WorldWideScience

Sample records for rflp linkage map

  1. Mapping Mendelian Factors Underlying Quantitative Traits Using RFLP Linkage Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, E. S.; Botstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The advent of complete genetic linkage maps consisting of codominant DNA markers [typically restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)] has stimulated interest in the systematic genetic dissection of discrete Mendelian factors underlying quantitative traits in experimental organisms. We describe here a set of analytical methods that modify and extend the classical theory for mapping such quantitative trait loci (QTLs). These include: (i) a method of identifying promising crosses for QTL mapping by exploiting a classical formula of SEWALL WRIGHT; (ii) a method (interval mapping) for exploiting the full power of RFLP linkage maps by adapting the approach of LOD score analysis used in human genetics, to obtain accurate estimates of the genetic location and phenotypic effect of QTLs; and (iii) a method (selective genotyping) that allows a substantial reduction in the number of progeny that need to be scored with the DNA markers. In addition to the exposition of the methods, explicit graphs are provided that allow experimental geneticists to estimate, in any particular case, the number of progeny required to map QTLs underlying a quantitative trait. PMID:2563713

  2. A linkage map with RFLP and isozyme markers for almond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruel, M A; Messeguer, R; de Vicente, M C; Garcia-Mas, J; Puigdomènech, P; Vargas, F; Arús, P

    1995-11-01

    Inheritance and linkage studies were conducted with seven isozyme genes and 120 RFLPs in the F1 progeny of a cross between almond cultivars 'Ferragnes' and 'Tuono'. RFLPs were detected using 57 genomic and 43 cDNA almond clones. Eight of the cDNA probes corresponded to known genes (extensin, prunin (2), α-tubulin, endopolygalacturonase, oleosin, actin depolymerizing factor and phosphoglyceromutase). Single-copy clones were found more frequently in the cDNA (65%) than in the genomic libraries (26%). Two maps were elaborated, one with the 93 loci heterozygous in 'Ferragnes' and another with the 69 loci heterozygous in 'Tuono'. Thirty-five loci were heterozygous in both parents and were used as bridges between both maps. Most of the segregations (91%) were of the 1∶1 or 1∶1∶1∶1 types, and data were analyzed as if they derived from two backcross populations. Eight linkage groups covering 393 cM in 'Ferragnes' and 394 in 'Tuono' were found for each map. None of the loci examined in either map was found to be unlinked. Distorted segregation ratios were mainly concentrated in two linkage groups of the 'Ferragnes' map.

  3. A sex-averaged genetic linkage map in coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb] Franco var menziesii) based on RFLP and RAPD markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; N.C. Wheeler; D.B. Neale

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed a sex-averaged genetic linkage map in coastal Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var menziesii) using a three-generation outcrossed pedigree and molecular markers. Our research objectives are to learn about genome organization and to identify markers associated with adaptive traits. The map...

  4. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  5. LD2SNPing: linkage disequilibrium plotter and RFLP enzyme mining for tag SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yu-Huei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Linkage disequilibrium (LD mapping is commonly used to evaluate markers for genome-wide association studies. Most types of LD software focus strictly on LD analysis and visualization, but lack supporting services for genotyping. Results We developed a freeware called LD2SNPing, which provides a complete package of mining tools for genotyping and LD analysis environments. The software provides SNP ID- and gene-centric online retrievals for SNP information and tag SNP selection from dbSNP/NCBI and HapMap, respectively. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP enzyme information for SNP genotype is available to all SNP IDs and tag SNPs. Single and multiple SNP inputs are possible in order to perform LD analysis by online retrieval from HapMap and NCBI. An LD statistics section provides D, D', r2, δQ, ρ, and the P values of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for each SNP marker, and Chi-square and likelihood-ratio tests for the pair-wise association of two SNPs in LD calculation. Finally, 2D and 3D plots, as well as plain-text output of the results, can be selected. Conclusion LD2SNPing thus provides a novel visualization environment for multiple SNP input, which facilitates SNP association studies. The software, user manual, and tutorial are freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/LD2NPing.

  6. RFLP mapping of the barley homeotic mutant lax-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, D A; Pratchett, N; Allen, R L; Hantke, S S

    1996-07-01

    The lax-a homeotic mutant of barley has flowers in which lodicules are replaced by stamens (giving five stamens per flower). RFLP mapping of an F2 population from a Bonus lax-a (1) x H. spontaneum cross showed that the mutation was on the short arm of chromosome 7(5H), closely linked to the centromere. An additional F2 population was used to show that the lax-a mutation gave the five-stamen phenotype in all flowers of 6-rowed spikes and that hoods were elevated and reduced in size in lax-a/Hooded double-mutant plants.

  7. Microsatellite polymorphism linkage map of human chromosome 13q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowcock, A.; Osborne-Lawrence, S.; Barnes, R.; Dunn, C. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Center, Dallas (United States)); Chakravarti, A.; Washington, S. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Twelve polymorphic (CA)[sub n] microsatellites were isolated from a flow-sorted chromosome 13 genomic library. These, and two others that have been previously described, were genotyped in 41 families from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude Polomorphisme Humain, Paris) and a primary linkage map with considerable support for order (odds > 10,000:1) was constructed. Two RFLP-based markers, COL4A1 and D13S52, with heterozygosities above 0.67 and an RFLP-based centromeric marker at D13Z1 were include in this map which extend from 13cen to 13q34. The heterozygosity of all of the PCR-based markers is above 60%. The total map spans a genetic distance of 144 cM, extending from D13Z1 to D13S52 with a single maximum intermarker recombination distanct of 35 cM. All other intermarker recombination distance are 18 cM or less. Marker order was confirmed by sublocalizing many of the microsatellite-containing clones on a panel of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids with deletions and rearrangements of chromosome 13. One spontaneous new mutation for these 14 (CA)[sub n] repeat markers was identified from a total of 8006 gametes, giving an overall observed spontaneous mutation rate of 0.00012 per locus per gamete. An integrated map of chromosome 13q was constructed with the microsatellite markers described here and previously genotyped RFLP-based markers. This sex-average map spans 209 cM with an average distance between unique map locations of 4.5 cM; the maximum intermarker distance was 14 cM. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  9. Linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought stress is a major abiotic stress that limits crop production. Molecular association mapping techniques through linkage disequilibrium (LD) can be effectively used to tag genomic regions involved in drought stress tolerance. With the association mapping approach, 90 genotypes of cotton Gossypium hirsutum, from ...

  10. Linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... Drought stress is a major abiotic stress that limits crop production. Molecular association mapping techniques through linkage disequilibrium (LD) can be effectively used to tag genomic regions involved in drought stress tolerance. With the association mapping approach, 90 genotypes of cotton. Gossypium ...

  11. An AFLP-based genetic linkage map of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walliker David

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi can be considered as a rodent model of human malaria parasites in the genetic analysis of important characters such as drug resistance and immunity. Despite the availability of some genome sequence data, an extensive genetic linkage map is needed for mapping the genes involved in certain traits. Methods The inheritance of 672 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers from two parental clones (AS and AJ of P. c. chabaudi was determined in 28 independent recombinant progeny clones. These, AFLP markers and 42 previously mapped Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP markers (used as chromosomal anchors were organized into linkage groups using Map Manager software. Results 614 AFLP markers formed linkage groups assigned to 10 of 14 chromosomes, and 12 other linkage groups not assigned to known chromosomes. The genetic length of the genome was estimated to be about 1676 centiMorgans (cM. The mean map unit size was estimated to be 13.7 kb/cM. This was slightly less then previous estimates for the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum Conclusion The P. c. chabaudi genetic linkage map presented here is the most extensive and highly resolved so far available for this species. It can be used in conjunction with the genome databases of P. c chabaudi, P. falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii to identify genes underlying important phenotypes such as drug resistance and strain-specific immunity.

  12. The first linkage map of the American mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Menzorov, A.; Serov, O.

    2007-01-01

    Described herein, the first microsatellite linkage map for the American mink consists of 85 microsatellite markers resolved into 17 linkage groups. The map was constructed using 92 F1 progeny from five sire families created by crossing mink with different colour types. The linkage groups ranged f...

  13. Construction of microsatellite-based linkage map and mapping of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lations (Ulloa et al. 2002; Nguyen et al. 2004; Rong et al. Keywords. microsatellite; leaf hairiness; leaf nectarilessness; genetic linkage map; Gossypium tomentosum. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 92, No. 3, December 2013 ... Jiangpu Experiment Station of Nanjing Agricultural Univer- sity (NAU), China. The former is an upland ...

  14. An Integrated Resource for Barley Linkage Map and Malting Quality QTL Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Szűcs

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Barley ( L. is an economically important model plant for genetics research. Barley is currently served by an increasingly comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis that have recently been augmented by high-density genetic linkage maps built with gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. These SNP-based maps need to be aligned with earlier generation maps, which were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL detection, by integrating multiple types of markers into a single map. A 2383 locus linkage map was developed using the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB Mapping Population to allow such alignments. The map is based on 1472 SNP, 722 DArT, and 189 prior markers which include morphological, simple sequence repeat (SSR, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP, and sequence tagged site (STS loci. This new OWB map forms, therefore, a useful bridge between high-density SNP-only maps and prior QTL reports. The application of this bridge concept is shown using malting-quality QTLs from multiple mapping populations, as reported in the literature. This is the first step toward developing a Barley QTL Community Curation workbook for all types of QTLs and maps, on the GrainGenes website. The OWB-related resources are available at OWB Data and GrainGenes Tools (OWB-DGGT (.

  15. The first genetic linkage map of Eucommia ulmoides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In accordance with pseudo-testcross strategy, the first genetic linkage map of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. was constructed by an F1 population of 122 plants ... These genetic linkage maps facilitate the analysis of QTL that control commercially ..... to avoid inbreeding depression of long growth-cycle trees. The pseudo-testcross ...

  16. A microsatellite genetic linkage map of black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guannan; Jiang, Liming; He, Yan; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Jiang, Haibin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-12-01

    Ovoviviparous black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) is an important marine fish species for aquaculture and fisheries in China. Genetic information of this species is scarce because of the lack of microsatellite markers. In this study, a large number of microsatellite markers of black rockfish were isolated by constructing microsatellite-enriched libraries. Female- and male-specific genetic linkage maps were constructed using 435 microsatellite markers genotyped in a full-sib family of the fish species. The female linkage map contained 140 microsatellite markers, in which 23 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1334.1 cM and average inter-marker space of 13.3 cM. The male linkage map contained 156 microsatellite markers, in which 25 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1359.6 cM and average inter-marker distance of 12.4 cM. The genome coverage of the female and male linkage maps was 68.6% and 69.3%, respectively. The female-to-male ratio of the recombination rate was approximately 1.07:1 in adjacent microsatellite markers. This paper presents the first genetic linkage map of microsatellites in black rockfish. The collection of polymorphic markers and sex-specific linkage maps of black rockfish could be useful for further investigations on parental assignment, population genetics, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection in related breeding programs.

  17. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. In

  18. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. Inthisstudyweexploredlinkagedisequilibrium(LD)mappingof traits in a set of modernbarleycultivars. LDbetweenmolecularmarkerswasfoundup to a distance of 10 centimorgan,whichislargecomparedtootherspecies.Thelarge distancemightbeinducedb...

  19. The first-generation Daphnia magna linkage map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Luc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daphnia magna is a well-established model species in ecotoxicology, ecology and evolution. Several new genomics tools are presently under development for this species; among them, a linkage map is a first requirement for estimating the genetic background of phenotypic traits in quantitative trait loci (QTL studies and is also very useful in assembling the genome. It also enables comparative studies between D. magna and D. pulex, for which a linkage map already exists. Results Here we describe the first genetic linkage map of D. magna. We generated 214 F2 (intercross clonal lines as the foundation of the linkage analysis. The linkage map itself is based on 109 microsatellite markers, which produced ten major linkage groups ranging in size from 31.1 cM to 288.5 cM. The total size of this linkage map extends to 1211.6 Kosambi cM, and the average interval for the markers within linkage groups is 15.1 cM. The F2 clones can be used to map QTLs for traits that differ between the parental clones. We successfully mapped the location of two loci with infertility alleles, one inherited from the paternal clone (Iinb1 and the other from the maternal clone (Xinb3. Conclusions The D. magna linkage map presented here provides extensive coverage of the genome and a given density of markers that enable us to detect QTLs of moderate to strong effects. It is similar in size to the linkage map of D. pulex.

  20. [MapDraw: a microsoft excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Hu; Meng, Jin-Ling

    2003-05-01

    MAPMAKER is one of the most widely used computer software package for constructing genetic linkage maps.However, the PC version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for PC, could not draw the genetic linkage maps that its Macintosh version, MAPMAKER 3.0 for Macintosh,was able to do. Especially in recent years, Macintosh computer is much less popular than PC. Most of the geneticists use PC to analyze their genetic linkage data. So a new computer software to draw the same genetic linkage maps on PC as the MAPMAKER for Macintosh to do on Macintosh has been crying for. Microsoft Excel,one component of Microsoft Office package, is one of the most popular software in laboratory data processing. Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is one of the most powerful functions of Microsoft Excel. Using this program language, we can take creative control of Excel, including genetic linkage map construction, automatic data processing and more. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel macro called MapDraw is constructed to draw genetic linkage maps on PC computer based on given genetic linkage data. Use this software,you can freely construct beautiful genetic linkage map in Excel and freely edit and copy it to Word or other application. This software is just an Excel format file. You can freely copy it from ftp://211.69.140.177 or ftp://brassica.hzau.edu.cn and the source code can be found in Excel's Visual Basic Editor.

  1. SNP Discovery and Linkage Map Construction in Cultivated Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Asamizu, Erika; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Just, Daniel; Rothan, Christophe; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Wada, Tsuyuko; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Few intraspecific genetic linkage maps have been reported for cultivated tomato, mainly because genetic diversity within Solanum lycopersicum is much less than that between tomato species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant source of genomic variation, are the most promising source of polymorphisms for the construction of linkage maps for closely related intraspecific lines. In this study, we developed SNP markers based on expressed sequence tags for the construction of intraspecific linkage maps in tomato. Out of the 5607 SNP positions detected through in silico analysis, 1536 were selected for high-throughput genotyping of two mapping populations derived from crosses between ‘Micro-Tom’ and either ‘Ailsa Craig’ or ‘M82’. A total of 1137 markers, including 793 out of the 1338 successfully genotyped SNPs, along with 344 simple sequence repeat and intronic polymorphism markers, were mapped onto two linkage maps, which covered 1467.8 and 1422.7 cM, respectively. The SNP markers developed were then screened against cultivated tomato lines in order to estimate the transferability of these SNPs to other breeding materials. The molecular markers and linkage maps represent a milestone in the genomics and genetics, and are the first step toward molecular breeding of cultivated tomato. Information on the DNA markers, linkage maps, and SNP genotypes for these tomato lines is available at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/tomato/. PMID:21044984

  2. Preliminary genetic linkage map of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor Reeve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaohua; Guo, Ximing; Gu, Zhifeng; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yan

    2010-05-01

    Haliotis diversicolor Reeve is one of the most important mollusks cultured in South China. Preliminary genetic linkage maps were constructed with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 2 596 AFLP markers were obtained from 28 primer combinations in two parents and 78 offsprings. Among them, 412 markers (15.9%) were polymorphic and segregated in the mapping family. Chi-square tests showed that 151 (84.4%) markers segregated according to the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio ( P<0.05) in the female parent, and 200 (85.8%) in the male parent. For the female map, 179 markers were used for linkage analysis and 90 markers were assigned to 17 linkage groups with an average interval length of 25.7 cm. For the male map, 233 markers were used and 94 were mapped into 18 linkage groups, with an average interval of 25.0 cm. The estimated genome length was 2 773.0 cm for the female and 2 817.1 cm for the male map. The observed length of the linkage map was 1 875.2 cm and 1 896.5 cm for the female and male maps, respectively. When doublets were considered, the map length increased to 2 152.8 cm for the female and 2 032.7 cm for the male map, corresponding to genome coverage of 77.6% and 72.2%, respectively.

  3. Identifying and Mapping Linkages between Actors in the Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting innovations in climate change requires innovation partnerships and linkages and also creating an enabling environment for actors. The paper reviewed available information on the identification and mapping of linkages between actors in the climate change innovation system. The findings showed different ...

  4. Preliminary genetic linkage maps of Chinese herb Dendrobium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... outbreeding heterozygous plants and inbreeding depression limits their ability to produce F2 or backcross populations for genetic linkage mapping. Hence, in this study the dou- ble pseudo-testcross mapping strategy and the 90 progenies of the F1 cross family D. nobile × D. moniliforme as the mapping ...

  5. Preliminary genetic linkage maps of Chinese herb Dendrobium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 286 RAPD loci and 68 ISSR loci were identified and used for genetic linkage analysis. Maps were constructed by double pseudo-testcross mapping strategy using the software Mapmaker/EXP ver. 3.0, and Kosambi map distances were constructed using a LOD score ≥4 and a recombination threshold of 0.4.

  6. High-resolution melt analysis to identify and map sequence-tagged site anchor points onto linkage maps: a white lupin (Lupinus albus) map as an exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Adam E; Rogers, Tom; Caligari, Peter D S; Wilkinson, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    * The provision of sequence-tagged site (STS) anchor points allows meaningful comparisons between mapping studies but can be a time-consuming process for nonmodel species or orphan crops. * Here, the first use of high-resolution melt analysis (HRM) to generate STS markers for use in linkage mapping is described. This strategy is rapid and low-cost, and circumvents the need for labelled primers or amplicon fractionation. * Using white lupin (Lupinus albus, x = 25) as a case study, HRM analysis was applied to identify 91 polymorphic markers from expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived and genomic libraries. Of these, 77 generated STS anchor points in the first fully resolved linkage map of the species. The map also included 230 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci, spanned 1916 cM (84.2% coverage) and divided into the expected 25 linkage groups. * Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses performed on the population revealed genomic regions associated with several traits, including the agronomically important time to flowering (tf), alkaloid synthesis and stem height (Ph). Use of HRM-STS markers also allowed us to make direct comparisons between our map and that of the related crop, Lupinus angustifolius, based on the conversion of RFLP, microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers into HRM markers.

  7. Gains in QTL detection using an ultra-high density SNP map based on population sequencing relative to traditional RFLP/SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Yu

    Full Text Available Huge efforts have been invested in the last two decades to dissect the genetic bases of complex traits including yields of many crop plants, through quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses. However, almost all the studies were based on linkage maps constructed using low-throughput molecular markers, e.g. restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs and simple sequence repeats (SSRs, thus are mostly of low density and not able to provide precise and complete information about the numbers and locations of the genes or QTLs controlling the traits. In this study, we constructed an ultra-high density genetic map based on high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from low-coverage sequences of a recombinant inbred line (RIL population of rice, generated using new sequencing technology. The quality of the map was assessed by validating the positions of several cloned genes including GS3 and GW5/qSW5, two major QTLs for grain length and grain width respectively, and OsC1, a qualitative trait locus for pigmentation. In all the cases the loci could be precisely resolved to the bins where the genes are located, indicating high quality and accuracy of the map. The SNP map was used to perform QTL analysis for yield and three yield-component traits, number of tillers per plant, number of grains per panicle and grain weight, using data from field trials conducted over years, in comparison to QTL mapping based on RFLPs/SSRs. The SNP map detected more QTLs especially for grain weight, with precise map locations, demonstrating advantages in detecting power and resolution relative to the RFLP/SSR map. Thus this study provided an example for ultra-high density map construction using sequencing technology. Moreover, the results obtained are helpful for understanding the genetic bases of the yield traits and for fine mapping and cloning of QTLs.

  8. Genetic linkage map of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have a great influence on mapping research studies: for faster development of new varieties of crops due to its abundance and high number of polymorphism. Thus, this research work aimed at constructing genetic linkage map of cowpea using SNP markers. This will facilitate ...

  9. Genetic linkage map of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR.ADETUNMBI

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers have a great influence on mapping research studies: for faster development of new varieties of crops due to its abundance and high number of polymorphism. Thus, this research work aimed at constructing genetic linkage map of cowpea using SNP markers.

  10. A genetic linkage map of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genetic linkage map of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis was constructed based on 302 markers, including 263 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers. The two parental maps were constructed according to the double pseudo-test cross strategy with an ...

  11. A genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Stacey L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome elucidation is now in high gear for many organisms, and whilst genetic maps have been developed for a broad array of species, surprisingly, no such maps exist for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian member of the Class Reptilia. Genetic linkage maps are essential tools for the mapping and dissection of complex quantitative trait loci (QTL, and in order to permit systematic genome scans for the identification of genes affecting economically important traits in farmed crocodilians, a comprehensive genetic linage map will be necessary. Results A first-generation genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus was constructed using 203 microsatellite markers amplified across a two-generation pedigree comprising ten full-sib families from a commercial population at Darwin Crocodile Farm, Northern Territory, Australia. Linkage analyses identified fourteen linkage groups comprising a total of 180 loci, with 23 loci remaining unlinked. Markers were ordered within linkage groups employing a heuristic approach using CRIMAP v3.0 software. The estimated female and male recombination map lengths were 1824.1 and 319.0 centimorgans (cM respectively, revealing an uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths between sexes (ratio of 5.7:1. Conclusion We have generated the first genetic linkage map for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian reptile. The uncommonly large disparity in recombination map lengths confirms previous preliminary evidence of major differences in sex-specific recombination rates in a species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD. However, at this point the reason for this disparity in saltwater crocodiles remains unclear. This map will be a valuable resource for crocodilian researchers, facilitating the systematic genome scans necessary for identifying genes affecting complex traits of economic importance in the crocodile industry. In addition

  12. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurr, N.K.; Cox, S.; Bryant, S.P. (Human Genetic Resources Unit, Herts (United Kingdom)); Attwood, J. (Univ. College London (United Kingdom)); Shields, D.C. (Princess Anne Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)); Steinbrueck, T.; Donis-Keller, H. (Washington Univ. School of medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)); Jenkins, T. (Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Murray, J.C. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Kidd, K.K. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)) (and others)

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium linkage map of chromosome 2. The map contains 36 loci defined by genotyping generated from the CEPH family DNAs. A total of 73 different markers were typed by 14 contributing laboratories; of these, 36 loci are ordered on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. Markers are placed along the length of the chromosome but no markers were available to anchor the map at either telomere or the centromere. Multilocus linkage analysis has produced male, female, and sex-averaged maps extending for 261, 430, and 328 cM, respectively. The sex-averaged map contains five intervals greater than 15 cM and the mean genetic distance between the 36 uniquely placed loci is 9.1 cM. 25 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, N K; Cox, S; Bryant, S P; Attwood, J; Robson, E B; Shields, D C; Steinbrueck, T; Jenkins, T; Murray, J C; Kidd, K K

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium linkage map of chromosome 2. The map contains 36 loci defined by genotyping generated from the CEPH family DNAs. A total of 73 different markers were typed by 14 contributing laboratories; of these, 36 loci are ordered on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. Markers are placed along the length of the chromosome but no markers were available to anchor the map at either telomere or the centromere. Multilocus linkage analysis has produced male, female, and sex-averaged maps extending for 261, 430, and 328 cM, respectively. The sex-averaged map contains five intervals greater than 15 cM and the mean genetic distance between the 36 uniquely placed loci is 9.1 cM.

  14. A high-density consensus map of barley linking DArT markers to SSR, RFLP and STS loci and agricultural traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Junping

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular marker technologies are undergoing a transition from largely serial assays measuring DNA fragment sizes to hybridization-based technologies with high multiplexing levels. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT is a hybridization-based technology that is increasingly being adopted by barley researchers. There is a need to integrate the information generated by DArT with previous data produced with gel-based marker technologies. The goal of this study was to build a high-density consensus linkage map from the combined datasets of ten populations, most of which were simultaneously typed with DArT and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR, Restriction Enzyme Fragment Polymorphism (RFLP and/or Sequence Tagged Site (STS markers. Results The consensus map, built using a combination of JoinMap 3.0 software and several purpose-built perl scripts, comprised 2,935 loci (2,085 DArT, 850 other loci and spanned 1,161 cM. It contained a total of 1,629 'bins' (unique loci, with an average inter-bin distance of 0.7 ± 1.0 cM (median = 0.3 cM. More than 98% of the map could be covered with a single DArT assay. The arrangement of loci was very similar to, and almost as optimal as, the arrangement of loci in component maps built for individual populations. The locus order of a synthetic map derived from merging the component maps without considering the segregation data was only slightly inferior. The distribution of loci along chromosomes indicated centromeric suppression of recombination in all chromosomes except 5H. DArT markers appeared to have a moderate tendency toward hypomethylated, gene-rich regions in distal chromosome areas. On the average, 14 ± 9 DArT loci were identified within 5 cM on either side of SSR, RFLP or STS loci previously identified as linked to agricultural traits. Conclusion Our barley consensus map provides a framework for transferring genetic information between different marker systems and for deploying DArT markers in

  15. Identification of QTLs Associated with Callogenesis and Embryogenesis in Oil Palm Using Genetic Linkage Maps Improved with SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Jansen, Johannes; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Ishak, Zamzuri; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Tan, Soon-Guan; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Singh, Rajinder

    2013-01-01

    Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for dura (ENL48) and pisifera (ML161), the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs) in 23 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs) in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm. PMID:23382832

  16. Identification of QTLs associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis in oil palm using genetic linkage maps improved with SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoot-Chin Ting

    Full Text Available Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for dura (ENL48 and pisifera (ML161, the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs in 23 linkage groups (LGs, covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm.

  17. Genetic Linkage Map of the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gúmer; Ritter, Enrique; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2000-01-01

    We have constructed a genetic linkage map of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (var. Florida). The map is based on the segregation of 178 random amplified polymorphic DNA and 23 restriction fragment length polymorphism markers; four hydrophobin, two laccase, and two manganese peroxidase genes; both mating type loci; one isozyme locus (est1); the rRNA gene sequence; and a repetitive DNA sequence in a population of 80 sibling monokaryons. The map identifies 11 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosomes of P. ostreatus, and it has a total length of 1,000.7 centimorgans (cM) with an average of 35.1 kbp/cM. The map shows a high correlation (0.76) between physical and genetic chromosome sizes. The number of crossovers observed per chromosome per individual cell is 0.89. This map covers nearly the whole genome of P. ostreatus. PMID:11097904

  18. Preliminary genetic linkage map of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preliminary genetic linkage map of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton 1822) based on microsatellite markers ... University of Chile, Avda, Santa Rosa 11735, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile; Delhi University, New Delhi 110 007, India; College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Orissa University of Agriculture ...

  19. Preliminary genetic linkage map of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... 2009 High-density integrated linkage map based on SSR markers in soybean. DNA Res. 16, 213–. 225. Jiang C. X., Chee P. W., Draye X., Morrell P. L., Smith C. W. and Paterson A. H. 2000 Multilocus interactions restrict gene introgression in interspecific populations of polyploid Gossypium. (cotton).

  20. The first genetic linkage map of Primulina eburnea (Gesneriaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ofthe 232 screened markers, 215 were assigned to 18 LG according to the haploid number of chromosomes in the species. Thelinkage map spanned a total of 3774.7 cM with an average distance of 17.6 cM between adjacent markers. This linkage mapprovides a framework for identification of important genes in breeding ...

  1. A preliminary linkage map using spotted melanic laboratory strains ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sección Genética Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, Iguá 4225, CP 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay. [Gutiérrez M. L. and García G. 2011 A preliminary linkage map using spotted melanic laboratory strains of the livebearing fish. Phalloceros caudimaculatus var. reticulata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). J. Genet.

  2. Genetic linkage map of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR.ADETUNMBI

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... Genetic linkage maps provide a genomic framework for quantitative trait loci identification applied in marker assisted selection breeding in crops with limited resources. It serves as a powerful tool to breeders for analysing the mode of inheritance of genes of interest and monitoring of the transmission.

  3. Partial DNA sequencing of Douglas-fir cDNAs used in RFLP mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; C.S. Kinlaw; D.B. Neale

    1998-01-01

    DNA sequences from 87 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) cDNA RFLP probes were determined. Sequences were submitted to the GenBank dbEST database and searched for similarity against nucleotide and protein databases using the BLASTn and BLASTx programs. Twenty-one sequences (24%) were assigned putative functions; 18 of which...

  4. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozman, H.M.; Mulley, J.C. [Women`s and Children`s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Keith, T.P. [Collaborative Research Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    A Centre d`Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium map of human chromosome 16 has been constructed. The map contains 158 loci defined by 191 different probe/restriction enzyme combinations or primer pairs. The marker genotypes, contributed by 9 collaborating laboratories, originated from the CEPH families DNA. A total of 60 loci, with an average heterozygosity of 68%, have been placed on the framework genetic map. The genetic map contains 7 genes. The length of the sex-averaged map is 165 cM, with a mean genetic distance between loci of 2.8 cM; the median distance between markers is 2.0 cM. The male map length is 136 cM, and the female map length is 197 cM. The map covers virtually the entire chromosome, from D16S85, within 170 to 430 kb of the 16p telomere, to D16S303 at 16qter. The markers included in the linkage map have been physically mapped on a partial human chromosome 16 somatic cell hybrid panel, thus anchoring the genetic map to the cytogenetic-based physical map. 39 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozman, H M; Keith, T P; Donis-Keller, H; White, R L; Weissenbach, J; Dean, M; Vergnaud, G; Kidd, K; Gusella, J; Royle, N J

    1995-01-01

    A Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium map of human chromosome 16 has been constructed. The map contains 158 loci defined by 191 different probe/restriction enzyme combinations or primer pairs. The marker genotypes, contributed by 9 collaborating laboratories, originated from the CEPH families DNA. A total of 60 loci, with an average heterozygosity of 68%, have been placed on the framework genetic map. The genetic map contains 7 genes. The length of the sex-averaged map is 165 cM, with a mean genetic distance between loci of 2.8 cM; the median distance between markers is 2.0 cM. The male map length is 136 cM, and the female map length is 197 cM. The map covers virtually the entire chromosome, from D16S85, within 170 to 430 kb of the 16p telomere, to D16S303 at 16qter. The markers included in the linkage map have been physically mapped on a partial human chromosome 16 somatic cell hybrid panel, thus anchoring the genetic map to the cytogenetic-based physical map.

  6. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulley, J.C.; Kozman, H.M.; Sutherland, G.R. [Women`s and Children`s Hospital, North Adelaide (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A Centre d`Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium map of human chromosome 16 has been constructed. The map contains 158 loci defined by 191 different probe/restriction enzyme combinations or primer pairs. The marker genotypes, contributed by 9 collaborating laboratories, originated from the CEPH families DNA. A total of 60 loci, with an average heterozygosity of 68%, have been placed on the framework genetic map. The genetic map contains 7 genes. The length of the sex-average map is 165 cM, with a mean genetic distance between loci of 2.8 cM; the median distance between markers is 2.0 cM. The male map length is 136 cM and the female map length is 197 cM. The map virtually covers the entire chromosome, from D16S85, within 170 to 430 Kb of the 16p telomere, to D16S303 at 16qter. The markers included in the linkage map have been physically mapped on a partial human chromosome 16 somatic cell hybrid panel, thus anchoring the genetic map to the cytogenetic-based physical map.

  7. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracopoli, N C; O'Connell, P; Elsner, T I; Lalouel, J M; White, R L; Buetow, K H; Nishimura, D Y; Murray, J C; Helms, C; Mishra, S K

    1991-04-01

    This paper describes the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium linkage map of human chromosome 1. The map contains 101 loci defined by genotypes generated from CEPH family DNAs with 146 different contributions from 11 laboratories. A total of 58 loci are uniquely placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The map extends from loci in the terminal bands of both chromosome arms (locus D1Z2 in 1p36.3 and D1S68 in 1q44) and is anchored at the centromere by the D1Z5 alpha-satellite polymorphism. With the exception of a single locus, the remaining loci are arrayed on the fixed map in short intervals and their possible locations are indicated. Multipoint linkage analyses provided estimates that the male, female, and sex-averaged maps extend for 308, 478, and 390 cM, respectively. The sex-averaged map contains only four intervals greater than 15 cM, and the mean genetic distance between the 58 uniquely placed loci is 6.7 cM.

  8. Construction of microsatellite-based linkage map and mapping of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Gossypium tomentosum, a wild tetraploid cotton species with AD genomes, possesses genes conferring strong fibers and high heat tolerance. ... We detected 420 common loci (186 in the At subgenome and 234 in Dt) between the HT map and the map of TM-1 (G. hirsutum) and Hai 7124 (G. barbadense; HB map).

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification, Characterization, and Linkage Mapping in Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Maughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa ( Willd. is an important seed crop throughout the Andean region of South America. It is important as a regional food security crop for millions of impoverished rural inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano (high plains. Efforts to improve the crop have led to an increased focus on genetic research. We report the identification of 14,178 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using a genomic reduction protocol as well as the development of 511 functional SNP assays. The SNP assays are based on KASPar genotyping chemistry and were detected using the Fluidigm dynamic array platform. A diversity screen of 113 quinoa accessions showed that the minor allele frequency (MAF of the SNPs ranged from 0.02 to 0.50, with an average MAF of 0.28. Structure analysis of the quinoa diversity panel uncovered the two major subgroups corresponding to the Andean and coastal quinoa ecotypes. Linkage mapping of the SNPs in two recombinant inbred line populations produced an integrated linkage map consisting of 29 linkage groups with 20 large linkage groups, spanning 1404 cM with a marker density of 3.1 cM per SNP marker. The SNPs identified here represent important genomic tools needed in emerging plant breeding programs for advanced genetic analysis of agronomic traits in quinoa.

  10. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowcock, A.M.; Barnes, R.I. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Gerken, S.C.; Leppert, M. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shiang, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Jabs, E.W.; Warren, A.C.; Antonarakis, S. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Retief, A.E. [Univ. of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg (South Africa); Vergnaud, G. [Centre d`Etudes du Bouchet, Vert le Petit (France)] [and others

    1993-05-01

    The CEPH consortium map of chromosome 13 is presented. This map contains 59 loci defined by genotypes generated from CEPH family DNAs with 94 different probe and restriction enzyme combinations contributed by 9 laboratories. A total of 25 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The map extends from loci in the centromeric region of chromosome 13 to the terminal band of the long arm. Multipoint linkage analyses provided estimates that the male, female, and sex-averaged maps extend for 158, 203, and 178cM respectively. The largest interval is 24 cM and is between D13Z1 (alphaRI) and ATP1AL1. The mean genetic distance between the 25 uniquely placed loci is 7 cM. 76 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowcock, A M; Gerken, S C; Barnes, R I; Shiang, R; Jabs, E W; Warren, A C; Antonarakis, S; Retief, A E; Vergnaud, G; Leppert, M

    1993-05-01

    The CEPH consortium map of chromosome 13 is presented. This map contains 59 loci defined by genotypes generated from CEPH family DNAs with 94 different probe and restriction enzyme combinations contributed by 9 laboratories. A total of 25 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The map extends from loci in the centromeric region of chromosome 13 to the terminal band of the long arm. Multipoint linkage analyses provided estimates that the male, female, and sex-averaged maps extend for 158, 203, and 178 cM respectively. The largest interval is 24 cM and is between D13Z1 (alpha RI) and ATP1AL1. The mean genetic distance between the 25 uniquely placed loci is 7 cM.

  12. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 15q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowcock, A M; Barnes, R I; White, R L; Kruse, T A; Tsipouras, P; Sarfarazi, M; Jenkins, T; Viljoen, C; Litt, M; Kramer, P L

    1992-12-01

    The CEPH consortium map of chromosome 15q is presented. The map contains 41 loci defined by genotypes generated from CEPH family DNAs with 45 different probe and restriction enzyme combinations contributed by 10 laboratories. A total of 29 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The map extends from 15q13 to 15q25-qter. Multipoint linkage analyses provided estimates that the male, female, and sex-averaged maps extend for 127, 190, and 158 cM, respectively. The largest interval is 21 cM and is between D15S37 and D15S74. The on-average locus spacing is 5.6 cM and the mean genetic distance between the 21 uniquely placed loci is 8 cM.

  13. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 15q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowcock, A.M.; Barnes, R.I. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); White, R.L. (Univ. of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Kruse, T.A. (Aarhus Universitet (Denmark)); Tsipouras, P.; Sarfarazi, M. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT (United States)); Litt, M.; Kramer, P.L. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)); Jenkins, T.; Viljoen, C. (and others)

    1992-12-01

    The CEPH consortium map of chromosome 15q is presented. The map contains 41 loci defined by genotypes generated from CEPH family DNAs with 45 different probe and restriction enzyme combinations contributed by 10 laboratories. A total of 29 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The map extends from 15q13 to 15q25-qter. Multipoint linkage analyses provided estimates that the male, female, and sex-averaged maps extend for 127, 190, and 158 cM, respectively. The largest interval is 21 cM and is between D15S37 and D15S74. The on-average locus spacing is 5.6 cM and the mean genetic distance between the 21 uniquely placed loci is 8 cM. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. A Primary Male Autosomal Linkage Map of the Horse Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Gabriella; Sandberg, Kaj; Persson, Helena; Marklund, Stefan; Breen, Matthew; Sandgren, Björn; Carlstén, Johan; Ellegren, Hans

    1998-01-01

    A primary male autosomal linkage map of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) has been developed by segregation analysis of 140 genetic markers within eight half-sib families. The family material comprised four Standardbred trotters and four Icelandic horses, with a total of 263 offspring. The marker set included 121 microsatellite markers, eight protein polymorphisms, five RFLPs, three blood group polymorphisms, two PCR–RFLPs, and one single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). One hundred...

  15. The CEPH consortium primary linkage map of human chromosome 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R L; Lalouel, J M; Nakamura, Y; Donis-Keller, H; Green, P; Bowden, D W; Mathew, C G; Easton, D F; Robson, E B; Morton, N E

    1990-03-01

    The first CEPH consortium map, that of chromosome 10, is presented. This primary linkage map contains 28 continuously linked loci defined by genotypes generated from CEPH family DNAs with 37 probe and enzyme combinations. Cytogenetic localization of some of the genetic markers indicates that the consortium map extends, at least, from 10p13 to 10q26. The order of loci on the consortium map agrees with the physical localization data. The female map spans 309 cM (206 cM if an approximation of interference is included in the mapping function used to construct the map), and the mean genetic distance of intervals is 11 cM (7 cM). Also presented are maps of chromosome 10 from each of five CEPH collaborating laboratories, based on genotypes for all relevant markers in the CEPH database. The CEPH consortium map of chromosome 10 should be useful for localization of any gene of interest falling within the span covered. The genotypes in the chromosome 10 consortium map database are now available to the scientific community.

  16. Fine mapping quantitative trait loci under selective phenotyping strategies based on linkage and linkage disequilibrium criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari-Mahyari, S; Berg, P; Lund, M S

    2009-01-01

    disequilibrium-based sampling criteria (LDC) for selecting individuals to phenotype are compared to random phenotyping in a quantitative trait loci (QTL) verification experiment using stochastic simulation. Several strategies based on LAC and LDC for selecting the most informative 30%, 40% or 50% of individuals......, in order to estimate unbiased QTL parameters based on LAC in a large half-sib family, prior information on QTL position was required. The LDC improved the accuracy to estimate the QTL position but not significantly compared to random phenotyping with the same sample size. When applying LDC (all phenotyping......In fine mapping of a large-scale experimental population where collection of phenotypes are very expensive, difficult to record or time-demanding, selective phenotyping could be used to phenotype the most informative individuals. Linkage analyses based sampling criteria (LAC) and linkage...

  17. Mapping multiple QTL using linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis information and multitrait data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddard Mike E

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multi-locus QTL mapping method is presented, which combines linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD information and uses multitrait data. The method assumed a putative QTL at the midpoint of each marker bracket. Whether the putative QTL had an effect or not was sampled using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods. The method was tested in dairy cattle data on chromosome 14 where the DGAT1 gene was known to be segregating. The DGAT1 gene was mapped to a region of 0.04 cM, and the effects of the gene were accurately estimated. The fitting of multiple QTL gave a much sharper indication of the QTL position than a single QTL model using multitrait data, probably because the multi-locus QTL mapping reduced the carry over effect of the large DGAT1 gene to adjacent putative QTL positions. This suggests that the method could detect secondary QTL that would, in single point analyses, remain hidden under the broad peak of the dominant QTL. However, no indications for a second QTL affecting dairy traits were found on chromosome 14.

  18. The PiGMaP consortium linkage map of the pig (Sus scrofa).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, A.L.; Haley, C.S.; Brown, J.F.; Couperwhite, S.; McQueen, H.A.; Nicholson, D.; Coppieters, W.; Weghe, van de A.; Stratil, A.; Wintero, A.K.; Fredholm, M.; Larsen, N.J.; Nielsen, V.H.; Milan, D.; Woloszyn, N.; Robic, A.; Dalens, M.; Rioquet, J.; Gellin, J.; Caritez, J.C.; Burga, G.; Ollivier, L.; Bidanel, J.P.; Vaiman, M.; Renard, C.; Geldermann, H.; Davoli, R.; Ruyter, D.; Verstege, E.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A linkage map of the porcine genome has been developed by segregation analysis of 239 genetic markers. Eighty-one of these markers correspond to known genes. Linkage groups have been assigned to all 18 autosomes plus the X Chromosome (Chr). As 69 of the markers on the linkage map have also been

  19. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litt, M.; Kramer, P. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Kort, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    The CEPH consortium framework map of chromosome 11 is presented. The map was generated from CEPH family DNAs with 181 probe/enzyme combinations contributed by 20 laboratories. Seventy-seven of the loci are defined by microsatellite polymorphisms that can be typed by the PCR. A total of 42 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The female, male, and sex-average maps extend for 179.6, 110.8, and 145.3 cM, respectively. The largest interval on the sex-average map is less than 11 cM, and the average distance between uniquely placed loci is 4 cM. The genotypic data obtained for map construction have been used to identify the positions of crossovers on the chromosomes of CEPH family children, allowing the localization of new markers without computationally intensive likelihood models and providing a basis for efficient extension of the linkage map to higher resolution. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The CEPH consortium linkage map of human chromosome 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, M; Kramer, P; Kort, E; Fain, P; Cox, S; Root, D; White, R; Weissenbach, J; Donis-Keller, H; Gatti, R

    1995-05-01

    The CEPH consortium framework map of chromosome 11 is presented. The map was generated from CEPH family DNAs with 181 probe/enzyme combinations contributed by 20 laboratories. Seventy-seven of the loci are defined by microsatellite polymorphisms that can be typed by the PCR. A total of 42 loci have been placed on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The female, male, and sex-average maps extend for 179.6, 110.8, and 145.3 cM, respectively. The largest interval on the sex-average map is less than 11 cM, and the average distance between uniquely placed loci is 4 cM. The genotypic data obtained for map construction have been used to identify the positions of crossovers on the chromosomes of CEPH family children, allowing the localization of new markers without computationally intensive likelihood models and providing a basis for efficient extension of the linkage map to higher resolution.

  1. Construction and analysis of high-density linkage map using high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyuan Liu

    Full Text Available Linkage maps enable the study of important biological questions. The construction of high-density linkage maps appears more feasible since the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS, which eases SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping of large population. However, the marker number explosion and genotyping errors from NGS data challenge the computational efficiency and linkage map quality of linkage study methods. Here we report the HighMap method for constructing high-density linkage maps from NGS data. HighMap employs an iterative ordering and error correction strategy based on a k-nearest neighbor algorithm and a Monte Carlo multipoint maximum likelihood algorithm. Simulation study shows HighMap can create a linkage map with three times as many markers as ordering-only methods while offering more accurate marker orders and stable genetic distances. Using HighMap, we constructed a common carp linkage map with 10,004 markers. The singleton rate was less than one-ninth of that generated by JoinMap4.1. Its total map distance was 5,908 cM, consistent with reports on low-density maps. HighMap is an efficient method for constructing high-density, high-quality linkage maps from high-throughput population NGS data. It will facilitate genome assembling, comparative genomic analysis, and QTL studies. HighMap is available at http://highmap.biomarker.com.cn/.

  2. QTL IciMapping: Integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Meng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available QTL IciMapping is freely available public software capable of building high-density linkage maps and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in biparental populations. Eight functionalities are integrated in this software package: (1 BIN: binning of redundant markers; (2 MAP: construction of linkage maps in biparental populations; (3 CMP: consensus map construction from multiple linkage maps sharing common markers; (4 SDL: mapping of segregation distortion loci; (5 BIP: mapping of additive, dominant, and digenic epistasis genes; (6 MET: QTL-by-environment interaction analysis; (7 CSL: mapping of additive and digenic epistasis genes with chromosome segment substitution lines; and (8 NAM: QTL mapping in NAM populations. Input files can be arranged in plain text, MS Excel 2003, or MS Excel 2007 formats. Output files have the same prefix name as the input but with different extensions. As examples, there are two output files in BIN, one for summarizing the identified bin groups and deleted markers in each bin, and the other for using the MAP functionality. Eight output files are generated by MAP, including summary of the completed linkage maps, Mendelian ratio test of individual markers, estimates of recombination frequencies, LOD scores, and genetic distances, and the input files for using the BIP, SDL, and MET functionalities. More than 30 output files are generated by BIP, including results at all scanning positions, identified QTL, permutation tests, and detection powers for up to six mapping methods. Three supplementary tools have also been developed to display completed genetic linkage maps, to estimate recombination frequency between two loci, and to perform analysis of variance for multi-environmental trials.

  3. A high-resolution linkage map of the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene region in Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, D Q; Federici, C T; Roose, M L

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was evaluated in 554 progeny of 10 populations derived from Poncirus trifoliata. A dominant gene (Ctv) controlled CTV resistance in P. trifoliata. Twenty-one dominant PCR-based DNA markers were identified as linked to Ctv by bulked segregant analysis. Of the 11 closest markers to Ctv, only 2 segregated in all populations. Ten of these markers were cloned and sequenced, and codominant RFLP markers were developed. Seven RFLP markers were then evaluated in 10 populations. Marker orders were consistent in all linkage maps based on data of single populations or on combined data of populations with similar segregation patterns. In a consensus map, the six closest marker loci spanned 5.3 cM of the Ctv region. Z16 cosegregated with Ctv. C19 and AD08 flanked Ctv at distances of 0.5 and 0.8 cM, respectively. These 3 markers were present as single copies in the Poncirus genome, and could be used directly for bacterial artificial chromosome library screening to initiate a walk toward Ctv. BLAST searches of the GenBank database revealed high sequence similarities between 2 markers and known plant disease resistance genes, indicating that a resistance gene cluster exists in the Ctv region in P. trifoliata. PMID:9755216

  4. Mapping of panda plumage color locus on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panda (s is an autosomal recessive mutation, which displays overall white plumage color with spots of wild-type plumage in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica. In a previous study, the s locus was included in the same linkage group as serum albumin (Alb and vitamin-D binding protein (GC which are mapped on chicken (Gallus gallus chromosome 4 (GGA4. In this study, we mapped the s locus on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail by linkage analysis. Results Segregation data on the s locus were obtained from three-generation families (n = 106. Two microsatellite markers derived from the Japanese quail chromosome 4 (CJA04 and three microsatellite markers derived from GGA4 were genotyped in the three-generation families. We mapped the s locus between GUJ0026 and ABR0544 on CJA04. By comparative mapping with chicken, this locus was mapped between 10.0 Mb and 14.5 Mb region on GGA4. In this region, the endothelin receptor B subtype 2 gene (EDNRB2, an avian-specific paralog of the mammalian endothelin receptor B gene (EDNRB, is located. Because EDNRB is responsible for aganglionic megacolon and spot coat color in mouse, rat and equine, EDNRB2 is suggested to be a candidate gene for the s locus. Conclusion The s locus and the five microsatellite markers were mapped on CJA04 of the Japanese quail. EDNRB2 was suggested to be a candidate gene for the s locus.

  5. Genetic linkage map and comparative genome analysis for the estuarine Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Genetic linkage maps are valuable tools in evolutionary biology; however, their availability for wild populations is extremely limited. Fundulus heteroclitus...

  6. Genetic linkage maps of Japanese and European pears aligned to the apple consensus map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamamoto, T.; Kimura, T.; Saito, T.; Kotobuki, K.; Matsuta, N.; Liebhard, R.; Gessler, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Hayashi, T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps of the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar `Housui¿ and the European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar `Bartlett¿ were constructed based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLPs), Simple Sequence Repeat markers (SSRs) (from pear, apple and Prunus),

  7. An Enhanced Linkage Map of the Sheep Genome Comprising More Than 1000 Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Jillian F.; Davies, Kizanne P.; Crawford, Allan M.; Hulme, Dennis J.; Vaiman, Daniel; Cribiu, Edmond P.; Freking, Bradley A.; Beh, Ken J.; Cockett, Noelle E.; Kang, Nina; Riffkin, Christopher D.; Drinkwater, Roger; Moore, Stephen S.; Dodds, Ken G.; Lumsden, Joanne M.; van Stijn, Tracey C.; Phua, Sin H.; Adelson, David L.; Burkin, Heather R.; Broom, Judith E.; Buitkamp, Johannes; Cambridge, Lisa; Cushwa, William T.; Gerard, Emily; Galloway, Susan M.; Harrison, Blair; Hawken, Rachel J.; Hiendleder, Stefan; Henry, Hannah M.; Medrano, Juan F.; Paterson, Korena A.; Schibler, Laurent; Stone, Roger T.; van Hest, Beryl

    2001-01-01

    A medium-density linkage map of the ovine genome has been developed. Marker data for 550 new loci were generated and merged with the previous sheep linkage map. The new map comprises 1093 markers representing 1062 unique loci (941 anonymous loci, 121 genes) and spans 3500 cM (sex-averaged) for the autosomes and 132 cM (female) on the X chromosome. There is an average spacing of 3.4 cM between autosomal loci and 8.3 cM between highly polymorphic [polymorphic information content (PIC) ≥ 0.7] autosomal loci. The largest gap between markers is 32.5 cM, and the number of gaps of >20 cM between loci, or regions where loci are missing from chromosome ends, has been reduced from 40 in the previous map to 6. Five hundred and seventy-three of the loci can be ordered on a framework map with odds of >1000 : 1. The sheep linkage map contains strong links to both the cattle and goat maps. Five hundred and seventy-two of the loci positioned on the sheep linkage map have also been mapped by linkage analysis in cattle, and 209 of the loci mapped on the sheep linkage map have also been placed on the goat linkage map. Inspection of ruminant linkage maps indicates that the genomic coverage by the current sheep linkage map is comparable to that of the available cattle maps. The sheep map provides a valuable resource to the international sheep, cattle, and goat gene mapping community. PMID:11435411

  8. A Genetic Map of Peromyscus with Chromosomal Assignment of Linkage Groups (A Peromyscus Genetic Map)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney-Hunt, Jane; Lewandowski, Adrienne; Glenn, Travis C.; Glenn, Julie L.; Tsyusko, Olga V.; O’Neill, Rachel J.; Brown, Judy; Ramsdell, Clifton M.; Nguyen, Quang; Phan, Tony; Shorter, Kimberly S.; Dewey, Michael J.; Szalai, Gabor; Vrana, Paul B.; Felder, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The rodent genus Peromyscus is the most numerous and species rich mammalian group in North America. The naturally occurring diversity within this genus allows opportunities to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation, monogamy, behavioral and physiological phenotypes, growth control, genomic imprinting, and disease processes. Increased genomic resources including a high quality genetic map are needed to capitalize on these opportunities. We produced interspecific hybrids between the prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) and the oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) and scored meiotic recombination events in backcross progeny. A genetic map was contructed by genotyping of backcross progeny at 185 gene-based and 155 microsatellite markers representing all autosomes and the X chromosome. Comparison of the constructed genetic map with the molecular maps of Mus and Rattus and consideration of previous results from interspecific reciprocal whole chromosome painting allowed most linkage groups to be unambiguously assigned to specific Peromyscus chromosomes. Based on genomic comparisons, this Peromyscus genetic map covers approximately 83% of the Rattus genome and 79% of the Mus genome. This map supports previous results that the Peromyscus genome is more similar to Rattus than Mus. For example, coverage of the 20 Rattus autosomes and the X chromosome is accomplished with only 28 segments of the Peromyscus map, but coverage of the 19 Mus autosomes and the X chromosome requires 40 chromosomal segments of the Peromyscus map. Furthermore, a single Peromyscus linkage group corresponds to about 91% of the rat and only 76% of the mouse X chromosomes. PMID:24445420

  9. Constructing linkage maps in the genomics era with MapDisto 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffelfinger, Christopher; Fragoso, Christopher A; Lorieux, Mathias

    2017-07-15

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) generates datasets that are challenging to handle by current genetic mapping software with graphical interface. Geneticists need new user-friendly computer programs that can analyze GBS data on desktop computers. This requires improvements in computation efficiency, both in terms of speed and use of random-access memory (RAM). MapDisto v.2.0 is a user-friendly computer program for construction of genetic linkage maps. It includes several new major features: (i) handling of very large genotyping datasets like the ones generated by GBS; (ii) direct importation and conversion of Variant Call Format (VCF) files; (iii) detection of linkage, i.e. construction of linkage groups in case of segregation distortion; (iv) data imputation on VCF files using a new approach, called LB-Impute. Features i to iv operate through inclusion of new Java modules that are used transparently by MapDisto; (v) QTL detection via a new R/qtl graphical interface. The program is available free of charge at mapdisto.free.fr. mapdisto@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of salt tolerance traits in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica.

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    Hailin Guo

    Full Text Available Zoysiagrass (Zoysia Willd. is an important warm season turfgrass that is grown in many parts of the world. Salt tolerance is an important trait in zoysiagrass breeding programs. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers based on an F1 population comprising 120 progeny derived from a cross between Zoysia japonica Z105 (salt-tolerant accession and Z061 (salt-sensitive accession. The linkage map covered 1211 cM with an average marker distance of 5.0 cM and contained 24 linkage groups with 242 marker loci (217 sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and 25 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Quantitative trait loci affecting the salt tolerance of zoysiagrass were identified using the constructed genetic linkage map. Two significant quantitative trait loci (qLF-1 and qLF-2 for leaf firing percentage were detected; qLF-1 at 36.3 cM on linkage group LG4 with a logarithm of odds value of 3.27, which explained 13.1% of the total variation of leaf firing and qLF-2 at 42.3 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 2.88, which explained 29.7% of the total variation of leaf firing. A significant quantitative trait locus (qSCW-1 for reduced percentage of dry shoot clipping weight was detected at 44.1 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 4.0, which explained 65.6% of the total variation. This study provides important information for further functional analysis of salt-tolerance genes in zoysiagrass. Molecular markers linked with quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance will be useful in zoysiagrass breeding programs using marker-assisted selection.

  11. Using Linkage Maps as a Tool To Determine Patterns of Chromosome Synteny in the Genus Salvelinus

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    Matthew C. Hale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized the collection of genome and transcriptome data from nonmodel organisms. This manuscript details the application of restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq to generate a marker-dense genetic map for Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis. The consensus map was constructed from three full-sib families totaling 176 F1 individuals. The map consisted of 42 linkage groups with a total female map size of 2502.5 cM, and a total male map size of 1863.8 cM. Synteny was confirmed with Atlantic Salmon for 38 linkage groups, with Rainbow Trout for 37 linkage groups, Arctic Char for 36 linkage groups, and with a previously published Brook Trout linkage map for 39 linkage groups. Comparative mapping confirmed the presence of 8 metacentric and 34 acrocentric chromosomes in Brook Trout. Six metacentric chromosomes seem to be conserved with Arctic Char suggesting there have been at least two species-specific fusion and fission events within the genus Salvelinus. In addition, the sex marker (sdY; sexually dimorphic on the Y chromosome was mapped to Brook Trout BC35, which is homologous with Atlantic Salmon Ssa09qa, Rainbow Trout Omy25, and Arctic Char AC04q. Ultimately, this linkage map will be a useful resource for studies on the genome organization of Salvelinus, and facilitates comparisons of the Salvelinus genome with Salmo and Oncorhynchus.

  12. A comprehensive genetic linkage map of the human genome. NIH/CEPH Collaborative Mapping Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-02

    A genetic linkage map of the human genome was constructed that consists of 1416 loci, including 279 genes and expressed sequences. The loci are represented by 1676 polymorphic systems genotyped with the CEPH reference pedigree resource. A total of 339 microsatellite repeat markers assayed by PCR are contained within the map, and of the 351 markers with heterozygosities of at least 70%, 205 are microsatellites. Seven telomere loci define physical and genetic endpoints for 2q, 4p, 7q, 8p, 14q, 16p, and 16q, and in other cases distal markers on the maps have been localized to terminal cytogenetic bands. Therefore, at least 92% of the autosomal length of the genome and 95% of the X chromosome is estimated to be spanned by the map. Since the maps have relatively high marker density and numerous highly informative loci, they can be used to map disease phenotypes, even for those with limited pedigree resources. The baseline map provides a foundation for achieving continuity of clone-based physical maps and for the development of a truly integrated physical, genetic, and cytogenetic map of the human.

  13. High-Density Genetic Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping for Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuhui; Su, Kai; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Jijun; Li, Junpeng; Guo, Yinshan

    2017-07-14

    Genetic linkage maps are an important tool in genetic and genomic research. In this study, two hawthorn cultivars, Qiujinxing and Damianqiu, and 107 progenies from a cross between them were used for constructing a high-density genetic linkage map using the 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) sequencing method, as well as for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for flavonoid content. In total, 206,411,693 single-end reads were obtained, with an average sequencing depth of 57× in the parents and 23× in the progeny. After quality trimming, 117,896 high-quality 2b-RAD tags were retained, of which 42,279 were polymorphic; of these, 12,951 markers were used for constructing the genetic linkage map. The map contained 17 linkage groups and 3,894 markers, with a total map length of 1,551.97 cM and an average marker interval of 0.40 cM. QTL mapping identified 21 QTLs associated with flavonoid content in 10 linkage groups, which explained 16.30-59.00% of the variance. This is the first high-density linkage map for hawthorn, which will serve as a basis for fine-scale QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection of important traits in hawthorn germplasm and will facilitate chromosome assignment for hawthorn whole-genome assemblies in the future.

  14. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of cadmium accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Liangju; Gong, Yiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wen, Tiancai; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil pollutant and poses a significant threat to human health via the food chain. Large phenotypic variations in Cd concentration of radish roots and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in radish remain to be elucidated. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using an F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between a high Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Dysx and a low Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Yh. The linkage map consisted of 523 SRAP, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, RAMP, and RGA markers and had a total length of 1,678.2 cM with a mean distance of 3.4 cM between two markers. All mapped markers distributed on nine linkage groups (LGs) having sizes between 134.7 and 236.8 cM. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root Cd accumulation were mapped on LGs 1, 4, 6, and 9, which accounted for 9.86 to 48.64 % of all phenotypic variance. Two QTLs associated with shoot Cd accumulation were detected on LG1 and 3, which accounted for 17.08 and 29.53 % of phenotypic variance, respectively. A major-effect QTL, qRCd9 (QTL for root Cd accumulation on LG9), was identified on LG 9 flanked by NAUrp011_754 and EM5me6_286 markers with a high LOD value of 23.6, which accounted for 48.64 % of the total phenotypic variance in Cd accumulation of F(2) lines. The results indicated that qRCd9 is a novel QTL responsible for controlling root Cd accumulation in radish, and the identification of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the major QTL could be further applied for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in low-Cd content radish breeding program.

  15. An ultra-dense integrated linkage map for hexaploid chrysanthemum enables multi-allelic QTL analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geest, Geert; Bourke, Peter M; Voorrips, Roeland E; Marasek-Ciolakowska, Agnieszka; Liao, Yanlin; Post, Aike; van Meeteren, Uulke; Visser, Richard G F; Maliepaard, Chris; Arens, Paul

    2017-12-01

    We constructed the first integrated genetic linkage map in a polysomic hexaploid. This enabled us to estimate inheritance of parental haplotypes in the offspring and detect multi-allelic QTL. Construction and use of linkage maps are challenging in hexaploids with polysomic inheritance. Full map integration requires calculations of recombination frequency between markers with complex segregation types. In addition, detection of QTL in hexaploids requires information on all six alleles at one locus for each individual. We describe a method that we used to construct a fully integrated linkage map for chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium, 2n = 6x = 54). A bi-parental F1 population of 406 individuals was genotyped with an 183,000 SNP genotyping array. The resulting linkage map consisted of 30,312 segregating SNP markers of all possible marker dosage types, representing nine chromosomal linkage groups and 107 out of 108 expected homologues. Synteny with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showed local colinearity. Overall, it was high enough to number the chrysanthemum chromosomal linkage groups according to those in lettuce. We used the integrated and phased linkage map to reconstruct inheritance of parental haplotypes in the F1 population. Estimated probabilities for the parental haplotypes were used for multi-allelic QTL analyses on four traits with different underlying genetic architectures. This resulted in the identification of major QTL that were affected by multiple alleles having a differential effect on the phenotype. The presented linkage map sets a standard for future genetic mapping analyses in chrysanthemum and closely related species. Moreover, the described methods are a major step forward for linkage mapping and QTL analysis in hexaploids.

  16. Linkage mapping for complex traits : a regression-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrec, Jérémie Jacques Paul

    2007-01-01

    Linkage analysis makes use of genetic markers to measure genetic similarity between relatives. By comparing this index of genetic similarity with phenotypic similarity, we can identify chromosomal regions harbouring genes involved in the architecture of a phenotype of interest. Although linkage has

  17. Genotyping by Sequencing in Almond: SNP Discovery, Linkage Mapping, and Marker Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi N. Goonetilleke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In crop plant genetics, linkage maps provide the basis for the mapping of loci that affect important traits and for the selection of markers to be applied in crop improvement. In outcrossing species such as almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. D. A. Webb, application of a double pseudotestcross mapping approach to the F1 progeny of a biparental cross leads to the construction of a linkage map for each parent. Here, we report on the application of genotyping by sequencing to discover and map single nucleotide polymorphisms in the almond cultivars “Nonpareil” and “Lauranne.” Allele-specific marker assays were developed for 309 tag pairs. Application of these assays to 231 Nonpareil × Lauranne F1 progeny provided robust linkage maps for each parent. Analysis of phenotypic data for shell hardness demonstrated the utility of these maps for quantitative trait locus mapping. Comparison of these maps to the peach genome assembly confirmed high synteny and collinearity between the peach and almond genomes. The marker assays were applied to progeny from several other Nonpareil crosses, providing the basis for a composite linkage map of Nonpareil. Applications of the assays to a panel of almond clones and a panel of rootstocks used for almond production demonstrated the broad applicability of the markers and provide subsets of markers that could be used to discriminate among accessions. The sequence-based linkage maps and single nucleotide polymorphism assays presented here could be useful resources for the genetic analysis and genetic improvement of almond.

  18. Mapping organizational linkages in the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temel, T.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the evolving context and organisational linkages in the agricultural innovation system of Azerbaijan and suggests ways to promote effective organisational ties for the development, distribution and use of new or improved information and knowledge related to agriculture.

  19. Genetic Linkage Map of a High Yielding FELDA Deli×Yangambi Oil Palm Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Tzer-Ying; Mohamed Saad, Siti Hawa; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Harminder Singh, Rajinder Singh; Qamaruz Zaman, Faridah; Tan, Soon-Guan; Syed Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah

    2011-01-01

    Enroute to mapping QTLs for yield components in oil palm, we constructed the linkage map of a FELDA high yielding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), hybrid cross. The parents of the mapping population are a Deli dura and a pisifera of Yangambi origin. The cross out-yielded the average by 8–21% in four trials all of which yielded comparably to the best current commercial planting materials. The higher yield derived from a higher fruit oil content. SSR markers in the public domain - from CIRAD and MPOB, as well as some developed in FELDA - were used for the mapping, augmented by locally-designed AFLP markers. The female parent linkage map comprised 317 marker loci and the male parent map 331 loci, both in 16 linkage groups each. The number of markers per group ranged from 8–47 in the former and 12–40 in the latter. The integrated map was 2,247.5 cM long and included 479 markers and 168 anchor points. The number of markers per linkage group was 15–57, the average being 29, and the average map density 4.7 cM. The linkage groups ranged in length from 77.5 cM to 223.7 cM, with an average of 137 cM. The map is currently being validated against a closely related population and also being expanded to include yield related QTLs. PMID:22069457

  20. Construction of a genetic linkage map in Lilium using a RIL mapping population based on SRAP marker

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    Chen Li-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A genetic linkage map of lily was constructed using RILs (recombinant inbred lines population of 180 individuals. This mapping population was developed by crossing Raizan No.1 (Formolongo and Gelria (Longiflomm cultivars through single-seed descent (SSD. SRAPs were generated by using restriction enzymes EcoRI in combination with either MseI. The resulting products were separated by electrophoresis on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The segregation of each marker and linkage analysis was done using the program Mapmaker3.0. With 50 primer pairs, a total of 189 parental polymorphic bands were detected and 78 were used for mapping. The total map length was 2,135.5 cM consisted of 16 linkage groups. The number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 1 to 12. The length of linkage groups was range from 11.2 cM to 425.9 cM and mean marker interval distance range from 9.4 cM to 345.4 cM individually. The mean marker interval distance between markers was 27.4 cM. The map developed in the present study was the first sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers map of lily constructed with recombinant inbred lines, it could be used for genetic mapping and molecular marker assisted breeding and quantitative trait locus mapping of Lilium.

  1. Construction of a reference molecular linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portis, E; Mauromicale, G; Mauro, R; Acquadro, A; Scaglione, D; Lanteri, S

    2009-12-01

    The genome organization of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), unlike other species belonging to Asteraceae (=Compositae) family (i.e. sunflower, lettuce and chicory), remains largely unexplored. The species is highly heterozygous and suffers marked inbreeding depression when forced to self-fertilize. Thus a two-way pseudo-testcross represents the optimal strategy for linkage analysis. Here, we report linkage maps based on the progeny of a cross between globe artichoke (C. cardunculus var. scolymus) and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis). The population was genotyped using a variety of PCR-based marker platforms, resulting in the identification of 708 testcross markers suitable for map construction. The male map consisted of 177 loci arranged in 17 major linkage groups, spanning 1,015.5 cM, while female map was built with 326 loci arranged into 20 major linkage groups, spanning 1,486.8 cM. The presence of 84 loci shared between these maps and those previously developed from a cross within globe artichoke allowed for map alignment and the definition of 17 homologous linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid number of the species. This will provide a favourable property for QTL scanning; furthermore, as 25 mapped markers (8%) correspond to coding regions, it has an additional value as functional map and might represent an important genetic tool for candidate gene studies in globe artichoke.

  2. Linkage Map of Lissotriton Newts Provides Insight into the Genetic Basis of Reproductive Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Niedzicka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are widely used to investigate structure, function, and evolution of genomes. In speciation research, maps facilitate the study of the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation by allowing identification of genomic regions underlying reduced fitness of hybrids. Here we present a linkage map for European newts of the Lissotriton vulgaris species complex, constructed using two families of F2 L. montandoni × L. vulgaris hybrids. The map consists of 1146 protein-coding genes on 12 linkage groups, equal to the haploid chromosome number, with a total length of 1484 cM (1.29 cM per marker. It is notably shorter than two other maps available for salamanders, but the differences in map length are consistent with cytogenetic estimates of the number of chiasmata per chromosomal arm. Thus, large salamander genomes do not necessarily translate into long linkage maps, as previously suggested. Consequently, salamanders are an excellent model to study evolutionary consequences of recombination rate variation in taxa with large genomes and a similar number of chromosomes. A complex pattern of transmission ratio distortion (TRD was detected: TRD occurred mostly in one family, in one breeding season, and was clustered in two genomic segments. This is consistent with environment-dependent mortality of individuals carrying L. montandoni alleles in these two segments and suggests a role of TRD blocks in reproductive isolation. The reported linkage map will empower studies on the genomic architecture of divergence and interactions between the genomes of hybridizing newts.

  3. Salmonid Chromosome Evolution as Revealed by a Novel Method for Comparing RADseq Linkage Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Thierry; Normandeau, Eric; Lamothe, Manuel; Isabel, Nathalie; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) can provide material for evolutionary innovation. Family Salmonidae is ideal for studying the effects of WGD as the ancestral salmonid underwent WGD relatively recently, ∼65 Ma, then rediploidized and diversified. Extensive synteny between homologous chromosome arms occurs in extant salmonids, but each species has both conserved and unique chromosome arm fusions and fissions. Assembly of large, outbred eukaryotic genomes can be difficult, but structural rearrangements within such taxa can be investigated using linkage maps. RAD sequencing provides unprecedented ability to generate high-density linkage maps for nonmodel species, but can result in low numbers of homologous markers between species due to phylogenetic distance or differences in library preparation. Here, we generate a high-density linkage map (3,826 markers) for the Salvelinus genera (Brook Charr S. fontinalis), and then identify corresponding chromosome arms among the other available salmonid high-density linkage maps, including six species of Oncorhynchus, and one species for each of Salmo, Coregonus, and the nonduplicated sister group for the salmonids, Northern Pike Esox lucius for identifying post-duplicated homeologs. To facilitate this process, we developed MapComp to identify identical and proximate (i.e. nearby) markers between linkage maps using a reference genome of a related species as an intermediate, increasing the number of comparable markers between linkage maps by 5-fold. This enabled a characterization of the most likely history of retained chromosomal rearrangements post-WGD, and several conserved chromosomal inversions. Analyses of RADseq-based linkage maps from other taxa will also benefit from MapComp, available at: https://github.com/enormandeau/mapcomp/ PMID:28173098

  4. Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmari, Peter; Paterson, Andrew; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Vincent, John; Skaug, Jennifer; Thompson, Ann; Senman, Lili; Feuk, Lars; Qian, Cheng; Bryson, Susan; Jones, Marshall; Marshall, Christian; Scherer, Stephen; Vieland, Veronica; Bartlett, Christopher; Mangin, La Vonne; Goedken, Rhinda; Segre, Alberto; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Cuccaro, Michael; Gilbert, John; Wright, Harry; Abramson, Ruth; Betancur, Catalina; Bourgeron, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher; Leboyer, Marion; Buxbaum, Joseph; Davis, Kenneth; Hollander, Eric; Silverman, Jeremy; Hallmayer, Joachim; Lotspeich, Linda; Sutcliffe, James; Haines, Jonathan; Folstein, Susan; Piven, Joseph; Wassink, Thomas; Sheffield, Val; Geschwind, Daniel; Bucan, Maja; Brown, Ted; Cantor, Rita; Constantino, John; Gilliam, Conrad; Herbert, Martha; Lajonchere, Clara; Ledbetter, David; Lese-Martin, Christa; Miller, Janet; Nelson, Stan; Samango-Sprouse, Carol; Spence, Sarah; State, Matthew; Tanzi, Rudolph; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Devlin, Bernie; Estes, Annette; Flodman, Pamela; Klei, Lambertus; Mcmahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Korvatska, Elena; Rodier, Patricia; Schellenberg, Gerard; Smith, Moyra; Spence, Anne; Stodgell, Chris; Tepper, Ping Guo; Wijsman, Ellen; Yu, Chang-En; Rogé, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Poustka, Annemarie; Felder, Bärbel; Klauck, Sabine; Schuster, Claudia; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Schmötzer, Gabi; Tsiantis, John; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Maestrini, Elena; Bacchelli, Elena; Blasi, Francesca; Carone, Simona; Toma, Claudio; Van Engeland, Herman; De Jonge, Maretha; Kemner, Chantal; Koop, Frederieke; Langemeijer, Marjolein; Hijmans, Channa; Staal, Wouter; Baird, Gillian; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Aldred, Catherine; Wilkinson, Julie-Anne; Pickles, Andrew; Le Couteur, Ann; Berney, Tom; Mcconachie, Helen; Bailey, Anthony; Francis, Kostas; Honeyman, Gemma; Hutchinson, Aislinn; Parr, Jeremy; Wallace, Simon; Monaco, Anthony; Barnby, Gabrielle; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Lamb, Janine; Sousa, Ines; Sykes, Nuala; Cook, Edwin; Guter, Stephen; Leventhal, Bennett; Salt, Jeff; Lord, Catherine; Corsello, Christina; Hus, Vanessa; Weeks, Daniel; Volkmar, Fred; Tauber, Maïté; Fombonne, Eric; Shih, Andy; Meyer, Kacie

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common, heritable neurodevelopmental conditions. The genetic architecture of ASD is complex, requiring large samples to overcome heterogeneity. Here we broaden coverage and sample size relative to other studies of ASD by using Affymetrix 10K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and 1168 families with ≥ 2 affected individuals to perform the largest linkage scan to date, while also analyzing copy number variation (CNV) in these families. Linkage and CNV analyses implicate chromosome 11p12-p13 and neurexins, respectively, amongst other candidate loci. Neurexins team with previously-implicated neuroligins for glutamatergic synaptogenesis, highlighting glutamate-related genes as promising candidates for ASD. PMID:17322880

  5. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  6. Construction of genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The morphological markers/genes were found linked with nearest molecular or morphological markers at distances varying from 0.7 to 11.4 cM. Linkage was observed between the morphological markers concerned with lamina shape and petiole size of leaf on LG1 and leaf, stem and petiole pigmentation and pod size on ...

  7. Recombination patterns reveal information about centromere location on linkage maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten T.; McKinney, Garrett J.; Seeb, Lisa W.

    2016-01-01

    . mykiss) characterized by low and unevenly distributed recombination – a general feature of male meiosis in many species. Further, a high frequency of double crossovers along chromosome arms in barley reduced resolution for locating centromeric regions on most linkage groups. Despite these limitations...

  8. Localization of two new DNA markers on the linkage map of human chromosome 6q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byth, B C; Love, D R; Murray, J C; Davies, K E

    1992-01-01

    Recently, an autosomal homolog of the dystrophin gene (DMDL) was identified on chromosome 6q24. As part of our analysis of the DMDL locus, we endeavoured to isolate DNA markers to further define the genetic map of this region. We have isolated and characterized two new genetic markers in the region of the DMDL locus, the RFLP D6S129 and a (CA)n dinucleotide repeat polymorphism within the DMDL gene itself and have positioned them on the existing genetic map of chromosome 6q. These markers will be important in testing the hypothesis that the DMDL gene is the locus responsible for autosomal forms of neuromuscular disease.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium fine mapping of quantitative trait loci: A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Enciso Miguel

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD to locate genes which affect quantitative traits (QTL has received an increasing interest, but the plausibility of fine mapping using linkage disequilibrium techniques for QTL has not been well studied. The main objectives of this work were to (1 measure the extent and pattern of LD between a putative QTL and nearby markers in finite populations and (2 investigate the usefulness of LD in fine mapping QTL in simulated populations using a dense map of multiallelic or biallelic marker loci. The test of association between a marker and QTL and the power of the test were calculated based on single-marker regression analysis. The results show the presence of substantial linkage disequilibrium with closely linked marker loci after 100 to 200 generations of random mating. Although the power to test the association with a frequent QTL of large effect was satisfactory, the power was low for the QTL with a small effect and/or low frequency. More powerful, multi-locus methods may be required to map low frequent QTL with small genetic effects, as well as combining both linkage and linkage disequilibrium information. The results also showed that multiallelic markers are more useful than biallelic markers to detect linkage disequilibrium and association at an equal distance.

  10. Construction of a SNP and SSR linkage map in autotetraploid blueberry using genotyping by sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mapping population developed from a cross between two key highbush blueberry cultivars, Draper × Jewel (Vaccinium corymbosum), segregating for a number of important phenotypic traits, has been utilized to produce a genetic linkage map. Data on 233 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 1794 sing...

  11. Linkage Mapping and Comparative Genomics of Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Hollenbeck

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments in next-generation sequencing allow genotyping of thousands of genetic markers across hundreds of individuals in a cost-effective manner. Because of this, it is now possible to rapidly produce dense genetic linkage maps for nonmodel species. Here, we report a dense genetic linkage map for red drum, a marine fish species of considerable economic importance in the southeastern United States and elsewhere. We used a prior microsatellite-based linkage map as a framework and incorporated 1794 haplotyped contigs derived from high-throughput, reduced representation DNA sequencing to produce a linkage map containing 1794 haplotyped restriction-site associated DNA (RAD contigs, 437 anonymous microsatellites, and 44 expressed sequence-tag-linked microsatellites (EST-SSRs. A total of 274 candidate genes, identified from transcripts from a preliminary hydrocarbon exposure study, were localized to specific chromosomes, using a shared synteny approach. The linkage map will be a useful resource for red drum commercial and restoration aquaculture, and for better understanding and managing populations of red drum in the wild.

  12. Combined linkage and association mapping of flowering time in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadic, Elena; Coque, Marie; Vear, Felicity; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Pauquet, Jerôme; Piquemal, Joël; Lippi, Yannick; Blanchard, Philippe; Romestant, Michel; Pouilly, Nicolas; Rengel, David; Gouzy, Jerôme; Langlade, Nicolas; Mangin, Brigitte; Vincourt, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Association mapping and linkage mapping were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or causative mutations involved in the control of flowering time in cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus. A panel of 384 inbred lines was phenotyped through testcrosses with two tester inbred lines across 15 location × year combinations. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 273 lines was phenotyped both per se and through testcrosses with one or two testers in 16 location × year combinations. In the association mapping approach, kinship estimation using 5,923 single nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be the best covariate to correct for effects of panel structure. Linkage disequilibrium decay ranged from 0.08 to 0.26 cM for a threshold of 0.20, after correcting for structure effects, depending on the linkage group (LG) and the ancestry of inbred lines. A possible hitchhiking effect is hypothesized for LG10 and LG08. A total of 11 regions across 10 LGs were found to be associated with flowering time, and QTLs were mapped on 11 LGs in the RIL population. Whereas eight regions were demonstrated to be common between the two approaches, the linkage disequilibrium approach did not detect a documented QTL that was confirmed using the linkage mapping approach.

  13. A robust linkage map of the porcine autosome based on gene-associated SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingborg, Rikke K K; Gregersen, Vivi R; Zhan, Bujie

    2009-01-01

    conserved synteny. A total of 330 previously unmapped genes and ESTs were mapped to the porcine autosome while ten genes were mapped to unexpected locations. Conclusions The linkage map presented here shows high accuracy in gene order. The pedigree family network as well as the large amount of meiotic......Background Genetic linkage maps are necessary for mapping of mendelian traits and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). To identify the actual genes, which control these traits, a map based on gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers is highly valuable. In this study, the SNPs were...... genotyped in a large family material comprising more than 5,000 piglets derived from 12 Duroc boars crossed with 236 Danish Landrace/Danish Large White sows. The SNPs were identified in sequence alignments of 4,600 different amplicons obtained from the 12 boars and containing coding regions of genes derived...

  14. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. Results An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin. Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7% deviated (p Conclusions We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker

  15. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  16. An integrated genetic linkage map for white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with alignment to Medicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrew G; Barrett, Brent A; Simon, Deborah; Khan, Anar K; Bickerstaff, Paul; Anderson, Craig B; Franzmayr, Benjamin K; Hancock, Kerry R; Jones, Chris S

    2013-06-10

    White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a temperate forage legume with an allotetraploid genome (2n=4×=32) estimated at 1093 Mb. Several linkage maps of various sizes, marker sources and completeness are available, however, no integrated map and marker set has explored consistency of linkage analysis among unrelated mapping populations. Such integrative analysis requires tools for homoeologue matching among populations. Development of these tools provides for a consistent framework map of the white clover genome, and facilitates in silico alignment with the model forage legume, Medicago truncatula. This is the first report of integration of independent linkage maps in white clover, and adds to the literature on methyl filtered GeneThresher®-derived microsatellite (simple sequence repeat; SSR) markers for linkage mapping. Gene-targeted SSR markers were discovered in a GeneThresher® (TrGT) methyl-filtered database of 364,539 sequences, which yielded 15,647 SSR arrays. Primers were designed for 4,038 arrays and of these, 465 TrGT-SSR markers were used for parental consensus genetic linkage analysis in an F1 mapping population (MP2). This was merged with an EST-SSR consensus genetic map of an independent population (MP1), using markers to match homoeologues and develop a multi-population integrated map of the white clover genome. This integrated map (IM) includes 1109 loci based on 804 SSRs over 1274 cM, covering 97% of the genome at a moderate density of one locus per 1.2 cM. Eighteen candidate genes and one morphological marker were also placed on the IM. Despite being derived from disparate populations and marker sources, the component maps and the derived IM had consistent representations of the white clover genome for marker order and genetic length. In silico analysis at an E-value threshold of 1e-20 revealed substantial co-linearity with the Medicago truncatula genome, and indicates a translocation between T. repens groups 2 and 6 relative to M. truncatula

  17. A Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium Linkage Map of Tomato Displaying Genomic Locations of R-Genes, RGAs, and Candidate Resistance/Defense-Response ESTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arun; Zhang, Liping; Niño-Liu, David; Ashrafi, Hamid; Foolad, Majid R.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified an accession (LA2093) within the tomato wild species Solanum pimpinellifolium with many desirable characteristics, including biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and good fruit quality. To utilize the full genetic potential of LA2093 in tomato breeding, we have developed a linkage map based on an F2 population of a cross between LA2093 and a tomato breeding line, using 115 RFLP, 94 EST, and 41 RGA markers. The map spanned 1002.4 cM of the 12 tomato chromosomes with an average marker distance of 4.0 cM. The length of the map and linear order of the markers were in good agreement with the published maps of tomato. The ESTs were chosen based on their sequence similarities with known resistance or defense-response genes, signal-transduction factors, transcriptional regulators, and genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. Locations of several ESTs and RGAs coincided with locations of several known tomato resistance genes and quantitative resistance loci (QRLs), suggesting that candidate-gene approach may be effective in identifying and mapping new R genes. This map will be useful for marker-assisted exploitation of desirable traits in LA2093 and other S. pimpinellifolium accessions, and possibly for utilization of genetic variation within S. lycopersicum. PMID:19223983

  18. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  19. Construction of the High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and Chromosome Map of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqun Ao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High-density genetic maps are essential for genome assembly, comparative genomic analysis and fine mapping of complex traits. In this study, 31,191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs evenly distributed across the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea genome were identified using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq. Among them, 10,150 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs. The total length of the genetic linkage map was 5451.3 cM with an average distance of 0.54 cM between loci. This represents the densest genetic map currently reported for large yellow croaker. Using 2889 SNPs to target specific scaffolds, we assigned 533 scaffolds, comprising 421.44 Mb (62.04% of the large yellow croaker assembled sequence, to the 24 linkage groups. The mapped assembly scaffolds in large yellow croaker were used for genome synteny analyses against the stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and medaka (Oryzias latipes. Greater synteny was observed between large yellow croaker and stickleback. This supports the hypothesis that large yellow croaker is more closely related to stickleback than to medaka. Moreover, 1274 immunity-related genes and 195 hypoxia-related genes were mapped to the 24 chromosomes of large yellow croaker. The integration of the high-resolution genetic map and the assembled sequence provides a valuable resource for fine mapping and positional cloning of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in large yellow croaker.

  20. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry.

  1. Fine mapping of a QTL for intramuscular fat on porcine chromosome 6 using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uleberg, E; Widerøe, I S; Grindflek, E; Szyda, J; Lien, S; Meuwissen, T H E

    2005-02-01

    In this study data from a commercial Norwegian slaughter pig cross was analysed to confirm a previous reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting intramuscular fat (IMF) on porcine chromosome 6. The data consisted of an old experiment, in which the QTL was previously detected, and new experimental data from the Norwegian slaughter pig cross. The old and new experimental data were analysed separately and together. A previously described method combining linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) was used for the analysis, but this method assumes that all animals are descendants from a common base population, which is not realistic in a cross between different breeds. An adjusted version of the method, able to distinguish between different breeds in the cross, is presented here. Using the LDLA method, we were not able to confirm the QTL in the old experimental data, because the genetic variance could be explained by the polygenic effect. Analysis from the new experimental data did however detect the QTL, and analysing the data from both experiments together gave highly significant results for a QTL (p IMF on porcine chromosome 6 was confirmed within a 8.7-cM confidence interval.

  2. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ates

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14, self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes.A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8, "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11 and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39.The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4. The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps.This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  3. Integrating the markers Pan I and haemoglobin with the genetic linkage map of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Gary

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemoglobin (Hb and pantophysin (Pan I markers have been used intensively in population studies of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and in the analysis of traits such as temperature tolerance, growth characteristics and sexual maturation. We used an Illumina GoldenGate panel and the KASPar SNP genotyping system to analyse SNPs in three Atlantic cod families, one of which was polymorphic at the Hb β1 locus, and to generate a genetic linkage map integrating Pan I and multiple Hb loci. Findings Data generated allowed the mapping of nine Hb loci, the Pan I locus, and other 122 SNPs onto an existing linkage genetic map for Atlantic cod. Four Hb genes (i.e. α1, α4, β1 and β5 have been mapped on linkage group (LG 2 while the other five (i.e. α2, α3, β2, β3 and β4 were placed on LG18. Pan I was mapped on LG 1 using a newly developed KASPar assay for a SNP variable only in Pan IA allelic variants. The new linkage genetic map presented here comprises 1046 SNPs distributed between 23 linkage groups, with a length of 1145.6 cM. A map produced by forcing additional loci, resulting in a reduced goodness-of-fit for mapped markers, allowed the mapping of a total of 1300 SNPs. Finally, we compared our genetic linkage map data with the genetic linkage map data produced by a different group and identified 29 shared SNPs distributed on 10 different linkage groups. Conclusions The genetic linkage map presented here incorporates the marker Pan I, together with multiple Hb loci, and integrates genetic linkage data produced by two different research groups. This represents a useful resource to further explore if Pan I and Hbs or other genes underlie quantitative trait loci (QTL for temperature sensitivity/tolerance or other phenotypes.

  4. A genetic linkage map of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L) combining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers are both simple and efficient maker systems adapted to many crops and for multiple purposes. In this study a genetic map based on SRAP and ISSR markers was constructed for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) based on ...

  5. Inheritance and linkage map positions of genes conferring resistance to stemphylium blight in lentil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemphylium blight (caused by Stemphylium botryosum Wallr.) is one of the major diseases of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) in South Asia and North America. The objective of the study was to identify linkage map position of the genes conferring resistance to stemphylium blight and the markers linked ...

  6. Male-biased recombination in odonates: insights from a linkage map ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 1. Male-biased recombination in odonates: insights from a linkage map of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. Maren Wellenreuther Rosa A. Sánchez-Guillén Adolfo Cordero-Rivera Erik I. Svensson Bengt Hansson. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 1 April 2013 pp 115- ...

  7. A detailed linkage map of lettuce based on SSAP, AFLP and NBS markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, H.; Sorensen, A.P.; Antonise, R.; van de Wiel, C.; van der Linden, C.G.; van 't Westende, W.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; den Nijs, J.C.M.; Flavell, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Molecular markers based upon a novel lettuce LTR retrotransposon and the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) family of disease resistance-associated genes have been combined with AFLP markers to generate a 458 locus genetic linkage map for lettuce. A total of 187

  8. A detailed linkage map of lettuce based on SSAP, AFLP and NBS markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, N.; Sorensen, A.P.; Antonise, R.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Linden, van der C.G.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Nijs, den H.C.M.; Flavell, A.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular markers based upon a novel lettuce LTR retrotransposon and the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) family of disease resistance-associated genes have been combined with AFLP markers to generate a 458 locus genetic linkage map for lettuce. A total of 187

  9. Linkage and mapping analyses of the no glue egg gene Ng in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, no glue egg is mainly controlled by Ng (No glue) gene, which is located on the 12th chromosome. Owning to a lack of crossing over in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BC1) progenies were used for linkage analysis and mapping of the Ng gene based on the simple sequence repeats ...

  10. Linkage mapping reveals strong chiasma interference in Sockeye salmon: Implications for interpreting genomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Waples, Ryan K; Allendorf, Fred W

    2015-01-01

    present a detailed interrogation of recombination patterns in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). First, we use RAD sequencing of haploid and diploid gynogenetic families to construct a dense linkage map that includes paralogous loci and location of centromeres. We find a nonrandom distribution...

  11. Prospects for whole genome linkage disequilibrium mapping in domestic dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Changbaig; Filippich, Lucio J; Lea, Rod A; Shepherd, Graeme; Hughes, Ian P; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2003-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping is commonly used as a fine mapping tool in human genome mapping and has been used with some success for initial disease gene isolation in certain isolated in-bred human populations. An understanding of the population history of domestic dog breeds suggests that LD mapping could be routinely utilized in this species for initial genome-wide scans. Such an approach offers significant advantages over traditional linkage analysis. Here, we demonstrate, using canine copper toxicosis in the Bedlington terrier as the model, that LD mapping could be reasonably expected to be a useful strategy in low-resolution, genome-wide scans in pure-bred dogs. Significant LD was demonstrated over distances up to 33.3 cM. It is very unlikely, for a number of reasons discussed, that this result could be extrapolated to the rest of the genome. It is, however, consistent with the expectation given the population structure of canine breeds and, in this breed at least, with the hypothesis that it may be possible to utilize LD in a genome-wide scan. In this study, LD mapping confirmed the location of the copper toxicosis in Bedlington terrier gene (CT-BT) and was able to do so in a population that was refractory to traditional linkage analysis.

  12. A SNP based high-density linkage map of Apis cerana reveals a high recombination rate similar to Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan Yuan; Sun, Liang Xian; Huang, Zachary Y; Wu, Xiao Bo; Zhu, Yong Qiang; Zheng, Hua Jun; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee. F2 workers (N = 103) were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (180 loci) measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM. We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera.

  13. A SNP based high-density linkage map of Apis cerana reveals a high recombination rate similar to Apis mellifera.

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    Yuan Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee. RESULTS: F2 workers (N = 103 were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM with the largest linkage group (180 loci measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM. CONCLUSION: We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera.

  14. Linkage mapping and physical localization of the major histocompatibility complex region of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica.

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    Gouin, N; Deakin, J E; Miska, K B; Miller, R D; Kammerer, C M; Graves, J A M; VandeBerg, J L; Samollow, P B

    2006-01-01

    We used genetic linkage mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to conduct the first analysis of genic organization and chromosome localization of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of a marsupial, the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica. Family based linkage analyses of two M. domestica MHC Class I genes (UA1, UG) and three MHC Class II genes (DAB, DMA, and DMB) revealed that these genes were tightly linked and positioned in the central region of linkage group 3 (LG3). This cluster of MHC genes was physically mapped to the centromeric region of chromosome 2q by FISH using a BAC clone containing the UA1 gene. An interesting finding from the linkage analyses is that sex-specific recombination rates were virtually identical within the MHC region. This stands in stark contrast to the genome-wide situation, wherein males exhibit approximately twice as much recombination as females, and could have evolutionary implications for maintaining equality between males and females in the ability to generate haplotype diversity in this region. These analyses also showed that three non-MHC genes that flank the MHC region on human chromosome 6, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), and prolactin (PRL), are split among two separate linkage groups (chromosomes) in M. domestica. Comparative analysis with eight other vertebrate species suggests strong conservation of the BMP6-PRL synteny among birds and mammals, although the BMP6-PRL-MHC-ME1 synteny is not conserved. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippolyte, Isabelle; Bakry, Frederic; Seguin, Marc; Gardes, Laetitia; Rivallan, Ronan; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Jenny, Christophe; Perrier, Xavier; Carreel, Françoise; Argout, Xavier; Piffanelli, Pietro; Khan, Imtiaz A; Miller, Robert N G; Pappas, Georgios J; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Matsumoto, Takashi; De Bernardinis, Veronique; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; D'Hont, Angélique; Cote, François; Courtois, Brigitte; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe

    2010-04-13

    The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana) in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin). Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7%) deviated (p Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker segregation.

  16. Construction of the first genetic linkage map of Japanese gentian (Gentianaceae

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    Nakatsuka Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese gentians (Gentiana triflora and Gentiana scabra are amongst the most popular floricultural plants in Japan. However, genomic resources for Japanese gentians have not yet been developed, mainly because of the heterozygous genome structure conserved by outcrossing, the long juvenile period, and limited knowledge about the inheritance of important traits. In this study, we developed a genetic linkage map to improve breeding programs of Japanese gentians. Results Enriched simple sequence repeat (SSR libraries from a G. triflora double haploid line yielded almost 20,000 clones using 454 pyrosequencing technology, 6.7% of which could be used to design SSR markers. To increase the number of molecular markers, we identified three putative long terminal repeat (LTR sequences using the recently developed inter-primer binding site (iPBS method. We also developed retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP markers combining retrotransposon and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. In addition to SSR and REMAP markers, modified amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were developed. Using 93 BC1 progeny from G. scabra backcrossed with a G. triflora double haploid line, 19 linkage groups were constructed with a total of 263 markers (97 SSR, 97 AFLP, 39 RAPD, and 30 REMAP markers. One phenotypic trait (stem color and 10 functional markers related to genes controlling flower color, flowering time and cold tolerance were assigned to the linkage map, confirming its utility. Conclusions This is the first reported genetic linkage map for Japanese gentians and for any species belonging to the family Gentianaceae. As demonstrated by mapping of functional markers and the stem color trait, our results will help to explain the genetic basis of agronomic important traits, and will be useful for marker-assisted selection in gentian breeding programs. Our map

  17. An EST-derived SNP and SSR genetic linkage map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ismail Yusuf; Kulembeka, Heneriko Philbert; Masumba, Esther; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Ferguson, Morag

    2012-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food security crops in the tropics and increasingly being adopted for agro-industrial processing. Genetic improvement of cassava can be enhanced through marker-assisted breeding. For this, appropriate genomic tools are required to dissect the genetic architecture of economically important traits. Here, a genome-wide SNP-based genetic map of cassava anchored in SSRs is presented. An outbreeder full-sib (F1) family was genotyped on two independent SNP assay platforms: an array of 1,536 SNPs on Illumina's GoldenGate platform was used to genotype a first batch of 60 F1. Of the 1,358 successfully converted SNPs, 600 which were polymorphic in at least one of the parents and was subsequently converted to KBiosciences' KASPar assay platform for genotyping 70 additional F1. High-precision genotyping of 163 informative SSRs using capillary electrophoresis was also carried out. Linkage analysis resulted in a final linkage map of 1,837 centi-Morgans (cM) containing 568 markers (434 SNPs and 134 SSRs) distributed across 19 linkage groups. The average distance between adjacent markers was 3.4 cM. About 94.2% of the mapped SNPs and SSRs have also been localized on scaffolds of version 4.1 assembly of the cassava draft genome sequence. This more saturated genetic linkage map of cassava that combines SSR and SNP markers should find several applications in the improvement of cassava including aligning scaffolds of the cassava genome sequence, genetic analyses of important agro-morphological traits, studying the linkage disequilibrium landscape and comparative genomics.

  18. Linkage map of the fragments of herpesvirus papio DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y S; Tanaka, A; Lau, R Y; Nonoyama, M; Rabin, H

    1981-01-01

    Herpesvirus papio (HVP), an Epstein-Barr-like virus, causes lymphoblastoid disease in baboons. The physical map of HVP DNA was constructed for the fragments produced by cleavage of HVP DNA with restriction endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII, SalI, and PvuI, which produced 12, 12, 10, and 4 fragments, respectively. The total molecular size of HVP DNA was calculated as close to 110 megadaltons. The following methods were used for construction of the map; (i) fragments near the ends of HVP DNA were identified by treating viral DNA with lambda exonuclease before restriction enzyme digestion; (ii) fragments containing nucleotide sequences in common with fragments from the second enzyme digest of HVP DNA were examined by Southern blot hybridization; and (iii) the location of some fragments was determined by isolating individual fragments from agarose gels and redigesting the isolated fragments with a second restriction enzyme. Terminal heterogeneity and internal repeats were found to be unique features of HVP DNA molecule. One to five repeats of 0.8 megadaltons were found at both terminal ends. Although the repeats of both ends shared a certain degree of homology, it was not determined whether they were identical repeats. The internal repeat sequence of HVP DNA was found in the EcoRI-C region, which extended from 8.4 to 23 megadaltons from the left end of the molecule. The average number of the repeats was calculated to be seven, and the molecular size was determined to be 1.8 megadaltons. Similar unique features have been reported in EBV DNA (D. Given and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 28:524-542, 1978). Images PMID:6261015

  19. A second generation genetic linkage map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Okamoto Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is one of the most economically important marine species in Northeast Asia. Information on genetic markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL can be used in breeding programs to identify and select individuals carrying desired traits. Commercial production of Japanese flounder could be increased by developing disease-resistant fish and improving commercially important traits. Previous maps have been constructed with AFLP markers and a limited number of microsatellite markers. In this study, improved genetic linkage maps are presented. In contrast with previous studies, these maps were built mainly with a large number of codominant markers so they can potentially be used to analyze different families and populations. Results Sex-specific genetic linkage maps were constructed for the Japanese flounder including a total of 1,375 markers [1,268 microsatellites, 105 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and two genes]; 1,167 markers are linked to the male map and 1,067 markers are linked to the female map. The lengths of the male and female maps are 1,147.7 cM and 833.8 cM, respectively. Based on estimations of map lengths, the female and male maps covered 79 and 82% of the genome, respectively. Recombination ratio in the new maps revealed F:M of 1:0.7. All linkage groups in the maps presented large differences in the location of sex-specific recombination hot-spots. Conclusions The improved genetic linkage maps are very useful for QTL analyses and marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding programs for economically important traits in Japanese flounder. In addition, SNP flanking sequences were blasted against Tetraodon nigroviridis (puffer fish and Danio rerio (zebrafish, and synteny analysis has been carried out. The ability to detect synteny among species or genera based on homology analysis of SNP flanking sequences may provide opportunities to complement initial QTL experiments

  20. Overall linkage map of the nonstructural proteins of Aichi virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kumiko; Sasaki, Jun; Taniguchi, Koki

    2010-01-01

    Aichi virus (AiV), which is associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans, is a member of the genus Kobuvirus of the family Picornaviridae. Picornavirus genome replication occurs in replication complexes that include viral nonstructural proteins, host proteins and viral RNA. In poliovirus, all nonstructural proteins are found in the replication complexes, suggesting the ability of the viral nonstructural proteins to interact with each other. In this study, we examined the interactions between the AiV nonstructural proteins using a mammalian two-hybrid system. The results showed that all of the tested proteins could interact with more than one protein. We observed homodimerization of five proteins, bidirectional heterodimerization of six protein pairs, and unidirectional heterodimerization of eighteen protein pairs. Among the interactions detected in this study, the 2A-2BC, 2A-2BC, 2A-2C, 2BC-3CD, 2BC-3C, 2C-3C, 2C-3CD and 3AB-3C interactions have not been observed in the previous two-hybrid studies with other picornaviruses. The strongest interaction was observed between 2A and 3CD. AiV 2A has already been shown to be involved in genome replication. Domain mapping of the 2A and 3CD interaction in mammalian two-hybrid analysis revealed that the C-terminal quarter of 2A is not required for the interaction with 3CD.

  1. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38) populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research. PMID:21306613

  2. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

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    Delourme Régine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38 populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.

  3. Saturated linkage map construction in Rubus idaeus using genotyping by sequencing and genome-independent imputation

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    Ward Judson A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry. Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Results Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. Conclusions GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation

  4. Genetic mapping of X-linked ocular albinism: Linkage analysis in a large Newfoundland kindred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, S.J.; Moore, A.T.; Barton, D.E.; Yates, J.R.W. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Green, J.S. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Genetic linkage studies in a large Newfoundland family affected by X-linked ocular albinism (OA1) showed linkage to markers from Xp22.3. One recombinant mapped the disease proximal to DXS143 (dic56) and two recombinants mapped the disease distal to DXS85 (782). Combining the data with that from 16 British families previously published confirmed close linkage between OA1 and DXS143 (dic56; Z[sub max] = 21.96 at [theta] = 0.01, confidence interval (CI) 0.0005--0.05) and linkage to DXS85 (782; Z[sub max] = 17.60 at [theta] = 0.07, CI = 0.03--0.13) and DXS237 (GMGX9; Z[sub max] = 15.20 at [theta] = 0.08, CI = 0.03--0.15). Multipoint analysis (LINKMAP) gave the most likely order as Xpter-XG-DXS237-DXS143-OA1-DXS85, with odds of 48:1 over the order Xpter-XG-DXS237-OA1-DXS143-DXS85, and odds exceeding 10[sup 10]:1 over other locations for the disease locus. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Linkage mapping methods applied to the COGA data set: presentation Group 4 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, E Warwick; Doan, Betty Q; Elston, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Presentation Group 4 participants analyzed the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism data provided for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14. This group examined various aspects of linkage analysis and related issues. Seven papers included linkage analyses, while the eighth calculated identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities. Six papers analyzed linkage to an alcoholism phenotype: ALDX1 (four papers), ALDX2 (one paper), or a combination both (one paper). Methods used included Bayesian variable selection coupled with Haseman-Elston regression, recursive partitioning to identify phenotype and covariate groupings that interact with evidence for linkage, nonparametric linkage regression modeling, affected sib-pair linkage analysis with discordant sib-pair controls, simulation-based homozygosity mapping in a single pedigree, and application of a propensity score to collapse covariates in a general conditional logistic model. Alcoholism linkage was found with > or =2 of these approaches on chromosomes 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 14, and 21. The remaining linkage paper compared the utility of several single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and microsatellite marker maps for Monte Carlo Markov chain combined oligogenic segregation and linkage analysis, and analyzed one of the electrophysiological endophenotypes, ttth1, on chromosome 7. Linkage was found with all marker sets. The last paper compared the multipoint IBD information content of several SNP sets and the microsatellite set, and found that while all SNP sets examined contained more information than the microsatellite set, most of the information contained in the SNP sets was captured by a subset of the SNP markers with approximately 1-cM marker spacing. From these papers, we highlight three points: a 1-cM SNP map seems to capture most of the linkage information, so denser maps do not appear necessary; careful and appropriate use of covariates can aid linkage analysis; and sources of increased gene-sharing between relatives

  6. Analysis of non-TIR NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs in Musa acuminata Colla: isolation, RFLP marker development, and physical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N G; Bertioli, David J; Baurens, Franc C; Santos, Candice M R; Alves, Paulo C; Martins, Natalia F; Togawa, Roberto C; Souza, Manoel T; Pappas, Georgios J

    2008-01-30

    Many commercial banana varieties lack sources of resistance to pests and diseases, as a consequence of sterility and narrow genetic background. Fertile wild relatives, by contrast, possess greater variability and represent potential sources of disease resistance genes (R-genes). The largest known family of plant R-genes encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for isolation of candidate genes in banana which may be involved in plant defence. A computational strategy was developed for unbiased conserved motif discovery in NBS and LRR domains in R-genes and homologues in monocotyledonous plant species. Degenerate PCR primers targeting conserved motifs were tested on the wild cultivar Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4, which is resistant to a number of fungal pathogens and nematodes. One hundred and seventy four resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were amplified and assembled into 52 contiguous sequences. Motifs present were typical of the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGA subfamily. A phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences for 33 RGAs with contiguous open reading frames (ORFs), together with RGAs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, grouped most Musa RGAs within monocotyledon-specific clades. RFLP-RGA markers were developed, with 12 displaying distinct polymorphisms in parentals and F1 progeny of a diploid M. acuminata mapping population. Eighty eight BAC clones were identified in M. acuminata Calcutta 4, M. acuminata Grande Naine, and M. balbisiana Pisang Klutuk Wulung BAC libraries when hybridized to two RGA probes. Multiple copy RGAs were common within BAC clones, potentially representing variation reservoirs for evolution of new R-gene specificities. This is the first large scale analysis of NBS-LRR RGAs in M. acuminata Calcutta 4. Contig sequences were deposited in GenBank and assigned numbers ER935972 - ER

  7. Analysis of non-TIR NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs in Musa acuminata Colla: Isolation, RFLP marker development, and physical mapping

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    Souza Manoel T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many commercial banana varieties lack sources of resistance to pests and diseases, as a consequence of sterility and narrow genetic background. Fertile wild relatives, by contrast, possess greater variability and represent potential sources of disease resistance genes (R-genes. The largest known family of plant R-genes encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for isolation of candidate genes in banana which may be involved in plant defence. Results A computational strategy was developed for unbiased conserved motif discovery in NBS and LRR domains in R-genes and homologues in monocotyledonous plant species. Degenerate PCR primers targeting conserved motifs were tested on the wild cultivar Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4, which is resistant to a number of fungal pathogens and nematodes. One hundred and seventy four resistance gene analogs (RGAs were amplified and assembled into 52 contiguous sequences. Motifs present were typical of the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGA subfamily. A phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences for 33 RGAs with contiguous open reading frames (ORFs, together with RGAs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, grouped most Musa RGAs within monocotyledon-specific clades. RFLP-RGA markers were developed, with 12 displaying distinct polymorphisms in parentals and F1 progeny of a diploid M. acuminata mapping population. Eighty eight BAC clones were identified in M. acuminata Calcutta 4, M. acuminata Grande Naine, and M. balbisiana Pisang Klutuk Wulung BAC libraries when hybridized to two RGA probes. Multiple copy RGAs were common within BAC clones, potentially representing variation reservoirs for evolution of new R-gene specificities. Conclusion This is the first large scale analysis of NBS-LRR RGAs in M. acuminata Calcutta 4. Contig sequences were

  8. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaszewski, Céline; Byrne, Stephen; Foito, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the principal forage grass species used in temperate agriculture. In recent years, significant efforts have been made to develop molecular marker strategies to allow cost-effective characterization of a large number of loci simultaneously. One such strategy involves using DAr......T markers, and a DArT array has recently been developed for the Lolium-Festuca complex. In this study, we report the first use of the DArTFest array to generate a genetic linkage map based on 326 markers in a Lolium perenne F2 population, consisting of 325 genotypes. For proof of concept, the map was used...

  9. Construction of an almond linkage map in an Australian population Nonpareil × Lauranne

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    Gibson John P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a high genetic similarity to peach, almonds (Prunus dulcis have a fleshless fruit and edible kernel, produced as a crop for human consumption. While the release of peach genome v1.0 provides an excellent opportunity for almond genetic and genomic studies, well-assessed segregating populations and the respective saturated genetic linkage maps lay the foundation for such studies to be completed in almond. Results Using an almond intraspecific cross between 'Nonpareil' and 'Lauranne' (N × L, we constructed a moderately saturated map with SSRs, SNPs, ISSRs and RAPDs. The N × L map covered 591.4 cM of the genome with 157 loci. The average marker distance of the map was 4.0 cM. The map displayed high synteny and colinearity with the Prunus T × E reference map in all eight linkage groups (G1-G8. The positions of 14 mapped gene-anchored SNPs corresponded approximately with the positions of homologous sequences in the peach genome v1.0. Analysis of Mendelian segregation ratios showed that 17.9% of markers had significantly skewed genotype ratios at the level of P ® 3 were compared, and their high degree of similarity was evident despite the positional inconsistency of a few markers. Conclusions We presented a moderately saturated Australian almond map, which is highly syntenic and collinear with the Prunus reference map and peach genome V1.0. Therefore, the well-assessed almond population reported here can be used to investigate the traits of interest under Australian growing conditions, and provides more information on the almond genome for the international community.

  10. Second-Generation Linkage Maps for the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Reveal Errors in Assembly of Genome Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecock, Dennis; Shin, Grace; Gracey, Andrew Y; Den Berg, David Van; Samanta, Manoj P

    2015-08-06

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a widely cultivated marine bivalve mollusc, is becoming a genetically and genomically enabled model for highly fecund marine metazoans with complex life-histories. A genome sequence is available for the Pacific oyster, as are first-generation, low-density, linkage and gene-centromere maps mostly constructed from microsatellite DNA makers. Here, higher density, second-generation, linkage maps are constructed from more than 1100 coding (exonic) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as 66 previously mapped microsatellite DNA markers, all typed in five families of Pacific oysters (nearly 172,000 genotypes). The map comprises 10 linkage groups, as expected, has an average total length of 588 cM, an average marker-spacing of 1.0 cM, and covers 86% of a genome estimated to be 616 cM. All but seven of the mapped SNPs map to 618 genome scaffolds; 260 scaffolds contain two or more mapped SNPs, but for 100 of these scaffolds (38.5%), the contained SNPs map to different linkage groups, suggesting widespread errors in scaffold assemblies. The 100 misassembled scaffolds are significantly longer than those that map to a single linkage group. On the genetic maps, marker orders and intermarker distances vary across families and mapping methods, owing to an abundance of markers segregating from only one parent, to widespread distortions of segregation ratios caused by early mortality, as previously observed for oysters, and to genotyping errors. Maps made from framework markers provide stronger support for marker orders and reasonable map lengths and are used to produce a consensus high-density linkage map containing 656 markers. Copyright © 2015 Hedgecock et al.

  11. SNP-Based Linkage Mapping for Validation of QTLs for Resistance to Ascochyta Blight in Lentil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheesh, Shimna; Rodda, Matthew S; Davidson, Jenny; Javid, Muhammad; Stephens, Amber; Slater, Anthony T; Cogan, Noel O I; Forster, John W; Kaur, Sukhjiwan

    2016-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, annual, cool-season, food legume crop that is cultivated throughout the world. Ascochyta blight (AB), caused by Ascochyta lentis Vassilievsky, is an economically important and widespread disease of lentil. Development of cultivars with high levels of durable resistance provides an environmentally acceptable and economically feasible method for AB control. A detailed understanding of the genetic basis of AB resistance is hence highly desirable, in order to obtain insight into the number and influence of resistance genes. Genetic linkage maps based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been developed from three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. The IH × NF map contained 460 loci across 1461.6 cM, while the IH × DIG map contained 329 loci across 1302.5 cM and the third map, NF × DIG contained 330 loci across 1914.1 cM. Data from these maps were combined with a map from a previously published study through use of bridging markers to generate a consensus linkage map containing 689 loci distributed across seven linkage groups (LGs), with a cumulative length of 2429.61 cM at an average density of one marker per 3.5 cM. Trait dissection of AB resistance was performed for the RIL populations, identifying totals of two and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) explaining 52 and 69% of phenotypic variation for resistance to infection in the IH × DIG and IH × NF populations, respectively. Presence of common markers in the vicinity of the AB_IH1- and AB_IH2.1/AB_IH2.2-containing regions on both maps supports the inference that a common genomic region is responsible for conferring resistance and is associated with the resistant parent, Indianhead. The third QTL was derived from Northfield. Evaluation of markers associated with AB resistance across a diverse lentil germplasm panel revealed that the identity of alleles associated with AB_IH1 predicted the

  12. SNP-based linkage mapping for validation of QTLs for resistance to ascochyta blight in lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimna Sudheesh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a self-pollinating, diploid, annual, cool-season, food legume crop that is cultivated throughout the world. Ascochyta blight (AB, caused by Ascochyta lentis Vassilievsky, is an economically important and widespread disease of lentil. Development of cultivars with high levels of durable resistance provides an environmentally acceptable and economically feasible method for AB control. A detailed understanding of the genetic basis of AB resistance is hence highly desirable, in order to obtain insight into the number and influence of resistance genes. Genetic linkage maps based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been developed from three recombinant inbred line (RIL populations. The IH x NF map contained 460 loci across 1461.6 cM, while the IH x DIG map contained 329 loci across 1302.5 cM and the third map, NF x DIG contained 330 loci across 1914.1 cM. Data from these maps were combined with a map from a previously published study through use of bridging markers to generate a consensus linkage map containing 689 loci distributed across 7 linkage groups (LGs, with a cumulative length of 2429.61 cM at an average density of one marker per 3.5 cM. Trait dissection of AB resistance was performed for the RIL populations, identifying totals of two and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs explaining 52% and 69% of phenotypic variation for resistance to infection in the IH x DIG and IH x NF populations, respectively. Presence of common markers in the vicinity of the AB_IH1- and AB_IH2.1/AB_IH2.2-containing regions on both maps supports the inference that a common genomic region is responsible for conferring resistance and is associated with the resistant parent, Indianhead. The third QTL was derived from Northfield. Evaluation of markers associated with AB resistance across a diverse lentil germplasm panel revealed that the identity of alleles associated with AB_IH1 predicted

  13. Genetic linkage map of a wild genome: genomic structure, recombination and sexual dimorphism in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The construction of genetic linkage maps in free-living populations is a promising tool for the study of evolution. However, such maps are rare because it is difficult to develop both wild pedigrees and corresponding sets of molecular markers that are sufficiently large. We took advantage of two long-term field studies of pedigreed individuals and genomic resources originally developed for domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to construct a linkage map for bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis. We then assessed variability in genomic structure and recombination rates between bighorn sheep populations and sheep species. Results Bighorn sheep population-specific maps differed slightly in contiguity but were otherwise very similar in terms of genomic structure and recombination rates. The joint analysis of the two pedigrees resulted in a highly contiguous map composed of 247 microsatellite markers distributed along all 26 autosomes and the X chromosome. The map is estimated to cover about 84% of the bighorn sheep genome and contains 240 unique positions spanning a sex-averaged distance of 3051 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 14.3 cM. Marker synteny, order, sex-averaged interval lengths and sex-averaged total map lengths were all very similar between sheep species. However, in contrast to domestic sheep, but consistent with the usual pattern for a placental mammal, recombination rates in bighorn sheep were significantly greater in females than in males (~12% difference), resulting in an autosomal female map of 3166 cM and an autosomal male map of 2831 cM. Despite differing genome-wide patterns of heterochiasmy between the sheep species, sexual dimorphism in recombination rates was correlated between orthologous intervals. Conclusions We have developed a first-generation bighorn sheep linkage map that will facilitate future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation in this species. While domestication has been hypothesized to be responsible for the

  14. A genetic linkage map of Sole (Solea solea): A tool for evolutionary and comparative analyses of exploited (flat)fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diopere, E; Maes, G.E; Komen, J; Volckaert, F.A.M; Groenen, M

    2014-01-01

    Linkage maps based on markers derived from genes are essential evolutionary tools for commercial marine fish to help identify genomic regions associated with complex traits and subject to selective...

  15. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L. A. Rich.

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    Rusama Marubodee

    Full Text Available Vigna vexillata (L. A. Rich. (tuber cowpea is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s source for V. unguiculata (cowpea, since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean, V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean. An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1 and susceptible (V5 accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits.

  16. LD-Spline: Mapping SNPs on genotyping platforms to genomic regions using patterns of linkage disequilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bush William S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene-centric analysis tools for genome-wide association study data are being developed both to annotate single locus statistics and to prioritize or group single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs prior to analysis. These approaches require knowledge about the relationships between SNPs on a genotyping platform and genes in the human genome. SNPs in the genome can represent broader genomic regions via linkage disequilibrium (LD, and population-specific patterns of LD can be exploited to generate a data-driven map of SNPs to genes. Methods In this study, we implemented LD-Spline, a database routine that defines the genomic boundaries a particular SNP represents using linkage disequilibrium statistics from the International HapMap Project. We compared the LD-Spline haplotype block partitioning approach to that of the four gamete rule and the Gabriel et al. approach using simulated data; in addition, we processed two commonly used genome-wide association study platforms. Results We illustrate that LD-Spline performs comparably to the four-gamete rule and the Gabriel et al. approach; however as a SNP-centric approach LD-Spline has the added benefit of systematically identifying a genomic boundary for each SNP, where the global block partitioning approaches may falter due to sampling variation in LD statistics. Conclusion LD-Spline is an integrated database routine that quickly and effectively defines the genomic region marked by a SNP using linkage disequilibrium, with a SNP-centric block definition algorithm.

  17. LD-spline: mapping SNPs on genotyping platforms to genomic regions using patterns of linkage disequilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, William S; Chen, Guanhua; Torstenson, Eric S; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2009-12-03

    Gene-centric analysis tools for genome-wide association study data are being developed both to annotate single locus statistics and to prioritize or group single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) prior to analysis. These approaches require knowledge about the relationships between SNPs on a genotyping platform and genes in the human genome. SNPs in the genome can represent broader genomic regions via linkage disequilibrium (LD), and population-specific patterns of LD can be exploited to generate a data-driven map of SNPs to genes. In this study, we implemented LD-Spline, a database routine that defines the genomic boundaries a particular SNP represents using linkage disequilibrium statistics from the International HapMap Project. We compared the LD-Spline haplotype block partitioning approach to that of the four gamete rule and the Gabriel et al. approach using simulated data; in addition, we processed two commonly used genome-wide association study platforms. We illustrate that LD-Spline performs comparably to the four-gamete rule and the Gabriel et al. approach; however as a SNP-centric approach LD-Spline has the added benefit of systematically identifying a genomic boundary for each SNP, where the global block partitioning approaches may falter due to sampling variation in LD statistics. LD-Spline is an integrated database routine that quickly and effectively defines the genomic region marked by a SNP using linkage disequilibrium, with a SNP-centric block definition algorithm.

  18. Linkage disequilibrium, genetic association mapping and gene localization in crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Sorkheh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based molecular markers have been extensively utilized for a variety of studies in both plant and animal systems. One of the major uses of these markers is the construction of genome-wide molecular maps and the genetic analysis of simple and complex traits. However, these studies are generally based on linkage analysis in mapping populations, thus placing serious limitations in using molecular markers for genetic analysis in a variety of plant populations. Therefore, alternative approach has been suggested, linkage disequilibrium-based association analysis which detects and locates quantitative trait loci (QTL by the strength of the correlation between a trait and a marker. Although association analysis has already been used for studies on genetics of complex traits in humans, its use in plants has newly started. In the present review, we describe what is known about variation in linkage disequilibrium (LD and summarize published results on association studies in crop plant species. We give a list of different factors affecting LD, and discuss the current issues of LD research in plants. Later, we also describe the various uses of LD in crop plants research and summarize the present status of LD researches in different plant genomes. Finally, future key issues about the application of these studies on the localization of genes in these crop plants have been also discussed.

  19. Integrated genome sequence and linkage map of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhou, Changpin; Cheng, Shifeng; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Yan; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xun; Huang, Ying; Song, Chi; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Nan; Zhang, Xudong; Fang, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-03-01

    The family Euphorbiaceae includes some of the most efficient biomass accumulators. Whole genome sequencing and the development of genetic maps of these species are important components in molecular breeding and genetic improvement. Here we report the draft genome of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant. The assembled genome has a total length of 320.5 Mbp and contains 27,172 putative protein-coding genes. We established a linkage map containing 1208 markers and anchored the genome assembly (81.7%) to this map to produce 11 pseudochromosomes. After gene family clustering, 15,268 families were identified, of which 13,887 existed in the castor bean genome. Analysis of the genome highlighted specific expansion and contraction of a number of gene families during the evolution of this species, including the ribosome-inactivating proteins and oil biosynthesis pathway enzymes. The genomic sequence and linkage map provide a valuable resource not only for fundamental and applied research on physic nut but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Genomewide Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Severe Bipolar Disorder in a Population Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophoff, Roel A.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Service, Susan K.; Spesny, Mitzi; Meshi, Dar B.; Poon, Wingman; Molina, Julio; Fournier, Eduardo; Gallegos, Alvaro; Mathews, Carol; Neylan, Thomas; Batki, Steven L.; Roche, Erin; Ramirez, Margarita; Silva, Sandra; De Mille, Melissa C.; Dong, Penny; Leon, Pedro E.; Reus, Victor I.; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2002-01-01

    Genomewide association studies may offer the best promise for genetic mapping of complex traits. Such studies in outbred populations require very densely spaced single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In recently founded population isolates, however, extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) may make these studies feasible with currently available sets of short tandem repeat markers, spaced at intervals as large as a few centimorgans. We report the results of a genomewide association study of severe bipolar disorder (BP-I), using patients from the isolated population of the central valley of Costa Rica. We observed LD with BP-I on several chromosomes; the most striking results were in proximal 8p, a region that has previously shown linkage to schizophrenia. This region could be important for severe psychiatric disorders, rather than for a specific phenotype. PMID:12119601

  1. Construction of High-Density Linkage Maps of Populus deltoides × P. simonii Using Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing.

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    Chunfa Tong

    Full Text Available Although numerous linkage maps have been constructed in the genus Populus, they are typically sparse and thus have limited applications due to low throughput of traditional molecular markers. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq technology allows us to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP across genomes of many individuals in a fast and cost-effective way, and makes it possible to construct high-density genetic linkage maps. We performed RADSeq for 299 progeny and their two parents in an F1 hybrid population generated by crossing the female Populus deltoides 'I-69' and male Populus simonii 'L3'. A total of 2,545 high quality SNP markers were obtained and two parent-specific linkage maps were constructed. The female genetic map contained 1601 SNPs and 20 linkage groups, spanning 4,249.12 cM of the genome with an average distance of 2.69 cM between adjacent markers, while the male map consisted of 940 SNPs and also 20 linkage groups with a total length of 3,816.24 cM and an average marker interval distance of 4.15 cM. Finally, our analysis revealed that synteny and collinearity are highly conserved between the parental linkage maps and the reference genome of P. trichocarpa. We demonstrated that RAD sequencing is a powerful technique capable of rapidly generating a large number of SNPs for constructing genetic maps in outbred forest trees. The high-quality linkage maps constructed here provided reliable genetic resources to facilitate locating quantitative trait loci (QTLs that control growth and wood quality traits in the hybrid population.

  2. Construction of High-Density Linkage Maps of Populus deltoides × P. simonii Using Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chunfa; Li, Huogen; Wang, Ying; Li, Xuran; Ou, Jiajia; Wang, Deyuan; Xu, Houxi; Ma, Chao; Lang, Xianye; Liu, Guangxin; Zhang, Bo; Shi, Jisen

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous linkage maps have been constructed in the genus Populus, they are typically sparse and thus have limited applications due to low throughput of traditional molecular markers. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) technology allows us to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across genomes of many individuals in a fast and cost-effective way, and makes it possible to construct high-density genetic linkage maps. We performed RADSeq for 299 progeny and their two parents in an F1 hybrid population generated by crossing the female Populus deltoides 'I-69' and male Populus simonii 'L3'. A total of 2,545 high quality SNP markers were obtained and two parent-specific linkage maps were constructed. The female genetic map contained 1601 SNPs and 20 linkage groups, spanning 4,249.12 cM of the genome with an average distance of 2.69 cM between adjacent markers, while the male map consisted of 940 SNPs and also 20 linkage groups with a total length of 3,816.24 cM and an average marker interval distance of 4.15 cM. Finally, our analysis revealed that synteny and collinearity are highly conserved between the parental linkage maps and the reference genome of P. trichocarpa. We demonstrated that RAD sequencing is a powerful technique capable of rapidly generating a large number of SNPs for constructing genetic maps in outbred forest trees. The high-quality linkage maps constructed here provided reliable genetic resources to facilitate locating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control growth and wood quality traits in the hybrid population.

  3. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The superior fiber properties of L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton ( L., but introgression from has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we constructed a linkage map and conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of 10 agronomic and fiber quality traits in a recombinant inbred mapping population derived from a cross between TM-1, an Upland cotton line, and NM24016, an elite line with stabilized introgression from . The linkage map consisted of 429 simple-sequence repeat (SSR and 412 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker loci that covered half of the tetraploid cotton genome. Notably, the 841 marker loci were unevenly distributed among the 26 chromosomes of tetraploid cotton. The 10 traits evaluated on the TM-1 × NM24016 population in a multienvironment trial were highly heritable, and most of the fiber traits showed considerable transgressive variation. Through the QTL analysis, we identified a total of 28 QTLs associated with the 10 traits. Our study provides a novel resource that can be used by breeders and geneticists for the genetic improvement of agronomic and fiber quality traits in Upland cotton.

  4. Construction of a microsatellite-based genetic linkage map for half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao SONG, Guidong MIAO, Yongwei ZHAO, Yuze NIU, Renyi PANG, Xiaolin LIAO, Changwei SHAO, Songlin CHEN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis is an important cultured marine fish and a promising model fish for the study of sex determination. Sex-specific genetic linkage maps of half-smooth tongue sole were developed with 567 markers (565 microsatellite markers and two SCAR markers. The parents and F1 progeny (92 individuals were used as segregating populations. The female map was composed of 480 markers in 21 linkage groups, covering a total of 1388.1 cM, with an average interval 3.06 cM between markers. The male map consisted of 417 markers in 21 linkage groups, spanning 1480.9 cM, with an average interval of 3.75 cM. The female and male maps had 474 and 416 unique positions, respectively. The genome length of half-smooth tongue sole was estimated to be 1522.9 cM for females and 1649.1cM for males. Based on estimations of map length, the female and male maps covered 91.1% and 89.8% of the genome, respectively. Furthermore, two female-specific SCAR markers, f-382 and f-783, were mapped on LG15f (linkage group 15 in female maps. The present study presents a mid-density genetic linkage map for half-smooth tongue sole. These improved genetic linkage maps may facilitate systematic genome searches to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL, such as disease resistance, growth and sex-related traits, and are very useful for marker-assisted selection breeding programs for economically important traits in half-smooth tongue sole [Current Zoology 59 (1: 99–108, 2013].

  5. Evolutionary Origins and Dynamics of Octoploid Strawberry Subgenomes Revealed by Dense Targeted Capture Linkage Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Liston, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Whole-genome duplications are radical evolutionary events that have driven speciation and adaptation in many taxa. Higher-order polyploids have complex histories often including interspecific hybridization and dynamic genomic changes. This chromosomal reshuffling is poorly understood for most polyploid species, despite their evolutionary and agricultural importance, due to the challenge of distinguishing homologous sequences from each other. Here, we use dense linkage maps generated with targeted sequence capture to improve the diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) reference genome and to disentangle the subgenomes of the wild octoploid progenitors of cultivated strawberry, Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis. Our novel approach, POLiMAPS (Phylogenetics Of Linkage-Map-Anchored Polyploid Subgenomes), leverages sequence reads to associate informative interhomeolog phylogenetic markers with linkage groups and reference genome positions. In contrast to a widely accepted model, we find that one of the four subgenomes originates with the diploid cytoplasm donor F. vesca, one with the diploid Fragaria iinumae, and two with an unknown ancestor close to F. iinumae. Extensive unidirectional introgression has converted F. iinumae-like subgenomes to be more F. vesca-like, but never the reverse, due either to homoploid hybridization in the F. iinumae-like diploid ancestors or else strong selection spreading F. vesca-like sequence among subgenomes through homeologous exchange. In addition, divergence between homeologous chromosomes has been substantially augmented by interchromosomal rearrangements. Our phylogenetic approach reveals novel aspects of the complicated web of genetic exchanges that occur during polyploid evolution and suggests a path forward for unraveling other agriculturally and ecologically important polyploid genomes. PMID:25477420

  6. Constructing a new integrated genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci for vegetative mycelium growth rate in Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying-Ying; Bian, Yin-Bing; Zhou, Yan; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Cheung, Man Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    The most saturated linkage map for Lentinula edodes to date was constructed based on a monokaryotic population of 146 single spore isolates (SSIs) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), insertion-deletion (InDel) markers, and the mating-type loci. Five hundred and twenty-four markers were located on 13 linkage groups (LGs). The map spanned a total length of 1006.1 cM, with an average marker spacing of 2.0 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was utilized to uncover the loci regulating and controlling the vegetative mycelium growth rate on various synthetic media, and complex medium for commercial cultivation of L. edodes. Two and 13 putative QTLs, identified respectively in the monokaryotic population and two testcross dikaryotic populations, were mapped on seven different LGs. Several vegetative mycelium growth rate-related QTLs uncovered here were clustered on LG4 (Qmgr1, Qdgr1, Qdgr2 and Qdgr9) and LG6 (Qdgr3, Qdgr4 and Qdgr5), implying the presence of main genomic areas responsible for growth rate regulation and control. The QTL hotspot region on LG4 was found to be in close proximity to the region containing the mating-type A (MAT-A) locus. Moreover, Qdgr2 on LG4 was detected on different media, contributing 8.07 %-23.71 % of the phenotypic variation. The present study provides essential information for QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in L. edodes. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. RFLP mapping of five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time in a winter x spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, D A; Pratchett, N; Snape, J W; Bezant, J H

    1995-06-01

    A genetic map of 92 RFLP loci and two storage protein loci was made using 94 doubled-haploid lines from a cross between the winter barley variety Igri and the spring variety Triumph. The markers were combined with data from two field experiments (one spring sown and one autumn (fall) sown) and a glasshouse experiment to locate a total of 13 genes (five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci (QTL)) controlling flowering time. Two photoperiod response genes were found; Ppd-H1 on chromosome 2(2H)S regulated flowering time under long days, while Ppd-H2 on chromosome 5(1H)L was detected only under short days. In the field experiments Ppd-H1 strongly affected flowering time from spring and autumn sowings, while Ppd-H2 was detected only in the autumn sowing. The glasshouse experiment also located two vernalization response genes, probably Sh and Sh2, on chromosomes 4(4H)L and 7(5H)L, respectively. The vernalization response genes had little effect on flowering time in the field. Variation in flowering time was also affected by nine additional genes, whose effects were not specifically dependent on photoperiod or vernalization. One was the denso dwarfing gene on chromosome 3(3H)L. The remaining eight were QTLs of smaller effect. One was located on chromosome 2(2H), one on 3(3H), one on 4(4H), one on 7(5H), two on 6(6H), and two on 1(7H). Model fitting showed that the 13 putative genes, and their interactions, could account for all the observed genetical variation from both spring and autumn sowings, giving a complete model for the control of flowering time in this cross.

  8. Genetic mapping of the gene for Usher syndrome: Linkage analysis in a large Samaritan kindred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonne-Tamir, B.; Korostishevsky, M.; Kalinsky, H.; Seroussi, E.; Beker, R.; Weiss, S. (Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Ramat-Aviv (Israel)); Godel, V. (Ichilov Hospital, Tel-Aviv (Israel))

    1994-03-01

    Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive disorders associated with congenital sensorineural deafness and progressive visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. Sixteen members of the small inbred Samaritan isolate with autosomal recessive deafness from 59 individuals including parents and affected and nonaffected sibs were typed for markers on chromosomes 1q and 11q for which linkage has recently been established for Usher syndrome types II and I. Statistically significant linkage was observed with four markers on 11q (D11S533, D11S527, OMP, and INT2) with a maximum six-point location score of 11.61 at the D11S533 locus. Analysis of haplotypes supports the notion that the mutation arose only once in an ancestral chromosome carrying a specific haplotype. The availability of markers closely linked to the disease locus allows indirect genotype analysis and identifies all carriers of the gene within the community. Furthermore, the detection of complete linkage disequilibrium between the D11S533 marker and the Usher gene suggests that these loci are either identical or adjacent and narrows the critical region to which physical mapping efforts are currently directed. 35 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Extensive recombination rate variation in the house mouse species complex inferred from genetic linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L; White, Michael A; Steffy, Brian; Wiltshire, Tim; Payseur, Bret A

    2011-01-01

    The rate of recombination is a key genomic parameter that displays considerable variation among taxa. Species comparisons have demonstrated that the rate of evolution in recombination rate is strongly dependent on the physical scale of measurement. Individual recombination hotspots are poorly conserved among closely related taxa, whereas genomic-scale recombination rate variation bears a strong signature of phylogenetic history. In contrast, the mode and tempo of evolution in recombination rates measured on intermediate physical scales is poorly understood. Here, we conduct a detailed statistical comparison between two whole-genome F₂ genetic linkage maps constructed from experimental intercrosses between closely related house mouse subspecies (Mus musculus). Our two maps profile a common wild-derived inbred strain of M. m. domesticus crossed to distinct wild-derived inbred strains representative of two other house mouse subspecies, M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus. We identify numerous orthologous genomic regions with significant map length differences between these two crosses. Because the genomes of these recently diverged house mice are highly collinear, observed differences in map length (centimorgans) are suggestive of variation in broadscale recombination rate (centimorgans per megabase) within M. musculus. Collectively, these divergent intervals span 19% of the house mouse genome, disproportionately aggregating on the X chromosome. In addition, we uncover strong statistical evidence for a large effect, sex-linked, site-specific modifier of recombination rate segregating within M. musculus. Our findings reveal considerable variation in the megabase-scale recombination landscape among recently diverged taxa and underscore the continued importance of genetic linkage maps in the post-genome era.

  10. Global similarity with local differences in linkage disequilibrium between the Dutch and HapMap-CEU populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardo, Luba; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; de Geus, Eco; Hottenga, Jouke J.; Sullivan, Patrick; Posthuma, Danielle; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Boomsma, Dorret; Heutink, Peter

    The HapMap project has facilitated the selection of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) under the assumption that linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the HapMap populations is similar to the populations under investigation. Earlier reports support

  11. A first AFLP-Based Genetic Linkage Map for Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana and Its Application in Mapping the Sex Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Stephanie; Bossier, Peter; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Vercauteren, Ilse; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2013-01-01

    We report on the construction of sex-specific linkage maps, the identification of sex-linked markers and the genome size estimation for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Overall, from the analysis of 433 AFLP markers segregating in a 112 full-sib family we identified 21 male and 22 female linkage groups (2n = 42), covering 1,041 and 1,313 cM respectively. Fifteen putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage map. Eight sex-linked AFLP marker alleles were inherited from the female parent, supporting the hypothesis of a WZ–ZZ sex-determining system. The haploid Artemia genome size was estimated to 0.93 Gb by flow cytometry. The produced Artemia linkage maps provide the basis for further fine mapping and exploring of the sex-determining region and are a possible marker resource for mapping genomic loci underlying phenotypic differences among Artemia species. PMID:23469207

  12. An Autotetraploid Linkage Map of Rose (Rosa hybrida) Validated Using the Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Genome Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gar, Oron; Sargent, Daniel J.; Tsai, Ching-Jung; Pleban, Tzili; Shalev, Gil; Byrne, David H.; Zamir, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28), where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC) and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG), we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM) and GG (616 cM) which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map. The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome. PMID:21647382

  13. Rapid genotyping by low-coverage resequencing to construct genetic linkage maps of fungi: a case study in Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Chun Hang; Cheung, Man Kit; Wong, Man Chun; Chu, Astley Kin Kan; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2013-08-02

    Genetic linkage maps are important tools in breeding programmes and quantitative trait analyses. Traditional molecular markers used for genotyping are limited in throughput and efficiency. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated progeny genotyping and genetic linkage map construction in the major grains. However, the applicability of the approach remains untested in the fungal system. Shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, is a basidiomycetous fungus that represents one of the most popular cultivated edible mushrooms. Here, we developed a rapid genotyping method based on low-coverage (~0.5 to 1.5-fold) whole-genome resequencing. We used the approach to genotype 20 single-spore isolates derived from L. edodes strain L54 and constructed the first high-density sequence-based genetic linkage map of L. edodes. The accuracy of the proposed genotyping method was verified experimentally with results from mating compatibility tests and PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism on a few known genes. The linkage map spanned a total genetic distance of 637.1 cM and contained 13 linkage groups. Two hundred sequence-based markers were placed on the map, with an average marker spacing of 3.4 cM. The accuracy of the map was confirmed by comparing with previous maps the locations of known genes such as matA and matB. We used the shiitake mushroom as an example to provide a proof-of-principle that low-coverage resequencing could allow rapid genotyping of basidiospore-derived progenies, which could in turn facilitate the construction of high-density genetic linkage maps of basidiomycetous fungi for quantitative trait analyses and improvement of genome assembly.

  14. Construction of a genetic linkage map and genetic analysis of domestication related traits in mungbean (Vigna radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehisa Isemura

    Full Text Available The genetic differences between mungbean and its presumed wild ancestor were analyzed for domestication related traits by QTL mapping. A genetic linkage map of mungbean was constructed using 430 SSR and EST-SSR markers from mungbean and its related species, and all these markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups spanning a total of 727.6 cM. The present mungbean map is the first map where the number of linkage groups coincided with the haploid chromosome number of mungbean. In total 105 QTLs and genes for 38 domestication related traits were identified. Compared with the situation in other Vigna crops, many linkage groups have played an important role in the domestication of mungbean. In particular the QTLs with high contribution were distributed on seven out of 11 linkage groups. In addition, a large number of QTLs with small contribution were found. The accumulation of many mutations with large and/or small contribution has contributed to the differentiation between wild and cultivated mungbean. The useful QTLs for seed size, pod dehiscence and pod maturity that have not been found in other Asian Vigna species were identified in mungbean, and these QTLs may play the important role as new gene resources for other Asian Vigna species. The results provide the foundation that will be useful for improvement of mungbean and related legumes.

  15. A Molecular Genetic Linkage Map of Eucommia ulmoides and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL Analysis for Growth Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucommia ulmoides is an economically important tree species for both herbal medicine and organic chemical industry. Effort to breed varieties with improved yield and quality is limited by the lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of the traits. A genetic linkage map of E. ulmoides was constructed from a full-sib family using sequence-related amplified polymorphism, amplified fragment length polymorphism, inter-simple sequence repeat and simple sequence repeat markers. In total, 706 markers were mapped in 25 linkage groups covering 2133 cM. The genetic linkage map covered approximately 89% of the estimated E. ulmoides genome with an average of 3.1 cM between adjacent markers. The present genetic linkage map was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting growth-related traits. Eighteen QTLs were found to explain 12.4%–33.3% of the phenotypic variance. This genetic linkage map provides a tool for marker-assisted selection and for studies of genome in E. ulmoides.

  16. Development of a SNP resource and a genetic linkage map for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%). 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26%) SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4%) of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620) were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141). Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141), we determined that 36% (51) are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64%) are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184) that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to quantitative trait

  17. Development of a SNP resource and a genetic linkage map for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Brent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%. 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26% SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4% of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620 were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141. Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141, we determined that 36% (51 are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64% are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184 that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to

  18. SNP markers-based map construction and genome-wide linkage analysis in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Harsh; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Diffey, Simon; Raman, Rosy; Alamery, Salman; Edwards, David; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-09-01

    An Illumina Infinium array comprising 5306 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was used to genotype 175 individuals of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between Skipton and Ag-Spectrum, two Australian cultivars of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). A genetic linkage map based on 613 SNP and 228 non-SNP (DArT, SSR, SRAP and candidate gene markers) covering 2514.8 cM was constructed and further utilized to identify loci associated with flowering time and resistance to blackleg, a disease caused by the fungus Leptosphaeria maculans. Comparison between genetic map positions of SNP markers and the sequenced Brassica rapa (A) and Brassica oleracea (C) genome scaffolds showed several genomic rearrangements in the B. napus genome. A major locus controlling resistance to L. maculans was identified at both seedling and adult plant stages on chromosome A07. QTL analyses revealed that up to 40.2% of genetic variation for flowering time was accounted for by loci having quantitative effects. Comparative mapping showed Arabidopsis and Brassica flowering genes such as Phytochrome A/D, Flowering Locus C and agamous-Like MADS box gene AGL1 map within marker intervals associated with flowering time in a DH population from Skipton/Ag-Spectrum. Genomic regions associated with flowering time and resistance to L. maculans had several SNP markers mapped within 10 cM. Our results suggest that SNP markers will be suitable for various applications such as trait introgression, comparative mapping and high-resolution mapping of loci in B. napus. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Genotyping-by-Sequencing derived High-Density Linkage Map and its Application to QTL Mapping of Flag Leaf Traits in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard red winter wheat parents ‘Harry’ (drought tolerant) and ‘Wesley’ (drought susceptible) was used to develop a recombinant inbred population to identify genomic regions associated with drought and adaptation. To precisely map genomic regions high-density linkage maps are a prerequisite. In this s...

  20. Construction and analysis of a high-density genetic linkage map in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wanxing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica oleracea encompass a family of vegetables and cabbage that are among the most widely cultivated crops. In 2009, the B. oleracea Genome Sequencing Project was launched using next generation sequencing technology. None of the available maps were detailed enough to anchor the sequence scaffolds for the Genome Sequencing Project. This report describes the development of a large number of SSR and SNP markers from the whole genome shotgun sequence data of B. oleracea, and the construction of a high-density genetic linkage map using a double haploid mapping population. Results The B. oleracea high-density genetic linkage map that was constructed includes 1,227 markers in nine linkage groups spanning a total of 1197.9 cM with an average of 0.98 cM between adjacent loci. There were 602 SSR markers and 625 SNP markers on the map. The chromosome with the highest number of markers (186 was C03, and the chromosome with smallest number of markers (99 was C09. Conclusions This first high-density map allowed the assembled scaffolds to be anchored to pseudochromosomes. The map also provides useful information for positional cloning, molecular breeding, and integration of information of genes and traits in B. oleracea. All the markers on the map will be transferable and could be used for the construction of other genetic maps.

  1. A RAD tag derived marker based eggplant linkage map and the location of QTLs determining anthocyanin pigmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Barchi

    Full Text Available Both inter- and intra-specific maps have been developed in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.. The former benefit from an enhanced frequency of marker polymorphism, but their relevance to marker-assisted crop breeding is limited. Combining the restriction-site associated DNA strategy with high throughput sequencing has facilitated the discovery of a large number of functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers discriminating between the two eggplant mapping population parental lines '305E40' and '67/3'. A set of 347 de novo SNPs, together with 84 anchoring markers, were applied to the F(2 mapping population bred from the cross '305E40' x '67/3' to construct a linkage map. In all, 415 of the 431 markers were assembled into twelve major and one minor linkage group, spanning 1,390 cM, and the inclusion of established markers allowed each linkage group to be assigned to one of the 12 eggplant chromosomes. The map was then used to discover the genetic basis of seven traits associated with anthocyanin content. Each of the traits proved to be controlled by between one and six quantitative trait loci (QTL, of which at least one was a major QTL. Exploitation of syntenic relationships between the eggplant and tomato genomes facilitated the identification of potential candidate genes for the eggplant QTLs related to anthocyanin accumulation. The intra-specific linkage map should have utility for elucidating the genetic basis of other phenotypic traits in eggplant.

  2. Construction of an integrated high density simple sequence repeat linkage map in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and its applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Sachiko N; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Mori, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yuko; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Fukami, Masanobu; Hashizume, Fujio; Tsuji, Tomoko; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Takahashi, Chika; Wada, Tsuyuko; Ono, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Nakazaki, Naomi; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Watanabe, Akiko; Tabata, Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) of the Rosaceae family whose genomic architecture is still controversial. Several recent studies support the AAA'A'BBB'B' model, but its complexity has hindered genetic and genomic analysis of this important crop. To overcome this difficulty and to assist genome-wide analysis of F. × ananassa, we constructed an integrated linkage map by organizing a total of 4474 of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers collected from published Fragaria sequences, including 3746 SSR markers [Fragaria vesca expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived SSR markers] derived from F. vesca ESTs, 603 markers (F. × ananassa EST-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa ESTs, and 125 markers (F. × ananassa transcriptome-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa transcripts. Along with the previously published SSR markers, these markers were mapped onto five parent-specific linkage maps derived from three mapping populations, which were then assembled into an integrated linkage map. The constructed map consists of 1856 loci in 28 linkage groups (LGs) that total 2364.1 cM in length. Macrosynteny at the chromosome level was observed between the LGs of F. × ananassa and the genome of F. vesca. Variety distinction on 129 F. × ananassa lines was demonstrated using 45 selected SSR markers.

  3. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Mamidi, Sujan; Ahsan, Rubina; Kianian, Shahryar F; Coyne, Clarice J; Hamama, Anwar A; Narina, Satya S; Bhardwaj, Harbans L

    2012-08-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and application as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47 %) and oil (6-13 %). It also has many secondary metabolites that are potentially of nutraceutical value to animals and humans. Despite such a great potential, lupins role in modern agriculture began only in the twentieth century. Although a large collection of Lupinus germplasm accessions is available worldwide, rarely have they been genetically characterized. Additionally, scarce genomic resources in terms of recombinant populations and genome information have been generated for L. albus. With the advancement in association mapping methods, the natural populations have the potential to replace the recombinant populations in gene mapping and marker-trait associations. Therefore, we studied the genetic similarity, population structure and marker-trait association in a USDA germplasm collection for their current and future application in this crop improvement. A total of 122 PI (Plant Inventory) lines were screened with 18 AFLP primer pairs that generated 2,277 fragments. A subset of 892 polymorphic markers with MAF >0.05 (minor allele frequency) were used for association mapping. The cluster analysis failed to group accessions on the basis of their passport information, and a weak structure and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) were observed indicating the usefulness of the collection for association mapping. Moreover, we were also able to identify two markers (a p value of 1.53 × 10(-4) and 2.3 × 10(-4)) that explained 22.69 and 20.5 % of seed weight variation determined using R (LR) (2) . The implications of lack of geographic clustering, population structure, low LD and the ability of AFLP to map seed weight trait using association mapping and the usefulness of the PI collections in breeding programs are discussed.

  4. PCR-RFLP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-30

    Mar 30, 2012 ... in Cymbidium Based on RAPD Markers and PCR-RFLP Analyses of · Organellar DNAs. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 33(2): 349-355. HEINZE B (2001). A data base for PCR primers in the chloroplast genome[DB]. http://bfw.ac.at/200/1859.html. Huang JC, Sun M (2000). Genetic diversity and relationships of ...

  5. Fine mapping analysis confirms and strengthens linkage of four chromosomal regions in familial hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderhäll, Cilla; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Thai, Hanh T T; Cao, Jia; Chen, Yougen; Zhang, Xufeng; Shulu, Zu; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Frisén, Louise; Roeleveld, Nel; Markljung, Ellen; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by including new families and additional markers using non-parametric linkage. The fine mapping analysis displayed an increased LOD score on chromosome 8q24.1 and 10p15 in altogether 82 families. On chromosome 10p15, with the highest LOD score, we further studied AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 involved in steroid metabolism, as well as KLF6 expressed in preputial tissue from hypospadias patients. Mutation analysis of the AKR1C3 gene showed a new mutation, c.643G>A (p.(Ala215Thr)), in a boy with penile hypospadias. This mutation is predicted to have an impact on protein function and structure and was not found in controls. Altogether, we homed in on four chromosomal regions likely to harbor genes for hypospadias. Future studies will aim for studying regulatory sequence variants in these regions. PMID:24986825

  6. Localization of the Laevigatum powdery mildew resistance gene to barley chromosome 2 by the use of RFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.; Holm-Jensen, A.G.; Jensen, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The powdery mildew disease resistance gene Ml(La) was found to belong to a locus on barely chromosome 2. We suggest that this locus be designated MlLa. Linkage analysis was carried out on 72 chromosome-doubled, spring-type progeny lines from a cross between the winter var 'Vogelsanger Gold' and t......' and the spring var 'Alf'. A map of chromosome 2 spanning 119 cM and flanked by two peroxidase gene loci was constructed. In addition to the Laevigatum resistance locus the map includes nine RFLP markers, the two peroxidase gene loci and the six-row locus in barley....

  7. An autotetraploid linkage map of rose (Rosa hybrida validated using the strawberry (Fragaria vesca genome sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oron Gar

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28, where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG, we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM and GG (616 cM which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map.The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome.

  8. SNP identification from RNA sequencing and linkage map construction of rubber tree for anchoring the draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, Jeremy R; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Naktang, Chaiwat; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis, or rubber tree, is an important crop species that accounts for the majority of natural latex production. The rubber tree nuclear genome consists of 18 chromosomes and is roughly 2.15 Gb. The current rubber tree reference genome assembly consists of 1,150,326 scaffolds ranging from 200 to 531,465 bp and totalling 1.1 Gb. Only 143 scaffolds, totalling 7.6 Mb, have been placed into linkage groups. We have performed RNA-seq on 6 varieties of rubber tree to identify SNPs and InDels and used this information to perform target sequence enrichment and high throughput sequencing to genotype a set of SNPs in 149 rubber tree offspring from a cross between RRIM 600 and RRII 105 rubber tree varieties. We used this information to generate a linkage map allowing for the anchoring of 24,424 contigs from 3,009 scaffolds, totalling 115 Mb or 10.4% of the published sequence, into 18 linkage groups. Each linkage group contains between 319 and 1367 SNPs, or 60 to 194 non-redundant marker positions, and ranges from 156 to 336 cM in length. This linkage map includes 20,143 of the 69,300 predicted genes from rubber tree and will be useful for mapping studies and improving the reference genome assembly.

  9. Rapid SNP discovery and a RAD-based high-density linkage map in jujube (Ziziphus Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Jian, Jianbo; Liu, Guannan; Wang, Jiurui; Lin, Minjuan; Ming, Yao; Liu, Zhiguo; Chen, Yingying; Liu, Xiuyun; Liu, Mengjun

    2014-01-01

    Ziziphus Mill. (jujube), the most valued genus of Rhamnaceae, comprises of a number of economically and ecologically important species such as Z. jujuba Mill., Z. acidojujuba Cheng et Liu and Z. mauritiana Lam. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and a high-density genetic map are of great benefit to the improvement of the crop, mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) and analyzing genome structure. However, such a high-density map is still absent in the genus Ziziphus and even the family Rhamnaceae. The recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) marker has been proven to be most powerful in genetic map construction. The objective of this study was to construct a high-density linkage map using the RAD tags generated by next generation sequencing. An interspecific F1 population and their parents (Z. jujuba Mill. 'JMS2' × Z. acidojujuba Cheng et Liu 'Xing 16') were genotyped using a mapping-by-sequencing approach, to generate RAD-based SNP markers. A total of 42,784 putative high quality SNPs were identified between the parents and 2,872 high-quality RAD markers were grouped in genetic maps. Of the 2,872 RAD markers, 1,307 were linked to the female genetic map, 1,336 to the male map, and 2,748 to the integrated map spanning 913.87 centi-morgans (cM) with an average marker interval of 0.34 cM. The integrated map contained 12 linkage groups (LGs), consistent with the haploid chromosome number of the two parents. We first generated a high-density genetic linkage map with 2,748 RAD markers for jujube and a large number of SNPs were also developed. It provides a useful tool for both marker-assisted breeding and a variety of genome investigations in jujube, such as sequence assembly, gene localization, QTL detection and genome structure comparison.

  10. Rapid SNP discovery and a RAD-based high-density linkage map in jujube (Ziziphus Mill..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ziziphus Mill. (jujube, the most valued genus of Rhamnaceae, comprises of a number of economically and ecologically important species such as Z. jujuba Mill., Z. acidojujuba Cheng et Liu and Z. mauritiana Lam. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers and a high-density genetic map are of great benefit to the improvement of the crop, mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL and analyzing genome structure. However, such a high-density map is still absent in the genus Ziziphus and even the family Rhamnaceae. The recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD marker has been proven to be most powerful in genetic map construction. The objective of this study was to construct a high-density linkage map using the RAD tags generated by next generation sequencing. RESULTS: An interspecific F1 population and their parents (Z. jujuba Mill. 'JMS2' × Z. acidojujuba Cheng et Liu 'Xing 16' were genotyped using a mapping-by-sequencing approach, to generate RAD-based SNP markers. A total of 42,784 putative high quality SNPs were identified between the parents and 2,872 high-quality RAD markers were grouped in genetic maps. Of the 2,872 RAD markers, 1,307 were linked to the female genetic map, 1,336 to the male map, and 2,748 to the integrated map spanning 913.87 centi-morgans (cM with an average marker interval of 0.34 cM. The integrated map contained 12 linkage groups (LGs, consistent with the haploid chromosome number of the two parents. CONCLUSION: We first generated a high-density genetic linkage map with 2,748 RAD markers for jujube and a large number of SNPs were also developed. It provides a useful tool for both marker-assisted breeding and a variety of genome investigations in jujube, such as sequence assembly, gene localization, QTL detection and genome structure comparison.

  11. A genetic linkage map of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) and the mapping of Ag(4) conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, Jill M; Bryant, Douglas W; Dossett, Michael; Vining, Kelly J; VanBuren, Robert; Gilmore, Barbara S; Lee, Jungmin; Mockler, Todd C; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V

    2015-08-01

    We have constructed a densely populated, saturated genetic linkage map of black raspberry and successfully placed a locus for aphid resistance. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a high-value crop in the Pacific Northwest of North America with an international marketplace. Few genetic resources are readily available and little improvement has been achieved through breeding efforts to address production challenges involved in growing this crop. Contributing to its lack of improvement is low genetic diversity in elite cultivars and an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity from wild germplasm. In the Pacific Northwest, where most production is centered, the current standard commercial cultivar is highly susceptible to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes, which is a vector for the Raspberry mosaic virus complex. Infection with the virus complex leads to a rapid decline in plant health resulting in field replacement after only 3-4 growing seasons. Sources of aphid resistance have been identified in wild germplasm and are used to develop mapping populations to study the inheritance of these valuable traits. We have constructed a genetic linkage map using single-nucleotide polymorphism and transferable (primarily simple sequence repeat) markers for F1 population ORUS 4305 consisting of 115 progeny that segregate for aphid resistance. Our linkage map of seven linkage groups representing the seven haploid chromosomes of black raspberry consists of 274 markers on the maternal map and 292 markers on the paternal map including a morphological locus for aphid resistance. This is the first linkage map of black raspberry and will aid in developing markers for marker-assisted breeding, comparative mapping with other Rubus species, and enhancing the black raspberry genome assembly.

  12. Cytogenetic characterization and AFLP-based genetic linkage mapping for the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, covering all 28 karyotyped chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen E Van't Hof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chromosome characteristics of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, have received little attention, despite the scientific importance of this species. This study presents the characterization of chromosomes in this species by means of cytogenetic analysis and linkage mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physical genomic features in the butterfly B. anynana were examined by karyotype analysis and construction of a linkage map. Lepidoptera possess a female heterogametic W-Z sex chromosome system. The WZ-bivalent in pachytene oocytes of B. anynana consists of an abnormally small, heterochromatic W-chromosome with the Z-chromosome wrapped around it. Accordingly, the W-body in interphase nuclei is much smaller than usual in Lepidoptera. This suggests an intermediate stage in the process of secondary loss of the W-chromosome to a ZZ/Z sex determination system. Two nucleoli are present in the pachytene stage associated with an autosome and the WZ-bivalent respectively. Chromosome counts confirmed a haploid number of n = 28. Linkage mapping had to take account of absence of crossing-over in females, and of our use of a full-sib crossing design. We developed a new method to determine and exclude the non-recombinant uninformative female inherited component in offspring. The linkage map was constructed using a novel approach that uses exclusively JOINMAP-software for Lepidoptera linkage mapping. This approach simplifies the mapping procedure, avoids over-estimation of mapping distance and increases the reliability of relative marker positions. A total of 347 AFLP markers, 9 microsatellites and one single-copy nuclear gene covered all 28 chromosomes, with a mapping distance of 1354 cM. Conserved synteny of Tpi on the Z-chromosome in Lepidoptera was confirmed for B. anynana. The results are discussed in relation to other mapping studies in Lepidoptera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study adds to the knowledge of chromosome structure and

  13. Linkage and association mapping of Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Brachi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is a key life-history trait in the plant life cycle. Most studies to unravel the genetics of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana have been performed under greenhouse conditions. Here, we describe a study about the genetics of flowering time that differs from previous studies in two important ways: first, we measure flowering time in a more complex and ecologically realistic environment; and, second, we combine the advantages of genome-wide association (GWA and traditional linkage (QTL mapping. Our experiments involved phenotyping nearly 20,000 plants over 2 winters under field conditions, including 184 worldwide natural accessions genotyped for 216,509 SNPs and 4,366 RILs derived from 13 independent crosses chosen to maximize genetic and phenotypic diversity. Based on a photothermal time model, the flowering time variation scored in our field experiment was poorly correlated with the flowering time variation previously obtained under greenhouse conditions, reinforcing previous demonstrations of the importance of genotype by environment interactions in A. thaliana and the need to study adaptive variation under natural conditions. The use of 4,366 RILs provides great power for dissecting the genetic architecture of flowering time in A. thaliana under our specific field conditions. We describe more than 60 additive QTLs, all with relatively small to medium effects and organized in 5 major clusters. We show that QTL mapping increases our power to distinguish true from false associations in GWA mapping. QTL mapping also permits the identification of false negatives, that is, causative SNPs that are lost when applying GWA methods that control for population structure. Major genes underpinning flowering time in the greenhouse were not associated with flowering time in this study. Instead, we found a prevalence of genes involved in the regulation of the plant circadian clock. Furthermore, we identified new genomic regions lacking

  14. An integrated genetic linkage map for silkworms with three parental combinations and its application to the mapping of single genes and QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldsmith Marian R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm, is a well-studied model insect with great economic and scientific significance. Although more than 400 mutations have been described in silkworms, most have not been identified, especially those affecting economically-important traits. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are effective and economical tools for mapping traits and genetic improvement. The current SSR linkage map is of low density and contains few polymorphisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a dense and informative linkage map that would assist in the preliminary mapping and dissection of quantitative trait loci (QTL in a variety of silkworm strains. Results Through an analysis of > 50,000 genotypes across new mapping populations, we constructed two new linkage maps covering 27 assigned chromosomes and merged the data with previously reported data sets. The integrated consensus map contains 692 unique SSR sites, improving the density from 6.3 cM in the previous map to 4.8 cM. We also developed 497 confirmed neighboring markers for corresponding low-polymorphism sites, with 244 having polymorphisms. Large-scale statistics on the SSR type were suggestive of highly efficient markers, based upon which we searched 16,462 available genomic scaffolds for SSR loci. With the newly constructed map, we mapped single-gene traits, the QTL of filaments, and a number of ribosomal protein genes. Conclusion The integrated map produced in this study is a highly efficient genetic tool for the high-throughput mapping of single genes and QTL. Compared to previous maps, the current map offers a greater number of markers and polymorphisms; thus, it may be used as a resource for marker-assisted breeding.

  15. Construction of integrated linkage map of a recombinant inbred line population of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipin, Cina Ann; Luckett, David J; Harper, John D I; Ash, Gavin J; Kilian, Andrzej; Ellwood, Simon R; Phan, Huyen T T; Raman, Harsh

    2013-09-01

    We report the development of a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) marker panel and its utilisation in the development of an integrated genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) using an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from Kiev Mutant/P27174. One hundred and thirty-six DArT markers were merged into the first genetic linkage map composed of 220 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 105 genic markers. The integrated map consists of 38 linkage groups of 441 markers and spans a total length of 2,169 cM, with an average interval size of 4.6 cM. The DArT markers exhibited good genome coverage and were associated with previously identified genic and AFLP markers linked with quantitative trait loci for anthracnose resistance, flowering time and alkaloid content. The improved genetic linkage map of white lupin will aid in the identification of markers for traits of interest and future syntenic studies.

  16. An integrated linkage map reveals candidate genes underlying adaptive variation in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mckinney, G. J.; Seeb, L. W.; Larson, W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonids are an important cultural and ecological resource exhibiting near worldwide distribution between their native and introduced range. Previous research has generated linkage maps and genomic resources for several species as well as genome assemblies for two species. We first leveraged imp...

  17. Construction of high resolution genetic linkage maps to improve the soybean genome sequence assembly Glyma1.01

    Science.gov (United States)

    A landmark in soybean research, Glyma1.01, the first whole genome sequence of variety Williams 82 (Glycine max L. Merr.) was completed in 2010 and is widely used. However, because the assembly was primarily built based on the linkage maps constructed with a limited number of markers and recombinant...

  18. Development of a high density integrated reference genetic linkage map for the multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Choi, Su Ryun; Van Nguyen, Dan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Yang, Hyeon Kook; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2010-11-01

    We constructed a high-density Brassica rapa integrated linkage map by combining a reference genetic map of 78 doubled haploid lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × Kenshin (CKDH) and a new map of 190 F2 lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × rapid cycling B. rapa (CRF2). The integrated map contains 1017 markers and covers 1262.0 cM of the B. rapa genome, with an average interlocus distance of 1.24 cM. High similarity of marker order and position was observed among the linkage groups of the maps with few short-distance inversions. In total, 155 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, anchored to 102 new bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and 146 intron polymorphic (IP) markers were mapped in the integrated map, which would be helpful to align the sequenced BACs in the ongoing multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP). Further, comparison of the B. rapa consensus map with the 10 B. juncea A-genome linkage groups by using 98 common IP markers showed high-degree colinearity between the A-genome linkage groups, except for few markers showing inversion or translocation. Suggesting that chromosomes are highly conserved between these Brassica species, although they evolved independently after divergence. The sequence information coming out of BrGSP would be useful for B. juncea breeding. and the identified Arabidopsis chromosomal blocks and known quantitative trait loci (QTL) information of B. juncea could be applied to improve other Brassica crops including B. rapa.

  19. Construction of a genetic linkage map of an interspecific diploid blueberry population and identification of QTL for chilling requirement and cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic linkage map has been constructed from an interspecific diploid blueberry population [(Vaccinium darrowii Fla4B x V. corymbosum W85-20) F1#10 x V. corymbosum W85-23] designed to segregate for cold hardiness and chilling requirement. The map is comprised of 12 linkage groups (equivalent to t...

  20. Linkage study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate using candidate genes and mapped polymorphic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.D.; Nelson, L.D.; Conner, B.J. [Univ. of Texas, Houston (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) involves fusion or growth failure of facial primordia during development. Complex segregation analysis of clefting populations suggest that an autosomal dominant gene may play a role in this common craniofacial disorder. We have ascertained 16 multigenerational families with CL(P) and tested linkage to 29 candidate genes and 139 mapped short tandem repeat markers. The candidate genes were selected based on their expression in craniofacial development or were identified through murine models. These include: TGF{alpha}, TGF{beta}1, TGF{beta}2, TGF{beta}3, EGF, EGFR, GRAS, cMyc, FGFR, Jun, JunB, PDFG{alpha}, PDGF{beta}, IGF2R, GCR Hox7, Hox8, Hox2B, twirler, 5 collagen and 3 extracellular matrix genes. Linkage was tested assuming an autosomal dominant model with sex-specific decreased penetrance. Linkage to all of the candidate loci was excluded in 11 families. RARA was tested and was not informative. However, haplotype analysis of markers flanking RARA on 17q allowed exclusion of this candidate locus. We have previously excluded linkage to 61 STR markers in 11 families. Seventy-eight mapped short tandem repeat markers have recently been tested in 16 families and 30 have been excluded. The remaining are being analyzed and an exclusion map is being developed based on the entire study results.

  1. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Foulongne-Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG, and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens.

  2. First-generation linkage map for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea) with utility in congeneric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Brelsford, Alan; Perrin, Nicolas

    2014-11-26

    Western Palearctic tree frogs (Hyla arborea group) represent a strong potential for evolutionary and conservation genetic research, so far underexploited due to limited molecular resources. New microsatellite markers have recently been developed for Hyla arborea, with high cross-species utility across the entire circum-Mediterranean radiation. Here we conduct sibship analyses to map available markers for use in future population genetic applications. We characterized eight linkage groups, including one sex-linked, all showing drastically reduced recombination in males compared to females, as previously documented in this species. Mapping of the new 15 markers to the ~200 My diverged Xenopus tropicalis genome suggests a generally conserved synteny with only one confirmed major chromosome rearrangement. The new microsatellites are representative of several chromosomes of H. arborea that are likely to be conserved across closely-related species. Our linkage map provides an important resource for genetic research in European Hylids, notably for studies of speciation, genome evolution and conservation.

  3. Development of SSR and gene-targeted markers for construction of a framework linkage map of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeen, Bhumika; Choudhary, Shalu; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2011-08-01

    Catharanthus roseus is a plant of great medicinal importance, yet inadequate knowledge of its genome structure and the unavailability of genomic resources have been major impediments in the development of improved varieties. The aims of this study were to develop co-dominant sequence-tagged microsatellite sites (STMS) and gene-targeted markers (GTMs) and utilize them for the construction of a framework intraspecific linkage map of C. roseus. For simple sequence repeat (SSR) isolation, a genomic library enriched for (GA)(n) repeats was constructed from C. roseus 'Nirmal' (CrN1). In addition, GTMs were also designed from 12 genes of the TIA (terpenoid indole alkaloid) pathway - the medicinally most significant pathway in C. roseus. An F(2) mapping population was also generated by crossing two diverse accessions of C. roseus CrN1 (Nirmal)×CrN82 (Kew). A new set of 314 STMS markers and 64 GTMs were developed in this study. A segregating F(2) mapping population consisting of 111 F(2) individuals was generated. For generating the linkage map, a set of 423 co-dominant markers (378 newly developed and 45 published earlier) were screened for polymorphism between the parental genotypes, of which 134 were identified to be polymorphic. A total of 114 markers were mapped on eight linkage groups that spanned a 632·7 cM region of the genome with an average marker distance of 5·55 cM. Further, the mechanism of hypervariability at the gene-targeted loci was investigated at the sequence level. For the first time, a large array of STMS markers and GTMs was generated in the model medicinal plant C. roseus. Moreover, the first microsatellite marker-based linkage map was described in this study. Together, these will serve as a foundation for future genomics studies related to quantitative trait loci analysis and molecular breeding in C. roseus.

  4. Development of F1 hybrid population and the high-density linkage map for European aspen (Populus tremula L.) using RADseq technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigunov, Anatoly V; Ulianich, Pavel S; Lebedeva, Marina V; Chang, Peter L; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Potokina, Elena K

    2017-11-14

    Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) technology was recently employed to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for linkage mapping of a North American and Eastern Asian Populus species. However, there is also the need for high-density genetic linkage maps for the European aspen (P. tremula) as a tool for further mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and marker-assisted selection of the Populus species native to Europe. We established a hybrid F1 population from the cross of two aspen parental genotypes diverged in their phenological and morphological traits. We performed RADseq of 122 F1 progenies and two parents yielding 15,732 high-quality SNPs that were successfully identified using the reference genome of P. trichocarpa. 2055 SNPs were employed for the construction of maternal and paternal linkage maps. The maternal linkage map was assembled with 1000 SNPs, containing 19 linkage groups and spanning 3054.9 cM of the genome, with an average distance of 3.05 cM between adjacent markers. The paternal map consisted of 1055 SNPs and the same number of linkage groups with a total length of 3090.56 cM and average interval distance of 2.93 cM. The linkage maps were employed for QTL mapping of one-year-old seedlings height variation. The most significant QTL (LOD = 5.73) was localized to LG5 (96.94 cM) of the male linkage map, explaining 18% of the phenotypic variation. The set of 15,732 SNPs polymorphic in aspen and high-density genetic linkage maps constructed for the P. tremula intra-specific cross will provide a valuable source for QTL mapping and identification of candidate genes facilitating marker-assisted selection in European aspen.

  5. Exploring a Nonmodel Teleost Genome Through RAD Sequencing—Linkage Mapping in Common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Tereza; Tsakogiannis, Alexandros; Taggart, John B.; Palaiokostas, Christos; Tsaparis, Dimitris; Lagnel, Jacques; Chatziplis, Dimitrios; Magoulas, Antonios; Papandroulakis, Nikos; Mylonas, Constantinos C.; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S.

    2015-01-01

    Common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) is a benthopelagic marine fish belonging to the teleost family Sparidae, and a newly recruited species in Mediterranean aquaculture. The paucity of genetic information relating to sparids, despite their growing economic value for aquaculture, provides the impetus for exploring the genomics of this fish group. Genomic tool development, such as genetic linkage maps provision, lays the groundwork for linking genotype to phenotype, allowing fine-mapping of loci responsible for beneficial traits. In this study, we applied ddRAD methodology to identify polymorphic markers in a full-sib family of common pandora. Employing the Illumina MiSeq platform, we sampled and sequenced a size-selected genomic fraction of 99 individuals, which led to the identification of 920 polymorphic loci. Downstream mapping analysis resulted in the construction of 24 robust linkage groups, corresponding to the karyotype of the species. The common pandora linkage map showed varying degrees of conserved synteny with four other teleost genomes, namely the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and medaka (Oryzias latipes), suggesting a conserved genomic evolution in Sparidae. Our work exploits the possibilities of genotyping by sequencing to gain novel insights into genome structure and evolution. Such information will boost the study of cultured species and will set the foundation for a deeper understanding of the complex evolutionary history of teleosts. PMID:26715088

  6. Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a-c, G2a-d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (Presistance were identified through association mapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt resistance in cotton.

  7. Confirmation and Fine Mapping of a Major QTL for Aflatoxin Resistance in Maize Using a Combination of Linkage and Association Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize grain contamination with aflatoxin from Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus is a serious health hazard to animals and humans. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with resistance to A. flavus, we employed a powerful approach that differs from previous methods in one important way: it combines the advantages of the genome-wide association analysis (GWAS and traditional linkage mapping analysis. Linkage mapping was performed using 228 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, and a highly significant QTL that affected aflatoxin accumulation, qAA8, was mapped. This QTL spanned approximately 7 centi-Morgan (cM on chromosome 8. The confidence interval was too large for positional cloning of the causal gene. To refine this QTL, GWAS was performed with 558,629 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in an association population comprising 437 maize inbred lines. Twenty-five significantly associated SNPs were identified, most of which co-localised with qAA8 and explained 6.7% to 26.8% of the phenotypic variation observed. Based on the rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD and the high density of SNPs in the association population, qAA8 was further localised to a smaller genomic region of approximately 1500 bp. A high-resolution map of the qAA8 region will be useful towards a marker-assisted selection (MAS of A. flavus resistance and a characterisation of the causal gene.

  8. The dopamine transporter protein gene (SLC6A3): Primary linage mapping and linkage studies in Tourette syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelernter, J.; Kruger, S.D.; Pakstis, A.J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)]|[West Haven Veterans Affairs Medical Center, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-10

    The dopamine transporter, the molecule responsible for presynaptic reuptake of dopamine and a major site of action of psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine, is encoded by locus SLC6A3 (alias DAT1). The protein`s actions and DAT`s specific localization to dopaminergic neurons make it a candidate gene for several psychiatric illnesses. SLC6A3 has been mapped to distal chromosome 5p, using physical methods. Genetic linkage methods were used to place SLC6A3 in the genetic linkage map. Four extended pedigrees (one of which overlaps with CEPH) were typed. Linkage with Tourette syndrome (TS) was also examined. SLC6A3 showed close linkage with several markers previously mapped to distal chromosome 5p, including D5S11 (Z{sub max} = 16.0, {theta}{sub M} = {theta}{sub F} = 0.03, results from four families) and D5S678 (Z{sub max} = 7.84, {theta}{sub M} = {theta}{sub F} = 0, results from two families). Observed crossovers established that SLC6A3 is a distal marker close to D5S10 and D5S678, but these three distal markers could not be ordered. Linkage between TS and SLC6A3 could be excluded independently in two branches of a large kindred segregating TS; the lod score in a third family was also negative, but not significant. Cumulative results show a lod score of -6.2 at {theta} = 0 and of -3.9 at {theta} = 0.05 (dominant model, narrow disease definition). SLC6A3 thus maps to distal chromosome 5p by linkage analysis, in agreement with previous physical mapping data. A mutation at SLC6A3 is not causative for TS in the two large families that generated significant negative lod scores (if the parameters of our analyses were correct) and is unlikely to be causative in the family that generated a negative lod score that did not reach significance. These results do not exclude a role for the dopamine transporter in influencing risk for TS in combination with other loci. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. A high-resolution linkage map of the achondroplasia critical region on human chromosome 4q16.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common nonlethal skeletal dysplasia, with an incidence of greater than 1/40,000 births. Recently, a random search of the genome using highly polymorphic autosomal markers has localized the gene for achondroplasia to the distal portion of human chromosome 4p. We report here the construction of a high-resolution linkage map of the critical region including the achondroplasia locus. The CEPH panel of pedigrees was genotyped at several loci using highly polymorphic markers, including the Huntington locus (IT15), D4S43, D4S115, and the gene for the {beta}-subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDEB). These data were incorporated into the CEPH v.6.6 database and a multipoint map was generated using the LINKAGE programs v.5.1. Based on reported recombination events in achondroplasia pedigrees, the gene for achondroplasia lies distal to the anonymous marker D4S43, in the 8 cM region defined as follows: cen-IT15-D4S43-D4S98-[D4S115-D4S111]-D4S90-PDEB. The disparity between the genetic distance and the physical distance (2 mB) among these markers likely reflects the high rate of recombination within the region. Extension of this linkage map further toward the telomere and identification of distal recombinant markers should expedite efforts directed toward isolation of the gene for achondroplasia.

  10. Construction of a high-density microsatellite genetic linkage map and mapping of sexual and growth-related traits in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Song

    Full Text Available High-density genetic linkage maps of half-smooth tongue sole were developed with 1007 microsatellite markers, two SCAR markers and an F1 family containing 94. The female map was composed of 828 markers in 21 linkage groups, covering a total of 1447.3 cM, with an average interval 1.83 cM between markers. The male map consisted of 794 markers in 21 linkage groups, spanning 1497.5 cM, with an average interval of 1.96 cM. The female and male maps had 812 and 785 unique positions, respectively. The genome length of half-smooth tongue sole was estimated to be 1527.7 cM for the females and 1582.1 cM for the males. Based on estimations of the map lengths, the female and male maps covered 94.74 and 94.65% of the genome, respectively. The consensus map was composed of 1007 microsatellite markers and two SCAR markers in 21 linkage groups, covering a total of 1624 cM with an average interval of 1.67 cM. Furthermore, 159 sex-linked SSR markers were identified. Five sex-linked microsatellite markers were confirmed in their association with sex in a large number of individuals selected from different families. These sex-linked markers were mapped on the female map LG1f with zero recombination. Two QTLs that were identified for body weight, designated as We-1 and We-2, accounted for 26.39% and 10.60% of the phenotypic variation. Two QTLs for body width, designated Wi-1 and Wi-2, were mapped in LG4f and accounted for 14.33% and 12.83% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Seven sex-related loci were mapped in LG1f, LG14f and LG1m by CIM, accounting for 12.5-25.2% of the trait variation. The results should prove to be very useful for improving growth traits using molecular MAS.

  11. A microsatellite-based linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis spp. and mapping of sex-determining loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes and is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater food fish. Mozambique tilapia and its hybrids, including red tilapia are main representatives of salt tolerant tilapias. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping QTL for important traits, positional cloning of genes and understanding of genome evolution. Results We constructed a consensus linkage map of Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia using 95 individuals from two F1 families and 401 microsatellites including 282 EST-derived markers. In addition, we conducted comparative mapping and searched for sex-determining loci on the whole genome. These 401 microsatellites were assigned to 22 linkage groups. The map spanned 1067.6 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 3.3 cM. Comparative mapping between tilapia and stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish revealed clear homologous relationships between chromosomes from different species. We found evidence for the fusion of two sets of two independent chromosomes forming two new chromosome pairs, leading to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex determination locus in Mozambique tilapia was mapped on LG1, and verified in five families containing 549 individuals. The major XY sex determination locus in red tilapia was located on LG22, and verified in two families containing 275 individuals. Conclusions A first-generation linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia was constructed using 401 microsatellites. Two separate fusions of two sets of two independent chromosomes may lead to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex-determining loci from Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia were mapped on LG1 and LG22, respectively. This map provides a useful resource for QTL mapping for important traits and comparative genome studies. The DNA markers linked to the sex

  12. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. I. A new male framework linkage map and QTL for growth rate and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attard Gina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A male sheep linkage map comprising 191 microsatellites was generated from a single family of 510 Awassi-Merino backcross progeny. Except for ovine chromosomes 1, 2, 10 and 17, all other chromosomes yielded a LOD score difference greater than 3.0 between the best and second-best map order. The map is on average 11% longer than the Sheep Linkage Map v4.7 male-specific map. This map was employed in quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses on body-weight and growth-rate traits between birth and 98 weeks of age. A custom maximum likelihood program was developed to map QTL in half-sib families for non-inbred strains (QTL-MLE and is freely available on request. The new analysis package offers the advantage of enabling QTL × fixed effect interactions to be included in the model. Fifty-four putative QTL were identified on nine chromosomes. Significant QTL with sex-specific effects (i.e. QTL × sex interaction in the range of 0.4 to 0.7 SD were found on ovine chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, 21, 23, 24 and 26.

  13. First interspecific genetic linkage map for Castanea sativa x Castanea crenata revealed QTLs for resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carmen; Nelson, Charles Dana; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Machado, Helena; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Costa, Rita Lourenço

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata) carries resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi, the destructive and widespread oomycete causing ink disease. The European chestnut (Castanea sativa), carrying little to no disease resistance, is currently threatened by the presence of the oomycete pathogen in forests, orchards and nurseries. Determining the genetic basis of P. cinnamomi resistance, for further selection of molecular markers and candidate genes, is a prominent issue for implementation of marker assisted selection in the breeding programs for resistance. In this study, the first interspecific genetic linkage map of C. sativa x C. crenata allowed the detection of QTLs for P. cinnamomi resistance. The genetic map was constructed using two independent, control-cross mapping populations. Chestnut populations were genotyped using 452 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism molecular markers derived from the available chestnut transcriptomes. The consensus genetic map spans 498,9 cM and contains 217 markers mapped with an average interval of 2.3 cM. For QTL analyses, the progression rate of P. cinnamomi lesions in excised shoots inoculated was used as the phenotypic metric. Using non-parametric and composite interval mapping approaches, two QTLs were identified for ink disease resistance, distributed in two linkage groups: E and K. The presence of QTLs located in linkage group E regarding P. cinnamomi resistance is consistent with a previous preliminary study developed in American x Chinese chestnut populations, suggesting the presence of common P. cinnamomi defense mechanisms across species. Results presented here extend the genomic resources of Castanea genus providing potential tools to assist the ongoing and future chestnut breeding programs.

  14. First interspecific genetic linkage map for Castanea sativa x Castanea crenata revealed QTLs for resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Santos

    Full Text Available The Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata carries resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi, the destructive and widespread oomycete causing ink disease. The European chestnut (Castanea sativa, carrying little to no disease resistance, is currently threatened by the presence of the oomycete pathogen in forests, orchards and nurseries. Determining the genetic basis of P. cinnamomi resistance, for further selection of molecular markers and candidate genes, is a prominent issue for implementation of marker assisted selection in the breeding programs for resistance. In this study, the first interspecific genetic linkage map of C. sativa x C. crenata allowed the detection of QTLs for P. cinnamomi resistance. The genetic map was constructed using two independent, control-cross mapping populations. Chestnut populations were genotyped using 452 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism molecular markers derived from the available chestnut transcriptomes. The consensus genetic map spans 498,9 cM and contains 217 markers mapped with an average interval of 2.3 cM. For QTL analyses, the progression rate of P. cinnamomi lesions in excised shoots inoculated was used as the phenotypic metric. Using non-parametric and composite interval mapping approaches, two QTLs were identified for ink disease resistance, distributed in two linkage groups: E and K. The presence of QTLs located in linkage group E regarding P. cinnamomi resistance is consistent with a previous preliminary study developed in American x Chinese chestnut populations, suggesting the presence of common P. cinnamomi defense mechanisms across species. Results presented here extend the genomic resources of Castanea genus providing potential tools to assist the ongoing and future chestnut breeding programs.

  15. Construction of a high density SNP linkage map of kelp (Saccharina japonica) by sequencing Taq I site associated DNA and mapping of a sex determining locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Linan; Tao, Ye; Guo, Li; Sun, Juan; Li, Xia; Zhao, Nan; Peng, Jie; Li, Xiaojie; Zeng, Liang; Chen, Jinsa; Yang, Guanpin

    2015-03-15

    Kelp (Saccharina japonica) has been intensively cultured in China for almost a century. Its genetic improvement is comparable with that of rice. However, the development of its molecular tools is extremely limited, thus its genes, genetics and genomics. Kelp performs an alternative life cycle during which sporophyte generation alternates with gametophyte generation. The gametophytes of kelp can be cloned and crossed. Due to these characteristics, kelp may serve as a reference for the biological and genetic studies of Volvox, mosses and ferns. We constructed a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage map for kelp by restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. In total, 4,994 SNP-containing physical (tag-defined) RAD loci were mapped on 31 linkage groups. The map expanded a total genetic distance of 1,782.75 cM, covering 98.66% of the expected (1,806.94 cM). The length of RAD tags (85 bp) was extended to 400-500 bp with Miseq method, offering us an easiness of developing SNP chips and shifting SNP genotyping to a high throughput track. The number of linkage groups was in accordance with the documented with cytological methods. In addition, we identified a set of microsatellites (99 in total) from the extended RAD tags. A gametophyte sex determining locus was mapped on linkage group 2 in a window about 9.0 cM in width, which was 2.66 cM up to marker_40567 and 6.42 cM down to marker_23595. A high density SNP linkage map was constructed for kelp, an intensively cultured brown alga in China. The RAD tags were also extended so that a SNP chip could be developed. In addition, a set of microsatellites were identified among mapped loci, and a gametophyte sex determining locus was mapped. This map will facilitate the genetic studies of kelp including for example the evaluation of germplasm and the decipherment of the genetic bases of economic traits.

  16. Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola. Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH. Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs, 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus. Conclusion The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species.

  17. Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola). Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS) were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH). Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs), 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus. Conclusion The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species. PMID:20969760

  18. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers has been assigned to map positions using eight different ryegrass mapping populations. Marker properties of a subset of 64 EST-SSRs were assessed in six to eight individuals of each mapping population and revealed 83% of the markers to be polymorphic in at least one population and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations served as anchor markers and allowed the construction of the first comprehensive consensus map for ryegrass. The integrated map was complemented with 97 SSRs from previously published linkage maps and finally contained 284 EST-derived and genomic SSR markers. The total map length was 742 centiMorgan (cM, ranging for individual chromosomes from 70 cM of linkage group (LG 6 to 171 cM of LG 2. Conclusions The consensus linkage map for ryegrass based on eight mapping populations and constructed using a large set of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well as comparative genetics and genomics within grass species.

  19. Inheritance and Linkage Map Positions of Genes Conferring Agromorphological Traits in Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopesh C. Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agromorphological traits have immense importance in breeding lentils for higher yield and stability. We studied the genetics and identified map positions of some important agro-morphological traits including days to 50% flowering, plant height, seed diameter, 100 seed weight, cotyledon color, and growth habit in Lens culinaris. Earlier developed RILs for stemphylium blight resistance (ILL-5888 × ILL-6002, contrasted for those agro-morphological traits, were used in our study. Three QTLs for days to 50% flowering were detected with additive and epistatic effects. One QTL for days to 50% flowering, QLG483 (QTL at linkage group 4 at 83 cM position, accounted for an estimated 20.2% of the variation, while QLG124 × QLG1352 and QLG484 × QLG138 accounted for 15.6% and 24.2% of the variation, respectively. Epistatic effects accounted for most of the variation in plant height, but the main effect of one QTL, QLG84, accounted for 15.3%. For seed diameter, three QTLs were detected, and one QTL, QLG482, accounted for 32.6% of the variation. For 100 seed weight, five QTLs were identified with significant additive effects and four with significant interaction effects. The main effect of one QTL, QLG482, also accounted for 17.5% of the variation in seed diameter. QLG482-83 which appears to affect days to 50% flowering, seed diameter, and 100 seed weight is flanked by RAPD markers, UBC 34 and UBC1. Growth habit and cotyledon color are controlled by single genes with prostrate dominant to erect and red cotyledon dominant to yellow. The QTL information presented here will assist in the selection of breeding lines for early maturity, upright growth habit, and improved seed quality.

  20. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn), little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI), expansion coefficient (EC), and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS), in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs), covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of popping. Conclusions

  1. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste-Lisbona Fernando J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn, little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI, expansion coefficient (EC, and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS, in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs, covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of

  2. Ultrahigh-density linkage map for cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. using a single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor Rubinstein

    Full Text Available Genotyping arrays are tools for high-throughput genotyping, which is beneficial in constructing saturated genetic maps and therefore high-resolution mapping of complex traits. Since the report of the first cucumber genome draft, genetic maps have been constructed mainly based on simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or on combinations of SSRs and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP. In this study, we developed the first cucumber genotyping array consisting of 32,864 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. These markers cover the cucumber genome with a median interval of ~2 Kb and have expected genotype calls in parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set. The training set was validated with Fluidigm technology and showed 96% concordance with the genotype calls in the parents/F1 hybridizations. Application of the genotyping array was illustrated by constructing a 598.7 cM genetic map based on a '9930' × 'Gy14' recombinant inbred line (RIL population comprised of 11,156 SNPs. Marker collinearity between the genetic map and reference genomes of the two parents was estimated at R2 = 0.97. We also used the array-derived genetic map to investigate chromosomal rearrangements, regional recombination rate, and specific regions with segregation distortions. Finally, 82% of the linkage-map bins were polymorphic in other cucumber variants, suggesting that the array can be applied for genotyping in other lines. The genotyping array presented here, together with the genotype calls of the parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set, should be a powerful tool in future studies with high-throughput cucumber genotyping. An ultrahigh-density linkage map constructed by this genotyping array on RIL population may be invaluable for assembly improvement, and for mapping important cucumber QTLs.

  3. Mapping Aboveground Biomass in the Amazon Basin: Exploring Sensors, Scales, and Strategies for Optimal Data Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. S.; Baccini, A.

    2013-05-01

    Information on the distribution and density of carbon in tropical forests is critical to decision-making on a host of globally significant issues ranging from climate stabilization and biodiversity conservation to poverty reduction and human health. Encouraged by recent progress at both the international and jurisdictional levels on the design of incentive-based policy mechanisms to compensate tropical nations for maintaining their forests intact, governments throughout the tropics are moving with urgency to implement robust national and sub-national forest monitoring systems for operationally tracking and reporting on changes in forest cover and associated carbon stocks. Monitoring systems will be required to produce results that are accurate, consistent, complete, transparent, and comparable at sub-national to pantropical scales, and satellite-based remote sensing supported by field observations is widely-accepted as the most objective and cost-effective solution. The effectiveness of any system for large-area forest monitoring will necessarily depend on the capacity of current and near-future Earth observation satellites to provide information that meets the requirements of developing monitoring protocols. However, important questions remain regarding the role that spatially explicit maps of aboveground biomass and carbon can play in IPCC-compliant forest monitoring systems, with the majority of these questions stemming from doubts about the inherit sensitivity of satellite data to aboveground forest biomass, confusion about the relationship between accuracy and resolution, and a general lack of guidance on optimal strategies for linking field reference and remote sensing data sources. Here we demonstrate the ability of a state-of-the-art satellite radar sensor, the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR, and a venerable optical platform, Landsat 5, to support large-area mapping of aboveground tropical woody biomass across a 153,000-km2 region in the southwestern Amazon

  4. A microsatellite linkage map for the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) suggests extensive regions of homozygosity in the genome that may have resulted from breeding and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, D J; Passey, T; Surbanovski, N; Lopez Girona, E; Kuchta, P; Davik, J; Harrison, R; Passey, A; Whitehouse, A B; Simpson, D W

    2012-05-01

    The linkage maps of the cultivated strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa (2n = 8x = 56) that have been reported to date have been developed predominantly from AFLPs, along with supplementation with transferrable microsatellite (SSR) markers. For the investigation of the inheritance of morphological characters in the cultivated strawberry and for the development of tools for marker-assisted breeding and selection, it is desirable to populate maps of the genome with an abundance of transferrable molecular markers such as microsatellites (SSRs) and gene-specific markers. Exploiting the recent release of the genome sequence of the diploid F. vesca, and the publication of an extensive number of polymorphic SSR markers for the genus Fragaria, we have extended the linkage map of the 'Redgauntlet' × 'Hapil' (RG × H) mapping population to include a further 330 loci, generated from 160 primer pairs, to create a linkage map for F. × ananassa containing 549 loci, 490 of which are transferrable SSR or gene-specific markers. The map covers 2140.3 cM in the expected 28 linkage groups for an integrated map (where one group is composed of two separate male and female maps), which represents an estimated 91% of the cultivated strawberry genome. Despite the relative saturation of the linkage map on the majority of linkage groups, regions of apparent extensive homozygosity were identified in the genomes of 'Redgauntlet' and 'Hapil' which may be indicative of allele fixation during the breeding and selection of modern F. × ananassa cultivars. The genomes of the octoploid and diploid Fragaria are largely collinear, but through comparison of mapped markers on the RG × H linkage map to their positions on the genome sequence of F. vesca, a number of inversions were identified that may have occurred before the polyploidisation event that led to the evolution of the modern octoploid strawberry species.

  5. A Genetic Linkage Map of Sole (Solea solea): A Tool for Evolutionary and Comparative Analyses of Exploited (Flat)Fishes: e115040

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eveline Diopere; Gregory E Maes; Hans Komen; Filip A M Volckaert; Martien A M Groenen

    2014-01-01

      Linkage maps based on markers derived from genes are essential evolutionary tools for commercial marine fish to help identify genomic regions associated with complex traits and subject to selective...

  6. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland; Muylle, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations served as anchor markers and allowed the construction of the first comprehensive consensus map for ryegrass. The integrated map was complemented with 97 SSRs from previously published linkage maps and finally contained...

  7. A comparative integrated gene-based linkage and locus ordering by linkage disequilibrium map for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David B; Jerry, Dean R; Khatkar, Mehar S; Raadsma, Herman W; Steen, Hein van der; Prochaska, Jeffrey; Forêt, Sylvain; Zenger, Kyall R

    2017-09-04

    The Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most farmed aquaculture species worldwide with global production exceeding 3 million tonnes annually. Litopenaeus vannamei has been the focus of many selective breeding programs aiming to improve growth and disease resistance. However, these have been based primarily on phenotypic measurements and omit potential gains by integrating genetic selection into existing breeding programs. Such integration of genetic information has been hindered by the limited available genomic resources, background genetic parameters and knowledge on the genetic architecture of commercial traits for L. vannamei. This study describes the development of a comprehensive set of genomic gene-based resources including the identification and validation of 234,452 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms in-silico, of which 8,967 high value SNPs were incorporated into a commercially available Illumina Infinium ShrimpLD-24 v1.0 genotyping array. A framework genetic linkage map was constructed and combined with locus ordering by disequilibrium methodology to generate an integrated genetic map containing 4,817 SNPs, which spanned a total of 4552.5 cM and covered an estimated 98.12% of the genome. These gene-based genomic resources will not only be valuable for identifying regions underlying important L. vannamei traits, but also as a foundational resource in comparative and genome assembly activities.

  8. Quantitative trait locus mapping under irrigated and drought treatments based on a novel genetic linkage map in mungbean (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyou; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Fan, Baojie; Cao, Zhimin; Su, Qiuzhu; Zhang, Zhixiao; Wang, Yan; Tian, Jing; Wang, Shumin

    2017-11-01

    A novel genetic linkage map was constructed using SSR markers and stable QTLs were identified for six drought tolerance related-traits using single-environment analysis under irrigation and drought treatments. Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important leguminous food crops. However, mungbean production is seriously constrained by drought. Isolation of drought-responsive genetic elements and marker-assisted selection breeding will benefit from the detection of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) for traits related to drought tolerance. In this study, we developed a full-coverage genetic linkage map based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from an intra-specific cross between two drought-resistant varieties. This novel map was anchored with 313 markers. The total map length was 1010.18 cM across 11 linkage groups, covering the entire genome of mungbean with a saturation of one marker every 3.23 cM. We subsequently detected 58 QTLs for plant height (PH), maximum leaf area (MLA), biomass (BM), relative water content, days to first flowering, and seed yield (Yield) and 5 for the drought tolerance index of 3 traits in irrigated and drought environments at 2 locations. Thirty-eight of these QTLs were consistently detected two or more times at similar linkage positions. Notably, qPH5A and qMLA2A were consistently identified in marker intervals from GMES5773 to MUS128 in LG05 and from Mchr11-34 to the HAAS_VR_1812 region in LG02 in four environments, contributing 6.40-20.06% and 6.97-7.94% of the observed phenotypic variation, respectively. None of these QTLs shared loci with previously identified drought-related loci from mungbean. The results of these analyses might facilitate the isolation of drought-related genes and help to clarify the mechanism of drought tolerance in mungbean.

  9. A saturated genetic linkage map of autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) developed using genotyping-by-sequencing is highly syntenous with the Medicago truncatula genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuehui; Wei, Yanling; Acharya, Ananta; Jiang, Qingzhen; Kang, Junmei; Brummer, E Charles

    2014-08-21

    A genetic linkage map is a valuable tool for quantitative trait locus mapping, map-based gene cloning, comparative mapping, and whole-genome assembly. Alfalfa, one of the most important forage crops in the world, is autotetraploid, allogamous, and highly heterozygous, characteristics that have impeded the construction of a high-density linkage map using traditional genetic marker systems. Using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), we constructed low-cost, reasonably high-density linkage maps for both maternal and paternal parental genomes of an autotetraploid alfalfa F1 population. The resulting maps contain 3591 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers on 64 linkage groups across both parents, with an average density of one marker per 1.5 and 1.0 cM for the maternal and paternal haplotype maps, respectively. Chromosome assignments were made based on homology of markers to the M. truncatula genome. Four linkage groups representing the four haplotypes of each alfalfa chromosome were assigned to each of the eight Medicago chromosomes in both the maternal and paternal parents. The alfalfa linkage groups were highly syntenous with M. truncatula, and clearly identified the known translocation between Chromosomes 4 and 8. In addition, a small inversion on Chromosome 1 was identified between M. truncatula and M. sativa. GBS enabled us to develop a saturated linkage map for alfalfa that greatly improved genome coverage relative to previous maps and that will facilitate investigation of genome structure. GBS could be used in breeding populations to accelerate molecular breeding in alfalfa. Copyright © 2014 Li et al.

  10. High density SNP and DArT-based genetic linkage maps of two closely related oil palm populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Siou Ting; Wong, Wei Chee; Wong, Choo Kien; Soh, Aik Chin; Kilian, Andrzej; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2017-12-06

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an outbreeding perennial tree crop with long breeding cycles, typically 12 years. Molecular marker technologies can greatly improve the breeding efficiency of oil palm. This study reports the first use of the DArTseq platform to genotype two closely related self-pollinated oil palm populations, namely AA0768 and AA0769 with 48 and 58 progeny respectively. Genetic maps were constructed using the DArT and SNP markers generated in combination with anchor SSR markers. Both maps consisted of 16 major independent linkage groups (2n = 2× = 32) with 1399 and 1466 mapped markers for the AA0768 and AA0769 populations, respectively, including the morphological trait "shell-thickness" (Sh). The map lengths were 1873.7 and 1720.6 cM with an average marker density of 1.34 and 1.17 cM, respectively. The integrated map was 1803.1 cM long with 2066 mapped markers and average marker density of 0.87 cM. A total of 82% of the DArTseq marker sequence tags identified a single site in the published genome sequence, suggesting preferential targeting of gene-rich regions by DArTseq markers. Map integration of higher density focused around the Sh region identified closely linked markers to the Sh, with D.15322 marker 0.24 cM away from the morphological trait and 5071 bp from the transcriptional start of the published SHELL gene. Identification of the Sh marker demonstrates the robustness of using the DArTseq platform to generate high density genetic maps of oil palm with good genome coverage. Both genetic maps and integrated maps will be useful for quantitative trait loci analysis of important yield traits as well as potentially assisting the anchoring of genetic maps to genomic sequences.

  11. Linkage Maps of a Mediterranean × Continental Tall Fescue Population and their Comparative Analysis with Other Poaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dierking

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasses belonging to the complex are important throughout the world in pasture and grassland agriculture. Tall fescue ( Schreb. is the predominant species in the United States, covering approximately 15 million ha. Tall fescue has distinctive morphotypes, two of which are Continental (summer active and Mediterranean (summer semidormant. This is the first report of a linkage map created for Mediterranean tall fescue, while updating the Continental map with additional simple sequence repeat and sequence-tagged site markers. Additionally, this is the first time that diversity arrays technology (DArT markers were used in the construction of a tall fescue map. The male parent (Continental, R43-64, map consisted of 594 markers arranged in 22 linkage groups (LGs and covered a total of 1577 cM. The female parent (Mediterranean, 103-2, map was shorter (1258 cM and consisted of only 208 markers arranged in 29 LGs. Marker densities for R43-64 and 103-2 were 2.65 and 6.08 cM per marker, respectively. When compared with the other Poaceae species, meadow fescue ( Huds., annual ryegrass ( Lam., perennial ryegrass ( L., (L. Beauv., and barley ( L., a total of 171 and 98 orthologous or homologous sequences, identified by DArT analysis, were identified in R43-64 and 103-2, respectively. By using genomic in situ hybridization, we aimed to identify potential progenitors of both morphotypes. However, no clear conclusion on genomic constitution was reached. These maps will aid in the search for quantitative trait loci of various traits as well as help define and distinguish genetic differences between the two morphotypes.

  12. In silico polymorphism analysis for the development of simple sequence repeat and transposon markers and construction of linkage map in cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirasawa Kenta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea is an autogamous allotetraploid legume (2n = 4x = 40 that is widely cultivated as a food and oil crop. More than 6,000 DNA markers have been developed in Arachis spp., but high-density linkage maps useful for genetics, genomics, and breeding have not been constructed due to extremely low genetic diversity. Polymorphic marker loci are useful for the construction of such high-density linkage maps. The present study used in silico analysis to develop simple sequence repeat-based and transposon-based markers. Results The use of in silico analysis increased the efficiency of polymorphic marker development by more than 3-fold. In total, 926 (34.2% of 2,702 markers showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the mapping population. Linkage analysis of the 926 markers along with 253 polymorphic markers selected from 4,449 published markers generated 21 linkage groups covering 2,166.4 cM with 1,114 loci. Based on the map thus produced, 23 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for 15 agronomical traits were detected. Another linkage map with 326 loci was also constructed and revealed a relationship between the genotypes of the FAD2 genes and the ratio of oleic/linoleic acid in peanut seed. Conclusions In silico analysis of polymorphisms increased the efficiency of polymorphic marker development, and contributed to the construction of high-density linkage maps in cultivated peanut. The resultant maps were applicable to QTL analysis. Marker subsets and linkage maps developed in this study should be useful for genetics, genomics, and breeding in Arachis. The data are available at the Kazusa DNA Marker Database (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp.

  13. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) R2R3-MYB transcription factors SNP identification, phylogenomic characterization, chromosome localization, and linkage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chuanfu; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N; Ma, Din-Pow; Scheffler, Brian E; Kohel, Russell J; Yu, John Z; Stelly, David M

    2008-05-01

    R2R3-MYB transcription factors of plants are involved in the regulation of trichome length and density. Several of them are differentially expressed during initiation and elongation of cotton fibers. We report sequence phylogenomic characterization of the six MYB genes, their chromosomal localization, and linkage mapping via SNP marker in AD-genome cotton (2n = 52). Phylogenetic grouping and comparison to At- and Dt-genome putative ancestral diploid species of allotetraploid cotton facilitated differentiation between genome-specific polymorphisms (GSPs) and marker-suitable locus-specific polymorphisms (LSPs). The SNP frequency averaged one per 77 bases overall, and one per 106 and 30 bases in coding and non-coding regions, respectively. SNP-based multivariate relationships conformed to independent evolution of the six MYB homoeologous loci in the four tetraploid species. Nucleotide diversity analysis indicated that the six MYB loci evolved more quickly in the Dt- than At-genome. The greater variation in the Dt-D genome comparisons than that in At-A genome comparisons showed no significant bias among synonymous substitution, non-synonymous substitution, and nucleotide change in non-coding regions. SNPs were concordantly mapped by deletion analysis and linkage mapping, which confirmed their value as candidate gene markers and indicated the reliability of the SNP discovery strategy in tetraploid cotton species. We consider that these SNPs may be useful for genetic dissection of economically important fiber and yield traits because of the role of these genes in fiber development.

  14. Floral Transcriptome Sequencing for SSR Marker Development and Linkage Map Construction in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wu, Li-Yun; Qi, Gui-Nian; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Qing-Mei; Liang, Jin-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species. PMID:24303059

  15. Construction of an ultrahigh-density genetic linkage map forJatropha curcasL. and identification of QTL for fruit yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Shengkui; Wen, Mingfu; Lu, Cheng; Sun, Yufang; Zou, Meiling; Wang, Wenquan

    2018-01-01

    As an important biofuel plant, the demand for higher yield Jatropha curcas L. is rapidly increasing. However, genetic analysis of Jatropha and molecular breeding for higher yield have been hampered by the limited number of molecular markers available. An ultrahigh-density linkage map for a Jatropha mapping population of 153 individuals was constructed and covered 1380.58 cM of the Jatropha genome, with average marker density of 0.403 cM. The genetic linkage map consisted of 3422 SNP and indel markers, which clustered into 11 linkage groups. With this map, 13 repeatable QTLs (reQTLs) for fruit yield traits were identified. Ten reQTLs, qNF - 1 , qNF - 2a , qNF - 2b , qNF - 2c , qNF - 3 , qNF - 4 , qNF - 6 , qNF - 7a , qNF - 7b and qNF - 8, that control the number of fruits (NF) mapped to LGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, whereas three reQTLs, qTWF - 1 , qTWF - 2 and qTWF - 3, that control the total weight of fruits (TWF) mapped to LGs 1, 2 and 3, respectively. It is interesting that there are two candidate critical genes, which may regulate Jatropha fruit yield. We also identified three pleiotropic reQTL pairs associated with both the NF and TWF traits. This study is the first to report an ultrahigh-density Jatropha genetic linkage map construction, and the markers used in this study showed great potential for QTL mapping. Thirteen fruit-yield reQTLs and two important candidate genes were identified based on this linkage map. This genetic linkage map will be a useful tool for the localization of other economically important QTLs and candidate genes for Jatropha .

  16. Assessing microsatellite linkage disequilibrium in wild, cultivated, and mapping populations of Theobroma cacao L and its impact on association mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the nonrandom association of alleles and loci within sets of genetic data and when measured over the genomes of a species can provide important indications for how future association analyses should proceed. This information can be advantageous especially for slow-gro...

  17. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.

    2009-01-01

    hybridization (FISH) and/or by means of human/dog/mink comparative homology. The average interval between markers is 8.5 cM and the linkage groups collectively span 1340 cM. In addition, 217 and 275 mink microsatellites have been placed on human and dog genomes, respectively. In conjunction with the existing...

  18. Linkage disequilibrium in inbred North African families allows fine genetic and physical mapping of triple A syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Rabia, S; Salomon, R; Pelet, A; Penet, C; Rotschild, A; de Laët, M H; Chaouachi, B; Hannachi, R; Bakiri, F; Brauner, R; Chaussain, J L; Munnich, A; Lyonnet, S

    2000-08-01

    Triple A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome, MIM No. 231550) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by ACTH-resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia of the cardia, and alacrimia. The triple A gene has been previously mapped to chromosome 12q13 in a maximum interval of 6 cM between loci D12S1629 and D12S312. Using linkage analysis in 12 triple A families, mostly originating from North Africa, we confirm that the disease locus maps to the 12q13 region (Zmax = 10.89 at theta = 0 for D12S1604) and suggest that triple A is a genetically homogeneous disorder. Recombination events as well as homozygosity for polymorphic markers enabled us to reduce the genetic interval to a 3.9 cM region. Moreover, total linkage disequilibrium was found at the D12S1604 locus between a rare allele and the mutant chromosomes in North African patients. Analysis of markers at five contiguous loci showed that most of the triple A chromosomes are derived from a single founder chromosome. As all markers are located in a 0 cM genetic interval and only allele 5 at the D12S1604 locus was conserved in mutant chromosomes, we speculate that the triple A mutation is due to an ancient Arabian founder effect that occurred before migration to North Africa. Since we also found linkage disequilibrium at D12S1604 in two patients from Southern Europe (France and Spain), the founder effect might well extend to other Mediterranean countries. Taking advantage of a YAC contig encompassing the triple A minimal physical region, the triple A gene was mapped to a 1.7 Mb DNA fragment accessible to gene cloning.

  19. Genome-wide linkage and association mapping identify susceptibility alleles in ABCC4 for Kawasaki disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, Chiea Chuen; Davila, Sonia; Shimizu, Chisato; Sheng, Stephanie; Matsubara, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Yasuo; Newburger, Jane W.; Baker, Annette; Burgner, David; Breunis, Willemijn; Kuijpers, Taco; Wright, Victoria J.; Levin, Michael; Hibberd, Martin L.; Burns, Jane C.; Baker, Annette L.; Rowley, Anne H.; Mason, Wilbert; Melish, Marian E.; Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Odam, Miranda; Christiansen, Frank; Goldwater, Paul; Curtis, Nigel; Palasanthiran, Pamela; Ziegler, John; Nissan, Michael; Nourse, Clare; Kuipers, Irene M.; Ottenkamp, Jaap J.; Geissler, Judy; Biezeveld, Maarten; Filippini, Luc; Ling, Ling; Brogan, Paul; Klein, Nigel; Shah, Vanita; Dillon, Michael; Booy, Robert; Shingadia, Delane; Bose, Anu; Mukasa, Thomas; Tulloh, Robert; Michie, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self limited vasculitis in which host genetics plays a prominent role. To further the understanding of the role of host genetics in KD, a three-stage genetic study was conducted that began with a family linkage study and ultimately involved more than 3000 individuals to

  20. Location of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis pathway and polyphenol oxidase genes in a new interspecific anchored linkage map of eggplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramazio, Pietro; Prohens, Jaime; Plazas, Mariola; Andújar, Isabel; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Castillo, Elena; Knapp, Sandra; Meyer, Rachel S; Vilanova, Santiago

    2014-12-10

    Eggplant is a powerful source of polyphenols which seems to play a key role in the prevention of several human diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. Chlorogenic acid is the polyphenol most present in eggplant, comprising between the 70% and 90% of the total polyphenol content. Introduction of the high chlorogenic acid content of wild relatives, such as S. incanum, into eggplant varieties will be of great interest. A potential side effect of the increased level polyphenols could be a decrease on apparent quality due to browning caused by the polyphenol oxidase enzymes mediated oxidation of polyphenols. We report the development of a new interspecific S. melongena × S. incanum linkage map based on a first backcross generation (BC1) towards the cultivated S. melongena as a tool for introgressing S. incanum alleles involved in the biosynthesis of chlorogenic acid in the genetic background of S. melongena. The interspecific genetic linkage map of eggplant developed in this work anchor the most informative previously published genetic maps of eggplant using common markers. The 91 BC1 plants of the mapping population were genotyped with 42 COSII, 99 SSRs, 88 AFLPs, 9 CAPS, 4 SNPs and one morphological polymorphic markers. Segregation marker data resulted in a map encompassing 1085 cM distributed in 12 linkage groups. Based on the syntheny with tomato, the candidate genes involved in the core chlorogenic acid synthesis pathway in eggplant (PAL, C4H, 4CL, HCT, C3'H, HQT) as well as five polyphenol oxidase (PPO1, PPO2, PPO3, PPO4, PPO5) were mapped. Except for 4CL and HCT chlorogenic acid genes were not linked. On the contrary, all PPO genes clustered together. Candidate genes important in domestication such as fruit shape (OVATE, SISUN1) and prickliness were also located. The achievements in location of candidate genes will allow the search of favorable alleles employing marker-assisted selection in order to develop new varieties with higher chlorogenic content

  1. The development of a high density linkage map for black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon based on cSNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Baranski

    Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq was performed on populations of black tiger shrimp from India. Samples were collected from (i four landing centres around the east coastline (EC of India, (ii survivors of a severe WSSV infection during pond culture (SUR and (iii the Andaman Islands (AI in the Bay of Bengal. Equal quantities of purified total RNA from homogenates of hepatopancreas, muscle, nervous tissue, intestinal tract, heart, gonad, gills, pleopod and lymphoid organs were combined to create AI, EC and SUR pools for RNA sequencing. De novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 136,223 contigs (minimum size 100 base pairs, bp with a total length 61 Mb, an average length of 446 bp and an average coverage of 163× across all pools. Approximately 16% of contigs were annotated with BLAST hit information and gene ontology annotations. A total of 473,620 putative SNPs/indels were identified. An Illumina iSelect genotyping array containing 6,000 SNPs was developed and used to genotype 1024 offspring belonging to seven full-sibling families. A total of 3959 SNPs were mapped to 44 linkage groups. The linkage groups consisted of between 16-129 and 13-130 markers, of length between 139-10.8 and 109.1-10.5 cM and with intervals averaging between 1.2 and 0.9 cM for the female and male maps respectively. The female map was 28% longer than the male map (4060 and 2917 cM respectively with a 1.6 higher recombination rate observed for female compared to male meioses. This approach has substantially increased expressed sequence and DNA marker resources for tiger shrimp and is a useful resource for QTL mapping and association studies for evolutionarily and commercially important traits.

  2. Linkage and Association Mapping for Two Major Traits Used in the Maritime Pine Breeding Program: Height Growth and Stem Straightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Bink, Marco Cam; van Heerwaarden, Joost; Chancerel, Emilie; Boury, Christophe; Lesur, Isabelle; Isik, Fikret; Bouffier, Laurent; Plomion, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Increasing our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits, through analyses of genotype-phenotype associations and of the genes/polymorphisms accounting for trait variation, is crucial, to improve the integration of molecular markers into forest tree breeding. In this study, two full-sib families and one breeding population of maritime pine were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for height growth and stem straightness, through linkage analysis (LA) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping approaches. The populations used for LA consisted of two unrelated three-generation full-sib families (n = 197 and n = 477). These populations were assessed for height growth or stem straightness and genotyped for 248 and 217 markers, respectively. The population used for LD mapping consisted of 661 founders of the first and second generations of the breeding program. This population was phenotyped for the same traits and genotyped for 2,498 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers corresponding to 1,652 gene loci. The gene-based reference genetic map of maritime pine was used to localize and compare the QTLs detected by the two approaches, for both traits. LA identified three QTLs for stem straightness and two QTLs for height growth. The LD study yielded seven significant associations (P ≤ 0.001): four for stem straightness and three for height growth. No colocalisation was found between QTLs identified by LA and SNPs detected by LD mapping for the same trait. This study provides the first comparison of LA and LD mapping approaches in maritime pine, highlighting the complementary nature of these two approaches for deciphering the genetic architecture of two mandatory traits of the breeding program.

  3. Linkage and Association Mapping for Two Major Traits Used in the Maritime Pine Breeding Program: Height Growth and Stem Straightness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bartholomé

    Full Text Available Increasing our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits, through analyses of genotype-phenotype associations and of the genes/polymorphisms accounting for trait variation, is crucial, to improve the integration of molecular markers into forest tree breeding. In this study, two full-sib families and one breeding population of maritime pine were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for height growth and stem straightness, through linkage analysis (LA and linkage disequilibrium (LD mapping approaches.The populations used for LA consisted of two unrelated three-generation full-sib families (n = 197 and n = 477. These populations were assessed for height growth or stem straightness and genotyped for 248 and 217 markers, respectively. The population used for LD mapping consisted of 661 founders of the first and second generations of the breeding program. This population was phenotyped for the same traits and genotyped for 2,498 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers corresponding to 1,652 gene loci. The gene-based reference genetic map of maritime pine was used to localize and compare the QTLs detected by the two approaches, for both traits. LA identified three QTLs for stem straightness and two QTLs for height growth. The LD study yielded seven significant associations (P ≤ 0.001: four for stem straightness and three for height growth. No colocalisation was found between QTLs identified by LA and SNPs detected by LD mapping for the same trait.This study provides the first comparison of LA and LD mapping approaches in maritime pine, highlighting the complementary nature of these two approaches for deciphering the genetic architecture of two mandatory traits of the breeding program.

  4. Construction of a high-density linkage map and fine mapping of QTLs for growth and gonad related traits in blunt snout bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shi-Ming; Liu, Hong; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Nie, Chun-Hong; Wang, Wei-Min; Gao, Ze-Xia

    2017-04-19

    High-density genetic maps based on SNPs are essential for fine mapping loci controlling specific traits for fish species. Using restriction-site associated DNA tag sequencing (RAD-Seq) technology, we identified 42,784 SNPs evenly distributed across the Megalobrama amblycephala genome. Based on 2 parents and 187 intra-specific hybridization progenies, a total of 14,648 high-confidence SNPs were assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs) of maternal and paternal map. The total length of the integrated map was 3,258.38 cM with an average distance of 0.57 cM among 5676 effective loci, thereby representing the first high-density genetic map reported for M. amblycephala. A total of eight positive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in QTL analysis. Of that, five QTL explained ≥35% of phenotypic variation for growth traits and three QTL explained ≥16% phenotypic variation for gonad related traits. A total of 176 mapped markers had significant hits in the zebrafish genome and almost all of the 24 putative-chromosomes of M. amblycephala were in relatively conserved synteny with chromosomes of zebrafish. Almost all M. amblycephala and zebrafish chromosomes had a 1:1 correspondence except for putative-chromosome 4, which mapped to two chromosomes of zebrafish caused by the difference in chromosome numbers between two species.

  5. Construction of a dense genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci for economic traits of a doubled haploid population of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Huang, Long; Ji, Dehua; Chen, Changsheng; Zheng, Hongkun; Xie, Chaotian

    2015-09-21

    Pyropia haitanensis is one of the most economically important mariculture crops in China. A high-density genetic map has not been published yet and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has not been undertaken for P. haitanensis because of a lack of sufficient molecular markers. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was developed recently for large-scale, high resolution de novo marker discovery and genotyping. In this study, SLAF-seq was used to obtain mass length polymorphic markers to construct a high-density genetic map for P. haitanensis. In total, 120.33 Gb of data containing 75.21 M pair-end reads was obtained after sequencing. The average coverage for each SLAF marker was 75.50-fold in the male parent, 74.02-fold in the female parent, and 6.14-fold average in each double haploid individual. In total, 188,982 SLAFs were detected, of which 6731 were length polymorphic SLAFs that could be used to construct a genetic map. The final map included 4550 length polymorphic markers that were combined into 740 bins on five linkage groups, with a length of 874.33 cM and an average distance of 1.18 cM between adjacent bins. This map was used for QTL mapping to identify chromosomal regions associated with six economically important traits: frond length, width, thickness, fresh weight, growth rates of frond length and growth rates of fresh weight. Fifteen QTLs were identified for these traits. The value of phenotypic variance explained by an individual QTL ranged from 9.59 to 16.61 %, and the confidence interval of each QTL ranged from 0.97 cM to 16.51 cM. The first high-density genetic linkage map for P. haitanensis was constructed, and fifteen QTLs associated with six economically important traits were identified. The results of this study not only provide a platform for gene and QTL fine mapping, map-based gene isolation, and molecular breeding for P. haitanensis, but will also serve as a reference for positioning sequence scaffolds on a physical

  6. Construction of a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Jomchai, Nukoon; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Yoocha, Thippawan; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Nirapathpongporn, Kanlaya; Romruensukharom, Phayao; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-01-01

    Construction of linkage maps is crucial for genetic studies and marker-assisted breeding programs. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies allow for the generation of high-density linkage maps, especially in non-model species lacking extensive genomic resources. Here, we constructed a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), the sole commercial producer of high-quality natural rubber. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to simultaneously discover and genotype single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in two rubber tree populations. A total of 21,353 single nucleotide substitutions were identified, 55% of which represented transition events. GBS-based genetic maps of populations P and C comprised 1704 and 1719 markers and encompassed 2041 cM and 1874 cM, respectively. The average marker densities of these two maps were one SNP in 1.23-1.25 cM. A total of 1114 shared SNP markers were used to merge the two component maps. An integrated linkage map consisted of 2321 markers and spanned the cumulative length of 2052 cM. The composite map showed a substantial improvement in marker density, with one SNP marker in every 0.89 cM. To our knowledge, this is the most saturated genetic map in rubber tree to date. This integrated map allowed us to anchor 28,965 contigs, covering 135 Mb or 12% of the published rubber tree genome. We demonstrated that GBS is a robust and cost-effective approach for generating a common set of genome-wide SNP data suitable for constructing integrated linkage maps from multiple populations in a highly heterozygous agricultural species.

  7. Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanaviciute Laima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2% were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8% were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2 cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7 cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8 cM/marker to 0.5 cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10 cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a

  8. GLIDERS - A web-based search engine for genome-wide linkage disequilibrium between HapMap SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broxholme John

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of tools for the examination of linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns between nearby alleles exist, but none are available for quickly and easily investigating LD at longer ranges (>500 kb. We have developed a web-based query tool (GLIDERS: Genome-wide LInkage DisEquilibrium Repository and Search engine that enables the retrieval of pairwise associations with r2 ≥ 0.3 across the human genome for any SNP genotyped within HapMap phase 2 and 3, regardless of distance between the markers. Description GLIDERS is an easy to use web tool that only requires the user to enter rs numbers of SNPs they want to retrieve genome-wide LD for (both nearby and long-range. The intuitive web interface handles both manual entry of SNP IDs as well as allowing users to upload files of SNP IDs. The user can limit the resulting inter SNP associations with easy to use menu options. These include MAF limit (5-45%, distance limits between SNPs (minimum and maximum, r2 (0.3 to 1, HapMap population sample (CEU, YRI and JPT+CHB combined and HapMap build/release. All resulting genome-wide inter-SNP associations are displayed on a single output page, which has a link to a downloadable tab delimited text file. Conclusion GLIDERS is a quick and easy way to retrieve genome-wide inter-SNP associations and to explore LD patterns for any number of SNPs of interest. GLIDERS can be useful in identifying SNPs with long-range LD. This can highlight mis-mapping or other potential association signal localisation problems.

  9. Genetic linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn Teare, M; Barrett, Jennifer H

    Linkage analysis is used to map genetic loci by use of observations of related individuals. We provide an introduction to methods commonly used to map loci that predispose to disease. Linkage analysis methods can be applied to both major gene disorders (parametric linkage) and complex diseases (model-free or non-parametric linkage). Evidence for linkage is most commonly expressed as a logarithm of the odds score. We provide a framework for interpretation of these scores and discuss the role of simulation in assessment of statistical significance and estimation of power. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity can also affect the success of a study, and several methods exist to address such problems.

  10. Genome-wide SNP identification, linkage map construction and QTL mapping for seed mineral concentrations and contents in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu; Coyne, Clarice J; Grusak, Michael A; Mazourek, Michael; Cheng, Peng; Main, Dorrie; McGee, Rebecca J

    2017-02-13

    Marker-assisted breeding is now routinely used in major crops to facilitate more efficient cultivar improvement. This has been significantly enabled by the use of next-generation sequencing technology to identify loci and markers associated with traits of interest. While rich in a range of nutritional components, such as protein, mineral nutrients, carbohydrates and several vitamins, pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, remains behind many other crops in the availability of genomic and genetic resources. To further improve mineral nutrient levels in pea seeds requires the development of genome-wide tools. The objectives of this research were to develop these tools by: identifying genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using genotyping by sequencing (GBS); constructing a high-density linkage map and comparative maps with other legumes, and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) for levels of boron, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorous, sulfur, and zinc in the seed, as well as for seed weight. In this study, 1609 high quality SNPs were found to be polymorphic between 'Kiflica' and 'Aragorn', two parents of an F6-derived recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Mapping 1683 markers including 75 previously published markers and 1608 SNPs developed from the present study generated a linkage map of size 1310.1 cM. Comparative mapping with other legumes demonstrated that the highest level of synteny was observed between pea and the genome of Medicago truncatula. QTL analysis of the RIL population across two locations revealed at least one QTL for each of the mineral nutrient traits. In total, 46 seed mineral concentration QTLs, 37 seed mineral content QTLs, and 6 seed weight QTLs were discovered. The QTLs explained from 2.4% to 43.3% of the phenotypic variance. The genome-wide SNPs and the genetic linkage map developed in this study permitted QTL identification for pea seed mineral

  11. Discrimination of candidate subgenome-specific loci by linkage map construction with an S1population of octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Soichiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2017-05-12

    The strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa, is an allo-octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) and outcrossing species. Although it is the most widely consumed berry crop in the world, its complex genome structure has hindered its genetic and genomic analysis, and thus discrimination of subgenome-specific loci among the homoeologous chromosomes is needed. In the present study, we identified candidate subgenome-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, and constructed a linkage map using an S 1 mapping population of the cultivar 'Reikou' with an IStraw90 Axiom® SNP array and previously published SSR markers. The 'Reikou' linkage map consisted of 11,574 loci (11,002 SNPs and 572 SSR loci) spanning 2816.5 cM of 31 linkage groups. The 11,574 loci were located on 4738 unique positions (bin) on the linkage map. Of the mapped loci, 8999 (8588 SNPs and 411 SSR loci) showed a 1:2:1 segregation ratio of AA:AB:BB allele, which suggested the possibility of deriving loci from candidate subgenome-specific sequences. In addition, 2575 loci (2414 SNPs and 161 SSR loci) showed a 3:1 segregation of AB:BB allele, indicating they were derived from homoeologous genomic sequences. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous linkage groups revealed differences in genome structure among the subgenomes. Our results suggest that candidate subgenome-specific loci are randomly located across the genomes, and that there are small- to large-scale structural variations among the subgenomes. The mapped SNPs and SSR loci on the linkage map are expected to be seed points for the construction of pseudomolecules in the octoploid strawberry.

  12. Construction of two genetic linkage maps in cultivated tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using microsatellite and AFLP markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julier, Bernadette; Flajoulot, Sandrine; Barre, Philippe; Cardinet, Gaëlle; Santoni, Sylvain; Huguet, Thierry; Huyghe, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a major forage crop. The genetic progress is slow in this legume species because of its autotetraploidy and allogamy. The genetic structure of this species makes the construction of genetic maps difficult. To reach this objective, and to be able to detect QTLs in segregating populations, we used the available codominant microsatellite markers (SSRs), most of them identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula from EST database. A genetic map was constructed with AFLP and SSR markers using specific mapping procedures for autotetraploids. The tetrasomic inheritance was analysed in an alfalfa mapping population. Results We have demonstrated that 80% of primer pairs defined on each side of SSR motifs in M. truncatula EST database amplify with the alfalfa DNA. Using a F1 mapping population of 168 individuals produced from the cross of 2 heterozygous parental plants from Magali and Mercedes cultivars, we obtained 599 AFLP markers and 107 SSR loci. All but 3 SSR loci showed a clear tetrasomic inheritance. For most of the SSR loci, the double-reduction was not significant. For the other loci no specific genotypes were produced, so the significant double-reduction could arise from segregation distortion. For each parent, the genetic map contained 8 groups of four homologous chromosomes. The lengths of the maps were 2649 and 3045 cM, with an average distance of 7.6 and 9.0 cM between markers, for Magali and Mercedes parents, respectively. Using only the SSR markers, we built a composite map covering 709 cM. Conclusions Compared to diploid alfalfa genetic maps, our maps cover about 88–100% of the genome and are close to saturation. The inheritance of the codominant markers (SSR) and the pattern of linkage repulsions between markers within each homology group are consistent with the hypothesis of a tetrasomic meiosis in alfalfa. Except for 2 out of 107 SSR markers, we found a similar order of markers on the chromosomes between the

  13. Toward allotetraploid cotton genome assembly: integration of a high-density molecular genetic linkage map with DNA sequence information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fiber and a significant oilseed crop. Decoding cotton genomes will provide the ultimate reference and resource for research and utilization of the species. Integration of high-density genetic maps with genomic sequence information will largely accelerate the process of whole-genome assembly in cotton. Results In this paper, we update a high-density interspecific genetic linkage map of allotetraploid cultivated cotton. An additional 1,167 marker loci have been added to our previously published map of 2,247 loci. Three new marker types, InDel (insertion-deletion and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism developed from gene information, and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism, were used to increase map density. The updated map consists of 3,414 loci in 26 linkage groups covering 3,667.62 cM with an average inter-locus distance of 1.08 cM. Furthermore, genome-wide sequence analysis was finished using 3,324 informative sequence-based markers and publicly-available Gossypium DNA sequence information. A total of 413,113 EST and 195 BAC sequences were physically anchored and clustered by 3,324 sequence-based markers. Of these, 14,243 ESTs and 188 BACs from different species of Gossypium were clustered and specifically anchored to the high-density genetic map. A total of 2,748 candidate unigenes from 2,111 ESTs clusters and 63 BACs were mined for functional annotation and classification. The 337 ESTs/genes related to fiber quality traits were integrated with 132 previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci, which demonstrated the important roles in fiber quality of these genes. Higher-level sequence conservation between different cotton species and between the A- and D-subgenomes in tetraploid cotton was found, indicating a common evolutionary origin for orthologous and paralogous loci in Gossypium. Conclusion This study will serve as a

  14. Toward allotetraploid cotton genome assembly: integration of a high-density molecular genetic linkage map with DNA sequence information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fiber and a significant oilseed crop. Decoding cotton genomes will provide the ultimate reference and resource for research and utilization of the species. Integration of high-density genetic maps with genomic sequence information will largely accelerate the process of whole-genome assembly in cotton. Results In this paper, we update a high-density interspecific genetic linkage map of allotetraploid cultivated cotton. An additional 1,167 marker loci have been added to our previously published map of 2,247 loci. Three new marker types, InDel (insertion-deletion) and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) developed from gene information, and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism), were used to increase map density. The updated map consists of 3,414 loci in 26 linkage groups covering 3,667.62 cM with an average inter-locus distance of 1.08 cM. Furthermore, genome-wide sequence analysis was finished using 3,324 informative sequence-based markers and publicly-available Gossypium DNA sequence information. A total of 413,113 EST and 195 BAC sequences were physically anchored and clustered by 3,324 sequence-based markers. Of these, 14,243 ESTs and 188 BACs from different species of Gossypium were clustered and specifically anchored to the high-density genetic map. A total of 2,748 candidate unigenes from 2,111 ESTs clusters and 63 BACs were mined for functional annotation and classification. The 337 ESTs/genes related to fiber quality traits were integrated with 132 previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci, which demonstrated the important roles in fiber quality of these genes. Higher-level sequence conservation between different cotton species and between the A- and D-subgenomes in tetraploid cotton was found, indicating a common evolutionary origin for orthologous and paralogous loci in Gossypium. Conclusion This study will serve as a valuable genomic resource

  15. Global similarity with local differences in linkage disequilibrium between the Dutch and HapMap-CEU populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Luba; Bochdanovits, Zoltán; de Geus, Eco; Hottenga, Jouke J; Sullivan, Patrick; Posthuma, Danielle; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret; Heutink, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The HapMap project has facilitated the selection of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) under the assumption that linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the HapMap populations is similar to the populations under investigation. Earlier reports support this assumption, although in most of these studies only a few loci were evaluated. We compared pair-wise LD and LD block structure across autosomes between the Dutch population and the CEU-HapMap reference panel. The impact of sampling distribution on the estimation of LD blocks was studied by bootstrapping. A high Pearson correlation (genome-wide; 0.93) between pair-wise r(2) for the Dutch and the CEU populations was found, indicating that tagSNPs from the CEU-HapMap panel capture common variation in the Dutch population. However, some genomic regions exhibited, significantly lower correlation than the genome-wide estimate. This might decrease the validity of HapMap tagSNPs in these regions and the power of GWAS. The LD block structure differed considerably between the Dutch and CEU-HapMap populations. This was not explained by demographic differences between the CEU and Dutch samples, as testing for population stratification was not significant. We also found that sampling variation had a large effect on the estimation of LD blocks, as shown by the bootstrapping analysis. Thus, in small samples, most of the observed differences in LD blocks between populations are most likely the result of sampling variation. This poor concordance in LD block structure suggests that large samples are required for robust estimations of local LD block structure in populations.

  16. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoquet, Philippe; Ghérardi, Michele; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Kereszt, Attila; Ané, Jean-Michel; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Huguet, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315) on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM) and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16). Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa), implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant. PMID:11825338

  17. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ané Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315 on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16. Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa, implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant.

  18. A microsatellite-based consensus linkage map for species of Eucalyptus and a novel set of 230 microsatellite markers for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Emlyn R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalypts are the most widely planted hardwood trees in the world occupying globally more than 18 million hectares as an important source of carbon neutral renewable energy and raw material for pulp, paper and solid wood. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs in Eucalyptus have been localized on pedigree-specific RAPD or AFLP maps seriously limiting the value of such QTL mapping efforts for molecular breeding. The availability of a genus-wide genetic map with transferable microsatellite markers has become a must for the effective advancement of genomic undertakings. This report describes the development of a novel set of 230 EMBRA microsatellites, the construction of the first comprehensive microsatellite-based consensus linkage map for Eucalyptus and the consolidation of existing linkage information for other microsatellites and candidate genes mapped in other species of the genus. Results The consensus map covers ~90% of the recombining genome of Eucalyptus, involves 234 mapped EMBRA loci on 11 linkage groups, an observed length of 1,568 cM and a mean distance between markers of 8.4 cM. A compilation of all microsatellite linkage information published in Eucalyptus allowed us to establish the homology among linkage groups between this consensus map and other maps published for E. globulus. Comparative mapping analyses also resulted in the linkage group assignment of other 41 microsatellites derived from other Eucalyptus species as well as candidate genes and QTLs for wood and flowering traits published in the literature. This report significantly increases the availability of microsatellite markers and mapping information for species of Eucalyptus and corroborates the high conservation of microsatellite flanking sequences and locus ordering between species of the genus. Conclusion This work represents an important step forward for Eucalyptus comparative genomics, opening stimulating perspectives for evolutionary studies and

  19. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Paul Khajuria

    Full Text Available The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777 of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%, experimental validation success rate (81% and polymorphic potential (55% of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48% detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%. An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777 having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped

  20. SNP identification, linkage and radiation hybrid mapping of the porcine lamin A/C (LMNA) gene to chromosome 4q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenknecht, D; Stratil, A; Bartenschlager, H; Van Poucke, M; Peelman, L J; Majzlík, I; Geldermann, H

    2006-08-01

    The lamins are components of nuclear lamina and they have a profound influence on nuclear structure and functions. They are encoded by three genes, LMNA, LMNB1 and LMNB2. A genomic fragment of the porcine LMNA gene (822 bp; from exons 7 to 9) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and comparatively sequenced. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in intronic sequences: G162A, G208A, T367G and C618T. The SNPs are within the restriction sites for enzymes Bsh1236I, HpaII, AluI and Bsh1236I respectively. Allele frequencies at SNPs G208A, T367G and C618T were determined by using eight pig breeds. Linkage analysis in the Hohenheim Meishan x Piétrain family placed the LMNA gene in the chromosome 4q linkage group, between MEF2D and GBA (MEF2D - 3.0 cM - LMNA - 0.2 cM - GBA). In radiation hybrid mapping LMNA was most significantly linked to SW270 on chromosome 4 (39 cR; LOD = 7.86). The LMNA gene is located in the quantitative trait loci region for some carcass traits on chromosome 4q.

  1. Family-based linkage and association mapping reveals novel genes affecting Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagny, Gaëlle; Paulstephenraj, Pauline S; Poque, Sylvain; Sicard, Ophélie; Cosson, Patrick; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Caballero, Mélodie; Chague, Aurélie; Gourdon, Germain; Negrel, Lise; Candresse, Thierry; Mariette, Stéphanie; Decroocq, Véronique

    2012-11-01

    Sharka is a devastating viral disease caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees and few sources of resistance are known in its natural hosts. Since any knowledge gained from Arabidopsis on plant virus susceptibility factors is likely to be transferable to crop species, Arabidopsis's natural variation was searched for host factors essential for PPV infection. To locate regions of the genome associated with susceptibility to PPV, linkage analysis was performed on six biparental populations as well as on multiparental lines. To refine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, a genome-wide association analysis was carried out using 147 Arabidopsis accessions. Evidence was found for linkage on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5 with restriction of PPV long-distance movement. The most relevant signals occurred within a region at the bottom of chromosome 3, which comprises seven RTM3-like TRAF domain-containing genes. Since the resistance mechanism analyzed here is recessive and the rtm3 knockout mutant is susceptible to PPV infection, it suggests that other gene(s) present in the small identified region encompassing RTM3 are necessary for PPV long-distance movement. In consequence, we report here the occurrence of host factor(s) that are indispensable for virus long-distance movement. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Examination of X chromosome markers in Rett syndrome: Exclusion mapping with a novel variation on multilocus linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, K.A.; Fill, C.P. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Terwililger, J.; Percy, A.K.; Zobhbi, H. (Columbia University, NY (United States)); DeGennaro, L.J.; Ott, J. (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (United States)); Anvret, M.; Martin-Gallardo, A. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurologic disorder characterized by early normal development followed by regression, acquired deceleration of head growth, autism, ataxia, and sterotypic hand movements. The exclusive occurrence of the syndrome in females and the occurrence of a few familial cases with inheritance through maternal lines suggest that this disorder is most likely secondary to a mutation on the X chromosome. To address this hypothesis and to identify candidate regions for the Rett syndrome gene locus, genotypic analysis was performed in two families with maternally related affected half-sisters by using 63 DNA markers from the X chromosome. Nineteen of the loci studied were chosen for multipoint linkage analysis because they have been previously genetically mapped using a large number of meioses from reference families. Using the exclusion criterion of a lod score less than [minus]2, the authors were able to exclude the region between the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus and the DXS456 locus. This region extends from Xp21.2 to Xq21-q23. The use of the multipoint linkage analysis approach outlined in this study should allow the exclusion of additional regions of the X chromosome as new markers are analyzed.

  3. Linkage Effects and Analysis of Finite Sample Errors in the HapMap

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitlen, Noah; Min Kang, Hyun; Eskin, Eleazar

    2009-01-01

    The HapMap provides a valuable resource to help uncover genetic variants of important complex phenotypes such as disease risk and outcome. Using the HapMap we can infer the patterns of LD within different human populations. This is a critical step for determining which SNPs to genotype as part of a study, estimating study power, designing a follow-up study to identify the causal ...

  4. CEPH viewer: A client-server database to browse and manipulate CEPH physical mapping and linkage data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, P.M.; Bray-Ward, P. [Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    1995-01-01

    With their announcement of the first high-level physical map of the human genome, the Center for Study of Human Polymorphisms (CEPH) made the supporting data on the clones in their mega-YAC library and their linkage markers publicly available through anonymous ftp. Individual researchers as well as genome centers now need to constantly reference this voluminous body of data that, as of May 9, 1994, held information on approximately 4000 STSs, 33,500 YACs, 17,600 STS-YAC associations, 87,400 YAC-YAC associations based on Alu-PCR analysis, and 99,000 YAC-YAC associations based on a combination of fingerprint and Alu-PCR data, in addition to 6 sets of fingerprints for each YAC and a total of 1.5 million fingerprint fragments for all YACs. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Combining linkage and association mapping identifies RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 as an essential Arabidopsis shoot regeneration gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Hans; Vercauteren, Annelies; Depuydt, Stephen; Landschoot, Sofie; Geelen, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan; Goormachtig, Sofie; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Vereecke, Danny

    2014-01-01

    De novo shoot organogenesis (i.e., the regeneration of shoots on nonmeristematic tissue) is widely applied in plant biotechnology. However, the capacity to regenerate shoots varies highly among plant species and cultivars, and the factors underlying it are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the shoot regeneration capacity of 88 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and found that the process is blocked at different stages in different accessions. We show that the variation in regeneration capacity between the Arabidopsis accessions Nok-3 and Ga-0 is determined by five quantitative trait loci (QTL): REG-1 to REG-5. Fine mapping by local association analysis identified RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 (RPK1), an abscisic acid-related receptor, as the most likely gene underlying REG-1, which was confirmed by quantitative failure of an RPK1 mutation to complement the high and low REG-1 QTL alleles. The importance of RPK1 in regeneration was further corroborated by mutant and expression analysis. Altogether, our results show that association mapping combined with linkage mapping is a powerful method to discover important genes implicated in a biological process as complex as shoot regeneration. PMID:24850864

  6. A dense single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic linkage map of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) anchoring Pinot Noir bacterial artificial chromosome contigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troggio, Michela; Malacarne, Giulia; Coppola, Giuseppina; Segala, Cinzia; Cartwright, Dustin A; Pindo, Massimo; Stefanini, Marco; Mank, Rolf; Moroldo, Marco; Morgante, Michele; Grando, M Stella; Velasco, Riccardo

    2007-08-01

    The construction of a dense genetic map for Vitis vinifera and its anchoring to a BAC-based physical map is described: it includes 994 loci mapped onto 19 linkage groups, corresponding to the basic chromosome number of Vitis. Spanning 1245 cM with an average distance of 1.3 cM between adjacent markers, the map was generated from the segregation of 483 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic markers, 132 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 379 AFLP markers in a mapping population of 94 F(1) individuals derived from a V. vinifera cross of the cultivars Syrah and Pinot Noir. Of these markers, 623 were anchored to 367 contigs that are included in a physical map produced from the same clone of Pinot Noir and covering 352 Mbp. On the basis of contigs containing two or more genetically mapped markers, region-dependent estimations of physical and recombinational distances are presented. The markers used in this study include 118 SSRs common to an integrated map derived from five segregating populations of V. vinifera. The positions of these SSR markers in the two maps are conserved across all Vitis linkage groups. The addition of SNP-based markers introduces polymorphisms that are easy to database, are useful for evolutionary studies, and significantly increase the density of the map. The map provides the most comprehensive view of the Vitis genome reported to date and will be relevant for future studies on structural and functional genomics and genetic improvement.

  7. High Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Yield Trait QTLs in Maize (Zea mays) Using the Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chengfu; Wang, Wei; Gong, Shunliang; Zuo, Jinghui; Li, Shujiang; Xu, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS. A total of 1,046,524,604 reads with an average of 5,258,918 reads per F2 individual were generated. This number of reads represents an approximately 0.36-fold coverage of the maize reference genome Zea_mays.AGPv3.29 for each F2 individual. A total of 68,882 raw SNPs were discovered in the F2 population, which, after stringent filtering, led to a total of 29,927 high quality SNPs. Comparative analysis using these physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with the reference genome. The SNP genotype data were utilized to construct an intra-specific genetic linkage map of maize consisting of 3,305 bins on 10 linkage groups spanning 2,236.66 cM at an average distance of 0.68 cM between consecutive markers. From this map, we identified 28 QTLs associated with yield traits (100-kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, cob diameter, kernel row number, corn grains per row, ear weight, and grain weight per plant) using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method and 29 QTLs using the least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) method. QTLs identified by the CIM method account for 6.4% to 19.7% of the phenotypic variation. Small intervals of three QTLs (qCGR-1, qKW-2, and qGWP-4) contain several genes, including one gene (GRMZM2G139872) encoding the F-box protein, three genes (GRMZM2G180811, GRMZM5G828139, and GRMZM5G873194) encoding the WD40-repeat protein, and

  8. Linkage effects and analysis of finite sample errors in the HapMap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Kang, Hyun Min; Eskin, Eleazar

    2009-01-01

    The HapMap provides a valuable resource to help uncover genetic variants of important complex phenotypes such as disease risk and outcome. Using the HapMap we can infer the patterns of LD within different human populations. This is a critical step for determining which SNPs to genotype as part of a study, estimating study power, designing a follow-up study to identify the causal variants, 'imputing' untyped SNPs, and estimating recombination rates along the genome. Despite its tremendous importance, the HapMap suffers from the fundamental limitation that at most 60 unrelated individuals are available per population. We present an analytical framework for analyzing the implications of a finite sample HapMap. We present and justify simple approximations for deriving analytical estimates of important statistics such as the square of the correlation coefficient r(2) between two SNPs. Finally, we use this framework to show that current HapMap based estimates of r(2) and power have significant errors, and that tag sets highly overestimate their coverage. We show that a reasonable increase in the number of individuals, such as that proposed by the 1000 genomes project, greatly reduces the errors due to finite sample size for a large proportion of SNPs.

  9. TSPmap, a tool making use of traveling salesperson problem solvers in the efficient and accurate construction of high-density genetic linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, J Grey; Allen, Zachariah A; Tanger, Paul; Mullen, Jack L; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Whitley, Darrell; McKay, John K

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in nucleic acid sequencing technologies have led to a dramatic increase in the number of markers available to generate genetic linkage maps. This increased marker density can be used to improve genome assemblies as well as add much needed resolution for loci controlling variation in ecologically and agriculturally important traits. However, traditional genetic map construction methods from these large marker datasets can be computationally prohibitive and highly error prone. We present TSPmap, a method which implements both approximate and exact Traveling Salesperson Problem solvers to generate linkage maps. We demonstrate that for datasets with large numbers of genomic markers (e.g. 10,000) and in multiple population types generated from inbred parents, TSPmap can rapidly produce high quality linkage maps with low sensitivity to missing and erroneous genotyping data compared to two other benchmark methods, JoinMap and MSTmap. TSPmap is open source and freely available as an R package. With the advancement of low cost sequencing technologies, the number of markers used in the generation of genetic maps is expected to continue to rise. TSPmap will be a useful tool to handle such large datasets into the future, quickly producing high quality maps using a large number of genomic markers.

  10. Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Montes, Luis R; Clarke, Jasper G; Affleck, Julie; Li, Yi; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van der Vossen, Edwin; van der Linde, Piet; Tripathi, Yogendra; Tavares, Evanilda; Shukla, Parul; Rajasekaran, Thirunavukkarasu; van Loo, Eibertus N; Graham, Ian A

    2013-10-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring 'nontoxic' provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F₂ mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F₂ plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties. © 2013 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inheritance and linkage map positions of genes conferring agromorphological traits in Lens culinaris Medik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agromorphological traits have immense importance in breeding lentils for higher yield and stability. We studied the genetics and identified map positions of some important agro-morphological traits including days to 50% flowering, plant height, seed diameter, 100 seed weight, cotyledon color, and gr...

  12. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomaszewski, C.; Byrne, S. L.; Foito, A.; Kildea, S.; Kopecký, David; Doležel, Jaroslav; Heslop-Harrison, J. S.; Stewart, D.; Barth, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 2 (2012), s. 345-349 ISSN 0179-9541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Lolium perenne * perennial ryegrass * genetic map Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.175, year: 2012

  13. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, Kitty; van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Lindhout, P.; Van Dijk, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The

  14. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteracaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, K.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Lindhout, W.H.; Dijk, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The

  15. Assignment of genetic linkage maps to diploid Solanum tuberosum pachytene chromosomes by BAC-FISH technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, X.; Boer, de J.M.; Eck, van H.J.; Bachem, C.W.B.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jong, de J.H.

    2009-01-01

    A cytogenetic map has been developed for diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum), in which the arms of the 12 potato bivalents can be identified in pachytene complements using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a set of 60 genetically anchored bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)

  16. Analysis of the genetic architecture of maize ear and grain morphological traits by combined linkage and association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaoshu; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Xiaochong; Hao, Zhuanfang; Zhang, Fangjun; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhenhua; Weng, Jianfeng

    2017-05-01

    Using combined linkage and association mapping, 26 stable QTL and six stable SNPs were detected across multiple environments for eight ear and grain morphological traits in maize. One QTL, PKS2, might play an important role in maize yield improvement. In the present study, one bi-parental population and an association panel were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for eight ear and grain morphological traits. A total of 108 QTL related to these traits were detected across four environments using an ultra-high density bin map constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Ye478 and Qi319, and 26 QTL were identified in more than two environments. Furthermore, 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be significantly associated with the eight ear and grain morphological traits (-log10(P) > 4) in an association panel of 240 maize inbred lines. Combining the two mapping populations, a total of 17 pleiotropic QTL/SNPs (pQTL/SNPs) were associated with various traits across multiple environments. PKS2, a stable locus influencing kernel shape identified on chromosome 2 in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was within the QTL confidence interval defined by the RILs. The candidate region harbored a short 13-Kb LD block encompassing four SNPs (SYN11386, PHM14783.16, SYN11392, and SYN11378). In the association panel, 13 lines derived from the hybrid PI78599 possessed the same allele as Qi319 at the PHM14783.16 (GG) locus, with an average value of 0.21 for KS, significantly lower than that of the 34 lines derived from Ye478 that carried a different allele (0.25, P < 0.05). Therefore, further fine mapping of PKS2 will provide valuable information for understanding the genetic components of grain yield and improving molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in maize.

  17. High-density genetic linkage mapping in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L. based on SNP markers and major sex- and growth-related regions detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiji Wang

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a high density consensus genetic linkage map of a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L. family composed of 149 mapping individuals using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP developed using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD sequencing technique with the restriction enzyme, PstI. A total of 6,647 SNPs were assigned to 22 linkage groups, which is equal to the number of chromosome pairs in turbot. For the first time, the average marker interval reached 0.3958 cM, which is equal to approximately 0.1203 Mb of the turbot genome. The observed 99.34% genome coverage indicates that the linkage map was genome-wide. A total of 220 Quantitative Traits Locus (QTLs associated with two body length traits, two body weight traits in different growth periods and sex determination were detected with an LOD > 5.0 in 12 linkage groups (LGs, which explained the corresponding phenotypic variance (R2, ranging from 14.4-100%. Among them, 175 overlapped with linked SNPs, and the remaining 45 were located in regions between contiguous SNPs. According to the QTLs related to growth trait distribution and the changing of LGs during different growth periods, the growth traits are likely controlled by multi-SNPs distributed on several LGs; the effect of these SNPs changed during different growth periods. Most sex-related QTLs were detected at LG 21 with a linkage span of 70.882 cM. Additionally, a small number of QTLs with high feasibility and a narrow R2 distribution were also observed on LG7 and LG14, suggesting that multi LGs or chromosomes might be involved in sex determination. High homology was recorded between LG21 in Cynoglossus semilaevis and turbot. This high-saturated turbot RAD-Seq linkage map is undoubtedly a promising platform for marker assisted selection (MAS and flatfish genomics research.

  18. Conversion of chromosome-specific RAPDs into SCAR-based anchor markers for onion linkage maps and its application to genetic analyses inother Allium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuzaki, S.; Miyazaki, T.; McCallum, J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kik, C.; Yamashita, K.; Tashiro, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of previously developed Allium cepa linkage maps requires the availability of anchor markers for each of the eight chromosomes of shallot (A. cepa L. common group Aggregatum). To this end, eight RAPD markers originating from our previous research were converted into SCAR markers via

  19. A first linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) based on AFLP, S-SAP, M-AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteri, S; Acquadro, A; Comino, C; Mauro, R; Mauromicale, G; Portis, E

    2006-05-01

    We present the first genetic maps of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L. 2n=2x=34), constructed with a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. A F1 mapping population of 94 individuals was generated between a late-maturing, non-spiny type and an early-maturing spiny type. The 30 AFLP, 13 M-AFLP and 9 S-SAP primer combinations chosen identified, respectively, 352, 38 and 41 polymorphic markers. Of 32 microsatellite primer pairs tested, 12 identified heterozygous loci in one or other parent, and 7 were fully informative as they segregated in both parents. The female parent map comprised 204 loci, spread over 18 linkage groups and spanned 1330.5 cM with a mean marker density of 6.5 cM. The equivalent figures for the male parent map were 180 loci, 17 linkage groups, 1239.4 and 6.9 cM. About 3% of the AFLP and AFLP-derived markers displayed segregation distortion with a P value below 0.01, and were not used for map construction. All the SSR loci were included in the linkage analysis, although one locus did show some segregation distortion. The presence of 78 markers in common to both maps allowed the alignment of 16 linkage groups. The maps generated provide a firm basis for the mapping of agriculturally relevant traits, which will then open the way for the application of a marker-assisted selection breeding strategy in this species.

  20. Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geísa Pinheiro Paes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D, the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis.

  1. Mapping and linkage disequilibrium analysis with a genome-wide collection of SNPs that detect polymorphism in cultivated tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew D; Sim, Sung-Chur; Yang, Wencai; Van Deynze, Allen; van der Knaap, Esther; Joobeur, Tarek; Francis, David M

    2011-03-01

    The history of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) improvement includes genetic bottlenecks, wild species introgressions, and divergence into distinct market classes. This history makes tomato an excellent model to investigate the effects of selection on genome variation. A combination of linkage mapping in two F(2) populations and physical mapping with emerging genome sequence data was used to position 434 PCR-based markers including SNPs. Three-hundred-and-forty markers were used to genotype 102 tomato lines representing wild species, landraces, vintage cultivars, and contemporary (fresh market and processing) varieties. Principal component analysis confirmed genetic divergence between market classes of cultivated tomato (P tomatoes, including vintage and contemporary, were considered together. Within contemporary processing varieties, LD decayed over 6-14 cM, and decay was over 3-16 cM within fresh market varieties. Significant inter-chromosomal (gametic phase) LD was detected in both fresh market and processing varieties between chromosomes 2 and 3, and 2 and 4, but in distinct chromosomal locations for each market class. Additional LD was detected between chromosomes 3 and 4, 3 and 11, and 4 and 6 in fresh market varieties and chromosomes 3 and 12 in processing varieties. These results suggest that breeding practices for market specialization in tomato have led to a genetic divergence between fresh market and processing types.

  2. Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Geísa Pinheiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca E; Mundim, Gabriel Borges

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis.

  3. Dense genetic linkage maps of three Populus species (Populus deltoides, P. nigra and P. trichocarpa) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M T; Storme, V; Ivens, B; Gusmão, J; Liu, B H; Hostyn, V; Van Slycken, J; Van Montagu, M; Boerjan, W

    2001-06-01

    Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. trichocarpa are the most important species for poplar breeding programs worldwide. In addition, Populus has become a model for fundamental research on trees. Linkage maps were constructed for these three species by analyzing progeny of two controlled crosses sharing the same female parent, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24. The two-way pseudotestcross mapping strategy was used to construct the maps. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers that segregated 1:1 were used to form the four parental maps. Microsatellites and sequence-tagged sites were used to align homoeologous groups between the maps and to merge linkage groups within the individual maps. Linkage analysis and alignment of the homoeologous groups resulted in 566 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. deltoides covering 86% of the genome, 339 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. trichocarpa covering 73%, and 369 markers distributed over 28 groups for P. nigra covering 61%. Several tests for randomness showed that the AFLP markers were randomly distributed over the genome.

  4. Inheritance and Linkage Map Positions of Genes Conferring Agromorphological Traits in Lens culinaris Medik.

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Gopesh C.; Ashutosh Sarker; Weidong Chen; George J. Vandemark; Muehlbauer, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    Agromorphological traits have immense importance in breeding lentils for higher yield and stability. We studied the genetics and identified map positions of some important agro-morphological traits including days to 50% flowering, plant height, seed diameter, 100 seed weight, cotyledon color, and growth habit in Lens culinaris. Earlier developed RILs for stemphylium blight resistance (ILL-5888 × ILL-6002), contrasted for those agro-morphological traits, were used in our study. Three QTLs for ...

  5. Association mapping of insecticide resistance in wild Anopheles gambiae populations: major variants identified in a low-linkage disequilbrium genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Weetman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Association studies are a promising way to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits in wild populations. Data on population stratification, linkage disequilibrium and distribution of variant effect-sizes for different trait-types are required to predict study success but are lacking for most taxa. We quantified and investigated the impacts of these key variables in a large-scale association study of a strongly selected trait of medical importance: pyrethroid resistance in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.We genotyped ≈1500 resistance-phenotyped wild mosquitoes from Ghana and Cameroon using a 1536-SNP array enriched for candidate insecticide resistance gene SNPs. Three factors greatly impacted study power. (1 Population stratification, which was attributable to co-occurrence of molecular forms (M and S, and cryptic within-form stratification necessitating both a partitioned analysis and genomic control. (2 All SNPs of substantial effect (odds ratio, OR>2 were rare (minor allele frequency, MAF<0.05. (3 Linkage disequilibrium (LD was very low throughout most of the genome. Nevertheless, locally high LD, consistent with a recent selective sweep, and uniformly high ORs in each subsample facilitated significant direct and indirect detection of the known insecticide target site mutation kdr L1014F (OR≈6; P<10(-6, but with resistance level modified by local haplotypic background.Primarily as a result of very low LD in wild A. Gambiae, LD-based association mapping is challenging, but is feasible at least for major effect variants, especially where LD is enhanced by selective sweeps. Such variants will be of greatest importance for predictive diagnostic screening.

  6. A first-generation microsatellite-based genetic linkage map of the Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus: insights into avian genome evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merilä Juha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic resources for the majority of free-living vertebrates of ecological and evolutionary importance are scarce. Therefore, linkage maps with high-density genome coverage are needed for progress in genomics of wild species. The Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus; Corvidae is a passerine bird which has been subject to lots of research in the areas of ecology and evolutionary biology. Knowledge of its genome structure and organization is required to advance our understanding of the genetic basis of ecologically important traits in this species, as well as to provide insights into avian genome evolution. Results We describe the first genetic linkage map of Siberian jay constructed using 117 microsatellites and a mapping pedigree of 349 animals representing five families from a natural population breeding in western Finland from the years 1975 to 2006. Markers were resolved into nine autosomal and a Z-chromosome-specific linkage group, 10 markers remaining unlinked. The best-position map with the most likely positions of all significantly linked loci had a total sex-average size of 862.8 cM, with an average interval distance of 9.69 cM. The female map covered 988.4 cM, whereas the male map covered only 774 cM. The Z-chromosome linkage group comprised six markers, three pseudoautosomal and three sex-specific loci, and spanned 10.6 cM in females and 48.9 cM in males. Eighty-one of the mapped loci could be ordered on a framework map with odds of >1000:1 covering a total size of 809.6 cM in females and 694.2 cM in males. Significant sex specific distortions towards reduced male recombination rates were revealed in the entire best-position map as well as within two autosomal linkage groups. Comparative mapping between Siberian jay and chicken anchored 22 homologous loci on 6 different linkage groups corresponding to chicken chromosomes Gga1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and Z. Quite a few cases of intra-chromosomal rearrangements within the

  7. Draft genome sequence, and a sequence-defined genetic linkage map of the legume crop species Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Zhang, Qisen; Zhou, Gaofeng; Sweetingham, Mark W; Howieson, John G; Li, Chengdao

    2013-01-01

    Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the most recently domesticated crop in major agricultural cultivation. Its seeds are high in protein and dietary fibre, but low in oil and starch. Medical and dietetic studies have shown that consuming lupin-enriched food has significant health benefits. We report the draft assembly from a whole genome shotgun sequencing dataset for this legume species with 26.9x coverage of the genome, which is predicted to contain 57,807 genes. Analysis of the annotated genes with metabolic pathways provided a partial understanding of some key features of lupin, such as the amino acid profile of storage proteins in seeds. Furthermore, we applied the NGS-based RAD-sequencing technology to obtain 8,244 sequence-defined markers for anchoring the genomic sequences. A total of 4,214 scaffolds from the genome sequence assembly were aligned into the genetic map. The combination of the draft assembly and a sequence-defined genetic map made it possible to locate and study functional genes of agronomic interest. The identification of co-segregating SNP markers, scaffold sequences and gene annotation facilitated the identification of a candidate R gene associated with resistance to the major lupin disease anthracnose. We demonstrated that the combination of medium-depth genome sequencing and a high-density genetic linkage map by application of NGS technology is a cost-effective approach to generating genome sequence data and a large number of molecular markers to study the genomics, genetics and functional genes of lupin, and to apply them to molecular plant breeding. This strategy does not require prior genome knowledge, which potentiates its application to a wide range of non-model species.

  8. High-density sex-specific linkage maps of a European tree frog (Hyla arborea) identify the sex chromosome without information on offspring sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, A; Dufresnes, C; Perrin, N

    2016-02-01

    Identifying homology between sex chromosomes of different species is essential to understanding the evolution of sex determination. Here, we show that the identity of a homomorphic sex chromosome pair can be established using a linkage map, without information on offspring sex. By comparing sex-specific maps of the European tree frog Hyla arborea, we find that the sex chromosome (linkage group 1) shows a threefold difference in marker number between the male and female maps. In contrast, the number of markers on each autosome is similar between the two maps. We also find strongly conserved synteny between H. arborea and Xenopus tropicalis across 200 million years of evolution, suggesting that the rate of chromosomal rearrangement in anurans is low. Finally, we show that recombination in males is greatly reduced at the centers of large chromosomes, consistent with previous cytogenetic findings. Our research shows the importance of high-density linkage maps for studies of recombination, chromosomal rearrangement and the genetic architecture of ecologically or economically important traits.

  9. A Larger Chocolate Chip—Development of a 15K Theobroma cacao L. SNP Array to Create High-Density Linkage Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Livingstone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. is an important cash crop in tropical regions around the world and has a rich agronomic history in South America. As a key component in the cosmetic and confectionary industries, millions of people worldwide use products made from cacao, ranging from shampoo to chocolate. An Illumina Infinity II array was created using 13,530 SNPs identified within a small diversity panel of cacao. Of these SNPs, 12,643 derive from variation within annotated cacao genes. The genotypes of 3,072 trees were obtained, including two mapping populations from Ecuador. High-density linkage maps for these two populations were generated and compared to the cacao genome assembly. Phenotypic data from these populations were combined with the linkage maps to identify the QTLs for yield and disease resistance.

  10. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Arthur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L. over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS. Results Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org, an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability

  11. A consensus linkage map for molecular markers and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Aurora; Fergany, Mohamed; Formisano, Gelsomina; Ziarsolo, Peio; Blanca, José; Fei, Zhanjun; Staub, Jack E; Zalapa, Juan E; Cuevas, Hugo E; Dace, Gayle; Oliver, Marc; Boissot, Nathalie; Dogimont, Catherine; Pitrat, Michel; Hofstede, René; van Koert, Paul; Harel-Beja, Rotem; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Cohen, Shahar; Schaffer, Arthur; Katzir, Nurit; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Haiying; Fukino, Nobuko; Matsumoto, Satoru; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Monforte, Antonio J

    2011-07-28

    A number of molecular marker linkage maps have been developed for melon (Cucumis melo L.) over the last two decades. However, these maps were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making comparative analysis among maps difficult. In order to solve this problem, a consensus genetic map in melon was constructed using primarily highly transferable anchor markers that have broad potential use for mapping, synteny, and comparative quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, increasing breeding effectiveness and efficiency via marker-assisted selection (MAS). Under the framework of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI, http://www.icugi.org), an integrated genetic map has been constructed by merging data from eight independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines. The consensus map spans 1150 cM across the 12 melon linkage groups and is composed of 1592 markers (640 SSRs, 330 SNPs, 252 AFLPs, 239 RFLPs, 89 RAPDs, 15 IMAs, 16 indels and 11 morphological traits) with a mean marker density of 0.72 cM/marker. One hundred and ninety-six of these markers (157 SSRs, 32 SNPs, 6 indels and 1 RAPD) were newly developed, mapped or provided by industry representatives as released markers, including 27 SNPs and 5 indels from genes involved in the organic acid metabolism and transport, and 58 EST-SSRs. Additionally, 85 of 822 SSR markers contributed by Syngenta Seeds were included in the integrated map. In addition, 370 QTL controlling 62 traits from 18 previously reported mapping experiments using genetically diverse parental genotypes were also integrated into the consensus map. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in separate studies mapped to similar genomic positions. For example, independently identified QTL controlling fruit shape were mapped on similar genomic positions, suggesting that such QTL are possibly responsible for the phenotypic variability observed for this trait in a broad array of

  12. QTL detection by multi-parent linkage mapping in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billotte, N; Jourjon, M F; Marseillac, N; Berger, A; Flori, A; Asmady, H; Adon, B; Singh, R; Nouy, B; Potier, F; Cheah, S C; Rohde, W; Ritter, E; Courtois, B; Charrier, A; Mangin, B

    2010-05-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis designed for a multi-parent population was carried out and tested in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is a diploid cross-fertilising perennial species. A new extension of the MCQTL package was especially designed for crosses between heterozygous parents. The algorithm, which is now available for any allogamous species, was used to perform and compare two types of QTL search for small size families, within-family analysis and across-family analysis, using data from a 2 x 2 complete factorial mating experiment involving four parents from three selected gene pools. A consensus genetic map of the factorial design was produced using 251 microsatellite loci, the locus of the Sh major gene controlling fruit shell presence, and an AFLP marker of that gene. A set of 76 QTLs involved in 24 quantitative phenotypic traits was identified. A comparison of the QTL detection results showed that the across-family analysis proved to be efficient due to the interconnected families, but the family size issue is just partially solved. The identification of QTL markers for small progeny numbers and for marker-assisted selection strategies is discussed.

  13. Metallomic profiling and linkage map analysis of early Parkinson's disease: a new insight to aluminum marker for the possible diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shiek S S J; Santosh, Winkins

    2010-06-22

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. The diagnosis of PD is challenging and currently none of the biochemical tests have proven to help in diagnosis. Serum metallomic analysis may suggest the possibility of diagnosis of PD. The metallomic analysis was targeted on 31 elements obtained from 42 healthy controls and 45 drug naive PD patients using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to determine the concentration variations of elements between PD and normal. The targeted metallomic analysis showed the significant variations in 19 elements of patients compared to healthy control (pcopper, iron, manganese and zinc are the key elements, contributes the separation of PD patients from control samples. The correlation coefficient analysis and element-element ratio confirm the imbalance of inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. Furthermore, elements linkage map analysis showed aluminium is a key element involved in triggering of phosphorus, which subsequently lead to imbalance of homeostatic in PD serum. The execution of neural network using elements concentrations provides 95% accuracy in detection of disease. These results suggest that there is a disturbance in the elements homeostasis and inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. The analysis of serum elements helps in linking the underlying cellular processes such as oxidative stress, neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis, which are the dominating factors in PD. Also, these results increase the prospect of detection of early PD from serum through neural network algorithm.

  14. A synthetic rainbow trout linkage map provides new insights into the salmonid whole genome duplication and the conservation of synteny among teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomard, René; Boussaha, Mekki; Krieg, Francine; Hervet, Caroline; Quillet, Edwige

    2012-03-16

    Rainbow trout is an economically important fish and a suitable experimental organism in many fields of biology including genome evolution, owing to the occurrence of a salmonid specific whole-genome duplication (4th WGD). Rainbow trout is among some of the most studied teleosts and has benefited from substantial efforts to develop genomic resources (e.g., linkage maps. Here, we first generated a synthetic map by merging segregation data files derived from three independent linkage maps. Then, we used it to evaluate genome conservation between rainbow trout and three teleost models, medaka, stickleback and zebrafish and to further investigate the extent of the 4th WGD in trout genome. The INRA linkage map was updated by adding 211 new markers. After standardization of marker names, consistency of marker assignment to linkage groups and marker orders was checked across the three different data sets and only loci showing consistent location over all or almost all of the data sets were kept. This resulted in a synthetic map consisting of 2226 markers and 29 linkage groups spanning over 3600 cM. Blastn searches against medaka, stickleback, and zebrafish genomic databases resulted in 778, 824 and 730 significant hits respectively while blastx searches yielded 505, 513 and 510 significant hits. Homology search results revealed that, for most rainbow trout chromosomes, large syntenic regions encompassing nearly whole chromosome arms have been conserved between rainbow trout and its closest models, medaka and stickleback. Large conserved syntenies were also found between the genomes of rainbow trout and the reconstructed teleost ancestor. These syntenies consolidated the known homeologous affinities between rainbow trout chromosomes due to the 4th WGD and suggested new ones. The synthetic map constructed herein further highlights the stability of the teleost genome over long evolutionary time scales. This map can be easily extended by incorporating new data sets and should

  15. High-density fine-mapping of a chromosome 10q26 linkage peak suggests association between endometriosis and variants close to CYP2C19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jodie N.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Morris, Andrew; Zhao, Zhen Z.; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Wallace, Leanne; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Treloar, Susan A.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Montgomery, Grant W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To refine a previously reported linkage peak for endometriosis on chromosome 10q26, and conduct follow-up analyses and a fine-mapping association study across the region to identify new candidate genes for endometriosis. Design Case-control study. Setting Academic research. Subject(s) Cases = 3,223 women with surgically confirmed endometriosis; Controls = 1,190 women without endometriosis and 7,060 population samples. Intervention(s) Analysis of 11,984 SNPs on chromosome 10. Main outcome measure(s) Allele frequency differences between cases and controls. Results Linkage analyses on families grouped by endometriosis symptoms (primarily subfertility) provided increased evidence for linkage (logarithm of odds (LOD) score = 3.62) near a previously reported linkage peak. Three independent association signals were found at 96.59 Mb (rs11592737, P=4.9 × 10−4), 105.63 Mb (rs1253130, P=2.5 × 10−4) and 124.25 Mb (rs2250804, P=9.7 × 10−4). Analyses including only samples from linkage families supported the association at all three regions. However, only rs11592737 in the cytochrome P450 subfamily C (CYP2C19) gene was replicated in an independent sample of 2,079 cases and 7060 population controls. Conclusion(s) The role of the CYP2C19 gene in conferring risk for endometriosis warrants further investigation. PMID:21497341

  16. Linkage mapping and identification of QTL affecting deoxynivalenol (DON) content (Fusarium resistance) in oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Skinnes, Helge; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Bjørnstad, Asmund

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins caused by Fusarium spp. is a major concern on food and feed safety in oats, although Fusarium head blight (FHB) is often less apparent than in other small grain cereals. Breeding resistant cultivars is an economic and environment-friendly way to reduce toxin content, either by the identification of resistance QTL or phenotypic evaluation. Both are little explored in oats. A recombinant-inbred line population, Hurdal × Z595-7 (HZ595, with 184 lines), was used for QTL mapping and was phenotyped for 3 years. Spawn inoculation was applied and deoxynivalenol (DON) content, FHB severity, days to heading and maturity (DH and DM), and plant height (PH) were measured. The population was genotyped with DArTs, AFLPs, SSRs and selected SNPs, and a linkage map of 1,132 cM was constructed, covering all 21 oat chromosomes. A QTL for DON on chromosome 17A/7C, tentatively designated as Qdon.umb-17A/7C, was detected in all experiments using composite interval mapping, with phenotypic effects of 12.2–26.6 %. In addition, QTL for DON were also found on chromosomes 5C, 9D, 13A, 14D and unknown_3, while a QTL for FHB was found on 11A. Several of the DON/FHB QTL coincided with those for DH, DM and/or PH. A half-sib population of HZ595, Hurdal × Z615-4 (HZ615, with 91 lines), was phenotyped in 2011 for validation of QTL found in HZ595, and Qdon.umb-17A/7C was again localized with a phenotypic effect of 12.4 %. Three SNPs closely linked to Qdon.umb-17A/7C were identified in both populations, and one each for QTL on 5C, 11A and 13A were identified in HZ595. These SNPs, together with those yet to be identified, could be useful in marker-assisted selection to pyramiding resistance QTL.

  17. High-Resolution Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping Identifies Susceptibility Loci for BMI in the Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia

    2012-01-01

    linkage could exist in different ethnic populations. BMI was measured from 126 dizygotic twins in Qingdao municipality who were genotyped using high-resolution Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP arrays containing about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nonparametric linkage analysis...

  18. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  19. Metallomic Profiling and Linkage Map Analysis of Early Parkinson's Disease: A New Insight to Aluminum Marker for the Possible Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shiek S. S. J.; Santosh, Winkins

    2010-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. The diagnosis of PD is challenging and currently none of the biochemical tests have proven to help in diagnosis. Serum metallomic analysis may suggest the possibility of diagnosis of PD. Methodology/Results The metallomic analysis was targeted on 31 elements obtained from 42 healthy controls and 45 drug naive PD patients using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to determine the concentration variations of elements between PD and normal. The targeted metallomic analysis showed the significant variations in 19 elements of patients compared to healthy control (p<0.04). The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed aluminium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc are the key elements, contributes the separation of PD patients from control samples. The correlation coefficient analysis and element-element ratio confirm the imbalance of inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. Furthermore, elements linkage map analysis showed aluminium is a key element involved in triggering of phosphorus, which subsequently lead to imbalance of homeostatic in PD serum. The execution of neural network using elements concentrations provides 95% accuracy in detection of disease. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that there is a disturbance in the elements homeostasis and inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. The analysis of serum elements helps in linking the underlying cellular processes such as oxidative stress, neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis, which are the dominating factors in PD. Also, these results increase the prospect of detection of early PD from serum through neural network algorithm. PMID:20582167

  20. Metallomic profiling and linkage map analysis of early Parkinson's disease: a new insight to aluminum marker for the possible diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiek S S J Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. The diagnosis of PD is challenging and currently none of the biochemical tests have proven to help in diagnosis. Serum metallomic analysis may suggest the possibility of diagnosis of PD. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The metallomic analysis was targeted on 31 elements obtained from 42 healthy controls and 45 drug naive PD patients using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to determine the concentration variations of elements between PD and normal. The targeted metallomic analysis showed the significant variations in 19 elements of patients compared to healthy control (p<0.04. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA showed aluminium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc are the key elements, contributes the separation of PD patients from control samples. The correlation coefficient analysis and element-element ratio confirm the imbalance of inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. Furthermore, elements linkage map analysis showed aluminium is a key element involved in triggering of phosphorus, which subsequently lead to imbalance of homeostatic in PD serum. The execution of neural network using elements concentrations provides 95% accuracy in detection of disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that there is a disturbance in the elements homeostasis and inter-elements relationship in PD patients' serum. The analysis of serum elements helps in linking the underlying cellular processes such as oxidative stress, neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis, which are the dominating factors in PD. Also, these results increase the prospect of detection of early PD from serum through neural network algorithm.

  1. Extensive linkage disequilibrium mapping at HTR2A and DRD3 for schizophrenia susceptibility genes in the Galician population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Eduardo; Loza, María Isabel; Padín, Fernando; Gesteira, Alejandro; Paz, Eduardo; Páramo, Mario; Brenlla, Julio; Pumar, Estefanía; Iglesias, Fernanda; Cibeira, Alcira; Castro, Marián; Caruncho, Héctor; Carracedo, Angel; Costas, Javier

    2007-02-01

    The serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems are candidate pathways in the development of schizophrenia because of the assumed causal relationship with the observed symptoms as well as effective targeting of the corresponding receptors by antipsychotic drugs. However, genetic association studies have systematically focused on a limited set of genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including T102C at HTR2A and Ser9Gly at DRD3. Meta-analyses of the associations between these two markers and schizophrenia revealed a true increase in risk, the magnitude of the effect being very low. In the present study we analyzed 260 schizophrenic patients and 354 control subjects from a homogeneous population, the Galician population, using an extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping approach, genotyping a total of 47 SNPs to test for the existence of additional variants that confer higher risk. We detected nominal significant association with schizophrenia for several haplotype tag SNPs (htSNPs) at HTR2A, although the significance was lost after multiple test corrections. In addition, haplotype analyses involving a sliding window approach, with window size 2 to 4 SNPs, revealed significant differences in frequencies of the DRD3 haplotypes at the 3' half of the gene region. This difference, which remains clearly significant after multiple test corrections (p=0.002, 0.0001, and 0.0025, for window sizes 2, 3, and 4, respectively), was mainly due to over-representation of several rare haplotypes in patients, at the expense of a single common haplotype; this represents interesting evidence of rare haplotypes for susceptibility detected using common htSNPs due to their strong effect.

  2. Dense genetic linkage maps of three Populus species (Populus deltoides, P. nigra and P. trichocarpa) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera, M.t.; Storme, V; Ivens, B; Gusmão, J; Liu, B. H.; Hostyn, V; Van Slycken, J; Van Montagu, M; Boerjan, W.

    2001-01-01

    Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. trichocarpa are the most important species for poplar breeding programs worldwide. In addition, Populus has become a model for fundamental research on trees. Linkage maps were constructed for these three species by analyzing progeny of two controlled crosses sharing the same female parent, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24. The two-way pseudotestcross mapping strategy was used to construct the ...

  3. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, J M; Stephens, M J; Atmadjaja, A N; Lewers, K S; Symonds, V V; Udall, J A; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E

    2012-07-01

    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed world-wide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms. An F(1) population developed from a cross between an advanced breeding selection of Rubus occidentalis (96395S1) and R. idaeus 'Latham' was used to construct a new genetic map consisting of DNA sequence-based markers. The genetic linkage maps presented here are constructed of 131 markers on at least one of the two parental maps. The majority of the markers are orthologous, including 14 Rosaceae conserved orthologous set markers, and 60 new gene-based markers developed for raspberry. Thirty-four published raspberry simple sequence repeat markers were used to align the new maps to published raspberry maps. The 96395S1 genetic map consists of six linkage groups (LG) and covers 309 cM with an average of 10 cM between markers; the 'Latham' genetic map consists of seven LG and covers 561 cM with an average of 5 cM between markers. We used BLAST analysis to align the orthologous sequences used to design primer pairs for Rubus genetic mapping with the genome sequences of Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4', Malus × domestica 'Golden Delicious', and Prunus 'Lovell'. The alignment of the orthologous markers designed here suggests that the genomes of Rubus and Fragaria have a high degree of synteny and that synteny decreases with phylogenetic distance. Our results give unprecedented insights into the genome evolution of raspberry from the putative ancestral genome of the single ancestor common to Rosaceae.

  4. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in New Zealand sheep using three different methods to create genetic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Vincent; Clarke, Shannon M; Brito, Luiz F; McEwan, John C; Lee, Michael A; Brauning, Rudiger; Dodds, Ken G; Auvray, Benoît

    2017-07-21

    Investments in genetic selection have played a major role in the New Zealand sheep industry competitiveness. Selection may erode genetic diversity, which is a crucial factor for the success of breeding programs. Better understanding of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and ancestral effective population size (Ne) through quantifying this diversity and comparison between populations allows for more informed decisions with regards to selective breeding taking population genetic diversity into account. The estimation of N e can be determined via genetic markers and requires knowledge of genetic distances between these markers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) data from a sample of 12,597 New Zealand crossbred and purebred sheep genotyped with the Illumina Ovine SNP50 BeadChip was used to perform a genome-wide scan of LD and N e . Three methods to estimate genetic distances were investigated: 1) M1: a ratio fixed across the whole genome of one Megabase per centiMorgan; 2) M2: the ratios of genetic distance (using M3, below) over physical distance fixed for each chromosome; and, 3) M3: a genetic map of inter-SNP distances estimated using CRIMAP software (v2.503). The estimates obtained with M2 and M3 showed much less variability between autosomes than those with M1, which tended to give lower N e results and higher LD decay. The results suggest that N e has decreased since the development of sheep breeds in Europe and this reduction in Ne has been accelerated in the last three decades. The N e estimated for five generations in the past ranged from 71 to 237 for Texel and Romney breeds, respectively. A low level of genetic kinship and inbreeding was estimated in those breeds suggesting avoidance of mating close relatives. M3 was considered the most accurate method to create genetic maps for the estimation of LD and Ne. The findings of this study highlight the history of genetic selection in New Zealand crossbred and purebred sheep and these results will be very useful to

  5. SSR-enriched genetic linkage maps of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis), and their comparison with allied plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sameer; Kim, Changsoo; Auckland, Susan A; Rainville, Lisa K; Adhikari, Jeevan; Schwartz, Brian M; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-04-01

    We report SSR-enriched genetic maps of bermudagrass that: (1) reveal partial residual polysomic inheritance in the tetraploid species, and (2) provide insights into the evolution of chloridoid genomes. This study describes genetic linkage maps of two bermudagrass species, Cynodon dactylon (T89) and Cynodon transvaalensis (T574), that integrate heterologous microsatellite markers from sugarcane into frameworks built with single-dose restriction fragments (SDRFs). A maximum likelihood approach was used to construct two separate parental maps from a population of 110 F1 progeny of a cross between the two parents. The T89 map is based on 291 loci on 34 cosegregating groups (CGs), with an average marker spacing of 12.5 cM. The T574 map is based on 125 loci on 14 CGs, with an average marker spacing of 10.7 cM. Six T89 and one T574 CG(s) deviated from disomic inheritance. Furthermore, marker segregation data and linkage phase analysis revealed partial residual polysomic inheritance in T89, suggesting that common bermudagrass is undergoing diploidization following whole genome duplication (WGD). Twenty-six T89 CGs were coalesced into 9 homo(eo)logous linkage groups (LGs), while 12 T574 CGs were assembled into 9 LGs, both putatively representing the basic chromosome complement (x = 9) of the species. Eight T89 and two T574 CGs remain unassigned. The marker composition of bermudagrass ancestral chromosomes was inferred by aligning T89 and T574 homologs, and used in comparisons to sorghum and rice genome sequences based on 108 and 91 significant blast hits, respectively. Two nested chromosome fusions (NCFs) shared by two other chloridoids (i.e., zoysiagrass and finger millet) and at least three independent translocation events were evident during chromosome number reduction from 14 in the polyploid common ancestor of Poaceae to 9 in Cynodon.

  6. Short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes in HLA: an integrated 50-kb STR/linkage disequilibrium/gene map between the RING3 and HLA-B genes and identification of STR haplotype diversification in the class III region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vorechovsky, I; Kralovicova, J; Laycock, M D; Webster, A D; Marsh, S G; Madrigal, A; Hammarström, L

    2001-01-01

    We present a dense STR/linkage disequilibrium(LD)/gene map between the RING3 and HLA-B loci, reference allelic sizes on the most prevalent HLA haplotypes and their allelic frequencies in pedigree founders...

  7. Comparison of linkage disequilibrium patterns between the HapMap CEPH samples and a family-based cohort of Northern European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E M; Wang, X; Littrell, J; Eckert, J; Cole, R; Kissebah, A H; Olivier, M

    2006-10-01

    The International HapMap Consortium has determined the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns of four major human populations. The aim of our investigation was to compare the LD patterns of the HapMap CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) samples with a family-based cohort of similar ancestry to determine its usefulness as a reference population for disease association studies. We examined four genomic regions on chromosomes 7q, 12p, and 14q totaling 14.3 Mb, initially identified in our linkage study of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Near identical patterns of LD were detected in both populations. Furthermore, tagSNPs selected based on the HapMap CEPH cohort data capture over 98% of the variants at an r2 > 0.8 in the disease cohort. This confirms the usefulness of the CEPH cohort of the HapMap as a reference sample for further investigations into the genomic variation of populations of Northern European descent.

  8. A genetic linkage map of Lens sp. based on microsatellite and AFLP markers and the localization of fusarium vascular wilt resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamwieh, A; Udupa, S M; Choumane, W; Sarker, A; Dreyer, F; Jung, C; Baum, M

    2005-02-01

    Microsatellites have currently become the markers of choice for molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection for key traits such as disease resistance in many crop species. We report here on the mapping of microsatellites which had been identified from a genomic library of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). The majority of microsatellite-bearing clones contained imperfect di-nucleotide repeats. A total of 41 microsatellite and 45 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were mapped on 86 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross ILL 5588 x L 692-16-1(s), which had been previously used for the construction of a random amplified polymorphic DNA and AFLP linkage map. Since ILL 5588 was resistant to fusarium vascular wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum Shlecht. Emend. Snyder & Hansen f.sp. lentis Vasud. & Srini., the recombinant inbreds were segregating for this character. The resulting map contained 283 markers covering about 751 cM, with an average marker distance of 2.6 cM. The fusarium vascular wilt resistance was localized on linkage group 6, and this resistance gene was flanked by microsatellite marker SSR59-2B and AFLP marker p17m30710 at distances of 8.0 cM and 3.5 cM, respectively. These markers are the most closely linked ones known to date for this agronomically important Fw gene. Using the information obtained in this investigation, the development and mapping of microsatellite markers in the existing map of lentil could be substantially increased, thereby providing the possibility for the future localization of various loci of agronomic interest.

  9. Loci and candidate gene identification for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) via association and linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Dongyuan; Sun, Mingming; Zhao, Yue; Lv, Chunmei; Li, Dongmei; Yang, Zhijiang; Huang, Long; Teng, Weili; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2015-04-01

    Soybean white mold (SWM), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ((Lib.) W. Phillips), is currently considered to be the second most important cause of soybean yield loss due to disease. Research is needed to identify SWM-resistant germplasm and gain a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of SWM resistance in soybean. Stem pigmentation after treatment with oxaloacetic acid is an effective indicator of resistance to SWM. A total of 128 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of 'Maple Arrow' (partial resistant to SWM) and 'Hefeng 25' (susceptible) and 330 diverse soybean cultivars were screened for the soluble pigment concentration of their stems, which were treated with oxalic acid. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying soluble pigment concentration were detected by linkage mapping of the RILs. Three hundred and thirty soybean cultivars were sequenced using the whole-genome encompassing approach and 25 179 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected for the fine mapping of SWM resistance genes by genome-wide association studies. Three out of five SNP markers representing a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and a single locus on chromosome 13 (Gm13) were significantly associated with the soluble pigment content of stems. Three more SNPs that represented three minor QTLs for the soluble pigment content of stems were identified on another three chromosomes by association mapping. A major locus with the largest effect on Gm13 was found both by linkage and association mapping. Four potential candidate genes involved in disease response or the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were identified at the locus near the significant SNPs (<60 kbp). The beneficial allele and candidate genes should be useful in soybean breeding for improving resistance to SWM. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. High prevalence of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy in the Czech Republic; linkage disequilibrium mapping and dating an ancestral mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskova, Petra; Gwilliam, Rhian; Filipec, Martin; Jirsova, Katerina; Reinstein Merjava, Stanislava; Deloukas, Panos; Webb, Tom R; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Ebenezer, Neil D; Morris, Alex G; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2012-01-01

    Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a rare autosomal dominant genetically heterogeneous disorder. Nineteen Czech PPCD pedigrees with 113 affected family members were identified, and 17 of these kindreds were genotyped for markers on chromosome 20p12.1- 20q12. Comparison of haplotypes in 81 affected members, 20 unaffected first degree relatives and 13 spouses, as well as 55 unrelated controls, supported the hypothesis of a shared ancestor in 12 families originating from one geographic location. In 38 affected individuals from nine of these pedigrees, a common haplotype was observed between D20S48 and D20S107 spanning approximately 23 Mb, demonstrating segregation of disease with the PPCD1 locus. This haplotype was not detected in 110 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Within the common founder haplotype, a core mini-haplotype was detected for D20S605, D20S182 and M189K2 in all 67 affected members from families 1-12, however alleles representing the core mini-haplotype were also detected in population matched controls. The most likely location of the responsible gene within the disease interval, and estimated mutational age, were inferred by linkage disequilibrium mapping (DMLE+2.3). The appearance of a disease-causing mutation was dated between 64-133 generations. The inferred ancestral locus carrying a PPCD1 disease-causing variant within the disease interval spans 60 Kb on 20p11.23, which contains a single known protein coding gene, ZNF133. However, direct sequence analysis of coding and untranslated exons did not reveal a potential pathogenic mutation. Microdeletion or duplication was also excluded by comparative genomic hybridization using a dense chromosome 20 specific array. Geographical origin, haplotype and statistical analysis suggest that in 14 unrelated families an as yet undiscovered mutation on 20p11.23 was inherited from a common ancestor. Prevalence of PPCD in the Czech Republic appears to be the highest worldwide and our data

  11. High prevalence of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy in the Czech Republic; linkage disequilibrium mapping and dating an ancestral mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Liskova

    Full Text Available Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD is a rare autosomal dominant genetically heterogeneous disorder. Nineteen Czech PPCD pedigrees with 113 affected family members were identified, and 17 of these kindreds were genotyped for markers on chromosome 20p12.1- 20q12. Comparison of haplotypes in 81 affected members, 20 unaffected first degree relatives and 13 spouses, as well as 55 unrelated controls, supported the hypothesis of a shared ancestor in 12 families originating from one geographic location. In 38 affected individuals from nine of these pedigrees, a common haplotype was observed between D20S48 and D20S107 spanning approximately 23 Mb, demonstrating segregation of disease with the PPCD1 locus. This haplotype was not detected in 110 ethnically matched control chromosomes. Within the common founder haplotype, a core mini-haplotype was detected for D20S605, D20S182 and M189K2 in all 67 affected members from families 1-12, however alleles representing the core mini-haplotype were also detected in population matched controls. The most likely location of the responsible gene within the disease interval, and estimated mutational age, were inferred by linkage disequilibrium mapping (DMLE+2.3. The appearance of a disease-causing mutation was dated between 64-133 generations. The inferred ancestral locus carrying a PPCD1 disease-causing variant within the disease interval spans 60 Kb on 20p11.23, which contains a single known protein coding gene, ZNF133. However, direct sequence analysis of coding and untranslated exons did not reveal a potential pathogenic mutation. Microdeletion or duplication was also excluded by comparative genomic hybridization using a dense chromosome 20 specific array. Geographical origin, haplotype and statistical analysis suggest that in 14 unrelated families an as yet undiscovered mutation on 20p11.23 was inherited from a common ancestor. Prevalence of PPCD in the Czech Republic appears to be the highest worldwide

  12. A consensus microsatellite-based linkage map for the hermaphroditic bay scallop (Argopecten irradians and its application in size-related QTL analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    Full Text Available Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs, which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13:1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL, shell height (SH, shell width (SW and total weight (TW were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS in bay scallop.

  13. The construction of a high-density linkage map for identifying SNP markers that are tightly linked to a nuclear-recessive major gene for male sterility in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriguchi Yoshinari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density linkage maps facilitate the mapping of target genes and the construction of partial linkage maps around target loci to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS. MAS is quite challenging in conifers because of their large, complex, and poorly-characterized genomes. Our goal was to construct a high-density linkage map to facilitate the identification of markers that are tightly linked to a major recessive male-sterile gene (ms1 for MAS in C. japonica, a species that is important in Japanese afforestation but which causes serious social pollinosis problems. Results We constructed a high-density saturated genetic linkage map for C. japonica using expressed sequence-derived co-dominant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, most of which were genotyped using the GoldenGate genotyping assay. A total of 1261 markers were assigned to 11 linkage groups with an observed map length of 1405.2 cM and a mean distance between two adjacent markers of 1.1 cM; the number of linkage groups matched the basic chromosome number in C. japonica. Using this map, we located ms1 on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. This enabled us to identify a marker (hrmSNP970_sf that is closely linked to the ms1 gene, being separated from it by only 0.5 cM. Conclusions Using the high-density map, we located the ms1 gene on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. The map distance between the ms1 gene and the tightly linked marker was only 0.5 cM. The identification of markers that are tightly linked to the ms1 gene will facilitate the early selection of male-sterile trees, which should expedite C. japonica breeding programs aimed at alleviating pollinosis problems without harming productivity.

  14. A genetic linkage map of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and localization of genes for specific resistance to six races of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Pañeda, Astrid; Ferreira, Juan José; Giraldez, Ramón

    2007-02-01

    A genetic map of common bean was constructed using 197 markers including 152 RAPDs, 32 RFLPs, 12 SCARs, and 1 morphological marker. The map was established by using a F(2) population of 85 individuals from the cross between a line derived from the Spanish landrace Andecha (Andean origin) and the Mesoamerican genotype A252. The resulting map covers about 1,401.9 cM, with an average marker distance of 7.1 cM and includes molecular markers linked to disease resistance genes for anthracnose, bean common mosaic virus, bean golden yellow mosaic virus, common bacterial blight, and rust. Resistance to races 6, 31, 38, 39, 65, and 357 of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (anthracnose) was evaluated in F(3) families derived from the corresponding F(2) individuals. The intermediate resistance to race 65 proceeding from Andecha can be explained by a single dominant gene located on linkage group B1, corresponding to the Co-1 gene. The recombination between the resistance specificities proceeding from A252 agrees with the assumption that total resistance to races 6, 31, 38, 39, 65, and 357, is organized in two clusters. One cluster, located on B4 linkage group, includes individual genes for specific resistance to races 6, 38, 39, and 357. The second cluster is located on linkage group B11 and includes individual genes for specific resistance to races 6, 31, 38, 39, and 65. These two clusters correspond to genes Co-3/Co-9 and Co-2, respectively. It is concluded that most anthracnose resistance Co- genes, previously described as single major genes conferring resistance to several races, could be organized as clusters of different genes conferring race-specific resistance.

  15. The Peach v2.0 release: high-resolution linkage mapping and deep resequencing improve chromosome-scale assembly and contiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Ignazio; Jenkins, Jerry; Dondini, Luca; Micali, Sabrina; Pagliarani, Giulia; Vendramin, Elisa; Paris, Roberta; Aramini, Valeria; Gazza, Laura; Rossini, Laura; Bassi, Daniele; Troggio, Michela; Shu, Shengqiang; Grimwood, Jane; Tartarini, Stefano; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2017-03-11

    The availability of the peach genome sequence has fostered relevant research in peach and related Prunus species enabling the identification of genes underlying important horticultural traits as well as the development of advanced tools for genetic and genomic analyses. The first release of the peach genome (Peach v1.0) represented a high-quality WGS (Whole Genome Shotgun) chromosome-scale assembly with high contiguity (contig L50 214.2 kb), large portions of mapped sequences (96%) and high base accuracy (99.96%). The aim of this work was to improve the quality of the first assembly by increasing the portion of mapped and oriented sequences, correcting misassemblies and improving the contiguity and base accuracy using high-throughput linkage mapping and deep resequencing approaches. Four linkage maps with 3,576 molecular markers were used to improve the portion of mapped and oriented sequences (from 96.0% and 85.6% of Peach v1.0 to 99.2% and 98.2% of v2.0, respectively) and enabled a more detailed identification of discernible misassemblies (10.4 Mb in total). The deep resequencing approach fixed 859 homozygous SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) and 1347 homozygous indels. Moreover, the assembled NGS contigs enabled the closing of 212 gaps with an improvement in the contig L50 of 19.2%. The improved high quality peach genome assembly (Peach v2.0) represents a valuable tool for the analysis of the genetic diversity, domestication, and as a vehicle for genetic improvement of peach and related Prunus species. Moreover, the important phylogenetic position of peach and the absence of recent whole genome duplication (WGD) events make peach a pivotal species for comparative genomics studies aiming at elucidating plant speciation and diversification processes.

  16. New chicken Rfp-Y haplotypes on the basis of MHC class II RFLP and MLC analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H R; Zoorob, R; Auffray, C

    1997-01-01

    New chicken Rfp-Y haplotypes were determined by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) in four different chicken haplotypes, B15, B19, B21, B201. The RFLP polymorphism was mapped to the Rfp-Y system by the use of a subclone (18.1) which maps...... near a polymorphic lectin gene located in the Rfp-Y system and DNA from families with known segregation of the implicated RFLP polymorphism. For the first time it is shown that major histocompatibility complex class II genes in the Rfp-Y system have functional implications. Sequence information...

  17. A high-density consensus linkage map of white lupin highlights synteny with narrow-leafed lupin and provides markers tagging key agronomic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książkiewicz, Michał; Nazzicari, Nelson; Yang, Hua'an; Nelson, Matthew N; Renshaw, Daniel; Rychel, Sandra; Ferrari, Barbara; Carelli, Maria; Tomaszewska, Magdalena; Stawiński, Stanisław; Naganowska, Barbara; Wolko, Bogdan; Annicchiarico, Paolo

    2017-11-10

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a valuable source of seed protein, carbohydrates and oil, but requires genetic improvement to attain its agronomic potential. This study aimed to (i) develop a new high-density consensus linkage map based on new, transcriptome-anchored markers; (ii) map four important agronomic traits, namely, vernalization requirement, seed alkaloid content, and resistance to anthracnose and Phomopsis stem blight; and, (iii) define regions of synteny between the L. albus and narrow-leafed lupin (L. angustifolius L.) genomes. Mapping of white lupin quantitative trait loci (QTLs) revealed polygenic control of vernalization responsiveness and anthracnose resistance, as well as a single locus regulating seed alkaloid content. We found high sequence collinearity between white and narrow-leafed lupin genomes. Interestingly, the white lupin QTLs did not correspond to previously mapped narrow-leafed lupin loci conferring vernalization independence, anthracnose resistance, low alkaloids and Phomopsis stem blight resistance, highlighting different genetic control of these traits. Our suite of allele-sequenced and PCR validated markers tagging these QTLs is immediately applicable for marker-assisted selection in white lupin breeding. The consensus map constitutes a platform for synteny-based gene cloning approaches and can support the forthcoming white lupin genome sequencing efforts.

  18. A gene-based linkage map for Bicyclus anynana butterflies allows for a comprehensive analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beldade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopterans (butterflies and moths are a rich and diverse order of insects, which, despite their economic impact and unusual biological properties, are relatively underrepresented in terms of genomic resources. The genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been fully sequenced, but comparative lepidopteran genomics has been hampered by the scarcity of information for other species. This is especially striking for butterflies, even though they have diverse and derived phenotypes (such as color vision and wing color patterns and are considered prime models for the evolutionary and developmental analysis of ecologically relevant, complex traits. We focus on Bicyclus anynana butterflies, a laboratory system for studying the diversification of novelties and serially repeated traits. With a panel of 12 small families and a biphasic mapping approach, we first assigned 508 expressed genes to segregation groups and then ordered 297 of them within individual linkage groups. We also coarsely mapped seven color pattern loci. This is the richest gene-based map available for any butterfly species and allowed for a broad-coverage analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome. Based on 462 pairs of mapped orthologous markers in Bi. anynana and Bo. mori, we observed strong conservation of gene assignment to chromosomes, but also evidence for numerous large- and small-scale chromosomal rearrangements. With gene collections growing for a variety of target organisms, the ability to place those genes in their proper genomic context is paramount. Methods to map expressed genes and to compare maps with relevant model systems are crucial to extend genomic-level analysis outside classical model species. Maps with gene-based markers are useful for comparative genomics and to resolve mapped genomic regions to a tractable number of candidate genes, especially if there is synteny with related model species. This is discussed in relation to the identification of

  19. Genetic-linkage mapping of complex hereditary disorders to a whole-genome molecular-interaction network

    OpenAIRE

    Iossifov, Ivan; Zheng, Tian; Baron, Miron; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    Common hereditary neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are most likely both genetically multifactorial and heterogeneous. Because of these characteristics traditional methods for genetic analysis fail when applied to such diseases. To address the problem we propose a novel probabilistic framework that combines the standard genetic linkage formalism with whole-genome molecular-interaction data to predict pathways or networks of interacting genes that...

  20. Survival quantitative trait locus fine mapping by measuring and testing for Hardy-Weinberg and linkage disequilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J

    2007-05-01

    I show that fine-scale localization of a survival-related locus can be accomplished on the basis of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium at closely linked marker loci. The method is based on chi(2)-tests and they can be performed for age-specific samples of alive (or dead) individuals, as for combined samples of alive and dead individuals.

  1. An Improved Consensus Linkage Map of Barley Based on Flow-Sorted Chromosomes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Muñoz-Amatriaín

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made it easier to combine information from different mapping populations into consensus genetic maps, which provide increased marker density and genome coverage compared to individual maps. Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genotyping platform was developed and used to genotype 373 individuals in four barley ( L. mapping populations. This led to a 2943 SNP consensus genetic map with 975 unique positions. In this work, we add data from six additional populations and more individuals from one of the original populations to develop an improved consensus map from 1133 individuals. A stringent and systematic analysis of each of the 10 populations was performed to achieve uniformity. This involved reexamination of the four populations included in the previous map. As a consequence, we present a robust consensus genetic map that contains 2994 SNP loci mapped to 1163 unique positions. The map spans 1137.3 cM with an average density of one marker bin per 0.99 cM. A novel application of the genotyping platform for gene detection allowed the assignment of 2930 genes to flow-sorted chromosomes or arms, confirmed the position of 2545 SNP-mapped loci, added chromosome or arm allocations to an additional 370 SNP loci, and delineated pericentromeric regions for chromosomes 2H to 7H. Marker order has been improved and map resolution has been increased by almost 20%. These increased precision outcomes enable more optimized SNP selection for marker-assisted breeding and support association genetic analysis and map-based cloning. It will also improve the anchoring of DNA sequence scaffolds and the barley physical map to the genetic map.

  2. Linkage mapping of the gene for Type III collagen (COL3A1) to human chromosome 2q using a VNTR polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A.; Summar, M.L. (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1994-03-15

    The gene for the [alpha]1(III) chain of type III collagen, COL3A1, has been previously mapped to human chromosome 2q24.3-q31 by in situ hybridization. Physical mapping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has demonstrated that COL3A1 lies within 35 kb of COL5A2. The authors genotyped the CEPH families at the COL3A2 locus using a pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism within intron 25. They demonstrated significant linkage to 18 anonymous markers as well as the gene for carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPSI), which had been previously mapped to this region. No recombination was seen between COL3A1 and COL5A2 (Z = 9.93 at [theta] = 0) or D2S24 (Z = 10.55 at [theta] = 0). The locus order is (D2S32-D2S138-D2S148)-(D2S24-COL5A2-COL3A1)-(D2S118-D2S161), with odds of 1:2300 for the next most likely order. These relationships are consistent with the physical mapping of COL3A1 to the distal portion of 2q and place it proximal to CPSI by means of multipoint analysis. These linkage relationships should prove useful in further studies of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and carbamyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency and provide an additional framework for localizing other genes in this region. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A Sequence-Anchored Linkage Map of the Plant–Parasitic Nematode Meloidogyne hapla Reveals Exceptionally High Genome-Wide Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Varghese P.; Fudali, Sylwia L.; Schaff, Jennifer E.; Liu, Qingli; Scholl, Elizabeth H.; Opperman, Charles H.; Bird, David McK; Williamson, Valerie M.

    2012-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) cause major yield losses to many of the world’s crops, but efforts to understand how these pests recognize and interact with their hosts have been hampered by a lack of genetic resources. Starting with progeny of a cross between inbred strains (VW8 and VW9) of Meloidogyne hapla that differed in host range and behavioral traits, we exploited the novel, facultative meiotic parthenogenic reproductive mode of this species to produce a genetic linkage map. Molecular markers were derived from SNPs identified between the sequenced and annotated VW9 genome and de novo sequence of VW8. Genotypes were assessed in 183 F2 lines. The colinearity of the genetic and physical maps supported the veracity of both. Analysis of local crossover intervals revealed that the average recombination rate is exceptionally high compared with that in other metazoans. In addition, F2 lines are largely homozygous for markers flanking crossover points, and thus resemble recombinant inbred lines. We suggest that the unusually high recombination rate may be an adaptation to generate within-population genetic diversity in this organism. This work presents the most comprehensive linkage map of a parasitic nematode to date and, together with genomic and transcript sequence resources, empowers M. hapla as a tractable model. Alongside the molecular map, these progeny lines can be used for analyses of genome organization and the inheritance of phenotypic traits that have key functions in modulating parasitism, behavior, and survival and for the eventual identification of the responsible genes. PMID:22870404

  4. Relatedness mapping and tracts of relatedness for genome-wide data in the presence of linkage disequilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Anders; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moltke, Ida

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of relatedness have several applications such as the identification of relatives or in identifying disease related genes through identity by descent (IBD) mapping. Here we present a new method for identifying IBD tracts among individuals from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms ...... considerable improvement in mapping power in natural populations compared to standard association mapping methods. Genet. Epidemiol. 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc....... provides a map of the local relatedness along the genome. We illustrate the potential of the method for mapping disease genes on a real data set, and show that the method has the potential to map causative disease mutations using only a handful of affected individuals. The new IBD mapping method provides...

  5. Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Mapping of Halo Blight Resistance in Common Bean to Race 6 of the Globally Important Bacterial Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Tock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psph Race 6 is a globally prevalent and broadly virulent bacterial pathogen with devastating impact causing halo blight of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Common bean lines PI 150414 and CAL 143 are known sources of resistance against this pathogen. We constructed high-resolution linkage maps for three recombinant inbred populations to map resistance to Psph Race 6 derived from the two common bean lines. This was complemented with a genome-wide association study (GWAS of Race 6 resistance in an Andean Diversity Panel of common bean. Race 6 resistance from PI 150414 maps to a single major-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL; HB4.2 on chromosome Pv04 and confers broad-spectrum resistance to eight other races of the pathogen. Resistance segregating in a Rojo × CAL 143 population maps to five chromosome arms and includes HB4.2. GWAS detected one QTL (HB5.1 on chromosome Pv05 for resistance to Race 6 with significant influence on seed yield. The same HB5.1 QTL, found in both Canadian Wonder × PI 150414 and Rojo × CAL 143 populations, was effective against Race 6 but lacks broad resistance. This study provides evidence for marker-assisted breeding for more durable halo blight control in common bean by combining alleles of race-nonspecific resistance (HB4.2 from PI 150414 and race-specific resistance (HB5.1 from cv. Rojo.

  6. Identification of QTLs controlling grain protein concentration using a high-density SNP and SSR linkage map in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chaofeng; Zhai, Huijie; Wang, Huifang; Yue, Yafei; Zhang, Minghu; Li, Jinghui; Wen, Shaozhe; Guo, Ganggang; Zeng, Yawen; Ni, Zhongfu; You, Mingshan

    2017-07-11

    Grain protein concentration (GPC) is a major determinant of quality in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Breeding barley cultivars with high GPC has practical value for feed and food properties. The aim of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GPC that could be detected under multiple environments. A population of 190 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) deriving from a cross between Chinese landrace ZGMLEL with high GPC (> 20%) and Australian cultivar Schooner was used for linkage and QTL analyses. The genetic linkage map spanned 2353.48 cM in length with an average locus interval of 2.33 cM. GPC was evaluated under six environments for the RIL population and the two parental lines. In total, six environmentally stable QTLs for GPC were detected on chromosomes 2H (1), 4H (1), 6H (1), and 7H (3) and the increasing alleles were derived from ZGMLEL. Notably, the three QTLs on chromosome 7H (QGpc.ZiSc-7H.1, QGpc.ZiSc-7H.2, and QGpc.ZiSc-7H.3) that linked in coupling phase were firstly identified. Moreover, the genetic effects of stable QTLs on chromosomes 2H, 6H and 7H were validated using near isogenic lines (NILs). Collectively, the identified QTLs expanded our knowledge about the genetic basis of GPC in barley and could be selected to develop cultivars with high grain protein concentration.

  7. Genetic-linkage mapping of complex hereditary disorders to a whole-genome molecular-interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iossifov, Ivan; Zheng, Tian; Baron, Miron; Gilliam, T Conrad; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    2008-07-01

    Common hereditary neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are most likely both genetically multifactorial and heterogeneous. Because of these characteristics traditional methods for genetic analysis fail when applied to such diseases. To address the problem we propose a novel probabilistic framework that combines the standard genetic linkage formalism with whole-genome molecular-interaction data to predict pathways or networks of interacting genes that contribute to common heritable disorders. We apply the model to three large genotype-phenotype data sets, identify a small number of significant candidate genes for autism (24), bipolar disorder (21), and schizophrenia (25), and predict a number of gene targets likely to be shared among the disorders.

  8. Neuropeptide Y receptor genes on human chromosome 4q31-q32 map to conserved linkage groups on mouse chromosomes 3 and 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, C.M.; Frankel, W.N. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States); Richards, J.E. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    Npy1r and Npy2r, the genes encoding mouse type 1 and type 2 neuropeptide Y receptors, have been mapped by interspecific backcross analysis. Previous studies have localized the human genes encoding these receptors to chromosome 4q31-q32. We have now assigned Npy1r and Npy2r to conserved linkage groups on mouse Chr 8 and Chr 3, respectively, which correspond to the distal region of human chromosome 4q. Using yeast artificial chromosomes, we have estimated the distance between the human genes to be approximately 6 cM. Although ancient tandem duplication events may account for some closely spaced G-protein-coupled receptor genes, the large genetic distance between the human type 1 and type 2 neuropeptide Y receptor genes raises questions about whether this mechanism accounts for their proximity. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielenberg, Douglas Gary; Rauh, Bradley; Fan, Shenghua; Gasic, Ksenija; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Okie, William R; Wells, Christina Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD) and chilling requirement (CR) and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR) and 'UFGold' (low CR). We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BD and CR.

  10. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gary Bielenberg

    Full Text Available Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD and chilling requirement (CR and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR and 'UFGold' (low CR. We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for BD and CR.

  11. Genome wide linkage study, using a 250K SNP map, of Plasmodium falciparum infection and mild malaria attack in a Senegalese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Milet

    Full Text Available Multiple factors are involved in the variability of host's response to P. falciparum infection, like the intensity and seasonality of malaria transmission, the virulence of parasite and host characteristics like age or genetic make-up. Although admitted nowadays, the involvement of host genetic factors remains unclear. Discordant results exist, even concerning the best-known malaria resistance genes that determine the structure or function of red blood cells. Here we report on a genome-wide linkage and association study for P. falciparum infection intensity and mild malaria attack among a Senegalese population of children and young adults from 2 to 18 years old. A high density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP genome scan (Affimetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 250K-nsp was performed for 626 individuals: i.e. 249 parents and 377 children out of the 504 ones included in the follow-up. The population belongs to a unique ethnic group and was closely followed-up during 3 years. Genome-wide linkage analyses were performed on four clinical and parasitological phenotypes and association analyses using the family based association tests (FBAT method were carried out in regions previously linked to malaria phenotypes in literature and in the regions for which we identified a linkage peak. Analyses revealed three strongly suggestive evidences for linkage: between mild malaria attack and both the 6p25.1 and the 12q22 regions (empirical p-value=5x10(-5 and 9x10(-5 respectively, and between the 20p11q11 region and the prevalence of parasite density in asymptomatic children (empirical p-value=1.5x10(-4. Family based association analysis pointed out one significant association between the intensity of plasmodial infection and a polymorphism located in ARHGAP26 gene in the 5q31-q33 region (p-value=3.7x10(-5. This study identified three candidate regions, two of them containing genes that could point out new pathways implicated in the response to malaria infection

  12. A genetic linkage map of the Durum x Triticum dicoccoides backcross population based on SSRs and AFLP markers, and QTL analysis for milling traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouafi, I; Nachit, M M

    2004-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var durum) is mainly produced and consumed in the Mediterranean region; it is used to produce several specific end-products; such as local pasta, couscous and burghul. To study the genetics of grain-milling quality traits, chromosomal locations, and interaction with the environment, a genetic linkage map of durum was constructed and the quantitative trait loci QTLs for the milling-related traits, test weight (TW) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW), were identified. The population constituted 114 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross: Omrabi 5 /Triticum dicoccoides 600545// Omrabi 5. TW and TKW were analyzed over 18 environments (sites x years). Single-sequence-repeat markers (SSRs), Amplified-fragment-length-polymorphism markers (AFLPs), and seed storage proteins (SSPs) showed a high level of polymorphism (>60%). The map was constructed with 124 SSRs, 149 AFLPs and 6 SSPs; its length covered 2,288.8 cM (8.2 cM/marker). The map showed high synteny with previous wheat maps, and both SSRs and AFLPs mapped evenly across the genome, with more markers in the B genome. However, some rearrangements were observed. For TW, a high genotypic effect was detected and two QTLs with epistasic effect were identified on 7AS and 6BS, explaining 30% of the total variation. The TKW showed a significant transgressive inheritance and five QTLs were identified, explaining 32% of the total variation, out of which 25% was of a genetic nature, and showing QTLxE interaction. The major TKW-QTLs were around the centromere region of 6B. For both traits, Omrabi 5 alleles had a significant positive effect. This population will be used to determine other QTLs of interest, as its parents are likely to harbor different genes for diseases and drought tolerance.

  13. Selection and validation of potato candidate genes for maturity corrected resistance to Phytophthora infestans based on differential expression combined with SNP association and linkage mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meki Shehabu Muktar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, is one of the most important bottlenecks of potato production worldwide. Cultivars with high levels of durable, race unspecific, quantitative resistance are part of a solution to this problem. However, breeding for quantitative resistance is hampered by the correlation between resistance and late plant maturity, which is an undesirable agricultural attribute. The objectives of our research are (i the identification of genes that condition quantitative resistance to P. infestans not compromised by late plant maturity and (ii the discovery of diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to be used as molecular tools to increase efficiency and precision of resistance breeding. Twenty two novel candidate genes were selected based on comparative transcript profiling by SuperSAGE (serial analysis of gene expression in groups of plants with contrasting levels of maturity corrected resistance (MCR. Reproducibility of differential expression was tested by quantitative real time PCR and allele specific pyrosequencing in four new sets of genotype pools with contrasting late blight resistance levels, at three infection time points and in three independent infection experiments. Reproducibility of expression patterns ranged from 28% to 97%. Association mapping in a panel of 184 tetraploid cultivars identified SNPs in five candidate genes that were associated with MCR. These SNPs can be used in marker-assisted resistance breeding. Linkage mapping in two half-sib families (n = 111 identified SNPs in three candidate genes that were linked with MCR. The differentially expressed genes that showed association and/or linkage with MCR putatively function in phytosterol synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, asparagine synthesis, chlorophyll synthesis, cell wall modification and in the response to pathogen elicitors.

  14. High-resolution linkage map and chromosome-scale genome assembly for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from 10 populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major staple crop in Africa, Asia, and South America, and its starchy roots provide nourishment for 800 million people worldwide. Although native to South America, cassava was brought to Africa 400-500 years ago and is now widely cultivated across sub-Saharan Africa, but it is subject to biotic and abiotic stresses. To assist in the rapid identification of markers for pathogen resistance and crop traits, and to accelerate breeding programs, we generated a framework map for M. esculenta Crantz from reduced representation sequencing [genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)]. The composite 2412-cM map integrates 10 biparental maps (comprising 3480 meioses) and organizes 22,403 genetic markers on 18 chromosomes, in agreement with the observed karyotype. We used the map to anchor 71.9% of the draft genome assembly and 90.7% of the predicted protein-coding genes. The chromosome-anchored genome sequence will be useful for breeding improvement by assisting in the rapid identification of markers linked to important traits, and in providing a framework for genomic selection-enhanced breeding of this important crop. Copyright © 2015 International Cassava Genetic Map Consortium (ICGMC).

  15. Using a Candidate Gene-Based Genetic Linkage Map to Identify QTL for Winter Survival in Perennial Ryegrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Paina

    Full Text Available Important agronomical traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne breeding programs such as winter survival and heading date, are quantitative traits that are generally controlled by multiple loci. Individually, these loci have relatively small effects. The aim of this study was to develop a candidate gene based Illumina GoldenGate 1,536-plex assay, containing single nucleotide polymorphism markers designed from transcripts involved in response to cold acclimation, vernalization, and induction of flowering. The assay was used to genotype a mapping population that we have also phenotyped for winter survival to complement the heading date trait previously mapped in this population. A positive correlation was observed between strong vernalization requirement and winter survival, and some QTL for winter survival and heading date overlapped on the genetic map. Candidate genes were located in clusters along the genetic map, some of which co-localized with QTL for winter survival and heading date. These clusters of candidate genes may be used in candidate gene based association studies to identify alleles associated with winter survival and heading date.

  16. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Seed Weight and Seed Size Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Goyal, Richa; Chahota, R K; Sharma, Tilak R; Abdin, M Z; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Seed weight and seed size both are quantitative traits and have been considered as important components of grain yield, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed traits in lentil (Lens culinaris) would be beneficial for the improvement of grain yield. Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for seed traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between L. culinaris cv. Precoz (seed weight-5.1g, seed size-5.7mm) and L. culinaris cv. L830 (seed weight-2.2g, seed size-4mm) comprising 126 F8-RILs. For this, two microsatellite genomic libraries enriched for (GA/CT) and (GAA/CTT) motif were constructed which resulted in the development of 501 new genomic SSR markers. Six hundred forty seven SSR markers (including 146 previously published) were screened for parental polymorphism and 219 (33.8%) were found to be polymorphic among the parents. Of these 216 were mapped on seven linkage groups at LOD4.0 spanning 1183.7cM with an average marker density of 5.48cM. Phenotypic data from the RILs was used to identify QTLs for the seed weight and seed size traits by single marker analysis (SMA) followed by composite interval mapping (CIM) which resulted in one QTL each for the 2 traits (qSW and qSS) that were co-localized on LG4 and explained 48.4% and 27.5% of phenotypic variance respectively. The current study would serve as a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in lentil breeding programs.

  17. A first linkage map and downy mildew resistance QTL discovery for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) facilitated by double digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Robert; Honig, Josh; Vaiciunas, Jennifer; Koroch, Adolfina; Wyenandt, Christian; Bonos, Stacy; Simon, James

    2017-01-01

    Limited understanding of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) genetics and genome structure has reduced efficiency of breeding strategies. This is evidenced by the rapid, worldwide dissemination of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) in the absence of resistant cultivars. In an effort to improve available genetic resources, expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and used to genotype the MRI x SB22 F2 mapping population, which segregates for response to downy mildew. SNP markers were generated from genomic sequences derived from double digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq). Disomic segregation was observed in both SNP and EST-SSR markers providing evidence of an O. basilicum allotetraploid genome structure and allowing for subsequent analysis of the mapping population as a diploid intercross. A dense linkage map was constructed using 42 EST-SSR and 1,847 SNP markers spanning 3,030.9 cM. Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) model (MQM) analysis identified three QTL that explained 37-55% of phenotypic variance associated with downy mildew response across three environments. A single major QTL, dm11.1 explained 21-28% of phenotypic variance and demonstrated dominant gene action. Two minor QTL dm9.1 and dm14.1 explained 5-16% and 4-18% of phenotypic variance, respectively. Evidence is provided for an additive effect between the two minor QTL and the major QTL dm11.1 increasing downy mildew susceptibility. Results indicate that ddRADseq-facilitated SNP and SSR marker genotyping is an effective approach for mapping the sweet basil genome.

  18. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Seed Weight and Seed Size Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Verma

    Full Text Available Seed weight and seed size both are quantitative traits and have been considered as important components of grain yield, thus identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL for seed traits in lentil (Lens culinaris would be beneficial for the improvement of grain yield. Hence the main objective of this study was to identify QTLs for seed traits using an intraspecific mapping population derived from a cross between L. culinaris cv. Precoz (seed weight-5.1g, seed size-5.7mm and L. culinaris cv. L830 (seed weight-2.2g, seed size-4mm comprising 126 F8-RILs. For this, two microsatellite genomic libraries enriched for (GA/CT and (GAA/CTT motif were constructed which resulted in the development of 501 new genomic SSR markers. Six hundred forty seven SSR markers (including 146 previously published were screened for parental polymorphism and 219 (33.8% were found to be polymorphic among the parents. Of these 216 were mapped on seven linkage groups at LOD4.0 spanning 1183.7cM with an average marker density of 5.48cM. Phenotypic data from the RILs was used to identify QTLs for the seed weight and seed size traits by single marker analysis (SMA followed by composite interval mapping (CIM which resulted in one QTL each for the 2 traits (qSW and qSS that were co-localized on LG4 and explained 48.4% and 27.5% of phenotypic variance respectively. The current study would serve as a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in lentil breeding programs.

  19. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter

    2011-01-01

    with interferon-α (INF-α) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NFКB1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...

  20. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette Juul; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter

    2011-01-01

    with interferon-a (INF-a) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NF¿B1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...

  1. High Density Linkage Map Construction and QTL Detection for Three Silique-Related Traits in Orychophragmus violaceus Derived Brassica napus Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds per silique (SS, seed weight (SW, and silique length (SL are important determinant traits of seed yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., and are controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs. Mapping QTLs to narrow chromosomal regions provides an effective means of characterizing the genetic basis of these complex traits. Orychophragmus violaceus is a crucifer with long siliques, many SS, and heavy seeds. A novel B. napus introgression line with many SS was previously selected from multiple crosses (B. rapa ssp. chinesis × O. violaceus × B. napus. In present study, a doubled haploid (DH population with 167 lines was established from a cross between the introgression line and a line with far fewer SS, in order to detect QTLs for silique-related traits. By screening with a Brassica 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array, a high-density linkage map consisting of 1,153 bins and spanning a cumulative length of 2,209.1 cM was constructed, using 12,602 high-quality polymorphic SNPs in the DH population. The average recombination bin densities of the A and C subgenomes were 1.7 and 2.4 cM, respectively. 45 QTLs were identified for the three traits in all, which explained 4.0–34.4% of the total phenotypic variation; 20 of them were integrated into three unique QTLs by meta-analysis. These unique QTLs revealed a significant positive correlation between SS and SL and a significant negative correlation between SW and SS, and were mapped onto the linkage groups A05, C08, and C09. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed eight, four, and seven consensus QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, and five major QTLs (cqSS.A09b, cqSS.C09, cqSW.A05, cqSW.C09, and cqSL.C09 were identified. Five, three, and four QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, might be novel QTLs because of the existence of alien genetic loci for these traits in the alien introgression. Thirty-eight candidate genes underlying nine QTLs for silique

  2. High Density Linkage Map Construction and QTL Detection for Three Silique-Related Traits inOrychophragmus violaceusDerivedBrassica napusPopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Shen, Yusen; Li, Shunda; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2017-01-01

    Seeds per silique (SS), seed weight (SW), and silique length (SL) are important determinant traits of seed yield potential in rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.), and are controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Mapping QTLs to narrow chromosomal regions provides an effective means of characterizing the genetic basis of these complex traits. Orychophragmus violaceus is a crucifer with long siliques, many SS, and heavy seeds. A novel B. napus introgression line with many SS was previously selected from multiple crosses ( B. rapa ssp. chinesis × O. violaceus ) × B. napus . In present study, a doubled haploid (DH) population with 167 lines was established from a cross between the introgression line and a line with far fewer SS, in order to detect QTLs for silique-related traits. By screening with a Brassica 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, a high-density linkage map consisting of 1,153 bins and spanning a cumulative length of 2,209.1 cM was constructed, using 12,602 high-quality polymorphic SNPs in the DH population. The average recombination bin densities of the A and C subgenomes were 1.7 and 2.4 cM, respectively. 45 QTLs were identified for the three traits in all, which explained 4.0-34.4% of the total phenotypic variation; 20 of them were integrated into three unique QTLs by meta-analysis. These unique QTLs revealed a significant positive correlation between SS and SL and a significant negative correlation between SW and SS, and were mapped onto the linkage groups A05, C08, and C09. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed eight, four, and seven consensus QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, and five major QTLs ( cqSS.A09b, cqSS.C09, cqSW.A05, cqSW.C09 , and cqSL.C09 ) were identified. Five, three, and four QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, might be novel QTLs because of the existence of alien genetic loci for these traits in the alien introgression. Thirty-eight candidate genes underlying nine QTLs for silique

  3. High Density Linkage Map Construction and QTL Detection for Three Silique-Related Traits in Orychophragmus violaceus Derived Brassica napus Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Shen, Yusen; Li, Shunda; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2017-01-01

    Seeds per silique (SS), seed weight (SW), and silique length (SL) are important determinant traits of seed yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), and are controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Mapping QTLs to narrow chromosomal regions provides an effective means of characterizing the genetic basis of these complex traits. Orychophragmus violaceus is a crucifer with long siliques, many SS, and heavy seeds. A novel B. napus introgression line with many SS was previously selected from multiple crosses (B. rapa ssp. chinesis × O. violaceus) × B. napus. In present study, a doubled haploid (DH) population with 167 lines was established from a cross between the introgression line and a line with far fewer SS, in order to detect QTLs for silique-related traits. By screening with a Brassica 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, a high-density linkage map consisting of 1,153 bins and spanning a cumulative length of 2,209.1 cM was constructed, using 12,602 high-quality polymorphic SNPs in the DH population. The average recombination bin densities of the A and C subgenomes were 1.7 and 2.4 cM, respectively. 45 QTLs were identified for the three traits in all, which explained 4.0–34.4% of the total phenotypic variation; 20 of them were integrated into three unique QTLs by meta-analysis. These unique QTLs revealed a significant positive correlation between SS and SL and a significant negative correlation between SW and SS, and were mapped onto the linkage groups A05, C08, and C09. A trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed eight, four, and seven consensus QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, and five major QTLs (cqSS.A09b, cqSS.C09, cqSW.A05, cqSW.C09, and cqSL.C09) were identified. Five, three, and four QTLs for SS, SW, and SL, respectively, might be novel QTLs because of the existence of alien genetic loci for these traits in the alien introgression. Thirty-eight candidate genes underlying nine QTLs for silique-related traits

  4. Identification of Major Quantitative Trait Loci for Seed Oil Content in Soybeans by Combining Linkage and Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongce; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Zili; Chang, Fangguo; Kong, Jiejie; Gai, Junyi; Zhao, Tuanjie

    2017-01-01

    Soybean oil is the most widely produced vegetable oil in the world and its content in soybean seed is an important quality trait in breeding programs. More than 100 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for soybean oil content have been identified. However, most of them are genotype specific and/or environment sensitive. Here, we used both a linkage and association mapping methodology to dissect the genetic basis of seed oil content of Chinese soybean cultivars in various environments in the Jiang-Huai River Valley. One recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (NJMN-RIL), with 104 lines developed from a cross between M8108 and NN1138-2, was planted in five environments to investigate phenotypic data, and a new genetic map with 2,062 specific-locus amplified fragment markers was constructed to map oil content QTLs. A derived F2 population between MN-5 (a line of NJMN-RIL) and NN1138-2 was also developed to confirm one major QTL. A soybean breeding germplasm population (279 lines) was established to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 59,845 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism markers. In the NJMN-RIL population, 8 QTLs were found that explained a range of phenotypic variance from 6.3 to 26.3% in certain planting environments. Among them, qOil-5-1, qOil-10-1, and qOil-14-1 were detected in different environments, and qOil-5-1 was further confirmed using the secondary F2 population. Three loci located on chromosomes 5 and 20 were detected in a 2-year long GWAS, and one locus that overlapped with qOil-5-1 was found repeatedly and treated as the same locus. qOil-5-1 was further localized to a linkage disequilibrium block region of approximately 440 kb. These results will not only increase our understanding of the genetic control of seed oil content in soybean, but will also be helpful in marker-assisted selection for breeding high seed oil content soybean and gene cloning to elucidate the mechanisms of seed oil content.

  5. Mapping one form of autosomal dominant postaxial polydactyly type A to chromosome 7p15-q11.23 by linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishna, U.; Mehenni, H.; Antonarakis, S.E. [Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Postaxial polydactyly type-A (PAP-A) in humans is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by an extra digit in the ulnar and/or fibular side of the upper and/or lower extremities. The extra digit is well formed and articulates with the fifth, or extra, metacarpal/metatarsal, and thus it is usually functional. In order to map the gene responsible for PAP-A, we studied a five-generation Indian family of 37 individuals (15 of whom were affected). A genomewide search with highly informative polymorphic markers on part of the pedigree showed linkage between the PAP-A phenotype and markers on chromosome 7p15-q11.23 (no crossovers were found with D7S526, D7S795, D7S528, D7S521, D7S691, D7S667, D7S478, D7S1830, D7S803, D7S801, or ELN). The highest LOD score was obtained with marker D7S801 (Z{sub max} = 4.21; {theta} = 0). Haplotype analysis enabled the mapping of the PAP-A phenotype in this family between markers D7S2848 and D7S669. Analysis of additional families with PAP-A will narrow down the critical genomic region, facilitate positional cloning of the PAP-A gene, and/or uncover potential genetic heterogeneity. 42 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. An evaluation of the performance of HapMap SNP data in a Shanghai Chinese population: Analyses of allele frequency, linkage disequilibrium pattern and tagging SNPs transferability on chromosome 1q21-q25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HapMap project aimed to catalog millions of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the human genome in four major populations, in order to facilitate association studies of complex diseases. To examine the transferability of Han Chinese in Beijing HapMap data to the Southern Han Chinese in Shanghai, we performed comparative analyses between genotypes from over 4,500 SNPs in a 21 Mb region on chromosome 1q21-q25 in 80 unrelated Shanghai Chinese and 45 HapMap Chinese data. Results Three thousand and forty-two SNPs were analyzed after removal of SNPs that failed quality control and those not in the HapMap panel. We compared the allele frequency distributions, linkage disequilibrium patterns, haplotype frequency distributions and tagging SNP sets transferability between the HapMap population and Shanghai Chinese population. Among the four HapMap populations, Beijing Chinese showed the best correlation with Shanghai population on allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype frequencies. Tagging SNP sets selected from four HapMap populations at different thresholds were evaluated in the Shanghai sample. Under the threshold of r2 equal to 0.8 or 0.5, both HapMap Chinese and Japanese data showed better coverage and tagging efficiency than Caucasian and African data. Conclusion Our study supported the applicability of HapMap Beijing Chinese SNP data to the study of complex diseases among southern Chinese population.

  7. An evaluation of the performance of HapMap SNP data in a Shanghai Chinese population: analyses of allele frequency, linkage disequilibrium pattern and tagging SNPs transferability on chromosome 1q21-q25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping; Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Congrong; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Jie; Ma, Xiaojing; Xiang, Kunsan

    2008-02-27

    The HapMap project aimed to catalog millions of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome in four major populations, in order to facilitate association studies of complex diseases. To examine the transferability of Han Chinese in Beijing HapMap data to the Southern Han Chinese in Shanghai, we performed comparative analyses between genotypes from over 4,500 SNPs in a 21 Mb region on chromosome 1q21-q25 in 80 unrelated Shanghai Chinese and 45 HapMap Chinese data. Three thousand and forty-two SNPs were analyzed after removal of SNPs that failed quality control and those not in the HapMap panel. We compared the allele frequency distributions, linkage disequilibrium patterns, haplotype frequency distributions and tagging SNP sets transferability between the HapMap population and Shanghai Chinese population. Among the four HapMap populations, Beijing Chinese showed the best correlation with Shanghai population on allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype frequencies. Tagging SNP sets selected from four HapMap populations at different thresholds were evaluated in the Shanghai sample. Under the threshold of r2 equal to 0.8 or 0.5, both HapMap Chinese and Japanese data showed better coverage and tagging efficiency than Caucasian and African data. Our study supported the applicability of HapMap Beijing Chinese SNP data to the study of complex diseases among southern Chinese population.

  8. High-Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Salt-Tolerant QTLs at Seedling Stage in Upland Cotton Using Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latyr Diouf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 6% of agricultural land is affected by salinity. It is becoming obligatory to use saline soils, so growing salt-tolerant plants is a priority. To gain an understanding of the genetic basis of upland cotton tolerance to salinity at seedling stage, an intra-specific cross was developed from CCRI35, tolerant to salinity, as female with Nan Dan (NH, sensitive to salinity, as the male. A genetic map of 5178 SNP markers was developed from 277 F2:3 populations. The map spanned 4768.098 cM, with an average distance of 0.92 cM. A total of 66 QTLs for 10 traits related to salinity were detected in three environments (0, 110, and 150 mM salt treatment. Only 14 QTLs were consistent, accounting for 2.72% to 9.87% of phenotypic variation. Parental contributions were found to be in the ratio of 3:1, 10 QTLs from the sensitive and four QTLs from the resistant parent. Five QTLs were located in At and nine QTLs in the Dt sub-genome. Moreover, eight clusters were identified, in which 12 putative key genes were found to be related to salinity. The GBS-SNPs-based genetic map developed is the first high-density genetic map that has the potential to provide deeper insights into upland cotton salinity tolerance. The 12 key genes found in this study could be used for QTL fine mapping and cloning for further studies.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of a breast cancer susceptibility locus near RAI/PPPIRI3L/iASPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Olsen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    mapping. The study groups included 434 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and an identical number of individually matched controls. Methods and Results: Studying one marker at a time, we found a region spanning the gene RAI ( alias PPP1R13L or iASPP) and the 5' portion of XPD to be associated...... with cancers were located in the gene RAI and just 3' to the gene. Coinciding peaks were seen in the region of RAI in groups of women of different age. In a follow-up to these results we sequenced 10 cases and 10 controls in a 44 kb region spanning the peaks of association. This revealed 106 polymorphisms...

  10. Frequencies of VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms associated with factor VIII gene in Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, I.; Lai, P.S.; Ouah, T.C. [National Univ. of Singapore (Malaysia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The allelic frequency of any polymorphism within a population determines its usefulness for genetic counselling. This is important in populations of non-Caucasian origin as RFLPs may significantly differ among ethnic groups. We report a study of five intragenic polymorphisms in factor VIII gene carried out in Singapore. The three PCR-based RFLP markers studied were Intron 18/Bcl I, Intron 19/Hind III and Intron 22/Xba I. In an analysis of 148 unrelated normal X chromosomes, the allele frequencies were found to be A1 = 0.18, A2 = 0.82 (Bcl I RFLP), A1 = 0.80, A2 = 0.20 (Hind III RFLP) and A1 = 0.58, and A2 = 0.42 (Xba I RFLP). The heterozygosity rates of 74 females analyzed separately were 31%, 32% and 84.2%, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium was also observed to some degree between Bcl I and Hind III polymorphism in our population. We have also analyzed a sequence polymorphism in Intron 7 using hybridization with radioactive-labelled {sup 32}P allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. This polymorphism was not very polymorphic in our population with only 2% of 117 individuals analyzed being informative. However, the use of a hypervariable dinucleotide repeat sequence (VNTR) in Intron 13 showed that 25 of our of 27 (93%) females were heterozygous. Allele frequencies ranged from 1 to 55 %. We conclude that a viable strategy for molecular analysis of Hemophilia A families in our population should include the use of Intron 18/Bcl I and Intron 22/Xba I RFLP markers and the Intron 13 VNTR marker.

  11. Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Taigbenu, A. E.; Barron, J.

    2016-04-01

    The mappings of poverty and food insecurity were carried out for the rural districts of the four riparian countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) of the Limpopo river basin using the results of national surveys that were conducted between 2003 and 2013. The analysis shows lower range of food insecure persons (0-40%) than poverty stricken persons (0-95%) that is attributable to enhanced government and non-government food safety networks in the basin countries, the dynamic and transitory nature of food insecurity which depends on the timings of the surveys in relation to harvests, markets and food prices, and the limited dimension of food insecurity in relation to poverty which tends to be a more structural and pervasive socio-economic condition. The usefulness of this study in influencing policies and strategies targeted at alleviating poverty and improving rural livelihoods lies with using food insecurity mappings to address short-term socio-economic conditions and poverty mappings to address more structural and long-term deprivations. Using the poverty line of 1.25/day per person (2008-2013) in the basin, Zimbabwe had the highest percentage of 68.7% of its rural population classified as poor, followed by Mozambique with 68.2%, South Africa with 56.1% and Botswana with 20%. While average poverty reduction of 6.4% was observed between 2003 and 2009 in Botswana, its population growth of 20.1% indicated no real poverty reduction. Similar observations are made about Mozambique and Zimbabwe where population growth outstripped poverty reductions. In contrast, both average poverty levels and population increased by 4.3% and 11%, respectively, in South Africa from 2007 to 2010. While areas of high food insecurity and poverty consistently coincide with low water availability, it does not indicate a simple cause-effect relationship between water, poverty and food insecurity. With limited water resources, rural folks in the basin require stronger

  12. Assembly of the Genome of the Disease Vector Aedes aegypti onto a Genetic Linkage Map Allows Mapping of Genes Affecting Disease Transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Juneja, Punita

    2014-01-30

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait. © 2014 Juneja et al.

  13. Assembly of the genome of the disease vector Aedes aegypti onto a genetic linkage map allows mapping of genes affecting disease transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Juneja

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait.

  14. Genetic characterization and linkage disequilibrium mapping of resistance to gray leaf spot in maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Shi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gray leaf spot (GLS, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, is an important foliar disease of maize (Zea mays L. worldwide, resistance to which is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL. To gain insights into the genetic architecture underlying the resistance to this disease, an association mapping population consisting of 161 inbred lines was evaluated for resistance to GLS in a plant pathology nursery at Shenyang in 2010 and 2011. Subsequently, a genome-wide association study, using 41,101 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, identified 51 SNPs significantly (P < 0.001 associated with GLS resistance, which could be converted into 31 QTL. In addition, three candidate genes related to plant defense were identified, including nucleotide-binding-site/leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like kinase genes similar to those involved in basal defense. Two genic SNPs, PZE-103142893 and PZE-109119001, associated with GLS resistance in chromosome bins 3.07 and 9.07, can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS of GLS resistance. These results provide an important resource for developing molecular markers closely linked with the target trait, enhancing breeding efficiency.

  15. X-linked dominant cone-rod degeneration: Linkage mapping of a new locus for retinitis pigmentosa (RP15) to Xp22.13-p22.11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, R.E.; Sullivan, L.S.; Daiger, S.P. [Univ. of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is the name given to a heterogeneous group of hereditary retinal degenerations characterized by progressive visual field loss, pigmentary changes of the retina, abnormal electroretinograms, and, frequently, night blindness. In this study, we investigated a family with dominant cone-rod degeneration, a variant form of retinitis pigmentosa. We used microsatellite markers to test for linkage to the disease locus and exluded all mapped autosomal loci. However, a marker from the short arm of the X chromosome, DXS989, showed 0% recombination to the disease locus, with a maximum lod (log-odds) score of 3.3. On the basis of this marker, the odds favoring X-linked dominant versus autosomal dominant inheritance are > 10{sup 5}:1. Haplotype analysis using an additional nine microsatellite markers places the disease locus in the Xp22.13-p22.11 region and excludes other X-linked disease loci causing retinal degeneration. The clinical expression of the retinal degeneration is consistent with X-linked dominant inheritance with milder, variable effects of Lyonization affecting expression in females. On the basis of these data we propose that this family has a novel form of dominant, X-linked cone-rod degeneration with the gene symbol {open_quotes}RP15{close_quotes}. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Flavonoid-Deficient Mutants in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.: Genetic Control, Linkage Relationships, and Mapping with Aconitase and S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase Isozyme Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two flavonoid-deficient mutants, designated as fldL-1 and fldL-2, were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 10 h M2 progeny of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.. Both the mutants contained total leaf flavonoid content only 20% of their mother varieties. Genetic analysis revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of the trait, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. The two mutants differed significantly in banding patterns of leaf aconitase (ACO and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR isozymes, possessing unique bands in Aco 1, Aco 2, and Gsnor 2 loci. Isozyme loci inherited monogenically showing codominant expression in F2 (1 : 2 : 1 and backcross (1 : 1 segregations. Linkage studies and primary trisomic analysis mapped Aco 1 and fld 1 loci on extra chromosome of trisomic-I and Aco 2, fld 2, and Gsnor 2 on extra chromosome of trisomic-IV in linked associations.

  17. Fine-scale linkage mapping reveals a small set of candidate genes influencing honey bee grooming behavior in response to Varroa mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E Arechavaleta-Velasco

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees in North America have been experiencing high annual colony mortality for 15-20 years. Many apicultural researchers believe that introduced parasites called Varroa mites (V. destructor are the most important factor in colony deaths. One important resistance mechanism that limits mite population growth in colonies is the ability of some lines of honey bees to groom mites from their bodies. To search for genes influencing this trait, we used an Illumina Bead Station genotyping array to determine the genotypes of several hundred worker bees at over a thousand single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a family that was apparently segregating for alleles influencing this behavior. Linkage analyses provided a genetic map with 1,313 markers anchored to genome sequence. Genotypes were analyzed for association with grooming behavior, measured as the time that individual bees took to initiate grooming after mites were placed on their thoraces. Quantitative-trait-locus interval mapping identified a single chromosomal region that was significant at the chromosome-wide level (p<0.05 on chromosome 5 with a LOD score of 2.72. The 95% confidence interval for quantitative trait locus location contained only 27 genes (honey bee official gene annotation set 2 including Atlastin, Ataxin and Neurexin-1 (AmNrx1, which have potential neurodevelopmental and behavioral effects. Atlastin and Ataxin homologs are associated with neurological diseases in humans. AmNrx1 codes for a presynaptic protein with many alternatively spliced isoforms. Neurexin-1 influences the growth, maintenance and maturation of synapses in the brain, as well as the type of receptors most prominent within synapses. Neurexin-1 has also been associated with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia in humans, and self-grooming behavior in mice.

  18. Identification of candidate genes for fiber length quantitative trait loci through RNA-Seq and linkage and physical mapping in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xihua; Wu, Man; Liu, Guoyuan; Pei, Wenfeng; Zhai, Honghong; Yu, Jiwen; Zhang, Jinfa; Yu, Shuxun

    2017-05-31

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers are single-celled elongated trichomes, the molecular aspects of genetic variation in fiber length (FL) among genotypes are currently unknown. In this study, two backcross inbred lines (BILs), i.e., NMGA-062 ("Long") and NMGA-105 ("Short") with 32.1 vs. 27.2 mm in FL, respectively, were chosen to perform RNA-Seq on developing fibers at 10 days post anthesis (DPA). The two BILs differed in 4 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FL and were developed from backcrosses between G. hirsutum as the recurrent parent and G. barbadense. In total, 51.7 and 54.3 million reads were obtained and assembled to 49,508 and 49,448 transcripts in the two genotypes, respectively. Of 1551 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two BILs, 678 were up-regulated and 873 down-regulated in "Long"; and 703 SNPs were identified in 339 DEGs. Further physical mapping showed that 8 DEGs were co-localized with the 4 FL QTL identified in the BIL population containing the two BILs. Four SNP markers in 3 DEGs that showed significant correlations with FL were developed. Among the three candidate genes encoding for proline-rich protein, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and thaumatin-like protein, a SNP of thaumatin-like protein gene showed consistent correlations with FL across all testing environments. This study represents one of the first investigations of positional candidate gene approach of QTL in cotton in integrating transcriptome and SNP identification based on RNA-Seq with linkage and physical mapping of QTL and genes, which will facilitate eventual cloning and identification of genes responsible for FL QTL. The candidate genes may serve as the foundation for further in-depth studies of the molecular mechanism of natural variation in fiber elongation.

  19. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map and markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R E; Jellen, E N; Ladizinsky, G; Korol, A B; Kilian, A; Beard, J L; Dumlupinar, Z; Wisniewski-Morehead, N H; Svedin, E; Coon, M; Redman, R R; Maughan, P J; Obert, D E; Jackson, E W

    2011-11-01

    Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and resources for genetic improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid, A. magna Murphy et Terrell (syn A. maroccana Gdgr., 2n = 4x = 28, CCDD), which contains approximately 31% seed protein, was hybridized with cultivated oat to produce a domesticated A. magna. Wild and cultivated accessions were crossed to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Although these materials could be used to develop domesticated, high-protein oat, mapping and quantitative trait loci introgression is hindered by a near absence of genetic markers. Objectives of this study were to develop high-throughput, A. magna-specific markers; generate a genetic linkage map based on the A. magna RIL population; and map genes controlling oat domestication. A Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array derived from 10 A. magna genotypes was used to generate 2,688 genome-specific probes. These, with 12,672 additional oat clones, produced 2,349 polymorphic markers, including 498 (21.2%) from A. magna arrays and 1,851 (78.8%) from other Avena libraries. Linkage analysis included 974 DArT markers, 26 microsatellites, 13 SNPs, and 4 phenotypic markers, and resulted in a 14-linkage-group map. Marker-to-marker correlation coefficient analysis allowed classification of shared markers as unique or redundant, and putative linkage-group-to-genome anchoring. Results of this study provide for the first time a collection of high-throughput tetraploid oat markers and a comprehensive map of the genome, providing insights to the genome ancestry of oat and affording a resource for study of oat domestication, gene transfer, and comparative genomics.

  20. Construction of a high-resolution linkage map of Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility conferred by DCGMS cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using synteny between radish and Arabidopsis genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngcho; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Han, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sunggil

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility caused by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus (Rfd1) with a linked molecular marker (A137) have been reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus, linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were screened using bulked segregant analysis. A 220-bp linked AFLP fragment sequence from radish showed homology with an Arabidopsis coding sequence. Using this Arabidopsis gene sequence, a simple PCR marker (A220) was developed. The A137 and A220 markers flanked the Rfd1 locus. Two homologous Arabidopsis genes with both marker sequences were positioned on Arabidopsis chromosome-3 with an interval of 2.4 Mb. To integrate the Rfd1 locus into a previously reported expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, the radish EST sequences located in three syntenic blocks within the 2.4-Mb interval were used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for tagging each block. The SNP marker in linkage group-2 co-segregated with male fertility in an F(2) population. Using radish ESTs positioned in linkage group-2, five intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker were developed and used to construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus. Two closely linked markers delimited the Rfd1 locus within a 985-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3. Synteny between the radish and Arabidopsis genomes in the 985-kb interval were used to develop three ILP and three CAPS markers. Two ILP markers further delimited the Rfd1 locus to a 220-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3.

  1. High-resolution mapping reveals linkage between genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Giseli; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; de Lima Castro, Sandra Aparecida; Cregan, Perry B; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A

    2017-08-01

    Co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping using SNP, SSR, and KASP markers demonstrated genetic linkage between Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 loci conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot diseases of common bean. Rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot are major diseases of common bean in the Americas and Africa. The cultivar Ouro Negro has the Ur-14 gene that confers broad spectrum resistance to rust and the gene cluster Co-3 4 /Phg-3 containing two tightly linked genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, respectively. We used co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping of 179 F2:3 families from the Rudá (susceptible) × Ouro Negro (resistant) cross-phenotyped separately with races of the rust and anthracnose pathogens. The results confirmed that Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster in Ouro Negro conferred resistance to rust and anthracnose, respectively, and that Ur-14 and the Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster were closely linked. Genotyping the F2:3 families, first with 5398 SNPs on the Illumina BeadChip BARCBEAN6K_3 and with 15 SSR, and eight KASP markers, specifically designed for the candidate region containing Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3, permitted the creation of a high-resolution genetic linkage map which revealed that Ur-14 was positioned at 2.2 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3 on the short arm of chromosome Pv04 of the common bean genome. Five flanking SSR markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.2 cM from Ur-14, and two flanking KASP markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.3 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3. Many other SSR, SNP, and KASP markers were also linked to these genes. These markers will be useful for the development of common bean cultivars combining the important Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 genes conferring resistance to three of the most destructive diseases of common bean.

  2. A genetic map of an Australian wild Gossypium C genome and assignment of homoeologies with tetraploid cultivated cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, L A; Matheson, B; Brubaker, C L

    2011-09-01

    Genetic diversity for traits such as fibre quality or disease resistance to microorganisms is limited in the elite cotton germplasm; consequently, cotton breeders are looking for novel alleles in the secondary or even in the tertiary gene pools. The wild Australian Gossypium species (tertiary gene pool) represent an alternative source of novel alleles. However, to use these species efficiently, enabling tools are required. Chromosome-specific molecular markers are particularly useful tools to track the transmission of this exotic genetic material into the cultivated cotton during introgression. In this study, we report the construction of a genetic linkage map of the Australian wild C-genome species Gossypium sturtianum. The map, based on an F(2) population of 114 individuals, contains 291 AFLP loci. The map spans 1697 cM with an average distance of 5.8 cM between markers. To associate C-genome chromosomes with the A and D subgenomes of cultivated cotton, 29 SSR and RFLP-STS markers were assigned to chromosomes using cultivated cotton mapped marker information. Polymorphisms were revealed by 51 AFLP primer combinations and 38 RFLP-STS and 115 SSR cotton mapped markers. The utility of transferring RFLP-STS and SSR cotton mapped markers to other Gossypium species shows the usefulness of a comparative approach as a source of markers and for aligning the genetic map of G. sturtianum with the cultivated species in the future. This also indicates that the overall structure of the G. sturtianum linkage groups is similar to that of the A and D subgenomes of cotton at the gross structural level. Applications of the map for the Australia wild C-genome species and cotton breeding are discussed.

  3. RFLP's in de plantenveredeling: het gebruik van RFLP's (Restrictie Fragment Lengte Polymorfismen) voor de constructie van genenkaarten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenvoort, M.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Recente ontwikkelingen in de moleculaire biologie hebben het mogelijk gemaakt de variatie in het DNA op moleculair niveau zichtbaar te maken, RFLP's. Met behulp van RFLP's zijn in korte tijd zeer gedetailleerde moleculaire kaarten geconstrueerd, vooral in zelfbevruchtende (homozygote) gewassen zoals

  4. A high-resolution linkage map of the Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) produced by a combination of bulked segregant analysis and RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Pyo; Cho, Youngcho; Kim, Sunggil

    2014-10-01

    We utilized a combination of BSA and RNA-Seq to identify SNPs linked to the Rfd1 locus, a restorer-of-fertility gene in radish. A high-density linkage map was constructed using this approach. Male fertility of cytoplasmic male sterility conditioned by the Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility cytoplasm can be restored by a restorer-of-fertility locus, Rfd1, in radish. To construct a high-density linkage map and to identify a candidate gene for the Rfd1 locus, bulked segregant analysis and RNA-seq approaches were combined. A total of 26 and 28 million reads produced from male-fertile and male-sterile bulked RNA were mapped to the radish reference unigenes. After stringent screening of SNPs, 327 reliable SNPs of 109 unigenes were selected. Arabidopsis homologs for 101 of the 109 genes were clustered around the 4,000 kb region of Arabidopsis chromosome 3, which was syntenic to the Rfd1 flanking region. Since the reference unigene set was incomplete, the contigs were de novo assembled to identify 134 contigs harboring SNPs. Most of SNP-containing contigs were also clustered on the same syntenic region in Arabidopsis chromosome. A total of 21 molecular markers positioned within a 2.1 cM interval including the Rfd1 locus were developed, based on the selected unigenes and contigs. A segregating population consisting of 10,459 individuals was analyzed to identify recombinants containing crossovers within this interval. A total of 284 identified recombinants were then used to construct a high-density map, which delimited the Rfd1 locus into an 83-kb syntenic interval of Arabidopsis chromosome 3. Since no candidate gene, such as a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR)-coding gene, was found in this interval, 231 unigenes and 491 contigs containing putative PPR motifs were analyzed further, but no PPR gene in linkage disequilibrium with the Rfd1 locus could be found.

  5. RFLP's in de plantenveredeling: staan de moleculaire vlaggen voor een revolutie in de veredeling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, den A.P.M.; Wagenvoort, M.

    1988-01-01

    Beschouwing over de ontwikkelingen, toepassingsmogelijkheden en beperkingen van RFLP's. De SVP is betrokken bij mais- en aardappel-RFLP onderzoek. Toepassingen van RFLP's in de plantenveredeling zijn: identificatie van rassen en ouderlijnen, en de bepaling van de zuiverheid van hybriden;

  6. An introduction to recombination and linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcpeek, M.S. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    With a garden as his laboratory, Mendel was able to discern basic probabilistic laws of heredity. Although it first appeared as a baffling exception to one of Mendel`s principles, the phenomenon of variable linkage between characters was soon recognized to be a powerful tool in the process of chromosome mapping and location of genes of interest. In this introduction, we first describe Mendel`s work and the subsequent discovery of linkage. Next we describe the apparent cause of variable linkage, namely recombination, and we introduce linkage analysis. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Strains through RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis José Carrión

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmosis is a disease that considerably affects the poultry sector, which is reflected in the decrease of the production parameters in fertile and commercial egg laying broilers. Presentation costs are so high that it is impossible for the poultry industry to survive without thinking of its effective control or eradication. There is great interest in the type of M. gallisepticum (Mg strains, both vaccine and field, which are key aspects to handle the disease, but there is still no definitive method for Mg strain characterization. Genes related to surface proteins —gapA and mgc2,lipoprotein (lp— that make it possible to identify and characterize the Mg genomically are currently being studied. In this study, regions of the lp gene were amplified from strains F and Ts-11 of Mg through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique, which gave an amplicon of 455 bp for each of the strains; each of the amplicons was applied the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP test with the Taq I enzyme, which made it possible to differentiate vaccine strains from field strains obtained from tracheal swab samples taken at commercial farms. It was demonstrated that PCRRFLP is an appropriate method of diagnosis of mycoplasmosis in our environment.

  8. Tools for T-RFLP data analysis using Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Nils Johan; Hermansson, Malte; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2014-11-08

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a DNA-fingerprinting method that can be used for comparisons of the microbial community composition in a large number of samples. There is no consensus on how T-RFLP data should be treated and analyzed before comparisons between samples are made, and several different approaches have been proposed in the literature. The analysis of T-RFLP data can be cumbersome and time-consuming, and for large datasets manual data analysis is not feasible. The currently available tools for automated T-RFLP analysis, although valuable, offer little flexibility, and few, if any, options regarding what methods to use. To enable comparisons and combinations of different data treatment methods an analysis template and an extensive collection of macros for T-RFLP data analysis using Microsoft Excel were developed. The Tools for T-RFLP data analysis template provides procedures for the analysis of large T-RFLP datasets including application of a noise baseline threshold and setting of the analysis range, normalization and alignment of replicate profiles, generation of consensus profiles, normalization and alignment of consensus profiles and final analysis of the samples including calculation of association coefficients and diversity index. The procedures are designed so that in all analysis steps, from the initial preparation of the data to the final comparison of the samples, there are various different options available. The parameters regarding analysis range, noise baseline, T-RF alignment and generation of consensus profiles are all given by the user and several different methods are available for normalization of the T-RF profiles. In each step, the user can also choose to base the calculations on either peak height data or peak area data. The Tools for T-RFLP data analysis template enables an objective and flexible analysis of large T-RFLP datasets in a widely used spreadsheet application.

  9. A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and extent of linkage disequilibrium in two genotype-phenotype discovery populations of Pinua taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared W. Westbrook; Vikram E. Chhatre; Le-Shin Wu; Srikar Chamala; Leandro Gomide Neves; Patricio Munoz; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Keithanne Mockaitis; C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis; Craig S. Echt

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via...

  10. The linkage between the lifestyle of knowledge-workers and their intra-metropolitan residential choice: A clustering approach based on self-organizing maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home-ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. Data are retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in the Tel-Aviv metropo...

  11. Patterns of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in a highly structured Hordeum vulgare association-mapping population for the Mediterranean basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comodran, J.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Stanca, A.M.; Pecchioni, N.; Akar, T.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benbelkacem, A.; Ouabbou, H.; Bort, J.; Romagosa, I.; Hackett, C.A.; Russel, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Population structure and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) were investigated in 192 Hordeum vulgare accessions providing a comprehensive coverage of past and present barley breeding in the Mediterranean basin, using 50 nuclear microsatellite and 1,130 DArT® markers. Both clustering and

  12. CONGENITAL FIBROSIS OF THE EXTRAOCULAR-MUSCLES (AUTOSOMAL-DOMINANT CONGENITAL EXTERNAL OPHTHALMOPLEGIA) - GENETIC HOMOGENEITY, LINKAGE REFINEMENT, AND PHYSICAL MAPPING ON CHROMOSOME-12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ENGLE, EC; MARONDEL, [No Value; HOUTMAN, WA; DEVRIES, B; LOEWENSTEIN, A; LAZAR, M; WARD, DC; KUCHERLAPATI, R; BEGGS, AH

    1995-01-01

    Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) is an autosomal dominant syndrome of congenital external ophthalmoplegia and bilateral ptosis. We previously reported linkage of this disorder in two unrelated families to an 8-cM region near the centromere of human chromosome 12. We now present

  13. A GBS-SNP-based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Farnham, Mark W; Patrick Wechter, W

    2017-02-01

    A major QTL for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 was mapped to a narrow 1.2 Mb interval using a high-density GBS-SNP linkage map, the first map of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides. Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, does not exist in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Cll) and has been well described in a few plant introductions of the wild subspecies of watermelon, C. lanatus var. citroides (Clc). Clc provides a vital source of genetic diversity, as well as resistance to numerous diseases. Unfortunately, both genetic diversity and disease resistance are lacking in Cll due to the narrow genetic base. Despite the importance of Clc to continued watermelon improvement, intra-variety genetic studies are lacking. Here, we present the first Clc genetic linkage map, generated with 2495 single nucleotide polymorphisms developed through genotyping-by-sequencing, and use it to identify quantitative trait loci associated with Fon race 2 resistance. Multiple QTL mapping in a Clc F2:3 population (N = 173) identified one major and four minor QTL. The major QTL explained 43% of the variation in Fon race 2 resistance and was delimited to a 1.2-Mb interval on chromosome 9, a region spanning 44 genes.

  14. Power of non-parametric linkage analysis in mapping genes contributing to human longevity in long-lived sib-pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, J H; Iachine, I

    2004-01-01

    This report investigates the power issue in applying the non-parametric linkage analysis of affected sib-pairs (ASP) [Kruglyak and Lander, 1995: Am J Hum Genet 57:439-454] to localize genes that contribute to human longevity using long-lived sib-pairs. Data were simulated by introducing a recentl...... in case of a dominant effect. Although the power issue may depend heavily on the true genetic nature in maintaining survival, our study suggests that results from small-scale sib-pair investigations should be referred with caution, given the complexity of human longevity....

  15. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  16. The close linkage between the elasticity modulus measured by real-time mapping shear wave elastography and the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with a sustained virological response to interferon for chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yasuharu; Taira, Jun-Ichi; Okada, Mayumi; Ando, Mayumi; Sano, Takatomo; Miyata, Yuhki; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Nakamura, Ikuo; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2015-07-01

    Some patients develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after sustained virological response (SVR) to interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CH-C). The aim of this study was to examine the linkage between liver elasticity and the presence/absence of HCC in patients after SVR. We enrolled 42 patients who underwent real-time mapping shear wave elastography (SWE) after SVR to interferon therapy for CH-C. Of the 42 patients, six had HCC and 36 did not. We retrospectively compared the elasticity modulus and other clinical parameters between patients with and without HCC. Elasticity modulus measured by SWE, age, and serum albumin was significantly different between patients with and without HCC. Age, Fibrosis-4 index, serum gamma-globulin, total protein, and albumin levels were significantly correlated with the elasticity modulus. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves of elasticity modulus, gamma-globulin, and age for the presence of HCC were 0.963, 0.888, and 0.778, respectively. In patients with an elasticity modulus ≥6.5 kPa, both sensitivity and specificity for the presence of HCC were 83.3 %. The study demonstrated the close linkage between the elasticity modulus measured by SWE and the presence of HCC in patients after SVR.

  17. Linkage analysis of the Fanconi anemia gene FACC with chromosome 9q markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, A.D.; Shin, H.T.; Kaporis, A.G. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous syndrome, with at least four different complementation groups as determined by cell fusion studies. The gene for complementation group C, FACC, has been cloned and mapped to chromosome 9q22.3 by in situ hybridization, while linkage analysis has supported the placement of another gene on chromosome 20q. We have analyzed five microsatellite markers and one RFLP on chromosome 9q in a panel of FA families from the International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR) in order to place FACC on the genetic map. Polymorphisms were typed in 308 individuals from 51 families. FACC is tightly linked to both D9S151 [{Theta}{sub max}=0.025, Z{sub max}=7.75] and to D9S196 [{Theta}{sub max}=0.041, Z{sub max}=7.89]; multipoint analysis is in progress. We are currently screening a YAC clone that contains the entire FACC gene for additional microsatellite markers suitable for haplotype analysis of FA families.

  18. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Perri, Alessandra; Nell, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential cha...... in strongly competitive environments tend to shy away from high quality linkages. We discuss our findings in light of the literature on spillovers and inter-organizational linkages.......This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential...... channels for spillovers to competitors. We find a curvilinear relationship between the extent of competitive pressure and the quality of a subsidiary's set of local linkages. Furthermore, the extent to which a subsidiary possesses capabilities moderates this relationship: Very capable subsidiaries...

  19. Molecular Mapping of D1, D2 and ms5 Revealed Linkage between the Cotyledon Color Locus D2 and the Male-Sterile Locus ms5 in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ott

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In soybean, genic male sterility can be utilized as a tool to develop hybrid seed. Several male-sterile, female-fertile mutants have been identified in soybean. The male-sterile, female-fertile ms5 mutant was selected after fast neutron irradiation. Male-sterility due to ms5 was associated with the “stay-green” cotyledon color mutation. The cotyledon color trait in soybean is controlled by two loci, D1 and D2. Association between cotyledon color and male-sterility can be instrumental in early phenotypic selection of sterility for hybrid seed production. The use of such selection methods saves time, money, and space, as fewer seeds need to be planted and screened for sterility. The objectives of this study were to compare anther development between male-fertile and male-sterile plants, to investigate the possible linkages among the Ms5, D1 and D2 loci, and to determine if any of the d1 or d2 mutations can be applied in hybrid seed production. The cytological analysis during anther development displayed optically clear, disintegrating microspores and enlarged, engorged pollen in the male-sterile, female-fertile ms5ms5 plants, a common characteristic of male-sterile mutants. The D1 locus was mapped to molecular linkage group (MLG D1a and was flanked by Satt408 and BARCSOYSSR_01_1622. The ms5 and D2 loci were mapped to MLG B1 with a genetic distance ~12.8 cM between them. These results suggest that use of the d2 mutant in the selection of male-sterile line may attenuate the cost hybrid seed production in soybean.

  20. Genome-wide linkage mapping of QTL for yield components, plant height and yield-related physiological traits in the Chinese wheat cross Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei eGao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genes for yield components, plant height and yield-related physiological traits and tightly linked molecular markers is of great importance in marker-assisted selection (MAS in wheat breeding. In the present study, 246 F8 RILs derived from the cross of Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring were genotyped using the high-density Illumina iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP assay. Field trials were conducted at Zhengzhou and Zhoukou of Henan Province, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping season sunder irrigated conditions, providing data for four environments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA of agronomic and physiological traits revealed significant differences (P<0.01 among RILs, environments, and RIL × environment interactions. Broad-sense heritabilities of all traits including thousand kernel weight (TKW, plant height (PH, spike length (SL, kernel number per spike (KNS, spike number/m2 (SN, normalized difference in vegetation index at anthesis (NDVI-A and at 10 days post-anthesis (NDVI-10, SPAD value of chlorophyll content at anthesis (Chl-A and at 10 days post-anthesis (Chl-10 ranged between 0.65 and 0.94. A linkage map spanning 3,609.4 cM was constructed using 5,636 polymorphic SNP markers, with an average chromosome length of 171.9 cM and marker density of 0.64 cM/marker. A total of 866 SNP markers were newly mapped to the hexaploid wheat linkage map. Eighty-six QTL for yield components, plant height and yield-related physiological traits were detected on 18 chromosomes except 1D, 5D and 6D, explaining 2.3 to 33.2% of the phenotypic variance. Ten stable QTL were identified across four environments, viz. QTKW.caas-6A.1, QTKW.caas-7AL, QKNS.caas-4AL, QSN.caas-1AL.1, QPH.caas-4BS.2, QPH.caas-4DS.1, QSL.caas-4AS, QSL.caas-4AL.1, QChl-A.caas-5AL and QChl-10.caas-5BL. Meanwhile, 10 QTL-rich regions were found on chromosome 1BS, 2AL (2, 3AL, 4AL (2, 4BS, 4DS, 5BL and 7AL exhibiting pleiotropic effects. These QTL or QTL

  1. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) to identify mycorrhizal fungi: a methods review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, I A; FitzJohn, R G

    2007-06-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is an increasingly widely used technique in mycorrhizal ecology. In this paper, we review the technique as it is used to identify species of mycorrhizal fungi and distinguish two different versions of the technique: peak-profile T-RFLP (the original version) and database T-RFLP. We define database T-RFLP as the use of T-RFLP to identify individual species within samples by comparison of unknown data with a database of known T-RFLP patterns. This application of T-RFLP avoids some of the pitfalls of peak-profile T-RFLP and allows T-RFLP to be applied to polyphyletic functional groups such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. The identification of species using database T-RFLP is subject to several sources of potential error, including (1) random erroneous matches of peaks to species, (2) shared T-RFLP profiles across species, and (3) multiple T-RFLP profiles within a species. A mathematical approximation of the risk of the first type of error as a function of experimental parameters is discussed. Although potentially less accurate than some other methods such as clone libraries, the high throughput of database T-RFLP permits much greater replication and may, therefore, be preferable for many ecological questions, particularly when combined with other techniques such as cloning.

  2. A Dense Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Genetic Linkage Map of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Anchoring Pinot Noir Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Contigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troggio, Michela; Malacarne, Giulia; Coppola, Giuseppina; Segala, Cinzia; Cartwright, Dustin A; Pindo, Massimo; Stefanini, Marco; Mank, Rolf; Moroldo, Marco; Morgante, Michele; Grando, M. Stella; Velasco, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    ...) individuals derived from a V. vinifera cross of the cultivars Syrah and Pinot Noir. Of these markers, 623 were anchored to 367 contigs that are included in a physical map produced from the same clone of Pinot Noir and covering 352 Mbp...

  3. Extended Kindred With Recessive Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease Maps to Locus 8p22-p21.2 A Genome-wide Linkage Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, M.; Gomez-Tortosa, E.; Bochdanovits, Z.; Gobernado, I.; Rabano, A.; Munoz, D.G.; Heutink, P.; Jimenez-Escrig, A.

    2012-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is a complex genetic disorder. Although genes involved in early-onset forms were discovered more than a decade ago, LOAD research has only been able to point out small effect loci, with the exception of APOE. We mapped the gene predisposing to LOAD in an extended

  4. A Community Resource Map to Support Clinical-Community Linkages in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Obesity, Eastern Massachusetts, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechtner, Lauren; Puente, Gabriella C; Sharifi, Mona; Block, Jason P; Price, Sarah; Marshall, Richard; Blossom, Jeff; Gerber, Monica W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2017-07-06

    Novel approaches to health care delivery that leverage community resources could improve outcomes for children at high risk for obesity. We describe the process by which we created an online interactive community resources map for use in the Connect for Health randomized controlled trial. The trial was conducted in the 6 pediatric practices that cared for the highest percentage of children with overweight or obesity within a large multi-specialty group practice in eastern Massachusetts. By using semistructured interviews with parents and community partners and geographic information systems (GIS), we created and validated a community resource map for use in a randomized controlled trial for childhood obesity. We conducted semistructured interviews with 11 parents and received stakeholder feedback from 5 community partners, 2 pediatricians, and 3 obesity-built environment experts to identify community resources that could support behavior change. We used GIS databases to identify the location of resources. After the resources were validated, we created an online, interactive searchable map. We evaluated parent resource empowerment at baseline and follow-up, examined if the participant families went to new locations for physical activity and food shopping, and evaluated how satisfied the families were with the information they received. Parents, community partners, and experts identified several resources to be included in the map, including farmers markets, supermarkets, parks, and fitness centers. Parents expressed the need for affordable activities. Parent resource empowerment increased by 0.25 units (95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.30) over the 1-year intervention period; 76.2% of participants were physically active at new places, 57.1% of participant families shopped at new locations; and 71.8% reported they were very satisfied with the information they received. Parents and community partners identified several community resources that could help support

  5. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium of an Association-Mapping Panel Revealed by Genome-Wide SNP Markers in Sesame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chengqi; Mei, Hongxian; Liu, Yanyang; Zhang, Haiyang; Zheng, Yongzhan

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of genetic diversity and population structure can be used in tandem to detect reliable phenotype–genotype associations. In the present study, we genotyped a set of 366 sesame germplasm accessions by using 89,924 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The number of SNPs on each chromosome was consistent with the physical length of the respective chromosome, and the average marker density was approximately 2.67 kb/SNP. The genetic diversity analysis showed that the average nucleotide diversity of the panel was 1.1 × 10-3, with averages of 1.0 × 10-4, 2.7 × 10-4, and 3.6 × 10-4 obtained, respectively for three identified subgroups of the panel: Pop 1, Pop 2, and the Mixed. The genetic structure analysis revealed that these sesame germplasm accessions were structured primarily along the basis of their geographic collection, and that an extensive admixture occurred in the panel. The genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that an average LD extended up to ∼99 kb. The genetic diversity and population structure revealed in this study should provide guidance to the future design of association studies and the systematic utilization of the genetic variation characterizing the sesame panel. PMID:28729877

  6. Aplicación de PCR-RFLP para subtipificar Campylobacter jejuni PCR-RFLP for Campylobacter jejuni subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacoboni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diez cepas de Campylobacter jejuni aisladas de fetos porcinos abortados fueron identificadas por pruebas bioquímicas: 8 como C. jejuni biotipo II de Lior, y 2 como C. jejuni biotipo I. Para poder subtipificarlas se utilizó la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para amplificar el gen flaA y al producto obtenido se lo digirió con la enzima de restricción DdeI (RFLP. Se pudieron obtener 6 subtipos a partir de C. jejuni biotipo II, mientras que los dos aislamientos de biotipo I correspondieron a un mismo subtipo. Aunque existe una amplia variedad de técnicas de biología molecular que son aplicadas con fines epidemiológicos para Campylobacter, PCR-RFLP, demostró ser una técnica simple y accesible, capaz de subtipificar a C. jejuni.Ten Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 8 identified as C. jejuni biotype II of Lior and 2 as C. jejuni biotipe I, were recovered from aborted pig fetuses. In order to discriminate among strains, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using DdeI of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products of flaA gen was used. C. jejuni biotype II strains could be diferenciated in 6 by PCR-RFLP, and one subtype was obtained from C. jejuni biotype I. Although there is great variability of molecular techniques applied to the Campylobacter epidemiological studies, PCR-RFLP demonstrated to be a simple and accessible technique to discriminate Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

  7. High Density Linkage Map Construction and QTL Detection for Three Silique-Related Traits in Orychophragmus violaceus Derived Brassica napus Population

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi; Shen, Yusen; Li, Shunda; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2017-01-01

    Seeds per silique (SS), seed weight (SW), and silique length (SL) are important determinant traits of seed yield potential in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), and are controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Mapping QTLs to narrow chromosomal regions provides an effective means of characterizing the genetic basis of these complex traits. Orychophragmus violaceus is a crucifer with long siliques, many SS, and heavy seeds. A novel B. napus introgression line with many SS w...

  8. Aspects of record linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Marijn Paul

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an exploration of the subject of historical record linkage. The general goal of historical record linkage is to discover relations between historical entities in a database, for any specific definition of relation, entity and database. Although this task originates from historical

  9. Identification of new resistance loci to African stem rust race TTKSK in tetraploid wheats based on linkage and genome-wide association mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eLaidò

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Races of the pathogen in the Ug99 lineage are of international concern due to their virulence for widely used stem rust resistance genes and their spread throughout Africa. Disease resistant cultivars provide one of the best means for controlling stem rust. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring resistance to African stem rust race TTKSK at the seedling stage, we evaluated an association mapping (AM panel consisting of 230 tetraploid wheat accessions under greenhouse conditions. A high level of phenotypic variation was observed in response to race TTKSK in the AM panel, allowing for genome-wide association mapping of resistance QTL in wild, landrace, and cultivated tetraploid wheats. Thirty-five resistance QTL were identified on all chromosomes, and seventeen are of particular interest as identified by multiple associations. Many of the identified resistance loci were coincident with previously identified rust resistance genes; however, nine on chromosomes 1AL, 2AL, 4AL, 5BL and 7BS may be novel. To validate AM results, a biparental population of 146 recombinant inbred lines was also considered, which derived from a cross between the resistant

  10. Comparative mapping reveals similar linkage of functional genes to QTL of yield-related traits between Brassica napus and Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fupeng; Ma, Chaozhi; Chen, Qingfang; Liu, Touming; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Xing, Yongzhong; Fu, Tingdong

    2012-08-01

    Oryza sativa and Brassica napus-two important crops for food and oil, respectively-share high seed yield as a common breeding goal. As a model plant, O. sativa genomics have been intensively investigated and its agronomic traits have been advanced. In the present study, we used the available information on O. sativa to conduct comparative mapping between O. sativa and B. napus, with the aim of advancing research on seed-yield and yield-related traits in B. napus. Firstly, functional markers (from 55 differentially expressed genes between a hybrid and its parents) were used to detect B. napus genes that co-localized with yield-related traits in an F(2:3) population. Referring to publicly available sequences of 55 B. napus genes, 53 homologous O. sativa genes were subsequently detected by screening, and their chromosomal locations were determined using silico mapping. Comparative location of yield-related QTL between the two species showed that a total of 37 O. sativa and B. napus homologues were located in similar yield-related QTL between species. Our results indicate that homologous genes between O. sativa and B. napus may have consistent function and control similar traits, which may be helpful for agronomic gene characterization in B. napus based on what is known in O. sativa.

  11. Terminal RFLP analysis to determine the oral microbiota with hyposalivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y; Saito, T; Ohshima, T; Nakagawa, Y; Arita, T; Yashima, A; Makino, T; Konnai, R; Gomi, K; Arai, T; Maeda, N

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies of oral microbiota by culture-dependent or targeted DNA approaches demonstrated that hyposalivation, a reduction in salivary secretions, might increase the amount of certain oral pathogens. However, the relationship between hyposalivation and the balance of oral microbiota, especially uncultivable bacteria, remains still unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between hyposalivation and oral microbiota by analyzing terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rDNA. The 61 subjects were divided into two groups, hyposalivation group and normo-salivation group. The microbiota of tongue-coating samples was analyzed by T-RFLP. The amount of saliva, the number of Candida albicans, and also the dental status including plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) were assessed. Regarding the dental status, none of the evaluated factors were significantly different between the groups except the number of DMFT. According to the T-RFLP profiles, the patterns of microbiota in the tongue coating were classified into two groups, Clusters I and II. Cluster I is made up 76% of subjects with hyposalivation, while Cluster II is made up 61% of subjects with normo-salivation (p<0.001). Compared with the microbiota found in Cluster II, that in Cluster I had higher proportions of T-RFs corresponding to genera Veillonella, Dialister, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Streptococcus. T-RFLP analysis showed a significant role of salivary volume in determining the composition of the microbial community, regardless of the cultivability of the bacteria.

  12. Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants: integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants: integrating lessons from the medical genetics. ... Linkage disequilibrium (LD) or association mapping, is a candidate gene approach that relies on detecting a statistical association between the desired quantitative trait and a molecular marker allele. This approach is ...

  13. Genetic linkage studies with neurofibromatosis: the question of heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, M A; Sparkes, R S; Parry, D M; Bale, S J; Cortessis, V; Mulvihill, J J

    1987-01-01

    Three new families are reported for standard gene linkage markers and classical peripheral neurofibromatosis (Von Reckling-hausen disease). Additional data are summarised for the exclusion map. One family gives slight evidence of close linkage with the Gc locus on chromosome 4, raising again the question of possible genetic heterogeneity in NF. PMID:3118031

  14. A toolkit for bulk PCR-based marker design from next-generation sequence data: application for development of a framework linkage map in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Samantha; Revanna, Roopashree; Thomson, Susan; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Wright, Kathryn; Crowhurst, Ross; Fiers, Mark; Chen, Leshi; Macknight, Richard; McCallum, John A

    2012-11-19

    Although modern sequencing technologies permit the ready detection of numerous DNA sequence variants in any organisms, converting such information to PCR-based genetic markers is hampered by a lack of simple, scalable tools. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop with a complex, heterozygous genome where genome-based research has previously been hindered by limited sequence resources and genetic markers. We report the development of generic tools for large-scale web-based PCR-based marker design in the Galaxy bioinformatics framework, and their application for development of next-generation genetics resources in a wide cross of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Transcriptome sequence resources were developed for the homozygous doubled-haploid bulb onion line 'CUDH2150' and the genetically distant Indian landrace 'Nasik Red', using 454™ sequencing of normalised cDNA libraries of leaf and shoot. Read mapping of 'Nasik Red' reads onto 'CUDH2150' assemblies revealed 16836 indel and SNP polymorphisms that were mined for portable PCR-based marker development. Tools for detection of restriction polymorphisms and primer set design were developed in BioPython and adapted for use in the Galaxy workflow environment, enabling large-scale and targeted assay design. Using PCR-based markers designed with these tools, a framework genetic linkage map of over 800cM spanning all chromosomes was developed in a subset of 93 F(2) progeny from a very large F(2) family developed from the 'Nasik Red' x 'CUDH2150' inter-cross. The utility of tools and genetic resources developed was tested by designing markers to transcription factor-like polymorphic sequences. Bin mapping these markers using a subset of 10 progeny confirmed the ability to place markers within 10 cM bins, enabling increased efficiency in marker assignment and targeted map refinement. The major genetic loci conditioning red bulb colour (R) and fructan content (Frc) were located on this map by QTL analysis. The generic

  15. A Toolkit for bulk PCR-based marker design from next-generation sequence data: application for development of a framework linkage map in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Samantha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although modern sequencing technologies permit the ready detection of numerous DNA sequence variants in any organisms, converting such information to PCR-based genetic markers is hampered by a lack of simple, scalable tools. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop with a complex, heterozygous genome where genome-based research has previously been hindered by limited sequence resources and genetic markers. Results We report the development of generic tools for large-scale web-based PCR-based marker design in the Galaxy bioinformatics framework, and their application for development of next-generation genetics resources in a wide cross of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.. Transcriptome sequence resources were developed for the homozygous doubled-haploid bulb onion line ‘CUDH2150’ and the genetically distant Indian landrace ‘Nasik Red’, using 454™ sequencing of normalised cDNA libraries of leaf and shoot. Read mapping of ‘Nasik Red’ reads onto ‘CUDH2150’ assemblies revealed 16836 indel and SNP polymorphisms that were mined for portable PCR-based marker development. Tools for detection of restriction polymorphisms and primer set design were developed in BioPython and adapted for use in the Galaxy workflow environment, enabling large-scale and targeted assay design. Using PCR-based markers designed with these tools, a framework genetic linkage map of over 800cM spanning all chromosomes was developed in a subset of 93 F2 progeny from a very large F2 family developed from the ‘Nasik Red’ x ‘CUDH2150’ inter-cross. The utility of tools and genetic resources developed was tested by designing markers to transcription factor-like polymorphic sequences. Bin mapping these markers using a subset of 10 progeny confirmed the ability to place markers within 10 cM bins, enabling increased efficiency in marker assignment and targeted map refinement. The major genetic loci conditioning red bulb colour (R and fructan

  16. Autosomal dominant distal myopathy: Linkage to chromosome 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laing, N.G.; Laing, B.A.; Wilton, S.D.; Dorosz, S.; Mastaglia, F.L.; Kakulas, B.A. [Australian Neuromuscular Research Institute, Perth (Australia); Robbins, P.; Meredith, C.; Honeyman, K.; Kozman, H.

    1995-02-01

    We have studied a family segregating a form of autosomal dominant distal myopathy (MIM 160500) and containing nine living affected individuals. The myopathy in this family is closest in clinical phenotype to that first described by Gowers in 1902. A search for linkage was conducted using microsatellite, VNTR, and RFLP markers. In total, 92 markers on all 22 autosomes were run. Positive linkage was obtained with 14 of 15 markers tested on chromosome 14, with little indication of linkage elsewhere in the genome. Maximum two-point LOD scores of 2.60 at recombination fraction .00 were obtained for the markers MYH7 and D14S64 - the family structure precludes a two-point LOD score {ge} 3. Recombinations with D14S72 and D14S49 indicate that this distal myopathy locus, MPD1, should lie between these markers. A multipoint analysis assuming 100% penetrance and using the markers D14S72, D14S50, MYH7, D14S64, D14S54, and D14S49 gave a LOD score of exactly 3 at MYH7. Analysis at a penetrance of 80% gave a LOD score of 2.8 at this marker. This probable localization of a gene for distal myopathy, MPD1, on chromosome 14 should allow other investigators studying distal myopathy families to test this region for linkage in other types of the disease, to confirm linkage or to demonstrate the likely genetic heterogeneity. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) Marker Platforms for Diversity Analysis and Linkage Mapping in a Complex Crop, the Octoploid Cultivated Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Horvath, Aniko; Botella, Miguel A; Gaston, Amèlia; Folta, Kevin; Kilian, Andrzej; Denoyes, Beatrice; Amaya, Iraida

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a genetically complex allo-octoploid crop with 28 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 8x = 56) for which a genome sequence is not yet available. The diploid Fragaria vesca is considered the donor species of one of the octoploid sub-genomes and its available genome sequence can be used as a reference for genomic studies. A wide number of strawberry cultivars are stored in ex situ germplasm collections world-wide but a number of previous studies have addressed the genetic diversity present within a limited number of these collections. Here, we report the development and application of two platforms based on the implementation of Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for high-throughput genotyping in strawberry. The first DArT microarray was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 62 strawberry cultivars that represent a wide range of variation based on phenotype, geographical and temporal origin and pedigrees. A total of 603 DArT markers were used to evaluate the diversity and structure of the population and their cluster analyses revealed that these markers were highly efficient in classifying the accessions in groups based on historical, geographical and pedigree-based cues. The second DArTseq platform took benefit of the complexity reduction method optimized for strawberry and the development of next generation sequencing technologies. The strawberry DArTseq was used to generate a total of 9,386 SNP markers in the previously developed '232' × '1392' mapping population, of which, 4,242 high quality markers were further selected to saturate this map after several filtering steps. The high-throughput platforms here developed for genotyping strawberry will facilitate genome-wide characterizations of large accessions sets and complement other available options.

  18. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT Marker Platforms for Diversity Analysis and Linkage Mapping in a Complex Crop, the Octoploid Cultivated Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Sánchez-Sevilla

    Full Text Available Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is a genetically complex allo-octoploid crop with 28 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 8x = 56 for which a genome sequence is not yet available. The diploid Fragaria vesca is considered the donor species of one of the octoploid sub-genomes and its available genome sequence can be used as a reference for genomic studies. A wide number of strawberry cultivars are stored in ex situ germplasm collections world-wide but a number of previous studies have addressed the genetic diversity present within a limited number of these collections. Here, we report the development and application of two platforms based on the implementation of Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers for high-throughput genotyping in strawberry. The first DArT microarray was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 62 strawberry cultivars that represent a wide range of variation based on phenotype, geographical and temporal origin and pedigrees. A total of 603 DArT markers were used to evaluate the diversity and structure of the population and their cluster analyses revealed that these markers were highly efficient in classifying the accessions in groups based on historical, geographical and pedigree-based cues. The second DArTseq platform took benefit of the complexity reduction method optimized for strawberry and the development of next generation sequencing technologies. The strawberry DArTseq was used to generate a total of 9,386 SNP markers in the previously developed '232' × '1392' mapping population, of which, 4,242 high quality markers were further selected to saturate this map after several filtering steps. The high-throughput platforms here developed for genotyping strawberry will facilitate genome-wide characterizations of large accessions sets and complement other available options.

  19. Confirmatory linkage study of hypochondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, J.T.; Herrera, C.; Greenhaw, G.A. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hypochondroplasia is an autosomal dominant form of disproportionate short stature disorder that has clinical and radiographic findings similar to but milder than achondroplasia. Based on these findings it has been suggested that achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia are allelic conditions. We and others have mapped the achondroplasia locus to telomeric region of chromosome 4. Tested linkage to 4p markers in 6 hypochondroplasia families and a maximum LOD score of 1.7 at {theta} = 0 was found for IUDA. Here we report the results of a linkage study in 4 multigenerational families with hypochondroplasia using 7 short tandem repeat markers (D4S127, D4S412, D4S43, D4S115, IUDA, D4S227, D4S169) from the short arm of chromosome 4. These families have been well characterized and show the typical clinical and radiographic features of hypochondroplasia. One family was Afro-American, one Hispanic and two were Caucasian. We found a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.9 at D4S115. The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence that achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia map to the same chromosomal location and suggests that they are indeed allelic conditions.

  20. Short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes in HLA: an integrated 50-kb STR/linkage disequilibrium/gene map between the RING3 and HLA-B genes and identification of STR haplotype diversification in the class III region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorechovsky, I; Kralovicova, J; Laycock, M D; Webster, A D; Marsh, S G; Madrigal, A; Hammarström, L

    2001-08-01

    We present a dense STR/linkage disequilibrium(LD)/gene map between the RING3 and HLA-B loci, reference allelic sizes on the most prevalent HLA haplotypes and their allelic frequencies in pedigree founders. This resource will facilitate LD, evolution and gene mapping studies, including comparisons of HLA and STR haplotypes and identification of HLA recombinants. The map was constructed by testing novel and previously reported STRs using a panel of 885 individuals in 211 families and 60 DNA samples from cell lines and bone marrow donors homozygous in the HLA-A, -B and -DR loci selected from over 15 000 entries into the registry of Swedish bone marrow donors. We have also analysed the variability of STR alleles/haplotypes on the most prevalent HLA haplotypes to identify STRs useful for fine mapping of disease genes in the region previously implicated in susceptibility to many disorders. The analysis of 40 HLA-A*01, B*0801, DRB1*03011, DQB1*0201 haplotypes in homozygous donors showed a surprising stability in 23 STRs between the class II recombination hot spot and HLA-B, with the average of 1.9% (16/838) variant alleles. However, 40% variant alleles were found at the D6S2670 locus in intron 19 of the tenascin-X gene both in the families and homozygous donors. The nucleotide sequence analysis of this STR showed a complex polymorphism consisting of tetra- (CTTT)(8-18) and penta-nucleotide (CTTTT)(1-2) repeats, separated by an intervening non-polymorphic sequence of 42 bp. The HLA-A1, B*0801, DRB1*03011, DQB1*0201 haplotypes had five (CTTT)(14-18)/(CTTTT)(2) variants with a predominant (CTTT)(16) allele, implicating the tetranucleotide component as the source of this ancestral haplotype diversification, which may be due to the location of D6S2670 in the region of the highest GC content in the human MHC.

  1. A linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. based on population from ILC3279×ILC588 crosses: Location of genes for time to flowering, seed size and plant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Ezzat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative traits of seed size, plant height and days to flowering were studied in a chickpea intraspecific F3:4 lines population derived from a ILC3279×ILC588 cross. The lines were genotyped with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, universal rice primer (URP and sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS markers, and a genetic map composed of 7 linkage groups (LGs covering 285.3 cM was constructed. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs for the three characters were detected in LG2, LG3 and LG4. Two QTLs for days to flowering were detected on LG2 and LG3. These two QTLs accounted for 58% of the total phenotypic variation for days to flowering. A QTL for plant height was located in LG3 explaining around 42% of the variation. This trait was shown to be under a major gene control. For 100-seed weight, a QTL located in LG4 explained around 37% of the phenotypic variations. This information can be used to formulate the an efficient breeding strategy for improvement of time to flowering in short-season temperate environments, plant height with more reproductive biomass and improved yield with bigger seed size in chickpea.

  2. Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping of QTL for Adult-Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Chinese Wheat Population Linmai 2 × Zhong 892.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindong Liu

    Full Text Available Stripe rust is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum worldwide. Adult-plant resistance (APR is an efficient approach to provide long-term protection of wheat from the disease. The Chinese winter wheat cultivar Zhong 892 has a moderate level of APR to stripe rust in the field. To determine the inheritance of the APR resistance in this cultivar, 273 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs were developed from a cross between Linmai 2 and Zhong 892. The RILs were evaluated for maximum disease severity (MDS in two sites during the 2011-2012, 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 cropping seasons, providing data for five environments. Illumina 90k SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism chips were used to genotype the RILs and their parents. Composite interval mapping (CIM detected eight QTL, namely QYr.caas-2AL, QYr.caas-2BL.3, QYr.caas-3AS, QYr.caas-3BS, QYr.caas-5DL, QYr.caas-6AL, QYr.caas-7AL and QYr.caas-7DS.1, respectively. All except QYr.caas-2BL.3 resistance alleles were contributed by Zhong 892. QYr.caas-3AS and QYr.caas-3BS conferred stable resistance to stripe rust in all environments, explaining 6.2-17.4% and 5.0-11.5% of the phenotypic variances, respectively. The genome scan of SNP sequences tightly linked to QTL for APR against annotated proteins in wheat and related cereals genomes identified two candidate genes (autophagy-related gene and disease resistance gene RGA1, significantly associated with stripe rust resistance. These QTL and their closely linked SNP markers, in combination with kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP technology, are potentially useful for improving stripe rust resistances in wheat breeding.

  3. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf; Nell, Phillip C.

    of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Our theoretical development and the results from the analysis document a far more complex and dynamic relationship between levels of competition and MNCs’ local participation in knowledge intensive activities, i.e. learning and spillovers, than previous studies do. We......This paper investigates local vertical linkages of foreign subsidiaries and the dual role of such linkages as conduits for learning as well as potential channels for spillovers to competitors. On the basis of data from 97 subsidiaries, we analyze the quality of such linkages under varying levels...... find a curvilinear relationship between the extent of competitive pressure and the quality of local linkages confirming our argument of a trade-off between learning prospects and spillover risks. Furthermore, the level of subsidiary capabilities moderates this relationship....

  4. The distribution of RFLP markers on chromosome 2(2H) of barley in relation to the physical and genetic location of 5S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, D A; Pratchett, N; Devos, K M; Leitch, I J; Gale, M D

    1993-10-01

    The 5S rDNA locus on the long arm of barley chromosome 2(2H) was genetically mapped in two crosses in relation to 30 other RFLP loci. Comparison of the genetic maps with the previously published physical position of the 5S rDNA, determined by in-situ hybridization, showed that there was a marked discrepancy between physical and genetic distance in both crosses, with recombination being less frequent in the proximal part of the arm. Pooled information from the present study and other published genetic maps showed that at least 26 of the 44 (59%) RFLPs that have been mapped on 2(2H)L lie distal to the 5S rDNA locus even though this region is only 27% of the physical length of the arm. The distribution of RFLP markers is significantly different from expected (P < 0.01), implying that the low-copy sequences used for RFLP analysis occur more frequently in distal regions of the arm and, or, that sequences in distal regions are more polymorphic.

  5. Networks, linkages, and migration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, J T

    1989-01-01

    Recent theoretical interest in migration systems calls attention to the functions of diverse linkages between countries in stimulating, directing,and maintaining international flows of people. This article proposes a conceptual framework for the non-people linkages in international migration systems and discusses the implications for population movement of the 4 categories and 3 types of linkages that define the network. The 4 categories include 1) state to state relations, 2) mass culture connections, 3) family and personal networks, and 4) migrant agency activities. The 3 types of linkages are 1) tangible linkages, 2) regulatory linkages, and 3) relational linkages.

  6. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldbieser Geoffrey C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL and the effective positional cloning of genes. Results A genome-wide physical map of the channel catfish was constructed by High-Information-Content Fingerprinting (HICF of 46,548 Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC clones using the SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs with FPC software. The resulting assembly contained 1,782 contigs and covered an estimated physical length of 0.93 Gb. The validity of the assembly was demonstrated by 1 anchoring 19 of the largest contigs to the microsatellite linkage map 2 comparing the assembly of a multi-gene family to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP patterns seen in Southern blots, and 3 contig sequencing. Conclusion This is the first physical map for channel catfish. The HICF technique allowed the project to be finished with a limited amount of human resource in a high throughput manner. This physical map will greatly facilitate the detailed study of many different genomic regions in channel catfish, and the positional cloning of genes controlling economically important production traits.

  7. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, E. [Emory Univ. School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population, but more common in individuals with specific trisomies. Examples of this include leukemia and duodenal atresia in trisomy 21. This paper presents a linkage analysis method for using trisomic individuals to map genes for such traits. It is based on a very general gene-specific dosage model that posits that the trait is caused by specific effects of different alleles at one or a few loci and that duplicate copies of {open_quotes}susceptibility{close_quotes} alleles inherited from the nondisjoining parent give increased likelihood of having the trait. Our mapping method is similar to identity-by-descent-based mapping methods using affected relative pairs and also to methods for mapping recessive traits using inbred individuals by looking for markers with greater than expected homozygosity by descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited from the nondisjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the trait gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers and how to test candidate genes. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Molecular mapping of QTLs conferring stay-green in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Subudhi, P K; Crasta, O R; Rosenow, D T; Mullet, J E; Nguyen, H T

    2000-06-01

    Drought resistance is of enormous importance in crop production. The identification of genetic factors involved in plant response to drought stress provides a strong foundation for improving drought tolerance. Stay-green is a drought resistance trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) that gives plants resistance to premature senescence under severe soil moisture stress during the post-flowering stage. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control the stay-green and chlorophyll content in sorghum. By using a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) map, developed from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we identified four stay-green QTLs, located on three linkage groups. The QTLs (Stg1 and Stg2) are on linkage group A, with the other two, Stg3 and Stg4, on linkage groups D and J, respectively. Two stay-green QTLs, Stg1 and Stg2, explaining 13-20% and 20-30% of the phenotypic variability, respectively, were consistently identified in all trials at different locations in two years. Three QTLs for chlorophyll content (Chl1, Chl2, and Chl3), explaining 25-30% of the phenotypic variability were also identified under post-flowering drought stress. All coincided with the three stay-green QTL regions (Stg1, Stg2, and Stg3) accounting for 46% of the phenotypic variation. The Stg1 and Stg2 regions also contain the genes for key photosynthetic enzymes, heat shock proteins, and an abscisic acid (ABA) responsive gene. Such spatial arrangement shows that linkage group A is important for drought- and heat-stress tolerance and yield production in sorghum. High-resolution mapping and cloning of the consistent stay-green QTLs may help to develop drought-resistant hybrids and to understand the mechanism of drought-induced senescence in plants.

  9. Microsatellite-based fine mapping of the Van der Woude syndrome locus to an interval of 4.1 cM between D1S245 and D1S414

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, A.; Schmelzle, R. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Murray, J.C. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Scherpbier-Heddema, T.; Buetow, K.H. [Fox Chase Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Weissenbach, J. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); Ludwig, K.; Zingg, M.

    1995-01-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is an autosomal dominant craniofacial disorder characterized by lip pits, clefting of the primary or secondary palate, and hypodontia. The gene has been localized, by RFLP-based linkage studies, to region 1q32-41 between D1S65-REN and D1S65-TGFB2. In this study we report the linkage analysis of 15 VWS families, using 18 microsatellite markers. Multipoint linkage analysis places the gene, with significant odds of 2,344:1, in a 4.1-cM interval flanked by D1S245 and D1S414. Two-point linkage analysis demonstrates close linkage of VWS with D1S205 (lod score [Z] = 24.41 at {theta} = .00) and with D1S491 (Z = 21.23 at {theta} = .00). The results revise the previous assignment of the VWS locus and show in an integrated map of the region 1q32-42 that the VWS gene resides more distally than previously suggested. When information about heterozygosity of the closely linked marker D1S491 in the affected members of the VWS family with a microdeletion is taken into account, the VWS critical region can be further narrowed, to the 3.6-cM interval between D1S491 and D1S414. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...

  11. Data linkage algebra, data linkage dynamics, and priority rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an algebra of data linkages. Data linkages are intended for modelling the states of computations in which dynamic data structures are involved. We present a simple model of computation in which states of computations are modelled as data linkages and state changes take place by means of

  12. Data Linkage Algebra, Data Linkage Dynamics, and Priority Rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an algebra of data linkages. Data linkages are intended for modelling the states of computations in which dynamic data structures are involved. We present a simple model of computation in which states of computations are modelled as data linkages and state changes take place by means of

  13. JamesWattandhisLinkages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    say by half, as shown in Figu e 5b but it would reduce the motion of F thus restricting the stroke length of the piston. (a) igure 5. (a) Watt's linkage with one body acting as the great beam. (b) An attempt to reduce the size, which reduces the stroke length of the piston. ... It has two gears that mesh with each other. One gear is ...

  14. Wargaming Strategic Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wargaming Strategic Linkage Peter P. Perla • Michael C. Markowitz CRM D0019256.A2/Final January 2009 20090219290 CNA ANALYSIS & SOLUTIONS...players’ hands with predict - able player discontent and argument. The broader pathology stems from player "paranoia" that Control is simply...Demonstration, FOUO, Dec 2000 (CNA Research Memorandum D0003043.A1/Final Peter P. Perla, Andrew Ilachinski, Carol M. Hawk , Michael C. Markow- itz

  15. Linkage disequilibrium between the juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis gene and marker loci on chromosome 16p12. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, T.J.; MacCormack, K.; Gleitsman, J.; Schlumpf, K.; Breakefield, X.O.; Gusella, J.F.; Haines, J.L. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; Batten disease) are a collection of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by the accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigments in the neurons and other cell types. Clinically, these disorders are characterized by progressive encephalopathy, loss of vision, and seizures. CLN3, the gene responsible for juvenile NCL, has been mapped to a 15-cM region flanked by the marker loci D16S148 and D16S150 on human chromosome 16. CLN2, the gene causing the late-infantile form of NCL (LNCL), is not yet mapped. The authors have used highly informative dinucleoide repeat markers mapping between D16S148 and D16S150 to refine the localization of CLN3 and to test for linkage to CLN2. The authors find significant linkage disequilibrium between CLN3 and the dinucleotide repeat marker loci D16S288 (X[sup 2](7) = 46.5, P < .005), D16S298 (X[sup 2](6) = 36.6, P < .005), and D16S299 (X[sup 2](7) = 73.8, P < .005), and also a novel RFLP marker at the D16S272 locus (X[sup 2](1) = 5.7, P = .02). These markers all map to 16p12.1. The D16S298/D16S299 haplotype [open quotes]5/4[close quotes] is highly overrepresented, accounting for 54% of CLN3 chromosomes as compared with 8% of control chromosomes (X[sup 2] = 117, df = 1, P < .001). Examination of the haplotypes suggests that the CLN3 locus can be narrowed to the region immediately surrounding these markers in 16p12.1. Analysis of D16S299 in LNCL pedigrees supports the previous finding that CLN3 and CLN2 are different genetic loci. This study also indicates that dinucleotide repeat markers play a valuable role in disequilibrium studies. 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  17. Genetic linkage maps, synteny and map based cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Niels Nørgaard; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation is a very important trait in agriculture and nature. It is made possible through symbiosis between plants, mainly legumes, and microorganisms such as rhizobia. Like most plants, legumes have symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi. In order to isolate the plant genes that are important...... for symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing organisms and mycorrhizal symbiosis, Lotus japonicus was suggested as a model legume by Handberg and Stougaard (1992)...

  18. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  19. Design of special planar linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jing-Shan; Ma, Ning; Chu, Fulei

    2013-01-01

    Planar linkages play a very important role in mechanical engineering. As the simplest closed chain mechanisms, planar four-bar linkages are widely used in mechanical engineering, civil engineering and aerospace engineering.Design of Special Planar Linkages proposes a uniform design theory for planar four-bar linkages. The merit of the method proposed in this book is that it allows engineers to directly obtain accurate results when there are such solutions for the specified n precise positions; otherwise, the best approximate solutions will be found. This book discusses the kinematics and reach

  20. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Linkage Scans of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Dempfle, Astrid; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Bakker, Steven C.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan; Castellanos, F.Xavier; Doyle, Alysa; Ebstein, Richard P.; Ekholm, Jenny; Forabosco, Paola; Franke, Barbara; Freitag, Christine; Friedel, Susann; Gill, Michael; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke; Jacob, Christian; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Loo, Sandra K.; Lopera, Francisco; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Meyer, Jobst; Mick, Eric; Miranda, Ana; Muenke, Maximilian; Mulas, Fernando; Nelson, Stanley F.; Nguyen, T.Trang; Oades, Robert D.; Ogdie, Matthew N.; Palacio, Juan David; Pineda, David; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Roeyers, Herbert; Romanos, Marcel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Schäfer, Helmut; Sergeant, Joseph; Sinke, Richard J.; Smalley, Susan L.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; van der Meulen, Emma; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Lewis, Cathryn M; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies, there has been limited replications between the various independent datasets. The current study gathered the results from all seven of the ADHD linkage scans and performed a Genome Scan Meta Analysis (GSMA) to identify the genomic region with most consistent linkage evidence across the studies. Genome-wide significant linkage (PSR=0.00034, POR=0.04) was identified on chromosome 16 between 64 and 83 Mb. In addition there are nine other genomic regions from the GSMA showing nominal or suggestive evidence of linkage. All these linkage results may be informative and focus the search for novel ADHD susceptibility genes. PMID:18988193

  1. Biological process linkage networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikla Dotan-Cohen

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to studying complex biological networks is based on the identification of interactions between internal components of signaling or metabolic pathways. By comparison, little is known about interactions between higher order biological systems, such as biological pathways and processes. We propose a methodology for gleaning patterns of interactions between biological processes by analyzing protein-protein interactions, transcriptional co-expression and genetic interactions. At the heart of the methodology are the concept of Linked Processes and the resultant network of biological processes, the Process Linkage Network (PLN.We construct, catalogue, and analyze different types of PLNs derived from different data sources and different species. When applied to the Gene Ontology, many of the resulting links connect processes that are distant from each other in the hierarchy, even though the connection makes eminent sense biologically. Some others, however, carry an element of surprise and may reflect mechanisms that are unique to the organism under investigation. In this aspect our method complements the link structure between processes inherent in the Gene Ontology, which by its very nature is species-independent. As a practical application of the linkage of processes we demonstrate that it can be effectively used in protein function prediction, having the power to increase both the coverage and the accuracy of predictions, when carefully integrated into prediction methods.Our approach constitutes a promising new direction towards understanding the higher levels of organization of the cell as a system which should help current efforts to re-engineer ontologies and improve our ability to predict which proteins are involved in specific biological processes.

  2. JLIN: A java based linkage disequilibrium plotter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCaskie Pamela A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A great deal of effort and expense are being expended internationally in attempts to detect genetic polymorphisms contributing to susceptibility to complex human disease. Techniques such as Linkage Disequilibrium mapping are being increasingly used to examine and compare markers across increasingly large datasets. Visualisation techniques are becoming essential to analyse the ever-growing volume of data and results available with any given analysis. Results JLIN (Java LINkage disequilibrium plotter is a software package designed for customisable, intuitive visualisation of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD across all common computing platforms. Customisation allows the user to choose particular visualisations, statistical measures and measurement ranges. JLIN also allows the user to export images of the LD visualisation in several common document formats. Conclusion JLIN allows the user to visually compare and contrast the results of a range of statistical measures on the input dataset(s. These measures include the commonly used D' and r2 statistics and empirical p-values. JLIN has a number of unique and novel features that improve on existing LD visualisation tools.

  3. DGGE and T-RFLP analysis of bacterial succession during mushroom compost production and sequence-aided T-RFLP profile of mature compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Anna J; Sipos, Rita; Berta, Brigitta; Vajna, Balázs; Hajdú, Csaba; Márialigeti, Károly

    2009-04-01

    The amount of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) harvested from compost is largely affected by the microbial processes taking place during composting and the microbes inhabiting the mature compost. In this study, the microbial changes during the stages of this specific composting process were monitored, and the dominant bacteria of the mature compost were identified to reveal the microbiological background of the favorable properties of the heat-treated phase II mushroom compost. 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular fingerprinting methods were used to track the succession of microbial communities in summer and winter composting cycles. DNA from individual DGGE bands were reamplified and subjected to sequence analysis. Principal component analysis of fingerprints of the composting processes showed intensive changes in bacterial community during the 22-day procedure. Peak temperature samples grouped together and were dominated by Thermus thermophilus. Mature compost patterns were almost identical by both methods (DGGE, T-RFLP). To get an in-depth analysis of the mature compost bacterial community, the sequence data from cultivation of the bacteria and cloning of environmental 16S rDNA were uniquely coupled with the output of the environmental T-RFLP fingerprints (sequence-aided T-RFLP). This method revealed the dominance of a supposedly cellulose-degrading consortium composed of phylotypes related to Pseudoxanthomonas, Thermobifida, and Thermomonospora.

  4. Point Charges and Polygonal Linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khimshiashvili, Giorgi; Panina, Gaiane; Siersma, Dirk; Zolotov, Vladimir

    We investigate the critical points of Coulomb potential of point charges placed at the vertices of a planar polygonal linkage. It is shown that, for a collection of positive charges on a pentagonal linkage, there is a unique critical point in the set of convex configurations which is the point of

  5. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been ...

  6. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Dempfle, Astrid; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Bakker, Steven C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Biederman, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan; Castellanos, F Xavier; Doyle, Alysa; Ebstein, Richard P; Ekholm, Jenny; Forabosco, Paola; Franke, Barbara; Freitag, Christine; Friedel, Susann; Gill, Michael; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke; Jacob, Christian; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Loo, Sandra K; Lopera, Francisco; McCracken, James T; McGough, James J; Meyer, Jobst; Mick, Eric; Miranda, Ana; Muenke, Maximilian; Mulas, Fernando; Nelson, Stanley F; Nguyen, T Trang; Oades, Robert D; Ogdie, Matthew N; Palacio, Juan David; Pineda, David; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J; Roeyers, Herbert; Romanos, Marcel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Schäfer, Helmut; Sergeant, Joseph; Sinke, Richard J; Smalley, Susan L; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; van der Meulen, Emma; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Lewis, Cathryn M; Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies,

  7. Specific detection of benzimidazole resistance in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from fruit crops by PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Hsin; Chung, Wen-Chuan; Peng, Mun-Tsu; Yang, Hong-Ren; Huang, Jenn-Wen

    2010-02-28

    Anthracnose diseases, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, are a worldwide problem and are especially important in Taiwan owing to the severe economic damage they cause to tropical fruits that are grown for local consumption and export. Benzimidazoles are systemic fungicides widely used for controlling these diseases in Taiwan. Thirty-one isolates of C. gloeosporioides from mango and strawberry grown in Taiwan were examined for their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides. The responses of the isolates grown on benzimidazole-amended culture media were characterized as sensitive, moderately resistant, resistant or highly resistant. Analysis of point mutations in the beta-tubulin gene by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments revealed a substitution of GCG for GAG at codon 198 in resistant and highly resistant isolates and a substitution of TAC for TTC at codon 200 in moderately resistant isolates. A set of specific primers, TubGF1 and TubGR, was designed to amplify a portion of the beta-tubulin gene for the detection of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides. Bsh1236I restriction maps of the amplified beta-tubulin gene showed that the resistant isolate sequence, but not the sensitive isolate sequence, was cut. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was validated to detect benzimidazole-resistant and benzimidazole-sensitive C. gloeosporioides isolates recovered from avocado, banana, carambola, dragon fruit, grape, guava, jujube, lychee, papaya, passion fruit and wax apple. This method has the potential to become a valuable tool for monitoring the occurrence of benzimidazole-resistant C. gloeosporioides and for assessment of the need for alternative management practices. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, E.; Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Certain genetic disorders (e.g. congenital cataracts, duodenal atresia) are rare in the general population, but more common in people with Down`s syndrome. We present a method for using individuals with trisomy 21 to map genes for such traits. Our methods are analogous to methods for mapping autosomal dominant traits using affected relative pairs by looking for markers with greater than expected identity-by-descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected reduction to homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited form the non-disjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. The methods are described in the context of gene-dosage model for the etiology of the disorder, but can be extended to other models. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers, how to test candidate genes, and how to handle the effect of reduced recombination associated with maternal meiosis I non-disjunction.

  9. North-South Business Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical studies of linkages between TNCs and local firms in India, Malaysia, Vietnam, Ghana and South Africa, five themes are discussed and related to present theoretical perspectives. The themes are (1) Linakge Governance; (2) Globalisation and the dynamics in developing countries (the...... TNC-driven markets in developing countries); (3) The upgrading impact of FDI; (4) Non-equity linkages as a platform for business development, and (5) The learning perspective on international business linakges. The chapter offers at the end a three-dimanional model for impacts of business linkages....

  10. Progress in a genome scan for linkage in schizophrenia in a large Swedish kindred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, C.L.; Kennedy, J.L.; Pakstis, A.J. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-15

    Genetic linkage studies of a kindred from Sweden segregating for schizophrenia have been performed using a genetic model (autosomal dominant, f - 0.72, q - 0.02, phenocopies=0.001) as described in Kennedy et al., 1988. Analyses of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASO), and short tandem repeat (STR also called microsatellite) data for 180 polymorphisms (individual probe-enzyme, ASO, or STR systems) at 155 loci have been completed using the MLINK and LIPED programs. Linkage to schizophrenia was excluded, under the given model, at 47 loci; indeterminate lod scores occurred at 108 loci. The total exclusion region across 20 chromosomes is estimated at 330 cM; 211 cM excluded by pairwise analyses and 119 cM previously excluded by multipoint analyses. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. An evaluation of the performance of HapMap SNP data in a Shanghai Chinese population: Analyses of allele frequency, linkage disequilibrium pattern and tagging SNPs transferability on chromosome 1q21-q25

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Jie; Zhang Rong; Wang Congrong; Zhang Weihua; Jia Weiping; Hu Cheng; Ma Xiaojing; Xiang Kunsan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The HapMap project aimed to catalog millions of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome in four major populations, in order to facilitate association studies of complex diseases. To examine the transferability of Han Chinese in Beijing HapMap data to the Southern Han Chinese in Shanghai, we performed comparative analyses between genotypes from over 4,500 SNPs in a 21 Mb region on chromosome 1q21-q25 in 80 unrelated Shanghai Chinese and 45 HapMap C...

  12. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    as the enclave economy par excellence, moving in with fully integrated value chains, extracting resources and exporting them as commodities having virtually no linkages to the local economy. However, new opportunities for promoting linkages are offered by changing business strategies of local African enterprises...... as well as foreign multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs in extractives are increasingly seeking local linkages as part of their efficiency, risk, and asset-seeking strategies, and linkage programmes are becoming integral elements in many MNCs’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities....... At the same time, local African enterprises are eager to, and increasingly capable of, linking up to the foreign investors in order to expand their activities and acquire technology, skills and market access. The changing strategies of MNCs and the improving capabilities of African enterprises offer new...

  13. Genetic diversity among wild and cultivated barley as revealed by RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Østergård, H.; Giese, H.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variability of cultivated and wild barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and spontaneum, respectively, was assessed by RFLP analysis. The material consisted of 13 European varietes, single-plant offspring lines of eight land races from Ethiopia and Nepal, and five accessions of ssp....... spontaneum from Israel, Iran and Turkey. Seventeen out of twenty-one studied cDNA and gDNA probes distributed across all seven barley chromosomes revealed polymorphism when DNA was digested with one of four restriction enzymes. A tree based on genetic distances using frequencies of RFLP banding patterns...... an intermediate level. The proportion of gene diversity residing among,geographical groups (F-ST) varied from 0.19 to 0.94 (average 0.54) per RFLP pattern, indicating large diversification between geographical groups....

  14. X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: From the ship Hopewell to RFLP studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichet, D.G.; Lonergan, M.; Arthus, M.F.; Ligier, S.; Kluge, R. (Universite de Montreal (Canada)); Hendy, G.N.; Pausova, Z.; Zingg, H.; Morgan, K.; Saenger, P. (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)) (and others)

    1992-11-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI; designated 304800 in Mendelian Inheritance in Man) is an X-linked disorder with abnormal renal and extrarenal V[sub 2] vasopression receptor responses. The mutant gene has been mapped to Xq28 by analysis of RFLPs, and tight linkage between DXS52 and DNI has been reported. In 1969, Bode and Crawford proposed, under the term, the Hopewell hypothesis' that most cases in North America could be traced to descendants of Ulster Scots who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1761 on the ship Hopewell. They also suggested a link between this family and a large Mormon pedigree. DNA samples obtained from 13 independent affected families, including 42 members of the Hopewell and Mormon pedigrees, were analyzed with probes in the Xq28 region. Genealogical reconstructions were performed. Linkage between NDI and DXS304 (probe U6:2.spl), DXS305 (St35-691), DXS52 (St14-1), DXS15 (DX13), and F8C (F814) showed no recombination in 12 families, with a maximum lod score of 13.5 for DXS52. A recombinant between NDI and DXS304, DXS305, was identified in one family. The haplotype segregating with the disease in the Hopewell pedigree was not shared by other North American families. PCR analysis of the St14 VNTR allowed the distinction of two alleles that were not distinguishable by Southern analysis. Carrier status was predicted in 24 of 26 at-risk females. The Hopewell hypothesis cannot explain the origin of NDI in many of the North American families, since they have no apparent relationship with the Hopewell earlier settlers, either by haplotype or by genealogical analysis. PCR analysis of the DXS52 VNTR in NDI families is very useful for carrier testing and presymptomatic diagnosis, which can prevent the first manifestations of dehydration. 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Genetic linkage maps of chicken chromosomes 6, 7, 8, 11 and 13 from a Brazilian resource population Mapas de ligação dos cromossomos 6, 7, 8, 11 e 13 de uma população brasileira de galinha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ambo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A linkage map is essential not only for quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping, but also for the organization and location of genes along the chromosomes. The present study is part of a project whose major objective is, besides from construction the linkage maps, the whole genome scan for mapping QTL for performance traits in the Brazilian experimental chicken population. Linkage maps of chicken chromosomes 6 to 8, 11 and 13 were constructed based on this population. The population was developed from two generations of crossbreeding between a broiler and a layer line. Fifty-one microsatellite markers were tested, from which 28 were informative: 4, 8, 7, 4 and 5 for chromosomes 6, 7, 8, 11 and 13, respectively. A SNP located in the leptin receptor gene was included for chromosome 8. Ten parental, 8 F1 and 459 F2 chickens from five full-sib families were genotyped with these markers. The number of total informative meioses per locus varied from 232 to 862, and the number of phase-known informative meioses from 0 to 764. Marker orders in the chromosomes coincided with those of the chicken consensus map, except for markers ADL0147 and MCW0213, on chromosome 13, which were inverted. The reduced number of phase-known informative meioses for ADL0147 (150 may be pointed out as a possible cause for this inversion, apart from the relative short distance between the two markers involved in the inversion (10.5 cM.O mapa de ligação além de ser fundamental no mapeamento de locos de características quantitativas (QTLs é importante na organização e localização de genes distribuídos ao longo dos cromossomos. O presente estudo é parte de um trabalho cujo objetivo maior, é a análise de mapeamento de QTLs para características de desempenho no genoma de uma população experimental desenvolvida no Brasil. Com base nesta população foram construídos os mapas de ligação dos cromossomos 6 a 8, 11 e 13 da galinha. A população foi desenvolvida a partir

  16. Detection of QTL for Carcass Quality on Chromosome 6 by Exploiting Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to improve mapping power and resolution for the QTL influencing carcass quality in Hanwoo, which was previously detected on the bovine chromosome (BTA 6. A sample of 427 steers were chosen, which were the progeny from 45 Korean proven sires in the Hanwoo Improvement Center, Seosan, Korea. The samples were genotyped with the set of 2,535 SNPs on BTA6 that were imbedded in the Illumina bovine 50 k chip. A linkage disequilibrium variance component mapping (LDVCM method, which exploited both linkage between sires and their steers and population-wide linkage disequilibrium, was applied to detect QTL for four carcass quality traits. Fifteen QTL were detected at 0.1% comparison-wise level, for which five, three, five, and two QTL were associated with carcass weight (CWT, backfat thickness (BFT, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, and marbling score (Marb, respectively. The number of QTL was greater compared with our previous results, in which twelve QTL for carcass quality were detected on the BTA6 in the same population by applying other linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. One QTL for LMA was detected on the distal region (110,285,672 to 110,633,096 bp with the most significant evidence for linkage (p<10−5. Another QTL that was detected on the proximal region (33,596,515 to 33,897,434 bp was pleiotrophic, i.e. influencing CWT, BFT, and LMA. Our results suggest that the LDVCM is a good alternative method for QTL fine-mapping in detection and characterization of QTL.

  17. Human amyloid beta protein gene locus: HaeIII RFLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.E.; Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P.A.; Fuller, F.; Cordell, B.; Frossard, P.M. (California Biotechnology Inc., Mountain View (USA)); Tinklenberg, J.R.; Davies, H.D.; Eng, L.F.; Yesavage, J.A. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1988-07-25

    A 2.2 kb EcoRI-EcoRI fragment from the 5{prime} end of the human amyloid beta protein cDNA was isolated from a human fibroblast cDNA library and subcloned into pGEM3. HaeIII (GGCC) detects 6 invariant bands at 0.5 kb, 1.0 kb, 1.1 kb, 1.3 kb, 1.4 kb and 1.6 kb and a two-allele polymorphism with bands at either 1.9 kb or 2.1 kb. Its frequency was studied in 50 North Americans. Human amyloid beta protein gene mapped to the long arm of chromosome 21 (21q11.2-21q21) by Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Co-dominant segregation was observed in two families (15 individuals).

  18. Fault linkage and continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Derren; Lymer, Gaël; Reston, Tim; Stevenson, Carl; Bull, Jonathan; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia

    2017-04-01

    The magma-poor rifted margin off the west coast of Galicia (NW Spain) has provided some of the key observations in the development of models describing the final stages of rifting and continental breakup. In 2013, we collected a 68 x 20 km 3D seismic survey across the Galicia margin, NE Atlantic. Processing through to 3D Pre-stack Time Migration (12.5 m bin-size) and 3D depth conversion reveals the key structures, including an underlying detachment fault (the S detachment), and the intra-block and inter-block faults. These data reveal multiple phases of faulting, which overlap spatially and temporally, have thinned the crust to between zero and a few km thickness, producing 'basement windows' where crustal basement has been completely pulled apart and sediments lie directly on the mantle. Two approximately N-S trending fault systems are observed: 1) a margin proximal system of two linked faults that are the upward extension (breakaway faults) of the S; in the south they form one surface that splays northward to form two faults with an intervening fault block. These faults were thus demonstrably active at one time rather than sequentially. 2) An oceanward relay structure that shows clear along strike linkage. Faults within the relay trend NE-SW and heavily dissect the basement. The main block bounding faults can be traced from the S detachment through the basement into, and heavily deforming, the syn-rift sediments where they die out, suggesting that the faults propagated up from the S detachment surface. Analysis of the fault heaves and associated maps at different structural levels show complementary fault systems. The pattern of faulting suggests a variation in main tectonic transport direction moving oceanward. This might be interpreted as a temporal change during sequential faulting, however the transfer of extension between faults and the lateral variability of fault blocks suggests that many of the faults across the 3D volume were active at least in part

  19. Linkage localization of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoffen, J. (Children' s Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States) Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)); Trofatter, J.; Haines, J.L. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States)); Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)); Chance, P.F. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Fischbeck, K.H. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, is a heterogeneous group of slowly progressive, degenerative disorders of peripheral nerve. X-linked CMT (CMTX) (McKusick 302800), a subdivision of type I, or demyelinating, CMT is an X-linked dominant condition with variable penetrance. Previous linkage analysis using RFLPs demonstrated linkage to markers on the proximal long and short arms of the X chromosome, with the more likely localization on the proximal long arm of the X chromosome. Available variable simple-sequence repeats (VSSRs) broaden the possibilities for linkage analysis. This paper presents new linkage data and recombination analysis derived from work with four VSSR markers - AR, PGKP1, DXS453, and DXYS1X - in addition to analysis using RFLP markers described elsewhere. These studies localize the CMTX gene to the proximal Xq segment between PGKP1 (Xq11.2-12) and DXS72 (Xq21.1), with a combined maximum multipoint lod score of 15.3 at DXS453 ([theta] = 0). 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Use of land facets to design linkages for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these linkages have been based on current species' distributions and land cover, both of which will change with large-scale climate change. One method to develop corridors that facilitate species' shifting distributions is to incorporate climate models into their design. But this approach is enormously complex and prone to error propagation. It also produces outputs at a grain size (km2) coarser than the grain at which conservation decisions are made. One way to avoid these problems is to design linkages for the continuity and interspersion of land facets, or recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils. This coarse-filter approach aims to conserve the arenas of biological activity rather than the temporary occupants of those arenas. In this paper, we demonstrate how land facets can be defined in a rule-based and adaptable way, and how they can be used for linkage design in the face of climate change. We used fuzzy c-means cluster analysis to define land facets with respect to four topographic variables (elevation, slope angle, solar insolation, and topographic position), and least-cost analysis to design linkages that include one corridor per land facet. To demonstrate the flexibility of our procedures, we designed linkages using land facets in three topographically diverse landscapes in Arizona, USA. Our procedures can use other variables, including soil variables, to define land facets. We advocate using land facets to complement, rather than replace, existing focal species approaches to linkage design. This approach can be used even in regions lacking land cover maps and is not affected by the bias and patchiness common in species occurrence data.

  1. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Tan, Soon G; Panandam, Jothi M; Rahman, Rahimah Abdul; Ooi, Leslie CL; Low, Eng-Ti L; Sharma, Mukesh; Jansen, Johannes; Cheah, Suan-Choo

    2009-01-01

    Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL

  2. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs for fatty acid composition in an interspecific cross of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marker Assisted Selection (MAS is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. Results A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026 and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128. A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM. Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition. At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV, myristic acid (C14:0, palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3

  3. Effects of copper amendment on the bacterial community in agricultural soil analyzed by the T-RFLP technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom-Petersen, Andreas; Leser, Thomas D.; Marsh, Terence L.

    2003-01-01

    polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of community DNA amplified with primers specific for 16S rDNA from the Bacteria domain, the Rhizobium-Agrobacterium group and the Cytophaga group. Similarity analysis of T-RFLP profiles from field samples demonstrated an impact of copper at the domain level and within...

  4. Differentiation between a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris using PCR-RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walther; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    A new method based on PCR-RFLP is presented. It is able to differentiate between the Danish non-pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris and the Norwegian pathogenic form.......A new method based on PCR-RFLP is presented. It is able to differentiate between the Danish non-pathogenic form of Gyrodactylus salaris and the Norwegian pathogenic form....

  5. A MspI PCR-RFLP within bovin growth hormone gene and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... PCR-RFLP method with Msp-I restriction enzyme was used for genotyping. The frequency of the MspI+(C) and ... by MspI and AluI restriction enzymes, respectively (Lucy et al., 1993; Zhang et al., 1993; Yao et ..... Beauchemin VR, Thomas MG, Franke DE, Silver GA (2006). Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms ...

  6. PCR-RFLP diagnostic method for identifying Globodera species in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa ŠIRCA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Species identification within the genus Globodera is based on the morphological and morphometrical characters of the cysts and second stage juveniles, and these are included in the majority of identification keys. Morphometrical methods are fast and can be applied to most of samples but they demand a trained and experienced specialist. Furthermore, some morphometrical characters may overlap between populations and beetwen species, leading to inaccurate identification. To confirm and complement the morphometrical identification of Globodera species molecular methods have been developed. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the rDNA gene cluster proved to be useful for identifying nematode species identification. A PCR-RFLP molecular method was used to identify Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, G. tabacum and G. achilleae. Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, G. tabacum and G. achilleae can be distinguished with PCR-RFLP analysis of the rDNA ITS fragment using five restriction enzymes. The RFLP patterns of G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum and G. achilleae were species-specific, while those of G. pallida varied. South American populations of G. pallida differed from other populations as their RFLP patterns were demonstrated to be distinct by in silico restriction of the ITS sequences deposited at NCBI.

  7. AcuI identifies water buffalo CSN3 genotypes by RFLP analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    morphism (RFLP) analysis used restriction enzymes HindIII,. HinfI and TaqI, which successfully identify different ... Q-Cycler (Quanta Biotech, England), under the following cycling conditions: 3 min at 94. ◦. C, 35 cycles for 1 ... genotypes using AcuI restriction enzyme (Thermo Scientific. #FD0344) according to manufacturer's ...

  8. Characterization of molds isolated from smoked paprika by PCR-RFLP and micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Benito, María J; Martín, Alberto; Aranda, Emilio; Hernández, Alejandro; Córdoba, María G

    2009-12-01

    Molds are common contaminants of paprika meat products. The drying and storage stages of paprika processing are critical because they can provide molds with the conditions particularly appropriate for their growth and proliferation. Thus, an efficient and accurate characterization of the toxigenic molds of paprika is necessary. An RFLP analysis of the rRNA genes was performed by using a TaqI restriction enzyme. In addition, a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) method was tested to analyze secondary metabolites produced by mold strains commonly found in paprika. This study was confirmed with a 5.8S-ITS region sequence analysis. A total of 31 isolates were identified by RFLP and MECC analysis. These showed stable RFLP profiles that were clearly different for the different genera and species, and were grouped into clusters together with the profiles of the 16 reference strains. MECC analysis provided additional characteristic peak patterns for the characterization of the mold species present. The characterized isolates were species of the genera Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., Mucor spp. and Phlebia spp. The identifications were confirmed by the 5.8S-ITS region sequence analysis and by a BLAST search of the GenBank database. RFLP patterns with TaqI restriction enzyme and MECC profiles, either singly or combined, could be of great interest to distinguish molds in paprika.

  9. Identification of Cyst Nematodes of Agronomic and Regulatory Concern with PCR-RFLP of ITS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalanski, A L; Sui, D D; Harris, T S; Powers, T O

    1997-09-01

    The first internally transcribed spacer region (ITS1) from cyst nematode species (Heteroderidae) was compared by nucleotide sequencing and PCR-RFLP. European, Asian, and North American isolates of five heterodefid species were examined to assess intraspecific variation. PCR-RFLP patterns of amplified ITS1 DNA from pea cyst nematode, Heterodera goettingiana, from Northern Ireland were identical with patterns from Washington State. Sequencing demonstrated that ITS1 heterogeneity existed within individuals and between isolates, but did not result in different restriction patterns. Three Indian and two U.S. isolates of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, were compared. Sequencing detected variation among ITS1 clones from the same individual, between individuals, and between isolates. PCR-RFLP detected several restriction site differences between Indian and U.S. isolates. The basis for the restriction site differences between isolates from India and the U.S. appeared to be the result of additional, variant ITS1 regions amplified from the U.S. isolates, which were not found in the three India isolates. PCR-RFLP from individuals of the U.S. isolates created a composite pattern derived from several ITS1 types. A second primer set was specifically designed to permit discrimination between soybean (H. glycines) and sugar beet (H. schachtii) cyst nematodes. Fok I digestion of amplified product from soybean cyst nematode isolates displayed a uniform pattern, readily discernible from the pattern of sugar beet and clover cyst nematode (H. trifolii).

  10. T-REX: software for the processing and analysis of T-RFLP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culman Steven W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing popularity and improvements in terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP and other microbial community fingerprinting techniques, there are still numerous obstacles that hamper the analysis of these datasets. Many steps are required to process raw data into a format ready for analysis and interpretation. These steps can be time-intensive, error-prone, and can introduce unwanted variability into the analysis. Accordingly, we developed T-REX, free, online software for the processing and analysis of T-RFLP data. Results Analysis of T-RFLP data generated from a multiple-factorial study was performed with T-REX. With this software, we were able to i label raw data with attributes related to the experimental design of the samples, ii determine a baseline threshold for identification of true peaks over noise, iii align terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs in all samples (i.e., bin T-RFs, iv construct a two-way data matrix from labeled data and process the matrix in a variety of ways, v produce several measures of data matrix complexity, including the distribution of variance between main and interaction effects and sample heterogeneity, and vi analyze a data matrix with the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. Conclusion T-REX provides a free, platform-independent tool to the research community that allows for an integrated, rapid, and more robust analysis of T-RFLP data.

  11. Conditioners and significance of t-RFLP profile of the assemblage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following an increased interest in management practices designed to reduce posed phytotoxicity during phytoremediation experiments, crude oil polluted soil and variants from conditioners-aided phytoremediation experiment were subjected to terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (t-RFLP) to evalute the biodiversity ...

  12. Mapping the mosaic of ancestral genotypes in a cultivar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) selected via pedigree breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, A G; Lydiate, D J

    2003-06-01

    Recent oilseed rape breeding has produced low glucosinolate cultivars that yield proteinaceous meal suitable for animal feed. The low glucosinolate character was introduced into modern cultivars from Brassica napus 'Bronowski', a cultivar that is agronomically inferior in most other respects. Residual segments of 'Bronowski' genotype in modern cultivars probably cause reduced yield, poorer winter hardiness, and lower oil content. The quantity and distribution of the 'Bronowski' genotype in the modern oilseed rape cultivar Brassica napus 'Tapidor' was investigated using a segregating population derived from a cross between 'Tapidor' and its high glucosinolate progenitor. This population was analyzed with 65 informative Brassica RFLP probes and a genetic linkage map, based on the segregation at 77 polymorphic loci, was constructed. The mapping identified 15 residual segments of donor genotype in 'Tapidor', which together occupy approximately 29% of the B. napus genome. Mapping the loci that control variation for the accumulation of total seed glucosinolates in the segregating population has identified three loci that together explain >90% of the variation for this character. All of these loci are in donor segments of the 'Tapidor' genome. This result shows the extent to which conventional breeding programmes have difficulty in eliminating residual segments of donor genotype from elite material.

  13. STAKEHOLDER LINKAGES FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    These stakeholders were found having different interests regarding SLM issues. The linkages of farmers with DAs and RKA offices were observed to be strong but farmers' participation in new technology selection was found to be low. Farmer interactions with Woreda,. Zone and Region level experts were observed to be ...

  14. Data linkage dynamics with shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We study shedding in the setting of data linkage dynamics, a simple model of computation that bears on the use of dynamic data structures in programming. Shedding is complementary to garbage collection. With shedding, each time a link to a data object is updated by a program, it is determined

  15. Data linkage dynamics with shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    We study shedding in the setting of data linkage dynamics, a simple model of computation that bears on the use of dynamic data structures in programming. Shedding is complementary to garbage collection. With shedding, each time a link to a data object is updated by a program, it is determined

  16. Sequence Characterization of Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Gene in Mouse Deer (Moschiola indica for PCR-RFLP Based Species Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mohan Siddappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial 12S rRNA has proven to be a useful molecular marker for better conservation and management of the endangered species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene has proven to be a reliable and efficient tool for the identification of different Indian deer species of family cervidae. In the present study, mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence of mouse deer (Moschiola indica belonging to the family Tragulidae was characterized and analysed in silico for its use in species identification. Genomic DNA was isolated from the hair follicles and mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified using universal primers. PCR product was cloned and sequenced for the first time. The sequence of mouse deer showed 90.04, 90.08, 90.04, 91.2, 90.04, and 90.08% identities with sika deer, sambar, hog deer, musk deer, chital, and barking deer, respectively. Restriction mapping in Lasergene (DNAstar Inc., Madison, WI, USA revealed that mouse deer mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence can be differentiated from the other deer species in PCR-RFLP using RsaI, DdeI, BsrI, and BstSFI. With the help of predicted pattern, mouse deer can be identified using genomic DNA from a variety of biomaterials, thereby providing molecular aid in wildlife forensics and conservation of the species.

  17. Comparative mapping in the Fagaceae and beyond with EST-SSRs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodenes, C.; Chancerel, E.; Gailing, O.; Vendramin, G.G.; Bagnoli, F.; Durand, J.; Goicoechea, P.G.; Soliani, C.; Villani, F.; Mattioni, C.; Koelewijn, H.P.; Murat, F.; Salse, J.; Roussel, G.; Boury, C.; Alberto, F.; Kremer, A.; Plomion, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for comparative genetic analyses, QTL detection and map-based cloning. A large number of mapping populations have been developed for oak, but few gene-based markers are available for constructing integrated genetic linkage maps

  18. Genotyping species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by PCR-RFLP of calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America and is caused by 4 pathogenic thermodimorphic fungi in the genus Sporothrix. From both therapeutic and epidemiological perspectives, it is essential to identify the causative agents down to the species level. Traditional parameters may overlap among closely related species, and we propose polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) as an alternative approach. In the present study, the calmodulin gene was amplified and digested with HhaI to yield 5 different electrophoretic patterns representing all medically important Sporothrix species: Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa, and Sporothrix luriei. The PCR-RFLP protocol described here is a simple and inexpensive method and is highly suitable for accurate routine genotyping of relevant Sporothrix species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PCR-RFLP Using BseDI Enzyme for Pork Authentication in Sausage and Nugget Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erwanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP using BseDI restriction enzyme had been applied for identifying the presence of pork in processed meat (beef sausage and chicken nugget including before and after frying. Pork sample in various levels (1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 25 % was prepared in a mixture with beef and chicken meats and processed for sausage and nugget. The primers CYTb1 and CYTb2 were designed in the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b gene and PCR successfully amplified fragments of 359 bp. To distinguish existence of porcine species, the amplified PCR products of mitochondrial DNA were cut by BseDI restriction enzyme. The result showed pig mitochondrial DNA was cut into 131 and 228 bp fragments. The PCR-RFLP species identification assay yielded excellent results for identification of porcine species. It is a potentially reliable technique for pork detection in animal food processed products for Halal authentication.

  20. Comparative chromosome mapping of U2 snRNA and 5S rRNA genes in Gymnotus species (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): evolutionary dynamics and sex chromosome linkage in G . pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Scacchetti, Priscilla C; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    A comparative mapping of U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was performed in 6 Gymnotus species. All species analyzed presented the U2 snDNA organized in conspicuous blocks and not co-located with rRNA genes. In addition, 5 species showed the U2 snDNA located in a single pair of chromosomes, which seems to be a conserved trait in this genus. Conversely, G. pantanal was the only species displaying several terminal signals in different chromosome pairs, including the X1 sex chromosome but not the Y chromosome. This is the first report of U2 snRNA genes in sex chromosomes of fishes. The absence of sites in the Y chromosome of G. pantanal indicates a possible loss of terminal segments of the chromosomes involved in the Y formation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Information content of the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) family structures for linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, A

    1991-10-01

    This paper derives theoretical values for joint polymorphism information content for two markers from a family structure consisting of four grandparents, two parents, and many offspring. These data determine the efficiency of linkage map construction.

  2. An estimating function approach to linkage heterogeneity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Testing linkage heterogeneity between two loci is an important issue in genetics. Currently, there are four methods (K-test, A-test, B-test and D-test) for testing linkage heterogeneity in linkage analysis, which are based on the likelihood-ratio test. Among them, the commonly used methods are the K-test and A-test.

  3. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONGST 10 Durio SPECIES BASED ON PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS OF TWO CHLOROPLAST GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panca J. Santoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven species of Durio have been identified in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia, but their relationships have not been studied. This study was conducted to analyse phylogenetic relationships amongst 10 Durio species in Malaysia using PCR-RFLP on two chloroplast DNA genes, i.e. ndhC-trnV and rbcL. DNAs were extracted from young leaves of 11 accessions from 10 Durio species collected from the Tenom Agriculture Research Station, Sabah, and University Agriculture Park, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers, N1-N2 and rbcL1-rbcL2, were used to flank the target regions ndhC-trnV and rbcL. Eight restriction enzymes, HindIII, BsuRI, PstI, TaqI, MspI, SmaI, BshNI, and EcoR130I, were used to digest the amplicons. Based on the results of PCR-RFLP on ndhC-trnV gene, the 10 Durio species were grouped into five distinct clusters, and the accessions generally showed high variations. However, based on the results of PCR-RFLP on the rbcL gene, the species were grouped into three distinct clusters, and generally showed low variations. This means that ndhC-trnV gene is more reliable for phylogenetic analysis in lower taxonomic level of Durio species or for diversity analysis, while rbcL gene is reliable marker for phylogenetic analysis at higher taxonomic level. PCR-RFLP on the ndhC-trnV and rbcL genes could therefore be considered as useful markers to phylogenetic analysis amongst Durio species. These finding might be used for further molecular marker assisted in Durio breeding program.

  4. Identification of Bifidobacterium spp. using hsp60 PCR-RFLP analysis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenico, Verena; Michelini, Samanta; Modesto, Monica; Baffoni, Loredana; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    A PCR-RFLP technique has been applied on 13 species of Bifidobacterium in order to update a previous study carried out by Baffoni et al. This method is based on the restriction endonuclease activity of HaeIII on the PCR-amplified hsp60 partial gene sequence, and allows a rapid and efficient identification of Bifidobacterium spp. strains at species and subspecies level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Wine Yeasts by PCR-RFLP without Previous Isolation on Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Espinosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of wine yeasts during spontaneous must fermentation was characterized by direct 5.8S-ITS rDNA region amplification without previous plate isolation or enrichment. RFLP analysis was applied to each of the amplification products detected, and the corresponding yeast identifications were made. The method provides a fast and direct way of determining yeast population present during wine fermentation.

  6. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  7. VALIDATION OF PCR-RFLP TESTING METHOD TO DETECT PORCINE CONTAMINATION IN CHICKEN NUGGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR-RFLP technique to detect porcine contamination in chicken nugget has been developed and validated in this research. Various concentrations of pork were fortified during preparation of the nugget. DNA was then isolated from the nugget followed by PCR employed primers which targeted a 359 bp cytB gene fragment of mitochondrial DNA. For RFLP, the PCR product was digested by means of BamHI and BseDI enzymes. Cutting DNA fragments from nugget containing pork using BseDI enzyme produced DNA fragment with size 228 and 131 bp, while cutting with BamHI enzyme produce DNA fragments with sizes 244 and 115 bp. All of these fragments were not present in RFLP analysis of pork-free nugget. The method shows good specificity and precision and could detect porcine contamination in the nugget up to 5%. The method has been applied to test commercial nugget. Four brand of Halal-labeled commercial nugget as well as four brand of non labeled one gave negative porcine contamination.

  8. Deteksi dan Diferensiasi Virus Kerdil Pisang dengan Teknik PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Ayu Priani

    2010-07-01

      Penyakit kerdil pisang dapat disebabkan oleh infeksi virus yang berbeda yaitu Banana bunchy top virus(BBTV atau Abaca bunchy top virus (ABTV. Kedua virus tersebut ditularkan secara persisten oleh kutu daun Pentalonia nigronervosa Coq. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi dan membedakan virus dengan polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP.Tanaman terinfeksi dikoleksi dari Yogyakarta (Sleman,Kota Yogyakarta, Bantul, Gunung Kidul, dan Kulon Progo. Metode Phytopure DNA Extraction Kit dan CTAB digunakan untuk mengisolasi DNA total. Primer universal Common DNA region (S-CRF/S-CRR dan primer spesifik DNA-R BBTV(C1-CRF danCI-CRR digunakan dalam amplifikasi dengan PCR. Produk PCRBBTV dianalisis dengan teknik RFLP menggunakan enzim restriksi Dra I. Hasil penelitian memperkuat laporan sebelumnya bahwa penyakit kerdil pisang di Yogyakarta disebabkan oleh BBTV, dan belum ditemukan ABTV. Berdasarkan analisis RFLP, BBTV dapat dibedakan menjadi tiga kelompok. Kelompok 1 yaitu BBTV isolat Sleman dan Kota Yogyakarta dengan dua fragmen DNA berukuran sekitar 400 dan 388 bp. Kelompok 2 yaituBBTV isolat Kulon Progo dan Gunung Kidul dengan tiga fragmen DNA berukuran sekitar 400, 388, dan 323 bp. Kelompok 3 yaitu BBTV isolat Bantul dengan dua fragmen DNA berukuran sekitar 723 dan 376 bp. Penelitian tentang karakterisasi dari ketiga kelompok tersebut masih diperlukan.

  9. Identification and differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum clinical isolates using PCR-RFLP and RAPD methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryncewicz-Gwóźdź, A; Jagielski, T; Dobrowolska, A; Szepietowski, J C; Baran, E

    2011-06-01

    Trichophyton rubrum represents the most frequently isolated causative agent of superficial dermatophyte infections. Several genotyping methods have recently been introduced to improve the delineation between pathogenic fungi at both the species and the strain levels. The purpose of this study was to apply selected DNA fingerprinting methods to the identification and strain discrimination of T. rubrum clinical isolates. Fifty-seven isolates from as many tinea patients were subjected to species identification by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and strain differentiation using a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method, with two primers designated 1 and 6. Using PCR-RFLP, 55 of the isolates studied were confirmed to be T. rubrum. Among those, a total of 40 and five distinct profiles were obtained by RAPD with primers 1 and 6, respectively. The combination of profiles from both RAPD assays resulted in 47 genotypes and an overall genotypic diversity rate of 85.4%. A dendrogram analysis performed on the profiles generated by RAPD with primer 1 showed most of the isolates (87.3%) to be genetically related. PCR-RFLP serves as a rapid and reliable method for the identification of T. rubrum species, while the RAPD analysis is rather a disadvantageous tool for T. rubrum strain typing.

  10. Intraspecific differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato based on in silico multilocus PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, Stephen; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2013-02-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is one of the most common and widely distributed plant pathogens in the world. Understanding fungal biodiversity is hinged on accurate identification and delimitation at the inter- and intraspecific levels. Sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (ITS), β-tubulin (TUB), actin (ACT), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) genes of 30 C. gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates, collected from anthracnose infected papaya fruits grown in the main production areas in Trinidad, were analyzed by in silico PCR-RFLP analysis with the aim of identifying which gene region(s) had the highest level of intraspecific polymorphism. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 13 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful at intraspecific discrimination of the C. gloeosporioides isolates. Genetic distance values were reflective of the level of polymorphisms obtained for the four different gene regions. In both cases (calculated genetic distance and percentage of polymorphic loci from RFLP profiles), ACT and ITS gene regions had the highest level of restriction site polymorphisms and genetic diversity, GPDH and TUB had the lowest. Cluster analysis based on PCR-RFLP genetic distance data revealed sub-specific placement of the isolates which appeared to be gene-dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed relative to biodiversity monitoring and the need for multilocus, polyphasic investigations which must take into account the possibility of exaggerated estimates of genetic diversity.

  11. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: LOD-score considerations for confirmation of linkage in a heterogeneous trait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, M.P.; Kibar, Z.; Rouleau, G.A. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system, defined by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. HSP may be inherited as an autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive, or an X-linked trait. AD HSP is genetically heterogeneous, and three loci have been identified so far: SPG3 maps to chromosome 14q, SPG4 to 2p, and SPG4a to 15q. We have undertaken linkage analysis with 21 uncomplicated AD families to the three AD HSP loci. We report significant linkage for three of our families to the SPG4 locus and exclude several families by multipoint linkage. We used linkage information from several different research teams to evaluate the statistical probability of linkage to the SPG4 locus for uncomplicated AD HSP families and established the critical LOD-score value necessary for confirmation of linkage to the SPG4 locus from Bayesian statistics. In addition, we calculated the empirical P-values for the LOD scores obtained with all families with computer simulation methods. Power to detect significant linkage, as well as type I error probabilities, were evaluated. This combined analytical approach permitted conclusive linkage analyses on small to medium-size families, under the restrictions of genetic heterogeneity. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, Marian; Blanché, Hélène; Perola, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Clear evidence exists for heritability of human longevity, and much interest is focused on identifying genes associated with longer lives. To identify such longevity alleles, we performed the largest genome-wide linkage scan thus far reported. Linkage analyses included 2118 nonagenarian Caucasian.......95), chromosome 19p13.3-p13.11 (LOD = 3.76), and chromosome 19q13.11-q13.32 (LOD = 3.57). To fine map these regions linked to longevity, we performed association analysis using GWAS data in a subgroup of 1228 unrelated nonagenarian and 1907 geographically matched controls. Using a fixed-effect meta-analysis.......02 and P-value = 1.0 × 10(-5) , respectively. In the largest linkage scan thus far performed for human familial longevity, we confirm that the APOE locus is a longevity gene and that additional longevity loci may be identified at 14q11.2, 17q12-q22, and 19p13.3-p13.11. As the latter linkage results...

  13. Broad scan linkage analysis in a large Tourette family pedigree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, A.; Leppert, M. [Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wetering, B.J.M. van der [Univ. Hospital Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-09-01

    Attempts to find a gene causing Tourette syndrome (TS) using linkage analysis have been unsuccessful even though as much as 65% of the autosomal genetic map has been excluded by the pooled results from several laboratories collaborating worldwide. One reason for this failure may be the misclassification of affection status of marry-in spouses. Specifically, we have found that six unrelated spouses in our Utah TS pedigree suffer from TS, obsessive-compulsive disorder or chronic motor tics. In light of these findings we decided to conduct a complete genomic scan from this Utah kindred with polymorphic markers in three related sibships in which there was no assortative mating. A linkage study assuming autosomal dominant inheritance was done using tetranucleotide repeat markers developed at the University of Utah. We selected markers that were less than 300 bp in size and that gave a heterozygosity of over 70% upon analysis in 4 CEPH families. Results to date with 95 markers run at an interval of 30 cM (covering 61% of the genome) show no evidence of linkage. We intend to extend the coverage to 100% of the genome. Pending completion of this scan, failure to provide evidence of linkage in our TS pedigree might then be attributed to phenotypic misclassification or erroneous assumptions regarding the genetic model of transmission.

  14. Bayesian linkage analysis of categorical traits for arbitrary pedigree designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abra Brisbin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedigree studies of complex heritable diseases often feature nominal or ordinal phenotypic measurements and missing genetic marker or phenotype data.We have developed a Bayesian method for Linkage analysis of Ordinal and Categorical traits (LOCate that can analyze complex genealogical structure for family groups and incorporate missing data. LOCate uses a Gibbs sampling approach to assess linkage, incorporating a simulated tempering algorithm for fast mixing. While our treatment is Bayesian, we develop a LOD (log of odds score estimator for assessing linkage from Gibbs sampling that is highly accurate for simulated data. LOCate is applicable to linkage analysis for ordinal or nominal traits, a versatility which we demonstrate by analyzing simulated data with a nominal trait, on which LOCate outperforms LOT, an existing method which is designed for ordinal traits. We additionally demonstrate our method's versatility by analyzing a candidate locus (D2S1788 for panic disorder in humans, in a dataset with a large amount of missing data, which LOT was unable to handle.LOCate's accuracy and applicability to both ordinal and nominal traits will prove useful to researchers interested in mapping loci for categorical traits.

  15. A sugar pine consensus map: Comparative mapping between the Pinus subgenus Pinus and the subgenus Strobus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Bohun B. Kinloch; Dean A. Davis; Deems C. Burton; Annette D. Mix; Jill L. Wegrzyn; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed a consensus genetic linkage map for sugar pine using three mapping populations that segregate for resistance to white pine blister rust, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The major gene of resistance, Cr1, was mapped in two of the populations and included in the consensus map, which contains 400 markers organized into 19...

  16. Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains by PCR-RFLP of SPA gene: A reference laboratory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehndiratta P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains by molecular typing based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP of spa gene and to assess the utility of spa genotyping over bacteriophage typing in the discrimination of the strains. Materials and Methods: Studies were undertaken on 125 MRSA strains representing the most predominant phage types and the non phage typeable strains. Strains were typed by bacteriophage typing and PCR-RFLP of spa gene. DNA sequence analysis of the amplified spa gene fragment of the representative RFLP patterns was performed using standard protocols. Results: All the strains resistant to oxacillin were found to contain mec A gene. Fifty-two per cent of these strains were typeable by the international basic set of 23 phages. Five different PCR-RFLP patterns were observed among 125 MRSA strains. Non phage typeable strains were differentiated into four PCR-RFLP patterns. Sequencing of the spa gene from the representative strains of each RFLP pattern confirmed the length of these restriction fragments due to variation in the 24 bp and the 174 bp tandem repeats. It also revealed the presence of three new spa repeat patterns. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the importance of spa genotyping in the discrimination of MRSA strains, which were otherwise indistinguishable by bacteriophage typing. spa genotyping allowed differentiation of strains within a particular phage type. Nucleotide sequencing of isolates of different PCR-RFLP patterns indicated a correlation between the RFLP patterns of a variable number of tandem repeats and the phage type. The study provides valuable information on the epidemiological characterization of MRSA strains.

  17. Privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin; Reiter, Michael K; Ahalt, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Record linkage to integrate uncoordinated databases is critical in biomedical research using Big Data. Balancing privacy protection against the need for high quality record linkage requires a human-machine hybrid system to safely manage uncertainty in the ever changing streams of chaotic Big Data. In the computer science literature, private record linkage is the most published area. It investigates how to apply a known linkage function safely when linking two tables. However, in practice, the linkage function is rarely known. Thus, there are many data linkage centers whose main role is to be the trusted third party to determine the linkage function manually and link data for research via a master population list for a designated region. Recently, a more flexible computerized third-party linkage platform, Secure Decoupled Linkage (SDLink), has been proposed based on: (1) decoupling data via encryption, (2) obfuscation via chaffing (adding fake data) and universe manipulation; and (3) minimum information disclosure via recoding. We synthesize this literature to formalize a new framework for privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL) with tractable privacy and utility properties and then analyze the literature using this framework. Human-based third-party linkage centers for privacy preserving record linkage are the accepted norm internationally. We find that a computer-based third-party platform that can precisely control the information disclosed at the micro level and allow frequent human interaction during the linkage process, is an effective human-machine hybrid system that significantly improves on the linkage center model both in terms of privacy and utility.

  18. Blood Meal Identification in Field-Captured Sand flies: Comparison of PCR-RFLP and ELISA Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maleki-Ravasan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: We aimed to develop a PCR-RFLP assay based on available sequences of putative vertebrate hosts to iden­tify blood meals ingested by field female sand fly in the northwest of Iran. In addition, the utility of PCR-RFLP was compared with ELISA as a standard method."nMethods: This experimental study was performed in the Insect Molecular Biology Laboratory of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2006-2007. For PCR-RFLP a set of conserved vertebrate prim­ers were used to amplify a part of the host mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b gene followed by digestion of the PCR products by Hae III enzyme."nResults: The PCR-RFLP and ELISA assays revealed that 34% and 27% of field-collected sand flies had fed on hu­mans, respectively. Additionally, PCR-RFLP assays could reveal specific host DNA as well as the components of mixed blood meals. Results of PCR-RFLP assay showed that the sand flies had fed on cow (54%, human (10%, dog (4%, human and cow (21%, dog and cow (14%, and human and dog (3%. "nConclusion: The results can provide a novel method for rapid diagnosis of blood meal taken by sandflies. The advan­tages and limitations of PCR and ELISA assays are discussed.

  19. Blood Meal Identification in Field-Captured Sand flies: Comparison of PCR-RFLP and ELISA Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maleki-Ravasan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: We aimed to develop a PCR-RFLP assay based on available sequences of putative vertebrate hosts to iden­tify blood meals ingested by field female sand fly in the northwest of Iran. In addition, the utility of PCR-RFLP was compared with ELISA as a standard method.Methods: This experimental study was performed in the Insect Molecular Biology Laboratory of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2006-2007. For PCR-RFLP a set of conserved vertebrate prim­ers were used to amplify a part of the host mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b gene followed by digestion of the PCR products by Hae III enzyme.Results: The PCR-RFLP and ELISA assays revealed that 34% and 27% of field-collected sand flies had fed on hu­mans, respectively. Additionally, PCR-RFLP assays could reveal specific host DNA as well as the components of mixed blood meals. Results of PCR-RFLP assay showed that the sand flies had fed on cow (54%, human (10%, dog (4%, human and cow (21%, dog and cow (14%, and human and dog (3%. Conclusion: The results can provide a novel method for rapid diagnosis of blood meal taken by sandflies. The advan­tages and limitations of PCR and ELISA assays are discussed.

  20. When to conduct probabilistic linkage vs. deterministic linkage? A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Ohashi, Yasuo; Setoguchi, Soko

    2015-08-01

    When unique identifiers are unavailable, successful record linkage depends greatly on data quality and types of variables available. While probabilistic linkage theoretically captures more true matches than deterministic linkage by allowing imperfection in identifiers, studies have shown inconclusive results likely due to variations in data quality, implementation of linkage methodology and validation method. The simulation study aimed to understand data characteristics that affect the performance of probabilistic vs. deterministic linkage. We created ninety-six scenarios that represent real-life situations using non-unique identifiers. We systematically introduced a range of discriminative power, rate of missing and error, and file size to increase linkage patterns and difficulties. We assessed the performance difference of linkage methods using standard validity measures and computation time. Across scenarios, deterministic linkage showed advantage in PPV while probabilistic linkage showed advantage in sensitivity. Probabilistic linkage uniformly outperformed deterministic linkage as the former generated linkages with better trade-off between sensitivity and PPV regardless of data quality. However, with low rate of missing and error in data, deterministic linkage performed not significantly worse. The implementation of deterministic linkage in SAS took less than 1min, and probabilistic linkage took 2min to 2h depending on file size. Our simulation study demonstrated that the intrinsic rate of missing and error of linkage variables was key to choosing between linkage methods. In general, probabilistic linkage was a better choice, but for exceptionally good quality data (<5% error), deterministic linkage was a more resource efficient choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping of a rice thermosensitive genic male sterility gene from a TGMS mutant line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu Duc Quang; Nguyen Van Dong; Pham Ngoc Luong; Tran Duy Quy [Argicultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Henry T. [Texas Tech Univ., Department of Plant and Soil Science, Lubbock TX (United States)

    2001-03-01

    At the Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam, a number of thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) homozygous rice lines have been developed by means of experimental mutagenesis followed by anther culture techniques. One of them (TGMS-1 indica mutant line) was used in this research. The critical temperature (at the period from pollen mother cell formation to the beginning of meiotic division) for TGMS-1 sterility was 24-25degC, below which the plants were fertile and above which the plants became sterile. Segregation analysis showed that the TGMS trait of the TGMS-1 mutant line was controlled by a single recessive gene. An F{sub 2} mapping population from a cross between TGMS-1 mutant line and CH1 (a fertile indica line) was developed for tagging and mapping the TGMS gene. From survey of 200 AFLP primer combinations in a bulked segregant analysis, 4 AFLP markers (E2/M5-200, E3/M16-400, E5/M12-600 and E5/M12-200) linked to TGMS-1 gene were identified and cloned. All except E2/M5-200 were found to be low-copy number sequences. The marker E5/M12-600 showed polymorphism in RFLP analysis and was closely linked to the TGMS gene at a distance of 3.3cM. This marker was subsequently mapped on chromosome 2 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses IR64xAzucena and CT9993xIR62666. Linkage of microsatellite marker RM27 with the TGMS gene further confirmed its location on chromosome 2. The closest marker, E5/M12-600, was sequenced so that a PCR marker can be developed for the use in marker-assisted breeding. The application of TGMS genes to the commercial two-line hybrid rice breeding system was discussed. (author)

  2. Linkage disequilibria at the D[sub 2] dopamine receptor locus (DRD2) in alcoholics and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, B.K.; Parsian, A.; Hampe, C.L.; Todd, R.D.; Reich, T.; Cloninger, C.R. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Because of its central role in the neuromodulation of appetitive behaviors, the D[sub 2] dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) has received considerable scrutiny as a possible candidate that may affect susceptibility to addictive behaviors--especially alcoholism. Association studies that compare the frequencies of anonymous restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in alcoholics and controls have yielded equivocal results, suggesting that any role played by this receptor will account for only part of the variation. Since these RFLPs are not located in coding regions, the hypothesis has been advanced that the association seen in some studies results from linkage disequilibrium between these markers and one or more functional DRD2 alleles that affect susceptibility. To test this hypothesis, the authors have assayed four DRD2 RFLPs that span coding regions as well as a 3[prime] flanking RFLP in an expanded sample of 88 unrelated Caucasian alcoholics and 89 unrelated race-matched controls. No significant