) can prevent agglomeration. However, a quat is not a green chemical and therefore may be undesirable. We show that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant can be effective to a concentration of 0.05 wt %. One difference between the two surfactants is the stability of the water-in-oil emulsions created. The biosurfactant forms a less stable emulsion, which makes it very desirable for hydrate application.

  4. (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP:CoA transacylase of Pseudomonas chlororaphis: gene cloning, characterization and knock-out on PHA and rhamnolipid syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis is a useful microorganism capable of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymer and rhamnolipid (RL) biosurfactants by using carbon- and nitrogen-sources derived from renewable feedstocks as substrates of fermentation. We are interested in increasing the yield of RL pr...

  5. Conditions for effective removal of pyrene from an artificially contaminated soil using Pseudomonas aeruginosa 57SJ rhamnolipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordas, Francois [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre INRS-Eau-Terre-Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 2800 rue Einstein, C.P. 7500, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4C7 (Canada)]. E-mail: francois.bordas@unilim.fr; Lafrance, Pierre [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, Universite du Quebec, 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada)]. E-mail: pierre_lafrance@inrs-ete.uquebec.ca; Villemur, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Centre INRS-Institut Armand Frappier, Universite du Quebec, 531 bd des Prairies, Laval, Quebec, H7V 1B7 (Canada)]. E-mail: richard.villemur@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2005-11-15

    The efficacy of a new rhamnolipid biosurfactants mixture to enhance the removal of pyrene from a soil artificially contaminated was investigated. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) and the partition coefficient between the micelles and water (log K {sub m}) were found to be 7.5 x 10{sup -3} and 5.7, respectively. From soil column studies, the pyrene removal increased linearly with the concentration of the injected biosurfactants solution above the effective critical micellar concentration (0.4 g L{sup -1}). Flushing with a 5.0 g L{sup -1} biosurfactants solution increased the pyrene concentration in the effluent by 178 times. At high biosurfactants' concentrations (2.5 and 5.0 g L{sup -1}), the cumulative pyrene recovery reached 70%. This pyrene remobilization takes place independently of the soil organic carbon solubilization. This study provides a combination of batch and column experiments in order to find the conditions for effective soil remediation using a new rhamnolipids mixture. - The potential of newly isolated biosurfactants to mobilize PAHs from contaminated soils was evaluated from the determination in dynamic conditions of their effective critical micellar concentration.

  6. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, K.S.M.; Banat, I.M.; Thahira, J.; Thayumanavan, T.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS. (author)

  7. Conditions for effective removal of pyrene from an artificially contaminated soil using Pseudomonas aeruginosa 57SJ rhamnolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordas, Francois; Lafrance, Pierre; Villemur, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of a new rhamnolipid biosurfactants mixture to enhance the removal of pyrene from a soil artificially contaminated was investigated. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) and the partition coefficient between the micelles and water (log K m ) were found to be 7.5 x 10 -3 and 5.7, respectively. From soil column studies, the pyrene removal increased linearly with the concentration of the injected biosurfactants solution above the effective critical micellar concentration (0.4 g L -1 ). Flushing with a 5.0 g L -1 biosurfactants solution increased the pyrene concentration in the effluent by 178 times. At high biosurfactants' concentrations (2.5 and 5.0 g L -1 ), the cumulative pyrene recovery reached 70%. This pyrene remobilization takes place independently of the soil organic carbon solubilization. This study provides a combination of batch and column experiments in order to find the conditions for effective soil remediation using a new rhamnolipids mixture. - The potential of newly isolated biosurfactants to mobilize PAHs from contaminated soils was evaluated from the determination in dynamic conditions of their effective critical micellar concentration

  8. Issues concerning scientific production of including people with disabilities at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, B M; Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey carried out on leading periodicals in the areas of Ergonomics, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, the aim of which was to identify scientific publications on the inclusion at work of people with disabilities. The survey of articles published on this topic in the following journals was conducted in December 2010: Applied Ergonomics, Ergonomics, the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Disability and Rehabilitation, and the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation. The survey covered issues published between 2000 and 2010 and was conducted electronically using the CAPES Periodicals Portal. To collect the articles, it was necessary to check the articles published in each of the issues of each volume of these periodicals. This is how the articles on the topic in question were found. There were 27 articles on the topic of inclusion at work of people with disabilities, of which 13 were published in the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation and 12 in Disability and Rehabilitation. Thus, it is clear that the issue in question is still a subject that is seldom dealt with in these publications and it is noted that only two articles were published in Ergonomics journals in this period, thus confirming the paucity of scientific publications on this subject.

  9. Biosurfactant production for application in soil remediation contaminated by oil: study of the virulence factors; Producao de biosurfactantes para aplicacao em remediacao de solos contaminados por petroleo: estudo dos fatores de virulencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Pereira, Marcos Dias; Freire, Denise Maria Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Biosurfactants are amphipatic molecules produced by microorganisms. The rhamnolipid (RML) is a group of those molecules, most produced by strains of Pseudomonas. In this present work, the effect of superficial aeration on the production of rhamnolipids and virulence factors, from proteins produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, isolated from oil extraction wells, was evaluated. Cell growth, glycerol and nitrate consumption, rhamnolipid production, nonspecific proteases, total proteins and elastases where investigated on different flask volume/medium volume relations (Vf/Vm): 1:0,15, 1:0,30, 1:0,50 and 1:0,70. It was observed that better oxygenation leaded to better results on the rhamnolipid production. Two peaks of elastase activity were noted, showing possible presence of two types of elastases that could be dislocated on fermentation time, due to the oxygenation degree. The major production of rhamnolipid was found on the 1:0,50 condition and different non-specific proteases standards were found due to the oxygenation degrees. (author)

  10. Impact of a disability management program on employee productivity in a petrochemical company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skisak, Christopher M; Bhojani, Faiyaz; Tsai, Shan P

    2006-05-01

    An inhouse disability management program was implemented to reduce nonoccupational absences in a petrochemical corporation. The program was administered by full-time certified, corporate-based case managers and nine manufacturing location nurses. Employees were required to report all absences on the first day and again on the fourth workday of absence. A medical certification form was required for absences of 4 or more working days. Extended absences were actively managed. An Internet-based case management tool, Medgate, was used as a primary management tool. Results were compared with the previous year among the target population and with company business units not participating in the program. The program resulted in a 10% reduction in total absence days per employee (6.9 to 6.2) compared with the previous year, whereas business units not using the program had an 8% increase (5.5 to 5.9). This disability management program resulted in a more than four to one return on investment based on direct expenditures and cost savings in terms of reduced absence days. The inhouse disability management program was successful by absence duration, employee satisfaction, and return on investment criteria.

  11. What is the relationship between diversity and performance? A study about the relationship between the proportion of people with disabilities in the productivity of Brazilian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study aims to analyze the relationship between greater participation of people with disabilities in Brazilian firms and productivity as a performance indicator. Design/methodology/approach – To test the relationship between the proportion of PwD and the productivity of Brazilian firms, we used regression analysis with panel data and a dataset of public information from 46 firms for years 2010 and 2011. Findings – There was no statistical evidence stating that a greater proportion of people with disabilities in the workforce has a negative (or positive relationship with the productivity of Brazilian firms. Conversely, a positive relationship between a greater proportion of people with disabilities and productivity was found amongst firms that present greater social commitment. Originality/value – These results indicate the contingent character associated with diversity management, and that the adoption of social practices by Brazilian firms can be an important mechanism for the management of diversity and inclusion.

  12. Haemorrhage of gross domestic product from disability-adjusted-life-years among 15-59 year olds in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joses Muthuri Kirigia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article estimates non-health gross domestic product (GDP losses associated with Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY lost among 15-59 year olds (most productive age bracket in Kenya in 2015. Methods: This study employs the lost output or human capital approach (HCA to convert the DALYs lost from all causes into their monetary equivalents. The magnitude economic haemorrhage from each disease was obtained by multiplying the per capita non-health GDP in International Dollars by the total number of DALYs lost in a specific age group (15-29 years, 30-49 years, 50-59 years. Per capita non-health GDP equals per capita GDP minus total health expenditure in 2015. Data on DALYs and per capita total health expenditure were obtained from the World Health Organization and per capita GDP data was from IMF databases. Results: Kenya lost 9,405,184 DALYs among 15-59 years olds in 2015. That DALY loss caused a haemorrhage in GDP of Int$ 29,788,392,419. Approximately 48.6% of the GDP haemorrhage resulted from communicable diseases and nutritional conditions, 37.4% from non-communicable diseases, and 14.0% from injuries. Conclusion: There is need to augment domestic and external investments into national health systems and other systems that meet basic needs (education, food, water, sanitation, shelter to reduce disease burden. Key words: Non-health GDP, economic haemorrhage, disability-adjusted life year (DALY

  13. What is the relationship between diversity and performance? A study about the relationship between the proportion of people with disabilities in the productivity of Brazilian firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, L.C.M. (Luciana Carvalho de Mesquita); Rais, L.A. (Luciano Aversani)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose – This study aims to analyze the relationship between greater participation of people with disabilities in Brazilian firms and productivity as a performance indicator. Design/methodology/approach – To test the relationship between the proportion of PwD and the productivity of

  14. Disability management: corporate medical department management of employee health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, W N; Conti, D J

    2000-10-01

    This study describes a proactive in-house program for managing short-term disability (STD) in the workforce of a very large banking system. The goals of this program were to (1) minimize the personal and economic impacts of STD by early intervention, (2) validate the extent and duration of STD, and (3) coordinate medical services and provide guidance to managers that would facilitate an early return to work. This program was made possible by the installation of a comprehensive database, called Occupational Medicine and Nursing Information System. This database mainly includes employees' claims for inpatient and outpatient health services, disability and workers' compensation benefits, wellness program participation, medical examinations and laboratory tests, use of prescription drugs, and results of Health Risk Appraisals. As a result of these efforts, STD event duration declined after this STD management program was implemented in locations heretofore outside the system, and by providing full pay for part-time work after STD, within the system as well. Of note, the average number of STD days per employee showed substantial variation by health plan, including the fact that it was higher (3.9 STD days/employee) for health maintenance organization participants than for indemnity plan members (2.7 STD days/employee).

  15. Two schemes for production of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01: Applying residues from soybean oil industry and silica sol-gel immobilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Lotfabad, Tayebe; Ebadipour, Negisa; Roostaazad, Reza; Partovi, Maryam; Bahmaei, Manochehr

    2017-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are the most common biosurfactants and P. aeruginosa strains are the most frequently studied microorganisms for the production of rhamnolipids. Eco-friendly advantages and promising applications of rhamnolipids in various industries are the major reasons for pursuing the economic production of these biosurfactants. This study shows that cultivation of P. aeruginosa MR01 in medium contained inexpensive soybean oil refinery wastes which exhibited similar levels and homologues of rhamnolipids. Mass spectrometry indicated that the Rha-C10-C10 and Rha-Rha-C10-C10 constitute the main rhamnolipids in different cultures of MR01 including one of oil carbon source analogues. Moreover, rhamnolipid mixtures extracted from different cultures showed critical micelle concentrations (CMC) in the range of ≃24 to ≃36mg/l with capability to reduce the surface tension of aqueous solution from 72 to ≃27-32mN/m. However, the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a gentler method in order to entrap the P. aeruginosa MR01 cells in mold silica gels. Immobilized cells can be utilized several times in consecutive fermentation batches as well as in flow fermentation processes. In this way, reusability of the cells may lead to a more economical fermentation process. Approximately 90% of cell viability was retained during the silica sol-gel immobilization and ≃84% of viability of immobilized cells was preserved for 365days of immobilization and storage of the cells in phosphate buffer at 4°C and 25°C. Moreover, mold gels showed good mechanical stability during the seven successive fermentation batches and the entrapped cells were able to efficiently preserve their biosurfactant-producing potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Becoming disabled: The association between disability onset in younger adults and subsequent changes in productive engagement, social support, financial hardship and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Kariuki, Maina; Honey, Anne; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2014-10-01

    Very few population-based studies have investigated the association between the onset of health conditions/impairments associated with disability and subsequent well-being. To examine the association between the onset of disability and four indicators of well-being (full-time engagement in employment or education, financial hardship, social support, subjective well-being) among a nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents and young adults. Secondary analysis of the first eight waves (2001-2008) of the survey of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia. For financial hardship and subjective well-being, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was no evidence that the onset of disability was associated with a subsequent lowering of well-being. For participation in employment and education, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest immediate reduction in participation rates followed by subsequent stability. For social support, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest temporary reduction in support followed by rebound back to initial levels. Membership of classes associated with poorer outcomes was associated with a number of covariates including: male gender; younger age of disability onset; being born overseas; not living with both parents at age 14; lower proficiency in the English language; and parental education being year 12 or below. The results of our analyses illustrate the existence of clear empirically defined trajectory classes following the onset of disability across a range of indicators of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Child-Robot Interactions on the Vocalization Production of Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots. Research Reports, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Findings from two studies investigating the effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of young children with disabilities are reported. The two studies included seven children with autism, two children with Down syndrome, and two children with attention deficit disorders. The Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA)…

  18. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Toledo Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus, P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients. The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019 between TPH concentration (mg/kg and surface tension (mN/m, When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009 was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  19. The impact of breast cancer among Canadian women: disability and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Elizabeth; Thomas-MacLean, Roanne; Hack, Tom; Kwan, Winkle; Miedema, Baukje; Tatemichi, Sue; Towers, Anna; Tilley, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Each year over 20,000 Canadian women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Many breast cancer survivors anticipate a considerable number of years of potential participation in the paid labour market, therefore, the link between breast cancer survivorship and productivity deserves serious consideration. The hypothesis guiding this study is that arm morbidities such as lymphedema, pain, and range of motion limitations are important explanatory variables in survivors' loss of productivity. The study draws from a larger longitudinal research project involving over 600 breast cancer survivors in four geographical locations across Canada. The study's regression results indicate that, after adjusting for fatigue, breast cancer stage, and geographical location, survivors with range of motion limitations and arm pain are more than two and half times as likely to lose some productivity capacity as compared to counterparts with no arm morbidity. The findings make a compelling argument for the necessity of adequate rehabilitation programs delivered at crucial times in breast cancer survivors' recovery. The study's unexpected finding that geographical location is a highly significant predictor of changes in productivity among breast cancer survivors is interpreted as a factor of the regulatory framework governing employment relationships in the four different jurisdictions.

  20. Disability Employment 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…

  1. Production of a biological surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gladys Rosero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the scale up work performed at the Colombian Petroleum Institute on a process to produce at pilot plant level a biosurfactant of the rhamnolipid type. By examination of both the activation conditions of the microorganism and design aspects of the broth, a stable condition was achieved which consistently triggers the production mechanisms and thus it was obtained a significant increment in biosurfactant productivity. The biological surfactant exhibited high efficiency in applications such as hydrocarbon biodegradation in saline environments, corrosion inhibition, and crude oil recovery from storage tank bottom sludges.

  2. Resonance Energy Transfer between protein and rhamnolipid capped ZnS quantum dots: Application in in-gel staining of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Narayanan; Mohan, Abhilash; Kannan, Ashwin; Pennathur, Gautam

    The interaction of proteins with quantum dots is an interesting field of research. These interactions occur at the nanoscale. We have probed the interaction of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) with rhamnolipid capped ZnS (RhlZnSQDs) using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Optical studies on mixtures of RhlZnSQDs and proteins resulted in Förster's Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from proteins to QDs. This phenomenon has been exploited to detect proteins in agarose gel electrophoresis. The activity of the CRL was unaffected on the addition of QDs as revealed by zymography.

  3. Disability and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  4. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...

  5. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  6. Processing Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.

  7. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of biosurfactant by Pseudomonas spp. isolated from industrial waste in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Tayfun; ASLIM, Belma; KARİPTAŞ, Ergin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 26 Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from a stream polluted by factory waste and from petroleum-contaminated soil. The surface tension (ST) of the cultures was used as a criterion for the primary isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Biosurfactant production was quantified by ST reduction, critical micelle concentration (CMC), emulsification capacity (EC), and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH). Two of the isolates, P. aeruginosa 78 and 99, produced rhamnolipid biosurfacta...

  9. Longterm Work Productivity Costs Due to Absenteeism and Permanent Work Disability in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Register Study of 7831 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Janne A; Kautiainen, Hannu; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Puolakka, Kari T

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the development and potential disproportional distribution of longterm productivity costs (PC) and their determinants leading to work absenteeism and permanent work disability in working-aged patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of subjects with early RA was created by identifying the new cases of RA from the national drug reimbursement register that had been granted a special reimbursement for their antirheumatic medications for RA from 2000-2007. The dataset was enriched by cross-linking with other national registries detailing work absenteeism days and permanent disability pensions. In the base case, the human capital approach was applied to estimate PC based on subjects' annual number of absenteeism days and incomes. Hurdle regression analysis was applied to study the determinants of PC. Among the 7831 subjects with early RA, the mean (bootstrapped 95% CI) annual PC per person-observation year was €4800 (4547-5070). The annual PC declined after the first year of RA diagnosis, but increased significantly in subsequent years. In addition, the PC was heavily disproportionally concentrated in a small fraction of patients with RA, because only around 20% of patients accounted for the majority of total annual PC. The initiation of active drug treatment during the first 3 months after RA diagnosis significantly reduced the cumulative PC when compared with no drug treatment. The longterm PC increased significantly in parallel with years elapsing after RA diagnosis. Further, the majority of these PC are incurred by a small proportion of patients.

  10. Optimization and characterization of biosurfactant production from kitchen waste oil using Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyan; Sun, Ni; Li, Dongsheng; Long, Sihua; Tang, Xiaoyu; Xiao, Guoqing; Wang, Linyuan

    2018-03-16

    Kitchen waste oil (KWO) from catering industries or households was used as a low-cost carbon source for producing biosurfactants by self-isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fermentation performance with KWO was superior to those with four other carbon sources, with higher optical density (OD 600 ) of 2.33 and lower interfacial tension of 0.57 mN/m. Culture conditions for biosurfactant production were optimized, with optimal pH of 8.0 and nitrogen source concentration of 2.0 g/L, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed that the biosurfactant was a mixture of six rhamnolipid congeners, among which Rha-Rha-C 10 -C 10 and Rha-C 10 -C 10 were the main components, with mass fraction of approximately 34.20 and 50.86%, respectively. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) obtained was 55.87 mg/L. In addition, the rhamnolipids exhibited excellent tolerance to temperature (20-100 °C), pH (6.0-12.0), and salinity (2-20%; w/v) in a wide range, thereby showing good stability to extreme environmental conditions. The rhamnolipids positively affected oil removal from oil sludge and KWO-contaminated cotton cloth, with removal rate of 34.13 and of 30.92%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that biosurfactant production from KWO was promising, with advantages of good performance, low cost and environmental safety.

  11. Intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... below average Development way below that of peers Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized ... Social. Nutrition programs can reduce disability associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty ...

  12. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...

  13. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...

  14. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  15. The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatiod arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grøn, K.L.; Ørnbjerg, L.M.; Hetland, M.L.; Aslam, F.; Khan, N.A.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Henrohn, D.; Rasker, Johannes J.; Kauppi, M.J.; Lang, H.C.; Mota, L.M.H.; Aggarwal, A.; Yamanaka, H.; Badsha, H.; Gossec, L.; Cutolo, M.; Ferraccioli, G.; Gremese, E.; Bong Lee, E.; Inanc, N.; Direskeneli, H.; Taylor, Peter; Huisman, Marieke; Alten, R.; Pohl, C.; Oyoo, O.; Stropuviene, S.; Drosos, A.A.; Kerzberg, E.; Ancuta, C.; Mofti, A.; Bergman, M.; Detert, J.; Selim, Z.I.; Abda, E.A.; Rexhepi, B.; Sokka, T.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).METHODS: Nine thousands eight hundred

  16. The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Kathrine Lederballe; Ornbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Nine thousands eight hundred...

  17. Disability and Health: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  18. Disability associated with low back pain in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain is sufficiently disabling and a common cause of disability particularly during the productive middle years of adult life. Disability implies interference with daily activities. Objective: To assess and document the disability associated with low back pain in terms of sick leave days, interference with ...

  19. Disability as infra-critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    and we examine parts of the historical background for the production of authority in the context of managing disability as exception during polling. In doing so we point out that as the organization of electoral processes evolves, new potentialities for infra-critique also emerge.......This article investigates how disability can work analytically as a ‘critique from within’. Our case is the accommodation of citizens with disabilities during the voting process in Denmark. Here disability makes explicit how Danish democracy is produced as disability rubs up against implicit...... this offers. We analyze an incident at a polling booth during the 2013 Danish Municipal election. This renders visible some of the complex socio-material processes through which citizens and the Danish state co-enact and co-authorize one another. We highlight how ‘detachments’ are vital to such processes...

  20. The association of fatigue, comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results from 34 countries participating in the Quest-RA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøn, Kathrine Lederballe; Ornbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Hetland, Merete Lund; Aslam, Fawad; Khan, Nasim A; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Henrohn, Dan; Rasker, J J; Kauppi, Markku J; Lang, Hui-Chu; Mota, Licia M H; Aggarwal, Amita; Yamanaka, Hisahi; Badsha, Humeira; Gossec, Laure; Cutolo, Maurizio; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Gremese, Elisa; Bong Lee, Eun; Inanc, Nevsun; Direskeneli, Haner; Taylor, Peter; Huisman, Margriet; Alten, Rieke; Pohl, Christoph; Oyoo, Omondi; Stropuviene, Sigita; Drosos, Alexandrosos A; Kerzberg, Eduardo; Ancuta, Codorina; Mofti, Ayman; Bergman, Martin; Detert, Jaqueline; Selim, Zaraa I; Abda, Essam A; Rexhepi, Blerta; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to assess the prevalence of comorbidities and to further analyse to which degree fatigue can be explained by comorbidity burden, disease activity, disability and gross domestic product (GDP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nine thousands eight hundred seventy-four patients from 34 countries, 16 with high GDP (>24.000 US dollars [USD] per capita) and 18 low-GDP countries (6.6) compared with 23.0% in high-GDP countries (p<0.001). In univariate analysis, fatigue increased with increasing number of comorbidities, disease activity and disability in both high- and low-GDP countries. In multivariate analysis of all countries, these 3 variables explained 29.4% of the variability, whereas GDP was not significant. Fatigue is a widespread problem associated with high comorbidity burden, disease activity and disability regardless of GDP.

  1. Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…

  2. Current status in biotechnological production and applications of glycolipid biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Pessôa, Marina Gabriel; Mano, Mario Cezar Rodrigues; Molina, Gustavo; Neri-Numa, Iramaia Angélica; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2016-12-01

    Biosurfactants are natural compounds with surface activity and emulsifying properties produced by several types of microorganisms and have been considered an interesting alternative to synthetic surfactants. Glycolipids are promising biosurfactants, due to low toxicity, biodegradability, and chemical stability in different conditions and also because they have many biological activities, allowing wide applications in different fields. In this review, we addressed general information about families of glycolipids, rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, and trehalose lipids, describing their chemical and surface characteristics, recent studies using alternative substrates, and new strategies to improve of production, beyond their specificities. We focus in providing recent developments and trends in biotechnological process and medical and industrial applications.

  3. "Emancipatory Disability Research": Project or Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Colin

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the core principles and implications of emancipatory disability research. It suggests the emancipatory research paradigm has begun to transform the material and social relations of research production and concludes by suggesting that emancipatory disability should be perceived as a process rather than a…

  4. Disability Is Not Measles: New Research Paradigms in Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Marcia H., Ed.; Bach, Michael, Ed.

    This book is the product of a forum titled New Research Directions and Paradigms, held at the Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency in Australia in August 1992. The book presents 13 chapters, all written within a critical paradigm for disability research which critiques the reification of…

  5. [The burden of disability in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Calogero; Albensi, Caterina; Giordani, Laura; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Sanou Sobze, Martin; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation services for disabled persons are lacking in countries with limited economic resources. Reliable and objective data are needed to plan for their implementation and to determine the burden of disability in these countries. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in June 2013 among people living in Dschang Health District, in the West region of Cameroon, to collect information about socio-demographic aspects of physically disabled subjects and health determinants of disabilities. Data was collected using a standard questionnaire in French. In total, 159 physically disabled subjects were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 36 years [± SD 17.26], 55.9% of subjects were female, and 33.8% had a low educational-level. The most frequently reported disabilities were orthopaedic problems (mainly fractures) [45.8%], infectious diseases [29.1%]), and neurological disabilities (mainly hemiplegia [33.3%], hemiparesis [23.8%], and monoplegia [23.8%]). The main causes of disability were trauma due to traffic accidents (17.8%) and inappropriate medical interventions (14.5%). Disability was related to age and 50% of participants experienced social discrimination. Disabled subjects with low-incomes (from 50.000 to 200.000 XAF) were required to pay for rehabilitative care (XAF 10.000 to 100.000), and up to 83% had appealed for improved quality of Rehabilitation Medicine. Although Law n. 83/013 for the protection of persons with disabilities in Cameroon dates back to 1983, the results of this study show that disabled people, and children in particular, are still marginalized, vulnerable and have little chance of recovery. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the quality and availability of rehabilitative care services , with programmatic interventions that ensure implementation of existing laws, improve access to rehabilitative services, provide disabled persons with the necessary specialty medical products, and eliminate barriers to their social

  6. Facing up to disability

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Shakespeare

    2013-01-01

    Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They succ...

  7. Disability, and social and economic inclusion: who is in and out of the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme?

    OpenAIRE

    Cebulla, Andreas; Zhu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    A new National Disability Insurance Scheme is being trialled in Australia, following criticism of the fragmented and inequitable nature of existing disability supports (e.g. in the 2009 ‘Shut Out’ report by the National People with Disabilities and Carer Council) and reform recommendations made by the Australian Government's Productivity Commission in 2011. The Insurance Scheme distinguishes between people living with disability who will be eligible for different types of supports: either mai...

  8. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) Where market research is undertaken, including individuals with disabilities in target populations of such research; (2) Where product design, testing, pilot demonstrations, and product trials are... access solutions through testing with individuals with disabilities or with appropriate disability...

  9. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  10. Production of biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA 1 isolated in oil environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Santa Anna

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants is assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, which was isolated from oil production wastewater in the Northeast of Brazil. These production of molecules using different carbon (n-hexadecane, paraffinic oil, glycerol and babassu oil and nitrogen sources (NaNO3, (NH42SO4 and CH4N2O was studied. The best results were obtained when using glycerol as substrate. A C/N ratio of 60/1 and use of sodium nitrate as nitrogen source resulted in higher production of the rhamnolipid, expressed by rhamnose (3.16 g/L and by the yield in relation to biomass (Yp/x = 0.70 g/g. Additionally, physical-chemical characteristics of the spent broth with and without cells were studied, providing a low critical micelle concentration of 19 mg/L and toxicity values of 13 and 13.8 mg/L using two test organisms, the micro crustacean Daphnia similis and the bacterium Vibrio fisheri (Microtox, respectively.

  11. Effect of nutrients and fermentation conditions on the production of biosurfactants using rhizobacteria isolated from fique plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura M. Pedroza-Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To isolate biosurfactant-producing microorganisms from the rhizosphere of fique and to select the best genus to evaluate theeffect of nutritional and fermentation conditions on the production of rhamnolipids. Materials and methods. Rhizospheric soil wassampled in three areas of Cauca. The best genus was selected for the experimental designs (Plackett Burman and 22 factorial and to find theproduction conditions for the growth kinetics at an Erlenmeyer flask scale. Results. Isolates from the rhizosphere of fique plants were fromgroups (or genera of Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Actinomycetes, being Pseudomonas the more responsive in preliminary testing foremulsification. From the results of the experimental designs and the kinetics of production, we found that rhamnose synthesis associatedwith rhamnolipids (3.2 g/l and emulsification (68% EC24 was significantly favored (p <0.0001 by cultivating an inoculum of 10% v/vof Pseudomonas fluorescens in a medium composed of: soybean oil 2% (v/v, K2HPO40.2% (w/v, yeast extract 0.4 g/l, NH4NO33.7 g/l, 1 ml trace elements (CoCl320 mg/l, H3BO330 mg/l, ZnSO410 mg/l, Cu2SO41 mg/l, Na2MoO43 mg/l, FeSO410 mg/l MnSO42,6 mg/l and pH 7.2. Conclusion. Of all the microbial genera isolated from the rhizosphere of fique, Pseudomonas fluorescens had the greatestpotential in the production of biosurfactants of the rhamnolipids family.

  12. SSA Disability Claim Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset includes fiscal year data for initial claims for SSA disability benefits that were referred to a state agency for a disability determination. Specific...

  13. Disability Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.

  14. Disability and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Over a billion people, about 15% of the world's population, have some form of disability. Between 110 million ... disability. This corresponds to about 15% of the world's population. Between 110 million (2.2%) and 190 million ( ...

  15. Bioconversion of Sugarcane Vinasse into High-Added Value Products and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Vinasse, a residue from bioethanol production containing high organic matter concentration, was used as substrate in submerged fermentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 for biosurfactant production. About 2.7 g/L of rhamnolipids was obtained, with surface tension of 29.2 mN/m and critical micelle concentration of 80.3 mg/L. After separation of rhamnolipid and biomass, residual fermentation media were submitted to anaerobic biodegradation in mesophilic conditions. The residual medium derived from fermentation with vinasse diluted to 1 : 1, without addition of nitrogen, C : N 21, and for 168 h, led to 63.2% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and 97.6 mL CH4/g CODremoved. Compared to results obtained with fresh vinasse (73.7% COD removal and 112.4 mL CH4/g CODremoved), it could be concluded that both processes can be integrated in order to add value to the residue and obtain energy, reducing production costs and at the same time environmental impacts related to vinasse disposal. PMID:29250551

  16. Integrated Disability Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Angeloni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to increase awareness regarding the wide and universal significance of disability, as well as the important benefits of an Integrated Disability Management (IDM approach. The scientific basis for IDM is explored in the first place through an analysis of its relationship to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. The conceptual paradigm of the ICF shares an ideological position with the IDM approach in that they are both underpinned by dynamic and multidimensional constructions of disability, which imply equally holistic and interdisciplinary responses. The IDM approach can be applied across a diversity of human situations to provide solutions that reflect the multifaceted and widespread nature of disability. The IDM approach is intended as a strategy capable of handling: inclusion of people with disabilities, active aging of human resources, health and safety in the workplace, prevention of disabilities and various diseases, return-to-work, absenteeism, and presenteeism.

  17. Facing up to disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Shakespeare

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They successfully demanded that disability be seen as a matter of equal opportunities and human rights, a shift which has now been described in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This is a global treaty which has so far been signed by 155 states and passed into law by 127.

  18. Adapting Art Instruction for Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jennifer M.; Janeczko, Donna

    1991-01-01

    This article presents adaptations for teaching art to students with disabilities. Various techniques, methods, and materials are described by category of disability, including students with mental disabilities, visual impairments, hearing impairments, learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and physical disabilities. (JDD)

  19. Categorizing clients with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lena; Amby, Finn

    Danish governments have continuously proclaimed goals of raising the employment rate for people with disabilities, most recently in the publication “10 goal for social mobility” (Government 2016). In spite of this, the employment rate for people with disabilities has been more than 30 percent less...... than that of people without disabilities for more than a decade (Larsen & Høgelund 2015). An explanation of this difference could be the limited connection between these general goals, the employment laws and the actual implementation of the goals in the job centers (Amby 2015). Earlier Danish studies...... have by large focused on employment and disability at the stage where the client already has been categorized as having a disability (e.g. Møller & Stone 2013). This study offers new insight to the field in a Danish context by exploring the process in which people with disabilities are categorized...

  20. Work disability resulting from chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Debra; Allaire, Saralynn H; Reisine, Susan T

    2005-03-01

    To describe current programs and policies for addressing work disability among adults with chronic health conditions, and to identify opportunities for new research aimed at reducing the problem. The authors conducted secondary data analysis and a literature review. Millions of Americans with a chronic health condition have a work disability or are at risk of developing one. This public health problem is costing hundreds of billions of dollars a year nationally in lost productivity and diminishing the quality of life of millions of Americans. The medical care system, employers, and government--three traditional sources of help for adults with chronic health problems--are not sufficiently oriented toward the primary or secondary prevention of work disability. New research is urgently needed to reduce the burden of work disability on individuals and society.

  1. Disability testing and retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    This Paper studies the design of retirement and disability policies. It illustrates the often observed exit from the labour force of healthy workers through disability insurance schemes. Two types of individuals, disabled and leisure-prone ones, have the same disutility for labour and cannot be distinguished. They are not, however, counted in the same way in social welfare. Benefits depend on retirement age and on the (reported) health status. We determine first- and second-best optimal benef...

  2. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  3. Horrible Heroes: Liberating Alternative Visions of Disability in Horror

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Hall

    2016-01-01

    Understanding disability requires understanding its social construction, and social construction can be read in cultural products. In this essay, I look to one major locus for images of persons with disabilities—horror. Horror films and fiction use disability imagery to create and augment horror. I first situate my understanding of disability imagery in the horror genre using a case study read through the work of Julia Kristeva. But, I go on to argue that trademark moves in the horror genre, ...

  4. Predictors of disability retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, N; Lynch, J; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Goldberg, D E; Salonen, J T

    1997-12-01

    Disability retirement may increase as the work force ages, but there is little information on factors associated with retirement because of disability. This is the first prospective population-based study of predictors of disability retirement including information on workplace, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related factors. The subjects were 1038 Finnish men who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, who were 42, 48, 54, or 60 years of age at the beginning of the study, and who participated in a 4-year follow-up medical examination. Various job characteristics predicted disability retirement. Heavy work, work in uncomfortable positions, long workhours, noise at work, physical job strain, musculoskeletal strain, repetitive or continuous muscle strain, mental job strain, and job dissatisfaction were all significantly associated with the incidence of disability retirement. The ability to communicate with fellow workers and social support from supervisors tended to reduce the risk of disability retirement. The relationships persisted after control for socioeconomic factors, prevalent disease, and health behavior, which were also associated with disability retirement. The strong associations found between workplace factors and the incidence of disability retirement link the problem of disability retirement to the problem of poor work conditions.

  5. Disability and global development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Joan; Lord, Janet; Defranco, Allison

    2012-07-01

    The United States invests billions of taxpayer dollars each year into foreign assistance programs that foster international diplomacy and development directed toward improving the quality of life for people around the world. These programs develop economies and combat poverty, promote democracy and governance, build new infrastructure, advance and protect human rights, among other development goals. The United States cannot effectively accomplish the goals of foreign assistance programs unless it undertakes measures to ensure that the programs are accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. The United States has been a leader in advancing the rights of people with disabilities and must continue to promote disability rights through its international development work. Overseas economic development will not be successful unless people with disabilities are included. Because of the significant number of people with disabilities in developing countries, if they are not included, the very economic growth the United States is trying to foster will be hindered. The goals of democracy and governance programs cannot be achieved without the inclusion of people with disabilities. In many countries, domestic law contains blatant discriminatory provisions for people with disabilities that undermine access to justice and full participation in society. The provisions that discriminate against people with disabilities include arbitrary exclusions in electoral codes, sweeping plenary guardianship laws with no due-process protections, discriminatory banking practices, and inaccessible court proceedings. National disability legal frameworks remain underdeveloped throughout the world. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Negotiating hearing disability and hearing disabled identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2012-01-01

        Using disability theory as a framework and social science theories of identity to strengthen the arguments, this paper explores empirically how working-age adults confront the medical diagnosis of hearing impairment. For most participants hearing impairment threatens the stability of social...... interaction and the construction of hearing disabled identities is seen as shaped in the interaction with the hearing impaired person‟s surroundings. In order to overcome the potential stigmatisation the „passing‟ as normal becomes predominant. For many the diagnosis provokes radical redefinitions of the self....... The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...

  7. Introduction: Childhood and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-09-01

    From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.

  8. Disciplining Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Kevin P.

    This report discusses disciplining children with disabilities in schools, in the context of the legal requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Practical concepts are explained in terms of the school's responsibility to: (1) maintain a safe environment; (2) teach a code of discipline to all students; (3) use the…

  9. The Disabled: Media's Monster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    From the early nineteenth century to the present, horror, gangster, and adventure films, television, the comics, and newspapers have shown physical and mental disabilities to connote murder, violence, and danger. Such false portrayals have promoted negative public attitudes toward people with disabilities. (Author/MJL)

  10. Creating a disability mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S E

    1992-01-01

    People with disabilities have, for the most part, failed to identify with each other as a group. This has been detrimental because it has built a sense of isolation when a camaraderie based upon existing commonalities could have been developed. During the past ten to twenty years, there has been a great deal of discussion about appropriate language to use when discussing disability issues. This discussion has been a part of a larger debate concerning the existence of a disability culture. I believe that there is indeed a disability culture and I am a proponent of identifying and passing on stories which contribute to that culture. I have chosen to use mythology to convey this message and have begun with a focus on heroes - people who do something out of the ordinary. It is contended that almost all people with disabilities have performed heroic activities because of the pervasive discrimination encountered by each individual with a disability. Creating a disability mythology is an attempt to recognize and promote heroes within the disabled community and to advocate the importance of telling other people how positive change has occurred through instances of individual heroism.

  11. Senior and Disabilities Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Division of Senior and Disabilities Services DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and ; Assistance Senior Benefits Program Medicare Substance Abuse Treatment Alaska Tribal Child Welfare Compact ; Senior and Disabilities Services Page Content Director Duane Mayes photo image. Duane Mayes Director

  12. Beauty and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    People often hold stereotypical notions about disability, assuming people with significant disabilities offer little in terms of friendship or contribution. Some are even repulsed by that person's physical appearance. Such responses, evident within the Christian community as well, fail to acknowledge the inherent worth of the person as created in…

  13. Why we move: Social mobility behaviors of non-disabled and disabled children across childcare contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W Logan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social mobility is defined as the co-occurrence of self-directed locomotion and direct peer interaction. Social mobility is a product of dynamic child-environment interactions and thus likely to vary across contexts (e.g., classroom, gymnasium and playground. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in children’s social mobility (1 across contexts by age, and (2 between non-disabled and disabled children. Method: Participants (n = 55 non-disabled and 3 disabled children; Mage = 3.1 years, SD = 1.4 were video-recorded within a university-based early learning center. Children were recorded for 20 minutes in each context: classroom, gymnasium, and playground. A 15-second momentary time sampling method was used to code social mobility, the simultaneous occurrence of self-directed locomotion and direct peer interaction. This variable was calculated as percent time within each context. Results: A planned Friedman’s rank ANOVA (n = 55, stratified by age, indicated that older children (3-5 years old differed across contexts in their social mobility (χ2 (2 ~ 7.3 – 10.5, p < 0.025, whereas younger children (1-2 years old were similar across contexts. Social mobility was significantly lower in the classroom compared to the playground and gymnasium (with no difference between the latter contexts for older children. Visual analysis confirmed that disabled children (n = 3 engaged in substantially less time in social mobility (average 0% - 1%, compared to non-disabled, age-similar peers (2-3 year olds average 1% -12% across all contexts. Conclusion: A substantial gap exists between non-disabled and disabled children for social mobility. There is an increase in magnitude and variability of social mobility around age 3 that suggests the gap between non-disabled and disabled children will continue to widen.

  14. Defining Disability: Understandings of and Attitudes Towards Ableism and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carli Friedman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disabled people, amidst political and social gains, continue to experience discrimination in multiple areas. Understanding how such discrimination, named here as ableism, operates is important and may require studying perspectives of people who do not claim a disability identity.  Ableism may be expressed in a number of ways, and examining how a particular group, in this case siblings of disabled people, understand and value disability may contribute to overall understandings about how ableism works. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore relationships between siblings of disabled people's broad societal understandings of disability and their attitudes towards it. In order to tease out this relationship further we have also examined factors that impact how people define disability. Using both social psychological and sociological approaches, we have contextualized individual attitudes as providing additional new information about social meanings of disability, and set this study's results against the larger backdrops of debates over meanings of disability within Disability Studies. In our research, participants revealed complex understandings of disability, but most often defined disability as preventing or slowing action, as an atypical function, a lack of independence, and as a socially constructed obstacle. Participants' unconscious (implicit disability attitudes significantly related to their understandings of disability as lacking independence, impairment, and/or in relation to the norm, and their conscious (explicit disability attitudes. Moreover, longer employment in a disability-related industry was correlated with defining disability as a general difference, rather than as slowing or limiting of tasks.

  15. Representations of Disability: School and Its Cultural Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeghini, Roberto; Fornasa, Walter; Vadalà, Giuseppe

    School plays a significant role in cultural production where representations of difference and disability are very important: educational and pedagogical practices (implicit and explicit) help to form cultural and social representations of the world and, consequently, to confirm some stereotypes too. In this regard the study of social representations linked in with disability assumes some importance: in fact disability becomes a difference excluded from educational and social dynamics as well as from full participation in citizenship. This research will try to draw some dominant social representations about differences and disability, through analysis of young university students stories and memories.

  16. Deficiência mental e inclusão escolar: produção científica em Educação e Psicologia Intellectual disabilities and school inclusion: scientific production in Education and Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altemir José Gonçalves Barbosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para efetuar uma análise metacientífica nas áreas de Educação e Psicologia sobre a inclusão escolar de pessoas com deficiência mental, analisaram-se 103 resumos de artigos indexados nas bases de dados ERIC e PSYCInfo. Constatou-se que 40,48% dos 42 periódicos tabulados concentram 75,75% dos resumos e que 61,17% da produção científica está indexada principalmente na ERIC. Prevalecem artigos com autoria múltipla e que relatam pesquisas que tendem a ser descritivas com delineamento correlacional. O tema estratégias para a inclusão escolar foi o mais freqüente. Foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre as duas bases de dados somente nos casos do ano de publicação e dos periódicos que publicam artigos com o tema-alvo. Os resultados evidenciam que a produção científica sobre a inclusão escolar de pessoas com deficiência mental é bastante escassa e que, enquanto tema psicoeducacional, tem recebido mais atenção na área de Educação.In order to conduct a meta-scientific analysis in the fields of education and educational psychology about the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities, 103 abstracts of articles indexed in the ERIC and PSYCInfo databases were analyzed. Results showed that 40.48% of the 42 tabulated journals concentrate 75.75% of the abstracts and that 61.17% of the scientific production is indexed mainly in ERIC. The articles that predominate are those with multiple authors that report research that tends to be descriptive with a correlation design. The theme 'strategies for school inclusion' was the most prevalent. Significant differences were found between the two databases only as to the year of publication and the journals that publish articles on the targeted theme. The results show that scientific production on school inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities is quite low and has received more attention in the field of Education as a psycho-educational theme.

  17. Infertility: Inability or Disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Khetarpal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability.

  18. Geriatic Disability Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib Hajbagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports are indicating of increasing trend of aging and disability in the developing countries while such disabilities are decreasing within the developed countries. This study designed to evaluate the disability and some of its related factors among the elderly population (65 and older in Kashan, Iran. Methods & Materials: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on a multi-stage random sample of 350 elderly people (65 year and older in Kashan. The WHO-DAS-II was used as the generic disability measure. The questionnair had 48 questions. The range of score could be between 0-144. Chi-square, t-test analysis and ANOVA were utilized to check significant differences between subgroups. Results: 61% were men and 12% were living lonely. One fourth had some type of addiction, the majority were ilitrate and two thired had not regular phisycal activity.Twenty percent of the old people had a modereate disability and 4.3% were extremely disabled. A significant relationship was found between the disability and variables such as sex, age, living style, needing help, marriage status, living location, addiction, job, level of physical activity, education, and having multiple diseases. Conclusion: In conclusion, geriatric population in Iran, has a lower levels of disability in compare to those of other developed countries. Need of geriatric cares must be be increasing, since the populationpattern of elderly people is increasing in Iran. Female and ilitrate elders were sufering of more disability. These findings indicated the nessesity to more attention to these voulnarable subgroups of population.

  19. Disability impact and coping in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, M Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the disability impact on parenting and caregiving is important for intervention. The present study was designed to understand the differences in perceived disability impact and related coping in mothers having children with intellectual disabilities alone compared to those having children with intellectual disabilities and additional disabilities. Accordingly, 30 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and 30 mothers of children with intellectual and additional disabilities were assessed for disability impact and coping. Group differences for disability impact were present in specific domains but not overall. Despite variations in coping pattern, both positive and negative coping strategies were observed in both groups. The results may imply that the impact of intellectual disability is so pervasive that except in certain domains mothers may not perceive the further impact of additional disabilities. Positive coping does not rule out negative coping strategies. These findings have specific relevance to service delivery in a cultural context.

  20. Production and characterization of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further characterization of biosurfactant using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed it as a rhamnolipid. Keywords: Mangrove ecosystems, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biosurfactant, critical micelle concentration (CMC), FT-IR fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). African Journal of Biotechnology, ...

  1. Anesthesia for intellectually disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetizing an intellectually disabled patient is a challenge due to lack of cognition and communication which makes perioperative evaluation difficult. The presence of associated medical problems and lack of cooperation further complicates the anesthetic technique. An online literature search was performed using keywords anesthesia, intellectually disabled, and mentally retarded and relevant articles were included for review. There is scarcity of literature dealing with intellectually disabled patients. The present review highlights the anesthetic challenges, their relevant evidence-based management, and the role of caretakers in the perioperative period. Proper understanding of the associated problems along with a considerate and unhurried approach are the essentials of anesthetic management of these patients.

  2. Sexual rights and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2011-03-01

    This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled.

  3. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... learning and becoming an independent person. What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...

  4. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  5. Who occupies disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Pollard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Locating occupational therapy within gendered and racialized systems of power, the authors consider the intersectional nature of critical disability studies discourse and the need for occupational therapy to incorporate such values into practice. This article discusses ways in which occupational therapy as a profession and individual therapists can align with or resist the economic determination which has come to dominate medical systems. It considers some of the political background to the history of the profession and its relationship with power. This positioning of the profession is explored against the impact of neoliberal economic policy on health, rights, service delivery and disability, and against some key issues, the pressure of ageing populations and the positon of occupational therapists as women professionals. Current policies present a critical challenge to central occupational therapy tenets. Occupational therapists may find themselves working both in alliance with disabled people and disability activists, and against them.

  6. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  7. Disabilities and Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about learning more about kids who have disabilities.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  8. Disabilities - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese ... Iraqi Health Outreach Project: Social Security Disability (SSD) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) ...

  9. Disability and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk behaviors and higher rates of premature death. Secondary conditions Secondary conditions occur in addition to (and ... Provide evidence-based guidelines for assessment and treatment. Data and research Include people with disabilities in health ...

  10. Living with a disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Louise Norman; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Tjørnhøj-thomsen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    highlighted as affecting quality of life. The use of social tactics to avoid confrontation with certain aspects of their disability was common among participants. Conclusions: Across disabilities, caregiving, dependency, understanding and acceptance, and discrimination and prejudice were all important aspects......Purpose: We explored which shared aspects of social relations were considered important to the quality of life of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 years living with a disability. We examined how social relations were experienced as affecting quality of life and social participation. Materials...... and methods: Fifteen focus groups involving 48 persons with disabilities were conducted using photo elicitation, preference ranking and props. Focus group interviews were supplemented with seven individual interviews with individuals unable to participate in focus groups. All focus group interviews...

  11. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...

  12. Sports and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H

    2010-03-01

    Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social determinants of disability-based disadvantage in Solomon islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Alexandra; Jennaway, Megan; Manderson, Lenore; Fangalasuu, Judy; Dolaiano, Simon

    2018-04-01

    Development discourse widely recognises that disability is the result of economic and social processes and structures that fail to accommodate persons with disabilities. Empirical work on the relationship between disability and poverty however, conceptualize poverty through an economic resource lens in high-income countries. To address this conceptual gap this article uses a social determinants of health perspective to examine how socio-cultural, economic and political contexts shape disability-based disadvantage. This article draws upon ethnographic research and supplementary data collected using rapid assessment techniques in Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that the disability-poverty nexus and inequalities in health, wellbeing and quality of life must be understood within broader patterns of social vulnerability that are institutionalised in landownership and patterns of descent, gendered power relations and disability specific stigmas that preclude social and productive engagement . This article demonstrates how a social determinant of health perspective that closely examines lived experiences of disability provides critical analytical insights into the structural mechanisms that constitute disability-based disadvantage. This article provides foundation knowledge on which policies and further research to promote disability-inclusion and equity can be based.

  14. Rhamnolipids elicit defense responses and induce disease resistance against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic pathogens that require different signaling pathways in Arabidopsis and highlight a central role for salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lisa; Courteaux, Barbara; Hubert, Jane; Kauffmann, Serge; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan

    2012-11-01

    Plant resistance to phytopathogenic microorganisms mainly relies on the activation of an innate immune response usually launched after recognition by the plant cells of microbe-associated molecular patterns. The plant hormones, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and ethylene have emerged as key players in the signaling networks involved in plant immunity. Rhamnolipids (RLs) are glycolipids produced by bacteria and are involved in surface motility and biofilm development. Here we report that RLs trigger an immune response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) characterized by signaling molecules accumulation and defense gene activation. This immune response participates to resistance against the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We show that RL-mediated resistance involves different signaling pathways that depend on the type of pathogen. Ethylene is involved in RL-induced resistance to H. arabidopsidis and to P. syringae pv tomato whereas jasmonic acid is essential for the resistance to B. cinerea. SA participates to the restriction of all pathogens. We also show evidence that SA-dependent plant defenses are potentiated by RLs following challenge by B. cinerea or P. syringae pv tomato. These results highlight a central role for SA in RL-mediated resistance. In addition to the activation of plant defense responses, antimicrobial properties of RLs are thought to participate in the protection against the fungus and the oomycete. Our data highlight the intricate mechanisms involved in plant protection triggered by a new type of molecule that can be perceived by plant cells and that can also act directly onto pathogens.

  15. ISSUES ON DISABILITY ADVERTISING IMAGING IN MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Randjelovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A great many government organizations, charities, advocacy groups, consulting firms and media organizations are expending enormous amounts of resources because they all agree with the premise that media are a powerful educator for cultural values and attitudes. Social learning theory, cultivation and media dependency theory all support that premise, as does a body of work in the rehabilitation literature. In the small world of advertising the results of this study suggest that images of people with disabilities in advertising are a bigger part of the overall advertising environment than they were in 2001 despite the difficulties associated with contextual elements in an ad, and the public outrage/civil suits. But if we compare the appearance rate for AI advertising, as part of the total advertising environment, to the percentage of adults classified as disabled in the total U.S. population based, people with disabilities are very much under-represented (1.7% from this study as compared to 12% according to the 2009 Disability Compendium. If equal representation is the goal, we are not there yet. If acceptance of the use of disabled portrayals in general product advertising on the part of the advertising industry is the goal, then much progress has been made.

  16. Generalist genes and learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2005-07-01

    The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability--are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Integration of disabled people in an automated work process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Epple, S.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    Automation processes enter more and more into all areas of life and production. Especially people with disabilities can hardly keep step with this change. In sheltered workshops in Germany people with physical and mental disabilities get help with much dedication, to be integrated into the work processes. This work shows that cooperation between disabled people and industrial robots by means of industrial image processing can successfully result in the production of highly complex products. Here is described how high-pressure hydraulic pumps are assembled by people with disabilities in cooperation with industrial robots in a sheltered workshop. After the assembly process, the pumps are checked for leaks at very high pressures in a completely automated process.

  18. Disability and the Services for the Disabled in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Cambaz Ulas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey there are approximately 8.5 million (% 12.3 disabled people. While the ratio of orthopedic, visual, auditory, speech, and talking disabilities and mental disability is 2.6%, the ratio of the people who have chronic diseases is 9.7% In our country, by the beginning of 1982 Constitution, there have been a lot of legal regulations. If the services for disabled persons considered as social security-related legislation for care, healthcare, education, employment and practices; the legal regulation on the year 2005 (The Disability Law no. 5378 has covered many blankness and also evolved the services to the disabled people. However, despite these recent legal regulation it is questionable that if the services for the disabled are adequate or not. In this review, the services, which offered to the disabled people, are evaluated as the topics mentioned above. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 483-488

  19. Madness as disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-12-01

    How does society imagine mental illness? Does this shift radically over time and with different social attitudes as well as scientific discoveries about the origins and meanings of mental illness? What happens when we begin to think about mental illness as madness, as a malleable concept constantly shifting its meaning? We thus look at the meanings associated with 'general paralysis of the insane' in the nineteenth century and autism today in regard to disability. In this case study we examine the claims by scholars such as the anthropologist Emily Martin and the psychiatrist Kay Jamison as to the relationship between mental illness, disability and creativity. Today, the health sciences have become concerned with mental illness as a form of disability. How does this change the meaning of madness for practitioners and patients? © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Disability and 'care'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how the ‘care’ of able-bodied employees and managers (observers) affects their relationships with colleagues with cerebral palsy. Disability researchers have established that ‘help’ and ‘care’ may cause feelings of dependency with the recipient. However, few workplace studies...... have investigated the potential negative consequences of ‘caring for’ colleagues with disabilities. Through open-ended interviews conducted in 2013 in 13 Danish work organizations with 13 employees with cerebral palsy and 62 observers, the study examines how the relational aspect of ‘care’ may result...... in relationships between colleagues of ‘parent–child’ or ‘helper–helpless’. The study thus clarifies the inherent contradictions embedded in the dynamics of organizational behaviour in relation to employees with disabilities, namely that workplaces may hire a person with physical limitations (perhaps to deflect...

  1. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  2. Evaluation of Quality of Life, Functioning, Disability, and Work/School Productivity Following Treatment with an Extended-Release Hydrocodone Tablet Formulated with Abuse-Deterrence Technology: A 12-month Open-label Study in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Martin E; Zimmerman, Thomas R; Ma, Yuju; Malamut, Richard

    2017-02-01

    This phase 3 study evaluated quality of life, functioning, and productivity after treatment with extended-release (ER) hydrocodone formulated with CIMA ® Abuse-Deterrence Technology platform. Patients with chronic pain were rolled over from a 12-week placebo-controlled hydrocodone ER study or were newly enrolled. Hydrocodone ER doses were titrated (15 to 90 mg every 12 hours) to an analgesic dose, and patients received up to 52 weeks of open-label treatment. Assessments included Clinician Assessment of Patient Function (CAPF), Patient Assessment of Function (PAF), Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-Short Form (HPQ-SF). Of 330 enrolled patients, 291 composed the full analysis population. By week 4, ≥ 50% of patients showed improvement from baseline in all 5 CAPF domains (general activities, walking, work/daily living, relationships, and enjoyment of life) and 6 of 7 PAF domains (work attendance, work performance, walking, exercise, socializing, and enjoying life). Mean decreases from baseline of 2 to 3 points were noted for BPI-SF pain interference questions from week 4 through endpoint. Mean improvements from baseline to endpoint in SF-36 subscales ranged from 3.3 to 22.3, and SDS scores improved from moderate (4.8 to 5.1) to mild (2.5 to 2.8) disruptions in work/school, social life, and family life. At endpoint, mean HPQ-SF absolute absenteeism scores decreased from 13.6 to 10.0 hours lost/month and absolute presenteeism scores improved from 67.0 to 77.1. Patients receiving hydrocodone ER showed early numeric improvements in functioning that continued throughout this 12-month study. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  3. Web accessibility standards and disability: developing critical perspectives on accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Currently, dominant web accessibility standards do not respect disability as a complex and culturally contingent interaction; recognizing that disability is a variable, contrary and political power relation, rather than a biological limit. Against this background there is clear scope to broaden the ways in which accessibility standards are understood, developed and applied. Commentary. The values that shape and are shaped by legislation promote universal, statistical and automated approaches to web accessibility. This results in web accessibility standards conveying powerful norms fixing the relationship between technology and disability, irrespective of geographical, social, technological or cultural diversity. Web accessibility standards are designed to enact universal principles; however, they express partial and biopolitical understandings of the relation between disability and technology. These values can be limiting, and potentially counter-productive, for example, for the majority of disabled people in the "Global South" where different contexts constitute different disabilities and different experiences of web access. To create more robust, accessible outcomes for disabled people, research and standards practice should diversify to embrace more interactional accounts of disability in different settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating accessible experiences is an essential aspect of rehabilitation. Web standards promote universal accessibility as a property of an online resource or service. This undervalues the importance of the user's intentions, expertize, their context, and the complex social and cultural nature of disability. Standardized, universal approaches to web accessibility may lead to counterproductive outcomes for disabled people whose impairments and circumstances do not meet Western disability and accessibility norms. Accessible experiences for rehabilitation can be enhanced through an additional focus on holistic approaches to

  4. Disability Studies, Disabled People and the Struggle for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mike; Barnes, Colin

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the relationship between the emergence of disability studies and the struggle for meaningful inclusion for disabled people with particular reference to the work of a pivotal figure in these developments: Len Barton. It is argued that the links between disability activism and the academy were responsible for the emergence of…

  5. Encouraging the Development of Disability Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy J.; Assadi, Jennifer L.; Herriott, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    The authors advocate for a constructionist interpretation of disability, grounded in a social justice perspective, by discussing disability paradigms, factors that influence attitudes and attitude change regarding disability, and disability ally development and behaviors.

  6. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  7. Disability Inclusion in the Workplace

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-28

    People with disabilities in America are twice as likely to be unemployed than people without disabilities – a fact that can be eliminated. Dr. Shannon Griffin-Blake tells us how we can give people with disabilities an opportunity to thrive in the workforce.  Created: 12/28/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 12/28/2016.

  8. Understanding Intellectual Disability through Rasopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...

  9. Disability Inclusion in the Workplace

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    People with disabilities in America are twice as likely to be unemployed than people without disabilities – a fact that can be eliminated. Dr. Shannon Griffin-Blake tells us how we can give people with disabilities an opportunity to thrive in the workforce.

  10. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A.; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium" and its compliment, the "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement," are publications of statistics about people with disabilities and about the government programs which serve them. The "Compendium" and "Supplement" are designed to serve as a summary of government…

  11. Disability Management in Small Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, David

    1991-01-01

    Notes that American research has paid relatively little attention to prospects for adapting disability management practices to financial and management environment of smaller employers. Compares large and small firms in terms of employer disability practices and characteristics of disabled workers; discusses barriers to rehabilitation and…

  12. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  13. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for loving and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well-being, have been denied. This loss has negatively affected people with intellectual disabilities in gender identity, friendships, self-esteem, body image ...

  14. Othering, ableism and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    in 13 different work organisations. The primary finding of the study is that observers spontaneously refer to other ‘different’ people (e.g., transvestites, homosexuals, immigrants) when talking about a colleague with impairments. This finding suggests that disability is simultaneously a discursive...... discourses of ableism (which automatically produce difference) and tolerance and inclusiveness (which automatically render it problematic to talk about difference)....

  15. Rural People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... actually be at an advantage in terms of effective health information exchange in care coordination, due to local ... those patients with a disability had received an exercise recommendation at a doctor ... sponsors health promotion workshops designed to be provided by organizations ...

  16. Dyslexia: Disability or Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Redford, a veteran 5th grade teacher, addresses the question of whether, in the case of students with dyslexia, "it's time to ditch the disability classification and replace it with more positive language that embraces and appreciates [the condition] as a 'neurodifference' instead." Her answer is no--at least in the current education…

  17. Youth with Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Kooiker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Jeugd met beperkingen. Taking part in society in an ordinary way is not self-evident for children and young people with a physical or intellectual disability. They often encounter more obstacles in going to school, finding a job and in their leisure time than other people of

  18. Piracetam: Its Possible Mode of Action in Children with Learning Disabilities and Its Effect on "in vitro" Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, R.; Bester, M. J.; da Silva, A.; Motsoane, N. A.; Marx, J.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2006-01-01

    The use of pharmaceutical products such as Piracetam (Nootropil[R]) for the treatment of learning disabilities is becoming increasingly prevalent, and some studies have shown successful treatment of learning disabilities in children. This research article will discuss traditional uses of Piracetam, as well as uses in learning disabilities, with…

  19. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...... their children's subjectivities in ways that diminish their personhood. The analysis identifies Buddhist notions of karma, everyday ethics of reciprocity, and party-state discourses of productivity as particularly important forces structuring such social responses to human impairment....

  20. Is Disability a Health Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm MacLachlan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We welcome Andrew Haig's critique of our paper, "Disability & Health: A research agenda" in Social Inclusion. Our paper sought to identify research priorities to better understand, provide enhanced services and a better quality of life for people with disabilities, particularly in relation to their health and wellbeing. Haig's critique makes several important points that deserve serious consideration. His comments reflect a view of the relationship between disability and health which is different from the one we have espoused. Specifically, Haig argues that (a disability is a health problem, (b medical rehabilitation should be separated from Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR, and (c the evidence base for medical rehabilitation is much stronger than for CBR. We address each of these points below arguing that while some types of disability clearly result from health problems; often disability is not experienced as a health problem; and sometimes, disability in interaction with restricted access is the cause of health problems.

  1. Pressing Issues of Disability Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabunova Aleksandra Anatol’evna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disability employment is a major tool for creating inclusive society. In Russia, the main obstacles to employment of the disabled are imperfect statutory measures aimed at improving competitiveness of this population group in the labor market; low prestige of jobs for people with disabilities; the employers’ unwillingness to hire disabled people. The purpose of this study is to determine the barriers disabled people face on the labor market and to justify the expedience of investing public funds in activities aimed at promoting disabled employment. Works of Russian and foreign authors, national statistics, results of sociological surveys of the population and people with disabilities conducted on the territory of the Vologda Oblast in 2013–2015 represent the information base of the study. The article reviews the impact of employment quotas for the disabled; in particular, it has been established that the number of the employed under such quotas during the period from 2008 to 2014 has declined. Based on the results of domestic research the authors have determined the reasons underlying lack of effectiveness of this social policy tool. One of the problems of promoting disability employment is training and re-training of the disabled. According to official statistics, only 38% of the employed disabled who live in a city are employed in the area of their specialty. At the same time, the results of research h of Russian authors show that training of an expert (even with consideration of their health capacities pays off within 4 years. Using the example of the Vologda Oblast, the authors show that annual tax revenues in employment of the disabled to jobs with wages close to the regional average may reach 33 million rubles. They also estimate the approximate regional cost of workplace equipment for the disabled. Finally, the authors propose a list of key courses of action on increasing competitiveness of the disabled in the labor market

  2. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  3. Prostitution, disability and prohibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-01-01

    Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing...... sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three...... arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception....

  4. Prostitution, disability and prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-06-01

    Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  6. Programs for Children with Specific Learning Disabilities. P.L. 91-230, Title VI-G. Final Report on Products and Results of Year's Work, July 1, 1973 to June 30, 1974. Fail Save Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974

    Presented is the final report of the Learning Disability Fail-Save Continuum Project, designed to provide identification, assessment, and placement services to 378 elementary and secondary level students. Outlined in Section I are the following project components: major revisions from the original proposal (such as implementation of the itinerant…

  7. Co-production and Pilot of a Structured Interview Using Talking Mats® to Survey the Television Viewing Habits and Preferences of Adults and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunning, Karen; Alder, Ruth; Proudman, Lydia; Wyborn, Harriet

    2017-01-01

    Background: Capturing the views of people with learning disabilities is not straightforward. Talking Mats® has been used successfully to solicit the views of such individuals. The aim was to co-produce an interview schedule using Talking Mats® on the subject of television-viewing habits and preferences of adults and young people with learning…

  8. Written Narratives of Normal and Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doris J.; Grant, James O.

    1989-01-01

    Writing samples of 295 primary school children improved in productivity, syntax, and level of abstraction from grade one through three. The writing of learning-disabled children who were matched with average reading ability primary-school children indicated no significant differences in productivity, but problems in syntax (especially morphology),…

  9. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The Neoliberal Circulation of Affects: Happiness, accessibility and the capacitation of disability as wheelchair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fritsch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The International Symbol of Access (ISA produces, capacitates, and debilitates disability in particular ways and is grounded by a happy affective economy that is embedded within neoliberal capitalism. This production of disability runs counter to the dismantling of ableism and compulsory able-bodiedness. In charting the development of the modern wheelchair, the rise of disability rights in North America, and the emergence of the ISA as a universally acceptable representation of access for disabled people, I argue that this production of disability serves a capacitating function for particular forms of impairment. These capacitated forms are celebrated through a neoliberal economy of inclusion. I conclude by critically approaching the happy affects of the ISA, including the way in which the symbol creates a sense of cruel optimism for disabled people.

  11. 78 FR 26509 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... inclusion of individuals with disabilities on the teams that develop the cloud and Web technologies... Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects... Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers...

  12. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  13. Poverty, disability and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez Ríos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that persons with disabilities represent 15% of the world population. There is a strong link between poverty and disability. Population with disabilities is among the most disadvantaged and discriminated. However, development economic theories have forgotten essential matters about this population, contributing towards their invisibility and poverty. The Capability Approach from a Human Rights based approach brings us a new dimension. The extraordinary costs that arise from a disability and from the psychological, physical and social barriers that persons with disabilities face, contribute to their poverty, lack of freedom and vulneration of human rights, as put forward by current studies on this subject. International co-operation becomes a very valuable tool to be used for the promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities and overcoming poverty.

  14. Horrible Heroes: Liberating Alternative Visions of Disability in Horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Hall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding disability requires understanding its social construction, and social construction can be read in cultural products. In this essay, I look to one major locus for images of persons with disabilities—horror. Horror films and fiction use disability imagery to create and augment horror. I first situate my understanding of disability imagery in the horror genre using a case study read through the work of Julia Kristeva. But, I go on to argue that trademark moves in the horror genre, which typically support ableist assumptions, can be used to subvert ableism and open space for alternative social and political thinking about disability. I point to the work of Tim Burton and Stephen King to demonstrate these possibilities in horror.

  15. The politics of cinematic representation of disability: "the psychiatric gaze".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Ranjita

    2014-01-01

    Social representations as cultural products rooted in praxis are considered to play dominant role in the structuring of identities or self representations. It is a common belief that people with disabilities analyze their experiences in light of the existing meanings and practices prevalent in society. The paper addresses the matrices of recurring themes in representation of disability and discourses of "normalcy" in films in the nineteenth and twentieth century invoking reductionistic attitude, whereby "disability" becomes a condition subject to neurotypical display and narrative coding in the films in question in the context of India. It will especially seek to analyze the theoretical outlook based on the social model of disability, a perspective that includes specific analyses of the representation of people like themselves in popular culture. A systematic and thorough review of 26 Hindi films ranging from the 1960s to 2010 and six English movies. Apart from these, several books and articles have also been critically reviewed. The paper concludes with the argument that the idea of disability in mainstream contemporary cinema has been created and perceived as a speculative fantasy and for public consumption, thus reflecting the current status of people with disabilities as the present preferred "enigmatic" condition. Implications for Rehabilitation Films play significant role in communicating characters which have deep impact on peoples' perspective of persons with disabilities. Filmmakers need to adopt more intensely researched and more sensitized approach in creating movies centering on people with disabilities. Films need to focus more on the potentialities rather than the shortcomings of people with disabilities. Filmmakers need adequate training in order to recognize the needs of the concerned population and adopt appropriate resources and interventions to address various issues for their rehabilitation into the mainstream society.

  16. Feminism and Women with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA LAURA SERRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Women with disabilities are doubly discriminated against and socially excluded: through gender and disability. In order to perform an in-depth analysis of their actual situation, it is necessary to understand which models have been able to provide legal and political answers to this issue. Hence, the feminist model can be identified, on the basis of which we might elaborate upon its possible ties with the social model of disability. This study shows the correctness of feminist conclusions when dealing with inequality between men and women, but it also proves the inaccurateness of feminism in its approach on women with disabilities.

  17. Disabilities Information Flow: A Disabilities Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bin; Allison, Colin; Nicholl, J. Ross; Moodley, Luke; Roberts, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The Disabilities Information Flow (DIF) project at the University of St Andrews has sought to provide a means of efficiently managing all student disabilities information within the institution and provide appropriate role-based service interfaces for all staff who need to routinely interact with this information. This paper describes the software…

  18. The World Report on Disability and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Officer, Alana; Shakespeare, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The "World Report on Disability" was requested by the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO). Because disability is broader than health, WHO partnered with the World Bank. The "World Report" was published in 2011 and provides a comprehensive scientific analysis on the global situation…

  19. Prevalence of disability in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Banurekha; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Mehendale, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Information on disability is essential for the government to formulate policies, allocate adequate resources and implement appropriate programmes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of disability and describe the types of disability by gender, age and geographical regions in Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the 2011 Census cross-sectional survey data of Tamil Nadu. Age-adjusted disability rates and disability rates per 100 000 population were calculated. There were 1 179 963 disabled individuals in Tamil Nadu in 2011, a disability rate of 1635 per 100 000 population. Disability in movement, hearing and sight individually accounted for 24%, 19% and 11% of the total disability, respectively. Sixteen districts had disability rates above the state average. As age advanced, disability rates increased; the highest disability rate of 2533 per 100 000 was among people aged 60 years and above. The disability rates were higher in males compared to females (1819 v. 1451 per 100 000). Rural areas had higher disability areas compared to urban (1670 v. 1599 per 100 000). Currently married, working populations and literate populations had lower disability rates. Disability rate in the Scheduled Castes was higher at 1763 per 100 000 compared to the Scheduled Tribes and other social groups. Multiple disability was high in the age groups 0-19 years and 60 years and above. Physical or mental disability was observed in 1.6% of the population of Tamil Nadu. Research is warranted to identify underlying causes and interventions to reduce the burden of disability in the state.

  20. Just What Is the Disability Perspective on Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Tom

    2016-05-01

    In the helpful article "Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology," Joseph Stramondo adds to the critique of actually existing bioethics and explains why disability activists and scholars so often find fault with the arguments of bioethicists. He is careful not to stereotype either community-rightly, given that bioethicists endorse positions as disparate as utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, and feminist ethics, among others. Although Stramondo never explicitly mentions utilitarians or liberals, it seems probable that these are the main targets of his discontent. The disability community, as he concedes, is also a broad church. Yet for this reason, I do not believe that you can read off positions on bioethics questions from either disability embodiment or disability organization affiliation. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  1. The Disabled: Ready, Willing and Able.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act, which bans discrimination against the disabled by private-sector employers. Describes the hiring practices and experiences of several companies that have employed disabled people. (JOW)

  2. Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest #407. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)

  3. Developing the content of a locomotor disability scale for adults in Bangladesh: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ilias; Clarke, Lynda; Ploubidis, George B

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh has an estimated 17 million adults with disabilities. A significant proportion of them are believed to have locomotor disabilities. There are over 300 non-governmental organizations providing different types of rehabilitation services to them. However, there is no locally developed and validated locomotor disability measurement scale in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to develop a locomotor disability scale with disability indicators suitable for adults in Bangladesh. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities to generate scale items. At the second stage, cognitive interviews were conducted with 12 purposively selected adults with locomotor disabilities in order to refine the measurement questions and response categories. Data were analysed using the framework technique- identifying, abstracting, charting and matching themes across the interviews. For a locomotor disability scale, 70 activities (disability indicators) were identified: 37 mobility activities, 9 activities of daily living, 17 work/productivity activities and 7 leisure activities. Cognitive interviews revealed that when asking the respondents to rate their difficulty in performing the activities, instead of just mentioning the activity name, such as taking a bath or shower, a detailed description of the activity and response options were necessary to ensure consistent interpretation of the disability indicators and response options across all respondents. Identifying suitable disability indicators was the first step in developing a locomotor disability scale for adults in Bangladesh. Interviewing adults with locomotor disabilities in Bangladesh ensured that the locomotor disability scale is of relevance to them and consequently it has excellent content validity. Further research is needed to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale.

  4. Twenty-Five Year Survival of Children with Intellectual Disability in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Nembhard, Wendy N; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate survival up to early adulthood for children with intellectual disability and compare their risk of mortality with that of children without intellectual disability. This was a retrospective cohort study of all live births in Western Australia between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 2010. Children with an intellectual disability (n = 10 593) were identified from the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers Database. Vital status was determined from linkage to the Western Australian Mortality database. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates and 95% CIs were computed by level of intellectual disability. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with those without intellectual disability, children with intellectual disability had a 6-fold increased risk of mortality at 1-5 years of age (adjusted HR [aHR] = 6.0, 95%CI: 4.8, 7.6), a 12-fold increased risk at 6-10 years of age (aHR = 12.6, 95% CI: 9.0, 17.7) and a 5-fold increased risk at 11-25 years of age (aHR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). Children with severe intellectual disability were at even greater risk. No difference in survival was observed for Aboriginal children with intellectual disability compared with non-Aboriginal children with intellectual disability. Although children with intellectual disability experience higher mortality at all ages compared with those without intellectual disability, the greatest burden is for those with severe intellectual disability. However, even children with mild to moderate intellectual disability have increased risk of death compared with unaffected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Disability disclosure and workplace accommodations among youth with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Leck, Joanne; Shen, Winny; Stinson, Jennifer

    2018-03-20

    Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach. Our results showed the timing of when youth disclosed their disability to their employer depended on disability type and severity, comfort level, type of job, and industry. Youth's strategies and reasons for disclosure included advocating for their needs, being knowledgeable about workplace rights, and accommodation solutions. Facilitators for disclosure included job preparation, self-confidence, and self-advocacy skills, and having an inclusive work environment. Challenges to disability disclosure included the fear of stigma and discrimination, lack of employer's knowledge about disability and accommodations, negative past experiences of disclosing, and not disclosing on your own terms. Our findings highlight that youth encounter several challenges and barriers to disclosing their condition and requesting workplace accommodations. The timing and process for disclosing is complex and further work is needed to help support youth with disclosing their condition. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and employers should emphasize the importance of mentoring and leadership programs to give youth the confidence and self-advocacy skills needed to disclose and ask for accommodations in the workplace. Clinicians should advocate for the inclusion of youth with disabilities in the workforce and educate employers on the importance of doing so. Youth with disabilities need more opportunities for employment training and particularly how to disclose their disability and request workplace accommodations.

  6. Review: Disabled Addicted Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Hemmati

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Women have suffered from drug abuse for conturies, although formal Treatment assistance for women has been recognized as important only during the past few decades. The nature and underlying reasons for women's drug abuse differ from men’s behavior in many ways. It is finally understood that research on men will not simply translate into effective solutions for women as well. Here deal with the many issues that can arise in working with disabled women suffered from drug abuse because biologically, Culturally, and socially, their experience is different from that of men and other women and key theme For this discourse is that a woman who suffered from drug abuse is first and foremost a woman. Disabled women also have specific issues that must acknowledge and incorporate into the counseling, social work and other experince, so, here review is based on more than 25 years of the collective experience and firsthand knowledge of Monique Cohen and their Counselors at The CASPAR outpatient Clinic in Cambridge, Massachusett (2000 about women with drug abuse and alcoholism. The clinic Provides omprehensive substance abuse treatment to Individuals and Families struggling with either one or multiple addictions.

  7. Intellectual disability and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, C; Picard, S

    2011-04-01

    The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Disability evaluation of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, C V

    2001-08-01

    These cases represent individuals who feel they have a severe impairment and are "disabled." They have been labeled with fibromyalgia. They are truly distressed. Their symptoms, their courses, are more chronic and refractory than those of medically ill patients, and they are high users of medical services, laboratory investigations, and surgical procedures. These patients see multiple providers simultaneously and frequently switch physicians. They are difficult to care for, and they reject psychosocial factors as an influence on their symptoms. Such persons "see themselves as victims worthy of a star appearance on the Oprah Winfrey show. A sense of bitterness emerges...." Shorter, a historian, believes that fibromyalgia is "heaven-sent to doctors as a diagnostic label for pain patients who display an important neurotic component in their illness. Our culture increasingly encourages patients to conceive vague and nonspecific symptoms as evidence of real disease and to seek specialist help for them; and the rising ascendancy of the media and the breakdown of the family encourage patients to acquire the fixed belief that they have a given illness...." Regarding the finding of "disability," this is a social construct, and many authors believe it is society and the judicial system who must decide who can work. To remain objective, the physician should report the objective clinical information. Physicians need not and should not sit in judgment of the veracity of another human being.

  9. Disability and the Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system…

  10. Disability Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…

  11. Disability due to gouty arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2012-01-01

    Gout-related disability is an underestimated and understudied problem. More qualitative and quantitative studies are needed that examine the concept of disability in gout and its impact on patients’ lives, both during and between disease flares. Moreover, future studies should try to identify

  12. Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, J. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…

  13. Disability and the Open City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Brendan

    2001-01-01

    Contributes to the social theorization of physical access for people with disabilities by critically exploring how Ulrich Beck's "reflexive modernisation" thesis might be applied to the geographical understanding of disability. Demonstrates how Beck's theoretical framework can be used to enrich people's understanding of the genesis and mediation…

  14. Understanding intellectual disability through RASopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disability Case Adjudication and Review System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DICARS is the legacy system supporting business processes in the Disability Quality Branches (DQBs). It supports quality reviews of DDS disability determinations....

  16. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  17. Defining disability: metaphysical not political.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2013-08-01

    Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British

  18. Impact of a film portrayal of a police officer with spinal cord injury on attitudes towards disability: a media effects experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Pennycott, Andrew; Fellinghauer, Bernd A G

    2014-01-01

    The portrayal of disabled people in the media can influence the public's perception of disability in both positive and negative ways. In this article, an experimental before and after design is used to determine the effects of a short film on the attitudes of non-disabled and disabled persons concerning employment and productivity of persons with disabilities. Three questions were posed to 480 study participants prior to and following a short film featuring a police officer with paraplegia. Linear mixed models were used to assess the effects of time point and disability status on the responses. The non-disabled participants' ratings of eligibility for employment of a paraplegic man and estimates of the employment rate of disabled people were significantly enhanced following the film. Nevertheless, the film had no significant effects on the ratings given by participants with disabilities in terms of eligibility, employment rate or productivity. This investigation highlights the potentially important influence of media portrayal and coverage of people with disabilities on attitudes of the public concerning disability. Restrictions in participation may result from an interaction of persons with impairments with an environment that is dominated by negative attitudes towards disability The portrayal of disabled people in the media can influence the public's attitudes towards disability in both positive and negative ways In this experimental study, attitudes of the general public were significantly improved following viewing a short film featuring a positive media portrayal of a police officer with paraplegia.

  19. "People of the Apokalis": Spatial Disability and the Bhopal Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers Indra Sinha's Animal's People (2007, a fictional re-telling of the Union Carbide Bhopal disaster, as a productive site of mutual engagement between postcolonial studies and disability studies, two fields rarely in dialogue.  Dominant models of disability, I argue, do not translate to formerly colonial sites and/or sites that bear the burden of global capitalism.  The uneven processes of globalization—which produce disabling environments—necessitate that we revise established conceptions of disability, which are derived largely from US/UK contexts.  I explore a socio-spatial model that emphasizes the necessity of specific locational axes in figurations of disability.  This enables more flexible understandings of embodiment, which may shift and be shifted by the particularities of space.  A victim of the disaster, Animal--the novel's protagonist--navigates Bhopal’s streets on all fours.  His unique spatial imaginary, contingent on his particular form of embodiment, produces a local and embodied knowledge that foregrounds points of convergence between anti-colonial, anti-capitalist, and disability politics.   Keywords: postcolonialism, globalization, Bhopal India, Union Carbide, neoliberalism, transnational, contemporary English literature, industrial disaster, environmental studies

  20. The risk of developing a work disability across the adulthood years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Mark R; Hirschl, Thomas A

    2014-04-01

    Work disability has implications for individual health, national health care expenditures, economic productivity, and the social safety net. Knowledge about population dynamics and risk factors associated with work disability are not delineated by cross-sectional research. In this paper the authors estimate, for the first time, the prospective lifetime risk that a head of household will report a work disability. Using forty years of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we estimate the lifetime risk of developing a work disability and conduct a logistic regression analysis to examine personal characteristics that increase the likelihood of a self-reported work disability. Life table methods are used to calculate lifetime prevalence, and to compute covariate effects. Between the ages of 25 and 60, over half (54.6%) of U.S. household heads will self-report a work disability, and approximately one quarter (24.1%) will self-report a severe work disability. Persons with income below 150% of the federal poverty level, or lower educational attainment, have an increased likelihood of reporting a work disability. This study finds that more than half of U.S. household heads will self-report a work disability, which is a higher prevalence than in existing cross-sectional estimates. The social context for this finding is that work disability is a major driver of spending on health care services and the social safety net. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mental Health Following Acquisition of Disability in Adulthood--The Impact of Wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne Marie; Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony Daniel; Bentley, Rebecca; Milner, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of a disability in adulthood has been associated with a reduction in mental health. We tested the hypothesis that low wealth prior to disability acquisition is associated with a greater deterioration in mental health than for people with high wealth. We assess whether level of wealth prior to disability acquisition modifies this association using 12 waves of data (2001-2012) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey--a population-based cohort study of working-age Australians. Eligible participants reported at least two consecutive waves of disability preceded by at least two consecutive waves without disability (1977 participants, 13,518 observations). Fixed-effects linear regression was conducted with a product term between wealth prior to disability (in tertiles) and disability acquisition with the mental health component score of the SF-36 as the outcome. In models adjusted for time-varying confounders, there was evidence of negative effect measure modification by prior wealth of the association between disability acquisition and mental health (interaction term for lowest wealth tertile: -2.2 points, 95% CI -3.1 points, -1.2, pwealth was associated with a greater decline in mental health following disability acquisition (-3.3 points, 95% CI -4.0, -2.5) than high wealth (-1.1 points, 95% CI -1.7, -0.5). The findings suggest that low wealth prior to disability acquisition in adulthood results in a greater deterioration in mental health than among those with high wealth.

  2. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  3. Disability, sameness, and equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to research examining the work situations of employees with disabilities. This is performed by demonstrating how able-bodied norms affect the work lives of employees with cerebral palsy in Danish work organizations. Thus, this article investigates how able-bodied managers...... and employees talk about their co-workers with cerebral palsy and examines the narratives of diversity among able-bodied managers and employees when they discuss the work situation of their colleagues with cerebral palsy. The empirical point of departure is six weeks of participant observations in two work...... organizations along with interviews conducted in 13 work organizations with 19 managers and 43 colleagues who work with an employee with cerebral palsy on a daily basis. The article finds two dominating narratives regarding diversity that have to do with being either ‘different but the same’ or ‘just different...

  4. Intellectual Disability and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  5. Purification of rhamnolipid using colloidal magnetic nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phospholipid-coated colloidal magnetic nanoparticles with mean magnetite core size of 9 nm are shown to be effective ion exchange media for the recovery and purification of Rhaminolipid from culture mixtures. These particles have high adsorption capacity for purification (an order of magnitude larger than the best ...

  6. Rehabilitation time before disability pension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Støver Morten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. Methods A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. Results The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. Conclusions There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.

  7. Rehabilitation time before disability pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støver, Morten; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Sund, Erik R; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2012-10-30

    The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.

  8. Disabled people - rehabilitation with sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport was used to complement  therapy in original form, improve of motor patterns and reeducate functions of people with disabilities. With a passing of time, sport evolved to integrated part of rehabilitation as an element of improvement. Moreover, he became as a tool to improve the social integration of people which finished the treatment or/and have deficits. We can notice the huge sport development of people with disabilities, which was initiated by Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s who claimed that view of sport is equal for people with disabilities and able-bodied people. The quality of physical activity of people with disabilities is indicated by motor preparation, training and sport (wellness, nutritionist, sport and exercise psychologist which currently is all the same except individual approach to particular dysfunction of the person with disability. Sport allow to develop not only physical sphere, but also teaches social integration, teamwork skills, self-discipline, improves the quality of life and outcome of the  ADL scale (activities of daily living scale of people with disabilities which do sport actively. The variety of sports disciplines and ability to use appropriate orthopedic stuff allows to activate people with every kind of disabilities and dysfunction.

  9. Disability Discrimination and the Right of Disabled Persons to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which ... disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. ... their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it ...

  10. Disability Discrimination and the right of disabled persons to access

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    StudentLab

    jurisprudence of the United States of America as well as to guidelines provided ... gender discrimination, but also disability discrimination especially, in the workplace, ..... Montalti and Bellengère "Is a right to affirmative action the solution to the.

  11. The Global Context of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Rourke - Lang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed

  12. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  13. CNC Technology Brings out Hidden Talents in Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintz, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience teaching production technology to special education students at Hialeah Middle School in Miami-Dade County, Florida. He has had many students who clearly had talent in graphics and design that went unrealized because of their physical disabilities. He has seen students with an enormous amount of…

  14. Bad Bedfellows: Disability Sex Rights and Viagra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The disability rights movement grounds material critiques of the treatment of people with disabilities in a social constructionist perspective, locating disability in the social rather than physical realm, and demedicalizing the concept of disability. However, this conceptualization is threatened by the medicalization of non-normative erections as…

  15. From "Learning Disability to Intellectual Disability"--Perceptions of the Increasing Use of the Term "Intellectual Disability" in Learning Disability Policy, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…

  16. Migraine disability and its recognition and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dowson

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe main aim of this thesis is to investigate the clinical significance of headache-related disability; the clinical importance of assessing disability, the means of recognising the patients with severe disability and the development of new ways to assess headache-related disability

  17. Toward a Theory of Disability and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschick, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a theory of the connections between disabilities and gender, arguing that because bodies are so central to gender, people with disabilities are vulnerable to being denied gender recognition. Though both sexes experience devaluation and discrimination when disabled, being disabled further diminishes women's already devalued status. For…

  18. Can Disability Studies and Psychology Join Hands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkin, Rhoda; Pledger, Constance

    2003-01-01

    Although the field of disabilities studies incorporates psychology within its interdisciplinary purview, it embodies a distinct perspective consonant with the new paradigm of disability. Although psychology has begun embracing diversity, disability remains marginalized. Examines the foundational ideas of disability studies, training in disability…

  19. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  20. How Are Learning Disabilities Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Research Goals Activities and Advances Scientific Articles Find a Study Resources and Publications For Patients and Consumers For Researchers and Health Care Providers Home Health A to Z List Learning Disabilities Condition Information How is it diagnosed? Share ...

  1. Science Careers and Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda, Sue; Cremer, Bob

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes proceedings and student experiences at the 1980 Science Career Workshop for Physically Disabled Students at the Lawrence Hall of Science (University of California). Includes a description of the key-note speaker's topics, and other workshop activities. (DS)

  2. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP ... LABOR DEPARTMENT Español A to Z Index Agencies Office of Inspector General Leadership Team Contact Us Subscribe ...

  3. The Transformation of Disabilities Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the five major characteristics of the transformation era and describes how intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities organizations can apply specific transformation strategies associated with each characteristic. Collectively, the characteristics and strategies provide a framework for transformation…

  4. Theme: Serving Individuals with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Marty; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for…

  5. Learning Disabilities Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provides the most current information on research, practice, theory, issues, and trends to broaden understanding and improve ... These services make LDA the leading resource for information on learning disabilities. Learn more about: Auditory Processing ... Processing Disorder ...

  6. Leadership and learning disability nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Mark; Aspinall, Susan-Louise

    Leadership is seen as critical for the transformation of learning disability services and has been further emphasised since the publication of Transforming Care, the Department of Health's response to the review of events at Winterbourne View. What is clear within learning disability nursing and services is the demand for leadership in the quest for improving the quality and effectiveness of services across health and social care. This article discusses the challenges for the undergraduate learning disability nurse with the recommendation to pursue a framework that promotes and focuses on integrating knowledge transfer into services for people with a learning disability. It explores practice change using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, and the example of the involvement of service users in practitioner training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent and capacity to consent for treatment.

  7. About Learning Disabilities and NF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complica- tions of NF1 include: • Learning disabilities: Although intelligence is usually within the normal range, 50-60% ... and the ability to access meaning from the printed word. 5 Recent findings suggest that a high ...

  8. SOCIAL JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazire Diker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to question the living conditions of disabled people in the 21st century from  the framework of social justice. The concept of “social justice” has a long history, influenced  by the works of numerous writers including Rawls (1971, Miller (1999, Reeves (2005, Fainstein (2009, Marcuse (2009 and Harvey (1992, 2009 and by the recent debates on  inequality, diversity, segregation, exclusion, and discrimination. The debates on segregation, exclusion and discrimination are generally focused on inequalities in terms of economic,  ethnic and gender dimensions; however, in these debates, there is very little reference to unequal opportunities of disabled people. On the other hand, the diversity issue is generally discussed with respect to ethnic and cultural elements, again with very little concern for the  rights of disabled people. In many developing countries, including Turkey, a legal framework  for addressing disability issues has started to be put in place. Awareness among governments and society of the needs and rights of people with disabilities is growing. In the  last decade in Turkey, the difficulties faced by disabled people have started to be taken into  consideration seriously. Before that, the only information about the disabled population could  be obtained from General Population Census in Turkey. In 2002 “Turkey Disability Survey” was carried out collectively by the State Institute of Statistics and the Presidency of  Administration on Disabled People. In this survey, it has been targeted to estimate the number of disabled people and comprehend their socio-economic characteristics, their  problems in social life, expectations, types and causes of disability, regional differences and also the proportion of population having chronic illnesses. After this survey, many projects  have started to be realized in order to propose strategies for eliminating discrimination in  Turkey. In this paper, we will

  9. Analysing the disability- sexuality controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Sibanda

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality is one of the many phenomena which are least openly discussed particularly in the African culture. Sexuality is conceived variously in different cultures and disability is seen as a threat to sexuality in many of the cultures. Meanwhile, sexuality is regarded as a central theme in the development of self-esteem and self-identity since it has been conceived within the bodily perfection and bodily beauty complexes. Thus, the way sexuality is conceived for people with disabilities form...

  10. Supporting Children with Learning Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    John k. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to...

  11. Information Access for Disabled Students

    OpenAIRE

    Cypaite, Asta; Šerkšnien, Justina; Rudžioniene, Jurgita

    2008-01-01

    Disabled students who makes relatively small part of the academic society are in risk to disappear among all other students, due to their communication and mobility difficulties have less possibilities to satisfy their needs, ensuring their rights to qualitative studies, equal opportunities in the labor market and social integration. A topic about information accessibility for disabled students is extremely important because of their information exclusion in their study process at the un...

  12. Designing Functional Clothes for Persons with Locomotor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curteza Antonela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The life quality improvement issue is a problem of national and international interest. This acquires total different values when it is to refer to a series of disadvantaged categories, that is the persons with locomotor disabilities. It is an inevitable social responsibility to create equal opportunities for disabled people, to prevent any intentional or unintentional discrimination that they face and apply positive discrimination if necessary to improve their living standards and to let them have an equal share from social development as productive individuals of society.

  13. Mood disorders in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Anne D

    2006-09-01

    This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.

  14. Technical Evaluation Report 37: Assistive Software for Disabled Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Baggaley

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports in this series (#32 and 36 have discussed online software features of value to disabled learners in distance education. The current report evaluates four specific assistive software products with useful features for visually and hearing impaired learners: ATutor, ACollab, Natural Voice, and Just Vanilla. The evaluative criteria discussed include the purpose, uses, costs, and features of each software product, all considered primarily from the accessibility perspective.

  15. Workplace disability in migraine: an Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, D; Genco, S; Perini, F

    2004-10-01

    Workplace disability due to migraine has not been extensively researched in non-English speaking countries. We assessed the repercussions of headache, and particularly of migraine, on work in a sample of employees from an Italian company (Bulgari). Information was obtained through a self-answering questionnaire in "all headaches" sufferers, and through direct interview in migraine sufferers (diagnosis according to IHS criteria). Headache frequency, pain intensity and headache-related disability were higher in migraineurs than in "all headaches" sufferers. About a quarter of migraineurs missed at least one day in the three months prior to the interview due to headache, and around 10% lost two or more days over the same period. Moore than 50% of migraineurs reported 1-7 days per month at work with headache, with reduction in productivity level by 50% or more in 15% of respondents. Our data confirmed that headaches, and particularly migraine, cause a considerable reduction in workplace productivity. Workplace interventions to effectively manage migraine are needed.

  16. 77 FR 8234 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... seeks to: (1) Improve the quality and utility of disability and rehabilitation research; (2) determine...; (3) identify research gaps; (4) identify mechanisms of integrating research and practice; and (5... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-- Disability...

  17. Production and Structural Characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus Derived Biosurfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepansh; Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Chauhan, Nikhil; Bansal, Anshul; Procha, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm−1 pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL−1. Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL−1 biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR (1H and 13C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. PMID:25506070

  18. BIOSURFACTANTS PRODUCTION BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa USING SOYBEAN OIL AS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venty Suryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization condition of the biosurfactants production by P. aeruginosa using soybean oil as substrate has been examined. The media containing 10% v/v of the soybean oil and 6 days of the fermentation time was the optimum condition for the biosurfactants production. The extraction technique using different solvent polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol, respectively was applied for the isolation of the biosurfactants. The biosurfactant was found in the extract chloroform of the crude biospasoy (biosurfactants obtained from soybean oil as substrate which then is called chlo-biospasoy. The chlo-biospasoy was identified as rhamnolipids which had oil in water (o/w emulsion type, had the CMC of 860 mg/L and could reduced the surface tension of the water from 72 mN/m to 52 mN/m. The chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifier to form emulsion between water and hydrocarbon such as palm oil, benzene, premium or toluene with various stability. The results indicated that chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifying and emulsion-stabilizing agent.     Keywords: Biosurfactants, P. aeruginosa, Soybean Oil, Emulsifier

  19. A systematic review of workplace disclosure and accommodation requests among youth and young adults with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Carafa, Gabriella

    2017-08-10

    disability, and educate them on the supports available so they can remain healthy and productive in the workplace. Clinicians should advocate for employers to create a positive and supportive environment where youth feel comfortable disclosing their condition.

  20. Modes of ordering disability: students living with visual disabilities in the Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Näslund, Rebecka; Qais Al Said, Shariffa Khalid

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how a group of students with visual disabilities speak about becoming disabled and living with disability in relation to: material entities, practices, and their own expectations regarding the future in the Sultanate of Oman. It draws upon individual interviews among six adults with visual disabilities. The article outlines, from a material semiotics approach, how various forms of modes of ordering enact disability. An interdisciplinary approach, informed by disability s...

  1. The role of disability self-concept in adaptation to congenital or acquired disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Kathleen R

    2014-02-01

    Current theories of adaptation to disability do not address differences in adaptation to congenital or acquired disability. Although people with congenital disabilities are generally assumed to be better adapted than people with acquired disabilities, few studies have tested this, and even fewer have attempted to explain the mechanisms behind these differences. This study tested the proposition that whether a disability is congenital or acquired plays an important role in the development of the disability self-concept (consisting of disability identity and disability self-efficacy), which in turn, affects satisfaction with life. It was predicted that disability self-concept would be better developed among people with congenital, compared with acquired disabilities, predicting greater satisfaction with life in those with acquired conditions. 226 participants with congenital and acquired mobility disabilities completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire measuring satisfaction with life, self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and demographic information. Self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and income were significant predictors of satisfaction with life. Congenital onset predicted higher satisfaction with life; disability identity and disability self-efficacy, but not self-esteem, partially mediated the relationship. Findings highlight the distinction between adaptation to congenital versus acquired disability and the importance of disability self-concept, which are underresearched constructs. Results suggest that rather than attempting to "normalize" individuals with disabilities, health care professionals should foster their disability self-concept. Possible ways to improve disability self-concept are discussed, such as involvement in the disability community and disability pride. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Disability management and organizational culture in Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Nicholas; Wagner, Shannon; Randall, Christine; Harder, Henry; Geisen, Thomas; Yu, Ignatius; Hassler, Benedikt; Howe, Caroline; Fraess-Phillips, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Organizational culture has received increasing attention in terms of its influence on workplace health and productivity, yet there has been little research on its relationship with employer-based disability programs. This study explored the relationship between disability management and organizational culture in Australian and Canadian organizations. Thematic analysis was conducted on data from semi-structured interviews with 16 employees, including injured workers, human resource managers and disability managers in two Australian and two Canadian large organizations. Seven themes were identified: 1. Consistency between espoused beliefs and artifacts in organization; 2. Genuineness of interest in well-being of injured worker; 3. Level of ongoing support of worker following injury; 4. Communication with injured workers; 5. Level of support from supervisors and co-workers; 6. Promptness in claims processing and covering medical costs and; 7. Focus on wellness and injury prevention. It was found that organizational culture may impact the delivery and perceived value of employer-based disability management programs. Given the potential relationship between organizational culture and disability management, employers should facilitate a positive workplace culture by ensuring consistency among underlying values, espoused values and actual treatment of employees, including injured workers.

  3. Ethical analysis of the concept of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    2004-06-01

    The concept of disability from an ethical viewpoint was examined. Whether disability results from the way society is built and the way ideas and judgments considering disability are established in a communal interaction was discussed (i.e., is disability socially created and constructed?). Although views on disability emphasizing its social nature are basically sound, they are also insufficient because they fail to consider the normative dimension attached to the concept of disability. The core of the concept of disability is ethical, which is why a moral philosophical examination of the concept is needed. Three possible ethical theories of disability (universal, objective, subjectivist, and communitarian) are briefly presented and discussed and a preliminary outline of a basis for a sound ethical model of disability presented.

  4. Tourette syndrome and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klug Marilyn G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Learning disabilities are frequently comorbid with TS. Using the largest sample of TS patients ever reported, we sought to identify differences between subjects with TS only and subjects with TS and a comorbid learning disability. Methods We used the Tourette Syndrome International Consortium database (TIC to compare subjects with comorbid Tourette Syndrome and learning disabilities (TS + LD to subjects who did not have a comorbid learning disability (TS - LD. The TIC database contained 5,500 subjects. We had usable data on 5,450 subjects. Results We found 1,235 subjects with TS + LD. Significant differences between the TS + LD group and the TS - LD group were found for gender (.001, age onset (.030, age first seen (.001, age at diagnosis (.001, prenatal problems (.001, sibling or other family member with tics (.024, two or more affected family members (.009, and severe tics (.046. We used logistic modeling to identify the optimal prediction model of group membership. This resulted in a five variable model with the epidemiologic performance characteristics of accuracy 65.2% (model correctly classified 4,406 of 5,450 subjects, sensitivity 66.1%, and specificity 62.2%. Conclusion Subjects with TS have high prevalence rates of comorbid learning disabilities. We identified phenotype differences between the TS - LD group compared to TS + LD group. In the evaluation of subjects with TS, the presence of a learning disability should always be a consideration. ADHD may be an important comorbid condition in the diagnosis of LD or may also be a potential confounder. Further research on etiology, course and response to intervention for subjects with TS only and TS with learning disabilities is needed.

  5. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jodi; Downes, Alison; Blum, Nathan; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Amad is a wonderful 16-year-old young man from Syria who has recently relocated to the United States from his war-torn native country. In his last few years in Syria, he was primarily at home with his mother, and they sought refuge with a maternal aunt in the United States seeking asylum and treatment of Amad's disability.At 8 years of age, he had intelligence testing in the United Arab Emirates, which showed a verbal intelligence score on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) of 68 and a performance of 64. His working memory was 67 and his processing speed was 65. On arrival in the United States, his achievement was roughly at a third-grade level in Arabic. In the year and a half that he has been in the United States, he quickly improved his English skills, which he learned as a toddler. His father remains in Syria unable to safely immigrate and his mother is raising him alone in the United States with the help of her sister.They come to you for an urgent care visit because Amad recently was accused of sexual harassment by two girls at his high school. He is in a substantially separate program but is included for lunch and technology. While in the computer laboratory, he repeatedly approached the girls and asks them to "date" him, and on 1 occasion sat behind 1 girl and repeatedly reached out to stroke her long blonde hair.His mother is distraught because she recently found out that Amad also has a Facebook page and had been attempting to contact the same two girls on social media. The girls' parents recently threatened to file criminal harassment charges and Amad's mother comes to you asking for help with making Amad stop this activity. What would you do next?

  6. Strategies in disability management. Corporate disability management programs implemented at the work site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, C M

    1999-10-30

    Managers are challenged to demonstrate all programs as economically essential to the business, generating an appreciable return on investment. Further challenge exists to blend and integrate clinical and business objectives in program development. Disability management programs must be viewed as economically essential to the financial success of the business to assure management support for clinical interventions and return-to-work strategies essential for a successful program. This paper discusses a disability management program integrating clinical and business goals and objectives in return-to-work strategies to effect positive clinical, social-cultural, and business results. Clinical, educational, social, and economic challenges in the development, implementation, and continued management of a disability program at a large corporation with multiple global work sites are defined. Continued discussion addresses the effective clinical interventions and educational strategies utilized successfully within the workplace environment in response to each defined challenge. A multiple disciplinary team approach, clinical and business outcome measures, and quality assurance indicators are discussed as major program components. This article discusses a successful program approach focusing on business process and methodology. These parameters are used to link resources to strategy, developing a product for implementing and managing a program demonstrating economic value added through effective clinical medical case management.

  7. International telemedicine consultations for neurodevelopmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L; Sable, Craig; Evans, Sarah; Knight, Joseph; Cunningham, Parker; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Gropman, Andrea; Stuart, Sheela; Glass, Penny; Conway, Anne; Ramadan, Issam; Paiva, Tania; Batshaw, Mark L; Packer, Roger J

    2014-06-01

    disabilities utilizing telemedicine services offer a reliable and productive method for joint clinical programs.

  8. A Persian Alice in Disability Literature Wonderland: Disability Studies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin H. Goodrich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploring major requisites to establish an Iranian disability studies, the aim of this study is to determine how a local literature of disability can be formed in Iran, as well as how the Iranian and global disability studies might interchange disability knowledge. In an analysis of the responses to a qualitative questionnaire, three themes emerged: rudimentary resources, disability literature, and political prerequisites. Accordingly, human and financial resources, a bank of Farsi and English literature on disability, as well as developing academic relations between Iranian and international disability scholars (as an outcome of improving the Iran-USA political affairs are essential to form a local disability studies in Iran and to engage it in the global discussions of disability studies. Keywords: disability, global disability studies, Iran

  9. Production and antimicrobial property of glycolipid biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial glycolipids such as rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) are an important class of biosurfactants with excellent surface tension-lowering activity. Besides their surfactant- and environment-friendly properties, however, additional value-added property such as bacteriocidal activity is n...

  10. Disability reconsidered: the paradox of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Susan E; Sharby, Nancy

    2011-12-01

    The purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to explore models of disability from the perspective of the academic discipline of disability studies (DS), (2) to consider the paradox of improving functional capacities while valuing disability as diversity, (3) to identify how physical therapy's use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) disablement model intersects with various disability models, and (4) to apply this broader understanding of disability to physical therapist practice, education, and research. The DS literature has been critical of rehabilitation professionals, particularly targeting the medical model of disability. In contrast, advocates for a social model of disability recognize disability as diversity. It is paradoxical for physical therapy to simultaneously work to ameliorate disability while celebrating it as diversity. The ICF biopsychosocial disablement model offers a mechanism to practice within this paradox and suggests that it is no longer sufficient to conceptualize disability as a purely individual matter that requires attention in isolation from the impact of the larger society.

  11. Studying disability and disability studies: shifting paradigms of LDA synthesis of responses to Reid and Valle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, David J

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the 11 diverse responses to Reid and Valle's work on the discursive practice of learning disabilities (LD), implications for instruction, and parent-school relations. I highlight key ideas from each article and then focus on three common areas of interest shared by most respondents: the unacceptable status quo of schooling practices; desired changes in schooling practices; and knowledge production in the field of special education and its relation to schooling practices. In light of the many issues raised, I urge the need for a reflective turn in the field of LD and for openness toward diversification of thought.

  12. Comparison of Body Image between Disabled Athletes, Disabled Non-Athletes and Non-Disable Non-Athletes Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the body image between disabled athletes with disabled and non-disabled non- athletes. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, fifty disabled athletes from the handicapped sports club, fifty disabled non athletes from Kahrizak disabled rest house and fifty non athlete healthy persons from governmental administrations were selected randomly by classified clustered method and their body image were compared. Data collection tools included a personal information questionnaire and a physical self description questionnaire (PSDQ which included 11 sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and the global physical. The statistical procedures used in this study comprised one way ANOVA and the Newman-keuls test. Results: Body image of disabled athletes in the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body activity were higher than disabled and non-disabled individuals who were not athletes (P&le0.001. In addition the sub-scales of the body fat (P=0.012, body appearance (P=0.002 and general health (P=0.001, the results showed that a higher significance for the disabled athletes, however, there wasn’t significant difference for the non-disabled athletes. Conclusion: Thus the result showed that the attitude of the disabled and non-disabled individual in due to their continuous physical activity in that the disabled athletes have got better body images as compared to the disabled and non-disabled individual who have not physical activity.

  13. Pragmatic skills of children and youth with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brojčin Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatic competence means the use of language in social context. Persons with intellectual disability experience numerous problems in this aspect of communication, but they are relatively pragmatically skilled in well-known situations, in which they are not subjected to significant cognitive and social requirements. The aim of this paper is to determine the level of pragmatic abilities of children and youth with mild intellectual disability and to perceive its relation to chronological age, speech comprehension, speech production, the level of intellectual functioning, gender and bilingualism of the participants. The level of pragmatic competence was tested in the sample of 120 children with mild intellectual disability, aged between 8 and 16, by using the Test of pragmatic language competence. The Clinical scales of Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological battery for children were also used. The results obtained in this research suggest that general level of achievement of children with mild intellectual disability in this domain of development is far below the expectations based on their chronological age. Significant progress appears between 12 and 14 years of age, but there are also two critical periods in their development. Important relations of pragmatic skills with speech comprehension, speech production, chronological age and intellectual level were established.

  14. 75 FR 9821 - Disability Determinations by State Agency Disability Examiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Disabled Under the Statutory Definition? Under the Act, we have full power and authority to make rules and.... Sections 205(a), 702(a)(5), and 1631(d)(1). In addition, we have the power to promulgate regulations that... How we evaluate symptoms, including pain. * * * * * (b) * * * In cases decided by a State agency...

  15. Neurological abnormalities predict disability: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poggesi, A.; Gouw, A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Pracucci, G.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Blahak, C.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J.; Schmidt, R.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Scheltens, P.; Inzitari, D.; Pantoni, L.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed

  16. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo

    2012-01-01

    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  17. "Brilliant, Bright, Boiling Words": Literary Disability, Language and the Writing Body in the Work of Christopher Nolan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article uses theory on disability, embodiment and language to explore the production, context and presentation of two pieces of life-writing by Christopher Nolan. It examines Nolan's unusual use of language and form in his presentations of an experience of disability, and considers its literary and political significance. Consideration is…

  18. Where We Are: Disability and Accessibility--Moving beyond Disability 2.0 in Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tara; Dolmage, Jay; Price, Margaret; Lewiecki-Wilson, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The authors' perception, as specialists at the intersection of disability studies and composition studies, is that disability has arrived--in the sense that it is now on most peoples' radar. Most have come to think of it as "Disability 2.0": the state where acceptance of disabled students and teachers as belonging in our…

  19. Disability:beyond individualization, psychologisation and medicalization

    OpenAIRE

    Haydon-Laurelut, Mark Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about disabled people has and continues to be dominated by the medical and allied professions and inevitably this provides only one story of disabled life: a story of a problem seeking solutions (Grue, 2015). The rehabilitative professions write most of what is read and written about disability. As a family therapist I wondered how family therapy might be constructing disability? If, as Michalko (2012) has noted, medicine finds a home in all kinds of places to what extent has it mad...

  20. Disability and Depression in Thor Comic Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Elizabeth Germaine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores disability and depression, especially as they relate to masculinity and power, within Thor comics.  Societal interpretations of disability are also discussed in terms of comics' ability to both challenge and reinforce these interpretations; further, aspects of comics design are investigated within the symbolic realm of disability and depression, illustrating the portrayal of disability and depression via characteristics such as color, panels, and facial expressions.

  1. Disability Insurance Benefits and Labor Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2000-01-01

    Disability Insurance (DI) is a public program that provides income support to persons unable to continue work due to disability. The difficulty of defining disability, however, has raised the possibility that this program may be subsidizing the early retirement of workers who are not truly disabled. A critical input for assessing the optimal size of the DI program is therefore the elasticity of labor force participation with respect to benefits generosity. Unfortunately, this parameter has be...

  2. A Fuzzy Approach to Classify Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Manghirmalani; Darshana More; Kavita Jain

    2012-01-01

    The endeavor of this work is to support the special education community in their quest to be with the mainstream. The initial segment of the paper gives an exhaustive study of the different mechanisms of diagnosing learning disability. After diagnosis of learning disability the further classification of learning disability that is dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalculia are fuzzy. Hence the paper proposes a model based on Fuzzy Expert System which enables the classification of learning disability...

  3. A Social Constructionist Approach to Disability: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…

  4. Disabled Veterans on the Job Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    The Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) administered by the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration arranges training and placement for disabled veterans in local job service offices. These employees then assist in placing other disabled veterans on jobs. Some typical DVOP success stories are described. (MF)

  5. Disability and the Moral Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Discussions of disability should be within a clearly-defined moral framework if the disabled person's rights are to be translated into society's duty to the disabled. An ethical system based on modern versions of utilitarianism is suggested as a moral framework, supplemented by prescriptions based on social justice and respect. (Author/CB)

  6. Work Shifts and Disability: A National View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Harriet B.; Altman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    More than one-fifth of employed persons with disabilities work late or rotating shifts, about the same as nondisabled workers. Day workers with disabilities receive lower hourly wages than nondisabled workers. Except for men, nonday workers with disabilities receive wages similar to their nondisabled counterparts. (Contains 27 references.)…

  7. Temporal Structure of Adaptation to Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Antonak, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Used cross-sectional design to collect data on phases of adaptation to disability as measured by the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory among 112 inpatients and 92 outpatients at rehabilitation facilities. Results generally support the existence of a psychosocial adaptation process to physical disability. Incongruities between the…

  8. Discourses of Disability in the "Digest."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Presents an account of the discourse of disability in the "Reader's Digest" during its first 30 years (1922-1952). Concludes that the construction of disability in the "Digest" raises important questions that should enter the field of disability studies. (PM)

  9. Disability and Identity: The Challenge of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Nocon, Andrew; Small, Neil; Wright, John

    2008-01-01

    Through examining the case of people with epilepsy (which, as we demonstrate, has an ambiguous status in relation to both popular and academic conceptions of disability) we explore the fluid, negotiable and contingent nature of identity and, in particular, the identification as "disabled". Disability, we argue, cannot be reduced to either biology…

  10. IDEA and Disciplining Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Sherry L.

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments offered a welcome shield for disabled students who found themselves unfairly disciplined within their school placements. Highlights the disagreements that continue over the bill's interpretation, and the fight by advocates for the disabled to limit unreasonable suspensions and…

  11. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  12. Workplace Discrimination and the Perception of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, William R.; Reid, Christine A.; McMahon, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the employment discrimination experienced by Americans "regarded as" disabled (but not medically verified as such), using the Integrated Mission System of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Claimants who were perceived as disabled, as contrasted with those with documented disabilities, were more likely…

  13. Romanian Approach to Media Portrayals of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciot, Melania-Gabriela; Van Hove, Geert

    2010-01-01

    There is a wide range of media representations of disability, but not just because of the societal stigma. They are a function of norms of journalism as well as biases among people with disabilities themselves. This article is a contribution to the issue of social representation of persons with disabilities from a Romanian perspective, which will…

  14. Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education DHSS State of Alaska Home ; Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education Page Content Untitled Document Patrick Reinhart : follow GCDSE to 40404 The Governor's Council on Disabilities & Special Education is pleased to award

  15. Identification of Learning Disabled Bilingual Hispanic Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan

    1983-01-01

    The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)

  16. 22 CFR 192.52 - Disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section 192.52... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... benefits may not be received from both OWCP and the local organizational authority for the same claim...

  17. Access to Employment: People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Reports the findings of Lou Harris and Associates (1987) on what employers are doing to employ people with disabilities and what their experiences with disabled employees have been. Presents strategies that provide a model for addressing the needs of the disabled population and provide them with opportunities. (JS)

  18. Violence Exposure among Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is children with disabilities exposed to a broad range of violence types including child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, and war and terrorism. Because disability research must be interpreted on the basis of the definitional paradigm employed, definitions of disability status and current prevalence…

  19. Evaluation of phytochemicals from medicinal plants of Myrtaceae family on virulence factor production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Khadar Syed; Sianglum, Wipawadee; Saising, Jongkon; Lethongkam, Sakkarin; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2017-05-01

    Virulence factors regulated by quorum sensing (QS) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of an opportunistic human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in causing infections to the host. Hence, in the present work, the anti-virulence potential of the medicinal plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals from Myrtaceae family was evaluated against P. aeruginosa. In the preliminary screening of the tested medicinal plant extracts, Syzygium jambos and Syzygium antisepticum demonstrated a maximum inhibition in QS-dependent violacein pigment production by Chromobacterium violaceum DMST 21761. These extracts demonstrated an inhibitory activity over a virulence factor, pyoverdin, production by P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 23 and 12 phytochemicals from the extracts of S. jambos and S. antisepticum respectively. Three top-ranking phytochemicals, including phytol, ethyl linoleate and methyl linolenate, selected on the basis of docking score in molecular docking studies lowered virulence factors such as pyoverdin production, protease and haemolytic activities of P. aeruginosa to a significant level. In addition, the phytochemicals reduced rhamnolipid production by the organism. The work demonstrated an importance of plant-derived compounds as anti-virulence drugs to conquer P. aeruginosa virulence towards the host. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluating groups in learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, S H

    Groupwork can be effective in meeting a range of needs presented by students with profound learning disabilities. This article describes the process involved in setting up groups for these students, and includes examples of a group session and methods for evaluating groupwork.

  1. Controversial Issues in Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Selma C.

    The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…

  2. Memory Deficits in Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John D.; Driscoll, Rosemary L.

    Memory storage and retrieval of learning disabled (LD) and normal children at two age levels (8-9 years and 11-12 years) were compared using a multitrial free recall paradigm. Stimuli were two lists of 20 high frequency nouns. Each child was tested individually on both lists on different days; one presentation was blocked, one random with…

  3. Psychological Assessment of the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Donald A.

    The paper examines issues, philosophy and guidelines for psychological assessment of the disabled. Focused on are: (1) adjustments in testing procedures and (2) applicability of standard norms with commonly used psychological test instruments for the assessment of ability, interest, and personality. The importance of accurate assessment for…

  4. The Danish Neck Disability Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; O'Neill, Lotte; Kongsted, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To (1) translate and culturally adapt and (2) determine the clinimetric properties of the Danish 8-item Neck Disability Index (NDI-8) in primary sector patients (PSPs) and secondary sector patients (SSPs). Methods: Analyses included 326 patients with neck pain. Validity and reliability...

  5. Caring for the Disabled Employee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    lives of disabled people (Barnes & Mercer 2005, Paterson & Hughes 2010). A recurrent theme in this study’s transcribed and coded interviews was not an awareness of bullying and harassment, as other studies have found (e.g., Fevre et al. 2013), but rather how managers and employees without impairments...

  6. Benefits for People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste or Abuse Site Map Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social Media This website is produced and published at U.S. ...

  7. Learning Disability: Experience of Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…

  8. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  9. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  10. Hyperactivity, Learning Disabilities, and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee

    1984-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)

  11. An Analysis Of The UK Disability Discrimination Act And The Inadequacy Of Its Definitions Of Disability And Disabled Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Alzughaibi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract My research will focus on some of the more pertinent changes that need to take place on a societal level in order to better serve disabled people and allow them to participate in all facets of community life. I will argue that three of the most significant changes that must take place include educating society on disabilities and disabled persons creating and enforcing better laws that truly help disabled persons and expanding the definitions of disability and disabled person to include a broader spectrum of ailments inflictions and handicaps. The changes which I support will be presented in a research-driven paper. I will highlight the current UK disability laws in place and point out some of their shortcomings. Then I will explore the worldview of society as a whole as it pertains to disabled peoples and suggest changes that need to take place and how educators can help facilitate these changes. Finally I will explain the shortcomings of the most common definitions used for disability and disabled persons and offer alternatives that incorporate a broader range of people and ailments. My audience will be any citizen whose political jurisdiction is under the UK disability mandate although anyone from any society would benefit from reading my paper due to the universality of this topic.

  12. Measuring Disability: Comparing the Impact of Two Data Collection Approaches on Disability Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sabariego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The usual approach in disability surveys is to screen persons with disability upfront and then ask questions about everyday problems. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the impact of screeners on disability rates, to challenge the usual exclusion of persons with mild and moderate disability from disability surveys and to demonstrate the advantage of using an a posteriori cut-off. Using data of a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Cambodia and the polytomous Rasch model, metric scales of disability were built. The conventional screener approach based on the short disability module of the Washington City Group and the a posteriori cut-off method described in the World Disability Report were compared regarding disability rates. The screener led to imprecise rates and classified persons with mild to moderate disability as non-disabled, although these respondents already experienced important problems in daily life. The a posteriori cut-off applied to the general population sample led to a more precise disability rate and allowed for a differentiation of the performance and needs of persons with mild, moderate and severe disability. This approach can be therefore considered as an inclusive approach suitable to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  13. Usability Evaluation of Notebook Computers and Cellular Telephones Among Users with Visual and Upper Extremity Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Aaron Michael

    2002-01-01

    Information appliances such as notebook computers and cellular telephones are becoming integral to the lives of many. These devices facilitate a variety of communication tasks, and are used for employment, education, and entertainment. Those with disabilities, however, have limited access to these devices, due in part to product designs that do not consider their special needs. A usability evaluation can help identify the needs and difficulties those with disabilities have when using a pro...

  14. Smart Homes with Voice Activated Systems for Disabled People

    OpenAIRE

    Bekir Busatlic; Nejdet Dogru; Isaac Lera; Enes Sukic

    2017-01-01

    Smart home refers to the application of various technologies to semi-unsupervised home control It refers to systems that control temperature, lighting, door locks, windows and many other appliances. The aim of this study was to design a system that will use existing technology to showcase how it can benefit people with disabilities. This work uses only off-the-shelf products (smart home devices and controllers), speech recognition technology, open-source code libraries. The Voice Activated Sm...

  15. Shakespeare on old age and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, H

    2000-01-01

    The plays of William Shakespeare were reviewed for references to disabilities, aging and disability, and older characters with disabilities. Shakespeare's references draw from traditional cultural notions about older people with disabilities. These traditional notions include people with physical disabilities being evil, the entertainment value of disabilty, and those who were mentally ill being wild and animal-like. He viewed the aging process as disabling and old age as a time when individuals lost some abilities to function, particularly when it came to mental capacity and physical mobility. His writings show that he used disability as a literary tool to add dimension to characters and set them apart. Contemporary literature continues to share some of Shakespeare's view on aging and disability but also departs from them in important ways. For example, contemporary treatment of disabilities and aging places more emphasis on the human side of the affects of aging and disabilities. Disabilities and aging are not cast in the same negative terms as Shakespeare used.

  16. Disability associated with alcohol abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-11-01

     Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. GIS Application Management for Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongkaw, Sasalak

    2017-08-01

    This research aimed to develop and design Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for facilitating disabled people by presenting some useful disabled information on the Google Map. The map could provide information about disabled types of people such as blind, deaf and physical movement. This research employed the Multiview 2 theory and method to plan and find out the problems in real world situation. This research used many designing data structure methods such as Data Flow Diagram, and ER-Diagram. The research focused into two parts: server site and client site which included the interface for Web-based application. The clear information of disable people on the map was useful for facilitating disabled people to find some useful information. In addition, it provided specialized data for company and government officers for managing and planning local facilities for disabled people in the cities. The disable could access the system through the Internet access at any time by using mobile or portable devices.

  18. Mental Health Following Acquisition of Disability in Adulthood—The Impact of Wealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne Marie; Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony Daniel; Bentley, Rebecca; Milner, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Background Acquisition of a disability in adulthood has been associated with a reduction in mental health. We tested the hypothesis that low wealth prior to disability acquisition is associated with a greater deterioration in mental health than for people with high wealth. Methods We assess whether level of wealth prior to disability acquisition modifies this association using 12 waves of data (2001–2012) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey–a population-based cohort study of working-age Australians. Eligible participants reported at least two consecutive waves of disability preceded by at least two consecutive waves without disability (1977 participants, 13,518 observations). Fixed-effects linear regression was conducted with a product term between wealth prior to disability (in tertiles) and disability acquisition with the mental health component score of the SF–36 as the outcome. Results In models adjusted for time-varying confounders, there was evidence of negative effect measure modification by prior wealth of the association between disability acquisition and mental health (interaction term for lowest wealth tertile: -2.2 points, 95% CI -3.1 points, -1.2, pwealth was associated with a greater decline in mental health following disability acquisition (-3.3 points, 95% CI -4.0, -2.5) than high wealth (-1.1 points, 95% CI -1.7, -0.5). Conclusion The findings suggest that low wealth prior to disability acquisition in adulthood results in a greater deterioration in mental health than among those with high wealth. PMID:26444990

  19. CHALLENGES OF EMPOWERING PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN NIGERIA FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan ELEWEKE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper reviews issues affecting the empowerment of people with disabilities in Nigeria so they can be productive and contribute to the development of the nation. The questions of concern are: What is known about the extent people with disabilities are empowered to contribute to national development in Nigeria? What challenges do people with disabilities in Nigeria encounter in their attempt to contribute to national development? What are the implications of these challenges regarding strategies that could enhance the empowerment of people with disabilities to facilitate their contribution to national development? Method: This paper addresses these questions by reviewing available research on issues pertaining to (1 legislative mandates on provision of services to individuals with disabilities in the country, (2 funding for services by the government, (3 accessing education and related services, which can ensure that people with disabilities are able to develop their potential and be able to contribute to national development as workers, administrators or employers of labour. Findings: Available evidence indicates that people with disabilities in Nigeria encounter challenges in accessing essential services that could enhance their contribution to national development due to factors such as the absence of legislation protecting their rights to receive these services, inadequate funding of services, absence of effective inclusion programmes, and lack of facilities, personnel, and resources. Suggestions and conclusion: The author recommended some strategies that could produce better outcomes and enhance the opportunities for people with disabilities to be empowered so that they can contribute their quota to national development. These strategies include: enacting and implementing а national disability legislation, utilisation of community-based strategies in the provision of services, and increased advocacy activities by

  20. Implementation of Automata Theory to Improve the Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Syed Asif; Soomro, Safeeullah; Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Baqi, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    There are various types of disability egress in world like blindness, deafness, and Physical disabilities. It is quite difficult to deal with people with disability. Learning disability (LD) is types of disability totally different from general disability. To deal children with learning disability is difficult for both parents and teacher. As parent deal with only single child so it bit easy. But teacher deals with different students at a time so its more difficult to deal with group of stude...

  1. Returning to work after disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P Roger

    2002-06-01

    After a workplace injury or disability, there is a period of hardship and adjustment for the injured party as well as all stakeholders in the workers' compensation process. Ultimately, however, return to work is considered. The author reviews this often challenging exercise from the Canadian perspective and stresses the need for timely intervention, honest communication, the coordination of information and resources--and the need for flexibility. A case study on low back pain is included.

  2. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...

  3. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  4. [Longevity, disease, and duration of disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, S

    1996-12-01

    Disability and the resulting lowered quality of life are serious issues accompanying increased longevity. Active life expectancy #(8) can be to used to distinguish the number of years without disability from the number with disability; increases were found in both in longevity #(9, 19). With the same rate of age-related new disability in the cohorts between 1970 and 1990, the total disability increased three fold #(11). In elderly patients I showed that 1) the duration of disability of those at a specific age at death (predeath) #(1) increased with age, and it decreased in those who remained without disability, 2) the cumulative number of days of disability for patients who died at a specific age (a convolution function of predeath and mortality) #(2), approached a normal distribution, which is consistent with the central limit theorem, 3) competing risk with chronic disease in a patient greatly affects the incidence and duration of disability, 4) using the central limit theorem we can predict that preventing dementia will retard premature rectangularization of the disability-free survival curve, and will thus reduce the total disability, 5) disability is an example of how variation and selection of chronic diseases (disease Darwinism) can alter population structure. Insights into the evolution of senescence #(14-21), pleiotropy, and slower rates of molecular evolution in the core than at the border #(26, 27), reveal that the central nervous system is relatively robust and conservative for pleiotropy and may senesce relatively slowly, which support a new way of thinking #(3, 4) about old age. To minimize disability, public knowledge and education about an ideal lifestyle and the evolution of senescence is essential.

  5. Creating Community Engagements Between People with Disability and the Local Community Through Digital Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Funaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Federation of Social Workers adopted a new global definition of social work in 2014. Although promotion of social cohesion and respect for diversities was included in the new definition, social work practices for promoting cultural citizenship were still under-developed in Japan. Since the 1990s, community arts organizations in Australia have developed community engagement projects for people with disabilities through digital media production, such as digital storytelling, film making etc. It is important to develop collaborative methods between social workers and artists to promote cultural citizenship as social inclusion for minority groups such as immigrants and people with disabilities. With the aid of social workers and artists working in disability care fields, iPad digital storytelling workshops for people with intellectual disabilities were organized in Fukui, Japan, from 2013 to 2014. The digital media training programs for human service professionals and social work students were organized in Sydney, Australia, and Fukui, Japan, prior to these workshops. During this research project, we conducted interviews with participants to understand the ways in which people with disabilities and the local community interact with each other through digital storytelling. This paper explores two key questions. Firstly, we examine how digital storytelling can be employed for community engagement between people with disabilities and the local community and how it can help them achieve cultural citizenship. Secondly, we investigate how we can develop social work practices for people with disabilities through digital storytelling.

  6. Understanding suicide and disability through three major disabling conditions: Intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Margaret J; Bergmark, Brian; Kreshover, Samantha; Elias, Eileen; Plummer, Caitlin; O'Keefe, Eileen

    2010-04-01

    Disability is not a category of disease but rather relates to the physical, sensory, cognitive, and/or mental disorders that substantially limit one or more major life activities. These functional limitations have been found to be predictive of suicide, with psychiatric comorbidities increasing the risk for suicide. Enormous gaps exist in the understanding of the relationship between disability and suicide. We reviewed the current literature addressing the prevalence of and risk factors for suicide among persons with three major disabling conditions and identify priorities for future research. We performed a literature review investigating the relationship between three major disabilities (intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis) and suicide. To ensure thorough evaluation of the available literature, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar with terms including "suicide," "disability," "intellectual disability," "spinal cord injury," "multiple sclerosis," and permutations thereof. By this method we evaluated 110 articles and included 21 in the review. Suicide rates are significantly higher among persons with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury than in the general population. A more nuanced picture of suicide rates and risk factors exists for the intellectual disability population, in which it appears that rates of suicide risk factors are higher than among the general population while suicide rates may be lower. The highest rates of suicide are reported among study populations of persons with multiple sclerosis, followed by persons with spinal cord injury, and then individuals with intellectual disability. Suicide among persons with disabilities is a complex and pressing public health concern. Urgent research priorities include (1) valid estimates of suicide rates among persons with disabilities by age cohort; (2) assessment of the predictive importance of suicide risk factors; and (3) determination of best

  7. Prevalence of Disability and Disability Type Among Adults--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carroll, Dianna D; Zhang, Qing C; Stevens, Alissa C; Griffin-Blake, Shannon; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A

    2015-07-31

    Understanding the prevalence of disability is important for public health programs to be able to address the needs of persons with disabilities. Beginning in 2013, to measure disability prevalence by functional type, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), added five questions to identify disability in vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 BRFSS to assess overall prevalence of any disability, as well as specific types of disability among noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Across all states, disabilities in mobility and cognition were the most frequently reported types. State-level prevalence of each disability type ranged from 2.7% to 8.1% (vision); 6.9% to 16.8% (cognition); 8.5% to 20.7% (mobility); 1.9% to 6.2% (self-care) and 4.2% to 10.8% (independent living). A higher prevalence of any disability was generally seen among adults living in states in the South and among women (24.4%) compared with men (19.8%). Prevalences of any disability and disability in mobility were higher among older age groups. These are the first data on functional disability types available in a state-based health survey. This information can help public health programs identify the prevalence of and demographic characteristics associated with different disability types among U.S. adults and better target appropriate interventions to reduce health disparities.

  8. Disability and the education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities the right to a "free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting" and establishes a federal funding program to help meet this goal. They then review the types of services and accommodations these children receive from infancy through young adulthood. The special education system has given children with disabilities much greater access to public education, established an infrastructure for educating them, helped with the earlier identification of disabilities, and promoted greater inclusion of these children alongside their nondisabled peers. Despite these advances, many problems remain, including the over- and underidentification of certain subgroups of students, delays in identifying and serving students, and bureaucratic, regulatory, and financial barriers that complicate the program for everyone involved. More important, the authors show that special education students still lag behind their nondisabled peers in educational achievements, are often held to lower expectations, are less likely to take the full academic curriculum in high school, and are more likely to drop out of school. Only limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of specific special education services or on how to improve student achievement for this important subgroup of students. Improving the system will require better ways of understanding and measuring both ends of the special education continuum, namely, what

  9. Being Disoriented: Uncertain Encounters with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Parrey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Disorienting encounter with disability are those in which the meaning of disability is an open question, and in which our relation to it is questionable. This essay explores the relationship between disability and disorientation on conceptual but also concrete levels. First, I examine the connection between disability and disorientation within disability studies. Second, I provide a preliminary sketch of disorientation through what I call ontic disruption and ontological disorientation. Third, I take up Leder's (1990 articulation of bodily disappearance and embodied dysappearance to address ableist violence. Finally, I develop the notion of dysorientation — a prolonged, persistent or recurrent sense of disorientation — as a useful concept for understanding experiences of ableism but also as a significant meeting point between impairment and disability.

  10. Disability and masculinity in South African autosomatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipenga, Ken J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu's The language of me and William Zulu's Spring will come , the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.

  11. Disability and masculinity in South African autosomatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken J. Lipenga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu’s The language of me and William Zulu’s Spring will come, the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.

  12. Situational leadership and persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.

  13. THE CONGENITAL MOTOR DISABILITY EXPERIENCED AS COMMONSENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Viluckienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article applies Alfred Schutz’s phenomenologically grounded sociological perspective to explore how persons with a congenital motor disability or having a disability ever since their childhood construct and maintain their significant social reality through subjective meanings and how they interpret their disabled bodies. Their personal narratives are based on qualitative in-depth interviews and suggest that these persons face the disability only during secondary socialization, after internalization of social typifications of disabled body of negative meaning, the overcoming of which and successful socialization requires the involvement into new social group or community, i.e., into a positive social structure, confirming their identity. This article performs cognitive function and contributes to the social workers‘ understanding and knowledge building in order to get a re-evaluating the social needs of people with congenital physical disability.

  14. Psychotherapy with people with developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zafošnik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.

  15. Nurse Educator Attitudes Toward People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Lori; Houser, Rick

    As educators strongly influence the attitudes of their students, the purpose of this study was to determine nurse educator attitudes toward people with disabilities. Inadequate education of health professionals is a known barrier to care for people with disability. Continuing calls for improved education of health professionals compel an assessment of nurse educator attitudes. This was a cross-sectional, correlational web-based survey of nurse educators (n = 126). Nurse educator attitudes were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. Nurse educators held discriminatory attitudes toward people with disabilities, though most preferred a biopsychosocial model of disability. Forty-four percent lacked knowledge of disability-related aims, objectives, or outcomes within the curriculum. To advance equity in health care, nurse educators must confront personal bias and teach competent care of people with disabilities.

  16. Sexuality among People with Physical Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Elbozan Cumurcu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical disability is termed as disturbance or defect which impede or eliminate human body’s ability by disturbing human structure and shape. Physical disability may occur due to neonatal, natal or postnatal causes. People with physical disability have some natural needs as everyone. They are known to have difficulties in many areas of life. In society, sexual lives of these individuals are treated as an unknown and ignored issue, and moreover it has been assumed that they have no such needs. Disabled patients experience many troubles in their life domains including sexuality. This article provides information about physical disability and sexuality, and difficulties with which disabled people faces in their sexual life and overviews literature on this topic.

  17. Valuing Employees with Disabilities: A Chain Effect of Pro-Disability Climate on Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenell Lynn-Senter Wittmer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous organizational research has focused heavily on organizational commitment, for employees in general, as well as for specific minority groups. However, there is a large gap in the research literature concerning the organizational commitment of people with disabilities. The current study contributes to the literature both by investigating the predictors of reported organizational commitment of people with disabilities, as well by examining organizational-level predictors, rather than individual-level phenomena. Additionally, rather than examining legal or compliance issues related to people with disabilities, as is found in most previous research, the current study examines contextual predictors of organizational commitment, pro-disability climate, pro-disability technology, and availability of flexible work arrangements. Structural equation modeling results suggest that there is a chain effect of pro-disability climate, which impacts the organizational commitment of people with disabilities through pro-disability technology and flexible work arrangements. Implications for both research and human resource practitioners are discussed.

  18. Disability Is a Feminist Issue: Bringing Together Women’s and Gender Studies and Disability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Piepmeier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tracks a series of conversations between a women's and gender studies professor and two of her undergraduate students, all of whom are interested in disability studies. We explore the links between disability and feminism, and to think through the possibilities of having disability studies become part of the academy. Our primarily positive interactions with the academic institution and our interest in disability studies has led to our argument that disability is in fact a feminist issue. Disability studies has allowed each of us to re-conceptualize our own relationships to feminist theory, and shaped our ability to envision a better academic environment for all students.  Keywords: feminist disability studies, intersectionality, pedagogy, mental disability

  19. 75 FR 39423 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Policy and Measurement; Overview Information and Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal... Knowledge and Experts in Disability and Rehabilitation Research: Overview Information and Notice Inviting... between income support programs, poverty, disability, and employment success; the [[Page 39425...

  20. Disabled and Unmarried? Marital Chances Among Disabled People in Nineteenth-Century Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Haage

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To marry and form a household of one’s own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.

  1. 20 CFR 404.1511 - Definition of a disabling impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of a disabling impairment. 404... Definition of a disabling impairment. (a) Disabled workers, persons disabled since childhood and, for months... disabling impairment is an impairment (or combination of impairments) which, of itself, is so severe that it...

  2. Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…

  3. Entangled ethnography: imagining a future for young adults with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Faye; Rapp, Rayna

    2013-12-01

    Our article draws on one aspect of our multi-sited long-term ethnographic research in New York City on cultural innovation and Learning Disabilities (LD). We focus on our efforts to help create two innovative transition programs that also became sites for our study when we discovered that young adults with disabilities were too often "transitioning to nowhere" as they left high school. Because of our stakes in this process as parents of children with learning disabilities as well as anthropologists, we have come to think of our method as entangled ethnography, bringing the insights of both insider and outsider perspectives into productive dialog, tailoring a longstanding approach in critical anthropology to research demedicalizing the experience of disability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An inexorable rise in intellectual disability?

    OpenAIRE

    Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the number of people with intellectual disabilities applying for care. The results are contained in this report. Our inventory reveals that demand for intellectual disability care has risen by an average of 9% pe...

  5. Adolescents with intellectual disability and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack

    2005-09-08

    It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption and in fact the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  6. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  7. A Systematic Review of the Benefits of Hiring People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Albarico, Mikhaela; Mortaji, Neda; Karon, Leora

    2018-02-01

    Purpose We reviewed literature on the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Increasing attention is being paid to the role of people with disabilities in the workplace. Although most research focuses on employers' concerns, many companies are now beginning to share their successes. However, there is no synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature on the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Methods Our team conducted a systematic review, completing comprehensive searches of seven databases from 1997 to May 2017. We selected articles for inclusion that were peer-reviewed publications, had a sample involving people with disabilities, conducted an empirical study with at least one outcome focusing on the benefits of hiring people with disabilities, and focused on competitive employment. Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria, extracted the data, and rated the study quality. Results Of the 6176 studies identified in our search, 39 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings show that benefits of hiring people with disabilities included improvements in profitability (e.g., profits and cost-effectiveness, turnover and retention, reliability and punctuality, employee loyalty, company image), competitive advantage (e.g., diverse customers, customer loyalty and satisfaction, innovation, productivity, work ethic, safety), inclusive work culture, and ability awareness. Secondary benefits for people with disabilities included improved quality of life and income, enhanced self-confidence, expanded social network, and a sense of community. Conclusions There are several benefits to hiring people with disabilities. Further research is needed to explore how benefits may vary by type of disability, industry, and job type.

  8. The effect of disability disclosure on the graduation rates of college students with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Robyn Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on postsecondary graduation rates indicated that college students with disabilities have lower graduation rates than students without disabilities. As many college students do not disclose their disability to their institution upon enrollment, the effect of the timing of disability disclosure on graduation rates warranted examination. This study was a quantitative study of 14,401 undergraduate students at one large research university in the years 2002, 2003, and 2004, of w...

  9. The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK : Helping or Hindering Employment Amongst the Disabled?

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David N.F.; Heitmüller, Axel

    2005-01-01

    The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. This paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the US, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are low ...

  10. Are you disabled? Social and cultural factors in understanding disability in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    Rolston, Yansie

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of the under-researched subject of disability in Trinidad and Tobago and presents an understanding of the concepts and contestations of disability as it is lived and experienced by disabled people in T&T. In it disability is explored in the context of identity construction, power relations and self-empowerment, and takes into account the ways in which that identity is shaped by historical events, cultural relations, social interactions and political structures.\\ud \\...

  11. Wage differentials between college graduates with and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L

    2002-01-01

    Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues.

  12. Congressional Statistics: Disability Insurance for December 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — While Social Security is best known for providing retirement benefits, the program also provides Disability Insurance (DI) protection to workers and their families...

  13. Periodic Continuing Disability Review Case Backlog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Administration (SSA) conducts periodic CDRs to ensure that only those beneficiaries who remain disabled continue to receive monthly benefits. The...

  14. Predictors of life disability in trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Esther S; Flessner, Christopher A; Grant, Jon E; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has investigated disability and functional impairment in trichotillomania (TTM) subjects. This study examined the relationships between hair pulling (HP) style and severity and disability while controlling for mood severity. Disability was measured in individual life areas (work, social, and family/home life) instead of as a total disability score as in previous studies. One hundred fifty three adult hair pullers completed several structured interviews and self-report instruments. HP style and severity, as well as depression, anxiety, and stress were correlated with work, social, and family/home life impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of life impairment. Depressive severity was a significant predictor for all SDS life areas. In addition, interference/avoidance associated with HP was a predictor for work and social life disability. Distress from HP was a significant predictor of social and family/home life disability. Focused HP score and anxiety were significant predictors of family/home life disability. As expected, depression in hair pullers predicted disability across life domains. Avoiding work and social situations can seriously impair functioning in those life domains. Severity of distress and worry about HP may be most elevated in social situations with friends and family and thus predict impairment in those areas. Finally, since HP often occurs at home, time spent in focused hair pulling would have a greater negative impact on family and home responsibilities than social and work life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  16. Disability in a Human Rights Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Degener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD is a modern human rights treaty with innovative components. It impacts on disability studies as well as human rights law. Two innovations are scrutinized in this article: the model of disability and the equality and discrimination concepts of the CRPD. It is argued that the CRPD manifests a shift from the medical model to the human rights model of disability. Six propositions are offered why and how the human rights model differs from the social model of disability. It is further maintained that the CRPD introduces a new definition of discrimination into international public law. The underlying equality concept can be categorized as transformative equality with both individual and group oriented components. The applied methodology of this research is legal doctrinal analysis and disability studies model analysis. The main finding is that the human rights model of disability improves the social model of disability. Three different models of disability can be attributed to different concepts of equality. The medical model corresponds with formal equality, while the social model with substantive equality and the human rights model can be linked with transformative equality.

  17. The Disability Impact and Associated Cost per Disability in Women Who Underwent Surgical Revision of Transvaginal Mesh Kits for Prolapse Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadian, Pouya; Shobeiri, S Abbas

    2017-09-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate disability impact in patients and cost to the families of patients who have had complications of transvaginal prolapse mesh kits and underwent surgical revision. Patients who developed complications of transvaginal mesh kits for prolapse and who had undergone vaginal prolapse mesh surgical revision/removal in 2009 to 2014 at a single institution were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes. The group was invited to complete a phone survey pertaining to the initial vaginal mesh used for prolapse surgery utilizing Sheehan Disability Scale (scale 0-10) and Years of life Lived with Disability (YLDs) questionnaires. The data collected were used to estimate the disability and cost analysis. We used our data to estimate the economic and quality-of-life impact of vaginal mesh complications on patients in the United States RESULTS: Sixty-two patients (62/198 [31.2%]) were consented to participate and completed the questionnaires by phone. Extremely disabled patients were 18 (29%) of 62 of whole cases, and 5 (8%) of 62 reported that they had no disability after vaginal mesh surgery. The median for overall disability score after vaginal mesh procedure was 8 (which reflects marked disability on a scale of 0-10). The majority of patients missed a median of 12 months of their school or work because of their mesh complications. Thirty-seven (59.6%) of 62 did not improve after mesh removal. Twenty-one (33.9%) of 62 stated that their family income dropped because of productivity loss related to mesh complications. The mean time between vaginal mesh surgery and mesh removal procedure was 4.7 years. Sheehan Disability Scale scores are significantly correlated with YLDs outcomes. Patients' overall disability score showed a significant correlation with YLDs scores (P mesh for prolapse reduction complications had a sustained disability impact that continued despite mesh removal. Likewise, the complications were associated with

  18. A New Theoretical Approach to Postsecondary Student Disability: Disability-Diversity (Dis)Connect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Katherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Disability is often viewed as an obstacle to postsecondary inclusion, but not a characteristic of student diversity. Additionally, current theoretical frameworks isolate disability from other student diversity characteristics. In response, a new conceptual framework, the Disability-Diversity (Dis)Connect Model (DDDM), was created to address…

  19. 75 FR 39429 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... would deprive the disability and rehabilitation community in the U.S. of knowledge from many other... Project (DRRP)-- International Exchange of Knowledge and Experts in Disability and Rehabilitation Research... priority for a DRRP entitled International Exchange of Knowledge and Experts in Disability and...

  20. Is There Really a Difference? Distinguishing Mild Intellectual Disability from "Similar" Disability Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Satsangi, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Students with mild intellectual disability generally garner less individual attention in research, as they are often aggregated with students with moderate and severe intellectual disability or students with other high incidence disabilities. This study used the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to look at the personal…

  1. Enacting Disability: How Can Science and Technology Studies Inform Disability Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galis, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss how science and technology studies (STS) can inform disability studies and challenge dominant approaches, such as the medical and the social models, in the ordering and representation of disability. Disability studies and STS have followed somewhat parallel paths in the history of ideas. From a positivist approach to…

  2. The Nature of Interactions between Students with Severe Disabilities and Their Friends and Acquaintances without Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita

    1994-01-01

    This study of 20 elementary-school children with severe disabilities examined differences in their interactions with friends without disabilities compared with interactions with acquaintances without disabilities. Friends and acquaintances did not differ in developmental level, language age, functional movement, or social competence. Group…

  3. 75 FR 22767 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Disabilities Act, or individuals with disabilities who are eligible for the vocational rehabilitation program... vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs, or other programs serving transition-age youth with disabilities. (b... preference, or invitational through a notice in the Federal Register. The effect of each type of priority...

  4. Attitudes towards People with Disabilities--What Do People with Intellectual Disabilities Have to Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr McEvoy, Sandra; Keenan, Emer

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities have traditionally been very negative, resulting in people with intellectual disabilities being treated badly by other. This claim was explored by conducting focus groups with adults who have an intellectual disability to find out about their everyday experiences in different places and using…

  5. Happiness Disabled: Sensory Disabilities, Happiness and the Rise of Educational Expertise in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Pieter; Söderfeldt, Yva

    2014-01-01

    To date, the historical entanglement of disability and happiness has not been considered an object worth of historical inquiry. Nor has the intersection of disability and emotions been used as a lens to examine the history of disability. Our paper aims at filling this academic void by analysing a wide range of philosophical, anthropological,…

  6. Disability Awareness Training with a Group of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…

  7. 76 FR 33744 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... living for individuals with disabilities and their families. Types of Priorities When inviting... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number: 84.133A-09] Final Priority; National Institute on Disability... . Through the implementation of the Plan, NIDRR seeks to: (1) Improve the quality and utility of disability...

  8. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  9. [A comparison of opinions about disabled sports between students of University in Szczecin and disabled athletes ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dywejko, Barbara; Rotter, Iwona; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Sport among disabled people is becoming more and more popular. It is happening mostly due to the growing number of sports centres for the disabled, and the widespread popularization of this form of activity by organi- zations working for the benefit of disabled people. Also, the mass media play an important role in the process. The aim of the study a comparison of the knowledge and opinions about disabled sports of physical education students and disabled athletes. The research was conducted using two dif- ferent questionnaires. One of them was given to students of Physical Education, the other to members of a disabled sports club, "Start". The questionnaires consisted of two sections: a personal profile, and 17 questions about disabled sports. 45 full-time students of Physical Education at the University of Szczecin: 30 (66.7%) women and 15 (33.3%) men. The average age of the group was 23.6 years. The second group, from the disabled sports club, consisted of 33 people, 18 (54.5%) women and 15 (45.5%) men; the aver- age age of the participants was 28.6 years. Among the disabled people, 10 (30.3%) people were unable to name any disabled athlete; among the. group of able-bodied students, there were 33 (73.3%) people who were not able to do the same thing. According to students, disabled people do sports mainly for rehabilitation purposes (51.1%). According to the disabled students' group, however, sport for disabled people means satisfaction and higher self-esteem (36.36%). When it comes to the best source of information on the subject, television proved to be the best one among the media. The able-bodied students rated their knowledge of disabled sports as satisfactory (66.7%), while only 6% of disabled students considered the knowledge of able-bodied people about disabled sports to be satisfactory. 1. The knowledge about disabled sports among students of physical education is superficial. The disabled also do not possess an extensive knowledge about disabled sports

  10. Interactivity in work with disabled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva; Hasselblad, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a case study where exploration, play and empowerment in interactive therapy sessions with audio and visual stimuli resulted in achievement, self-esteem and a shared pride between a young adult with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), his mother...... and the special teacher that conducted the sessions. Following the gift to the mother of a video recording that depicted the young adult’s progress as a result of the sessions it was found that upon viewing he was able to recognize himself and associate to his activities. Further, when watching alongside his...

  11. Needs of Persons with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: A Q-Methodological Study of Clients with Severe Behavioural Disorders and Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuger, Linda; van Exel, Job; Nieboer, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background: A demand-oriented approach is becoming increasingly important in care provision. The purpose of this study was to identify the primary needs of clients with Severe Behavioural Disorders and Severe Intellectual Disabilities. Materials and Methods: We used the theory of Social Production Function and Maslow's hierarchy of needs to…

  12. 20 CFR 718.204 - Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total disability and disability causation... Section 718.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL... than those listed in Table B1 (Males) or Table B2 (Females) in Appendix B to this part for an...

  13. Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications for health ... communities often only learnt about disability following the birth of a disabled child. ... to education and the availability of transport, particularly amongst caregivers ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cleft Lip and Palate MalaCards: x-linked intellectual disability, siderius type March of Dimes: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Merck Manual Consumer Version: Intellectual Disability Orphanet: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Patient ...

  15. The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK: helping or hindering employment among the disabled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Heitmueller, Axel

    2009-03-01

    The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. Exploiting both pooled and longitudinal data, this paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the USA, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are higher uncertainty around litigation costs, low levels of general awareness about the Act among disabled people and employers, and a lack of financial support.

  16. SELF-ESTEEM OF DISABLED AND ABLED : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...

  17. Learning Disabilities and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Kasler, Jon

    2017-07-04

    The literature is conflicted around the subject of the emotional abilities of individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLDs): While many claim cognitive challenges are associated with emotional difficulties, some suggest emotional and interpersonal abilities are not compromised in such disorders and may help individuals compensate and cope effectively with the challenges they meet in learning environments. Two studies explored differences in emotional intelligence (EI) between young adults with and without SLD. Two samples (matched on gender, approximate age, and program of study; n = 100, and unmatched; n = 584) of college students took self-report and performance-based tests of EI (Ability-EI) as well as a measure of self-esteem and demographics associated with college performance (e.g.: SAT scores, gender, etc.). The results showed that while SAT scores and ability emotional intelligence (Ability-EI) were associated with college GPA, Ability-EI did not differ between the two groups, while self-report measures of EI and self-esteem did show differences, with the group with learning disabilities ranking lower. The effects remained stable when we controlled for demographics and potential intervening factors. The results suggest that EI may play a protective role in the association between background variables and college attainment in students with SLD. The results may provide a basis for interventions to empower students with SLD in academia.

  18. "Challenging Disabling Attitudes, Building an Inclusive Society": Considering the Role of Education in Encouraging Non-Disabled Children to Develop Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Angharad E.

    2009-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…

  19. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant production under extreme environmental conditions by alkali-halo-thermophilic bacteria from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Abdelmoneim, T S; Almaghrabi, O A

    2015-07-01

    Twenty three morphologically distinct microbial colonies were isolated from soil and sea water samples, which were collected from Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia for screening of the most potent biosurfactant strains. The isolated bacteria were selected by using different methods as drop collapse test, oil displacement test, blue agar test, blood hemolysis test, emulsification activity and surface tension. The results showed that the ability of Virgibacillus salarius to grow and reduce surface tension under a wide range of pH, salinities and temperatures gives bacteria isolate an advantage in many applications such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food industries and bioremediation in marine environment. The biosurfactant production by V. salarius decreased surface tension and emulsifying activity (30 mN/m and 80%, respectively). In addition to reducing the production cost of biosurfactants by tested several plant-derived oils such as jatropha oil, castor oils, jojoba oil, canola oil and cottonseed oil. In this respect the feasibility to reusing old frying oil of sunflower for production rhamnolipids and sophorolipids, their use that lead to solve many ecological and industrial problems.

  20. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant production under extreme environmental conditions by alkali-halo-thermophilic bacteria from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazzazy, Ahmed M.; Abdelmoneim, T.S.; Almaghrabi, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty three morphologically distinct microbial colonies were isolated from soil and sea water samples, which were collected from Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia for screening of the most potent biosurfactant strains. The isolated bacteria were selected by using different methods as drop collapse test, oil displacement test, blue agar test, blood hemolysis test, emulsification activity and surface tension. The results showed that the ability of Virgibacillus salarius to grow and reduce surface tension under a wide range of pH, salinities and temperatures gives bacteria isolate an advantage in many applications such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food industries and bioremediation in marine environment. The biosurfactant production by V. salarius decreased surface tension and emulsifying activity (30 mN/m and 80%, respectively). In addition to reducing the production cost of biosurfactants by tested several plant-derived oils such as jatropha oil, castor oils, jojoba oil, canola oil and cottonseed oil. In this respect the feasibility to reusing old frying oil of sunflower for production rhamnolipids and sophorolipids, their use that lead to solve many ecological and industrial problems. PMID:26150754

  1. Disability and Spanish University: Protection of university students with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Álvarez Robles

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Right to education is a fundamental right, internationally recognized. However, this assumption is conditioned by personal circumstances, details, of the holder. In any case, we should emphasize the double dimension of this, firstly the right to receive education/teaching, secondly its consideration as a channel of integration and social participation. It is due to this situation, the involvement of the public powers, in order to implement and develop of this right, must be promoted.   The application of the right to education to people that suffer disabilities has got a great degree of importance under The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, held in New York in December 2006. At that time the international community implications were really consolidated. This situation has changed dramatically with the economic crisis that we are suffering in recent times. This is the main reason for the present study, an appeal to implement and apply regulation about disabilities at University studies trough the reform of their statutes and by the increase of the level of the information and training of their workers, especially professors. The universalization of rights, such as education, faces difficulties in achieving its fullness as all holders differ with respect to other recipients of this right. The challenge of this work is to visualize the situation in a very specific environment, university education, and in a very precise context that is the Kingdom of Spain. However, globalization should assume ownership the main problems and challenges identified in this work.  It will be checked in the prolix character of legislation that rules theright af everyone, although you were different to be the holder of the right to education. The existence of a huge number of authorities who supports an inclusive model collides with exogenous difficulties, especially the lack of means, but also endogenous, as the lack of involvement of any of the

  2. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  3. Would Rethinking Learning Disabilities Benefit Kuwait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazna, Maysaa; Reid, D. Kim

    2009-01-01

    Learning disabilities education in Kuwait grew from Kuwaiti's wholesale importation of the Western, medical model of disability--a model basically incompatible with Kuwaiti culture. Conflicting factors include its problematic normal/abnormal binary, its assumption that the "deficit" is located in the student and the segregation of…

  4. Graphical user interfaces and visually disabled users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll, L.H.D.; Waterham, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    From February 1992 until the end of 1993, the authors ((IPO) Institute for Perception Research) participated in a European ((TIDE) Technology Initiative for Disabled and Elderly) project which addressed the problem arising for visually disabled computer-users from the growing use of Graphical User

  5. Expanding Opportunities for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangreco, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Research and experience tell us a great deal about how to successfully educate students with intellectual disability, but unfortunately this knowledge remains underutilized and inconsistently applied, writes researcher Michael F. Giangreco. Students with intellectual disability who have virtually identical profiles but live in different locales…

  6. Social Justice, Disability, and Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…

  7. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  8. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  9. Supporting Extracurricular Involvement for Youth with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Moss, Colleen K.

    2009-01-01

    Trying out for the school play. Performing in the band. Joining a sports team or club. These experiences are memorable parts of middle and high school life. For many students with disabilities, however, these everyday school experiences remain elusive. Although the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) clearly states that IEP teams…

  10. Moral Philosophy, Disability, and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, E. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Disability and dependence are integral to the human experience and yet have been largely marginalized or denigrated within Western philosophy. Joining a growing counter narrative from the disability studies movement, several mainstream moral philosophers are helping to redress this error. In this essay, the author discusses ideas from four such…

  11. Remembering Memories about Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Maury; Gresham, Pamela; Fouts, Bonnia

    2011-01-01

    Preservice general education classroom teachers in an inclusion course were asked to describe their own earliest memories of students with disabilities in school. Substantial literature links early memories to subsequent thoughts and attitudes. Subjects also completed the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities attitude…

  12. Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphin, Henry C., Jr., Ed.; Lavine, Jennie, Ed.; Chan, Roy Y., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Education is the foundation to almost all successful lives. It is vital that learning opportunities are available on a global scale, regardless of individual disabilities or differences, and to create more inclusive educational practices. "Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility" is a comprehensive reference source for…

  13. Creative interactive play for disabled children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, Patrizia; Pollini, Alessandro; Rullo, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    tools as well as interactive collaborative environments may represent a unique opportunity for disable children to full engage in play and have fun. The Creative Interactive Play workshop presents a collection of innovative interactive technologies and case studies for inclusive play and discusses...... the challenges and opportunities they can bid to disabled children....

  14. Disabled Children: The Right to Feel Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…

  15. Neurogenetic and Neurodevelopmental Pathways to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews ongoing research designed to specify the cognitive, behavioral, and neuroanatomical phenotypes of specific genetic etiologies of learning disability. The genetic disorders at the focus of the research include reading disability, neurofibromatosis type 1, Tourette syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Implications for identifying…

  16. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  17. Socioeconomic circumstances of children with disabilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with disabilities are an integral part of Zimbabwean society. However these children face insurmountable challenges that hinder their human and social capital development. The current study used a mixed methodology approach to examine the socioeconomic circumstances of children living with disabilities ...

  18. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  19. Adaptive Technologies for Accommodating Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliss, Jane; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Eight articles review the progress achieved in making library computing technologies and library services accessible to people with disabilities. Adaptive technologies, automated conversion into Braille, and successful programs that demonstrate compliance with the American with Disabilities Act are described. A resource list is included. (EA)

  20. Astronomy and Inclusion: resouces for disabled populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Beatriz; Ortiz Gil, Amelia

    2015-08-01

    Commission 46 proposed, in 2012, the creation of an interdisciplinary WG in which astronomers work together with educators and disability specialists to develop new teaching and learning strategies devoted to generate resources of impact among disabled populations, which are usually away from astronomy. We present some of the achivements and new challenges.

  1. Health Problems of Mentally Disabled Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yildirim Sari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150

  2. Using Movies To Teach Students about Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses using movies to teach students about disabilities. It addresses considerations in choosing movies, gauging the accuracy of the portrayal, and identifying positive images and negative stereotypes. A checklist for evaluating positive and negative representations is provided, along with a format to assess disability portrayal…

  3. Hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2011-05-01

    Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.

  4. Employment of the Disabled in Large Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabby, Rami

    1983-01-01

    Large corporations are in a unique position to employ the disabled, but they sometimes lack the motivation to do so. The author discusses elements of a corporate policy for the disabled, ways of formulating and disseminating it, assignment of responsibility, changes in management attitudes, and the special case of the multinational company.…

  5. Assistive Devices for Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Sedlak, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of devices that can assist students with disabilities. Highlights recently developed devices for students with specific learning disabilities, and with vision, hearing, health, physical, and speech and language impairments. The devices can help rehabilitate, reeducate, facilitate normalcy, or augment current functioning. (GLR)

  6. Disability Case Review of Administrative Law Judge Hearing Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Disability Case Review is a post-effectuation quality review of administrative law judge (ALJ) disability hearing decisions. This dataset includes results from...

  7. How Do Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders and Writing Learning Disabilities Differ from Their Nonlabeled Peers in the Ability to Compose Texts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Celestino; Grünke, Matthias; González-Castro, Paloma; García, Trinidad; Álvarez-García, David

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the productivity and the process of written composition in students with and without disabilities between 8 and 16 years of age. Participants were assigned to four groups as follows: (a) 59 with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and writing learning disabilities (WLD), (b) 40 with ADHD, (c)…

  8. How Many U.S. High School Students Have a Foreign Language Reading "Disability"? Reading without Meaning and the Simple View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Luebbers, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that students classified as learning disabled will exhibit difficulties with foreign language (FL) learning, but evidence has not supported a relationship between FL learning problems and learning disabilities. The simple view of reading model posits that reading comprehension is the product of word decoding and…

  9. Disability and the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A higher proportion of working- age persons receive disability assistance in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands than in other European countries. Whereas current research emphasizes the connection between disability assistance and rates of labor force exit, to date there has been no exploration of how welfare state context influences individual self-reported disability. Using nationally representative data from 15 countries (n = 88, 478, I find that residents of generous welfare states are significantly more likely to report a disability net of self-reported health, sociodemographic, and labor force characteristics and, notably, that this association extends to younger and more educated workers. I argue that welfare state context may directly shape what it means to be disabled, which may have consequences for evaluations of welfare state performance and social exclusion.

  10. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  11. Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    The deeply entrenched, sometimes heated conflict between the disability movement and the profession of bioethics is well known and well documented. Critiques of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion are probably the most salient and most sophisticated of disability studies scholars' engagements with bioethics, but there are many other topics over which disability activists and scholars have encountered the field of bioethics in an adversarial way, including health care rationing, growth-attenuation interventions, assisted reproduction technology, and physician-assisted suicide. The tension between the analyses of the disabilities studies scholars and mainstream bioethics is not merely a conflict between two insular political groups, however; it is, rather, also an encounter between those who have experienced disability and those who have not. This paper explores that idea. I maintain that it is a mistake to think of this conflict as arising just from a difference in ideology or political commitments because it represents a much deeper difference-one rooted in variations in how human beings perceive and reason about moral problems. These are what I will refer to as variations of moral psychology. The lived experiences of disability produce variations in moral psychology that are at the heart of the moral conflict between the disability movement and mainstream bioethics. I will illustrate this point by exploring how the disability movement and mainstream bioethics come into conflict when perceiving and analyzing the moral problem of physician-assisted suicide via the lens of the principle of respect for autonomy. To reconcile its contemporary and historical conflict with the disability movement, the field of bioethics must engage with and fully consider the two groups' differences in moral perception and reasoning, not just the explicit moral and political arguments of the disability movement. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  12. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In search of wellness: allied health professionals' understandings of wellness in childhood disability services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lauren J; Wildy, Helen; Saggers, Sherry; Millsteed, Jeannine; Raghavendra, Parimala

    2011-01-01

    Wellness approaches are not routine in childhood disability services, despite theoretical and empirical support and an increasing demand for them from health consumers and disability activists. We aimed to investigate how health professionals define or understand wellness and its practice in the context of childhood disability. A qualitative, interpretive approach was taken. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 health professionals (allied health therapists and managers) providing early intervention and ongoing therapy within four Australian childhood health and disability services. Years of experience providing services to children with disabilities and their families ranged from 6 months to 30 years (M=9.41, SD=9.04). The data revealed a noteworthy impediment to incorporating wellness into practice - the difficulties in the allied health professionals reaching consensus in defining wellness. There appeared to be distinct differences between the four services, while there appeared to be no appreciable difference based on the individual professional's years of experience or allied health discipline. The effect of organisational culture should be considered in efforts to embed wellness in childhood health and disability services in order to address client well-being, empowerment, choice, independence and rights to meaningful and productive lives. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  14. Role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Lopez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly important to understand how epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression during neurodevelopment. Two epigenetic mechanisms that have received considerable attention are DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have linked several neurobiological disorders to genes whose products actively regulate DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, a third major epigenetic mechanism, nucleosome remodeling, has been implicated in human developmental and intellectual disability disorders. Nucleosome remodeling is driven primarily through nucleosome remodeling complexes with specialized ATP-dependent enzymes. These enzymes directly interact with DNA or chromatin structure, as well as histone subunits, to restructure the shape and organization of nucleosome positioning to ultimately regulate gene expression. Of particular interest is the neuron-specific Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor (nBAF complex. Mutations in nBAF subunit genes have so far been linked to Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, schizophrenia, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Together, these human developmental and intellectual disability disorders are powerful examples of the impact of epigenetic modulation on gene expression. This review focuses on the new and emerging role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders and whether nucleosome remodeling affects gene expression required for cognition independently of its role in regulating gene expression required for development.

  15. Teaching Motor Disability Assessment over the Web: MODASPECTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Leo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available MODASPECTRA (MOtor Disability Assessment SPEcialists’ TRAining was a research and technology development project aimed at developing quality teaching and training of post-graduate specialists in Motor Disability Assessment. The specialists targeted come from a background of physiatry, physical therapy and bioengineering. The aim is to offer to the European professionals involved in Motor Disability Assessment both a complete degree and a number of courses on Clinical Applications of Movement Analysis in a Life Long Learning context as a mean for upgrading their skills in the line of good practice dissemination and standardisation. The outcome of the project is a Web-based Open and Distance Learning system usable by students, according to suitable tutoring pathways and schedules. The project also implemented multimedia databases of context-based experiences provided by recognised practitioners. These results have been obtained through co-operation among academic and industrial actors for the production of course materials and for the exploitation and adaptation of the remote delivery system. The results of the project and the MODASPECTRA system are available at http://www.modaspectra.org.

  16. Analysis of disabled HVDC transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestad, Oeystein; Linhjell, Dag

    2006-02-01

    An examination of three windings from a disabled Hvdc transformer. The windings were dismantled at the company ABB Drammen. Test were taken and brought to Trondheim for further analysis. Of the three windings, two were strongly contaminated by copper sulphite while the last one recently had been replaced after a previous breakdown and only showed small signs of copper sulphite contamination. The following analyses have been conducted: visual observation of copper sulphite contamination on the conductors/paper, electron microscope analysis of the surface of selected bits of paper, measuring of the conducing ability by means of examining paper samples of varying degrees of contamination, and GC-AED and combustion analysis of the disabled transformer's oil and the oil from a 'healthy' transformer. The visual examination showed a strong contamination of the upper (hot) parts of the windings as well as two areas just below the middle of the windings. The contamination was especially strong under the buttons and between the conductors where the oil flow is reduced compared to the areas where the paper is in direct contact with free flow of oil. The degree of contamination on the paper proved to be directly correlated to the electric conducing ability through the paper and the amount of copper and sulphur measured in the electron microscope analysis. Copper sulphite grows through the paper, but the 'contamination' between the layers of paper is fastest through the gaps. When copper sulphite grows through the paper via the gaps, a current causes carbonisation of the paper in the area, and finally a short circuit between the windings. A comparison between the two oil samples that were analyzed by GC-AED and combustion analysis showed that the two oils probably were similar to begin with. The total amount of sulphur components in the oil from the disabled transformer has thus increased during the lifetime of the transformer. The new sulphur components have probably been

  17. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOSURFACTANT BY Pseudomonas fluorescens USING CASSAVA FLOUR WASTEWATER AS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venty Suryanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant with efficient emulsification properties could be produced by Pseudomonas flourescens using cassava flour wastewater (manipueira as media. The ability of P. flourescens to produce biosurfactant could suggest potential use in industrial and environmental applications. Media containing a mixture of natural manipueira and nutrient broth with 48 h fermentation was the optimum condition for the biosurfactant production. Based on UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra, the biosurfactant was indicated as rhamnolipids containing hydroxyl, ester, carboxylic and aliphatic carbon chain functional groups. Biosurfactant exhibited critical micelle concentration (CMC value of 715 mg/L and reduced the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 59 mN/m. The biosurfactant was able to decrease the interfacial tension about 51-70% when benzyl chloride, palm oil and kerosene were used as water-immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant was able to form stable emulsion until 30 days when paraffin, soybean oil, lubricant oil and kerosene were used as water-immiscible compounds.

  18. New Business Structures Creating Organizational Opportunities and Challenges for Work Disability Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Kerstin; Pransky, Glenn S; Besen, Elyssa; Fassier, Jean-Baptise; Feuerstein, Michael; Munir, Fehmidah; Blanck, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Flexible work arrangements are growing in order to develop resource-efficient production and because of advanced technologies, new societal values, changing demographics, and globalization. The article aims to illustrate the emerging challenges and opportunities for work disability prevention efforts among workers in alternate work arrangements. Methods The authors participated in a year-long collaboration that ultimately led to an invited 3-day conference, "Improving Research of Employer Practices to Prevent Disability," held October 14-16, 2015, in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The collaboration included a topical review of the literature, group conference calls to identify key areas and challenges, drafting of initial documents, review of industry publications, and a conference presentation that included feedback from peer researchers and a roundtable discussion with experts having direct employer experience. Results Both worker and employer perspectives were considered, and four common alternate work arrangements were identified: (a) temporary and contingent employment; (b) small workplaces; (c) virtual work/telework; and (d) lone workers. There was sparse available research of return-to-work (RTW) and workplace disability management strategies with regard to alternate work patterns. Limited research findings and a review of the grey literature suggested that regulations and guidelines concerning disabled workers are often ambiguous, leading to unsatisfactory protection. At the workplace level, there was a lack of research evidence on how flexible work arrangements could be handled or leveraged to support RTW and prevent disability. Potential negative consequences of this lack of organizational guidance and information are higher costs for employers and insurers and feelings of job insecurity, lack of social support and integration, or work intensification for disabled workers. Conclusions Future studies of RTW and workplace disability prevention

  19. Identification and assessment of students with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschly, D J

    1996-01-01

    Students with disabilities or suspected disabilities are evaluated by schools to determine whether they are eligible for special education services and, if eligible, to determine what services will be provided. In many states, the results of this evaluation also affect how much funding assistance the school will receive to meet the students' special needs. Special education classification is not uniform across states or regions. Students with identical characteristics can be diagnosed as disabled in one state but not in another and may be reclassified when they move across state or school district lines. Most disabilities with a clear medical basis are recognized by the child's physician or parents soon after birth or during the preschool years. In contrast, the majority of students with disabilities are initially referred for evaluation by their classroom teacher (or parents) because of severe and chronic achievement or behavioral problems. There is evidence that the prevalence of some disabilities varies by age, the high-incidence disabilities such as learning disabilities and speech-language disabilities occur primarily at the mild level, the mild disabilities exist on broad continua in which there are no clear demarcations between those who have and those who do not have the disability, and even "mild" disabilities may constitute formidable barriers to academic progress and significantly limit career opportunities. Problems with the current classification system include stigma to the child, low reliability, poor correlation between categorization and treatment, obsolete assumptions still in use in treatment, and disproportionate representation of minority students. Both African-American and Hispanic students are disproportionately represented in special education but in opposite directions. The disproportionately high number of African Americans in special education reflects the fact that more African-American students than white students are diagnosed with

  20. Developmental language and speech disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, G; Brunner, E; Allmayer, B; Pletz, A

    2001-09-01

    Speech disabilities (articulation deficits) and language disorders--expressive (vocabulary) receptive (language comprehension) are not uncommon in children. An overview of these along with a global description of the impairment of communication as well as clinical characteristics of language developmental disorders are presented in this article. The diagnostic tables, which are applied in the European and Anglo-American speech areas, ICD-10 and DSM-IV, have been explained and compared. Because of their strengths and weaknesses an alternative classification of language and speech developmental disorders is proposed, which allows a differentiation between expressive and receptive language capabilities with regard to the semantic and the morphological/syntax domains. Prevalence and comorbidity rates, psychosocial influences, biological factors and the biological social interaction have been discussed. The necessity of the use of standardized examinations is emphasised. General logopaedic treatment paradigms, specific therapy concepts and an overview of prognosis have been described.

  1. Utility of the Oswestry Disability Index for studies of back pain related disability in nurses: evaluation of psychometric and measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Steele, Emily J; Hodges, Paul W; Stewart, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Disability due to back pain in nurses results in reduced productivity, work absenteeism and attrition from the nursing workforce internationally. Consistent use of outcome measures is needed in intervention studies to enable meta-analyses that determine efficacy of back pain preventive programs. This study investigated the psychometric and measurement properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in nursing students to determine its suitability for assessing back pain related disability in intervention studies. Bachelor of Nursing students were recruited. Test-retest reliability and the ability of the ODI to discriminate between individuals with serious and non-serious back pain were investigated. The measurement error of the ODI was examined with the minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence level (MDC(90)). Student nurses (n=214) had a low mean ODI score of 8.8+/-7.4%. Participants with serious back pain recorded higher scores than the rest of the cohort (pdisability in this population. Data from this and previous studies demonstrate that the measurement properties of the ODI are inappropriate for studying back pain related disability in nurses. The ODI is not recommended for back pain intervention studies in the nursing population and an alternative tool that is sensitive to lower levels of disability must be determined. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dating persons with physical disabilities: the perceptions of South Africans without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Xanthe; Swartz, Leslie; Carew, Mark Thomas; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Chiwaula, Mussa; Rohleder, Poul

    2018-02-01

    There is good reason to believe that the attitudes of persons without disability towards dating a person with a physical disability might be unfavourable. However, in general, and in the Global South in particular, there is a dearth of research in this area. This study sought to take the first step in addressing this lack of enquiry, by surveying the attitudes of a general population sample in South Africa towards dating people with physical disabilities, using a vignette. Data from 1723 survey respondents were analysed thematically. Findings reveal largely negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities. Respondents without disability perceived numerous barriers to dating a person with a physical disability, including social stigma, anxiety and concerns about the burden of care they believed such a relationship would place upon them. However, there was some evidence to suggest that some positive attitudes do exist, and a few respondents were open to dating a person with physical disabilities. Findings contribute to a nuancing and expanding of the 'myth of asexuality' among physically disabled people by showing that people with physical disabilities are actively desexualised by persons without disability. Future research is needed to explore how the inclusive attitudes, of which we did find evidence here, can be further cultivated.

  3. Examination of accessibility for disabled people at metro stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Burak Enginöz

    2016-07-01

    enforcements, as well as insufficient user’s knowledge cause our cities inaccessible. Therefore, we have to increase the awareness of our community on accessible city life and transportation systems rather than make laws and hope for recovery. In this context, a case study is intended to examine the approaches on barrier-free design and level of accessibility at metro stations in Turkey. With the scope of this case study, current informative, stimulating and guiding regulations, vertical and horizontal implementations on circulation areas at metro stations are examined by an accessible design control list Accessible design control list consists of 28 questions that have been selected from Turkish Ministry of Family and Social Policies-People with Disabilities and Elderly General Service Accessibility check Lists and Turkish World Handicapped Foundation- Outdoors and Indoors Accessibility Check Lists. With the help of question we can examine the passengers’ expectations on the quality of informative, stimulating and guiding signboards at entrance, circulations and surroundings of metro stations; except the legislations related to the product sizes and constraints that designers or professionals have to obey The questions are answered by disabled passengers who use Kadıkoy Ayrılık Cesme main transmission metro station. Disabled passengers are divided into two subject groups. First subject group consist of 5 visually impaired and partially impaired people. The second subject group consist of 7 wheelchair users. Experimentally, asked all the subject groups to make a journey beginning from the entrance of metro station to the train platforms without getting any help. After they completed their journey, they were requested to answer the questions of control list and describe the positive and negative situations from their experiences. According to the result of examining the approaches on barrier-free design and the level of accessibility at Ayrılıkcesme main transmission

  4. Workplace accommodations for employees with disabilities: A multilevel model of employer decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telwatte, Apsara; Anglim, Jeromy; Wynton, Sarah K A; Moulding, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Existing research suggests that the decision to grant or deny workplace accommodations for people with disabilities is influenced by a range of legal and nonlegal factors. However, less is known about how these factors operate at the within-person level. Thus, we proposed and tested a multilevel model of the accommodation decision-making process, which we applied to better understand why people with psychological disabilities often experience greater challenges in obtaining accommodations. A sample of 159 Australian adults, composed mostly of managers and HR professionals, read 12 vignettes involving requests for accommodations from existing employees. The requests differed in whether they were for psychological or physical disabilities. For each vignette, participants rated their empathy with the employee, the legitimacy of the employee's disability, the necessity for productivity, the perceived cost, and the reasonableness, and indicated whether they would grant the accommodation. Multilevel modeling indicated that greater empathy, legitimacy, and necessity, and lower perceived cost predicted perceptions of greater reasonableness and greater granting. Accommodation requests from employees with psychological disabilities were seen as less reasonable and were less likely to be granted; much of this effect seemed to be driven by perceptions that such accommodations were less necessary for productivity. Ratings on accommodations were influenced both by general between-person tendencies and within-person appraisals of particular scenarios. The study points to a need for organizations to more clearly establish guidelines for how decision-makers should fairly evaluate accommodation requests for employees with psychological disabilities and disability more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Paying for sex-only for people with disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D; Moen, Ole Martin

    2016-01-01

    Thomsen (2015) argues that people with disabilities should be granted an exception to a general prohibition on paying for sex. In this response, we argue that Thomsen's call for an exception does not withstand careful scrutiny. The concerns that appear to motivate his argument point instead, we argue, to a case for legalization of prostitution, coupled with sensible health and safety regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Children with intellectual disability and hospice utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T

    2017-02-01

    Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.

  7. Prevalence of Mathematic Disability in Primary Schools

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    Siavash Talepasand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the issues that have consistently been the concern for the health affair specialists and cure and massive social governors in health fields is the rate of disorders prevalence, diseases and the related subjects to epidemiology. Purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mathematic disability amongst primary schools of Karaj. Methods: Totally 432 students were selected with multi-stage sampling method. Participants completed Raven test, Frostig Visual-Perception test and Wepman Auditory discrimination test, Rutter behavioral questionnaire and Iran Key-math test. In order to diagnosis mathematic disability, inter criterion was normal quotient intelligence and out criteria were to have one of visual perception, auditory and behavioral problems. The participants whose total standard scores in Iran Key-math test were one standard deviation below the mean were selected as a mathematical disability (MD. Results: The mathematic disability prevalence in primary students was estimated 0.46%. In addition, proportion of mathematic disability prevalence was not function of gender or grade. Discussion: The findings demonstrated that the prevalence of mathematic disability is much less than the previous researches. A possible explanation was that inappropriate screening co morbid disorders with the mathematic disability. The theoretical implications of findings are discussed in detail.

  8. [Work disability in public press professions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akermann, S

    2002-09-01

    In this study more than 1,000 cases of long-term disability among members of the press and media were evaluated. Mental disorders were the main cause of disability in almost every fourth case. In women psychiatric illnesses were even more important. The most common diagnosis was that of a depressive disorder which accounted for more than half of all psychiatric cases. The causes of disability of other insurance systems such as the German social security scheme and the pension and disability plan for the medical profession were compared. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in white collar workers and orthopaedic illnesses, especially disorders of the vertebral column, are the leading cause in blue collar workers, as one might have expected. In females mental disorders are even more common than in men whereas men tend to have more cardiovascular problems than women. In this study also some interesting features regarding disability caused by various illnesses after long-term follow-up were found. This opens unknown perspectives allowing new assessment of diseases and eventually will enable the actuary to price medical diagnoses for disability insurance.

  9. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

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    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  10. Utilitarianism and the disabled: distribution of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mark S

    2002-02-01

    Utilitarianism is more convincing than resource egalitarianism or welfare egalitarianism as a theory of how resources should be distributed between disabled people and nondisabled people. Unlike resource egalitarianism, utilitarianism can redistribute resources to the disabled when they would benefit more from those resources than nondisabled people. Unlike welfare egalitarianism, utilitarianism can halt redistribution when the disabled would no longer benefit more than the nondisabled from additional resources. The author considers one objection to this view: it has been argued, by Sen and others, that there are circumstances under which utilitarianism would unfairly distribute fewer resources to the physically disabled than to nondisabled people, on the ground that the disabled would derive less benefit from those resources. In response, the author claims that critics of utilitarianism have fallaciously exaggerated the circumstances under which the disabled would benefit less than the nondisabled from additional resources. In those limited circumstances in which the disabled really would benefit less from resources, the author argues, it does not seem unfair to distribute fewer resources to them.

  11. Neighborhood Characteristics and Disability in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694

  12. The Trouble with Disability in Shakespeare Studies

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    Jeffrey R. Wilson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some instances of disability in Shakespeare's works and some instances of Disability Studies in Shakespeare studies. Contrary to the claims of the Disabled Shakespeares project, there is no historical basis for the modern language of "disability" in Shakespeare's texts, as illustrated with a philology of the term; this does not, however, invalidate the viable uses of disability theory in Shakespeare studies. Developing a typology of these uses (historical, methodological, critical, theoretical, this article discusses the opportunities and liabilities of each approach but concludes that a better vocabulary can be found in Erving Goffman's theory of stigma (which inspired Disability Studies but, in many ways, is more conceptually and ethically buoyant. The main goal in this article is not to argue against a Disability Studies approach to Shakespeare but, instead, to use those readings as evidence of the imperfect even if well-intentioned ways we respond to the encounter with stigma in Shakespeare's works – a phenomenon of literary criticism that is remarkably resonant with the similarly imperfect even if well-intentioned ways we respond to the encounter with stigma in our everyday lives.

  13. Learning disabilities in Darier's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodiuk-Gad, R; Lerner, M; Breznitz, Z; Cohen-Barak, E; Ziv, M; Shani-Adir, A; Amichai, B; Zlotogorski, A; Shalev, S; Rozenman, D

    2014-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric features and intellectual difficulties have been reported in studies of Darier's disease. Learning disabilities have never been reported or evaluated systematically in these patients. To assess the prevalence of learning disabilities in 76 patients with Darier's disease, and cognitive functioning in 19 of them. The data were collected by two methods: a questionnaire, as part of a larger study on the clinical characteristics of 76 patients; and neuropsychological measures for the assessment of learning disabilities in 19 of them. Thirty-one of the 76 patients reported learning disabilities (41%) and 56 (74%) reported a family history of learning disabilities. Significant differences were found between the 19 patients evaluated on cognitive tasks and a control group of 42 skilled learners on subtraction and multiplication tasks. Six (32%) of the 19 were identified as having reading difficulties and five (26%) exhibited low performance on the Concentration Performance Test. All patients had general cognitive ability in the average range. Findings suggest an association between Darier's disease and learning disabilities, a heretofore unreported association, pointing to the need to obtain personal and family history of such disabilities in order to refer cases of clinical concern for further study. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Disability as diversity in Fortune 100 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Phoebe; Monaco, Gregory; Schmeling, James; Schartz, Helen; Blanck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the inclusion of people with disabilities in the diversity policies of the most successful businesses in the United States, we examined the publicly available workforce and supplier diversity policies of the top 100 companies on Fortune Magazine's 2003 list of the 500 most profitable companies in the nation. The majority of these companies have extensive information about their diversity policies and practices available on their corporate website. The information was used to categorize the policies into those that include people with disabilities, do not define diversity, and enumerate what is meant by diversity (e.g. in terms of race or gender) but do not expressly mention disability. In addition, we looked beyond the diversity policies to information available on corporate websites relating to a variety of diversity initiatives. Findings suggest that the majority of the companies that top the Fortune 500 list have developed and implemented diversity policies. Of these, 42% have diversity policies that include people with disabilities in the definition of a diverse workforce. Furthermore, 47% of companies with workplace diversity policies discuss diversity in a way that neither expressly includes nor excludes people with disabilities. Far fewer (15%) supplier diversity policies include disability in the definition of diversity, but a significant number of companies use criteria that allow a business owner with a disability to benefit from the company's supplier diversity program. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. On Being Transminded: Disabling Achievement, Enabling Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dalke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We write collaboratively, as a recent graduate and long-time faculty member of a small women’s liberal arts college, about the mental health costs of adhering to a feminist narrative of achievement that insists upon independence and resiliency.  As we explore the destabilizing potential of an alternative feminist project, one that invites different temporalities in which dis/ability emerges and may be addressed, we work with disability less as an identity than as a generative methodology, a form of relation and exchange. Mapping our own college as a specific, local site for the disabling tradition of “challenging women,” we move to larger disciplinary and undisciplining questions about the stigma of mental disabilities, traversing the tensions between institutionalizing disability studies and the field’s promise of destabilizing the constrictions of normativity. Keywords: academia, dis/ability, disability studies, education, feminism, identity studies, mad pride, mad studies, mental health, mental illness, queer studies, temporality, women’s colleges

  16. PUBLIC POLICIES REGARDING PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

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    Vlad Barbu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study: the study aims to analyze public policies regarding people with disabilities. The research methods used are the qualitative research method and the observation method. Results and implications of the study: children, and as they continue to become adults, in the short term, in order to diminish suicide attempts, they must be monitored so that the traceability of the integration of persons with disabilities can be determined from the moment of their institutionalization. In the long run, these people with disabilities will integrate and from sustained people will become supporters of social health, unemployment and pension insurance institutions, relevant to the change process.

  17. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  18. Disability Discrimination and Obesity: The Big Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stuart W; Snook, Jeremé

    2015-12-01

    Obesity discrimination in employment and recruitment has become a topic of focus for research examination with increasing reports of discrimination by colleagues and managers. Whilst a limited number of legal cases have emerged, disability law is consulted in line with the expectation of anti-discriminatory practices at work. In line with disability law, whether obesity is defined as a disability or not has an impact on the outcome of a court ruling. Ambiguity when defining obesity through either the medical or social model means there are many questions that remain unanswered which might lead to inconsistency in court rulings.

  19. Disability: a voice in Australian bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Christopher

    2003-06-01

    The rise of research and advocacy over the years to establish a disability voice in Australia with regard to bioethical issues is explored. This includes an analysis of some of the political processes and engagement in mainstream bioethical debate. An understanding of the politics of rejected knowledge is vital in understanding the muted disability voices in Australian bioethics and public policy. It is also suggested that the voices of those who are marginalised or oppressed in society, such as people with disability, have particular contribution to make in fostering critical bioethics.

  20. Disability and the post-2015 development agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardi, Rachele; Njelesani, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the extent to which disability has been recognized and included in two main documents produced to date as part of the United Nations Post-2015 Development agenda process. This is the process that is defining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which will succeed the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) after the latter reach their target date in 2015. The two documents examined in the article are the Outcome Document (July 2014) of the Open Working Group (OWG) on SDGs and the Report (August 2014) of the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing (ICESDF). The OWG consisted of 30 seats shared by 70 UN Member States and was in charge of proposing goals and targets for the SDGs. The ICESDF worked in parallel to the OWG and its report proposed options on an effective financing strategy. The article emphasizes the importance of including persons with disabilities in the Post-2015 Agenda, especially in view of the latter's overarching focus on eradicating poverty. The inclusion of persons with disabilities is being recognized in the Post-2015 Agenda discussions as central to achieving sustainable development. Disability has been explicitly mentioned in the OWG and ICESDF documents. Although the results so far have been very good, more work still needs to be done to ensure that these explicit references are maintained in the final version of the SDGs, which will be adopted in September 2015. Furthermore, the new framework needs to have a stronger human rights foundation on which to ground these references and future indicators. Light for the World is an international confederation of national development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) aiming at an inclusive society, where the rights of persons with disabilities are realized without discrimination. Through a rights-based approach, Light for the World supports 175 programs in 25 countries in the areas of prevention of blindness, rehabilitation, inclusive