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Sample records for rf sputtered psg

  1. Microstructures using RF sputtered PSG film as a sacrificial layer in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we explore RF magnetron sputtered Phosphor–silicate– glass (PSG) film as a sacrificial layer in surface micromachining technology. For this purpose, a 76mm diameter target of phosphorus-doped silicon dioxide was prepared by conventional solid-state reaction route using P2O5 and SiO2 powders.

  2. Microstructures using RF sputtered PSG film as a sacrificial layer in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Vivekanand Bhatt1 Sudhir Chandra1 Chatar Singh2. Centre for Applied Research in Electronics (CARE), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016; Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 ...

  3. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  4. RF Reactive Magnetron Sputter Deposition of Silicon Sub-Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattum, E.D. van

    2007-01-01

    RF reactive magnetron plasma sputter deposition of silicon sub oxide E.D. van Hattum Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University The work described in the thesis has been inspired and stimulated by the use of SiOx layers in the direct inductive printing technology,

  5. RF magnetron sputtering of thick film amorphous beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Hsieh, E.J.

    1979-09-19

    Thick film coatings of beryllium, needed for the low-Z ablator layer in proposed laser fusion targets, have been prepared using high rate magnetron rf sputtering. The requirements for these Be coatings include thicknesses from 5 to 50 ..mu..m, complete freedom from surface defects, and an average surface roughness of 100 nm or less. We have sputtered very smooth, dense, thick Be films with surface roughness less than 100 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis of impurity doped films indicates an amorphous-like structure. Impurity stabilized amorphous Be with smooth surfaces is reported on both cooled copper and higher temperature glass substrates. The sputtering parameters (substrate temperature, deposition rate, argon pressure, and impurity gas levels) affecting surface roughness and film structure are discussed in terms of SEM, AES, and x-ray diffraction results.

  6. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  7. Sodium tungsten bronze thin films by rf sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderegg, J.W.

    1977-03-01

    Polycrystalline Na/sub x/WO/sub 3/ films were produced by rf sputtering. Films of low x-value resulted when co-sputtering WO/sub 3/ on a Na/sub 0.83/WO/sub 3/ target, and Na/sub 0/./sub 83/ on WO/sub 3/ target. Films of high x and of mixed phase were produced by sputtering a powder mixture of Na/sub 2/WO/sub 4/ and WO/sub 3/ on a tungsten target. Of the sputtering parameters studied, the substrate temperature is the most critical with temperatures above 500/sup 0/C producing films which were cubic in structure with only a small amount of Tetragonal I. The presence of oxygen up to 3 percent by volume had minimal effect on film quality or x-value. Auger, electron microprobe, SIMS, SEM, x-ray diffraction, and sheet resistivity techniques were used in characterizing these films. Resistivity of the films was a factor of 10 higher than the bulk crystalline data for Na/sub 0/./sub 83/WO/sub 3/.

  8. R.F. planar magnetron sputtered ZnO films I: structural properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, F.C.M.; van de Pol, F.C.M.; Blom, F.R.; Blom, F.R.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The structural properties of r.f. planar magnetron sputtered ZnO films are studied as a function of deposition parameters: substrate type, substrate temperature, sputter gas pressure, growth rate and sputtering power. These films are applied as piezoelectric transducers in micromechanical sensors

  9. Synthesis of Ag2O Films using RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eric; Bonini, John; Fordham, William; Long, Matthew; Natale, Joseph; Redmond, Sean; Westerland, Adam; Yanakas, Michael; Hu, Xiao; Lofland, Samuel; Krchnavek, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Silver oxide (Ag2O) thin films were successfully grown using reactive RF magnetron sputtering onto SiO2 and Al2O3 substrates at room temperature. Synthesis of these films was achieved in a gaseous mixture of oxygen and argon which was 40% oxygen. X-Ray diffraction tests yielded numerous peak intensities at angles correlating directly to Ag2O. Deposition rates were shown to be a significantly greater on Al2O3 in comparison to SiO2. Understanding this difference is a point of future investigations. ASTM D3359 adhesion tests as well as four terminal conductivity tests were also performed on the films and will be reported.

  10. Textured ZnO thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ginting, M; Kang, K H; Kim, S K; Yoon, K H; Park, I J; Song, J S

    1999-01-01

    Textured thin films ZnO has been successfully grown by rf magnetron sputtering method using a special technique of introducing a small amount of water and methanol on the deposition chamber. The grain size of the textured surface is highly dependent on the argon pressure during the deposition. The pressure in this experiment was varied from 50 mTorr down to 5 mTorr and the highest grain size of the film is obtained at 5 mTorr. The total transmittance of the films are more than 85% in the wavelength of 400 to 800 nm, and haze ratio of about 14% is obtained at 400 nm wavelength. Beside the textured surface, these films also have very low resistivity, which is lower than 1.4x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA centre dot cm. X-ray analysis shows that the films with textured surface have four diffraction peaks on the direction of (110), (002), (101) and (112), while the non-textured films have only (110) and (002) peaks. Due to the excellent characteristics of this film, it will make the film very good TCO alternatives for the ...

  11. Fabrication of oriented hydroxyapatite film by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Keishiro; Kubota, Takafumi; Koyama, Daisuke; Takayanagi, Shinji; Matsukawa, Mami

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is compatible with bone tissue and is used mainly as a bone prosthetic material, especially as the coating of implants. Oriented HAp film is expected to be a high-quality epitaxial scaffold of the neonatal bone. To fabricate highly oriented HAp thin films via the conventional plasma process, we deposited the HAp film on a Ti coated silica glass substrate using RF magnetron sputtering in low substrate temperature conditions. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the film sample consisted of an intense (002) peak, corresponding to the highly oriented HAp. The (002) peak in XRD diagrams can be attributed either to the monoclinic phase or the hexagonal phase. Pole figure analysis showed that the (002) plane grew parallel to the surface of the substrate, without inclination. Transmission Electron Microscope analysis also showed the fabrication of aligned HAp crystallites. The selected area diffraction patterns indicated the existence of monoclinic phase. The existence of hexagonal phase could not be judged. These results indicate the uniaxial films fabricated by this technique enable to be the epitaxial scaffold of the neonatal bone. This scaffold can be expected to promote connection with the surrounding bone tissue and recovery of the dynamic characteristics of the bone.

  12. RF sputtering: A viable tool for MEMS fabrication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (PSG), Al, Cr-Au, Pt, etc. for use as structural, sacrificial, piezoelectric and con- ducting material. Deposition of these materials at low temperature is desirable for fabricating sensors/actuators on temperature-sensitive substrates and also for inte- grating MEMS structures on silicon in post-CMOS processing procedures.

  13. Preparation and characterization of high-transmittance AZO films using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Energy Equipment of Three Gorges Region, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Sun, Yihua, E-mail: sunyihua316181@163.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Energy Equipment of Three Gorges Region, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Lv, Xin; Li, Derong [Glass Industry Engineering Research Center of Hubei Province, Hubei Sanxia New Building Materials Co., Ltd., Dangyang 444105 (China); Fang, Liang; Wang, Hailin; Sun, Xiaohua; Huang, Caihua; Yu, Haizhou; Feng, Ping [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Energy Equipment of Three Gorges Region, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • We prepared the AZO thin films on soda-lime glass without the substrate heated. • High-transmittance AZO films had been obtained by RF magnetron sputtering using a ceramic target. • The minimum resistivity of 2.55 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm combined with highest transmittance of 91% was obtained at a sputtering power of 400 W. • The resistivity decreased and transmittance improved with the sputtering power increase. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films with 250 nm thickness had been prepared on soda-lime glass substrate without heated by RF magnetron sputtering using a ceramic target. The microstructure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of AZO thin films had been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, four-point probe method and optical transmission spectroscopy. The results indicated that all of the films obtained were polycrystalline with a hexagonal structure and oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The resistivity decreased and transmittance improved with the sputtering power increase. The minimum resistivity of 2.55 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm combined with highest transmittance of 91% was obtained at a sputtering power of 400 W. The optical bandgap at different sputtering power varied among 3.81–4.04 eV.

  14. Comparative study of ITO and TiN fabricated by low-temperature RF biased sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Daniel K., E-mail: daniel.simon@namlab.com; Schenk, Tony; Dirnstorfer, Ingo; Fengler, Franz P. G.; Jordan, Paul M.; Krause, Andreas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Tröger, David [Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau, Fachgruppe Nanotechnologie, Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2a, 08056 Zwickau (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden, Germany and TU Dresden, Institut für Halbleiter- und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM), 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Radio frequency (RF) biasing induced by a second plasma source at the substrate is applied to low-temperature sputtering processes for indium tin oxide (ITO) and titanium nitride (TiN) thin films. Investigations on crystal structure and surface morphology show that RF-biased substrate plasma processes result in a changed growth regime with different grain sizes and orientations than those produced by processes without a substrate bias. The influence of the RF bias is shown comparatively for reactive RF-sputtered ITO and reactive direct-current-sputtered TiN. The ITO layers exhibit an improved electrical resistivity of 0.5 mΩ cm and an optical absorption coefficient of 0.5 × 10{sup 4 }cm{sup −1} without substrate heating. Room-temperature sputtered TiN layers are deposited that possess a resistivity (0.1 mΩ cm) of 3 orders of magnitude lower than, and a density (5.4 g/cm{sup 3}) up to 45% greater than, those obtained from layers grown using the standard process without a substrate plasma.

  15. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Majeed, Asif; He, Jie; Jiao, Lingrui; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Sheng, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 films are deposited on a silicon substrate using 150-W power from the RF magnetron sputtering at working pressures of 3 to 5 Pa, with no substrate bias, and at 3 Pa with a substrate bias of −50 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD...

  16. Preparation and Characterization of FC Films Coated on PET Substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mei-lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorocarbon (FC films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET plates and PET fabrics respectively by a radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE as a target. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the morphology, structure and composition of the obtained FC films. The hydrophobicity and uvioresistant properties of the FC film coated fabric were studied. The results show that the FC films were successfully deposited on the PET substrates by a RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films are made up of four components -CF3, -CF2-, CF- and -C-. The proportions of the four components and surface morphologies of the deposited films vary with the sputtering conditions. Compared with the original fabric samples, the hydrophobicity of the FC film coated fabrics is quite good and improved significantly.

  17. Thin films preparation of the Ti-Al-O system by rf-sputtering;Preparacion de peliculas delgadas del sistema Ti-Al-O mediante rf-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes de Oca, J. A.; Ceballos A, J.; Galaviz P, J. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Altamira, Km 14.5 Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Manaud, J. P.; Lahaye, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Bordeaux I, 87, Av. du Dr. Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac-Cedex (France); Munoz S, J., E-mail: jmontedeocacv@ipn.m [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work Ti-Al-O thin films were synthesized by rf-sputtering technique on glass and silicon (Si) substrates using Ti Al and Ti{sub 3}Al targets in a sputtering chamber with an Ar-O{sub 2} atmosphere. Ti-Al-O thin films were obtained varying experimental parameters such as oxygen percent fed to the reaction chamber, plasma power density and substrate temperature. The films deposited on glass substrates were used to evaluate their optical properties, while those deposited on Si substrates were used to evaluate mechanical and morphological properties. The crystalline structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the films were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron microscopy and visible UV spectroscopy. Films thicknesses were measured using a profiler. The roughness and mechanical properties such as hardness and Young modulus were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and nano indentation technique, respectively. (Author)

  18. Ultra-hard amorphous AlMgB14 films RF sputtered onto curved substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, A. M.; Putrolaynen, V. V.; Yuzvyuk, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, hard AlMgB14 (BAM) coatings were deposited for the first time by RF magnetron sputtering using a single stoichiometric ceramic target. High target sputtering power and sufficiently short target-to-substrate distance were found to be critical processing conditions. They enabled fabrication of stoichiometric in-depth compositionally homogeneous films with the peak values of nanohardness 88 GPa and Young’s modulus 517 GPa at the penetration depth of 26 nm and, respectively, 35 GPa and 275 GPa at 200 nm depth in 2 µm thick film (Grishin et al 2014 JETP Lett. 100 680). The narrow range of sufficiently short target-to-substrate distance makes impossible to coat non flat specimens. To achieve ultimate BAM films’ characteristics onto curved surfaces we developed two-step sputtering process. The first thin layer is deposited as a template at low RF power that facilitates a layered Frank van der Merwe mode growth of smooth film occurs. The next layer is grown at high RF target sputtering power. The affinity of subsequent flow of sputtered atoms to already evenly condensed template fosters the development of smooth film surface. As an example, we made BAM coating onto hemispherical 5 mm in diameter ball made from a hard tool steel and used as a head of a special gauge. Very smooth (6.6 nm RMS surface roughness) and hard AlMgB14 films fabricated onto commercial ball-shaped items enhance hardness of tool steel specimens by a factor of four.

  19. RF Magnetron Sputtering Aluminum Oxide Film for Surface Passivation on Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. The influences of the deposition parameters on the surface passivation, surface damage, optical properties, and composition of the films have been investigated. It is found that proper sputtering power and uniform magnetic field reduced the surface damage from the high-energy ion bombardment to the silicon wafers during the process and consequently decreased the interface trap density, resulting in the good surface passivation; relatively high refractive index of aluminum oxide film is benefic to improve the surface passivation. The negative-charged aluminum oxide film was then successfully prepared. The surface passivation performance was further improved after postannealing by formation of an SiOx interfacial layer. It is demonstrated that the reactive sputtering is an effective technique of fabricating aluminum oxide surface passivation film for low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells.

  20. Influences of the RF power ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GZO thin films by DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shou [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu 233018 (China); Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233018 (China); Yao, Tingting, E-mail: yaott0815@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu 233018 (China); Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233018 (China); Yang, Yong; Zhang, Kuanxiang; Jiang, Jiwen; Jin, Kewu; Li, Gang; Cao, Xin; Xu, Genbao; Wang, Yun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu 233018 (China); Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233018 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Ga-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films were deposited by closed field unbalanced DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering system at room temperature. The RF sputtering power ratio was adjusted from 0% to 100%. The crystal structure, surface morphology, transmittance and electrical resistivity of GZO films mainly influenced by RF sputtering power ratio were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electronic microscope, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The research results indicate that the increasing RF power ratio can effectively reduce the discharge voltage of system and increase the ionizing rate of particles. Meanwhile, the higher RF power ratio can increase the carrier mobility in GZO thin film and improve the optical and electrical properties of GZO thin film significantly. Within the optimal discharge voltage window, the film deposits at 80% RF power ratio exhibits the lowest resistivity of 2.6×10{sup −4} Ω cm. We obtain the GZO film with the best average optical transmittance is approximately 84% in the visible wavelength. With the increasing RF power ratio, the densification of GZO film is enhanced. The densification of GZO film is decrease when the RF power ratio is 100%.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of CdTe nanostructures grown by RF magnetron sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarnejad, Elaheh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesize Cadmium Telluride nanostructures by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system on soda lime glass at various thicknesses. The effect of CdTe nanostructures thickness on crystalline, optical and morphological properties has been studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The XRD parameters of CdTe nanostructures such as microstrain, dislocation density, and crystal size have been examined. From XRD analysis, it could be assumed that increasing deposition time caused the formation of the wurtzite hexagonal structure of the sputtered films. Optical properties of the grown nanostructures as a function of film thickness have been observed. All the films indicate more than 60% transmission over a wide range of wavelengths. The optical band gap values of the films have obtained in the range of 1.62-1.45 eV. The results indicate that an RF sputtering method succeeded in depositing of CdTe nanostructures with high purity and controllable physical properties, which is appropriate for photovoltaic and nuclear detector applications.

  2. Characteristics of ZnO/diamond thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y W; Lee, J G; Baik, Y J; Kim, H J; Jung, H J; Choi, W K; Cho, B H; Park, C Y

    1999-01-01

    Due to its high Young's modulus, diamond has the highest acoustic wave velocity among all materials and is expected to be a candidate substrate for high-frequency surface acoustic wave(SAW) devices. In this study, the deposition of ZnO, as a piezoelectric layer, on a diamond substrate is investigated. ZnO has been fabricated by using RF magnetron sputtering with a ZnO target and various Ar/O sub 2 gas ratios, RF powers, and substrate temperatures at a vacuum of 10 sup - sup 5 Torr. The sputtered ZnO films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and I-V characteristics. All the films show only a (002) orientation. The atomic concentration of the sputtered ZnO films is changed by the oxygen gas ratio, and the ZnO films are grown with a homogeneous composition over their entire thickness. The electrical resistivity of the films varied from 4x10 sup 3 to 7x10 sup 8 OMEGA cm, depending on the Ar/O sub 2 gas ratio. The phase...

  3. Copper deposition on fabrics by rf plasma sputtering for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, G.; Guzmán, P.; Zuñiga, P.; Chaves, S.; Barrantes, Y.; Navarro, G.; Asenjo, J.; Guadamuz Vargas, S., VI; Chaves, J.

    2015-03-01

    The present work is about preparation and characterization of RF sputtered Cu films on cotton by the usage of a Magnetron Sputter Source and 99.995% purity Cu target at room temperature. Cotton fabric samples of 1, 2 and 4 min of sputtering time at discharge pressure of 1×10-2 Torr and distance between target and sample of 8 cm were used. The main goal was to qualitatively test the antimicrobial action of copper on fabrics. For that purpose, a reference strain of Escherichia Coli ATCC 35218 that were grown in TSA plates was implemented. Results indicated a decrease in the growth of bacteria by contact with Cu; for fabric samples with longer sputtering presented lower development of E. coli colonies. The scope of this research focused on using these new textiles in health field, for example socks can be made with this textile for the treatment of athlete's foot and the use in pajamas, sheets, pillow covers and robes in hospital setting for reducing the spread of microorganisms.

  4. Catalytic growth of ZnO nanostructures by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Hernández María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic effect of gold seed particles deposited on a substrate prior to zinc oxide (ZnO thin film growth by magnetron sputtering was investigated. For this purpose, selected ultra thin gold layers, with thicknesses close to the percolation threshold, are deposited by thermal evaporation in ultra high vacuum (UHV conditions and subsequently annealed to form gold nanodroplets. The ZnO structures are subsequently deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering in a UHV chamber, and possible morphological differences between the ZnO grown on top of the substrate and on the gold are investigated. The results indicate a moderate catalytic effect for a deposited gold underlayer of 4 nm, quite close to the gold thin film percolation thickness.

  5. Synthesis and annealing study of RF sputtered ZnO thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shushant Kumar, E-mail: singhshushant86@gmail.com; Sharma, Himanshu [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, JLN Marg, Malaviya Nagar, Jaipur-302017 (India); Singhal, R. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Centre, Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, JLN Marg, Malaviya Nagar, Jaipur-302017 (India); Kumar, V. V. Siva; Avasthi, D. K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, we have investigated the annealing effect on optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films, synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates simultaneously at a substrate temperature of 300 °C using Argon gas in sputtering chamber. Thickness of as deposited ZnO thin film was found to be ~155 nm, calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). These films were annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C temperature in the continuous flow of oxygen gas for 1 hour in tube furnace. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO thin film along the c-axis (002) orientation. Transmittance of thin films was increased with increasing the annealing temperature estimated by UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. Quality and texture of the thin films were improved with annealing temperature, estimated by Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Modeling of magnetic properties of iron thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using Preisach model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendjerad Adel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron thin films were deposited on glass substrates using RF magnetron sputtering and their optimal deposition conditions were determined. The structure properties were analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD and their magnetic hysteresis loops were obtained by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM at room temperature. In this situation, the magnetic field is either parallel or perpendicular to the substrate plane. The main contribution of this work is to characterize the thin layers and present a mathematical model that can get best fit of the characteristics B(H. By using Preisach model, good agreement was obtained between theoretical and experimental results in both cases.

  7. Influence of RF power on the properties of sputtered ZnO:Al thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Aldrin; Carreras, Paz; Keitzl, Thomas; Roldan, Ruben; Nos, Oriol; Frigeri, Paolo; Asensi, Jose Miguel; Bertomeu, Joan [Grup d' Energia Solar, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Transparent conducting, aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al) were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The RF power was varied from 60 to 350 W whereas the substrate temperature was kept at 160 C. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the as-deposited films were found to be influenced by the deposition power. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all the films have a strong preferred orientation along the [001] direction. The crystallite size was varied from 14 to 36 nm, however no significant change was observed in the case of lattice constant. The optical band gap varied in the range 3.44-3.58 eV. The lowest resistivity of 1.2 x 10{sup -3}{omega} cm was shown by the films deposited at 250 W. The mobility of the films was found to increase with the deposition power. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Asif; He, Jie; Jiao, Lingrui; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Sheng, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 films are deposited on a silicon substrate using 150-W power from the RF magnetron sputtering at working pressures of 3 to 5 Pa, with no substrate bias, and at 3 Pa with a substrate bias of -50 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that TiO2 films deposited on unbiased as well as biased substrates are all amorphous. Surface properties such as surface roughness and wettability of TiO2 films, grown in a plasma environment, under biased and unbiased substrate conditions are reported according to the said parameters of RF power and the working pressures. Primary rat osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cells have been cultured on nanostructured TiO2 films fabricated at different conditions of substrate bias and working pressures. The effects of roughness and hydrophilicity of nanostructured TiO2 films on cell density and cell spreading have been discussed.

  9. RF Magnetron Sputtering Coating Of Hydroxyapatite On Alkali Solution Treated Titanate Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA is a material with outstanding biocompatibility. It is chemically similar to natural bone tissue, and has therefore been favored for use as a coating material for dental and orthopedic implants. In this study, RF magnetron sputtering was applied for HA coating. And Alkali treatment was performed in a 5 M NaOH solution at 60°C. The coated HA thin film was heat-treated at a range of temperatures from 300 to 600°C. The morphological characterization and crystal structures of the coated specimens were then obtained via FE-SEM, XRD, and FT-IR. The amorphous thin film obtained on hydrothermally treated nanorods transformed into a crystalline thin film after the heat treatment. The change in the phase transformation, with an enhanced crystallinity, showed a reduced wettability. The hydrothermally treated nanorods with an amorphous thin film, on the other hand, showed an outstanding wettability. The HA thin film perpendicularly coated the nanorods in the upper and inner parts via RF magnetron sputtering, and the FT-IR results confirmed that the molecular bonding of the coated film had an HA structure.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr-Si-N films prepared by rf-reactive sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Nose, M; Zhou, M; Mae, T; Meshii, M

    2002-01-01

    ZrN and ZrSiN films were prepared in an rf sputtering apparatus that has a pair of targets facing each other (referred to as the facing target--type rf sputtering). Films were deposited on silicon wafers without bias application or substrate heating in order to examine only the effect of silicon addition to the transition metal nitride films. The contents of zirconium, nitrogen, and silicon of the films were determined with an electron probe microanalyzer. The transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in addition to x-ray diffraction. For the high resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, the field emission type transmission electron microscope was used, which provides a point-to-point resolution of 0.1 nm. The samples were observed both parallel and perpendicular to the film surface, which were plane and cross sectional views, respectively. In order to investigate the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructure of films, the hardness was measured by a nano...

  11. Antibacterial Study of Silver, Copper, Gold, and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Prepared by DC and RF Magnetron Sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed K. Khalaf; Husham K.Oudah; Amal A. Halob; Sabri J. Mohammed; Mohammed J. Dathan

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the antibacterial activity of nanomaterial’s copper, silver, gold and titanium dioxide sportily was investigated on both gram positive and negative bacteria. Nanoparticles of Cu, Ag, Au and TiO2 films were grown on glass substrates by dc and RF magnetron sputtering techniques. Nanoparticles films deposition were carried out at optimized argon pressure of 5.5×10-2mbar, sputtering plasma power of 30 Watt for Cu, Ag and Au samples and pressure of 1×10-3 mbar, plasma sputtering powe...

  12. Piezoelectric Response Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Da-Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important parameter of piezoelectric materials is piezoelectric coefficient (d33. In this study, the piezoelectric ZnO thin films were deposited on the SiNx/Si substrate. The 4 inches substrate is diced into 8 cm× 8 cm piece. During the deposition process, a zinc target (99.999 wt% of 2 inches diameter was used. The vertical distance between the target and the substrate holder was fixed at 5 cm. The piezoelectric response of zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were obtained by using a direct measurement system. The system adopts a mini impact tip to generate an impulsive force and read out the piezoelectric signals immediately. Experimentally, a servo motor is used to produce a fixed quantity of force, for giving an impact against to the piezoelectric film. The ZnO thin films were deposited using the reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. The electric charges should be generated because of the material’s extrusion. This phenomenon was investigated through the oscilloscope by one shot trigger. It was apparent that all ZnO films exhibit piezoelectric responses evaluated by our measurement system, however, its exhibit a significant discrepancy. The piezoelectric responses of ZnO thin film at various deposition positions were measured and the crystal structures of the sputtering pressure were also discussed. The crystalline characteristics of ZnO thin films are investigated through the XRD and SEM. The results show the ZnO thin film exhibits good crystalline pattern and surface morphology with controlled sputtering condition. The ZnO thin films sputtered using 2 inches target present various piezoelectric responses. With the exactly related position, a best piezoelectric response of ZnO thin film can be achieved.

  13. Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering on Flexible Substrate Using Different Sputtering Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumtong, T.; Sukwisute, P.; Sakulkalavek, A.; Sakdanuphab, R.

    2017-05-01

    The microstructural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) thin films have been investigated for thermoelectric applications. Sb2Te3 thin films were deposited on flexible substrate (polyimide) by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a Sb2Te3 target using different sputtering pressures in the range from 4 × 10-3 mbar to 1.2 × 10-2 mbar. The crystal structure, [Sb]:[Te] ratio, and electrical and thermoelectric properties of the films were analyzed by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Hall effect and Seebeck measurements, respectively. The XRD spectra of the films demonstrated polycrystalline structure with preferred orientation of (015), (110), and (1010). A high-intensity spectrum was found for the film deposited at lower sputtering pressure. EDS analysis of the films revealed the effects of the sputtering pressure on the [Sb]:[Te] atomic ratio, with nearly stoichiometric films being obtained at higher sputtering pressure. The stoichiometric Sb2Te3 films showed p-type characteristics with electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of 35.7 S cm-1, 6.38 × 1019 cm-3, and 3.67 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The maximum power factor of 1.07 × 10-4 W m-1 K-2 was achieved for the film deposited at sputtering pressure of 1.0 × 10-2 mbar.

  14. HRTEM Microstructural Characterization of β-WO3 Thin Films Deposited by Reactive RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faudoa-Arzate, A.; Arteaga-Durán, A.; Saenz-Hernández, R.J.; Botello-Zubiate, M.E.; Realyvazquez-Guevara, P.R.; Matutes-Aquino, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Though tungsten trioxide (WO3) in bulk, nanosphere, and thin film samples has been extensively studied, few studies have been dedicated to the crystallographic structure of WO3 thin films. In this work, the evolution from amorphous WO3 thin films to crystalline WO3 thin films is discussed. WO3 thin films were fabricated on silicon substrates (Si/SiO2) by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Once a thin film was deposited, two successive annealing treatments were made: an initial annealing at 400 °C for 6 h was followed by a second annealing at 350 °C for 1 h. Film characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution electron transmission microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The β-WO3 final phase grew in form of columnar crystals and its growth plane was determined by HRTEM. PMID:28772559

  15. Nitrogen dissociation during RF sputtering of Lipon electrolyte for all-solid-states batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Holtappels, Peter

    2013-01-01

    films in nitrogen gas is investigated by mass appearance spectrometry, optical emission spectroscopy and electrostatic probes and the results are correlated with electrochemical properties of the films. Low pressure and moderate power are found to be most beneficial for the growth of good quality films......Small size and high power density secondary batteries are desired for a large number of applications based on miniature wireless devices and sensors that need to be compatible with the microelectronic fabrication technology. This fact resulted in the development of solid electrolytes, like lithium...... phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon), that can be compacted with the anode and cathode electrodes in an all-solid-states structure where the nitrogen incorporation is considered one of the key parameters for controlling the ionic conductivity. In this work the nitrogen dissociation during RF sputtering of Lipon...

  16. Structural and superconducting properties of sputter-deposited niobium films for applications in RF accelerating cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Peck, M A

    2000-01-01

    The present work presents the results of a systematic study of superconducting and structural properties of niobium films sputter deposited onto the inner walls of radiofrequency copper resonators. The measured superconducting quantities include the surface resistance, the critical temperature, the penetration depth and the upper and lower critical fields. In addition to films grown with different discharge gases (Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne and Ar-Ne mixtures) and to films grown on substrates prepared under different conditions, the study also includes massive niobium cavities. The surface resistance is analysed in terms of its dependence on the temperature and on the rf field amplitude and, when possible, compared to theoretical predictions. In general, good agreement with BCS theory is observed. All experimental results are presented in the form of a simple, but adequate parameterisation. The residual resistance is observed to be essentially uncorrelated with the other variables, but strongly dependent on the macroscop...

  17. Structure and optical characterization of silicon nitride films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiaoyun; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Suling [Beijing Jiaotong Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education; Tang, Yu; Zhou, Chunlan; Wang, Wenjing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Silicon nitride films were deposited by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N{sub 2} gas mixture at a low substrate temperature. Subsequently the samples were annealed in pure N{sub 2} ambience. Influences of the Ar/N{sub 2} gas flow ratio as well as annealing on the optical properties and structure were studied. The optical properties of the films before annealing were examined using transmittance spectra. The composition of the samples was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Microstructure of the films was investigated using atomic force microscope (AFM). The films after annealing compared to former present a more compact construct, which is very dependent on the hydrogen concentration in the film. (orig.)

  18. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 165±2° with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 5±2°. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

  19. RF Magnetron Sputtering Deposited W/Ti Thin Film For Smart Window Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change reversible and persistent their optical properties in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction according to the applied voltage. A complementary type EC is a device containing two electrochromic layers, one of which is anodically colored such as vanadium oxide (V2 O5) while the other cathodically colored such as tungsten oxide (WO3) which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). The use of a solid electrolyte such as Nafion eliminates the need for containment of the liquid electrolyte, which simplifies the cell design, as well as improves safety and durability. In this work, the EC device was fabricated on a ITO/glass slide. The WO3-TiO2 thin film was deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering using a 2-in W/Ti (9:1%wt) target with purity of 99.9% in a mixture gas of argon and oxygen. As a counter electrode layer, V2O5 film was deposited on an ITO/glass substrate using V2O3 target with the same conditions of reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Modified Nafion was used as an electrolyte to complete EC device. The transmittance spectra of the complementary EC device was measured by optical spectrophotometry when a voltage of +/-3 V was applied to the EC device by computer controlled system. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Fig. 2). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) for EC device was performed by sweeping the potential between +/-3 V at a scan rate of 50 mV/s.

  20. Highly textured and transparent RF sputtered Eu2O3 doped ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remadevi Sreeja Sreedharan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc oxide (ZnO is a wide, direct band gap II-VI oxide semiconductor. ZnO has large exciton binding energy at room temperature, and it is a good host material for obtaining visible and infrared emission of various rare-earth ions. Methods: Europium oxide (Eu2O3 doped ZnO films are prepared on quartz substrate using radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering with doping concentrations 0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt%. The films are annealed in air at a temperature of 773 K for 2 hours. The annealed films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Results: XRD patterns show that the films are highly c-axis oriented exhibiting hexagonalwurtzite structure of ZnO. Particle size calculations using Debye-Scherrer formula show that average crystalline size is in the range 15–22 nm showing the nanostructured nature of the films. The observation of low- and high-frequency E2 modes in the Raman spectra supports the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO in the films. The surface morphology of the Eu2O3 doped films presents dense distribution of grains. The films show good transparency in the visible region. The band gaps of the films are evaluated using Tauc plot model. Optical constants such as refractive index, dielectric constant, loss factor, and so on are calculated using the transmittance data. The PL spectra show both UV and visible emissions. Conclusion: Highly textured, transparent, luminescent Eu2O3 doped ZnO films have been synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering. The good optical and structural properties and intense luminescence in the ultraviolet and visible regions from the films suggest their suitability for optoelectronic applications.

  1. Fractal features of CdTe thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinpanahi, Fayegh, E-mail: f.hosseinpanahi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoufi, Davood [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbarghanei, Khadijeh [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Bayan [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Reza [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasani, Ebrahim [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdTe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature with different deposition time 5, 10 and 15 min. • Nanostructure of CdTe layer indicates that CdTe films are polycrystalline and have zinc blende structure, irrespective of their deposition time. • Complexity and roughness of the CdTe films and strength of multifractality increase with increasing deposition time. • Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe films have multifractal nature. - Abstract: Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). The film deposition was performed for 5, 10, and 15 min at power of 30 W with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The crystal structure of the prepared CdTe thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD analyses indicate that the CdTe films are polycrystalline, having zinc blende structure of CdTe irrespective of their deposition time. All CdTe films showed a preferred orientation along (1 1 1) crystalline plane. The surface morphology characterization of the films was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative AFM characterization shows that the RMS surface roughness of the prepared CdTe thin films increases with increasing the deposition time. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe thin films have multifractal nature. The complexity, roughness of the CdTe thin films and strength of the multifractality increase as deposition time increases.

  2. RF magnetron sputtering of a hydroxyapatite target: A comparison study on polytetrafluorethylene and titanium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmenev, Roman A.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Grubova, Irina Yu.; Chernozem, Roman V.; Krause, Bärbel; Baumbach, Tilo; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    A pure hydroxyapatite (HA) target was used to prepare the biocompatible coating of HA on the surface of a polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) substrate, which was placed on the same substrate holder with technically pure titanium (Ti) in the single deposition runs by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The XPS, XRD and FTIR analyses of the obtained surfaces showed that for all substrates, instead of the HA coating deposition, the coating of a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium fluoride was grown. According to SEM investigations, the surface of PTFE was etched, and the surface topography of uncoated Ti was preserved after the depositions. The FTIR results reveal no phosphate bonds; only calcium tracks were observed in the EDX-spectra on the surface of the coated PTFE substrates. Phosphate oxide (V), which originated from the target, could be removed using a vacuum pump system, or no phosphate-containing bonds could be formed on the substrate surface because of the severe substrate bombardment process, which prevented the HA coating deposition. The observed results may be connected with the surface re-sputtering effect of the growing film by high-energy negatively charged ions (most probably oxygen or fluorine), which are accelerated in the cathode dark sheath.

  3. Growth of high quality AlN films on CVD diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-xian; Liu, Hao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Cheng-ming; Wang, Yi-chao; An, Kang; Hua, Chen-yi; Liu, Jin-long; Wei, Jun-jun; Hei, Li-fu; Lv, Fan-xiu

    2018-02-01

    A highly oriented AlN layer has been successfully grown along the c-axis on a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Structural, morphological and mechanical properties of the heterostructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nano-indentation and Four-probe meter. A compact AlN film was demonstrated on the diamond layer, showing columnar grains and a low surface roughness of 1.4 nm. TEM results revealed a sharp AlN/diamond interface, which was characterized by the presence of a distinct 10 nm thick buffer layer resulting from the initial AlN growth stage. The FWHM of AlN (002) diffraction peak and its rocking curve are as low as 0.41° and 3.35° respectively, indicating a highly preferred orientation along the c-axis. AlN sputtered films deposited on glass substrates show a higher bulk resistivity (up to 3 × 1012 Ω cm), compared to AlN films deposited on diamond (∼1010 Ω cm). Finally, the film hardness and Young's modulus of AlN films on diamond are 25.8 GPa and 489.5 GPa, respectively.

  4. Electrical Characterization of Ultrathin RF-Sputtered LiPON Layers for Nanoscale Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Put, Brecht; Vereecken, Philippe M; Meersschaut, Johan; Sepúlveda, Alfonso; Stesmans, Andre

    2016-03-23

    Ultrathin lithium phosphorus oxynitride glass (LiPON) films with thicknesses down to 15 nm, deposited by reactive sputtering in nitrogen plasma, were found to be electronically insulating. Such ultrathin electrolyte layers could lead to high power outputs and increased battery energy densities. The effects of stoichiometry, film thickness, and substrate material on the ionic conductivity were investigated. As the amount of nitrogen in the layers increased, the activation energy of the ionic conductivity decreased from 0.63 to 0.53 eV, leading to a maximum conductivity of 1 × 10(-6) S/cm. No dependence of the ionic conductivity on the film thickness or substrate material could be established. A detailed analysis of the equivalent circuit model used to fit the impedance data is provided. Polarization measurements were performed to determine the electronic leakage in these ultrathin films. A 15-nm LiPON layer on a TiN substrate showed electronically insulating properties with electronic resistivity values around 10(15) Ω·cm. To our knowledge, this is the thinnest RF-sputtered LiPON layer shown to be electronically insulating while retaining good ionic conductivity.

  5. Annealing dependent evolution of columnar nanostructures in RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Maidul Haque, S.; Divakar Rao, K.; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Patidar, Manju M.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2018-01-01

    Present communication focuses on a relatively less explored direction of producing rough polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces for possible hydrophobic applications. The experiments were carried out to make rough PTFE films without losing much of the transmission, which is an important factor while designing futuristic solar cell protection covers. After annealing temperature optimization, as grown RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films (prepared at 160 W RF power) were subjected to vacuum annealing at 200 °C for different time durations ranging from 1 to 4 h. The films show morphological evolution exhibiting formation and growth of columnar nanostructures that are responsible for roughening of the films due to annealing induced molecular migration and rearrangement. In agreement with this, qualitative analysis of corresponding x-ray reflectivity data shows modification in film thickness, which may again be attributed to the growth of columns at the expense of the atoms of remaining film molecules. However, the observations reveal that the film annealed at 200 °C for 2 h gives a combination of patterned columnar structures and reasonable transmission of >85% (in 500–1000 nm wavelength range), both of which are deteriorated when the films are annealed either at high temperature beyond 200 °C or for long durations >3 h. In addition, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results reveal that the molecular bonds remain intact upon annealing at any temperature within the studied range indicating the stable nature of the films.

  6. Characterization Of Microwave Obtained Zno Thin Films By RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ondo-Ndong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have grown ZnO thin films on glass and Si 001 substrates by r.f magnetron sputtering using metallic zinc target. The crystalline property of the films were observed to vary with the structural properties used. X-ray diffraction XRD measurement showed that the substrate temperature ZnO films exhibited preferred c-axis oriented 002. A study has been made of the influence parameters prepared on the film refractive index. They exhibited the refractive index of 1.97 a c-axis orientation of below 0.32 FWHM of X-ray rocking curves and an energy gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. It was found that a RF power of 50 W target to substrate distance 70 mm very low gas pressures of 3.35x10-3 Torr in argon and oxygen mixed gas atmosphere giving to ZnO thin films a good homogeneity and a high crystallinity. The network analyzer shows losses are -5dB at a k33 0.26 experimental.

  7. Electrochromic performance of RF sputtered WO3 thin films by Li ion intercalation and de-intercalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, M.; Sivakumar, R.; Sivanantharaja, A.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2017-05-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films were prepared by RF sputtering technique at room temperature and 300°C as substrate temperatures keeping the sputtering powers as 100, 150, 200 and 250 W. Films were subjected various characterization like structural by XRD, surface morphology by SEM, composition analysis by EDX, and optical band gap by UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. Optimized films were used for iono-optical studies using Li ion as intercalation and de-intercalation. Electrochromic parameters were evolved and reported.

  8. RF sputtering enhanced the morphology and photoluminescence of multi-oriented ZnO nanostructure produced by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salman, Husam S., E-mail: husam.shakir@yahoo.com [School of Physics, University Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Dept. of Physics, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Abdullah, M.J. [School of Physics, University Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A ZnO nanostructure was synthesized using the CVD and RF techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-quality ZnO nanorods were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanorods grow at a random angle on the substrate surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RF sputter-coating step enhanced the structural quality of the ZnO film. - Abstract: Pure hexagonal wurtzite ZnO nanostructure was successfully synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and RF-magnetron sputtering without using any catalysts. In the two-step process, high-quality multi-oriented ZnO nanorods were obtained. Multi-oriented spear-like ZnO rods were pre-deposited on the SiO{sub 2}/Si(1 0 0) substrate by CVD at 700 Degree-Sign C followed by RF sputtering of the ZnO nanostructure. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence (PL). The results show that the RF sputtering of the ZnO nanostructure, which was coated with a ZnO film produced by CVD, might have promoted the uniformity and crystalline quality of the multi-oriented spear-like ZnO film. The PL spectra revealed a sharp and dominant peak located at approximately 382 nm with a UV-to-visible PL intensity ratio (I{sub UV}/I{sub VS}) of 42 for the sample that was produced by the two-step process. The growth mechanism of the multi-oriented spear-like ZnO nanorods was investigated.

  9. Effect of the RF sputtering power on microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Al doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadoni, A.; Addonizio, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.addonizio@enea.it

    2015-08-31

    ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films have been deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and RF power applied to the target has been varied in the range 600–1200 W. RF power effect on structural, electrical and optical properties was investigated and the relationship existing between these properties and the film lattice defect distribution was discussed. At the increasing of the RF power it was found that AZO films, having a preferential growth orientation along (002) direction, showed a decrease of the lattice distance indicating a less defected structure. Furthermore, at the increase of the RF power a higher optical absorption by free carriers, coupled with an increase of the band gap value, was observed. Resistivity varied from 1.1 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm at 600 W down to a minimum value of 5.6 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm at 1200 W, whereas the carrier density increased up to 1 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}. Lattice defect variation of AZO films was analyzed by photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Presence and amount of different lattice defects were evaluated for AZO films deposited at different RF powers. At 600 W the film structure was dominated by zinc vacancies (V{sub Zn}), whereas for higher RF power the PL band associated with V{sub Zn} decreased and interstitial oxygen (O{sub i}) band remarkably increased. PL analysis revealed that extrinsic Al doping is the dominant effect on the conductivity enhancement. It was hypothesized that at higher RF power a more effective diffusion phenomenon can give more effective Al doping and less amount of zinc vacancies. As a consequence, Al atoms are more effectively trapped into the structure. - Highlights: • ZnO:Al thin films have been deposited by RF sputtering technique. • The effect of the sputtering power on film properties has been investigated. • Electrical, optical and structural characterization has been carried out. • PL analysis revealed lattice defect chemistry variation at the increase of RF power.

  10. Studies on RF sputtered (WO3)1-x (V2O5)x thin films for smart window applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, M.; Sivakumar, R.; Perumal, P.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2016-05-01

    V2O5 doped WO3 targets for RF sputtering thin film deposition were prepared for various compositions. Thin films of (WO3)1-x (V2O5)x were deposited on to glass substrates using these targets. Structural characteristics of the prepared targets and thin films were studied using X-ray diffraction. Laser Raman studies were carried out on the thin films to confirm the compound formation.

  11. Thermal stability of gallium-doped zinc oxide thin film on glass substrates by an RF sputtering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong-Ho; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Lim, Young Soo; Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Seo, Won-Seon; Bang, Jung-Sik; Jang, Hyun-Woo; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a heat treatment on the structural and electrical properties of GZO thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering were investigated. The heat treatment involved temperatures in the range from 200 degrees C to 500 degrees C under air. As the temperature was increased, the electrical properties of GZO thin films increased exponentially and the surface morphology was drastically altered. The effect of temperature is discussed based on electrical and structural characterization of the materials.

  12. High-surface-quality nanocrystalline InN layers deposited on GaN templates by RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza-Felip, Sirona; Naranjo, Fernando B.; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Lahourcade, Lise; Monroy, Eva [Equipe mixte CEA-CNRS-UJF, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, INAC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fernandez, Susana [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    We report a detailed study of the effect of deposition parameters on optical, structural, and morphological properties of InN films grown by reactive radio-frequency (RF) sputtering on GaN-on-sapphire templates in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. Deposition parameters under study are substrate temperature, RF power, and sputtering pressure. Wurtzite crystallographic structure with c-axis preferred growth orientation is confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. For the optimized deposition conditions, namely at a substrate temperature of 450 C and RF power of 30 W, InN films present a root-mean-square surface roughness as low as {proportional_to}0.4 nm, comparable to the underlying substrate. The apparent optical bandgap is estimated at 720 nm (1.7 eV) in all cases. However, the InN absorption band tail is strongly influenced by the sputtering pressure due to a change in the species of the plasma. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Effect of hydrothermal heat treatment on magnetic properties of copper zinc ferrite rf sputtered films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Gadipelly, Thirupathi; Singh, R.

    2016-05-01

    The hydrothermal treatment to the nano-structured films can overcome the destruction of the films. The Cu-Zn Ferrite films were fabricated by RF-sputtering on quartz substrates. Subsequently, the as deposited films were heat treated using hydrothermal process. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the as-deposited and hydrothermal treated films indicate nano-crystalline cubic spinel structure. The amorphous nature of the films is removed after hydrothermal treatment with decreased crystallite size. The field emission scanning electron micrographs showed merged columnar growth for as deposited films, which changes to well define columns after hydrothermal heating. The homogeneous cluster distribution is observed in surface view of the hydrothermal treated films. Hydrothermal treated films show merging of in-plane and out of plane magnetization plots (M(H)) whereas the M(H) plots of as deposited films show angular dependence. The strong angular dependence is observed in the FMR spectra due to the presence of a uniaxial anisotropy in the films. The ferromagnetic interactions decrease in hydrothermal heated films due to the reduced shape anisotropy and crystallite size.

  14. Fabrication of AZO TCO Films by RF-sputtering and Their Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of Al-doped ZnO (AZO transparent-conductive oxide (TCO films on glass substrates by RF-sputtering, their physical properties, and the effect of thermal annealing on the AZO TCO films. The AZO films on glass substrates have a preferred orientation of the c-axis, irrespective of deposition conditions, which means that the AZO films have textured structures along the c-axis. The film thickness and surface roughness in the AZO films are proportional to plasma power and deposition time, while they are inverse-proportional to working gas ratio and working pressure. The AZO films have the optical transmittance over 80 % in the wavelength range of 400 – 1000 nm, irrespective of deposition conditions. The plasma power and the deposition time relatively give a large influence on the optical transmittance, compared to the working gas ratio and the working pressure. The AZO films deposited at room temperature have poor electrical properties, while the thermal annealing under Ar ambient significantly improves the electrical conductivity of the AZO films: an as-deposited sample has an electrical resistivity of 87 Wcm and an electron concentration of 1.3´1017 cm−3, while the annealed sample has an electrical resistivity of 3.7´10-2 Wcm and an electron concentration of 1.2´1020 cm−3.

  15. Synthesis of self-assembled Ge nano crystals employing reactive RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Escuela Superior de Apan, Calle Ejido de Chimalpa Tlalayote s/n, Col. Chimalpa, Apan, Hidalgo (Mexico); Hernandez H, L. A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07730 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy, B. M.; Santana R, G. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Santoyo S, J.; Gallardo H, S. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14740, 07300 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquez H, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Departamento de Ingenieria Agricola, Km. 9 Carretera Irapuato-Silao, 36500 Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Mani G, P. G.; Melendez L, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, 32310 Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the results of a simple methodology able to control crystal size, dispersion and spatial distribution of germanium nano crystals (Ge-NCs). It takes advantage of a self-assembled process taken place during the deposit of the system SiO{sub 2}/Ge/SiO{sub 2} by reactive RF sputtering. Nanoparticles formation is controlled mainly by the roughness of the first SiO{sub 2} layer buy the ulterior interaction of the interlayer with the top layer also play a role. Structural quality of germanium nano crystals increases with roughness and the interlayer thickness. The tetragonal phase of germanium is produced and its crystallographic quality improves with interlayer thickness and oxygen partial pressure. Room temperature photoluminescence emission without a post growth thermal annealing process indicates that our methodology produces a low density of non-radiative traps. The surface topography of SiO{sub 2} reference samples was carried out by atomic force microscopy. The crystallographic properties of the samples were studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction at 1.5 degrees carried out in a Siemens D-5000 system employing the Cu Kα wavelength. (Author)

  16. Nanostructured and wide bandgap CdS:O thin films grown by reactive RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. A.; Rahman, K. S.; Haque, F.; Rashid, M. J.; Akhtaruzzaman, M.; Sopian, K.; Sulaiman, Y. [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia); Amin, N. [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia); Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, CdS:O thin films were prepared from a 99.999% CdS target by reactive sputtering in a Ar:O{sub 2} (99:1) ambient with different RF power at room temperature. The deposited films were studied by means of XRD, SEM, EDX, Hall Effect and UV-Vis spectrometry. The incorporations of O{sub 2} into the films were observed to increase with the decrease of deposition power. The cryatallinity of the films were reduced, whereas the band gaps of the films were increased by the increase of O{sub 2} content on the films. The films were found in nano-structured grains with a compact surface. It has been seen that the highest carrier density is observed in the film with O{sub 2} at.% 21.10, while the values decreased with the further increase or decrease of O{sub 2} content on the films; indicating that specific amount of donor like O{sub 2} atoms substitute to the S atoms can improve the carrier density of the CdS:O thin film.

  17. Biocompatibility of GaSb thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Fujihara, Junko; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2017-07-01

    GaSb may be suitable for biological applications, such as cellular sensors and bio-medical instrumentation because of its low toxicity compared with As (III) compounds and its band gap energy. Therefore, the biocompatibility and the film properties under physiological conditions were investigated for GaSb thin films with or without a surface coating. GaSb thin films were grown on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and then coated with (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPT). The electrical properties, surface morphology, and crystal structure of the GaSb thin film were unaffected by the MPT coating. The cell viability assay suggested that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible. Bare GaSb was particularly unstable in pH9 buffer. Ga elution was prevented by the MPT coating, although the Ga concentration in the pH 9 buffer was higher than that in the other solutions. The surface morphology and crystal structure were not changed by exposure to the solutions, except for the pH 9 buffer, and the thin film properties of MPT-coated GaSb exposed to distilled water and H2O2 in saline were maintained. These results indicate that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible and could be used for temporary biomedical devices.

  18. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd, E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  19. Nanostructured TiO2 thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering for photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspal; Khan, Saif A.; Shah, J.; Kotnala, R. K.; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2017-11-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 thin films deposited on silica glass substrates were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering combined with thermal annealing. The effects of film thickness on the morphological, structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of the prepared nanostructured TiO2 thin films were investigated. The morphological evolution of the TiO2 thin films with change in film thickness was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while their structural properties were investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The optical and photocatalytic properties of the nanostructured TiO2 thin films were studied using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The surface morphology and band gap of the prepared nanostructured TiO2 thin films were found to vary with change in film thickness. Sun light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye in water was used for evaluating the photocatalytic activity of the nanostructured TiO2 thin films. We have demonstrated that the photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 thin films can be easily tuned by varying the film thickness. Results showed that the nanostructured TiO2 sample prepared using 40 nm thick TiO2 film exhibits maximum photocatalytic activity leading to complete degradation of 2.1 μM MB in only 45 min, which is very promising for practical photocatalytic applications. The observed highly enhanced photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 sample prepared from 40 nm thick TiO2 film is ascribed to its smaller band gap and enhanced absorption of light in the UV-vis region leading to improved utilization of sun light.

  20. Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of zirconium oxynitride thin film growth by RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Olaya, J. J.; Clavijo, D.; Alfonso, J. E. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 No. 26-85, AA 14490 Bogota D. C. (Colombia); Bethencourt, M., E-mail: jealfonsoo@unal.edu.co [Universidad de Cadiz, Centro Andaluz de Ciencia y Tecnologia Marinas, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica, Av. Republica de Saharaui, Puerto Real, E-11510 Cadiz (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Thin films of zirconium oxynitride were grown on common glass, silicon (100) and stainless steel 316 L substrates using the reactive RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films were analyzed through structural, morphological and biocompatibility studies. The structural analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphological analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These studies were done as a function of growth parameters, such as power applied to the target, substrate temperature, and flow ratios. The corrosion resistance studies were made on samples of stainless steel 316 L coated and uncoated with Zr{sub x}N{sub y}O films, through of polarization curves. The studies of biocompatibility were carried out on zirconium oxynitride films deposited on stainless steel 316 L through proliferation and cellular adhesion. The XRD analysis shows that films deposited at 623 K, with a flow ratio {Phi}N{sub 2}/{Phi}O{sub 2} of 1.25 and a total deposit time of 30 minutes grew preferentially oriented along the (111) plane of the zirconium oxynitride monoclinic phase. The Sem analyses showed that the films grew homogeneously, and the AFM studies indicated that the average rugosity of the film was 5.9 nm and the average particle size was 150 nm. The analysis of the corrosion resistant, shows that the stainless steel coated with the film was increased a factor 10. Finally; through the analysis of the biocompatibility we established that the films have a better surface than the substrate (stainless steel 316 L) in terms of the adhesion and proliferation of bone cells. (Author)

  1. [Bi]:[Te] Control, Structural and Thermoelectric Properties of Flexible Bi x Te y Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering at Different Sputtering Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthongkum, Pilaipon; Sakdanuphab, Rachsak; Horprathum, Mati; Sakulkalavek, Aparporn

    2017-11-01

    In this work, flexible Bi x Te y thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering using a Bi2Te3 target on polyimide substrate. The effects of sputtering pressures, which ranged between 0.6 Pa and 1.6 Pa on the [Bi]:[Te] ratio, and structural and thermoelectric properties were investigated. The [Bi]:[Te] ratio of thin film was determined by energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The EDS spectra show the variation of the [Bi]:[Te] ratio as the sputtering pressure is varied. The film deposited at 1.4 Pa almost has a stoichiometric composition. The selective films with different [Bi]:[Te] ratios and sputtering pressures were characterized by their surface morphologies, crystal and chemical structures by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Electrical transport properties, including carrier concentration and mobility, were measured by Hall effect measurements. Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities were simultaneously measured by a direct current four-terminal method (ZEM-3). The XRD and Raman spectroscopy results show a difference in microstructure between BiTe and Bi2Te3 depending on the [Bi]:[Te] ratio. Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are related to the crystal and chemical structures. The maximum power factor of the Bi2Te3 thin film is 9.5 × 10-4 W/K2 m at room temperature, and it increases to 12.0 × 10-4 W/K2 m at 195°C.

  2. Characteristics of Bilayer Molybdenum Films Deposited Using RF Sputtering for Back Contact of Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sea-Fue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mo films prepared under a single deposition condition seldom simultaneously obtain a low resistivity and a good adhesion necessary for use in solar cells. In order to surmount the obstacle, bilayer Mo films using DC sputtering at a higher working pressure and a lower working pressure have been attempted as reported in the literature. In this study, RF sputtering with different powers in conjunction with different working pressures was explored to prepare bilayer Mo film. The first bottom layer was grown at a RF sputtering power of 30 W and a working pressure of 12 mTorr, and the second top layer was deposited at 100 W and 4.5 mTorr. The films revealed a columnar growth with a preferred orientation along the (110 plane. The bilayer Mo films reported an electrical resistivity of 6.35 × 10−5 Ω-cm and passed the Scotch tape test for adhesion to the soda-lime glass substrate, thereby qualifying the bilayer Mo films for use as back metal contacts for CIGS substrates.

  3. Properties of nano structured Ag-TiO{sub 2} composite coating on stainless steel using RF sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, S. Abu; Jamuna-Thevi, K.; Abu, N.; Mohd Toff, M. R. [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi- Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim (Malaysia)

    2012-07-02

    RF Sputtering system is one of the Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) methods that have been widely used to produce hard coating. This technique is used to deposit thin layers of metallic substrates such as stainless steel (SS). From this process, a good adhesiveness and wear resistance coating can be produced for biomedical applications. In this study, RF sputtering method was used to deposit TiO{sub 2}-Ag composite coatings via various deposition parameters. The parameters are RF power of 350W, gas composition (Ar: O{sub 2}) 50:5 and deposition time at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize surface area of coated samples. The formation of nanocrystalline thin film and the surface morphology were examined using SEM. The crystallite size of TiO{sub 2}-Ag composite coatings were estimated between 20-60 nm based on XRD analysis using Scherer equation and SEM evaluation. The Raman and XRD results suggested that the structure of the TiO{sub 2}-Ag consist of anatase and rutile phases. It also showed that the intensity of anatase peaks increased after samples undergone annealing process at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  4. Structural and optical characterization of terbium doped ZnGa2O4 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, K.; Girija, K. G.; Sudarsan, V.; Selvin, P. Christopher; Vatsa, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Tb3+ doped ZnGa2O4 nanophosphor (21 nm) has been synthesized via low temperature polyol route and subsequently thin films of the same were deposited on glass and ITO substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction and luminescence measurements. The XRD pattern showed that Tb3+ doped ZnGa2O4 nanophosphor has a cubic spinel phase. Luminescence behavior of the nanophosphor and as deposited sputtered film was investigated. The PL emission spectra of nanophosphor gave a broad ZnGa2O4 host emission band along with a strong terbium emission and the thin films showed only broad host emission band and there was no terbium ion emission.

  5. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Tongda, Nanjing (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Zhuge, L.J. [Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Analysis and Testing Center, Suzhou (China); Wu, X.M. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-01-23

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO{sub x} are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf{sup 2+} and Hf{sup 4+}. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO{sub 2}, HfO and ErO{sub x}, which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO{sub 2} in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  6. Compositional study of vacuum annealed Al doped ZnO thin films obtained by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shantheyanda, B. P.; Todi, V. O.; Sundaram, K. B.; Vijayakumar, A.; Oladeji, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Planar Energy Inc., 653 W. Michigan St., Orlando, Florida 32805 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were obtained by RF magnetron sputtering. The effects of deposition parameters such as power, gas flow conditions, and substrate heating have been studied. Deposited and annealed films were characterized for composition as well as microstructure using x ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x ray diffraction. Films produced were polycrystalline in nature. Surface imaging and roughness studies were carried out using SEM and AFM, respectively. Columnar grain growth was predominantly observed. Optical and electrical properties were evaluated for transparent conducting oxide applications. Processing conditions were optimized to obtain highly transparent AZO films with a low resistivity value of 6.67 x 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm.

  7. RF magnetron sputtering deposition of NiO/Ni bilayer and approach of the Magnetic behavior using the Preisach model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendjerad, A., E-mail: bendjerad@gmail.com [L.E.B. Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna 2, Batna (Algeria); Head of Clean Room, L.E.A Laboratory, University of Batna 2, Batna (Algeria); Boukhtache, S. [L.E.B. Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna 2, Batna (Algeria); Benhaya, A. [Head of Clean Room, L.E.A Laboratory, University of Batna 2, Batna (Algeria); Lahmar, A. [Laboratoire de Physiques de la Matière Condensée (LPMC), University of Picardie Jules Vernes, Amiens (France); Zergoug, M. [C.S.C Centre de soudage et de contrôle, Dely Ibrahim, BP 64 Chéraga, Alger (Algeria); Luneau, D. [Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 Laboratoire des Multimatériaux, (UMR 5615) 69622 cedex (France)

    2017-04-15

    Bilayer of nickel and nickel oxide were deposited on glass substrates using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The magnetic properties of the prepared thin films were carried out at room temperature in both parallel and perpendicular magnetic field to the sample. The Preisach model was applied to provide a mathematical model of the magnetic hysteresis loop in the case of parallel geometry, along the easy axis of the bi-layer NiO / Ni. Good agreement was obtained between the theoretical and experimental results.

  8. Irreversible thermochromic response of RF sputtered nanocrystalline BaWO4 films for smart window applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anil Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report irreversible thermochromic behaviour of BaWO4 (BWO films for the first time. BWO films have been deposited at different substrate temperatures (RT, 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C using RF magnetron sputtering in pure argon plasma. BWO films deposited at 800 °C exhibit crystalline nature. Also, BWO films deposited in the temperature range of 400 - 600 °C exhibit WO3 as a secondary phase and its weight percentage decreases with an increase in deposition temperature, whereas the films deposited at 800 °C exhibited pure tetragonal phase. FESEM images revealed that as the average particle sizes of the films are higher as compared with the thickness of the films and is explained based on Avrami type nucleation and growth. The transmittance of the films decreases with an increase in deposition temperature up to 600 °C and increases thereafter. Films deposited at 600 °C show ≤ 20% transmittance, looking at the films deposited at room temperature and 800 °C exhibits 90 and 70%, respectively. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the films show profound dependence on crystallinity and packing density. The optical bandgap of BWO films increases significantly with an increase in O2% during the deposition. The optical bandgap of the BWO films deposited at different temperatures in pure argon plasma, are in the range of 3.7 to 3.94 eV whereas the films deposited at 600 °C under different O2 plasma are in the range of 3.6 - 4.5 eV. The formations of colour centres are associated with the oxygen vacancies, which are clearly seen from the optical bandgap studies. The observed irreversible thermochromic behaviour in BWO films is attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies that arises due to the electrons trapped at oxygen vacancies causing an inter valence charge transfer of W5+ to W6+ and is confirmed through the change in the optical density (ΔOD. Further, the Raman spectra are being used to quantify the presence

  9. Study of topological morphology and optical properties of SnO{sub 2} thin films deposited by RF sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhuthali, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); El-Nahass, M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Atta, A.A., E-mail: aatta08@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Raheem, M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Elsabawy, Khaled M. [Materials Science Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31725 Tanta (Egypt); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Hassanien, A.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Humanity Studies at Al-Quwayiyah, Shaqra University, Al-Quwayiyah 11971 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Transparent conducting thin films of tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) were prepared on glass substrates by RF sputtering technique. The as-deposited films were annealed at different temperatures (473, 673 and 823 K) for 3 h in air under normal atmospheric pressure. The film structure was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optical properties of the prepared and annealed films were studied using their reflectance and transmittance spectra. The Urbach energy was found to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The estimated direct optical band gap (E{sub g}{sup d}) values were found to decrease by annealing temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy measurement of the SnO{sub 2} film shows that the band to band emission peak atE{sub g}{sup PL}=4.18 eV. The dispersion curves of the refractive index of SnO{sub 2} thin films were found to obey the single oscillator model. - Highlights: • The structural and optical properties of RF Sputtered SnO{sub 2} thin Films have been studied. • AFM has been used to identify the structure properties. • From fundamental absorption edge, a picture of the energetic transitions of was described. • Optical band gap were also obtained from optical PL measurements. • A single-oscillator model and Drude model were used to describe the refractive index.

  10. In situ Crystallization of RF sputtered ITO thin films: A comparison with annealed samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, K. Aijo [Junior research Fellow, Sree Sankara College, Kalady, Ernakulam - 683 574, Kerala (India); Manju, T. [Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Sree Sankara College, Kalady, Ernakulam - 683 574, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Tin doped Indium Oxide (ITO) is a wide band gap semiconductor with high conductivity and transparency in the visible region of the solar spectrum. One of the most popular and exploited applications of ITO is the realization of the transparent conductive layers needed for the electrodes of light sensitive devices, such as photovoltaic cells. The thermal energy for the crystallization of ITO films is very low (150°C). The crystallization can be achieved by the continuous energetic bombardment of the ions in the sputtering chamber without annealing or substrate heating. The accumulated energy will ensure the thermal energy necessary for the crystallization. With the help of sufficiently high sputtering power and sufficient duration, crystallized ITO films can be produced without annealing. In this report, a comparison of the conductivity and transparency of ITO films under two crystallization conditions ((1) crystallization of the sputtered films by annealing; (2) in situ crystallization of the films by providing high sputtering power and long sputtering duration) will be presented.

  11. Effect of RF power on the optical, electrical, mechanical and structural properties of sputtering Ga-doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Chuen-Lin; Yu, Kuo-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Yo; Liu, Ming-Chung

    2015-11-01

    We present the influences of radio-frequency (RF) power on the optical, electrical, mechanical, and structural properties of Ga-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. GZO thin films were grown on unheated glass and silicon substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method with different RF powers (from 60 W to 160 W). The optical properties of the GZO thin film were determined by a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The residual stress in GZO films were measured by a home-made Twyman-Green interferometer with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method. The surface roughness of GZO films were measured by a microscopic interferometry. The microstructure, composition and crystal orientation of the GZO films were determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This paper revealed that the optical, electrical, mechanical, and structural properties of GZO thin film are subject to the RF power. For the optical spectrum measurement, an average optical transmittance in the visible region of the spectra of 85% was obtained. For the characteristic measurements, all the GZO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering have compressive stress at different RF powers. A minimum residual stress of 0.24 GPa is found at the RF power of 140 W. A four-point probe method was used to measure the resistivity of the GZO thin films with different powers, the results indicate that the resistivity increases with increasing of RF power. In addition, the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of GZO thin films slightly increases as the RF power is increasing. We have also compared the results with the relevant literatures.

  12. Effect of Sputter Gas Pressure and RF Power on Surface Morphology of CeO2 Buffer Layers and Superconducting Properties of EuBa2Cu3O7-δ Thin Films by Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Keita; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Unuma, Yuya; Kimura, Yutaka; Michikami, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    The deposition rate (Rd) of a CeO2 buffer layer fabricated at substrate temperature of 650 °C by RF magnetron sputtering was controlled by adjusting sputtering gas pressure and RF power, and the effect of Rd on the surface morphologies of the CeO2 buffer layer was examined. In addition, the superconducting properties of EuBa2Cu3O7-δ (EBCO) thin films deposited on buffer layers with different surface morphologies were examined. With a sputtering gas pressure of 3 Pa, Rd changed from 1 to 8 nm/min when the RF power was changed from 100 to 475 W. However, a CeO2 buffer layer of 300 nm thickness composed of very minute a-axis-oriented grains grew at any RF power. At 7 Pa, even though Rd was equivalent to that at 3 Pa, grains with facets grew regardless of the RF power. A c-axis-oriented EBCO thin film grew on the CeO2 buffer layer on which minute grains grew, and the (110) or (103) axis growth of EBCO was observed on the buffer layer on which grains with facets grew.

  13. Growth behavior of rat bone marrow cells on RF magnetron sputtered hydroxyapatite and dicalcium pyrophosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Y.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Ruijter, A. De; Yubao, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of magnetron sputtered dicalcium pyrophaosphate (DCPP) and hydroxylapatite (HA) coatings. Therefore, DCPP and HA coatings were deposited on grit-blasted titanium discs. The substrates were used as-prepared or received an additional heat

  14. Studies on the effect of hydrogen doping during deposition of Al:ZnO films using RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shantheyanda, Bojanna P. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Sundaram, Kalpathy B., E-mail: sundaram@mail.ucf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Shiradkar, Narendra S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Aluminum doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films were deposited using rf magnetron sputtering in the presence of hydrogen gas in the chamber. A comparative study of the films deposited with and without hydrogen was performed. The XPS studies indicated that the decrease in resistivity of ZnO:Al films with the introduction of hydrogen gas is attributed to the reduced adsorption of oxygen species in the film grain boundaries. The average percentage transmission in the visible region of the films was around 92-95% and band gap was found to be about in the range of 3.15-3.17 eV. The lowest resistivity of 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm was achieved for the ZnO:Al film deposited with hydrogen.

  15. Oxygen Partial Pressure Impact on Characteristics of Indium Titanium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor Fabricated via RF Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Hung; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Wu, Wei-Ting; Li, Jyun-Yi

    2017-06-26

    Indium titanium zinc oxide (InTiZnO) as the channel layer in thin film transistor (TFT) grown by RF sputtering system is proposed in this work. Optical and electrical properties were investigated. By changing the oxygen flow ratio, we can suppress excess and undesirable oxygen-related defects to some extent, making it possible to fabricate the optimized device. XPS patterns for O 1s of InTiZnO thin films indicated that the amount of oxygen vacancy was apparently declined with the increasing oxygen flow ratio. The fabricated TFTs showed a threshold voltage of -0.9 V, mobility of 0.884 cm²/Vs, on-off ratio of 5.5 × 10⁵, and subthreshold swing of 0.41 V/dec.

  16. Thin Film growth and characterization of Ti doped ZnO by RF/DC magnetron sputtering

    KAUST Repository

    Baseer Haider, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thin film Ti doped ZnO (Ti-ZnO) film were grown on sapphire (0001) substrate by RF and DC magnetron sputtering. Films were grown at a substrate temperature of 250 °C with different Ti/Zn concentration. Surface chemical study of the samples was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the stoichiometry and Ti/Zn ratio for all samples. Surface morphology of the samples were studied by atomic force microscopy. X-ray diffraction was carried out to determine the crystallinity of the film. No secondary phases of TixOy was observed. We observed a slight increase in the lattice constant with the increase in Ti concentration in ZnO. No ferromagnetic signal was observed for any of the samples. However, some samples showed super-paramagnetic phase. © 2015 Materials Research Society.

  17. Multifunctional ZnO:V thin films deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering from aerogel nanopowder target material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Mir, L., E-mail: Lassaad.ElMir@fsg.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et des Nanomateriaux appliquee a l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Gabes, Universite de Gabes, Cite Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabes (Tunisia); Ghribi, F.; Hajiri, M.; Ayadi, Z. Ben [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et des Nanomateriaux appliquee a l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Gabes, Universite de Gabes, Cite Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabes (Tunisia); Djessas, K. [Laboratoire Procedes, Mathematiques et Energie Solaire (PROMES-CNRS), Universite de Perpignan, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan Cedex (France); Cubukcu, M. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP) UMR CNRS 7588, Universites Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) et Denis Diderot - Paris 7, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015, Paris (France); Bardeleben, H.J. von [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux et des Nanomateriaux appliquee a l' Environnement, Faculte des Sciences de Gabes, Universite de Gabes, Cite Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabes (Tunisia)

    2011-06-30

    ZnO:V thin films have been grown onto suprasil substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering at room temperature using nanocrystalline powder synthesized by modified sol-gel method. In our approach the water for hydrolysis used in the synthesis of nanopowder was slowly released by esterification reaction followed by a thermal drying in ethyl alcohol at 250 deg. C. The effects of V concentration on structural, electrical, morphological and optical properties were studied. The as-deposited films with a thickness of about 0.4 {mu}m were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented in the (002) crystallographic direction. The films present high optical transmittance in the visible range of approximately 90%, carrier concentration of about 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and electrical resistivity of 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm at room temperature. In the as-prepared state the films also present ferromagnetic properties attributed to the presence of vanadium based secondary phases.

  18. Optical study of Ag-TiO_2 nanocermet thin films prepared by R.F. co-sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakka, A.; Lafait, J.; Abd-Lefdil, M.; Sella, C.; Maaza, M.

    2000-02-01

    The optical properties of Ag-TiO2 nanocermet thin films are studied with the aim of optical filtering applications. Beyond the classical properties of cermets with noble metal inclusions predicted by the effective medium theories, the optical properties of Ag-TiO2 nanocermets deposited by R.F. co-sputtering are governed by their columnar morphology and the under-stoichiometry of the TiO2 matrix. A careful experimental analysis of the different parameters and effects involved in the optical response of these nanocermets is performed both on TiO2 and Ag-TiO2: film thickness, silver volume fraction, thermal treatments, oxidation. The influence of these parameters on the surface plasmon resonance and the infrared transmission of the nanocermet thin films is optimized.

  19. Growth of ferroelectric CaBi_2Ta_2O9 Thin Film Using rf Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin; Huang, Z. J.; Jiang, Q. D.; Brazdeikis, A.; Zhang, Z. H.; Liu, J. R.; Chu, W. K.; Chu, C. W.

    1998-03-01

    Ferroelectric CaBi_2Ta_2O_9(CBTO) films were deposited at various temperature on SrTiO_3(001) and SrTiO_3(111), MgO(001) and R-cut sapphire and Pt-buffered SrTiO3 (001) and SrTi O_3(111), MgO(001) and R-cut sapphire substrate by rf magnetron sputtering. It is found that crystallinity and chemical composition of CBTO thin films were strongly dependent on substrate and temperature. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and rutherford backscattering were employed to examine the structure, surface morphology and composition. In addition, comparisons of growth orientation and stoichiometry between CBTO and SrBi_2Ta_2O9 were made.

  20. Oxygen Partial Pressure Impact on Characteristics of Indium Titanium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor Fabricated via RF Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Hsu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium titanium zinc oxide (InTiZnO as the channel layer in thin film transistor (TFT grown by RF sputtering system is proposed in this work. Optical and electrical properties were investigated. By changing the oxygen flow ratio, we can suppress excess and undesirable oxygen-related defects to some extent, making it possible to fabricate the optimized device. XPS patterns for O 1s of InTiZnO thin films indicated that the amount of oxygen vacancy was apparently declined with the increasing oxygen flow ratio. The fabricated TFTs showed a threshold voltage of −0.9 V, mobility of 0.884 cm2/Vs, on-off ratio of 5.5 × 105, and subthreshold swing of 0.41 V/dec.

  1. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of CrN-based Coatings Deposited by R.F Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bouzid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to evaluate the performances against wear and corrosion of CrN, CrMoN, CrZrN, CrVN single layer thin films. The latest are synthesized onto steel substrates (DIN 90CrMoV8, using R.F reactive magnetron co-sputtering. The experimental work was achieved using ball-on-disc configuration in dry conditions against WC balls. The main conclusions are: (i electrochemical tests in 0.3 wt.% NaCl solution indicated that CrZrN are improved anticorrosion performance when compared to CrN, while CrMoN demonstrated a poor corrosion resistance;(ii the CrN coating presents the better tribological properties when compared to the ternary nitride coatings.

  2. Properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by rf reactive magnetron sputtering on biased substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezar, Sawsen, E-mail: snezar@cdta.dz [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, Nadia [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Sali, Samira [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique (CRTSE Algiers) (Algeria); Faiz, Mohammed; Mekki, Mogtaba [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Laoufi, Nadia Aïcha [Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Tabet, Nouar [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Doha (Qatar)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on negatively biased substrates by rf magnetron sputtering technique. • The bias favors the formation of TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase. • The roughness of the films increases and the grain size decreases as the bias voltage is varied between (0 and −100 V). • XPS reveals the presence of adsorbed humidity of the surface and Ti{sup 4+} oxidation state in the as prepared samples. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} thin films are of paramount importance due to their pervasive applications. In contrast to previous published works where the substrate was heated at high temperatures to obtain TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase, we show in this study that it is possible to deposit crystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films on biased and unbiased substrate at room temperature using reactive rf magnetron sputtering. The bias voltage was varied from 0 V to −100 V. The deposited films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average crystallite size was estimated using x-ray diffraction. The results showed that the application of negative bias affects the surface roughness of the films and favors the formation of the rutile phase. The root mean square roughness (R{sub rms}), the average grain size and the optical band gap of the films decreased as the substrate bias voltage was varied from 0 to −100 V. The UV–visible transmittance spectra showed that the films were transparent in the visible range and absorb strongly in the UV range. This study shows that biasing the substrate could be a promising and effective alternative to deposit TiO{sub 2} crystallized thin films of engineered properties at room temperature.

  3. Effect of thickness on surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of RF magnetron sputtered CCTO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadipour, Mohsen [Structural Materials Niche Area, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ain, Mohd Fadzil [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zainal Arifin, E-mail: srzainal@usm.my [Structural Materials Niche Area, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • CCTO thin film was synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering successfully. • Increase in thickness lead to increase in grain size and decrease in band gap. • Short response times and recovery times of lead CCTO humidity sensor. • Sensor could detect humidity range (30–90%). - Abstract: In this study, calcium copper titanate (CCTO) thin films were deposited on ITO substrates successfully by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method in argon atmosphere. The CCTO thin films present a polycrystalline, uniform and porous structure. The surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of the synthesized CCTO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV–vis spectrophotometer and current-voltage (I–V) analysis. XRD and AFM confirmed that the intensity of peaks and pore size of CCTO thin films were enhanced by increasing the thin films. Tauc plot method was adopted to estimate the optical band gaps. The surface structure and energy band gaps of the deposited films were affected by film thickness. Energy band gap of the layers were 3.76 eV, 3.68 eV and 3.5 eV for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films layer, respectively. The humidity sensing properties were measured by using direct current (DC) analysis method. The response times were 12 s, 22 s, and 35 s while the recovery times were 500 s, 600 s, and 650 s for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films, respectively at humidity range of 30–90% relative humidity (RH).

  4. Mechanical and electrical properties of RF magnetron sputter deposited amorphous silicon-rich silicon nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dergez, D.; Schneider, M., E-mail: michael.schneider@tuwien.ac.at; Bittner, A.; Pawlak, N.; Schmid, U.

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous silicon nitride thin films in a thickness range of 40 to 500 nm are deposited onto (100) silicon wafers using radio frequency magnetron sputter deposition. Analysis of variance techniques are used to determine which deposition parameter has a significant impact on the film properties. The biaxial stress of the layers is found to be compressive independent of the plasma chamber pressure levels and to increase with increasing plasma power. The chemical composition of the films is silicon-rich, resulting in an index of refraction (IOR) of 2.55 independent of deposition conditions. Both IOR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate a nitrogen to silicon ratio in the range of 0.71–0.85. The etch rates for HF wet chemical etching and for CF{sub 4}:O{sub 2} reactive ion etching are found to be much higher compared to direct current sputter deposited silicon nitride films with only a weak dependency on the deposition conditions. Temperature dependent leakage current measurements using Au/Cr/SiN{sub x}/Si structures between 25 and 300 °C show two dominating leakage current mechanisms: ohmic conduction dominates at low applied electric field values below 0.1 MV/cm and Poole–Frenkel type conduction above 0.3 MV/cm. The extracted electrical parameters such as the activation energy or the barrier height are found to be nearly unaffected by the deposition parameters. - Highlights: • RF reactive sputter deposited Si-rich silicon nitride thin films are investigated. • Deposition conditions show nearly no impact on film stress or chemical composition. • Wet and dry etch rates decrease with increasing process chamber pressure levels. • Electrical behaviour is dependent on film thickness, but not on deposition conditions.

  5. Simultaneous epitaxial growth of anatase and rutile TiO 2 thin films by RF helicon magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lei; Tanemura, Sakae; Jin, Ping; Kaneko, Kenji; Terai, Asuka; Nabatova-Gabain, Nataliya

    2003-06-01

    Epitaxial films of TiO 2 with rutile structure on sapphire and anatase structure on SrTiO 3 were simultaneously grown by RF helicon magnetron sputtering of a TiO 2 target in Ar atmosphere. X-ray diffraction using θ-2 θ scan and pole figure plots confirmed the epitaxial relationship, which were rutile (1 0 1)∥sapphire (1 1 0), (0 1 0) f∥(0 0 1) s, and anatase (0 0 1)∥SrTiO 3(0 0 1), (1 0 0) f∥(1 0 0) s, where suffix f and s stand for the film and substrate, respectively. Moreover, observation by transmission electron microscopy identified the epitaxial film growth of single crystalline anatase and rutile structure with slight lattice distortion compared with bulk. The lattice constants of a and b, which were calculated from electron diffraction spots and lattice image in TEM of the films were contracted while that of c being expanded. According to the results of spectroscopic ellipsometry, the films show very high refractive indices ( n) at the designated wavelength range in comparison with the past reports on TiO 2 thin films. Although there are no bulk references in the anatase case, the values n of the rutile film are comparable to the bulk in the data-book. Such high refractive indices of the films indicate the compact texture of the epitaxial films fabricated by helicon sputtering.

  6. Investigations of RF magnetron sputtered CZTS absorber layer thin films prepared using sulfur induced binary targets without sulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, G.; Balasundaraprabhu, R.; Prasanna, S.; Prabavathy, N.; McIlroy, D. N.; Kannan, M. D.

    2018-01-01

    Thin films of copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS), a quaternary semiconductor, was deposited onto well-cleaned soda lime glass substrates using binary sulfur based sputtering targets - copper sulfide (CuS), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and tin sulfide (SnS) by RF Magnetron Sputtering at 300 °C. The stacking order of ZnS/CuS/SnS was used to deposit CZTS thin films. The composition of CZTS thin films were confirmed using X- Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the atomic ratio of the individual elements were quantitatively estimated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were used to understand the CZTS phase formation and the presence of CZTS kesterite phase along direction was detected with the secondary phase of SnS and ZnS. XRD results were validated with Raman results were the presence of CZTS and SnS was corroborated. The optical properties of CZTS thin films were studied using UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer where the optical band gap was 1.46 eV and as well as other optical parameters such as interference and optical band gap were ascertained and the results are discussed.

  7. Fabricating vertically aligned ultrathin graphene nanosheets without any catalyst using rf sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jian-Hua [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wu, Shao-Long; Yang, Yu-Mei; Zheng, Rui-Ting [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Cheng, Guo-An, E-mail: gacheng@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Ultrathin graphene nanosheets (GNSs) were synthesized on Si substrates by using radio frequency sputtering deposition. SEM, TEM and Raman were employed to characterize the GNSs. The GNSs are well aligned on the Si substrates with sharp edges separated and unfolded outside. The TEM observation shows that most of the GNSs are less than 10 layers. The field emission properties of the GNSs synthesized for 10 h were also studied. They show good field emission characteristics, with a low turn-on electric field of 2.522 V/μm, a large field enhancement factor, and excellent stability behavior, suggesting promising prospects in the application of field electron emitting devices.

  8. Align Ag Nanorods via Oxidation Reduction Growth Using RF-Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Shuo Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanorod arrays grew on the individual metallic silver particles after the thermal decomposition of the silver oxides. The formation of silver oxide came from the input of oxygen during sputtering. The subsequent growth of the Ag nanorods started from the single silver grain that originated from the decomposition caused by thermal reduction. This method for oxidation reduction growth used no catalysts and improved the interface effect for the lattice match. Photoluminescence of Ag nanorods was detected at 2.17 eV.

  9. Deposition of B{sub 4}C/BCN/c-BN multilayered thin films by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, G. [Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros del CDT-ASTIN SENA, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, J.M. [Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros del CDT-ASTIN SENA, Cali (Colombia); Baca, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)]. E-mail: pprieto@calima.univalle.edu.co; Balogh, A.G. [Institute for Material Science, Darmstadt University of Technology (Germany); Enders, S. [Max Plank Institute, Department of Material Research, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-01-03

    Thin films of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) and B{sub 4}C/BCN/c-BN multilayers, were deposited by r.f. (13.56 MHz) multi-target magnetron sputtering from high-purity (99.99%) h-BN and a (99.5%) B{sub 4}C targets, in an Ar (90%)/N{sub 2} (10%) gas mixture. Films were deposited onto silicon substrates with (100) orientations at 300 {sup o}C, with r.f. power density near 7 W/cm{sup 2}. In order to obtain the highest fraction of the c-BN phase, an r.f. substrate bias voltage between - 100 and - 300 V was applied during the initial nucleation process and - 50 to - 100 V during the film growth. Additionally, B{sub 4}C and BCN films were deposited and analyzed individually. For their deposition, we varied the bias voltage of the B{sub 4}C films between - 50 and - 250 V, and for the BCN coatings, the nitrogen gas flow from 3% to 12%. A 300-nm-thick TiN buffer layer was first deposited to improve the adhesion of all samples. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the presence of c-BN (111) and h-BN phases. FTIR spectroscopy measurements indicate the presence of a peak at 780 cm{sup -} {sup 1} referred to as 'out-of-plane' h-BN vibration mode; another peak at 1100 cm{sup -} {sup 1} corresponds to the c-BN TO mode and the 'in-plane' vibration mode of the h-BN at 1400 cm{sup -} {sup 1}. BN films deposited at 300 deg. C at a pressure of 4.0 Pa and under - 150 V of nucleation r.f. bias, applied for 35 min, presented the highest c-BN fraction, near 85%. By using 32 layers, it was possible to deposit a 4.6-{mu}m-thick c-BN film with adequate mechanical properties and good adhesion to the substrate.

  10. Investigations on RF-magnetron sputtered Co3O4 thin films regarding the solar energy conversion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohaus, C.; Morasch, J.; Brötz, J.; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2016-04-01

    Co3O4 samples have been deposited using RF-magnetron sputtering from an oxide target. In situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction have been carried out to identify the phase and composition of the films. The work function of \\text{C}{{\\text{o}}3}{{\\text{O}}4} films showed variation of about 1 eV depending on the oxygen content of the sputter gas while the Fermi level position in the band gap was invariant towards different deposition parameters. Optical transmission spectroscopy in the UV/VIS/NIR regime showed two optical transitions at 0.8 eV and 1.7 eV. However, the optical absorption from these transition does not seem to aid in the conduction of charge carriers as has been revealed by conductivity measurements in a linear 4-point-setup. Diodes were prepared in a glass  | FTO  |   \\text{Ti}{{\\text{O}}2}  |\\text{C}{{\\text{o}}3}{{\\text{O}}4}|  NiO | Au-stacking geometry. They show poor photovoltaic behaviour with a short-circuit current of 0.33 mA cm-1 and an open-circuit voltage of 0.15 V, resulting in an overall efficiency of η =0.01% . The limitation of \\text{C}{{\\text{o}}3}{{\\text{O}}4} as an absorber in an All-Oxide solar cell can be related to poor transport properties combined with defect states in the band gap and Fermi level pinning at interfaces.

  11. UV-Enhanced Ethanol Sensing Properties of RF Magnetron-Sputtered ZnO Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinyu; Du, Yu; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Hao; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tian, Xiaoqing

    2017-12-26

    ZnO film was deposited by the magnetron sputtering method. The thickness of ZnO film is approximately 2 μm. The influence of UV light illumination on C₂H₅OH sensing properties of ZnO film was investigated. Gas sensing results revealed that the UV-illuminated ZnO film displays excellent C₂H₅OH characteristics in terms of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, rapid response/recovery, and low detection limit down to 0.1 ppm. The excellent sensing performance of the sensor with UV activation could be attributed to the photocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the ZnO film, the planar film structure with high utilizing efficiency of UV light, high electron mobility, and a good surface/volume ratio of of ZnO film with a relatively rough and porous surface.

  12. Highly transparent conductive ITO/Ag/ITO trilayer films deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyu Ren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ITO/Ag/ITO (IAI trilayer films were deposited on glass substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. A high optical transmittance over 94.25% at the wavelength of 550 nm and an average transmittance over the visual region of 88.04% were achieved. The calculated value of figure of merit (FOM reaches 80.9 10-3 Ω-1 for IAI films with 15-nm-thick Ag interlayer. From the morphology and structural characterization, IAI films could show an excellent correlated electric and optical performance if Ag grains interconnect with each other on the bottom ITO layer. These results indicate that IAI trilayer films, which also exhibit low surface roughness, will be well used in optoelectronic devices.

  13. Hybrid biocomposite with a tunable antibacterial activity and bioactivity based on RF magnetron sputter deposited coating and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, A.A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Center of Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Surmenev, R.A., E-mail: rsurmenev@gmail.com [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Center of Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Surmeneva, M.A.; Mukhametkaliyev, T. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Center of Technology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Loza, K.; Prymak, O.; Epple, M. [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • A biocomposite of hydroxyapatite film and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was tested. • The concentration of the released silver in phosphate or acetate buffer was studied. • The concentration and release rate of AgNPs can be controlled in a tailored manner. - Abstract: In this work, we describe fabrication techniques used to prepare a multifunctional biocomposite based on a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method were deposited on Ti substrates using a dripping/drying method followed by deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating via radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputter-deposition. The negatively charged silver nanoparticles (zeta potential −21 mV) have a spherical shape with a metallic core diameter of 50 ± 20 nm. The HA coating was deposited as a dense nanocrystalline film over a surface of AgNPs. The RF-magnetron sputter deposition of HA films on the AgNPs layer did not affect the initial content of AgNPs on the substrate surface as well as NPs size and shape. SEM cross-sectional images taken using the backscattering mode revealed a homogeneous layer of AgNPs under the CaP layer. The diffraction patterns from the coatings revealed reflexes of crystalline HA and silver. The concentration of Ag ions released from the biocomposites after 7 days of immersion in phosphate and acetate buffers was estimated. The obtained results revealed that the amount of silver in the solutions was 0.27 ± 0.02 μg mL{sup −1} and 0.54 ± 0.02 μg mL{sup −1} for the phosphate and acetate buffers, respectively, which corresponded well with the minimum inhibitory concentration range known for silver ions in literature. Thus, this work establishes a new route to prepare a biocompatible layer using embedded AgNPs to achieve a local antibacterial effect.

  14. Enhancement of room temperature ferromagnetic behavior of rf sputtered Ni-CeO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugan, R.; Vijayaprasath, G.; Mahalingam, T.; Ravi, G., E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ni-CeO{sub 2} thin films deposited by using rf Magnetron sputtering with different concentrations of Ni. • Deposited thin films have single crystalline and uniform surface morphology. • Photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectra were interpreted for Ni-CeO{sub 2} thin films. • XPS spectra confirmed Ni ions were present in the doped CeO{sub 2} thin films. • Ni ions induced ferromagnetic behavior of Ni-CeO{sub 2} films were confirmed through VSM. - Abstract: Ni-doped CeO{sub 2} thin films were prepared under Ar{sup +} atmosphere on glass substrates using rf magnetron sputtering. To assess the properties of the prepared thin films, the influence of various amounts of Ni dopant on structural, morphological, optical, vibrational, compositional and magnetic properties of the CeO{sub 2} films were studied by using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), micro-Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD patterns for all the samples revealed the expected CeO{sub 2} cubic fluorite-type structure and Ni ions were uniformly distributed in the samples. AFM images of the prepared samples indicate high dense, columnar structure with uniform distribution of CeO{sub 2}. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and micro-Raman spectroscopic studies revealed an increase of oxygen vacancies with higher concentration of Ni in CeO{sub 2}. XPS results confirm the presence of Ni{sub 2p}, O{sub 1s} and Ce and depict that cerium is present as both Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} oxidation states in Ce{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 2} (x = 15%) thin film. Field dependent magnetization measurements revealed a paramagnetic behavior for pure CeO{sub 2}, while a ferromagnetic behavior appeared when Ni is doped in CeO{sub 2} films. Doping dependent magnetization measurements suggest that the observed ferromagnetism is due to the presence of metallic Ni clusters with nanometric size and broad size

  15. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement related to the application of novel cavity fabrication techniques and Nb/Cu sputter coating technology in the field of superconducting RF for the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement related to the application of novel cavity fabrication techniques and Nb/Cu sputter coating technology in the field of superconducting RF for the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study

  16. Electrical and Structural Properties of Copper Thin Films Deposited by Novel RF Magnetized Plasma Sputtering with Gyratory Square-Shaped Arrangement by Bar Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Amzad; Ohtsu, Yasunori

    2016-09-01

    Rotating square-shaped arrangement by bar permanent magnets has been proposed for uniform target utilization in high-density radio frequency (RF) magnetized sputtering plasma. In this work, copper thin films are grown on unheated Si wafer by RF sputtering technique. The experiments are done in stainless-steel cylindrical vacuum chamber with outer diameter of 235 mm, inner diameter of 160 mm and 195 mm in height, whereas argon (Ar) gas pressure of 1.03 [Pa], rotating the iron yoke with speed of 40 [rpm,] sputtering time of 1.5 [h], and RF input power of 100 [W] at 13.56 [MHz] are realized. The deposited copper film thickness, electrical, structural properties and plasma density are investigated for case (a) without iron cover and case (b) with iron cover, respectively placed on the contact zone between the N-pole and the S-pole magnets. Radial profiles of the deposited copper thin film thickness and resistivity for case (b) are more uniform than case (a). It is found that the resistivities of deposited copper thin film for case (a) and (b) are approximately 7.89 × 10-8 Ω -m and 4.33 × 10-8 Ω -m, respectively at r = 30 mm. From AFM analysis, the uniformity of thin films grown throughout surface is better case (b) than case (a). The roughness of radial profile of the film thickness for case (a) and case (b) are 22.3% and 6.55%, respectively.

  17. Correlation of structure and hardness of rf magnetron sputtered silicon carbonitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A. S.; Mishra, S. K. [Materials Science and Technology Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Mukherjee, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2010-07-15

    Ternary nanocomposite silicon carbonitride (Si-C-N) ceramic coatings have shown potential for wear resistance, oxidation resistance, hardness, tunable band gap, and chemical inertness applications. A systematic investigation on the deposition of Si-C-N nanocomposite coatings by sputtering under varying deposition conditions such as chamber pressure, substrate temperature by structural, nanoindentation, and microstructural studies of optimized condition has been presented. Significant role of different deposition parameter on the mechanical and structural properties were observed. The structural characterizations of the coatings were carried out using Fourier transformed infra red (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscope. An increase in argon-nitrogen pressure in the range of 1-5 Pa led to lowering of particle size and surface smoothening and growth of hard phases of {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. An increase in substrate temperature from room temperature to 500 deg. C led to nucleation and growth of hard phases of {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the amorphous Si-C-N matrix. The nanoindentation studies showed the variation in hardness and Young's modulus from 8 to 22 GPa and from 100 to 240 GPa, respectively, dependent on the deposition conditions. The FTIR studies confirmed the presence of C-N, Si-N, Si-Si, Si-O, and Si-C in different films.

  18. Properties of RF-Sputtered PZT Thin Films with Ti/Pt Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of annealing temperature and thin film thickness on properties of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT thin film deposited via radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate was investigated. Average grain sizes of the PZT thin film were measured by atomic force microscope; their preferred orientation was studied through X-ray diffraction analysis. Average residual stress in the thin film was estimated according to the optimized Stoney formula, and impedance spectroscopy characterization was performed via an intelligent LCR measuring instrument. Average grain sizes of PZT thin films were 60 nm~90 nm and their average roughness was less than 2 nm. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, 600°C is the optimal annealing temperature to obtain the PZT thin film with better crystallization. Average residual stress showed that thermal mismatch was the decisive factor of residual stress in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate; the residual stress in PZT thin film decreased as their thickness increased and increased with annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and loss angle tangent were extremely increased with the thickness of PZT thin films. The capacitance of the device can be adjusted according to the thickness of PZT thin films.

  19. Fabrication of Cu2O nanocrystalline thin films photosensor prepared by RF sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Abbas M.; Mahdi, M. A.; Hassan, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanocrystalline thin films were prepared on two types of substrates known as crystalline silicon and amorphous glass, by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering method. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that Cu2O particles covered the entire surface of both substrates with smoothing distribution. The root mean square surface roughness for the prepared Cu2O thin films on glass and Si (111) substrates is 4.16, and 3.36 nm, respectively. Meanwhile, X-ray diffraction results demonstrated that the two phases of Cu2O and CuO were produced on Si (111) and glass substrates. The optical bandgap of Cu2O thin films synthesised on glass substrate is 2.42 eV. Furthermore, the prepared Cu2O nanocrystalline thin films have showed low reflectance value in the visible spectrum. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal photodetector based Cu2O nanocrystalline thin films deposited onto Si (111) was fabricated using aluminium and platinum, with the current-voltage and photoresponse characteristic investigated under various applied bias voltages. The fabricated Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (M-S-M) photodetector had shown 126% sensitivity in the presence of 10 mW/cm2 of 490 nm light with 1.0 V bias, displaying 90 and 100 ms response and recovery times, respectively. These findings have demonstrated the suitability of M-S-M Cu2O photodetector as an affordable photosensor in the future.

  20. Interdiffusion Processes in High-Coercivity RF-Sputtered Alnico Thin Films on Si Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, F.; Baghizadeh, A.; Lourenço, A. A. C. S.; Pereira, M. J.; Amaral, V. S.; Vieira, J. M.; Amaral, J. S.

    2017-08-01

    Alnico V thin film samples with the thickness of 100 nm were prepared by radio-frequency sputtering on Si substrates with and without a SiO2 layer. Heat treatment of the as-deposited thin films in above ambient pressure in an Ar atmosphere at a temperature range of 600-900°C, followed by quenching and/or slow cooling, leads to higher coercivity values compared to bulk Alnico magnets. Annealing at 800°C followed by quenching results in the highest coercivity reported here of 1.8 kOe. The formation of several triangular-shaped features along the interface between the substrate and the film were observed. A high-resolution transmission electron microscope analysis showed these to be formed via interdiffusion of Fe, Co and Ni atoms into the Si substrate. These features show a large difference in lattice parameters compared with the magnetically soft bulk Fe-Co-Si alloys, and a heterogeneous or layered magnetic ion distribution inside these features could be the origin of the high coercivity observed in the heat-treated films.

  1. Fabrication of Pt/Ti/TiO2 Photoelectrodes by RF-Magnetron Sputtering for Separate Hydrogen and Oxygen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Chiarello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of pure hydrogen and oxygen by photocatalytic water splitting was attained from the opposite sides of a composite Pt/Ti/TiO2 photoelectrode. The TiO2 films were prepared by radio frequency (RF-Magnetron Sputtering at different deposition time ranging from 1 up to 8 h and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE measurements and by photocatalytic water splitting measurements in a two-compartment cell. The highest H2 production rate was attained with the photoelectrode prepared by 6 h-long TiO2 deposition thanks to its high content in the rutile polymorph, which is active under visible light. By contrast, the photoactivity dropped for longer deposition time, because of the increased probability of electron-hole recombination due to the longer electron transfer path.

  2. Low substrate temperature deposition of transparent and conducting ZnO:Al thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waykar, Ravindra; Amit, Pawbake; Kulkarni, Rupali; Jadhavar, Ashok; Funde, Adinath; Waman, Vaishali; Dewan, Rupesh; Pathan, Habib; Jadkar, Sandesh

    2016-04-01

    Transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films were prepared on glass substrate using the RF sputtering method at different substrate temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 200 °C. The structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of these films were investigated using a variety of characterization techniques such as low angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrical properties showed that films deposited at RT have the lowest resistivity and it increases with an increase in the substrate temperature whereas carrier mobility and concentration decrease with an increase in substrate temperature. Low angle XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis reavealed that films are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and a preferred orientation along the c-axis. The FE-SEM analysis showed that the surface morphology of films is strongly dependent on the substrate temperature. The band gap decreases from 3.36 to 3.29 eV as the substrate temperature is increased from RT to 200 °C. The fundamental absorption edge in the UV region shifts towards a longer wavelength with an increase in substrate temperature and be attributed to the Burstein-Moss shift. The synthesized films showed an average transmission (> 85%) in the visible region, which signifies that synthesized ZnO:Al films can be suitable for display devices and solar cells as transparent electrodes.

  3. Influence of ferroelectric layer on artificial multiferroic LSMO/BTO bilayers deposited by Dc and RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, J. E.; Gomez, M. E.; Lopera, W. [Universidad del Valle, Department of Physics, A. A. 25360 Cali (Colombia)

    2016-11-01

    La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO)/BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) bilayers were deposited on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates via Dc and RF sputtering at pure oxygen atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 830 degrees Celsius. We studied the structural, electrical and magnetic properties on LSMO/BTO bilayers, when LSMO thickness is fixed at nm and BTO thickness is varied from 20 to 100 nm. Reciprocal Space Maps in LSMO show a strained growth for all samples, while BTO layers are always relaxed. Magnetization and electrical measurements indicate the influence of the ferroelectric layer, due to saturation magnetization increases from 500 to 590 emu/cm{sup 3} and coercive field decreases from 178 to 82 Oe with BTO thickness. Mean Field mechanism is identified on all samples with critical exponent β between 0.42 and 0.54. Resistivity measurements show electron-electron and magnon-magnon scattering conduction mechanisms. The influence on magnetic and electrical properties of bilayers with BTO thickness is attributed to crystallographic strains at the interface and the corresponding relaxation with increasing BTO layer thickness. The thickness of the individual layers were obtained by X-ray reflectivity measurements in the bilayers, not shown. X-ray diffraction and Reciprocal Space Maps measurements show highly textured layers with preferential growth in the c-axis direction. (Author)

  4. Influence of oxygen flow rate on metal-insulator transition of vanadium oxide thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xu; Liu, Xinkun; Li, Haizhu; Huang, Mingju [Henan University, Key Lab of Informational Opto-Electronical Materials and Apparatus, School of Physics and Electronics, Kaifeng (China); Zhang, Angran [South China Normal University, Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-03-15

    High-quality vanadium oxide (VO{sub 2}) films have been fabricated on Si (111) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering deposition method. The sheet resistance of VO{sub 2} has a significant change (close to 5 orders of magnitude) in the process of the metal-insulator phase transition (MIT). The field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) results show the grain size of VO{sub 2} thin films is larger with the increase of oxygen flow. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate the thin films fabricated at different oxygen flow rates grow along the (011) crystalline orientation. As the oxygen flow rate increases from 3 sccm to 6 sccm, the phase transition temperature of the films reduces from 341 to 320 K, the width of the thermal hysteresis loop decreases from 32 to 9 K. The thin films fabricated in the condition of 5 sccm have a high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) -3.455%/K with a small resistivity of 2.795 ρ/Ω cm. (orig.)

  5. A Study on the Thermodynamics of Grain Growth in R.F. Magnetron Sputtered NiO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dhanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Postdeposition annealing of thin nickel films synthesized using R.F. magnetron sputtering technique is carried in this study. The XRD analysis indicates that annealing of the nickel films leads to the formation of nickel oxide with a preferential growth along (200 plane. The oxidation mechanism is observed with a phase transformation and results in polycrystalline NiO films. The surface morphology of the thin films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM as a function of annealing temperature. The studies indicate the formation of well-defined grain boundaries due to agglomeration of nanocrystallites. The films annealed in the range 573–773 K are found to be porous. The optical transmission spectra of the films annealed at 773 K exhibit interference effects for photon energies below the fundamental absorption edge. The optical studies indicate the existence of direct interband transition across a bandgap of 3.7 eV in confirmation with earlier band structure calculations.

  6. Plasma deposition of piezoelectric ZnO layers by rf sputtering, SolGel and pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waetje, Kerstin; Ebbecke, Jens; Wixforth, A. [Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Augsburg, Experimentalphysik I, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Thorwarth, Goetz; Ven, Mark van de [Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Augsburg, Experimentalphysik IV, Universitaetsstrasse 1, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    As ''lab-on-a-chip-devices'' suited for analyses of least amounts of liquids are emerging from prototype status, cost-effective materials for mass production of these devices are sought. For handling and mixing components, surface acoustic waves generated by piezoelectric elements are routinely employed; however, the LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals used in such units are a significant cost factor. As an alternative, zinc oxide layers deposited onto the glass substrates hold the promise of cheaper production and easier integration into the assembly. In the present study, experiments regarding the deposition of such layers using different plasma processes are presented. Film synthesis was performed using rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition and plasma based ion bombardment of Sol-Gel films on crystalline and amorphous substrates. The impacts of significant deposition parameters are discussed. At optimum deposition parameters, excellent columnar growth in the preferred c-axis orientation could be observed. The suitability of such films for the desired application is substanciated through first mixing experiments using optically lithographed interdigital transducers (IDTs). (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Thermoelectric and Transport Properties of Delafossite CuCrO₂:Mg Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnarasa, Inthuga; Thimont, Yohann; Presmanes, Lionel; Barnabé, Antoine; Tailhades, Philippe

    2017-06-27

    P-type Mg doped CuCrO₂ thin films have been deposited on fused silica substrates by Radio-Frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited CuCrO₂:Mg thin films have been annealed at different temperatures (from 450 to 650 °C) under primary vacuum to obtain the delafossite phase. The annealed samples exhibit 3R delafossite structure. Electrical conductivity σ and Seebeck coefficient S of all annealed films have been measured from 40 to 220 °C. The optimized properties have been obtained for CuCrO₂:Mg thin film annealed at 550 °C. At a measurement temperature of 40 °C, this sample exhibited the highest electrical conductivity of 0.60 S·cm-1 with a Seebeck coefficient of +329 µV·K-1. The calculated power factor (PF = σS²) was 6 µW·m-1·K-2 at 40 °C and due to the constant Seebeck coefficient and the increasing electrical conductivity with measurement temperature, it reached 38 µW·m-1·K-2 at 220 °C. Moreover, according to measurement of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity in temperature, we confirmed that CuCrO₂:Mg exhibits hopping conduction and degenerates semiconductor behavior. Carrier concentration, Fermi level, and hole effective mass have been discussed.

  8. Thermoelectric and Transport Properties of Delafossite CuCrO2:Mg Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnarasa, Inthuga; Thimont, Yohann; Presmanes, Lionel; Barnabé, Antoine; Tailhades, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    P-type Mg doped CuCrO2 thin films have been deposited on fused silica substrates by Radio-Frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited CuCrO2:Mg thin films have been annealed at different temperatures (from 450 to 650 °C) under primary vacuum to obtain the delafossite phase. The annealed samples exhibit 3R delafossite structure. Electrical conductivity σ and Seebeck coefficient S of all annealed films have been measured from 40 to 220 °C. The optimized properties have been obtained for CuCrO2:Mg thin film annealed at 550 °C. At a measurement temperature of 40 °C, this sample exhibited the highest electrical conductivity of 0.60 S·cm−1 with a Seebeck coefficient of +329 µV·K−1. The calculated power factor (PF = σS²) was 6 µW·m−1·K−2 at 40 °C and due to the constant Seebeck coefficient and the increasing electrical conductivity with measurement temperature, it reached 38 µW·m−1·K−2 at 220 °C. Moreover, according to measurement of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity in temperature, we confirmed that CuCrO2:Mg exhibits hopping conduction and degenerates semiconductor behavior. Carrier concentration, Fermi level, and hole effective mass have been discussed. PMID:28654011

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of silver nanoparticles modified TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Fanming, E-mail: mrmeng@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Anhui Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Sun Zhaoqi [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Anhui Key Laboratory of Information Materials and Devices, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanostructured thin films with silver volume fraction of 0-40% were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, surface topography, and optical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Photocatalytic activity of the films was evaluated by light-induced degradation of methyl orange (C{sub 14}H{sub 14}N{sub 3}NaO{sub 3}S) solution using a high pressure mercury lamp as lamp-house. The relation of photocatalytic activity and silver content was studied in detail. It is found that silver content influences microstructure of TiO{sub 2} thin films, and silver in the films is metallic Ag (Ag{sup 0}). Photocatalytic activity of the films increases with increasing silver content up to 5 vol.% Ag and then decreases to values significantly still bigger than that of pure TiO{sub 2} thin films. Silver nanoparticles significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} films. The better separation between electrons and holes on silver modified TiO{sub 2} thin films surface allowed more efficiency for the oxidation and reduction reactions. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly attributed to the decrease of energy gap of the films and the increase of oxygen anion radicals O{sub 2}{sup -} and reactive center of surface Ti{sup 3+} on silver modified TiO{sub 2} thin films surface.

  10. Electrical and optical properties of Y-doped indium zinc oxide films grown by RF magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2013-09-01

    Y2O3-doped IZO (YIZO) films was investigated in order to control the carrier concentration of semiconducting IZO layer. Stoichiometric thin YIZO films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method using indium zinc oxide (IZO) including 50 wt.% ZnO and Y2O3 targets. During the deposition of YIZO films, the working pressure was fixed at 0.17 Pa and the deposition temperature was kept at room temperature while the oxygen partial pressure (P(O2)) was changed to find the optimal film condition. In order to check the PO2 effect on structural, electrical and optical properties of the grown YIZO layer on glass, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to analyze the structure of YIZO films and the electrical properties were characterized by Hall measurements using the Van der Pauw geometry at room temperature. From the measured XRD patterns, exhibiting crystalline peak of the YIZO film deposited under PO2 condition is revealed while amorphous phase structure is only observed from the YIZO film deposited under pure Ar gas condition. As the O2 contents in gas increase, the resistivity of YIZO film also drastically increases, whereas the carrier concentration of the YIZO films sharply decreases with mobility.

  11. Characterization of high quality Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchama, Idris [Departement d' Electronique, Faculte de Technologie, Universite de Msila (Algeria); Djessas, Kamal [Laboratoire Procedes Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Technosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Bouloufa, Abdeslam [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et Materiaux, Universite Ferhat Abbas de Setif (Algeria); Gauffier, Jean-Luc [Departement de Physique, INSA de Toulouse, 135, Avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-01-15

    This paper reports the production of high quality polycrystalline thin layers of CuIn{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}Se{sub 2} (CIGS), using rf-magnetron sputtering, from a powder target. These films are designed to be used as absorbers in solar cells. The depositions were carried out at substrate temperatures below 250 C and glass substrates was used. The influence of the substrate temperatures on the crystalline quality as well as structural, optical and electrical properties of thin layers obtained has been studied. X-ray diffraction showed that the films were highly orientated in the (112) and/or (204)/(220) direction. In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} secondary phase was observed on the samples grown at lower substrate temperatures. The surface morphology of CIGS layers studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) has been also discussed. The most surprising and exciting outcome of this study was that the as grown films were of near stoichiometric composition. Resistivity measurements were carried out using the four point probe method. The optical absorption showed that energy gap values are between 1.13 and 1.18 eV and rather sharp absorption fronts. Thin film resistivities are between 10.7 and 60.9 {Omega}.cm depending on the experimental growth conditions (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Growth of epitaxial Pt thin films on (0 0 1) SrTiO{sub 3} by rf magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahsay, A. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Polo, M.C., E-mail: mcpolo@ub.edu [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ferrater, C.; Ventura, J. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rebled, J.M. [Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia IN 2UB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Varela, M. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The growth of platinum thin film by rf magnetron sputtering on SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrates for oxide based devices was investigated. Platinum films grown at temperatures higher than 750 °C were epitaxial ([1 0 0]Pt(0 0 1)//[1 0 0]STO(0 0 1)), whereas at lower temperatures Pt(1 1 1) films were obtained. The surface morphology of the Pt films showed a strong dependence on the deposition temperature as was revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). At elevated temperatures there is a three-dimensional (3D) growth of rectangular atomically flat islands with deep boundaries between them. On the other hand, at low deposition temperatures, a two-dimensional (2D) layered growth was observed. The transition from 2D to 3D growth modes was observed that occurs for temperatures around 450 °C. The obtained epitaxial thin films also formed an atomically sharp interface with the SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrate as confirmed by HRTEM.

  13. Detection of TATP precursor acetone at trace levels using rf sputtered SnO2 thin film-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhuri, Arijit; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Emerging threats of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and homemade explosives (HMEs) have created a demand for reliable and unambiguous recognition of constituent analytes. Triacetone triperoxide (TATP), a cyclic peroxide based explosive has become a weapon of choice [1] in the hands of resourceful urban insurgents mainly because of ease of manufacture with readily available precursor constituents (acetone and concentrated hydrogen peroxide). Failure of conventional EDDs due to absence of nitrogen compounds coupled with the fact that TATP exhibits no significant absorption in UV region and does not demonstrate fluorescence has confined its detection to IR and Raman spectroscopy besides some enzyme-based tests and mass spectrometry [2]. Hence there is an urgent need for highly sensitive technique with a fast response speed that can detect presence of TATP at extremely low vapour pressure and purposely camouflaged physically or under cross-contamination with interfering compounds. In the present work trace level (20 ppm) acetone (precursor of TATP) sensing characteristics of rf sputtered semiconducting SnO2 thin films having embedded Pt interdigital electrodes have been investigated. Specifically a fast response speed of 08 seconds is noted and sensing characteristics of bare SnO2 and catalyst-SnO2 hetero-structures are compared. Innovative catalyst dispersal technique is shown to enhance sensor response as also reduce response times. Novel sensing hetero-structures with reversible acetone detection capabilities are shown to provide a feasible alternative for real-field operation along with remote detection with limited sample size.

  14. Fabrication and Physical Properties of Titanium Nitride/Hydroxyapatite Composites on Polyether Ether Ketone by RF Magnetron Sputtering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupangtha, W.; Boonyawan, D.

    2017-09-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings have been used very successfully in a variety of applications because of their excellent properties, such as the high hardness meaning good wear resistance and also used for covering medical implants. Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that contributes to the restoration of bone tissue, which together with titanium nitride may contribute to obtaining a superior composite in terms of mechanical and bone tissue interaction matters. This paper aims to explain how to optimize deposition conditions for films synthesis on PEEK by varying sputtering parameters such as nitrogen flow rate and direction, deposition time, d-s (target-to-substrate distance) and 13.56 MHz RF power. The plasma conditions used to deposit films were monitored by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Titanium nitride/Hydroxyapatite composite films were performed by gas mixture with nitrogen and argon ratio of 1:3 and target-to-substrate distance at 8 cm. The gold colour, as-deposited film was found on PEEK with high hardness and higher surface energy than uncoated PEEK. X-ray diffraction characterization study was carried to study the crystal structural properties of these composites.

  15. Room temperature deposition of zinc oxide thin films by rf-magnetron sputtering for application in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, K. C.; Trujillo, R. R.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.

    2016-09-01

    Recent reports indicate that thin films of oxides of zinc: ZnO, Zn(O,S), or Zn-Mg-O, could be a better buffer component than CdS to provide an adequate band alignment with orthorhombic tin sulphide in thin lm solar cells. Thin films of ZnO were grown by rf-magnetron sputtering on different substrates at room temperature. Thin films of ZnO obtained by different deposition methods show hexagonal crystal structure, usually with a preferential orientation of (002) crystallographic planes parallel to the substrate surface. However, in the present study XRD patterns indicate that thicker ZnO films on glass substrates have preferential growth of (103) planes, while that on chemically deposited CdS or ZnS films preferential orientation of (002) planes persists. Bandgap of ZnO films increases from 3.2 eV to 3.4 eV when the chamber pressure used for deposition varies from 2.3 mTorr to 6 mTorr. ZnO films were incorporated in a solar cell structure stainless steel/SnS(cubic)/SnS(orthorhombic)/SnS(cubic)/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al. It showed open-circuit voltage of 0.318 V, short-circuit current density of 3.6 mA/cm2 and conversion efficiency of 0.82%.

  16. RF sputtering deposited a-IGZO films for LCD alignment layer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. M.; Liu, C. Y.; Sahoo, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) inorganic films were deposited at a fixed oblique angle using radio-frequency sputtering on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass as alternative alignment layer for liquid crystal displays. A series of experiments have been carried out to reveal the physical characteristics of the a-IGZO films, such as optical transmittance, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The special treatment a-IGZO films were used to fabricate liquid crystal (LC) cells and investigate the performances of these cells. Pretilt angles were measured with anti-parallel LC cells and voltage-transmittance (V-T) curve, contrast ratio, and response time were evaluated with optically compensated bend (OCB) LC cells. The electro-optical characteristics of the aligned homogenous LCs, and OCB mode cells based on the a-IGZO alignment layer were compared to those based on rubbing processed polyimide (PI). The results showed that the average transmittance in the visible wavelength range was higher than 90% for the a-IGZO alignment layer. The LC pretilt angle has been determined at about 6°. The evaluted cell critical voltage at maximum transmittance was 1.8 V, lower than the control cell using PI alignment layer. The OCB cell rise time and fall time were 1.55 ms and 3.49 ms, respectivly. A very quick response time of 5.04 ms has thus been achived. In addition, the study of V-T characteristics suggested higher contrast ratio for LCD display applications.

  17. [Structure and luminescence properties of ZnO films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-li; Ma, Shu-yi; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Guo-heng; Sun, Xiao-jing; Wei, Jin-jun

    2008-09-01

    ZnO thin films with c-axis preferred orientation were prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency co-reactive magnetron sputtering technique, and the effect of the substrate temperature on the microstructure and the luminescence properties of the ZnO thin films was studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning probe microscopy(SPM)and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The XRD patterns of the four ZnO samples prepared at different substrate temperatures were measured by XRD. figure which embodied the relation of full wave at half maximum (FWHM) and grain size of the four samples as a function of substrate temperatures was given out, too. It was concluded that the crystallization of the samples was promoted by appropriate substrate temperatures, the results consist with the AFM microscopic photos of the two samples. In addition, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the four samples were measured at room temperature. Violet peak located at about 400 nm, blue peak located at 446 nm and green peak located at about 502 nm were observed from the PL spectra of the four samples. With the rise of the growth temperature, the intensity of the violet peak and the blue peak increased sharply, and the intensity of green peak increased at the same time. It was concluded that the violet peak may correspond to the exciton emission, the blue peak was mainly attributed to the interstitial Zinc (Zn(i)) and the green emission peak must be related to the deep level defects of oxygen (Vo) in the crystal of ZnO films. Absorption property of the samples were researched by UV spectrophotometer, and the absorption spectrum of the film deposited at 150 degrees C and the (alpha h nu)2 versus h nu of the ZnO thin film were given. From the absorption spectrum, it could be observed that the spectroscopic data in UV region showed split peak and shoulder peak. With analysis of the absorption spectrum of the sample deposited at 150 degrees C, it was proved that our analysis of the

  18. Performance of RF sputtered p-Si/n-ZnO nanoparticle thin film heterojunction diodes in high temperature environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar, E-mail: satyndra.singh.eee09@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Model Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jammu, 181122 (India); Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, 211004 (India); Hazra, Purnima, E-mail: purnima.hazra@smvdu.ac.in [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, Jammu and Kashmir, 182320 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Synthesize ZnO nanoparticle thin film on p-Si substrate using RF sputtering method. • I–V and C–V characteristics of Si/ZnO heterojunction diode are studied. • High temperature performance is analyzed accounting barrier height inhomogeneities. • Gaussian distribution of BH inhomogeneities is considered to modify Richardson plot. • Modified R constant is 33.06 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}, i.e. nearer to theoretical value 32 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}. - Abstract: In this article, temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si nanoparticle thin film heterojunction diode grown by RF sputtering technique are analyzed in the temperature range of 300–433 k to investigate the performance of the device in high temperature environment. The microstructural, morphological, optical and temptrature dependent electrical properties of as-grown nanoparticle thin film were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emmision scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), variable angle ellipsometer and semiconductor device analyzer. XRD spectra of as-grown ZnO films are exhibited that highly c-axis oriented ZnO nanostructures are grown on p- Si〈100〉 substrate whereas AFM and FESEM images confirm the homogeneous deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on surface of Si substratewith minimum roughness.The optical propertiesof as-grown ZnO nanoparticles have been measured in the spectral range of 300–800 nm using variable angle ellipsometer.To measure electrical parameters of the device prototype in the temperature range of room temperature (300 K) to 433 K, large area ohmic contacts were fabricated on both side of the ZnO/Si heterostructure. From the current-voltage charcteristics of ZnO/Si heterojunction device, it is observed that the device exhibits rectifing nature at room temperature. However, with increase in temperature, reverse saturation current and barrier

  19. Optical parameters induced by phase transformation in RF magnetron sputtered TiO2 nanostructured thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabitha B. Nair

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 thin films were deposited onto quartz substrates using a ceramic TiO2 target at an elevated substrate temperature of 573 K by RF magnetron sputtering, and an analysis of structural, optical and photoluminescence characteristics of the films upon phase transformation is reported in this paper. Structural investigations using X-ray diffraction revealed that the as-deposited film was amorphous in nature. Thermal annealing for 2 h at 873 K in air resulted in the formation of anatase phase, and a phase transformation to rutile was observed at 1073 K. An increase in grain size and an improvement in crystallinity were also observed on annealing. Rod- like rutile crystallites were observed in the SEM images of the film annealed at 1273 K. As-deposited films and films annealed up to 1073 K were highly transparent in the visible region with a transparency >80%. Optical band gap of the films decreased upon thermal annealing which is attributed to phase transformation from amorphous to anatase and then to rutile. Optical parameters such as refractive index, optical conductivity and optical dielectric constant increased with increase in annealing temperature. Since rutile is the optically active phase, the superior refractive index of the film annealed at 1073 K along with its high transparency in visible region suggests the application of this film in antireflective coatings. Photoluminescence emission of maximum intensity was observed for the film annealed at 873 K, which exhibits anatase phase. Intense blue emission observed in this film makes it suitable for use in optoelectronic display devices.

  20. Structural and dielectric studies of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural, dielectric and leakage current properties of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films deposited on platinized silicon (Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The role of oxygen mixing percentage (OMP on the growth, morphology, electrical and dielectric properties of the thin films has been investigated. A preferred orientation of grains along (110 direction has been observed with increasing the OMP. Such evolution of the textured growth is explained on the basis of the orientation factor analysis followed the Lotgering model. (Mg1-xCoxTiO3 (x = 0.05 thin films exhibits a maximum relative dielectric permittivity of ɛr = 12.20 and low loss (tan δ ∼ 1.2 × 10−3 over a wide range of frequencies for 75% OMP. The role of electric field frequency (f and OMP on the ac-conductivity of (Mg0.95Co0.05TiO3 have been studied. A progressive increase in the activation energy (Ea and relative permittivity ɛr values have been noticed up to 75% of OMP, beyond which the properties starts deteriorate. The I-V characteristics reveals that the leakage current density decreases from 9.93 × 10−9 to 1.14 × 10−9 A/cm2 for OMP 0% to 75%, respectively for an electric field strength of 250 kV/cm. Our experimental results reveal up to that OMP ≥ 50% the leakage current mechanism is driven by the ohmic conduction, below which it is dominated by the schottky emission.

  1. H2O2 sensing using HRP modified catalyst-free ZnO nanorods synthesized by RF sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit; Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Priti; Singh, Sunil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Catalyst-free ( 00 l) oriented ZnO nanorods (NRs) -based biosensor for the H2O2 sensing has been reported. The (002) oriented ZnO NRs as confirmed by X-ray diffraction were successfully grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique without using any catalyst. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme was immobilized on ZnO NRs by physical adsorption technique to prepare the biosensor. In this HRP/ZnO NR/ITO bioelectrode, nafion solution was added to form a tight membrane on surface. The prepared bioelectrode has been used for biosensing measurements by electrochemical analyzer. The electrochemical studies reveal that the prepared HRP/ZnO NR/ITO biosensor is highly sensitive to the detection of H2O2 over a linear range of 0.250-10 μM. The ZnO NR-based biosensor showed lower value of detection limit (0.125 μM) and higher sensitivity (13.40 µA/µM cm2) towards H2O2. The observed value of higher sensitivity attributed to larger surface area of ZnO nanostructure for effective loading of HRP besides its high electron communication capability. In addition, the biosensor also shows lower value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant, K m) of 0.262 μM which indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of HRP to H2O2. The reported biosensor may be useful for various applications in biosensing, clinical, food, and beverage industry.

  2. Growth of polycrystalline Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} coating on alumina substrate by RF magnetron co-sputtering from composite targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sediri, A., E-mail: amal.sediri@univ-tours.fr [Université François-Rabelais de Tours, GREMAN UMR 7347 CNRS, IUT de Blois 15 rue de la chocolaterie CS 2903, 41029 Blois Cedex (France); Zaghrioui, M.; Barichard, A.; Autret, C.; Negulescu, B. [Université François-Rabelais de Tours, GREMAN UMR 7347 CNRS, IUT de Blois 15 rue de la chocolaterie CS 2903, 41029 Blois Cedex (France); Del Campo, L.; Echegut, P. [CNRS, UPR 3079 CEMHTI, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Laffez, P. [Université François-Rabelais de Tours, GREMAN UMR 7347 CNRS, IUT de Blois 15 rue de la chocolaterie CS 2903, 41029 Blois Cedex (France)

    2016-02-01

    Polycrystalline Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} coatings have been deposited on alumina substrates at room temperature by RF magnetron co-sputtering from Pr and Ni metallic composite target. The mixed target's area and the sputtering conditions were optimized to reach an atomic ratio Pr/Ni of 2. A subsequent annealing, at 1050–1100 °C, allowed obtaining Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} phase after in situ high temperature x-ray diffraction study performed on as-deposited film. Microstructural analyses (SEM and AFM) revealed dense and rough microstructure. Normal spectral emittance measurements performed at 794 °C in the spectral range 400–5000 cm{sup -1} showed an emissivity of ε ≈ 0.8. - Highlights: • Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} coatings deposited by RF magnetron co-sputtering • Crystallization kinetic studied by X-ray diffraction versus temperature • SEM and AFM observations showed dense and rough microstructure • Normal spectral emittance reaches to ε = 0.8 at 794 °C in the opaque zone.

  3. Epitaxial ZnO gate dielectrics deposited by RF sputter for AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seonno; Lee, Seungmin; Kim, Hyun-Seop; Cha, Ho-Young; Lee, Hi-Deok; Oh, Jungwoo

    2018-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF)-sputtered ZnO gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) were investigated with varying O2/Ar ratios. The ZnO deposited with a low oxygen content of 4.5% showed a high dielectric constant and low interface trap density due to the compensation of oxygen vacancies during the sputtering process. The good capacitance–voltage characteristics of ZnO-on-AlGaN/GaN capacitors resulted from the high crystallinity of oxide at the interface, as investigated by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The MOS-HEMTs demonstrated comparable output electrical characteristics with conventional Ni/Au HEMTs but a lower gate leakage current. At a gate voltage of ‑20 V, the typical gate leakage current for a MOS-HEMT with a gate length of 6 μm and width of 100 μm was found to be as low as 8.2 × 10‑7 mA mm‑1, which was three orders lower than that of the Ni/Au Schottky gate HEMT. The reduction of the gate leakage current improved the on/off current ratio by three orders of magnitude. These results indicate that RF-sputtered ZnO with a low O2/Ar ratio is a good gate dielectric for high-performance AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs.

  4. AES study on the chemical composition of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films RF sputter-deposited on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadhikari, V. S.; Grannemann, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    AES depth profiling data are presented for thin films of BaTiO3 deposited on silicon by RF sputtering. By profiling the sputtered BaTiO3/silicon structures, it was possible to study the chemical composition and the interface characteristics of thin films deposited on silicon at different substrate temperatures. All the films showed that external surface layers were present, up to a few tens of angstroms thick, the chemical composition of which differed from that of the main layer. The main layer had stable composition, whereas the intermediate film-substrate interface consisted of reduced TiO(2-x) oxides. The thickness of this intermediate layer was a function of substrate temperature. All the films showed an excess of barium at the interface. These results are important in the context of ferroelectric phenomena observed in BaTiO3 thin films.

  5. Effect of Hydrogen on the Properties of RF-Magnetron Sputtering ZnO:Al Films as an Alternative to Commercially Available TCO Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rajesh; Sekhar Das, Himadri

    2017-10-01

    Transparent conducting ZnO:Al thin films with lowest electrical resistivity and sheet resistance 3.89 × 10-4 Ω cm and 7.65 Ω/□ were developed by RF-magnetron sputtering using Ar + H2 as sputtering gas at 250 °C. ZnO:Al films are highly polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite, (002) oriented and grain size are around 30 nm. The highest carrier concentration and mobility of our lab deposited ZnO:Al films are ( 1021 cm-3) and 8.93 cm2/V s respectively. RF-sputtered ZnO:Al films are self textured and surface roughness of ZnO:Al films varies with H2 dilution ratio and ultimately affects on Haze factor. Haze factor varies from 36 to 42.8 for introducing different gas ambient during deposition. Blue and green photoluminescence emission peaks are observed at 432 nm (2.87 eV) and 541.5 nm (2.29 eV) respectively in H2 gas deposited ZnO:Al films. Both ZnO:Al and commercial TCO films have almost similar electrical properties except mobility and visible optical transmittance maxima, but still show 30 % higher optical transmittance at longer wavelength region of solar spectrum and U-type surface morphology. Systematic analysis of different materials properties, elemental analysis and surface texture of non-stoichiometric ZnO:Al films are studied and latest status on electrical, optical as well as morphological studies of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films are reported. Finally, the possible solutions for expected outcomes are discussed.

  6. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  7. Thin films preparation by rf-sputtering of copper/iron ceramic targets with Cu/Fe=1: From nanocomposites to delafossite compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnier, Emmanuelle; Barnabé, Antoine; Presmanes, Lionel; Tailhades, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    In the Cu–Fe–O phase diagram, delafossite CuFeO2 is obtained for the CuI oxidation state and for the Cu/Fe=1 ratio. By decreasing the oxygen content, copper/spinel oxide composite can be obtained because of the reduction and the disproponation of cuprous ions. Many physical properties as for instance, electrical, optical, catalytic properties can then be affected by the control of the oxygen stoichiometry. In rf-sputtering technique, the bombardment energies on the substrate can be c...

  8. Magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic heterostructure of rf-sputtered Ni-Mn-Ga thin film on PMN-PT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teferi, M.Y., E-mail: mandefero2002@yahoo.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Amaral, V.S.; Lounrenco, A.C.; Das, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Amaral, J.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); IFIMUP-IN and Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Karpinsky, D.V. [CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Ceramica e do Vidro, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Soares, N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Sobolev, N.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); I3N, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Kholkin, A.L. [CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Ceramica e do Vidro, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Tavares, P.B. [Centro de Quimica, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, we report a preparation of multiferroic heterostructure from thin film of Ni-Mn-Ga (NMG) alloy and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) with effective magnetoelectric (ME) coupling between the film as ferromagnetic material and PMN-PT as piezoelectric material. The heterostructure was prepared by relatively low temperature (400 Degree-Sign C) deposition of the film on single crystal of piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate using rf magnetron co-sputtering of Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 50} and Ni{sub 50}Ga{sub 50} targets. Magnetic measurements by Superconducting Quantum Interference Design (SQIUD) Magnetometer and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) on the film revealed that the film is in ferromagnetically ordered martensitic state at room temperature with saturation magnetization of {approx}240 emu/cm{sup 3} and Curie temperature of {approx}337 K. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) measurement done at room temperature on the substrate showed the presence of expected hysteresis loop confirming the stability of the piezoelectric state of the substrate after deposition. Room temperature ME voltage coefficient ({alpha}{sub ME}) of the heterostructure was measured as a function of applied bias dc magnetic field in Longitudinal-Transverse (L-T) ME coupling mode by lock-in technique. A maximum ME coefficient {alpha}{sub ME} of 3.02 mV/cm Oe was measured for multiferroic NMG/PMN-PT heterostructure which demonstrates that there is ME coupling between the film as ferromagnetic material and PMN-PT as piezoelectric material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiferroic NMG/PMN-PT heterostructure prepared by depositing NMG alloy thin film on PMN-PT substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film is in ferromagnetically ordered martensite state at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substrate maintains its piezoelectric state after deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The heterostructure exhibits ME effect with maximum of {alpha}{sub ME

  9. Effect of N{sub 2} flow rate on the properties of N doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shou [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); Yang, Yong, E-mail: 88087113@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); Li, Gang; Jiang, Jiwen; Jin, Kewu; Yao, TingTing; Zhang, Kuanxiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); Cao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116000 (China); Wang, Yun; Xu, Genbao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China)

    2016-09-05

    N doped TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature using DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering with a TiO{sub 2} ceramic target. The influences of N{sub 2} flow rate on the deposition rate, crystal structure, chemical composition and band gap of the deposited films were investigated by Optical profiler, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The film growth rate gradually decreased with increasing N{sub 2} flow rate. As N{sub 2} flow rate increased, the crystallization of the films deteriorated, and the films tended to form amorphous structure. XPS analysis revealed that N dopant atoms were added at the substitutional sites into TiO{sub 2} lattice structure. FE-SEM results showed that the grain size of the film decreased and the crystallinity degraded as N{sub 2} flow rate increases. In addition, N doping caused an obvious red shift in the optical absorption edge. - Highlights: • N doped TiO{sub 2} films were deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron reactive sputtering. • As N{sub 2} flow rate increases, the crystallization of the deposited films degrades. • The higher N{sub 2} flow rate is beneficial to form more substituted N in the film. • N doping causes an obvious red shift in the absorption wavelength.

  10. The pH Sensing Properties of RF Sputtered RuO2 Thin-Film Prepared Using Different Ar/O2 Flow Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sardarinejad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Ar/O2 gas ratio during radio frequency (RF sputtering of the RuO2 sensing electrode on the pH sensing performance is investigated. The developed pH sensor consists in an RF sputtered ruthenium oxide thin-film sensing electrode, in conjunction with an electroplated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The performance and characterization of the developed pH sensors in terms of sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, and hysteresis are investigated. Experimental results show that the pH sensor exhibits super-Nernstian slopes in the range of 64.33–73.83 mV/pH for Ar/O2 gas ratio between 10/0–7/3. In particular, the best pH sensing performance, in terms of sensitivity, response time, reversibility and hysteresis, is achieved when the Ar/O2 gas ratio is 8/2, at which a high sensitivity, a low hysteresis and a short response time are attained simultaneously.

  11. Microstructure and characterization of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by RF power sputtering on Al and ZnO targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chun-An; Lin, Jing-Chie; Chang, Yu-Fong; Chyou, San-Der; Peng, Kun-Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductive films were prepared on a glass substrate using a magnetron sputtering system with a pure zinc oxide (ZnO) target and a pure Al target sputtered using radio frequency (RF) power. The RF power was set at 100 W for the ZnO target and varied from 20 to 150 W for the Al target. The morphology of the thin films was examined by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and their composition was analyzed by the equipped energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The cross section of the films determined through FE-SEM indicated that their thickness was around 650 nm. EDS analysis revealed that the Al-dopant concentration of the AZO films increased in the following order: 0.85 at.% (20 W) industry. A decrease in the electrical resistivity of the film with increasing Al-dopant concentration was ascribed to an increase in the carrier concentration and density of stacking faults in the films.

  12. Microstructure and characterization of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by RF power sputtering on Al and ZnO targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chun-An [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jing-Chie, E-mail: jclincom@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Institute of Material Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Fong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Chyou, San-Der [Power Research Institute, Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan (China); Peng, Kun-Cheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mingchi University of Technology, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductive films were prepared on a glass substrate using a magnetron sputtering system with a pure zinc oxide (ZnO) target and a pure Al target sputtered using radio frequency (RF) power. The RF power was set at 100 W for the ZnO target and varied from 20 to 150 W for the Al target. The morphology of the thin films was examined by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and their composition was analyzed by the equipped energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The cross section of the films determined through FE-SEM indicated that their thickness was around 650 nm. EDS analysis revealed that the Al-dopant concentration of the AZO films increased in the following order: 0.85 at.% (20 W) < 1.60 at.% (40 W) < 3.52 at.% (100 W) < 4.34 at.% (150 W). Analysis of the films using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) indicated that all films had a wurtzite structure with a texture of (0 0 2). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed a number of defects in the films, such as stacking faults and dislocations. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) was used to estimate the optical energy gap (E{sub g}) for the AZO thin films. The energy gap increases from 3.39 to 3.58 eV as the RF power applied to the Al target increase. The electrical resistivity of the films decreased from 3.43 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} {Omega} cm to 3.29 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm as the RF power increased from 20 to 150 W when a four-point probe was used to investigate. Atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed that the surface roughness of the films increased with increasing RF power. The average optical transmittance of the films was determined by UV-visible spectrometer. The films are suitable for use as transparent conductive oxide films in the optoelectronic industry. A decrease in the electrical resistivity of the film with increasing Al-dopant concentration was ascribed to an increase in the carrier

  13. Optical characterization of BCN films deposited at various N{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratios by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todi, Vinit O., E-mail: vinittodi@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Shantheyanda, Bojanna P.; Todi, Ravi M.; Sundaram, Kalpathy B. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Coffey, Kevin [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2011-07-25

    Highlights: > We present the deposition and optical characterization of amorphous BCN thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a B4C target. > Films of different compositions were deposited by varying the ratio of argon and nitrogen gas in the sputtering ambient. > The optical band gap of the films ranged from 2.0 eV to 3.1 eV and increased with N2/Ar gas flow ratio except at the highest ratio. - Abstract: We present the deposition and optical characterization of amorphous thin films of boron carbonitride (BCN). The BCN thin films were deposited in a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system using a B{sub 4}C target. Films of different compositions were deposited by varying the ratio of argon and nitrogen gas in the sputtering ambient. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to perform surface characterization of the deposited films and a change in composition with nitrogen flow ratio was observed. The effect of gas flow ratios on the optical properties of the films was also investigated. It was found that the transmittance of the films increases with nitrogen incorporation. The optical band gap of the films ranged from 2.0 eV to 3.1 eV and increased with N{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratio except at the highest ratio.

  14. A two-inch dc/rf circular magnetron sputtering gun for a miniature chamber for an in situ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rue, Gi-Hong; Kim, Hyung-Kook

    1998-04-01

    Many experiments have been made in an in situ miniature chamber for x-ray experiments using synchrotron radiation beam during sputtering. We have designed and fabricated a 2 in. circular magnetron sputtering gun for an in situ reflectivity experiment. The head diameter of the gun is 6.4 cm, the height is 4.5 cm, and the length of the vacuum tight neck is 11 cm. The permanent magnet is isolated from water for prevention of corrosion. Only one O-ring is used for both insulation and vacuum seal. Therefore, its frame is simple and lightweight, with a volume about 1/5 compared to commercial units. The target holder is not fixed so it can be adjusted for the target thickness. In multi-target sputtering, the distance between target and substrate is closer than commercial equipment so deposition rate and uniformity of the deposited film can be increased. In order to check the performance of the newly sputtering gun, SnO2 film on sapphire(0001) is grown, which turns out to be of the epitaxial single domain.

  15. Modification of polylactic acid surface using RF plasma discharge with sputter deposition of a hydroxyapatite target for increased biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverdokhlebov, S.I., E-mail: tverd@tpu.ru [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Bolbasov, E.N.; Shesterikov, E.V. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Antonova, L.V.; Golovkin, A.S.; Matveeva, V.G. [Federal State Budgetary Institution Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Disease, 6 Sosnovy Blvd, Kemerovo 650002 (Russian Federation); Petlin, D.G.; Anissimov, Y.G. [Griffith University, School of Natural Sciences, Engineering Dr., Southport, QLD 4222 (Australia)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • The treatment by plasma of radio-frequency magnetron discharge with hydroxyapatite target sputtering improves the biocompatibility of PLLA surface. • The treatment significantly increases the roughness of PLLA surface. • The formation of rough highly porous surface is due to the etching and crystallization processes on PLLA surface during treatment. • Maximum concentration of the ions from the sputtered target is achieved at 60 s of the plasma treatment. - Abstract: Surface modification of polylactic acid (PLLA) by plasma of radio-frequency magnetron discharge with hydroxyapatite target sputtering was investigated. Increased biocompatibility was demonstrated using studies with bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Atomic force microscopy demonstrates that the plasma treatment modifies the surface morphology of PLLA to produce rougher surface. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that changes in the surface morphology are caused by the processes of PLLA crystallization. Fluorescent X-ray spectroscopy showed that the plasma treatment also changes the chemical composition of PLLA, enriching it with ions of the sputtered target: calcium, phosphorus and oxygen. It is hypothesized that these surface modifications increase biocompatibility of PLLA without increasing toxicity.

  16. Electrical transport properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films obtained by thermal annealing of layers grown by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetta, H.M.R., E-mail: hgiann@inti.gov.ar [Centro de Micro y Nano Electrónica del Bicentenario (CMNB), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN) — Facultad Regional Buenos Aires (FRBA) (Argentina); Calaza, C. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Lamas, D.G. [Universidad Nacional del Comahue CONICET-CITEFA — Laboratorio de Caracterización de Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería, Neuquen (Argentina); Fonseca, L. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Fraigi, L. [Centro de Micro y Nano Electrónica del Bicentenario (CMNB), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN) — Facultad Regional Buenos Aires (FRBA) (Argentina)

    2015-08-31

    The present study investigates the main electrical transport mechanism in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on the basis of the Mott's small polaron hopping model. The material under test was obtained at room temperature from a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} target and then oxidized at high temperature under air atmosphere to obtain the desired V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase. The dependence of the electrical conductivity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films with temperature was analyzed using the Mott's small polarons hopping transport model under the Schnakenberg form. Model results suggest a polaron binding energy W{sub H} = 0.1682 eV, with a structural disorder energy W{sub D} = 0.2241 eV and an optical phonon frequency ν{sub 0} = 0.468 × 10{sup 13}s{sup −1}. These results are in agreement with data reported in literature for single crystal V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. However, the carrier mobility μ = 1.5019 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/Vs computed in the non-adiabatic regime is significantly smaller than that of the single crystal, suggesting a strong electron–phonon coupling in the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films obtained with the proposed deposition method. - Highlights: • A two-stage deposition method compatible with lift-off patterning is proposed. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films are deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and then annealed in air. • Films are analyzed by SEM and its pure phase nature is confirmed by XRD. • Electrical conductivity was fitted using Mott's model for small polarons. • Fit derived parameters confirm charge transport through small-polarons hopping.

  17. Catalytic activity and stability of nanometic Rh overlayers prepared by pulsed arc-plasma deposition and r.f. magnetron-sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misumi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Akinori; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Machida, Masato

    2018-01-01

    50 μm-thick Fe-Cr-Al metal foils covered by 7 nm-thick Rh overlayers were prepared by pulsed arc-plasma (AP) and r.f. magnetron sputtering technique to compare their catalytic activities. As-prepared metal foil catalysts were wrapped into a honeycomb structure with a density of 900 cells per square inches and the stoichiometric NO-CO-C3H6-O2 reaction was performed at space velocity of 1.2 × 105 h-1. During temperature ramp at 10 °C min-1, honeycomb catalysts showed steep light-off of NO, CO, and C3H6 at above 200 °C and their conversions soon reached to almost 100%. Both catalysts exhibited high turnover frequencies close to or more than 50-fold greater compared with those for a reference Rh/ZrO2 powder-coated cordierite honeycomb prepared using a conventional slurry coating. When the temperature ramping was repeated, however, the catalytic activity was decreased to the different extent depending on the preparation procedure. Significant deactivation occurred only when prepared by sputtering, whereas the sample prepared by AP showed no signs of deactivation. The deactivation is associated with the formation of passivation layers consisting of Fe, Cr, and Al oxides, which covered the surface and decreased the surface concentration of Rh. The Rh overlayer formed by AP was found to be thermally stable because of the strong adhesion to the metal foil surface, compared to the sample prepared by sputtering.

  18. Role of hydrogen addition in the plasma phase in determining the structural and chemical properties of RF sputtered ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardi, Gloria, E-mail: ggottard@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Center for Materials and Microsystems, PAM Unit, via Sommarive 18, I - 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Bartali, Ruben; Micheli, Victor; Laidani, Nadhira [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Center for Materials and Microsystems, PAM Unit, via Sommarive 18, I - 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Avi, Damiano [University of Trento, Physics Department, Atomic and Molecular Physics Lab., Via Sommarive 14, I - 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2011-05-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Effects of H in corporation on ZnO thin films growth and properties. {yields} Modification of the sputtering mechanism according to H{sub 2} percentage in the plasma. {yields} Structural changes turns up with variations of the surface and bulk oxide chemistry. {yields} Development of an hydroxide component due to atomic H incorporation. - Abstract: In the present work, ZnO thin films were RF sputtered from a pure ZnO target, without external heating, in H{sub 2}:Ar plasma at different H{sub 2} concentrations (0-50%). Aim of the study was the identification of the effects of H incorporation on the film growth and properties. During the deposition experiments, optical emission (OES) spectra were recorded to monitor any variation in the plasma chemical species relative to different process or gas mixture settings. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to study the bulk and surface chemical composition of the films, while X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis allowed lattice structure and grain size determination. The introduction of hydrogen in the plasma phase appears to strongly affect the structural and chemical properties of ZnO films. Both FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all the films crystallized in the hexagonal wuertzite form. Nevertheless, while samples deposited in pure Ar plasma are highly textured, presenting just one dominant preferred orientation along the [0 0 2] axis, films sputtered in H{sub 2}:Ar atmosphere exhibit multiple growth directions with crystallites of noticeably reduced dimensions. Such a structural modification turns up together with clear variations in the films surface chemical state which appears to deviate from the pure oxide (Zn-O). By combining XPS, ATR-FTIR and OES data we could correlate such variations with the process induced H incorporation in the crystal structure in the form of

  19. Preparation and electrical and optical properties of CuScO2: Mg (4.5%) films in quartz by rf sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingnan; Zhao, Xiujian; Sleight, A. W.; Li, Jun

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the samples of transparent thin films have been prepared, using a 5.6 cm diameter target of CuScO2 doped with 4.5%(mole), on quartz glass substrates by rf sputtering at 120W. The substrates were heated at 450° C during sputtering. The samples were treated by rapidly thermal annealing (RTA) for 3 minutes at 950 °C in a argon flowing atmosphere, and then the RTA samples were treated at 500° C under oxygen atmosphere at pressures ranging from 1 to 7 atm. in order to intercalate oxygen into the center of Cu triangles in the triangular Cu plane of delafossite structure. XRD, UV/VIS and XPS have been used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the structures of all the films were amorphous, the transmittance (%) of the samples in the visible region of the spectrum decreased with the increase of the oxygen stoichiometry in the films, but the conductivity increased, the Seebeck coefficient was found to be positive and varied from 378uV/K to 42uV/K, which means that the conductive samples were p-type. The results stated above were discussed.

  20. Ohmic contact mechanism for RF superimposed DC sputtered-ITO transparent p-electrodes with a variety of Sn2O3 content for GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Yoon, Yeo Jin; Oh, Seung Kyu; Lee, Yu Lim; Cha, Yu-Jung; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2018-02-01

    The dependence of the electrical and optical properties of radio frequency (RF) superimposed direct current (DC) sputtered-indium tin oxide (ITO) on the tin oxide (Sn2O3) content of the ITO is investigated, in order to elucidate an ohmic contact mechanism for the sputtered-ITO transparent electrodes on p-type gallium nitride (p-GaN). Contact resistivity of the RF superimposed DC sputtered-ITO on p-GaN in LEDs decreased when Sn2O3 content was increased from 3 wt% to 7 wt% because of the reduced sheet resistance of the sputtered-ITO with the increasing Sn2O3 content. Further increases in Sn2O3 content from 7 wt% to 15 wt% resulted in deterioration of the contact resistivity, which can be attributed to reduction of the work function of the ITO with increasing Sn2O3 content, followed by increasing Schottky barrier height at the sputtered ITO/p-GaN interface. Temperature-dependent contact resistivity of the sputtered-ITO on p-GaN also revealed that the ITO contacts with 7 wt% Sn2O3 yielded the lowest effective barrier height of 0.039 eV. Based on these results, we devised sputtered-ITO transparent p-electrodes having dual compositions of Sn2O3 content (7/10 wt%). The radiant intensity of LEDs having sputtered-ITO transparent p-electrodes with the dual compositions (7/10 wt%) was enhanced by 13% compared to LEDs having ITO with Sn2O3 content of 7 wt% only.

  1. Influence of substrate biasing on the growth of c-axis oriented AlN thin films by RF reactive sputtering in pure nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo-Lerma, L.; Naranjo, F.B.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    We report on the investigation of the influence of deposition conditions on structural, morphological and optical properties of AlN thin films deposited on sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by radio-frequency (RF) reactive sputtering. The deposition parameters studied are RF power, substrate temperature and substrate bias, while using pure nitrogen as reactive gas. The effect of such deposition parameters on AlN film properties are analyzed by different characterization methods as high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and linear optical transmission. AlN thin films with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve obtained for the (0002) diffraction peak of 1.2 are achieved under optimized conditions. The time resolved evolution of the self and externally-induced biasing of the substrate during deposition process is monitored and analyzed in terms of the rate of atomic species incorporation into the layer. The bias-induced change of the atomic incorporation leads to an enhancement in the structural quality of the layer and an increase of the deposition rate. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Cubic and hexagonal boron-nitride (c-BN/h-BN) thin films deposited in situ by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo, J.M.; Zambrano, G.; Baca, E.; Moran, O.; Prieto, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Bejarano, G. [Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros, CDT-ASTIN SENA, Cali (Colombia)

    2005-07-01

    Cubic boron-nitride (c-BN)/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) thin films were grown in situ on (100) oriented silicon substrates by r.f. (13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering technique. In order to obtain the highest fraction of the c-BN phase, a negative d.c bias voltage, varying from 0 to -200 V was applied to the substrate during deposition. Another set of boron nitride thin films was deposited in situ on (100) oriented silicon substrates under r.f. bias voltage. The substrate holder was biased from 0 to -350 V by connecting such to an auxiliary r.f. generator (operated at 13.56 MHz). Films were characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Well-defined peaks at 787 cm{sup -1}, 1100 cm{sup -1} and 1387 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the 2{sub Au} (out-plane bending of B-N-B bond) h-BN vibration mode, the F2 (stretching) c-BN Transversal Optical (TO) mode and the E{sub 1u} (in-plane stretching of B-N bond) vibration mode of the h-BN, respectively, were observed in the FTIR spectra. A maximal fraction of the c-BN phase close to 85% was obtained under a bias voltage of -150 V at substrate temperature of 300 C and a total pressure of 4 x 10{sup -2} mbar. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Preparation of delafossite CuFeO2 thin films by rf-sputtering on conventional glass substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Barnabé, Antoine; Mugnier, Emmanuelle; Presmanes, Lionel; Tailhades, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    CuFeO2 CuFeO2 is a delafossite-type compound and is a well known p-type semiconductor. The growth of delafossite CuFeO2 thin films on conventional glass substrate by radio-frequency sputtering is reported. The deposition, performed at room temperature leads to an amorphous phase with extremely low roughness and high density. The films consisted of a well crystallized delafossite CuFeO2 after heat treatment at 450 °C in inert atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the film was 1 mS/cm. The...

  4. Applications of ZnO:Al deposited by RF sputtering to InN low-cost technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B.; Valdueza-Felip, S. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala Campus Universitario, Madrid (Spain); Abril, O. de [ISOM y Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politenica de Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    InN/ZnO:Al heterostructures deposited at low temperature on different substrates by radio-frequency sputtering were studied. Using ZnO:Al as buffer layer, an improvement in the InN structural properties was achieved. Evaluating ZnO:Al as contact on InN, an Ohmic behaviour for the as-deposited layer on InN was achieved. A specific contact resistance of 2 {omega} cm{sup 2} was measured without any post-deposition treatment. These properties could result very promising for optoelectronic device applications. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. The influence of deposition temperature on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrOxNy/ZrO₂ coatings deposited using RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, G.I., E-mail: gcubillos@unal.edu.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, National University of Colombia, Av. Cra. 30 No 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Bethencourt, M., E-mail: manuel.bethencourt@uca.es [Department of Materials Science, Metallurgy Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, International Campus of Excellence of the Sea (CEI-MAR), University of Cadiz, Avda. República Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Olaya, J.J., E-mail: jjolayaf@unal.edu.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia); Alfonso, J.E., E-mail: jealfonsoo@unal.edu.co [Department of Physic, Faculty of Science, National University of Colombia, Av. Cra. 30 No 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Marco, J.F., E-mail: jfmarco@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Química Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, C/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the influence of substrate temperature on the structure, morphology and corrosion resistance of ZrOxNy/ZrO₂ thin films deposited on 304 stainless steel using radio frequency sputtering (RF sputtering). Structural analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD); morphological analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface chemical analysis was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD data showed that the films deposited at 300 °C (573 K) and 350 °C (623 K) result in the growth of a monoclinic zirconium oxynitride phase with preferential orientation along the (-1 1 1) plane, while at 14 °C (287 K) the predominant phase is of polycrystalline ZrO₂. The corrosion results indicate that the coatings provide good resistance to corrosion in chloride-containing media, being better in the film deposited at 350 °C (623 K). SEM analysis demonstrated the homogeneity of the films deposited at the three temperatures; AFM studies established the average roughness of the films to be 4.25 nm. The binding energies of the Zr 3d, N 1s, and O 1s core levels determined by XPS were all compatible with the formation of a zirconium oxynitride and zirconium oxide in the surface of the film. ZrOxNy/ZrO₂ thin films are promising candidates for increasing the corrosion resistance of the steels in chloride-rich environments.

  6. Study on the preheating duration of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} thin films using RF magnetron sputtering technique for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuchen; He, Jun; Li, Xinran; Chen, Ye; Sun, Lin, E-mail: lsun@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2016-04-25

    Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} (CTS) thin films are prepared by sulfurization the stacked metallic precursors deposited by raido-frequency magnetron sputtering method on molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates. The details of sulfurization process and the effect of preheating duration on the properties of CTS thin films have been investigated. It is found that the content of element tin strongly depend on the preheating duration. X-ray diffraction patterns identify that the CTS thin films exhibit the monoclinic structure. Raman scattering spectra make a further confirmation for the crystal structure. Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR) is first used to study the properties of CTS thin films. The assigned active modes in Raman scattering spectra is consistent with the analysis in FTIR. Morphology analysis reveals long preheating duration would make the quality of films deteriorate. The thin film solar cell (TFSC) fabricated using the CTS absorber layer synthesized at preheating duration of 15 min shows that a power conversion efficiency up to 0.76% for a 0.19 cm{sup 2} area. The electrical characterization of CTS TFSC is first studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which implies the existence of MoS{sub x} and defects in the CTS/CdS interface. - Highlights: • CTS thin films and solar cells prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. • Preheating duration is a critical way to remain the Sn content in CTS thin film. • XRD, Raman, FTIR and XPS confirmed the single phase of CTS thin film. • The device characterization of CTS solar cell has been systematically investigated.

  7. Raman studies on nanocomposite silicon carbonitride thin film deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arnab Sankar; Mishra, Suman Kumari

    2010-10-01

    Raman studies of nanocomposite SiCN thin film by sputtering showed that with an increase of substrate temperature from room temperature to 500oC, a transition from mostly sp2 graphitic phase to sp3 carbon took place which was observed from the variation of ID/IG ratio and the peak shifts. This process resulted in the growth of C3N4 and Si3N4 crystallites in the amorphous matrix which led to an increase in hardness and modulus obtained through nanoindentation. However, at a further higher temperature of 600oC, again an increase of sp2 C concentration in the film was observed and the H and E values showed a decrease due to increased growth of graphitic carbon phase. The whole process got reflected in a modified four stage Ferrari Robertson model of Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Structural and spectroscopic analysis of ex-situ annealed RF sputtered aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Francis; Airo, Mildred; Erasmus, Rudolph M.; Billing, David G.; Quandt, Alexander; Wamwangi, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films are prepared by Radio Frequency magnetron sputtering in pure argon atmosphere at 100 W. The structural results reveal good film adhesion on a silicon substrate (001). The thin films were then subjected to heat treatment in a furnace under ambient air. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the thin films as a function of deposition time and annealing temperatures have been investigated using Grazing incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD), Atomic Force Microscopy, and Scanning Electronic Microscopy. The photoluminescence properties of the annealed films showed significant changes in the optical properties attributed to mid gap defects. Annealing increases the crystallite size and the roughness of the film. The crystallinity of the films also improved as evident from the Raman and XRD studies.

  9. Optical and structural characterization of titanium dioxide films growth by the r f-sputtering technique; Caracterizacion optica y estructural de peliculas de dioxido de titanio crecidas por la tecnica de rf-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florido C, A.; Calderon, A. [CICATA-IPN, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza A, J.G.; Becerril, M.; Zelaya A, O. [CINVESTAV, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The elaboration of a series of grown films of TiO on Corning glaze substrates, as well as silicon, by means of the rf-sputtering technique using one power of 160 watts, with the objective of obtaining the anatase phase which one presents better activity for applications in photo catalysis. In the process of growth it was used a temperature in the range from 300 to 600 C and a separation distance among the target and the substrate of 3.5 cm. The used atmosphere was a mixture of argon and oxygen. It was carried out the characterization of the films obtained by means of UV-vis spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (FL). The microstructure analysis was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman (MR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By means of the diffractographs it was determined the grain size. Our results show that in our films they are present the anatase and rutile phases of the titanium dioxide. The analysis of the results of optical spectra shows a forbidden band of the titanium dioxide around 3.2 eV. (Author)

  10. Effect of Sb content on the thermoelectric properties of annealed CoSb{sub 3} thin films deposited via RF co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Aziz, E-mail: aziz_ahmed@ust.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seungwoo, E-mail: swhan@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-30

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction patterns and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient of the annealed Co–Sb thin films. - Highlights: • CoSb{sub 3} phase thin films were prepared using RF co sputtering method. • Thin film thermoelectric properties were hugely dependent on Sb content. • All thin films shows n-type conduction behavior at high temperatures. • The thin films with excess Sb possess the largest Seebeck coefficient. • The thin films with CoSb{sub 2} phase possess the largest power factor. - Abstract: A series of CoSb{sub 3} thin films with Sb contents in the range 70–79 at.% were deposited at room temperature via RF co-sputtering. The thin films were amorphous in the as-deposited state and annealed at 300 °C for 3 h to obtain crystalline samples. The annealed thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and these data indicate that the films exhibited good crystallinity. The XRD patterns indicate single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films in the Sb-rich samples. For the Sb-deficient samples, however, mixed-phase thin films consisting of CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} components were obtained. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured at temperatures up to 760 K and found to be highly sensitive to the phases that were present. We observed a change in the thermoelectric properties of the films from p-type at low temperatures to n-type at high temperatures, which indicates potential applications as n-type thermoelectric thin films. A large Seebeck coefficient and power factor was obtained for the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. The CoSb{sub 2} phase thin films were also found to possess a significant Seebeck coefficient, which coupled with the much smaller electrical resistivity, provided a larger power factor than the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. We report maximum power factor of 7.92 mW/m K{sup 2} for the CoSb{sub 2}-containing mixed phase thin film and 1

  11. Metal-semiconductor transition materials. FeS and VO{sub 2} thin films by RF reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Ganhua

    2007-06-15

    In the present work, two MST systems, FeS and VO{sub 2} thin films were investigated. Iron sulfide thin films over a range of composition were prepared by reactive sputtering. The influence of the substrate, sputter power, substrate temperature and stoichiometry on the structure and MST of iron sulfide films was investigated. Iron sulfide films deposited at different temperatures show temperature dependent structure and MST. FeS films on float glass show (110) and (112) orientations when the substrate temperature is 200 and 500 C, respectively. The transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop determined from the temperature dependent conductivity curves of iron sulfide films decrease with the substrate temperature. Fe and S excess in FeS films both result in the decrease of the transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop. The vacuum-annealing affects the MST of FeS films significantly. When FeS films were annealed below the deposition temperature, the transition temperature decreases; otherwise increases. The residual stress plays an important role during the annealing process. The higher the residual stress inside the FeS films is, the higher the transition temperature of FeS films. With the increase of the annealing temperature, the residual stress in FeS films is first released and then enhances, which gives rise first to the decrease and then increase of the transition temperature of FeS films. At high substrate temperatures, the residual stress is higher. In addition, the MST of FeS films was influenced by the ambient aging. With the increase of the aging time, the transition temperature first increases and then decreases. FeS films with different thicknesses were prepared. The correlation between the film thickness (grain size) and the MST switching characteristics of FeS films was established. With the decrease of the grain size, the density of grain boundaries increases, causing the increase of the conductivity of the semiconducting

  12. Effect of substrate temperature in the structural, optical and ferroelectric properties of thin films of BaTiO{sub 3} deposited by RF sputtering; Efecto de la temperatura de substrato en las propiedades estructurales, opticas y ferroelectricas de peliculas delgadas de BaTiO{sub 3} depositadas por RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez H, A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion Academica Region Altiplano, Carretera a Cedral Km. 5 -600, Matehuala, 78800 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Hernandez R, E.; Zapata T, M. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Calz. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Calzadilla A, O. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, San Lazaro y L. Municipio Plaza de la Revolucion, La Habana (Cuba); Melendez L, M. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Thin films of Barium Titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) were grown on nichrome and quartz substrates, using a BaTiO{sub 3} target, by RF sputtering technique. We varied the substrate temperature in order to study its effect on the structural, optical and ferroelectric properties of the samples. The results of the X-ray diffraction showed tetragonal structure with increases of the crystallinity as increases the substrate temperature. Furthermore, it observed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy that the band gap decreased as the substrate temperature increases showing abrupt sharp decrease at 494.8{sup o} C. The ferroelectric properties of the films showed a dependence with substrate temperature, the best ferroelectric answer was obtained at 494.8{sup o} C. (Author)

  13. Raman and RBS studies of interdiffusion in RF-sputtered CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A.; Jayamaha, U. N.; Bykov, E.; Grecu, D.; Bohn, R. G.; Compaan, A. D.

    1997-02-01

    The performance of CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices is strongly determined by the properties of the CdS/CdTe interface region which forms during the heat treatment of the solar cell. Due to interdiffusion of sulfur and tellurium across the original CdS/CdTe junction and the formation of CdSxTe1-x at the interface, material properties such as the bandgap and the absorption coefficient of the newly formed material will be changed. In order to improve our understanding of the interface and to be able to control it, near resonant Raman scattering on a series of single-phase CdSxTe1-x alloys was performed and the Stokes shifts of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons were measured over the entire composition x. The data have been fitted according to the modified random element isodisplacement (MREI) model. The results gained from the investigation of the alloys have then been applied to study the CdS/CdTe interface region of sputter-deposited solar cells. The formation of a two-phase CdSxTe1-x alloy region at the CdS-CdTe solar cell interface has been confirmed and the composition of each phase was measured. In addition, we have obtained Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectra from thin bilayers of CdTe/CdS on fused silica, which provided information on interdiffusion with ˜10 nm depth resolution.

  14. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: An MWCNT-doped SNO2 thin film NO2 gas sensor by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Shizhen, Huang; Wenzhe, Chen

    2010-02-01

    An MWCNT-doped (multi-walled carbon nanotube) SnO2 thin film NO2 gas sensor, prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering, showed a high sensitivity to ultra-low concentrations of NO2 in the parts per billion range. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations indicated that the MWCNTs were affected by the morphology of the SnO2 thin film and the particle size. The properties of the MWCNT-doped SnO2 sensor, such as sensitivity, selectivity, and response-recovery time, were investigated. Experimental results revealed that the MWCNT-doped SnO2 thin film sensor response to NO2 gas depended on the operating temperature, NO2 gas concentration, thermal treatment conditions, film thickness, and so on. The mechanism of the gas-sensing property of the MWCNT-doped Sn22 thin film sensor was investigated and showed that the improved gas-sensing performance should be attributed to the effects between MWCNTs (p-type) and SnO2 (n-type) semiconductors.

  15. Rf-sputtered vanadium oxide thin films: effect of oxygen partial pressure on structural and electrochemical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y J; Ryu, K S; Chang, S H; Park, S C; Yoon, S M; Kim, D K

    2001-01-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films with thickness of about 2000 A have been prepared by radio frequency sputter deposition using a V sub 2 O sub 5 target in a mixed argon and oxygen atmosphere with different Ar/O sub 2 ratio ranging from 99/1 to 90/10. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopic studies show that the oxygen content higher than 5% crystallizes a stoichiometric V sub O sub 5 phase, while oxygen deficient phase is formed in the lower oxygen content. The oxygen content in the mixed Ar + O sub 2 has a significant influence on electrochemical lithium insertion/deinsertion property. The discharge-charge capacity of vanadium oxide film increases with increasing the reactive oxygen content. The V sub O sub 5 film deposited at the Ar/O sub 2 ratio of 90/10 exhibits high discharge capacity of 100 mu Ah/cm sup 2 -mu m along with good cycle performance.

  16. Study on the Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties of RF-Sputtered Dysprosium-Doped Barium Tungstate Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hridya, S.; Kavitha, V. S.; Chalana, S. R.; Reshmi Krishnan, R.; Sreeja Sreedharan, R.; Suresh, S.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Sankararaman, S.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    Barium tungstate films with different Dy3+ doping concentrations, namely 0 wt.%, 1 wt.%, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.%, are deposited on cleaned quartz substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique and the prepared films are annealed at a temperature of 700°C. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the annealed films are studied using techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD analysis shows that all the films are well-crystallized in nature with a monoclinic barium tungstate phase. The presence of characteristic modes of the tungstate group in the Raman spectra supports the formation of the barium tungstate phase in the films. Scanning electron microscopic images of the films present a uniform dense distribution of well-defined grains with different sizes. All the doped films present a broad emission in the 390-500 nm region and its intensity increases up to 3 wt.% and thereafter decreases due to usual concentration quenching.

  17. Effect of Post-Deposition Annealing on RF-Sputtered Catalyst-Free Grown ZnO Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-08-01

    Catalyst-free zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-structures were synthesized on silicon (100) substrate by radio frequency sputtering. The as-deposited films were post-annealed at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C. The effects of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometry. XRD showed c-axis-oriented growth with the increase in crystallinity at the higher annealing temperature of these ZnO nanostructures. The crystallite size calculated using Scherrer's formula in the XRD data was found to increase with the annealing temperature. AFM images confirmed the growth of grains at higher annealing temperatures. Optical band gaps of these ZnO nanostructures were calculated using reflectance spectra in the ultraviolet-visible region and found to decrease from 3.19 eV to 3.09 eV as the annealing temperature increased from 200°C to 800°C. The decrease in band gap may be attributed to the decrease in oxygen vacancies at higher annealing temperatures and may be useful for different applications.

  18. Improved thermoelectric property of B-doped Si/Ge multilayered quantum dot films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Miao, Lei; Li, Chao; Huang, Rong; Urushihara, Daisuke; Asaka, Toru; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Tanemura, Sakae

    2018-01-01

    The use of nanostructured thermoelectric materials that can effectively reduce the lattice conductivity with minimal effects on electrical properties has been recognized as the most successful approach to decoupling three key parameters (S, σ, and κ) and reaching high a dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) values. Here, five-period multilayer films consisting of 10 nm B-doped Si, 1.1 nm B, and 13 nm B-doped Ge layers in each period were prepared on Si wafer substrates using a magnetron sputtering system. Nanocrystallites of 22 nm diameter were formed by post-annealing at 800 °C in a short time. The nanostructures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The maximum Seebeck coefficient of Si/Ge films is significantly increased to 850 µV/K at 200 °C with their electrical resistivity decreased to 1.3 × 10‑5 Ω·m, and the maximum power factor increased to 5.6 × 10‑2 W·m‑1·K‑2. The improved thermoelectric properties of Si/Ge nanostructured films are possibly attributable to the synergistic effects of interface scattering, interface barrier, and quantum dot localization.

  19. Impact of self-assembled monolayer assisted surface dipole modulation of PET substrate on the quality of RF-sputtered AZO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Thieu Thi Tien [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Ba Ria-Vung Tau University, Vung Tau (Viet Nam); Mahesh, K.P.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Lin, Pao-Hung [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Tai, Yian, E-mail: ytai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • We use SAMs functionalizing the PET substrates to generate different surface dipoles. • We deposited AZO film on pristine and SAMs-modified PET substrate. • The positive dipole moment of PET surface promotes the crystallinity of AZO film. • The negative dipole moment of PET surface deteriorates the crystallinity of AZO film. • The electrical properties of AZO/PET changes upon the variation of the crystallinity. - Abstract: In this study, we fabricated the electron donating/withdrawing group functionalized organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate followed by the deposition of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The effect of different SAMs on transparent PET substrates and AZO films were studied by contact angle (CA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-Emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis). The results presented that the surface dipole (i.e. electron-donating/withdrawing) of different SAMs functionalized PET substrates affected the quality of the AZO films which deposited on top of them. The crystallinity, the charge mobility, and the carrier concentration of the AZO improved when the film was deposited on the PET functionalized with electron donating group, which was possibly due to favored interaction between electron donating group and Al ions.

  20. Preparation of a heteroepitaxial LaxSryMnzO3/BiFeO3 bilayer by r.f. magnetron sputtering with various oxygen gas flow ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Naganuma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BiFeO3 (BFO and LaxSryMnzO3 (LSMO films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 (100 substrates by r.f. magnetron sputtering with various oxygen gas flow ratios (FO2. Compositional ratios of each atom in both of BFO and LSMO could be controlled kept to around 10 at.% by changing FO2. Adjusting the compositional ratio to La0.35Sr0.15Mn0.5O3 not only increase Tc of LSMO but also produces sufficient oxygen to form a perovskite lattice. For an LSMO/BFO heterostructure, detailed observation by cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that the lattice of rhombohedral (SG: R-3c LSMO was shrank by a clamping effect from the SrTiO3 substrates, and then the BFO was grown in two layers: (i an interfacial BFO layer (7 nm thick with evenly shrunk a-axis and c-axis, and (ii an upper BFO layer (25 nm thick expanded along the c-axis. Neither misfit strain nor dislocations appeared at the interface between the shrunken BFO and LSMO layers, and these heterostructures did not show exchange bias. These results suggest that BFO is suitable for a tunneling barrier combine with LSMO electrode.

  1. Effect of Ti Doping to Maintain Structural Disorder in InOx-Based Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Shinya

    2017-12-01

    The effect of Ti doping in an indium oxide (InOx)-based semiconductor is investigated for the thin-film transistor (TFT) property and crystal structure of the film. InOx and Ti-doped InOx (InTiOx) films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering under the same O2 partial pressure conditions were systematically compared. The TFT behavior of the InOx showed higher conductivity than that of the InTiOx and was drastically changed to metallic conduction after annealing at 150 °C. Under the annealing conditions when the electrical transition to the metallic behavior occurred, the InOx film was crystallized. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the shrinkage of the In2O3 unit cell is pronounced in the case of InOx films. Thus, Ti dopants may play the role as a suppressor for shrinkage of the unit cell, i.e. maintaining neighboring In-In distances, in addition to suppression of oxygen vacancies. The In-In distance, which is related to the overlapping of In 5 s orbitals, is considered to be one of the key factor for which InOx-based materials are utilized as conducting films or semiconducting channels.

  2. Structural evolution and growth mechanisms of RF-magnetron sputter-deposited hydroxyapatite thin films on the basis of unified principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna A.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Surmenev, Roman A.; Depla, Diederik

    2017-12-01

    The structural features of RF-magnetron sputter-deposited hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are investigated in order to reveal the effect of the working gas composition and the sample position of the substrate relative to the target erosion zone. The film properties were observed to change as a result of bombardment with energetic ions. XRD analysis of the coated substrates indicates that with the increase of the ion-to-atom ratio, the fiber texture changes from a mixed (11 2 bar 2) + (0002) over (0002) orientation, finally reaching a (30 3 bar 0) out-of-plane orientation at high ion-to-atom ratios. TEM reveals that the microstructure of the HA coating consists of columnar grains and differs with the coating texture. The contribution of Ji/Ja to the development of microstructure and texture of the HA coating is schematically represented and discussed. The obtained results may contribute substantially to the progress of research into the development of HA coatings with tailored properties, and these coatings may be applied on the surfaces of metal implants used in bone surgery.

  3. Fabrication, ultra-structure characterization and in vitro studies of RF magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmeneva, Maria A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Surmenev, Roman A., E-mail: rsurmenev@gmail.com [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Nikonova, Yulia A.; Selezneva, Irina I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142292 (Russian Federation); Ivanova, Anna A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Putlyaev, Valery I. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Vorobievi Gory, 1, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface was observed. • Interplanar spacing distances measured using HRTEM were 0.82 and 0.28 nm, corresponding to the (0 0 1) and (2 1 1) lattice planes of hexagonal HA. • Grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. • Nanometer-thick low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules. - Abstract: A series of nanostructured low-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings averaging 170, 250, and 440 nm in thickness were deposited onto previously etched titanium substrates through radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The HA coatings were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Cross sections of the thin specimens were prepared by FIB to study the microstructure of the coatings by TEM. The deposition process formed nano-scale grains, generating an amorphous layer at the substrate/coating interface and inducing the growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface. A microstructural analysis of the film confirmed that the grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. The nanostructured HA coatings were not cytotoxic, as proven by in vitro assays using primary dental pulp stem cells and mouse fibroblast NCTC clone L929 cells. Low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules on the surface better than uncoated titanium substrates.

  4. Fabrication, ultra-structure characterization and in vitro studies of RF magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeneva, Maria A.; Surmenev, Roman A.; Nikonova, Yulia A.; Selezneva, Irina I.; Ivanova, Anna A.; Putlyaev, Valery I.; Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    A series of nanostructured low-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings averaging 170, 250, and 440 nm in thickness were deposited onto previously etched titanium substrates through radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The HA coatings were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Cross sections of the thin specimens were prepared by FIB to study the microstructure of the coatings by TEM. The deposition process formed nano-scale grains, generating an amorphous layer at the substrate/coating interface and inducing the growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface. A microstructural analysis of the film confirmed that the grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. The nanostructured HA coatings were not cytotoxic, as proven by in vitro assays using primary dental pulp stem cells and mouse fibroblast NCTC clone L929 cells. Low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules on the surface better than uncoated titanium substrates.

  5. Physical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Codoped with Titanium and Hydrogen Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering with Different Substrate Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting titanium-doped zinc oxide (TZO thin films were prepared on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering using 1.5 wt% TiO2-doped ZnO as the target. Electrical, structural, and optical properties of films were investigated as a function of H2/(Ar + H2 flow ratios (RH and substrate temperatures (TS. The optimal RH value for achieving high conducting TZO:H thin film decreased from 10% to 1% when TS increased from RT to 300°C. The lowest resistivity of 9.2×10-4 Ω-cm was obtained as TS=100°C and RH=7.5%. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all of TZO:H films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation in the (002 direction. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed that the film surface roughness increased with increasing RH. The average visible transmittance decreased with increasing RH for the RT-deposited film, while it had not considerably changed with different RH for the 300°C-deposited films. The optical bandgap increased as RH increased, which is consistent with the Burstein-Moss effect. The figure of merits indicated that TS=100°C and RH=7.5% were optimal conditions for TZO thin films as transparent conducting electrode applications.

  6. Annealing dependence on flexible p-CuGaO2/n-ZnO heterojunction diode deposited by RF sputtering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, p-CuGaO2/n-ZnO heterojunction diodes were deposited by RF powered sputtering method on polyethylene terephthalate (PETP, PET substrates. Structural, morphology, optical and electrical properties of CuGaO2/ZnO heterojunction was investigated as a function of annealing duration. The structural properties show the ZnO films (002 peak were stronger at the range of 34° while CuGaO2 (015 peak is not visible at 44°. The surface morphology revealed that RMS roughness become smoother as the annealing duration increase to 30 minutes and become rougher as the annealing duration is increased to 60 minutes. The optical properties of CuGaO2/ZnO heterojunction diode at 30 minutes exhibit approximately 75% optical transmittance in the invisible region. The diodes exhibited a rectifying characteristic and the maximum forward current was observed for the diode annealed for 30 minutes. The diodes show an ideality factor range from 43.69 to 71.29 and turn on voltage between 0.75 V and 1.05 V.

  7. Microstructure and electrical characteristics of Cr-Si-Ni films deposited on glass and Si (1 0 0) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuqin [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for High Temperature Materials and Tests, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: zyqkust@sjtu.edu.cn; Dong Xianping [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for High Temperature Materials and Tests, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wu Jiansheng [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for High Temperature Materials and Tests, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2004-10-25

    Cr-Si-Ni resistive films were prepared on glass and n-type Si (1 0 0) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering from a casting alloy target of Cr{sub 17}Si{sub 80}Ni{sub 3}, respectively. The microstructure evolution of the films was comparative investigated by X-ray diffraction as a function of annealing temperature. The results showed that two types of the films had the similar crystallization behavior. When annealing temperature was higher than 300 deg. C, both were crystallized into CrSi{sub 2} phase. However, the grain size of the films on Si substrates was larger than the films on glass substrates at the same annealing temperature. There was an atomic interdiffusion at the interface between films and Si substrates. In addition, the electrical resistivity of two types of films was studied as a function of annealing temperature. It indicated that the electrical resistivity values of the films on glass substrates were higher than the films on Si substrates at the same annealing temperature. The annealing behavior of the electrical resistivity was correlated with microstructure and interfacial diffusion of the films, as well as the surface roughness of the substrates.

  8. On the Novel Biaxial Strain Relaxation Mechanism in Epitaxial Composition Graded La1−xSrxMnO3 Thin Film Synthesized by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishu Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel method to fabricate composition gradient, epitaxial La1−xSrxMnO3 thin films with the objective to alleviate biaxial film strain. In this work, epitaxial, composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3, and pure LaMnO3 and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films were deposited by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The crystalline and epitaxy of all films were first studied by symmetric θ–2θ X-ray diffraction (XRD and low angle XRD experiments. Detailed microstructural characterization across the film thickness was conducted by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Four compositional gradient domains were observed in the La1−xSrxMnO3 film ranging from LaMnO3 rich to La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 at the surface. A continuous reduction in the lattice parameter was observed accompanied by a significant reduction in the out-of-plane strain in the film. Fabrication of the composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3 thin film was found to be a powerful method to relieve biaxial strain under critical thickness. Besides, the coexistence of domains with a composition variance is opening up various new possibilities of designing new nanoscale structures with unusual cross coupled properties.

  9. Morphology of TiAlN Thin Film onto HSS as Cutting Tools by Using Mosaic-Styled Target RF Sputtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Tri Wicaksono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High Speed Steel (HSS has been widely used in manufacturing industry as cutting tools. Several methods have been used to improve the cutting performance of HSS in dry cutting. One of them was by growing a thin layer of hard coating on the contact surface of the cutting tool material. In this research, Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN layer were deposited on AISI M41 HSS substrate by using Radio Frequency (RF sputtering method with mosaic styled of target materials. The aluminum surface area ratios on the Titanium target are 10, 20, 30, and 40 % respectively. The deposition time are 15, 30, and 45 minutes respectively. The formation of TiAlN and AlN crystalline compounds were observed by X-Ray Diffraction method. The morphology of thin film layer with a thickness range from 1.4 to 5.2 µm was observed by using a Scanning Electron Microscopy. It was known that the deposition time affect to the thickness and also the roughness of the layer. The topography images by Atomic Force Microscopy showed that the deposition time of 45 minutes produce the finest layer with the surface roughness of 10.8 nm.

  10. Effects of substrate heating on the photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells during two-step Ti film deposition by RF magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Woo; Park, Seon-Hee; Kwak, Dong-Joo; Sung, Youl-Moon

    2012-04-01

    Nanoporous Ti metal film electrodes for use as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were deposited directly on the nanoporous TiO2 layer using the two-step RF magnetron sputtering technique. The Ti film electrode replaces the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. The effect of substrate heating during the deposition of the Ti film was studied to improve the porosity and columnar array of the film pores and the resulting cell efficiency. The porous Ti layer (-41 microm) with low sheet resistance (-1.7 omega/sq) was obtained by deposition at 250 degrees C. The porous Ti layer collects electrons from the TiO2 layer and allows the diffusion of I-/I3(-) through the holes. The DSSC efficiency (eta) using porous Ti layers with highly columnar structures was measured with the highest conversion efficiency of -5.77%; the other photovoltaic properties were ff: 0.76, V(oc): 0.72 V, and J(sc): 10.6 mA/cm2.

  11. Fabrication of calcium phosphate films for coating on titanium substrates heated up to 773 K by RF magnetron sputtering and their evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Kyosuke [Department of Materials Processing, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Narushima, Takayuki [Tohoku University Biomedical Engineering Research Organization, 6-6-02 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Goto, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Taira, Masayuki [Department of Dental Materials and Technology, Iwate Medical University School of Dentistry, 1-3-27 Chuo-dori, Morioka, Iwate 020-8505 (Japan); Katsube, Tomoyuki [Tohoku University Biomedical Engineering Research Organization, 6-6-02 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Calcium phosphate films were fabricated on titanium substrates heated up to 773 K using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The deposition rate, phase and preferred orientation of the calcium phosphate films were studied. Immersion tests for the films were conducted using Hanks' solution and PBS(-), and the surface reactions on the specimens coated with the calcium phosphate films were investigated. The bonding strength between the coating films and the titanium substrates before and after the immersion tests was evaluated; the bonding strength decreased after the immersion tests. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of SaOS-2 cells on a titanium plate coated with a calcium phosphate film was examined by conducting a culture test. Calcium phosphate coating increased the ALP activity of SaOS-2 cells cultured for 3 and 7 days. Titanium cylinders were coated with an amorphous calcium phosphate film and implanted into the mandibles of beagle dogs. An increase in the extent of bone-implant contact for the coated titanium cylinders was confirmed 8 to 12 weeks after implantation and compared with the case for uncoated titanium cylinders.

  12. Annealing dependence on flexible p-CuGaO2/n-ZnO heterojunction diode deposited by RF sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Lam, Mui; Hafiz Abu Bakar, Muhammad; Lam, Wai Yip; Alias, Afishah; Rahman, Abu Bakar Abd; Anuar Mohamad, Khairul; Uesugi, Katsuhiro

    2017-11-01

    In this work, p-CuGaO2/n-ZnO heterojunction diodes were deposited by RF powered sputtering method on polyethylene terephthalate (PETP, PET) substrates. Structural, morphology, optical and electrical properties of CuGaO2/ZnO heterojunction was investigated as a function of annealing duration. The structural properties show the ZnO films (002) peak were stronger at the range of 34° while CuGaO2 (015) peak is not visible at 44°. The surface morphology revealed that RMS roughness become smoother as the annealing duration increase to 30 minutes and become rougher as the annealing duration is increased to 60 minutes. The optical properties of CuGaO2/ZnO heterojunction diode at 30 minutes exhibit approximately 75% optical transmittance in the invisible region. The diodes exhibited a rectifying characteristic and the maximum forward current was observed for the diode annealed for 30 minutes. The diodes show an ideality factor range from 43.69 to 71.29 and turn on voltage between 0.75 V and 1.05 V.

  13. Effect of target self-bias voltage on the mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, S.; Laugier, M.T.; Rahman, I.Z

    2004-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering under different target self-bias voltages from -290 to -1090 V. Mechanical properties of these films in terms of hardness, Young's modulus, elastic recovery, and plastic resistance parameter (H/E) under different target self-bias voltages were analysed by the nanoindentation technique. Hardness and Young's modulus were found to increase in the range of 11-22 and 110-152 GPa, respectively, with increase of target self-bias voltage. The Korsunsky composite hardness model was used in order to determine the true hardness of DLC films from measurement on the film/substrate system. Residual stress in the films, measured using the bending beam method, was found to be compressive and increased with the increase of target self-bias voltage. The variation of intensity ratio, I{sub d}/I{sub g} and the position of G-band of the DLC films with respect to target self-bias voltage were also investigated by Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Development of ZnO:Al-based transparent contacts deposited at low-temperature by RF-sputtering on InN layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B.; Valdueza-Felip, S. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Abril, O. de [ISOM and Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politenica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Nitride semiconductors (Al,Ga,In)N attain material properties that make them suitable for photovoltaic and optoelectronics devices to be used in hard environments. These properties include an energy gap continuously tuneable within the energy range of the solar spectrum, a high radiation resistance and thermal stability. The developing of efficient devices requires contacts with low resistivity and high transmittance in visible region. ZnO:Al (AZO) emerges as a feasible candidate for transparent contact to nitride semiconductors, taking advantage of its low resistivity, high transparency in visible wavelengths and a very low lattice mismatch with respect to nitride semiconductors. This work presents a study of the applications of AZO films deposited at low-temperature by RF magnetron sputtering as transparent contact for InN layers. The optimization of AZO conditions deposition lead to the obtaining of contacts which shows an ohmic behaviour for the as-deposited layer, regardless the thickness of the ZnO:Al contact layer. Specific contact resistances of 1.6 {omega}.cm{sup 2} were achieved for the contact with 90 nm thick ZnO:Al layer without any post-deposition treatment (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. SHI induced effects on the electrical and optical properties of HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikanthababu, N.; Dhanunjaya, M.; Nageswara Rao, S.V.S.; Pathak, A.P., E-mail: appsp@uohyd.ernet.in

    2016-07-15

    The continuous downscaling of Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) devices has reached a limit with SiO{sub 2} as a gate dielectric material. Introducing high-k dielectric materials as a replacement for the conservative SiO{sub 2} is the only alternative to reduce the leakage current. HfO{sub 2} is a reliable and an impending material for the wide usage as a gate dielectric in semiconductor industry. HfO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized by RF sputtering technique. Here, we present a study of Swift Heavy Ion (SHI) irradiation with100 MeV Ag ions for studying the optical properties as well as 80 MeV Ni ions for studying the electrical properties of HfO{sub 2}/Si thin films. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), profilometer and I–V (leakage current) measurements have been employed to study the SHI induced effects on both the structural, electrical and optical properties.

  16. Transparent Conductive In and Ga Doped ZnO/Cu Bi-Layered Films Deposited by DC and RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Song, Young-Hwan; Oh, Jung-Hyun; Heo, Sung-Bo; Kim, Daeil [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In- and Ga-doped ZnO (IGZO) films were deposited on 5 nm thick Cu film buffered poly-carbonate substrates with RF magnetron sputtering and the effects of the Cu buffer layer on the optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The IGZO single layer films exhibited an electrical resistivity of 1.2×10{sup -}1 Ω cm while the IGZO/Cu bi-layered films exhibited a lower resistivity of 1.6×10{sup -}3 Ω cm. With respect to optical properties, the optical band gap of the IGZO films appeared to decrease as a result of an increasing carrier concentration due to the Cu buffer layer. In addition, the RMS roughness (8.2 nm) of the IGZO films also decreased to 6.8 nm by a Cu buffer layer in AFM observation. Although the optical transmittance in the range of visible wavelengths was deteriorated by the Cu buffer layer, the IGZO films with a 5 nm thick Cu buffer layer exhibited a higher figure of merit of 2.6×10{sup -}4 Ω{sup -}1 compared with the IGZO single layer films due to enhanced optoelectrical performance.

  17. Effects of hydrogen flow on properties of hydrogen doped ZnO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuehui; Chen, Yichuan; Chen, Jun; Chen, Xinhua; Ma, Defu

    2014-03-01

    The hydrogen doped ZnO (ZnO:H) thin films were deposited on quartz glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The doping characteristics of ZnO:H thin films with varied hydrogen flow ratio were investigated. At low hydrogen flow ratio (H2/(H2+Ar)≤0.02), the ZnO:H thin films exhibited dominant (002) peaks from X-ray diffraction and the lattice constants became smaller. The particles were mainly a columnar structure. The particles' size became smaller, and the island-like structure appeared on the thin films surface. In addition, the low resistivity properties of ZnO:H thin films was ascribed to the increase of the carriers concentration and carriers mobility; When the hydrogen flow ratio was more than 0.02 ( M≥0.02), two absorption bands at 1400-1800 cm-1 and 3200-3900 cm-1 were observed from the FT-IR spectra, which indicated that the ZnO:H thin films had typical Zn-H bonding, O-H bonding (hydroxyl), and Zn-H-O bonding (like-hydroxyl). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show that a large number of hydroxyl agglomeration formed an island-like structure on the thin films surface. The absorption peak at about 575 cm-1 in the Raman spectra indicated that oxygen vacancies (VO) defects were produced in the process of high hydrogen doping. In this condition, the low resistivity properties of ZnO:H thin films were mainly due to the increasing electron concentration resulted from VO. Meanwhile, the Raman absorption peaks at approximately 98 cm-1 and 436 cm-1 became weaker, and the (002) XRD diffraction peak quenched and the lattice constants increased, which shows that the ZnO:H thin films no longer presented a typical ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure. With the increasing of hydrogen flow ratio, the optical transmittance of ZnO:H thin films in the ultraviolet band show a clear Burstein-Moss shift effect, which further explained that electron concentration was increased due to the increasing VO with high hydrogen doping concentration. Moreover

  18. Effect of substrate temperature on transparent conducting Al and F co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing, E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Chang, Chiao-Lu

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Al and F co-doped ZnO (AFZO) thin films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering. • Effects of substrate temperature on properties of AFZO films were investigated. • The AFZO films show a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure and are (0 0 2) oriented. • The AFZO thin film prepared at 200 °C exhibits a low resistivity of 2.88 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm. • The average visible transmittances of all the AFZO thin films exceed 92%. - Abstract: ZnO is a wide bandgap semiconductor that has many potential applications such as solar cells, thin film transistors, light emitting diodes, and gas/biological sensors. In this study, a composite ceramic ZnO target containing 1 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 1.5 wt% ZnF{sub 2} was prepared and used to deposit transparent conducting Al and F co-doped zinc oxide (AFZO) thin films on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 200 °C on structural, morphological, electrical, chemical, and optical properties of the deposited thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Hall effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and UV–vis spectrophotometer. The XRD results showed that all the AFZO thin films had a (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating a typical wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The FE-SEM and AFM analyses indicated that the crystallinity and grain size of the films were enhanced while the surface roughness decreased as the substrate temperature increased. Results of Hall effect measurement showed that Al and F co-doping decreased the resistivity more effectively than single-doping (either Al or F doping) in ZnO thin films. The resistivity of the AFZO thin films decreased from 5.48 × 10{sup −4} to 2.88 × 10{sup −4}

  19. Effect of annealing temperature on surface morphology and ultralow ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of yttrium iron garnet thin film grown by rf sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao Van, Phuoc; Surabhi, Srivathsava; Dongquoc, Viet; Kuchi, Rambabu; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Jeong, Jong-Ryul

    2018-03-01

    We report high-quality yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG; Y3Fe5O12) ultrathin films grown on {111} gadolinium-gallium-garnet (GGG; Gd3Ga5O12) substrates using RF sputtering deposition on an off-stoichiometric target and optimized thermal treatments. We measured a narrow peak-to-peak ferromagnetic resonance linewidth (ΔH) whose minimum value was 1.9 Oe at 9.43 GHz for a 60-nm-thick YIG film. This value is comparable to the most recently published value for a YIG thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition. The temperature dependence of the ΔH was investigated systematically, the optimal annealing condition for our growing condition was 875 °C. Structural analysis revealed that surface roughness and crystallinity played an important role in the observed ΔH broadening. Furthermore, the thickness dependence of the ΔH, which indicated that 60 nm thickness was optimal to obtain narrow ΔH YIG films, was also investigated. The thickness dependence of ΔH was understood on the basis of contributions of surface-associated magnon scattering and magnetic inhomogeneities to the ΔH broadening. Other techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used to study the crystalline structure of the YIG films. The high quality of the films in terms of their magnetic properties was expressed through a very low coercivity and high saturation magnetization measured using a vibration sample magnetometer.

  20. Mechanical, tribological, and electrochemical behavior of Cr 1- xAl xN coatings deposited by r.f. reactive magnetron co-sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchéz, J. E.; Sanchéz, O. M.; Ipaz, L.; Aperador, W.; Caicedo, J. C.; Amaya, C.; Landaverde, M. A. Hernández; Beltran, F. Espinoza; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.; Zambrano, G.

    2010-02-01

    Chromium aluminum nitride (Cr 1- xAl xN) coatings were deposited onto AISI H13 steel and silicon substrates by r.f. reactive magnetron co-sputtering in (Ar/N 2) gas mixture from chromium and aluminum targets. Properties of deposited Cr 1- xAl xN coatings such as compositional, structural, morphological, electrochemical, mechanical and tribological, were investigated as functions of aluminum content. X-ray diffraction patterns of Cr 1- xAl xN coatings with different atomic concentrations of aluminum (0.51 < x < 0.69) showed the presence and evolution of (1 1 1), (2 0 0), and (1 0 2) crystallographic orientations associated to the Cr 1- xAl xN cubic and w-AlN phases, respectively. The rate of corrosion of the steel coated with Cr 1- xAl xN varied with the applied power; however, always being clearly lower when compared to the uncoated substrate. The behavior of the protective effect of the Cr 1- xAl xN coatings is based on the substitution of Cr for Al, when the power applied to the aluminum target increases. The mechanical properties were also sensitive to the power applied, leading to a maximum in hardness and a reduced elastic modulus of 30 and 303 GPa at 350 W and a monotonic decrease to 11 and 212 GPa at 450 W, respectively. Finally, the friction coefficient measured by pin-on disk revealed values between 0.45 and 0.70 in humid atmosphere.

  1. Dielectric and Optical Characterization of RF Sputtered Ba5Nb4O15-BaWO4 Composite Films for Electronic and Smart Window Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, C.; Pamu, D.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the deposition of Ba5Nb4O15-BaWO4 (BNO-BWO) composite thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under different oxygen mixing percentages (OMP). Significantly, the x-ray diffractometer revealed the coexistence of both BNO hexagonal perovskite structure with BWO scheelite structure. The microstructures of the composite films reveal two types of grains: BNO exhibited small rod-shaped grains, whereas the BWO showed large hexagonal grains, and the chemical compositions of these grains are confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The optical transmittance of the as-deposited films show the transmittance above 90% and after annealing they exhibit pale yellow color, and this response may be due to the electrochromic response of these films. The refractive index of the films decreases for the films deposited above 25% OMP, whereas the optical bandgap increases with an increase in OMP. The dielectric response of Ag/BNO-BWO Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si thin film capacitors showed that the obtained dielectric properties are independent of measured frequency and temperature. The split-post dielectric resonator method was used to measure dielectric properties at discrete microwave frequencies (5, 10, and 15 GHz) and are in the range of ɛ r = 22.47-49.81 and tan δ = 0.0038-0.0010, for annealed films. The activation energies of the composite films obtained from the Arrhenius relation are in the range of 0.021-0.008 eV. BNO-BWO nanocomposite films find applications in integrated electronic devices, smart windows, and information display applications.

  2. SnO{sub 2}:F thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering: effect of the SnF{sub 2} amount in the target on the physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Moure F, F. [universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Facultad de Quimica Materiales, Queretaro 76010, Queretaro (Mexico); Guillen C, A.; Nieto Z, K. E.; Quinones G, J. G.; Hernandez H, A.; Melendez L, M.; Olvera, M. de la L., E-mail: fcomoure@hotmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-08-01

    SnO{sub 2}:F thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering onto glass substrates using SnF{sub 2} as fluorine source. The films were deposited under a mixed argon/hydrogen atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 500 C. The X-ray diffraction shows that polycrystalline films were grown with a phases mixture of SnO{sub 2} and Sn O. The optical transmittance is between 80 and 90%. The physical properties of the films suggest that SnO{sub 2} thin films grown with small SnF{sub 2} content in the target can be considered as candidates for transparent electrodes. (Author)

  3. Characterization of ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering on gallium nitride epilayer on sapphire substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quah, Hock Jin; Cheong, Kuan Yew, E-mail: ckuanyew@yahoo.com

    2014-12-15

    A systematic study was performed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films RF-magnetron sputtered on GaN substrate and subjected to different post-deposition annealing (PDA) temperatures (200–800 °C) in oxygen ambient. The as-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films subjected to PDA at 200 and 400 °C were present in amorphous phase and therefore undetectable by X-ray diffraction. By further enhancing the PDA temperature (≥600 °C), a transformation from amorphous to polycrystalline phase of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} happened. The increment of PDA temperature has contributed to an enhancement in leakage current density-electric field (J–E) characteristics of the investigated samples. A correlation between the acquired J–E characteristics with effective oxide charge, slow trap density, interface trap density, and total interface trap density were discussed. A detailed investigation on the conduction of charges through the as-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gates subjected to different PDA temperatures via space-charge-limited conduction, Schottky emission, Poole–Frenkel emission, and Fowler–Nordheim tunneling were presented. - Highlights: • Post-deposition annealing (PDA) in oxygen ambient of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on GaN. • Formation of crystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films subjected to PDA at/beyond 600 °C. • J–E characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN system are dependent on MOS characteristics. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN system was subjected to high temperature measurements. • Current conduction mechanisms governing the leakage current of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN system.

  4. Hybrid biocomposites based on titania nanotubes and a hydroxyapatite coating deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering: Surface topography, structure, and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernozem, Roman V.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Krause, Bärbel; Baumbach, Tilo; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tyurin, Alexander I.; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias; Surmenev, Roman A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, biocomposites based on porous titanium oxide structures and a calcium phosphate (CaP) or hydroxyapatite (HA) coating are described and prepared. Nanotubes (NTs) with different pore dimensions were processed using anodic oxidation of Ti substrates in a NH4F-containing electrolyte solution at anodization voltages of 30 and 60 V with a DC power supply. The external diameters of the nanotubes prepared at 30 V and 60 V were 53 ± 10 and 98 ± 16 nm, respectively. RF-magnetron sputtering of the HA target in a single deposition run was performed to prepare a coating on the surface of TiO2 NTs prepared at 30 and 60 V. The thickness of the CaP coating deposited on the mirror-polished Si substrate in the same deposition run with TiO2 NTs was determined by optical ellipsometry (SE) 95 ± 5 nm. Uncoated and CaP-coated NTs were annealed at 500 °C in air. Afterwards, the presence of TiO2 (anatase) was observed. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nanoindentation results revealed the influence that the NT dimensions had on the CaP coating deposition process. The tubular surfaces of the NTs were completely coated with the HA coating when prepared at 30 V, and no homogeneous CaP coating was observed when prepared at 60 V. The XRD patterns show peaks assigned to crystalline HA only for the coated TiO2 NTs prepared at 30 V. High-resolution XPS spectra show binding energies (BE) of Ca 2p, P 2p and O 1s core-levels corresponding to HA and amorphous calcium phosphate on TiO2 NTs prepared at 30 V and 60 V, respectively. Fabrication of TiO2 NTs results in a significant decrease to the elastic modulus and nanohardness compared to the Ti substrate. The porous structure of the NTs causes an increase in the elastic strain to failure of the coating (H/E) and the parameter used to describe the resistance of the material to plastic deformation (H3/E2) at the nanoscale level compared to the Ti substrate. Furthermore

  5. Effect of deposition parameters and heat-treatment on the microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of hydroxyapatite/titanium coating deposited on Ti6Al4V by RF-magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianwei; Chen, Zhangbo; Han, Wenjun; He, Danfeng; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Qingliang

    2017-09-01

    Functionally graded HA/Ti coatings were deposited on silicon and Ti6Al4V substrate by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The effect of RF-power, negative bias and heat-treatment on the microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, AFM Nanoindentation and electrochemical workstation. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited HA/Ti coatings were characteristic of amorphous structure, which transformed into a crystal structure after heat-treatment, and reformed O-H peak. The content of crystallization was increasing with the increase of negative bias. A dense, homogenous, smooth and featured surface, and columnar cross-section structure was observed in SEM observation. AFM results showed that the surface roughness became higher after heat-treatment, and increased with increasing RF-power. The mechanical test indicated that the coating had a higher nanohardness (9.1 GPa) in the case of  -100 V and 250 W than that of Ti6Al4V substrate, and a critical load as high as 17  ±  3.5 N. The electrochemical test confirmed the HA/Ti coating served as a stable protecting barrier in improving the corrosion resistance, which the corrosion current density was 1.3% of Ti6Al4V, but it was significantly influenced by RF-power and negative bias. The contact angle test demonstrated that all the coatings exhibited favorable hydrophilic properties, and it decreased by 20-25% compared to that untreated samples. Thus all results indicated that magnetron sputtering is a promising way for fabricating a better biocompatible ceramic coating by adjusting deposition parameters and post-deposition heat treatments.

  6. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  7. AES depth profiles in Mo-coated 304L stainless steel achieved by RF-magnetron sputtering and influence of Mo on the corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, N. [Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées CDTA, Cité du 20 août 1956, Baba Hassan, BP n 17, Alger (Algeria); Siad, M. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Biberian, J.P. [CINaM, UMR 7525 CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Mo coating of 304L stainless steel is achieved via RF-magnetron sputtering. • The AES depth profiles before and after annealing in air (at 973 K) are analyzed. • The corrosions in NaCl solution of bare and Mo-coated samples are compared. • Mo-coated steels exhibit better corrosion behaviors. • The positive action of Mo oxide via its semi-conducting properties is deduced. - Abstract: Molybdenum-coated 304L stainless steel samples, fabricated by RF-magnetron sputtering, are characterized by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) before and after annealing in air at 973 K. The electrochemical parameters of bare and coated materials, in NaCl 3.5% water solution at 298 K, are derived from the potentiodynamic polarization curves. The corrosion current of Mo-coated samples (before and after annealing) is significantly lower than that of its bare counterpart. The information gained from the AES depth profiles leads us to infer that the positive action of molybdenum on the corrosion behavior may be attributed to the changes induced by the semi-conducting properties of Mo oxide in the passive film.

  8. Effect of Radio Frequency Power on the Physicochemical Properties of MoS{sub 2} Films Obtained by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Juyun; Kang, Yong-Cheol [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents the results of the fabrication and characterization of MoS{sub 2} thin films obtained at different radio frequency (RF) power using a surface profiler, a 4-point probe, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and distilled water and ethylene glycol contact angle measurements. The thickness of MoS{sub 2} thin films increased from 100 to 240 nm as the RF power increased from 100 to 200 W. The surface resistance increased with increasing RF power. The high-resolution XPS spectra indicated that Mo species with lower oxidation states formed in the MoS{sub 2} thin films at higher RF power. The ratio of Mo/S was independent of the RF power. The total surface-free energy (SFE) varied by changing the RF power. The contribution of polar SFE was greater than dispersive SFE to the total SFE for all MoS{sub 2} films. The changing propensity of polar SFE was similar to the total SFE.

  9. Electrical properties of resistive switches based on Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films prepared by RF co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez H, A.; Hernandez R, E.; Zapata T, M. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calzada Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Guillen R, J. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Tampico, Puerto Industrial, Altamira 89600, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Cruz, M. P. [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Calzadilla A, O. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, San Lazaro y L. Municipio Plaza de la Revolucion, La Habana, Cuba (Cuba); Melendez L, M., E-mail: amarquez@ipn.m [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, A. P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, was proposed the use of Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3}(0{<=}x{<=}1) thin films for the construction of metal-insulator-metal heterostructures; and their great potential for the development of non-volatile resistance memories (ReRAM) is shown. The deposition of Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films was done by the RF co-sputtering technique using two magnetron sputtering cathodes with BaTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} targets. The chemical composition (x parameter) in the deposited Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films was varied through the RF powder applied to the targets. The constructed metal-insulator-metal heterostructures were Al/Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3}/nichrome. The I-V measurements of the heterostructures showed that their hysteretic characteristics change depending on the Ba/Sr ratio of the Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films; the Ba/Sr ratio was determined by employing the energy dispersive spectroscopy; Sem micrographs showed that Ba{sub 1-{chi}S}r{sub {chi}T}iO{sub 3} thin films were uniform without cracks or pinholes. Additionally, the analysis of the X-ray diffraction results indicated the substitutional incorporation of Sr into the BaTiO{sub 3} lattice and the obtainment of crystalline films for the entire range of the x values. (Author)

  10. Influence of the electrical power applied to the target on the optical and structural properties of ZrON films produced via RF magnetron sputtering in a reactive atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinzón, M.J. [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Alfonso, J.E., E-mail: jealfonsoo@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Olaya, J.J. [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Cubillos, G.I.; Romero, E. [Grupo de Materiales y Procesos Químicos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-12-01

    The influence of the variation of electrical power applied to the target on the morphology and optical properties of zirconium oxynitride - zirconium oxide (ZrON) films deposited via RF magnetron sputtering on common glass substrates in a reactive atmosphere of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, with a flow ratio ΦN{sub 2}/ΦO{sub 2} of 1.25 was investigated. The crystallographic structure of the films was established through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the morphology was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the optical behavior was evaluated through transmittance measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the films grew with mixed crystalline structures: monoclinic (ZrO{sub 2}) and body-centered cubic (Zr{sub 2}ON{sub 2}). SEM analysis showed that the films grew with a homogeneous morphology, and AFM results established that as the electrical power applied to the target increased, there were changes in the grain size and the roughness of the films. The thickness, refractive index, and absorption coefficient of the films were calculated using the values of the transmittance through the Swanepoel method. Additionally, the energy band gap was determined via analysis of the free interference region. - Highlights: • We growth zirconium oxynitride films by RF magnetron sputtering in reactive atmosphere. • We determine the influence of the electrical power applied at the target in optical and structural properties. • We determine the crystallite size, grain size and roughness of the zirconium oxynitride films. • We determine the optical parameters such refractive index of the zirconium oxynitride films through Swanepoel method. • We calculated the absorption coefficient and optical band gap of the zirconium oxynitride films.

  11. PSG gene expression is up-regulated by lysine acetylation involving histone and nonhistone proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad A Camolotto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification that plays a central role in eukaryotic transcriptional activation by modifying chromatin and transcription-related factors. Human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG are the major secreted placental proteins expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast at the end of pregnancy and represent early markers of cytotrophoblast differentiation. Low PSG levels are associated with complicated pregnancies, thus highlighting the importance of studying the mechanisms that control their expression. Despite several transcription factors having been implicated as key regulators of PSG gene family expression; the role of protein acetylation has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we explored the role of acetylation on PSG gene expression in the human placental-derived JEG-3 cell line. Pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs up-regulated PSG protein and mRNA expression levels, and augmented the amount of acetylated histone H3 associated with PSG 5'regulatory regions. Moreover, PSG5 promoter activation mediated by Sp1 and KLF6, via the core promoter element motif (CPE, -147/-140, was markedly enhanced in the presence of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA. This effect correlated with an increase in Sp1 acetylation and KLF6 nuclear localization as revealed by immunoprecipitation and subcellular fractionation assays. The co-activators PCAF, p300, and CBP enhanced Sp1-dependent PSG5 promoter activation through their histone acetylase (HAT function. Instead, p300 and CBP acetyltransferase domain was dispensable for sustaining co-activation of PSG5 promoter by KLF6. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results are consistent with a regulatory role of lysine acetylation on PSG expression through a relaxed chromatin state and an increase in the transcriptional activity of Sp1 and KLF6 following an augmented Sp1 acetylation and KLF6 nuclear localization.

  12. Effect of annealing temperature on the optical loss and the optical constants of RF-magnetron sputtered carbon - nickel composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalouji, V. [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Elahi, S. M. [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the optical properties of carbon - nickel films annealed at different temperatures (300 - 1000 deg C) were investigated. The films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature with a deposition time of 600 second. The optical transmittance spectra in the wavelength range 300 - 1000 nm were used to compute the refractive index by using the Swanepoel's method. The films annealed at 500 deg C showed considerable optical loss due to optical absorption by nickel atoms and to scattering caused by surface roughness. However, the film annealed at 800 deg C had a very small optical loss in spite of the high surface roughness. The dispersion curves of the refractive indices of the films had anomalous dispersion in the absorption region and normal dispersion in the transparent region. The dissipation rate of the electromagnetic wave at 500 deg C was shown to have maximum value.

  13. Mechanical properties, chemical analysis and evaluation of antimicrobial response of Si-DLC coatings fabricated on AISI 316 LVM substrate by a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method for potential biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Sobczyk-Guzenda, Anna; Szymanski, Witold; Jedrzejczak, Anna; Jastrzebska, Aleksandra; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    In this study silicon doped diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) coatings were synthesized on two substrates: silicon and AISI 316LVM stainless steel using a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method. The Si content in the films ranged between 4 and 16 at.%, and was controlled by the electrical power applied in RF regime to Si cathode target. The character of the chemical bonds was revealed by FTIR analysis. With the addition of silicon the hydroxyl absorption (band in the range of 3200-3600 cm-1) increased what suggests more hydrophilic character of the coating. There were also observed significant changes in bonding of Si atoms. For low content of dopant, Si-O-Si bond system is predominant, while for the highest content of silicon there is an evidence of the shift to Si-C bonds in close proximity to methyl groups. The Raman spectroscopy revealed that the G peak position is shifted to a lower wavenumber and the ID/IG ratio decreased with increasing Si content, which indicates an increase in the C-sp3 content. Regardless of the coatings' composition, the improvement of hardness in comparison to pure substrate material (AISI 316 LVM) was observed. Although the reduction of the level of hardness from the level of 10.8 GPa for pure DLC to about 9.4 GPa for the silicon doped coatings was observed, the concomitant improvement of films adhesion with higher amount of Si was revealed. Although incorporation of the dopant to DLC coatings increases the number of E. coli cells which adhered to the examined surfaces, the microbial colonisation remains on the level of substrate material. The presented results prove the potential of Si-DLC coatings in biomedical applications from the point of view of their mechanical properties.

  14. Effect of Nb doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of RF magnetron sputtered In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshmi Krishnan, R.; Chalana, S.R.; Suresh, S.; Sudheer, S.K.; Mahadevan Pillai, V.P. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala (India); Sudarsanakumar, C. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala (India); Santhosh Kumar, M.C. [Optoelectronic Materials and Devices Lab, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli (India)

    2017-01-15

    Undoped and niobium (Nb) doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films are prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of Nb on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}films are analyzed using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. XRD analysis reveals that the as-deposited undoped and Nb doped films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic bixbyite structure. Raman analysis supports the presence of cubic bixbyite structure of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}in the films. XPS analysis shows a decrease of oxygen deficiency due to Nb and the existence of Nb as Nb{sup 4+} in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}lattice. The band gap energy of the films increases with increase in Nb concentration. PL spectra reveal intense UV and visible emissions in all the films. Optical constants of the films are determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The thickness of films estimated using FESEM and ellipsometry are in good agreement. The carrier concentration, mobility and nature of carriers are measured using Hall measurement technique in Van der Pauw configuration at room temperature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. XPS Depth Profile Analysis of Zn3N2 Thin Films Grown at Different N2/Ar Gas Flow Rates by RF Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M Baseer

    2017-12-01

    Zinc nitride thin films were grown on fused silica substrates at 300 °C by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Films were grown at different N2/Ar flow rate ratios of 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.0. All the samples have grain-like surface morphology with an average surface roughness ranging from 4 to 5 nm and an average grain size ranging from 13 to16 nm. Zn3N2 samples grown at lower N2/Ar ratio are polycrystalline with secondary phases of ZnO present, whereas at higher N2/Ar ratio, no ZnO phases were found. Highly aligned films were achieved at N2/Ar ratio of 0.60. Hall effect measurements reveal that films are n-type semiconductors, and the highest carrier concentration and Hall mobility was achieved for the films grown at N2/Ar ratio of 0.60. X-ray photoelectron study was performed to confirm the formation of Zn-N bonds and to study the presence of different species in the film. Depth profile XPS analyses of the films reveal that there is less nitrogen in the bulk of the film compared to the nitrogen on the surface of the film whereas more oxygen is present in the bulk of the films possibly occupying the nitrogen vacancies.

  16. Effects of post-deposition annealing ambient on band alignment of RF magnetron-sputtered Y2O3 film on gallium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Hock Jin; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-01-29

    The effects of different post-deposition annealing ambients (oxygen, argon, forming gas (95% N2 + 5% H2), and nitrogen) on radio frequency magnetron-sputtered yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) substrate were studied in this work. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to extract the bandgap of Y2O3 and interfacial layer as well as establishing the energy band alignment of Y2O3/interfacial layer/GaN structure. Three different structures of energy band alignment were obtained, and the change of band alignment influenced leakage current density-electrical breakdown field characteristics of the samples subjected to different post-deposition annealing ambients. Of these investigated samples, ability of the sample annealed in O2 ambient to withstand the highest electric breakdown field (approximately 6.6 MV/cm) at 10-6 A/cm2 was related to the largest conduction band offset of interfacial layer/GaN (3.77 eV) and barrier height (3.72 eV).

  17. Widespread divergence of the CEACAM/PSG genes in vertebrates and humans suggests sensitivity to selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Lin Chang

    Full Text Available In mammals, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs and pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs play important roles in the regulation of pathogen transmission, tumorigenesis, insulin signaling turnover, and fetal-maternal interactions. However, how these genes evolved and to what extent they diverged in humans remain to be investigated specifically. Based on syntenic mapping of chordate genomes, we reveal that diverging homologs with a prototypic CEACAM architecture-including an extracellular domain with immunoglobulin variable and constant domain-like regions, and an intracellular domain containing ITAM motif-are present from cartilaginous fish to humans, but are absent in sea lamprey, cephalochordate or urochordate. Interestingly, the CEACAM/PSG gene inventory underwent radical divergence in various vertebrate lineages: from zero in avian species to dozens in therian mammals. In addition, analyses of genetic variations in human populations showed the presence of various types of copy number variations (CNVs at the CEACAM/PSG locus. These copy number polymorphisms have 3-80% frequency in select populations, and encompass single to more than six PSG genes. Furthermore, we found that CEACAM/PSG genes contain a significantly higher density of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP compared to the chromosome average, and many CEACAM/PSG SNPs exhibit high population differentiation. Taken together, our study suggested that CEACAM/PSG genes have had a more dynamic evolutionary history in vertebrates than previously thought. Given that CEACAM/PSGs play important roles in maternal-fetal interaction and pathogen recognition, these data have laid the groundwork for future analysis of adaptive CEACAM/PSG genotype-phenotypic relationships in normal and complicated pregnancies as well as other etiologies.

  18. Co-doping effects of Mg and Be on properties of ZnMgBeGaO UV-range transparent conductive oxide films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang-Ho; Cuong, Hoang Ba [Photonic and Electronic Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yong-bong dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Sang-Hun, E-mail: shjeong@kbsi.re.kr [Gwangju Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 300, Yong-bong dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Teak, E-mail: btlee@jnu.ac.kr [Photonic and Electronic Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yong-bong dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Zn{sub 0.96−x−y}Mg{sub x}Be{sub y}Ga{sub 0.04}O TCO films with wide band-gap were prepared by sputtering. • Controlling of band-gap and conductivity was tried by co-doping Mg and Be. • Maximum band-gap energy reached 3.88 eV at 5 at.% Mg and 10 at.% Be contents. • Post-growth annealing was performed in Ar + H{sub 2} ambient gas to improve conductivity. • The lowest resistivity was obtained from the annealed film at 400 °C. - Abstract: In this work, the Zn{sub 0.96-x−y}Mg{sub x}Be{sub y}Ga{sub 0.04}O films co-doped with different Mg and Be doping levels of 3 ∼10 at.% were prepared using an RF magnetron sputtering, and the correlation between the film properties and the doping levels was investigated. With an increase in Mg or Be doping level, the film crystal quality gradually deteriorated and the ZnO c-axis parameter was contracted or expanded due to the difference in ionic radii of Mg and Be ions, resulting in the shift of the ZnO (0 0 0 2) XRD peak position to lower 2θ or higher 2θ values and the broadening of the ZnO (0 0 0 2) XRD peak. All the grown films were highly transparent with a transmittance above 85% in the visible wavelength region and the band-gap widened from 3.74 eV to 3.88 eV at high doping level of 5 at.% Mg and 10 at.% Be, whereas the resistivity was degraded from 1.6 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm at low doping level to 1–4 × 10{sup −1} Ω cm at high doping level. In the Zn{sub 0.88}Mg{sub 0.05}Be{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.04}O film post growth annealed at 400 °C in Ar + H{sub 2} mixture ambient, the lowest resistivity of 8.17 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, the highest electron concentration of 5.26 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, and the large band-gap of 3.8 eV were obtained, which is attributed to the hydrogen incorporation in film during annealing and the improved film crystal quality.

  19. Comparative investigation on cation-cation (Al-Sn) and cation-anion (Al-F) co-doping in RF sputtered ZnO thin films: Mechanistic insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, Arindam; Basak, Durga, E-mail: sspdb@iacs.res.in

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Comparative study on Al, Al-Sn and Al-F doped ZnO films has been carried out. • High transparent Al-F co-doped film shows three times enhanced carrier density. • Al-F co-doped film shows larger carrier relaxation time. • Al-Sn co-doped films shows carrier transport dominated by impurity scattering. • Al-F co-doped ZnO film can be applied as transparent electrode. - Abstract: Herein, we report a comparative mechanistic study on cation-cation (Al-Sn) and cation-anion (Al-F) co-doped nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on glass substrate by RF sputtering technique. Through detailed analyses of crystal structure, surface morphology, microstructure, UV-VIS-NIR transmission-reflection and electrical transport property, the inherent characteristics of the co-doped films were revealed and compared. All the nanocrystalline films retain the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and show transparency above 90% in the visible and NIR region. As opposed to expectation, Al-Sn (ATZO) co-doped film show no enhanced carrier concentration consistent with the probable formation of SnO{sub 2} clusters supported by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study. Most interestingly, it has been found that Al-F (AFZO) co-doped film shows three times enhanced carrier concentration as compared to Al doped and Al-Sn co-doped films attaining a value of ∼9 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} due to the respective cation and anion substitution. The carrier relaxation time increases in AFZO while it decreases significantly for ATZO film consistent with the concurrence of the impurity scattering in the latter.

  20. Mechanical, tribological, and electrochemical behavior of Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings deposited by r.f. reactive magnetron co-sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.E.; Sanchez, O.M. [Thin Films Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Ipaz, L., E-mail: leoipazc@calima.univalle.edu.co [Thin Films Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Aperador, W. [Escuela Ingenieria Mecanica, Escuela Colombiana de Ingenieria, Bogota (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C. [Thin Films Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Amaya, C. [CDT-ASTIN SENA, Hard Coatings Laboratory, Cali (Colombia); Landaverde, M.A. Hernandez; Beltran, F. Espinoza; Munoz-Saldana, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del CINVESTAV-IPN, Queretaro (Mexico); Zambrano, G. [Thin Films Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    2010-02-01

    Chromium aluminum nitride (Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) coatings were deposited onto AISI H13 steel and silicon substrates by r.f. reactive magnetron co-sputtering in (Ar/N{sub 2}) gas mixture from chromium and aluminum targets. Properties of deposited Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings such as compositional, structural, morphological, electrochemical, mechanical and tribological, were investigated as functions of aluminum content. X-ray diffraction patterns of Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings with different atomic concentrations of aluminum (0.51 < x < 0.69) showed the presence and evolution of (1 1 1), (2 0 0), and (1 0 2) crystallographic orientations associated to the Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N cubic and w-AlN phases, respectively. The rate of corrosion of the steel coated with Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N varied with the applied power; however, always being clearly lower when compared to the uncoated substrate. The behavior of the protective effect of the Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings is based on the substitution of Cr for Al, when the power applied to the aluminum target increases. The mechanical properties were also sensitive to the power applied, leading to a maximum in hardness and a reduced elastic modulus of 30 and 303 GPa at 350 W and a monotonic decrease to 11 and 212 GPa at 450 W, respectively. Finally, the friction coefficient measured by pin-on disk revealed values between 0.45 and 0.70 in humid atmosphere.

  1. Texture of obliquely sputtered ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Červeň, I.; Lacko, T.; Novotný, I.; Tvarožek, V.; Harvanka, M.

    1993-08-01

    A series of ZnO polycrystalline thin films were prepared on Si(100)/SiO 2/TiN substrates by radio frequency (RF) sputtering at various angles between the sputter direction and the substrate normal. The X-ray diffraction θ/2 θ scans confirmed the expected c-orientation of the films, depending at some extent on the angle of sputtering. The limited pole figures, obtained by rocking-curve measurement, show a slight deviation of the texture axis from the substrate normal direction, which increase with the sputtering angle. The texture axis is inclined not toward the sputtering direction, as was expected, but quite opposite.

  2. Application of magnetron sputtering for producing bioactive ceramic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering is a versatile deposition technique that can produce thin, uniform, dense calcium phosphate coatings. In this paper, principle and character of magnetron sputtering is introduced, and development of the hydroxyapatite and its composite coatings application is reviewed. In addition ...

  3. 77 FR 21587 - Bayer Cropscience, LP, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Jacobs PSG, Middough Associates, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bayer Cropscience, LP, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Jacobs PSG, Middough Associates, Inc., Adecco, CDI Engineering Solutions, Becht Engineering, Engineering... Engineering Solutions, Becht Engineering, Engineering Support Systems, Manufacturing Management Services, US...

  4. Alterations in Polysomnographic (PSG profile in drug-naïve Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju P Joy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied the changes in Polysomnographic (PSG profile in drug-naïve patients of Parkinson′s disease (PD who underwent evaluation with sleep overnight PSG. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 30 with newly diagnosed levodopa-naïve patients with PD, fulfilling the UK-PD society brain bank clinical diagnostic criteria (M:F = 25:5; age: 57.2 ± 10.7 years. The disease severity scales and sleep related questionnaires were administered, and then patients were subjected to overnight PSG. Results: The mean duration of illness was 9.7 ± 9.5 months. The mean Hoehn and Yahr stage was 1.8 ± 0.4. The mean Unified Parkinson′s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS motor score improved from 27.7 ± 9.2 to 17.5 ± 8.9 with sustained usage of levodopa. Nocturnal sleep as assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was impaired in 10 (33.3% patients (mean PSQI score: 5.1 ± 3.1. Excessive day time somnolence was recorded in three patients with Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS score ≥ 10 (mean ESS score: 4.0 ± 3.4. PSG analysis revealed that poor sleep efficiency of <85% was present in 86.7% of patients (mean: 68.3 ± 21.3%. The latencies to sleep onset (mean: 49.8 ± 67.0 minutes and stage 2 sleep (36.5 ± 13.1% were prolonged while slow wave sleep was shortened. Respiration during sleep was significantly impaired in which 43.3% had impaired apnoea hyperpnoea index (AHI ≥5, mean AHI: 8.3 ± 12.1. Apnoeic episodes were predominantly obstructive (obstructive sleep apnea, OSA index = 2.2 ± 5.1. These patients had periodic leg movement (PLM disorder (56.7% had PLM index of 5 or more, mean PLMI: 27.53 ± 4 9.05 that resulted in excessive daytime somnolence. Conclusions: To conclude, sleep macro-architecture is altered in frequently and variably in levodopa-naοve patients of PD and the alterations are possibly due to disease process per se.

  5. Conservation of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG N domains following independent expansions of the gene families in rodents and primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodent and primate pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG gene families have expanded independently from a common ancestor and are expressed virtually exclusively in placental trophoblasts. However, within each species, it is unknown whether multiple paralogs have been selected for diversification of function, or for increased dosage of monofunctional PSG. We analysed the evolution of the mouse PSG sequences, and compared them to rat, human and baboon PSGs to attempt to understand the evolution of this complex gene family. Results Phylogenetic tree analyses indicate that the primate N domains and the rodent N1 domains exhibit a higher degree of conservation than that observed in a comparison of the mouse N1 and N2 domains, or mouse N1 and N3 domains. Compared to human and baboon PSG N domain exons, mouse and rat PSG N domain exons have undergone less sequence homogenisation. The high non-synonymous substitution rates observed in the CFG face of the mouse N1 domain, within a context of overall conservation, suggests divergence of function of mouse PSGs. The rat PSG family appears to have undergone less expansion than the mouse, exhibits lower divergence rates and increased sequence homogenisation in the CFG face of the N1 domain. In contrast to most primate PSG N domains, rodent PSG N1 domains do not contain an RGD tri-peptide motif, but do contain RGD-like sequences, which are not conserved in rodent N2 and N3 domains. Conclusion Relative conservation of primate N domains and rodent N1 domains suggests that, despite independent gene family expansions and structural diversification, mouse and human PSGs retain conserved functions. Human PSG gene family expansion and homogenisation suggests that evolution occurred in a concerted manner that maintains similar functions of PSGs, whilst increasing gene dosage of the family as a whole. In the mouse, gene family expansion, coupled with local diversification of the CFG face, suggests

  6. Influence of rf-magnetron Sputtered ITO and Al:ZnO on Photovoltaic Behaviour Related to CuInSe{sub 2}-Based Photovoltaic Solar Cells; Influencia del ITO y Al:ZnO, Fabricados mediante Pulverizacion Cataodica, sobre el Comportamiento Fotovoltaico de Dispositivos Basados en el CuInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M. A.; Guillen, C.; Dona, J. M.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M. T. [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes several investigations, made in the CIEMAT, on the capability of depositing transparent conducting oxides at room temperature by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their application inCuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaic solar cells. ITO and Al:ZnO thin films having simultaneously high transmittance in the visible range and low resistivity, 10''3-10''4{omega}cm, can be obtained only if oxygen mass-flow rate is constrained to a very narrow range (0.5-1 sccm). Cell efficiency enhance when transparent conducting oxides are made without intentional heating and, after, the total devices are annealed in air at 200 degree centigree. (Author) 40 refs.

  7. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Prosthodontics and Restorative Science, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + 3 mM NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings.

  8. RF MEMS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bridges the gap in the signal line, thereby connecting the two ports of the device. This repre- ..... Packaging related parasitics tend to degrade RF performance, limiting the usage of the devices to much lower ... bonds are known to cause higher losses due to impedance mismatch with the 50 transmission lines. The RF bond ...

  9. Effect of radio frequency magnetron sputtering power on structural and optical properties of Ti6Al4V thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Mohammed K.; Al-Taay, H. F.; Ali, Dawood S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the effects of target sputtering power on the structure and optical properties of radio frequency (RF) sputtered Ti6Al4V films were investigated. Different sputtering RF powers were used to produce different thicknesses of Ti6Al4V thin films. From the X-ray diffraction, it was found that the Ti6A14V films had polycrystalline cubic and hexagonal structures and increased films crystallinity and crystalline size with increasing the sputtering power. Atomic forces microscopy (AFM) gave us a nanometric film character, films homogeneity, and surfaces roughness. A higher degree of roughness and average grain size with increasing RF power was exhibited. Band gap and refractive index of Ti6Al4V thin films varied with sputtering RF powers.

  10. Correlation between Optical Properties and Chemical Composition of Sputter-Deposited Germanium Oxide (GEOX) Films (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-18

    previously, including Radio Frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering [1,3,7,8,11,13,20–22], laser ablation [14], sol–gel deposition [2,9,10], reactive thermal...be a direct result of the decreased sputter yield associated with the covalently bonded compound. The agreement between the deposition rates using the

  11. Nanomechanical characterization of bioglass films synthesized by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, A.C. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Army Centre for Medical Research, 020012 Bucharest (Romania); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest (Romania); Marques, V.M.F. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Stan, G.E., E-mail: george_stan@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Husanu, M.A.; Galca, A.C.; Ghica, C. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Tulyaganov, D.U. [Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent, 100174 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Lemos, A.F.; Ferreira, J.M.F. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-02-28

    Bioactive glasses are osteoproductive-type inorganic materials possessing the highest indices of bioactivity in both bulk and thin film forms. The prerequisites for reliable implant-type coatings are both their biological and mechanical performances. Whilst the bioglass films' structural, chemical and biological properties have been studied extensively, information about their mechanical performance is scarce. Here, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nanoindentation and pull-out measurements were employed to assess the morphological, chemical, structural and mechanical properties of the bioglass films deposited onto Ti substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS). The biological safety of the thin bioglass films was evaluated preliminarily in vitro by investigating the adherence, proliferation and cytotoxicity of fibroblast cells cultivated on their surface. Our study emphasize the versatility of RF-MS, showing how bioglass films' features such as composition, structure, bonding strength, hardness, elastic modulus and biological response can be conveniently adapted by tuning the RF-MS working conditions, and therefore demonstrating the unexplored potential of this deposition technique for preparing quality biomimetic glass coatings. - Highlights: • Adherent bioglass films were synthesized by RF-sputtering on titanium plates. • Different bonding configurations were obtained when tuning sputtering conditions. • Films' biological and mechanical responses vary with their structural arrangement. • Nanomechanical properties were enhanced by allowing O{sub 2} in the sputtering atmosphere.

  12. Reactive sputter deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  13. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaohong, E-mail: yxhong1981_2004@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Xu, Wenzheng, E-mail: xwz8199@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: windhuang325@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: mjuchen@126.com [Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by magnetron sputtering technique. • Ag film was easily oxidized into Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. • The zinc film coated on the surface of Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. • Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film can obtained structural color. • The anti-ultraviolet and antistatic properties of polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film all were good. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  14. Formation of nanostructured metallic glass thin films upon sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Ketov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology evolution of the multicomponent metallic glass film obtained by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering was investigated in the present work. Two modes of metallic glass sputtering were distinguished: smooth film mode and clustered film mode. The sputtering parameters, which have the most influence on the sputtering modes, were determined. As a result, amorphous Ni-Nb thin films with a smooth surface and nanoglassy structure were deposited on silica float glass and Si substrates. The phase composition of the target appeared to have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the deposited amorphous thin film. The differences in charge transport and nanomechanical properties between the smooth and nanoglassy Ni-Nb film were also determined.

  15. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  16. p-AgCoO2/n-ZnO heterojunction diode grown by rf magnetron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. P-type transparent semiconducting AgCoO2 thin films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of sintered AgCoO2 target. The AgCoO2 films grown by rf sputtering were highly c-axis oriented showing only. (001) reflections in the X-ray diffraction pattern unlike in the case of amorphous films grown by pulsed laser.

  17. Effect of the cadmium chloride treatment on RF sputtered Cd{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Te films for application in multijunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimpi, Tushar M., E-mail: mechanical.tushar@gmail.com; Kephart, Jason M.; Swanson, Drew E.; Munshi, Amit H.; Sampath, Walajabad S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, 1320 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Abbas, A.; Walls, John M. [CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Technology), Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Single phase Cd{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Te (CdZnTe) films of 1 μm thickness were deposited by radio frequency planar magnetron sputter deposition on commercial soda lime glass samples coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide and cadmium sulphide (CdS). The stack was then treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) at different temperatures using a constant treatment time. The effect of the CdCl{sub 2} treatment was studied using optical, materials, and electrical characterization of the samples and compared with the as-deposited CdZnTe film with the same stack configuration. The band gap deduced from Tauc plots on the as-deposited CdZnTe thin film was 1.72 eV. The deposited film had good crystalline quality with a preferred orientation along the {111} plane. After the CdCl{sub 2} treatment, the absorption edge shifted toward longer wavelength region and new peaks corresponding to cadmium telluride (CdTe) emerged in the x-ray diffraction pattern. This suggested loss of zinc after the CdCl{sub 2} treatment. The cross sectional transmission electron microscope images of the sample treated at 400 °C and the energy dispersive elemental maps revealed the absence of chlorine along the grain boundaries of CdZnTe and residual CdTe. The presence of chlorine in the CdTe devices plays a vital role in drastically improving the device performance which was not observed in CdZnTe samples treated with CdCl{sub 2}. The loss of zinc from the surface and incomplete recrystallization of the grains together with the presence of high densities of stacking faults were observed. The surface images using scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the grains changed from small spherical shape to large grains formed due to the fusion of small grains with distinct grain boundaries visible at the higher CdCl{sub 2} treatment temperatures. The absence of chlorine along the grain boundaries, incomplete recrystallization and distinct grain boundaries is understood to cause the poor

  18. Doping effects of group-IIIA elements on physical properties of ZnMgXO (X: Al, Ga, In, Tl) transparent conducting oxide films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sang-Hun [Gwangju Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 300 Yong-bong dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jang-Ho [Photonic and Electronic Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yong-bong dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Teak, E-mail: btlee@jnu.ac.kr [Photonic and Electronic Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yong-bong dong, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Comparative study on effects of group IIIA dopants into ZnMgO were performed. • Physical properties of the resultant films were strongly dependent on the dopants. • The best quality of film was obtained with Ga-doping. • The low resistivity of 5.5 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm was achieved from the Ga-doped film. • All the doped films showed a high transmittance of ∼90% in visible region. - Abstract: ZnMgXO films alloyed with different group-IIIA elements (X: Al, Ga, In, Tl) were sputter grown on quartz and the effects of dopants on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the resultant films were estimated and compared with each other. X-ray investigation and Hall measurement results confirmed that the crystal quality and the electrical properties of the films are strongly affected by the doped elements. It was observed that films with high crystal quality and a low resistivity of ∼10{sup −4} Ω cm were obtained with Al or Ga doping, whereas films with a deteriorated crystal quality and a higher resistivity of ∼1.6 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm were obtained with the In incorporation. Optical characterization results indicated that all the films were highly transparent with an average transmittance of ∼90% in the visible region between 400 nm and 800 nm. Films doped with Al or Ga had wide band-gaps of 3.75 eV or 3.7 eV, respectively, whereas In or Tl doped films had a lower band-gaps of 3.57 eV. It was suggested that the observed dependence on the dopant species is related to the discrepancy in the ionic radii between the alloying elements and the Zn host atom. It was also proposed that the band-gap difference in the films can be due to the combined effect of the Burstein–Moss shift and the many-body effect (the electron–electron scattering, electron-impurity scattering), and band-tailing.

  19. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  20. [Spectrum diagnostics for optimization of experimental parameters in thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing-Lin; Cui, Yong-Liang; Chen, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Huai, Su-Fang; Liu, Bao-Ting; Chen, Jin-Zhong

    2010-12-01

    The plasma emission spectra generated during the deposition process of Si-based thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering using Cu and Al targets in an argon atmosphere were acquired by the plasma analysis system, which consists of a magnetron sputtering apparatus, an Omni-lambda300 series grating spectrometer, a CCD data acquisition system and an optical fiber transmission system. The variation in Cu and Al plasma emission spectra intensity depending on sputtering conditions, such as sputtering time, sputtering power, the target-to-substrate distance and deposition pressure, was studied by using the analysis lines Cu I 324. 754 nm, Cu I 327. 396 nm, Cu I 333. 784 nm, Cu I 353. 039 nm, Al I 394. 403 nm and Al I 396. 153 nm. Compared with the option of experimental parameters of thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, it was shown that emission spectra analysis methods play a guiding role in optimizing the deposition conditions of thin films in RF magnetron sputtering.

  1. Sputtered Thin Film Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    and Idonllly hy block numbor) Reactive Sputtering, Heteroepitaxy, Thin Films Single Crystal Zinc Oxide, Titanium Dioxide, Aluminum Nitride, Gallium...Conditions were determined for the deposition of amorphous neodymium ultra- phosphate films. This material holds the potential for the fabrication...reaching the substrate at any time during sputtering. A 17.2 cm diameter quartz plate was covered with a thin coating of zinc sulflde and placed on

  2. Interplay of the influence of oxygen partial pressure and rf power on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... electrical and optical properties of rf-magnetron-sputtered aluminium-doped zinc oxide, AZO, thin films is illustrated. The dependence of film electrical resistance and interplanar spacing of film crystallites on rf power seems to be different at higher oxygen partial pressure values than at lower ones.

  3. Serial macro-architectural alterations with levodopa in Parkinson′s disease: Polysomnography (PSG-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju P Joy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied the sleep macroarchitecture with polysomnography (PSG in drug naïve patients with Parkinson′s disease (PD and reassessed them following treatment with levodopa. Materials and Methods: This prospective hospital-based study included 15 patients with PD (age: 59 ± 11.2 years, duration of PD: 11.8 ± 12.3 months; and male: female (M:F = 11:4. They were assessed for demography, phenotype, modified Hoehn and Yahr staging (H & Y; Schwab and England and Activities of Daily Living (S and E ADL Scale; and Unified PDRating Scale (UPDRS. Sleep was assessed using Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS comprehensive sleep disorder questionnaire. They underwent overnight PSG at baseline and after13.3 ± 5.7 months of levodopa (440 mg/day. Results: Patients with PD had responded to levodopa as indicated by the significant improvement in UPDRS motor score in ON state compared to OFF state. Nocturnal sleep quality indices did not vary significantly, but the excessive daytime somnolence improved (P = 0.04 with levodopa. Sleep efficiency (P = 0.65, latency to sleep onset (P = 0.19, latency to stage 1 (P = 0.12, and duration of stage 1 (P = 0.55 had increased. Duration of ′awake in bed′ (P = 0.24, slow wave sleep (P = 0.29, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (P = 0.24 decreased with treatment. Periodic leg movements (PLMs had reduced (P = 0.68 and mean oxygen saturation during sleep improved (P = 0.002. Surprisingly, snore index (P < 0.03 during sleep had increased with levodopa. Conclusions: Sleep alterations in PD occur even in early stages due to the disease process. There was improvement in most of the parameters of sleep macroarchitecture with levodopa.

  4. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Aijo John; Kumar, Vineetha V.; M, Deepak; T, Manju

    2014-10-01

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  5. Preparation of Bismuth Titanate Films by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Sputtering-Chemical Vapor Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Masumoto, H.; Hirai, T.

    1995-01-01

    Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 : BIT) thin films were prepared on the Pt courted MgO(100) substrate by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering-chemical vapor deposition (ECR plasma sputtering-CVD). Bi2O3 was used as a sputtering target and tetra-isopropoxy-titanium [Ti(i-C3H7O)4] as a CVD source. The composition of films was controlled by changing RF power (PRF) of Bi2O3 target and Ti source temperature (TTi). The stoichiometric BIT film was prepared under the condition of PRF=500W, TTi=6...

  6. On-axis radio frequency magnetron sputtering of stoichiometric BaTiO{sub 3} target: Localized re-sputtering and substrate etching during thin film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, F.A. [Nanoelectronics-Nanophotonics, INRS-Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Nouar, R. [Plasmionique Inc., 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Said Bacar, Z.; Higuera, B. [Nanoelectronics-Nanophotonics, INRS-Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Porter, R.; Sarkissian, A. [Plasmionique Inc., 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Thomas, R., E-mail: etreji@yahoo.com [Nanoelectronics-Nanophotonics, INRS-Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Ruediger, A., E-mail: ruediger@emt.inrs.ca [Nanoelectronics-Nanophotonics, INRS-Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada)

    2015-12-01

    BaTiO{sub 3} thin films were prepared on Nb–SrTiO{sub 3} (100) and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering using a stoichiometric BaTiO{sub 3} ceramic target. This on-axis BaTiO{sub 3} thin film growth encountered severe re-sputtering and substrate etching, above a threshold power density (4 W/cm{sup 2}), due to negative ion formation at the target surface and subsequent acceleration towards the substrate. However, the film deposition with reduced or negligible re-sputtering was possible below 4 W/cm{sup 2} of rf-power. The rf-voltage vs. power curve showed two distinct linear regimes with high and low slopes; the change in the slope coincides with substrate etching. Optical emission spectroscopy was employed to establish the link between the onset of excessive re-sputtering and could be used as a control tool. Since, negative oxygen ions (O{sup −}) are responsible for the re-sputtering, additional processing parameters like the oxygen partial pressure [P{sub o} = (O{sub 2} ∕ O{sub 2} + Ar) %] and total pressure were also adjusted to realize target stoichiometry on the grown films. Finally, through optimization steps, as revealed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, stoichiometric BaTiO{sub 3} films were obtained, at a pressure ≥ 2.7 Pa, power density of 2 W/cm{sup 2} and P{sub o} around 50%. - Highlights: • BaTiO{sub 3} films were grown on Nb–SrTiO{sub 3} (100) and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si by magnetron sputtering. • The on-axis sputtering encountered severe re-sputtering and substrate etching by O{sup −} ions. • Intensity of Ba and Ti in the emission spectra could be used as a deposition control parameter. • Stoichiometric BaTiO{sub 3} films were realized at 20 mTorr and 2 W/cm{sup 2} (10 W) rf-power. • At low power, re-sputtering can be controlled and is imperative for the growth of BaTiO{sub 3} films.

  7. First prototype Copper-Niobium RF Superconducting Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is the first RF superconducting cavity made of copper with a very thin layer of pure niobium deposited on the inner wall by sputtering. This new developpment lead to a considerable increase of performance and stability of superconducting cavities and to non-negligible economy. The work was carried out in the ISR workshop. This technique was adopted for the LEP II accelerating cavities. At the centre is Cristoforo Benvenuti, inventor of this important technology, with his assistants, Nadia Circelli and Max Hauer, carrying the sputtering electrode. See also 8209255, 8312339.

  8. Spin-wave excitations and magnetism of sputtered Fe/Au multilayers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spin-wave excitations and the magnetism of Fe/Au multilayers with different Fe thicknesses (tFe) grown by RF sputtering were investigated. The temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization is well described by a T 3 / 2 law in all multilayers in the temperature range of 5–300 K. Spin-wave theory has been ...

  9. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  10. Preliminary Results of Nb Thin Film Coating for HIE-ISOLDE SRF Cavities Obtained by Magnetron Sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Sublet, A; Calatroni, S; D'Elia, A; Jecklin, N; Mondino, I; Prunet, S; Therasse, M; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Zhang, P

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade at CERN, several new facilities for the niobium sputter coating of QWR-type superconducting RF accelerating cavities have been developed, built, and successfully operated. In order to further optimize the production process of these cavities the magnetron sputtering technique has been further investigated and continued as an alternative to the already successfully operational DC bias diode sputtering method. The purpose of this poster is to present the results obtained with this technique. The Nb thickness profile along the cavity and its correlation with the electro-magnetic field distribution inside the cavity are discussed. Film structure, morphology and Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) will be considered as well and compared with films obtained by DC bias diode sputtering. Finally these results will be compared with RF measurement of a production-like magnetron-coated cavity.

  11. Aluminum nitride for heatspreading in RF IC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, L.; Iborra, E.; Schellevis, H.; Clement, M.; Olivares, J.; Nanver, L. K.

    2008-09-01

    To reduce the electrothermal instabilities in silicon-on-glass high-frequency bipolar devices, the integration of thin-film aluminum nitride as a heatspreader is studied. The AlN is deposited by reactive sputtering and this material is shown to fulfill all the requirements for actively draining heat from RF IC's, i.e., it has good process compatibility, sufficiently high thermal conductivity and good electrical isolation also at high frequencies. The residual stress and the piezoelectric character of the material, both of which can be detrimental for the present application, are minimized by a suitable choice of deposition conditions including variable biasing of the substrate in a multistep deposition cycle. Films of AlN as thick as 4 μm are successfully integrated in RF silicon-on-glass bipolar junction transistors that display a reduction of more than 70% in the value of the thermal resistance.

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies a maternal copy-number deletion in PSG11 enriched among preeclampsia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Linlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific genetic contributions for preeclampsia (PE are currently unknown. This genome-wide association study (GWAS aims to identify maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and copy-number variants (CNVs involved in the etiology of PE. Methods A genome-wide scan was performed on 177 PE cases (diagnosed according to National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guidelines and 116 normotensive controls. White female study subjects from Iowa were genotyped on Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. CNV calls made using a combination of four detection algorithms (Birdseye, Canary, PennCNV, and QuantiSNP were merged using CNVision and screened with stringent prioritization criteria. Due to limited DNA quantities and the deleterious nature of copy-number deletions, it was decided a priori that only deletions would be selected for assay on the entire case-control dataset using quantitative real-time PCR. Results The top four SNP candidates had an allelic or genotypic p-value between 10-5 and 10-6, however, none surpassed the Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold. Three recurrent rare deletions meeting prioritization criteria detected in multiple cases were selected for targeted genotyping. A locus of particular interest was found showing an enrichment of case deletions in 19q13.31 (5/169 cases and 1/114 controls, which encompasses the PSG11 gene contiguous to a highly plastic genomic region. All algorithm calls for these regions were assay confirmed. Conclusions CNVs may confer risk for PE and represent interesting regions that warrant further investigation. Top SNP candidates identified from the GWAS, although not genome-wide significant, may be useful to inform future studies in PE genetics.

  13. Polysaccharides PS-G and protein LZ-8 from Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) exhibit diverse functions in regulating murine macrophages and T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chen-Hao; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Yang, Jeng-Je; Chuang, Wen-I; Sheu, Fuu

    2010-08-11

    Bioactive components in Ganoderma lucidum mainly include polysaccharides (PS-G) and immunomodulatory protein Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8). These components may have diverse regulatory functions in the immune system. However, the PS-G preparations from different procedures still contained partial LZ-8 residue, indicating that the specific target and regulating function of PS-G and LZ-8 were not fully understood. In the present study, PS-G was subjected to 15% TCA for removing proteins and the LZ-8 detection using anti-LZ-8 monoclonal antibodies showed a remarkable 89.7% protein reduction of the deproteinized PS-G (dpPS-G). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expressed recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) without glycosylation was generated and then compared with dpPS-G in the induction toward murine primary macrophage and T lymphocytic cells. The peritoneal macrophages from TLR4-deficient and wild type mice revealed that TLR4 was a putative receptor of dpPS-G, mediating the TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-12p70 cytokine production and CD86, MHC II expression on macrophages, while rLZ-8 enhanced the production of IL-1beta, IL-12p70, CD86, and MHC II expression by another obscure route. rLZ-8-treated macrophages enhanced the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2 by murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, whereas dpPS-G treatment did not enhance the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2. Furthermore, although the direct rLZ-8-treatment conduced dramatic CD154, CD44 expression on CD3(+) T cells and increased IL-2, IFN-gamma secretion on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the dpPS-G was incapable of priming CD3(+), CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells unitarily. Taken together, these results demonstrated that LZ-8 could activate murine macrophages and T lymphocytes but PS-G was merely the activator for macrophages, suggesting their diverse roles in activating the innate and adaptive immunity.

  14. Fabrication of MgB{sub 2} thin films by co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabretti, Savio; Thomas, Patrick; Reiss, Guenter; Thomas, Andy [Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    MgB{sub 2} is an intermetallic compound with a high critical temperature of T{sub c}=40 K. The simple crystal structure, large coherence length and the high critical current density makes thin magnesium diboride films attractive for superconducting applications like Josephson junctions. To fabricate thin MgB{sub 2} films, we used a magnetron co-sputtering system with a Mg and a B target respectively. The films were deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering of Mg and rf-magnetron sputtering of B at a low substrate temperature between 210 {sup circle} C and 260 {sup circle} C without a post annealing process. The differences in vacuum pressure between Mg and B make it essential that the composition ratio is controlled by different sputtering power of each target. The crystal structure was measured by X-ray diffraction and transport investigations at low temperatures were performed.

  15. Investigation of electrical, optical and structural properties of sputtered indium tin oxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Tanvir; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan

    2015-09-01

    Transparent and conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) films were grown on borosilicate glass substrate by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering process. The effects of sputtering parameters e.g. substrate temperature and RF power levels on electrical, optical and structural properties were examined. The crystallinity, conductivity and optical transparency of the films were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, four-point probe measurement, laser ellipsometry, and optical spectroscopy. The surface roughness and grain size of the films were also investigated using scanning probe microscopy. This paper reports the non-monotonical dependence of substrate temperature on the nanostructure and phases and the complex impact of RF power levels to the conductivities and the optical properties. The critical role of oxygen partial pressure on the energy bandgaps is also inferred.

  16. Sputtering in supported cluster arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Sáez, J.C., E-mail: jc.jimenez@upm.es [Dept. Física Aplicada a la Ingeniería Aeronáutica y Naval, ETSIAE, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pérez-Martín, A.M.C.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, J.J. [Dept. Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-06-01

    Bombardment of periodical arrays formed by Co nanoislands deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate with 1-keV argon ions is simulated by using molecular dynamics. Sputtering yield is analyzed distinguishing between particles sputtered across the supported cluster surface and across the flat substrate surface without nanoparticle above. The dependence of this magnitude on the height and the periodical spacing between nanoislands has been investigated. Results show that this dependence for the sputtering across the nanoislands and across the substrate is different. In the case of the total sputtering, the “substrate” effect prevails since the behavior of this magnitude is approximately analogous to the sputtering across the substrate. The more probable causes are analyzed in this article.

  17. Investigation of MIM Diodes for RF Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Adnan

    2015-05-01

    Metal Insulator Metal (MIM) diodes that work on fast mechanism of tunneling have been used in a number of very high frequency applications such as (Infra-Red) IR detectors and optical Rectennas for energy harvesting. Their ability to operate under zero bias condition as well as the possibility of realizing them through printing makes them attractive for (Radio Frequency) RF applications. However, MIM diodes have not been explored much for RF applications. One reason preventing their widespread RF use is the requirement of a very thin oxide layer essential for the tunneling operation that requires sophisticated nano-fabrication processes. Another issue is that the reliability and stable performance of MIM diodes is highly dependent on the surface roughness of the metallic electrodes. Finally, comprehensive RF characterization has not been performed for MIM diodes reported in the literature, particularly from the perspective of their integration with antennas as well as their rectification abilities. In this thesis, various metal deposition methods such as sputtering, electron beam evaporation, and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) are compared in pursuit of achieving low surface roughness. It is worth mentioning here that MIM diodes realized through ALD method have been presented for the first time in this thesis. Amorphous metal alloy have also been investigated in terms of their low surface roughness. Zinc-oxide has been investigated for its suitability as a thin dielectric layer for MIM diodes. Finally, comprehensive RF characterization of MIM diodes has been performed in two ways: 1) by standard S-parameter methods, and 2) by investigating their rectification ability under zero bias operation. It is concluded from the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging that surface roughness as low as sub 1 nm can be achieved reliably from crystalline metals such as copper and platinum. This value is comparable to surface roughness achieved from amorphous alloys, which are non

  18. Validation of the Sonomat Against PSG and Quantitative Measurement of Partial Upper Airway Obstruction in Children With Sleep-Disordered Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Mark B; Pithers, Sonia M; Teng, Arthur Y; Waters, Karen A; Sullivan, Colin E

    2017-03-01

    To validate the Sonomat against polysomnography (PSG) metrics in children and to objectively measure snoring and stertor to produce a quantitative indicator of partial upper airway obstruction that accurately reflects the pathology of pediatric sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Simultaneous PSG and Sonomat recordings were performed in 76 children (46 male, age 5.8 ± 2.8, BMI = 18.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2). Sleep time, individual respiratory events and the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) were compared. Obstructed breathing sounds were measured from the unobtrusive non-contact experimental device. There was no significant difference in total sleep time (TST), respiratory events or AHI values, the latter over-estimated by 0.3 events hr-1 by the Sonomat. Poor signal quality was minimal and gender, BMI, and body position did not adversely influence event detection. Obstructive and central events were classified correctly. The number of runs and duration of snoring (13 399 events, 20% TST) and stertor (5748 events, 24% TST) were an order of magnitude greater than respiratory events (1367 events, 1% TST). Many children defined as normal by PSG had just as many or more runs of snoring and stertor as those with mild, moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Sonomat accurately diagnoses SDB in children using current metrics. In addition, it permits quantification of partial airway obstruction that can be used to better describe pediatric SDB. Its non-contact design makes it ideal for use in children.

  19. Preparation, characterization and properties of sputtered electrochromic and thermochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, C.; Nemraoui, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Maaza, M. [Physics Department, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Lafait, J. [Laboratoire d`Optique des Solides, Universite de Paris VI-Jussieu, Paris (France); Renard, N. [Dassault Aviation, St Cloud (France); Sampeur, [ICMC Company, Le Mee sur Seine (France)

    1998-01-01

    The interest in electrochromic materials has increased in the last few years because of their applications in a wide variety of optical modulation devices including smart windows for solar control in the architectural and automotive sectors and flat panel displays. Thermochromic coatings which reduce the transmission of solar energy as the temperature rises can prevent overheating and find application in the thermal control of buildings, satellites and spatial equipements. This article reports on the optical and structural properties of RF sputtered thin films of WO{sub 3} and VO{sub 2} for electrochromic and thermochromic devices. (orig.) 4 refs.

  20. Sputter deposition system for controlled fabrication of multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nardo, R.P.; Takacs, P.Z.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Stefan, P.M.

    1985-06-01

    A detailed description of a sputter deposition system constructed specifically for the fabrication of x-ray and neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is given. One of the principal design criteria is to maintain precise control of film thickness and uniformity over large substrate areas. Regulation of critical system parameters is fully automated so that response to feedback control information is rapid and complicated layer thickness sequences can be deposited accurately and efficiently. The use of either dc or rf magnetron sources makes it possible to satisfy the diverse material requirements of both x-ray and neutron optics.

  1. Effect of RF Power on the Structural and Optical Properties of Zinc Sulfide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalana, S. R.; Sankararaman, S.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) films were prepared via a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique using different RF powers (100, 120, 150, and 180 W), and the effects of the RF power on the structural and optical properties of the films were studied using x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and laser photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that the RF power has an important impact on the predominant phase formation and crystallinity of the ZnS films. The film thickness, refractive index, and film to bulk relative density increase systematically with an increase in the RF power. Among the various RF power values investigated, 150 W was optimal for the growth of highly crystalline ZnS films with a predominance of the cubic phase and enhanced photoluminescence emissions.

  2. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  3. The effect of sputtering gas pressure on the structure and optical properties of MgNiO films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wuze; Jiao, Shujie; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Li, Hongtao

    2017-05-01

    In this study, MgNiO thin films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The influence of different sputtering pressures on the crystalline and optical properties of MgNiO thin films has been studied. X-ray diffraction measurement indicates that the MgNiO films are cubic structure with (200) preferred orientation. UV-vis transmission spectra show that all the MgNiO thin films show more than 75% transmission at visible region, and the absorption edges of all thin films locate at solar-blind region (220 nm-280 nm). The lattice constant and Mg content of MgNiO samples were calculated using X-ray diffraction and transmission spectra data. The phase separation is observed both in the X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission spectra, and the phase separation is studied in detail based on the crystal growth theory and sputtering process.

  4. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  5. Effect of RF power on structural and magnetic properties of La doped Bi2Fe4O9 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiya, M.; Pugazhvadivu, K. S.; Balakrishnan, L.; Tamilarasan, K.

    2016-05-01

    Effect of RF power on structural and magnetic properties of lanthanum (La3+) doped Bi2Fe4O9 thin films grown on p-Si substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering has studied in this investigation. It is observed that the sputtering power affects the crystalline nature and magnetic properties of grown thin films. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum confirms that the Bi2Fe4O9 (BFO) thin films were crystallized well with orthorhombic structure. The BFO thin films which was prepared at sputtering power of 100 W have good crystallinity than those prepared at 40 W. The magnetic properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic hysteresis perceptive loop shows that the anti-ferromagnetic behavior of the sample at room temperature. These results confirms that the crystallinity and magnetic properties of the BFO thin films were enhanced at the higher sputtering power (100 W).

  6. Transparent conducting zinc oxide thin film prepared by off-axis rf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    transitions is known as Burstein–Moss effect (Roth et al. 1982; Sernelius et al 1988). 4. Conclusions. Undoped zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering of pre- synthesized target. All the films exhibit a transmission of over 85% in the visible region. The electrical resistivity.

  7. On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Ottsen, Tobias Sand; Stamate, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    The electrical properties of RF-sputtered Al-doped ZnO are often spatially inhomogeneous and strongly dependent on deposition parameters. In this work, we study the mechanisms that limit the minimum resistivity achievable under different deposition regimes. In a low- and intermediate-pressure reg...

  8. Laser annealing of sputter-deposited a-SiC and a-SiCxNy films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Two samples of a-SiCxNy thin films were produced under different N2/Ar flow ratios. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), Raman analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) techniques were used to investigate the composition and bonding structure ...

  9. Prototype LHC RF cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    A radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a metallic chamber that contains an electromagnetic field. Its primary purpose is to accelerate charged particles. RF cavities can be structured like beads on a string, where the beads are the cavities and the string is the beam pipe of a particle accelerator, through which particles travel in a vacuum.

  10. Sputtered Encapsulation as Wafer Level Packaging for Isolatable MEMS Devices: A Technique Demonstrated on a Capacitive Accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Yunas, Jumril; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Ahmad, Ibrahim

    2008-11-19

    This paper discusses sputtered silicon encapsulation as a wafer level packaging approach for isolatable MEMS devices. Devices such as accelerometers, RF switches, inductors, and filters that do not require interaction with the surroundings to function, could thus be fully encapsulated at the wafer level after fabrication. A MEMSTech 50g capacitive accelerometer was used to demonstrate a sputtered encapsulation technique. Encapsulation with a very uniform surface profile was achieved using spin-on glass (SOG) as a sacrificial layer, SU-8 as base layer, RF sputtered silicon as main structural layer, eutectic gold-silicon as seal layer, and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) as outer encapsulant layer. SEM inspection and capacitance test indicated that the movable elements were released after encapsulation. Nanoindentation test confirmed that the encapsulated device is sufficiently robust to withstand a transfer molding process. Thus, an encapsulation technique that is robust, CMOS compatible, and economical has been successfully developed for packaging isolatable MEMS devices at the wafer level.

  11. The effect of sputtering gas pressure on the structure and optical properties of MgNiO films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wuze; Jiao, Shujie, E-mail: shujiejiao@gmail.com; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Li, Hongtao

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • MgNiO thin films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • The structure and optical properties of MgNiO films were studied. • The mechanism of phase separation was discussed in detail. • The effect of different sputtering pressure also was discussed. - Abstract: In this study, MgNiO thin films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The influence of different sputtering pressures on the crystalline and optical properties of MgNiO thin films has been studied. X-ray diffraction measurement indicates that the MgNiO films are cubic structure with (200) preferred orientation. UV–vis transmission spectra show that all the MgNiO thin films show more than 75% transmission at visible region, and the absorption edges of all thin films locate at solar-blind region (220 nm–280 nm). The lattice constant and Mg content of MgNiO samples were calculated using X-ray diffraction and transmission spectra data. The phase separation is observed both in the X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission spectra, and the phase separation is studied in detail based on the crystal growth theory and sputtering process.

  12. Determination of the sputter rate variation pattern of a silicon carbide target for radio frequency magnetron sputtering using optical transmission measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez de la Puente, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, Apartado Postal 1761, Lima 32 (Peru); Department of Materials Science 6, University of Erlangen, Martensstrasse 7, 91058-Erlangen (Germany); Guerra Torres, J.A. [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, Apartado Postal 1761, Lima 32 (Peru); Erlenbach, O. [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, Apartado Postal 1761, Lima 32 (Peru); Department of Materials Science 6, University of Erlangen, Martensstrasse 7, 91058-Erlangen (Germany); Steidl, M. [Department of Materials Science 6, University of Erlangen, Martensstrasse 7, 91058-Erlangen (Germany); Weingaertner, R., E-mail: rolandw@fisica.pucp.edu.pe [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, Apartado Postal 1761, Lima 32 (Peru); Department of Materials Science 6, University of Erlangen, Martensstrasse 7, 91058-Erlangen (Germany); De Zela, F. [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, Apartado Postal 1761, Lima 32 (Peru); Winnacker, A. [Department of Materials Science 6, University of Erlangen, Martensstrasse 7, 91058-Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-10-25

    We produce amorphous silicon carbide thin films (a-SiC) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from SiC bulk target. We present the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target as a function of process parameters, like target sample distance, rf power, sputtering rate and process gas pressure. The emission pattern is determined by means of thickness distribution of the deposited a-SiC films obtained from optical transmission measurements using a slightly improved method of Swanepoel concerning the determination of construction of the envelopes in the interference pattern of the transmission spectra. A calibration curve is presented which allows the conversion of integrated transmission to film thickness. Holding constant a set of process parameters and only varying the target sample distance the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target was determined, which allowed us to predict the deposition rate distribution for a wide range of process parameters and target geometry. In addition, we have found that the transmission spectra of the a-SiC films change with time and saturate after approximately 10 days. Within this process no change in thickness is involved, so that the determination of thickness using transmission data is justified.

  13. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  14. Reactive sputtering of ZnO/ZnO:Al contacts for chalcopyrite solar modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeble, Ch., E-mail: koeble@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Lise-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); PVcomB, Schwarzschildstr. 3, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Caballero, R.; Greiner, D.; Klaer, J.; Klenk, R.; Ruske, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Lise-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-01

    Reactive sputtering is an option to further reduce costs associated with the deposition of the transparent front contact for chalcopyrite-based solar modules. Our approach here is to develop a proof of concept for a ZnO window, where the i-ZnO and the doped ZnO:Al are both sputtered in a reactive process. It is shown, that on cell level the device performance is preserved when replacing the standard RF processes with the fully reactive process. It is also shown, that the series resistance of module test structures increases with reactively sputtered ZnO. This finding, as well as a reduced damp heat stability of mini modules without encapsulation are tentatively assigned to an increased contact resistance and corrosion at the Molybdenum/ZnO interface within the interconnects.

  15. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B.V.; Clarke, M.; Hu, H.; Betz [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Initial growth and texture formation during reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN on Si(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T Q; Tsuji, Y; Ohsawa, T; Komiyama, H

    2002-01-01

    The initial growth and texture formation mechanism of titanium nitride (TiN) films were investigated by depositing TiN films on (111) silicon substrates by using reactive magnetron sputtering of a Ti metallic target under a N sub 2 /Ar atmosphere, and then analyzing the films in detail by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Two power sources for the sputtering, dc and rf, were compared. At the initial growth stage, a continuous amorphous film containing randomly oriented nuclei was observed when the film thickness was about 3 nm. The nuclei grew and formed a polycrystalline layer when the film thickness was about 6 nm. As the film grew further, its orientation changed depending on the deposition conditions. For dc sputtering, the appearance of (111) or (200)-preferred orientations depended on the N sub 2 partial pressure, and the intensity of the preferred orientation increased with increasing film thickness. For rf sputtering, however, when the film thickness was small (...

  17. Reconfigurable RF Filters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build upon our existing space microelectronics and hardening technologies and products, to research and develop a novel rad hard/tolerant RF...

  18. RF Measurement Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2014-01-01

    For the characterization of components, systems and signals in the radiofrequency (RF) and microwave ranges, several dedicated instruments are in use. In this article the fundamentals of the RF signal techniques are discussed. The key element in these front ends is the Schottky diode which can be used either as a RF mixer or as a single sampler. The spectrum analyser has become an absolutely indispensable tool for RF signal analysis. Here the front end is the RF mixer as the RF section of modern spectrum analyses has a ra ther complex architecture. The reasons for this complexity and certain working principles as well as limitations are discussed. In addition, an overview of the development of scalar and vector signal analysers is given. For the determination of the noise temperature of a one-port and the noise figure of a two-port, basic concepts and relations are shown as well as a brief discussion of commonly used noise-measurement techniques. In a further part of this article the operating principles of n...

  19. Quantitative reconstruction of the GDOES sputter depth profile of a monomolecular layer structure of thiourea on copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Jian, W.; Wang, J. Y.; Hofmann, S.; Shimizu, K.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution depth profiles of a thiourea (CH4N2S) molecular monolayer on a copper substrate obtained by radio frequency glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (rf-GDOES) are quantified by the Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI) model. Based on the molecular structure of the self-assembled thiourea layer, the measured intensity-sputtering time profiles of N, S, C and Cu are fitted to the MRI model results with an appropriate depth resolution function. The sputtering rate is determined accordingly, using two different approaches based on constant sputtering rate and on composition dependent sputtering rate. While the first approach requires an additional background for a fairly acceptable solution, the approach using a newly developed multielement dependent sputtering rate results in a complete and consistent reconstruction of all the measured elemental depth profiles. It is demonstrated that for depth profiling of the first few monolayers with rf-GDOES, the depth resolution Δz can be as low as 0.5 nm, which is of the order of the theoretical limit.

  20. Modeling target erosion during reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strijckmans, K., E-mail: Koen.Strijckmans@ugent.be; Depla, D.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The erosion of a target is simulated with the RSD2013 software during reactive magnetron sputtering. • The influence of redeposition on the target state and on the hysteresis is explained. • The racetrack formation along the hysteresis and as function of the redeposition is quantified. • Comparison of the racetrack and the sputter profile shows clear differences. - Abstract: The influence of the reactive sputter conditions on the racetrack and the sputter profile for an Al/O{sub 2} DC reactive sputter system is studied by modeling. The role of redeposition, i.e. the deposition of sputtered material back on the target, is therefore taken into account. The used model RSD2013 is capable of simulating the effect of redeposition on the target condition in a spatial resolved way. Comparison between including and excluding redeposition in the RSD2013 model shows that the in-depth oxidation profile of the target differs. Modeling shows that it is important to distinguish between the formed racetrack, i.e. the erosion depth profile, and the sputter profile. The latter defines the distribution of the sputtered atoms in the vacuum chamber. As the target condition defines the sputter yield, it does determine the racetrack and the sputter profile of the planar circular target. Both the shape of the racetrack and the sputter profile change as function of the redeposition fraction as well as function of the oxygen flow change. Clear asymmetries and narrowing are observed for the racetrack shape. Similar effects are noticed for the sputter profile but to a different extent. Based on this study, the often heard misconception that the racetrack shape defines the distribution of the sputtered atoms during reactive sputtering is proven to be wrong.

  1. ISR RF cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    In each ISR ring the radiofrequency cavities were installed in one 9 m long straight section. The RF system of the ISR had the main purpose to stack buckets of particles (most of the time protons)coming from the CPS and also to accelerate the stacked beam. The installed RF power per ring was 18 kW giving a peak accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The system had a very fine regulation feature allowing to lower the voltage down to 75 V in a smooth and well controlled fashion.

  2. Hydroxyapatite thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelea, V.; Morosanu, C.; Iliescu, M.; Mihailescu, I.N

    2004-04-30

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films for applications in the biomedical field were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) techniques. The depositions were performed from pure hydroxyapatite targets on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe (TiAlFe) alloys substrates. In order to prevent the HA film penetration by Ti atoms or ions diffused from the Ti-based alloy during and after deposition, the substrates were pre-coated with a thin buffer layer of TiN. In both cases, TiN was introduced by reactive PLD from TiN targets in low-pressure N{sub 2}. The PLD films were grown in vacuum onto room temperature substrates. The RF-MS films were deposited in low-pressure argon on substrates heated at 550 deg. C. The initially amorphous PLD thin films were annealed at 550 deg. C for 1 h in ambient air in order to restore the initial crystalline structure of HA target. The thickness of the PLD and RF-MS films were {approx}1 {mu}m and {approx}350 nm, respectively. All films were structurally studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and white light confocal microscopy (WLCM). The mechanical properties of the films were tested by Berkovich nano-indentation. Both PLD and RF-MS films mostly contain HA phase and exhibit good mechanical characteristics. Peaks of CaO were noticed as secondary phase in the GIXRD patterns only for RF-MS films. By its turn, the sputtered films were smoother as compared to the ones deposited by PLD (50 nm versus 250 nm average roughness). The RF-MS films were harder, more mechanically resistant and have a higher Young modulus.

  3. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  4. AC/RF Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ciovati, G.

    2014-07-17

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  5. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  6. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing, E-mail: yuezhx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80 W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup ¯}0)//α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)

  7. Non-conducting interfaces of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 produced in sputter deposition : The role of stoichiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dildar, I.M.; Boltje, D.B.; Hesselberth, M.H.S.; Aarts, J.; Xu, Q.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Harkema, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of interfaces between LaAlO3 films grown on SrTiO3 substrates singly terminated by TiO2. We used RF sputtering in a high-pressure oxygen atmosphere. The films are smooth, with flat surfaces. Transmission electron microscopy shows sharp and continuous interfaces

  8. Changes in the structural and electrical properties of vacuum post-annealed tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide (IWO and ITiO) filmswere deposited at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, and vacuum post-annealing was used to improve the electron mobility. With increasing deposition power, the as deposited films showed an increasingly

  9. R. f. -sputtered luminescent rare earth and yttrium oxysulphide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, C.; Martin, J.C.; Charreire, Y.

    1982-04-16

    The rare earth and yttrium oxysulphides form a family of highly luminescent materials and are of practical importance for cathode ray tubes and other visual display devices. The conventional screens are composed of a phosphor powder and have limited brightness, resolution and contrast. The brightness is limited by heating of the phosphor and poor thermal conductivity between the particles and the substrate. The resolution is limited by the particle size. The contrast is reduced by a high diffuse reflectivity of ambient light. Continuous thin films are not subject to these limitations. In previous attempts to produce such films by classical evaporation or sputtering techniques most of the luminous efficiency of the material was lost. When r.f. sputtering was carried out in standard vacuum equipment (10/sup -6/ Torr), a sulphur deficiency in the films was observed owing to the residual oxygen pressure. To overcome these difficulties, we used a new sputtering system designed for high purity deposition and mounted in an ultrahigh vacuum unit. Two methods were used to prepare Y/sub 2/O/sub 2/S and La/sub 2/O/sub 2/S luminescent films activated by Eu/sup 3 +/ (red) and by Tb/sup 3 +/ (green): (1) deposition from a pure oxysulphide target with subsequent treatment in H/sub 2/S between 700 and 850/sup 0/C; (2) deposition from a mixed sulphide-oxysulphide target with subsequent treatment in argon or an Ar-H/sub 2/ mixture between 500 and 850/sup 0/C. All films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence excited with a pulsed laser.

  10. Time-shaped RF brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. A.; Vannasse, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    One RF generator is controlled from two independent work stations with aid of RF switch and simple control boxes. Brazing may be stopped manually or automatically by external brazing-temperature controller or timer in RF switch housing. Switch is air-operated with water-cooled contacts. If switch loses air pressure, generator stops transmitting power. Time-shared outlet increases utilization and productivity of costly RF generator.

  11. The bioactivity mechanism of magnetron sputtered bioglass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbecaru, C. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Stan, G.E., E-mail: george_stan@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele 077125 (Romania); Pina, S. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Tulyaganov, D.U. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent, 700095 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Ferreira, J.M.F. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RF-sputtering: an efficient solution for synthesizing bioactive glass thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrostatic interactions between charged surface and ions from stagnant solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterogeneous-type nucleation of apatite from the SBF solution on the glass surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peculiarities of hydroxyapatite nucleation process and biomineralisation kinetics. - Abstract: Smooth and adherent bioactive coatings with {approx}0.5 {mu}m thickness were deposited onto Si substrates by the radiofrequency-magnetron sputtering method at 150 Degree-Sign C under 0.4 Pa of Ar atmosphere using a bioglass powder as target with a composition in the SiO{sub 2}-CaO-MgO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaF{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O system. The bioactivity of the as-prepared bioglass samples was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid for different periods of time up to 30 days. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry and energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed that important structural and compositional changes took place upon immersing the samples in SBF. Whilst the excellent biomineralisation capability of the BG thin films was demonstrated by the in vitro induction of extensive and homogenous crystalline hydroxyapatite in-growths on their surfaces, a series of bioactivity process kinetics peculiarities (derogations from the classical model) were emphasised and thoroughly discussed.

  12. Introduction to RF linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Pichoff, N

    2006-01-01

    After a short introduction to applications of RF linacs and their advantages and drawbacks as opposed to circular accelerators, the model of RF resonant cavities and their excitation by RF sources or beam is introduced. Then beam dynamics notions, essential to linacs, such as transit-time factor, synchronism, r.m.s. properties, matching and mismatching in linear or nonlinear forces, are presented.

  13. Exploration of Wettability and Optical Aspects of ZnO Nano Thin Films Synthesized by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik H. Patel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore structural, optical and wettabil‐ ity aspects of zinc oxide (ZnO nano thin films prepared by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The deposition time is varied from 10 to 50 minutes and sputtering pressure from 0.5 to 8.0 Pa. The increase of deposition time from 10 to 50 minutes leads to formation of a single (002 peak for ZnO films; (100, (101 and (110 peaks are not observed under these conditions. The intensity for (100, (002, (101 and (110 peaks decreases with a sputtering pressure value of 3.5 Pa and above. The optical transmis‐ sion and band gaps are measured by a UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The wettability and contact-angle hysteresis (CAH for deposited ZnO nano thin films are investigated for water, ethylene glycol, sunflower oil and formamide using a contact-angle goniometer.

  14. The Fabrication of Flow Field Plates for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Using Lithography and Radio Frequency Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jung; Chen, Chih-Hao; Cho, Kun-Ching; Hsu, Chun-Yao; Chen, Zhi-Lun

    2015-08-01

    This study uses lithography to etch flow fields on a single side of a printed circuit board (PCB) and combines a flow field plate with a collector plate to make innovative anode flow field plates and cathode flow field plates for a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). TiO2 thin film is also sputtered on the anode flow field plate using radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The experimental results show that the prepared DMFC has a better maximum power density of 11.928 mW/cm2. Furthermore, when a TiO2 thin film is sputtered on the flow field plate of the assembled DMFC, the maximum power density is 14.426 mW/cm2, which is actually 21% more than that for a DMFC with no TiO2 thin film coated on the flow field plate.

  15. Tailored stoichiometries of silicon carbonitride thin films prepared by combined radio frequency magnetron sputtering and ion beam synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, M.; Geckle, U.; Trouillet, V.; Rudolphi, M.; Baumann, H.

    2005-07-01

    Homogenous Si-C-N films of 120 nm thickness have been successfully fabricated by means of rf magnetron sputtering combined with ion implantation. These means are capable of producing various tailored stoichiometries of so far unequaled nitrogen concentration and high purity (O<0.2 at. %, H<0.5 at. %). The achieved compounds Si2CN4,SiCN2, and SiC2N2.2 consist of SiN4 tetrahedron layers interconnected by carbodiimid bridges. Stoichiometry, chemical binding states, and homogeneity of these layers as well as the reproducibility have been investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, non-Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy, and resonant nuclear reaction analyses. Furthermore, sputter induced effects on the Si-C-N system during surface analytical characterization using Ar+ ions at 250 and 3250 eV for sputter cleaning have been studied carefully.

  16. DEPOSITION OF NIOBIUM AND OTHER SUPERCONDUCTING MATERIALS WITH HIGH POWER IMPULSE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING: CONCEPT AND FIRST RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk, Russia; Anders, Andre; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Lim, Sunnie; Mentink, Matthijs; Slack, Jonathan L.; Wallig, Joseph G.; Nollau, Alexander V.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2011-07-24

    Niobium coatings on copper cavities have been considered as a cost-efficient replacement of bulk niobium RF cavities, however, coatings made by magnetron sputtering have not quite lived up to high expectations due to Q-slope and other issues. High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a promising emerging coatings technology which combines magnetron sputtering with a pulsed power approach. The magnetron is turned into a metal plasma source by using very high peak power density of ~ 1 kW/cm{sup 2}. In this contribution, the cavity coatings concept with HIPIMS is explained. A system with two cylindrical, movable magnetrons was set up with custom magnetrons small enough to be inserted into 1.3 GHz cavities. Preliminary data on niobium HIPIMS plasma and the resulting coatings are presented. The HIPIMS approach has the potential to be extended to film systems beyond niobium, including other superconducting materials and/or multilayer systems.

  17. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  18. Microwave and RF engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sorrentino, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    An essential text for both students and professionals, combining detailed theory with clear practical guidance This outstanding book explores a large spectrum of topics within microwave and radio frequency (RF) engineering, encompassing electromagnetic theory, microwave circuits and components. It provides thorough descriptions of the most common microwave test instruments and advises on semiconductor device modelling. With examples taken from the authors' own experience, this book also covers:network and signal theory;electronic technology with guided electromagnetic pr

  19. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the sputtered Ti doped hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, A; Padmanabhan, S C; Ak Azem, F; Braic, M; Titorencu, I; Birlik, I; Morris, M A; Braic, V

    2016-10-01

    The hydroxyapatite enriched with Ti were prepared as possible candidates for biomedical applications especially for implantable devices that are in direct contact to the bone. The hydroxyapatites with different Ti content were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Ti-6Al-4V alloy using pure hydroxyapatite and TiO2 targets. The content of Ti was modified by changing the RF power fed on TiO2 target. The XPS and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite structure. The hardness and elastic modulus of the hydroxyapatite were increased by Ti addition. After 5 days of culture, the cell viability of the Ti-6Al-4V was enhanced by depositing with undoped or doped hydroxyapatite. The Ti additions led to an increase in cell viability of hydroxyapatite, after 5 days of culture. The electron microscopy showed the presence of more cells on the surface of Ti-enriched hydroxyapatite than those observed on the surface of the uncoated alloys or undoped hydroxyapatite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elastic properties of B-C-N films grown by N{sub 2}-reactive sputtering from boron carbide targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, E.; Jiménez Riobóo, R. J.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sánchez-Marcos, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dept. Química-Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz-Martín, A.; Prieto, J. E.; Joco, V. [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-07

    Boron-carbon-nitrogen films were grown by RF reactive sputtering from a B{sub 4}C target and N{sub 2} as reactive gas. The films present phase segregation and are mechanically softer than boron carbide films (a factor of more than 2 in Young's modulus). This fact can turn out as an advantage in order to select buffer layers to better anchor boron carbide films on substrates eliminating thermally induced mechanical tensions.

  1. Transparent conducting thin films by co-sputtering of ZnO-ITO targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Paz; Antony, Aldrin; Roldan, Ruben; Nos, Oriol; Frigeri, Paolo Antonio; Asensi, Jose Miguel; Bertomeu, Joan [Grup d' Energia Solar, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Transparent and conductive Zn-In-Sn-O (ZITO) amorphous thin films have been deposited at room temperature by the rf magnetron co-sputtering of ITO and ZnO targets. Co-sputtering gives the possibility to deposit multicomponent oxide thin films with different compositions by varying the power to one of the targets. In order to make ZITO films with different Zn content, a constant rf power of 50 W was used for the ITO target, where as the rf power to ZnO target was varied from 25 W to 150 W. The as deposited films showed an increase in Zn content ratio from 17 to 67% as the power to ZnO target was increased from 25 to 150 W. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the as deposited films are reported. The films showed an average transmittance over 80% in the visible wavelength range. The electrical resistivity and optical band gap of the ZITO films were found to depend on the Zn content in the film. The ZITO films deposited at room temperature with lower Zn content ratios showed better optical transmission and electrical properties compared to ITO film. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Molecular anions sputtered from fluorides

    CERN Document Server

    Gnaser, H

    2002-01-01

    The emission of negatively charged ions from different fluoride samples (LiF, CaF sub 2 , LaF sub 3 and HfF sub 4) induced by sputtering with a 14.5-keV Cs sup + ion beam was studied. Sputtered ions were detected in a high-sensitivity double-focusing mass spectrometer. In particular, the possible existence of small doubly charged negative molecular ions was investigated. But whereas singly charged species of the general type MF sub n sup - (where M represents a metal atom) were detected with high abundances, stable dianions were observed in an unambiguous way only for one molecule: HfF sub 6 sup 2 sup -. The flight time through the mass spectrometer of approx 35 mu s establishes a lower limit with respect to the intrinsic lifetime of this doubly charged ion. For singly charged anions abundance distributions and, in selected cases, emission-energy spectra were recorded. For two ion species (Ca sup - and HfF sub 5 sup -) isotopic fractionation effects caused by the (velocity dependent) ionization process were d...

  3. Dependence of magnetostriction of sputtered Tb-Fe films on preparation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y.; Arai, K.I.; Ishiyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Institute of Electrical Communication); Honda, T. (Tokin Corp., Sendai (Japan). Sendai Research Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Amorphous Tb-Fe thin films prepared by sputtering method in the compositional range Tb[sub x]Fe[sub 1[minus]x] (x = 0--0.5) have been investigated in view of their potential for use in electromagnetic thin film actuators. The authors examined the magnetostriction and the coercive force for the Tb-Fe films for different sputtering conditions to obtain both soft magnetic properties 2nd large magnetostriction in this system. As a result, they obtained Tb-Fe thin films having large magnetostrictions (180[times]10[sup [minus]6] at 1kOe) and low coercive force (60--70 Oe). These films were prepared under the conditions of the composition of 45--50at%Tb, Ar gas pressure of 4mTorr, rf input power of 200W and using water cooled substrates. A trial actuator using magnetostrictive thin films is also reported.

  4. Friction and wear of radiofrequency-sputtered borides, silicides, and carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The friction and wear properties of several refractory compound coatings were examined. These compounds were applied to 440 C bearing steel surfaces by radiofrequency (RF) sputtering. The refractory compounds were the titanium and molybdenum borides, the titanium and molybdenum silicides, and the titanium, molybdenum, and boron carbides. Friction testing was done with a pin-on-disk wear apparatus at loads from 0.1 to 5.0 newtons. Generally, the best wear properties were obtained when the coatings were bias sputtered onto 440 C disks that had been preoxidized. Adherence was improved because of the better bonding of the coatings to the iron oxide formed during preoxidation. As a class the carbides provided wear protection to the highest loads. Titanium boride coatings provided low friction and good wear properties to moderate loads.

  5. SPS RF cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. A power of up to 790 kW can be supplied to each giving a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of sputtered titanium nitride as a nucleation layer for novel neural electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sait, R. A.; Cross, R. B. M.

    2017-12-01

    A growing demand for chronically implantable electrodes has led to a search for the most suitable neural electrode interface material. Nobel metals such as platinum (Pt) are inadequate for electrode/neuron interfaces at small scales due to their poor electrochemical properties, low charge injection and high charge density per unit area. Titanium nitride (TiN) has been implemented in neural electrodes application due to its outstanding properties. In this work, TiNx films were deposited by non-reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering towards the development of a novel TiN nanowires (NWs) neural interface. Although, there is substantial work on this material, its growth using non-reactive RF magnetron sputtering has not been reported previously and optimised towards the growth of TiN NWs and their use in neural interface applications. The sputtering parameters of RF power and argon (Ar) flow rate were varied in order to investigate their effects on the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of the TiN films. A dense film morphology was observed in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of TiN thin films showing a columnar structure. The film preferential orientation was changed between (200) and (111) with Ar flow rate due to the variation of the kinetic energy (KE) of the sputtered atoms. The crystallites size obtained were in the range of 13-95 nm. Surface roughness was found to increase from 0.69 to 1.95 nm as Ar flow rate increased. TiNx films showed a good electrical resistivity of 228 μΩ cm. Stoichiometry was found to vary with sputtering conditions in which the nitrogen content was found to deplete from the film at low Ar flow rate. The electrochemical behaviour of TiN films were characterised and the highest capacitance value obtained was 0.416 mF/cm2. From the results, it can be suggested that TiN thin film can be easily optimised to act as a nucleation layer for the growth of nanowires.

  7. Formation and control of stoichiometric hafnium nitride thin films by direct sputtering of hafnium nitride target

    CERN Document Server

    Gotoh, Y; Ishikawa, J; Liao, M Y

    2003-01-01

    Hafnium nitride thin films were prepared by radio-frequency sputter deposition with a hafnium nitride target. Deposition was performed with various rf powers, argon pressures, and substrate temperatures, in order to investigate the influences of these parameters on the film properties, particularly the nitrogen composition. It was found that stoichiometric hafnium nitride films were formed at an argon gas pressure of less than 2 Pa, irrespective of the other deposition parameters within the range investigated. Maintaining the nitrogen composition almost stoichiometric, orientation, stress, and electrical resistivity of the films could be controlled with deposition parameters. (author)

  8. Microstructure of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    crystallinity needed for the charge transport proper- ties. To extend ZnO applications to flexible polymer substrates, a reduc- tion of the growth temperature is...cathodic vacuum arc, Thin Solid Films 398–399 (2001) 244. [11] C.F. Yu, C.W. Sung, S.H. Chen, S.J. Sun, Relationship between the photoluminescence ... Photoluminescence and heteroepitaxy of ZnO on sapphire substrate (0001) grown by rf magnetron sputtering, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18 (2000) 2864. r

  9. Sputter-deposited low reflectance vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide thin films on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manish Kumar; Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Bera, Parthasarathi; Dey, Arjun

    2017-09-01

    A single layer antireflective, smart, crystalline and nanocolumnar pulsed RF magnetron sputtered vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide thin film on silicon is proposed for the alternate antireflective material for silicon based futuristic solar cell application. The VO-MO film with 130 nm thickness grown at 200 W shows significant low reflectance (1% within the 500-600 nm region). The VO-MO film with lowest reflectance shows a phase transition at around 55 °C which is beneficial due to film inherent variable IR emittance behaviour which may be helpful for eliminating excess heat load generated during in-service of silicon solar cell.

  10. Prominent electric properties of BiFeO₃ shells sputtered on ZnO-nanorod cores with LaNiO₃ buffer layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Kuan-Chang; Yang, Tung-Han; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2013-06-07

    In this work, template-assisted methods were adopted to grow BiFeO3 (BFO)-nanorod arrays on substrates. Well-aligned ZnO-nanorod arrays (ZNAs) grown hydrothermally were chosen as positive templates. It was found that perovskite BFO could not be radio frequency (RF)-magnetron sputtered directly on a ZNA at elevated temperatures. Only amorphous BFO was obtained. However, polycrystalline BFO shells could be fabricated by RF-magnetron sputtering on ZNA templates by the introduction of LaNiO3 (LNO) buffer layers. The LNO buffer layer deposited on the ZNA by RF-magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to improve the adhesion and crystallization of the sequentially sputtered BFO shells. The electrical properties were evaluated by conductive atomic force microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy. Bulk-limited Poole-Frenkel emission dominates the conduction of BFO shells at positive bias, while barrier-limited Schottky emission accounts for the conduction at negative bias due to the interface between the Pt/Ir-coated tip and the BFO. The piezoelectric coefficient (d33) was estimated to be ∼32.93 pm V(-1) and a polarization of 133 μC cm(-2) was derived. These values are higher than those reported previously for BFO films.

  11. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  12. SPS RF Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The picture shows one of the two initially installed cavities. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also gradually increased: by end 1980 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412017X, 7411048X, 7505074.

  13. LANSCE RF System Refurbishment

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Daniel; Kwon, Sung-il; Lyles, John T M; Lynch, Michael; Prokop, Mark; Reass, William; Tallerico, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is in the planning phase of a refurbishment project that will sustain reliable facility operations well into the next decade. The LANSCE accelerator was constructed in the late 1960s and early 1970s and is a national user facility that provides pulsed protons and spallation neutrons for defense and civilian research and applications. We will be replacing all the 201 MHz RF systems and a substantial fraction of the 805 MHz RF systems and high voltage systems. The current 44 LANSCE 805 MHz, 1.25 MW klystrons have an average in-service time in excess of 110,000 hours. All 44 must be in service to operate the accelerator. There are only 9 spares left. The klystrons receive their DC power from the power system originally installed in 1960. Although this power system has been extremely reliable, gas analysis of the insulating oil is indicating age related degradation that will need attention in the next few years. This paper will provide the design details of the new R...

  14. Nanoscale growth twins in sputtered metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoagland, Richard G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, X [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    We review recent studies on the mechanical properties of sputtered Cu and 330 stainless steel films with {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} nanoscale growth twins preferentially oriented perpendicular to growth direction. The mechanisms of formation of growth twins during sputtering and the deformation mechanisms that enable usually high strengths in nanotwinned structures are highlighted. Growth twins in sputtered films possess good thermal stability at elevated temperature, providing an approach to extend the application of high strength nanostructured metals to higher temperatures.

  15. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  16. Properties of hydrogenated amorphous germanium nitrogen alloys prepared by reactive sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, I.; Kawai, H.; Komiyama, H.; Tanaka, K.

    1989-02-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous germanium-nitrogen alloys (a-GeNx:H) were synthesized as a new group of amorphous semiconductors by rf(13.56 MHz) reactive sputtering of a Ge target in a gas mixture of Ar+N2+H2 under a variety of deposition conditions such as gas ratio, rf-discharge power, and substrate temperature. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of those a-GeNx:H alloys were systematically measured and are discussed in relation to their preparation conditions. The optical band gap E04 of a-GeNx:H alloys could be continuously controlled in the range from 1.1 eV to 3.3 eV primarily depending on the atomic N/Ge ratio in the film. The role of hydrogen and nitrogen in the optical and electrical properties of the material is also crucially demonstrated.

  17. RF breakdown by toroidal helicons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bounded whistlers are well-known for their efficient plasma production capabilities in thin cylindrical tubes. In this paper we shall present their radio frequency (RF) breakdown and discharge sustaining capabilities in toroidal systems. Pulsed RF power in the electronmagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) frequency regime is fed to ...

  18. Circuit design for RF transceivers

    CERN Document Server

    Leenaerts, Domine; Vaucher, Cicero S

    2007-01-01

    Second edition of this successful 2001 RF Circuit Design book, has been updated, latest technology reviews have been added as well as several actual case studies. Due to the authors being active in industry as well as academia, this should prove to be an essential guide on RF Transceiver Design for students and engineers.

  19. Fabrication of superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films by magnetron co-sputtering on (001) MgO substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabretti, Savio; Thomas, Patrick; Meinert, Markus; Thomas, Andy [Bielefeld University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We fabricated superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin films on (001) MgO substrates. The samples were prepared by magnetron rf and dc co-sputtering on heated substrates. They were annealed ex-situ for one hour at temperatures between 450 C and 750 C. We will show that the substrate temperature during the sputtering process and the post annealing temperatures play a crucial role in forming MgB{sub 2} superconducting thin films. We achieved a critical onset temperature of 27.1 K for a film thickness of 30 nm. The crystal structures were measured by x-ray diffraction.

  20. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  1. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  2. Low-energy sputterings with the Monte Carlo Program ACAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Y.; Mizuno, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The Monte Carlo program ACAT was developed to determine the total sputtering yields and angular distributions of sputtered atoms in physical processes. From computer results of the incident-energy dependent sputterings for various ion-target combinations the mass-ratio dependence and the bombarding-angle dependence of sputtering thresholds was obtained with the help of the Matsunami empirical formula for sputtering yields. The mass-ratio dependence of sputtering thresholds is in good agreement with recent theoretical results. The threshold energy of light-ion sputtering is a slightly increasing function of angle of incidence, while that of heavy-ion sputtering has a minimum value near theta = 60 deg. The angular distributions of sputtered atoms are also calculated for heavy ions, medium ions, and light ions, and reasonable agreements between calculated angular distributions and experimental results are obtained.

  3. Computer simulation of sputtering of graphite target in magnetron sputtering device with two zones of erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanov R.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation program for discharge in a magnetron sputtering device with two erosion zones was developed. Basic laws of the graphite target sputtering process and transport of sputtered material to the substrate were taken into account in the Monte Carlo code. The results of computer simulation for radial distributions of density and energy flux of carbon atoms on the substrate (at different values of discharge current and pressure of the working gas confirmed the possibility of obtaining qualitative homogeneous films using this magnetron sputtering device. Also the discharge modes were determined for this magnetron sputtering device, in which it was possible to obtain such energy and density of carbon atoms fluxes, which were suitable for deposition of carbon films containing carbon nanotubes and other nanoparticles.

  4. Sputtered Al-doped ZnO transparent conducting thin films suitable for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ayadi, Z., E-mail: Zouhaier.BenAyadi@fsg.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Mahdhi, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Djessas, K. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES-CNRS), TECNOSUD, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan (France); Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 68860, Perpignan Cedex9 (France); Gauffier, J.L. [Département de Génie Physique, INSA de Toulouse, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); and others

    2014-02-28

    Highly transparent conducting Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been grown onto p-type porous silicon substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering at room temperature using aluminum doped nanocrystalline powder. The obtained AZO films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and preferentially oriented in the (002) crystallographic direction. The films are highly transparent in the visible wavelength region with a transmittance higher than 85% and an electrical resistivity of 1.56 × 10{sup −4} Ω·cm was obtained at room temperature. On the other hand, we have studied the position of the p–n junction involved in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:SnO{sub 2}/(n)AZO/Si(p) structure, by electron-beam induced current technique. Current density–voltage characterizations in dark and under illumination were also investigated. The cell exhibits an efficiency of 5%. - Highlights: • Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were grown by RF-magnetron sputtering. • AZO nanopowder compacted target was prepared by a sol–gel method. • AZO thin films are polycrystalline and have preferred orientation along c-axis. • We report a photovoltaic effect in Si(p)/porous silicon/AZO heterostructure. • The cell exhibits an efficiency of 5%.

  5. Co-sputtered amorphous Ge-Sb-Se thin films: optical properties and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenkovič, Tomáš; Němec, Petr; Gutwirth, Jan; Baudet, Emeline; Specht, Marion; Gueguen, Yann; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.; Nazabal, Virginie

    2017-05-01

    The unique properties of amorphous chalcogenides such as wide transparency in the infrared region, low phonon energy, photosensitivity and high linear and nonlinear refractive index, make them prospective materials for photonics devices. The important question is whether the chalcogenides are stable enough or how the photosensitivity could be exacerbated for demanded applications. Of this view, the Ge-Sb-Se system is undoubtedly an interesting glassy system given the antinomic behavior of germanium and antimony with respect to photosensitivity. The amorphous Ge-Sb-Se thin films were fabricated by a rf-magnetron co-sputtering technique employing the following cathodes: GeSe2, Sb2Se3 and Ge28Sb12Se60. Radio-frequency sputtering is widely used for film fabrication due to its relative simplicity, easy control, and often stoichiometric material transfer from target to substrate. The advantage of this technique is the ability to explore a wide range of chalcogenide film composition by means of adjusting the contribution of each target. This makes the technique considerably effective for the exploration of properties mentioned above. In the present work, the influence of the composition determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on the optical properties was studied. Optical bandgap energy Egopt was determined using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The morphology and topography of the selenide sputtered films was studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The films structure was determined using Raman scattering spectroscopy.

  6. Optical and structural properties of sputtered CdS films for thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donguk [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young [High-Speed Railroad Infrastructure System Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang 437-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minha [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngkwan [Water Facility Research Center, K-water, 125, 1689 Beon-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-730 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Seob [Department of Photoelectronics Information, Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyoeng, E-mail: jaehyeong@skku.edu [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Photo current–voltage curves (a) and the quantum efficiency (QE) (b) for the solar cell with CdS film grown at 300 °C. - Highlights: • CdS thin films were grown by a RF magnetron sputtering method. • Influence of growth temperature on the properties of CdS films was investigated. • At higher T{sub g}, the crystallinity of the films improved and the grains enlarged. • CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at 300 °C. - Abstract: CdS thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at various temperatures. The effects of growth temperature on crystallinity, surface morphology and optical properties of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectra, UV–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. As the growth temperature was increased, the crystallinity of the sputtered CdS films was improved and the grains were enlarged. The characteristics of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell appeared to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature of the CdS films. Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at a growth temperature of 300 °C.

  7. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Xinghua [Hubei Aerospace Industry Technology Academe Special Vehicle Technology Center, Wuhan (China); Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  8. ZnO:Al Grown by Sputtering from Two Different Target Sources: A Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A. Alnajjar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-doped ZnO thin films were deposited from two different targets. Ceramic targets were used in RF magnetron sputtering, whereas pulsed magnetron sputtering was used to grow films from powder targets. ZnO:Al films with different thicknesses were sputtered directly on soda-lime glass substrates. The film thickness was in the 0.04–2.0 μm range. The microstructure, such as the grain size and the texture, of the two differently grown ZnO:Al transparent conductive oxide films of different thickness, was studied using X-ray diffraction θ/2θ scans. The optical properties, such as the transmittance and reflectance, were measured using a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. Further, the sheet resistance, resistivity, carrier concentration, and Hall mobility of these ZnO:Al thin films were measured as a function of film thickness. These results obtained from the two different deposition techniques were compared and contrasted.

  9. Sputtered Encapsulation as Wafer Level Packaging for Isolatable MEMS Devices: A Technique Demonstrated on a Capacitive Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrul Azlan Hamzah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses sputtered silicon encapsulation as a wafer level packaging approach for isolatable MEMS devices. Devices such as accelerometers, RF switches, inductors, and filters that do not require interaction with the surroundings to function, could thus be fully encapsulated at the wafer level after fabrication. A MEMSTech 50g capacitive accelerometer was used to demonstrate a sputtered encapsulation technique. Encapsulation with a very uniform surface profile was achieved using spin-on glass (SOG as a sacrificial layer, SU-8 as base layer, RF sputtered silicon as main structural layer, eutectic gold-silicon as seal layer, and liquid crystal polymer (LCP as outer encapsulant layer. SEM inspection and capacitance test indicated that the movable elements were released after encapsulation. Nanoindentation test confirmed that the encapsulated device is sufficiently robust to withstand a transfer molding process. Thus, an encapsulation technique that is robust, CMOS compatible, and economical has been successfully developed for packaging isolatable MEMS devices at the wafer level.

  10. Novel Photonic RF Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging on recent breakthroughs in broadband photonic devices and components for RF and microwave applications, SML proposes a new type of broadband microwave...

  11. Sputtering of Lunar Regolith by Solar Wind Protons and Heavy Ions, and General Aspects of Potential Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnussirat, S. T.; Sabra, M. S.; Barghouty, A. F.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Meyer, F.

    2014-01-01

    New simulation results for the sputtering of lunar soil surface by solar-wind protons and heavy ions will be presented. Previous simulation results showed that the sputtering process has significant effects and plays an important role in changing the surface chemical composition, setting the erosion rate and the sputtering process timescale. In this new work and in light of recent data, we briefly present some theoretical models which have been developed to describe the sputtering process and compare their results with recent calculation to investigate and differentiate the roles and the contributions of potential (or electrodynamic) sputtering from the standard (or kinetic) sputtering.

  12. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  13. Synthesis of Alumina Thin Films Using Reactive Magnetron Sputtering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, G.; Palacio, C.; Trujillo, M.; Arroyave, M.

    2017-06-01

    Alumina (Al2O3) thin films were deposited on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering in reactive conditions between an aluminium target and oxygen 99.99% pure. The plasma was formed employing Argon with an R.F power of 100 W, the dwelling time was 3 hours. 4 samples were produced with temperatures between 350 and 400 ºC in the substrate by using an oxygen flow of 2 and 8 sccm, the remaining parameters of the process were fixed. The coatings and substrates were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) in order to compare their properties before and after deposition. The films thicknesses were between 47 and 70 nm. The results show that at high oxygen flow the alumina structure prevails in the coatings while at lower oxygen flow only aluminum is deposited in the coatings. It was shown that the temperature increases grain size and roughness while decreasing the thicknesses of the coatings.

  14. SiO2 Etching Characteristics in DC and RF Magnetron Plasmas with an External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Kuwahara, Kiyoshi; Fujiyama, Hiroshi

    1998-10-01

    Using an external magnetic field type of magnetron plasma equipment, we compared of SiO2 (cultured quartz crystal) etching characteristics in DC and RF magnetron plasmas. The etching rates were about the same in both DC and RF magnetron plasmas at the same power level, but the etching uniformity in RF magnetron plasma was better than that in DC. In addition, it was found that the etching mechanisms were ion assist etching in DC magnetron plasma and chemical etching in RF magnetron plasma, respectively. In the mixed gas (CF_4+Ar, CF_4+O_2) plasmas, it was confirmed that the creation of C_xFy polymer in RF magnetron sputtering decreased comparing with that in DC, which is based on an observation of FE-SEM on the surface of etched substrate and an investigation on the elimination effect of C_xFy polymer by the feedgas of O_2. In this study, we obtained the optimum etching characteristics for 200W in RF power, 236gauss in magnetic flux density and 1.7×10-3torr in operation pressure. Furthermore, crystal resonators by using inverted mesa blanks (etched culture quartz crystal) was created in RF magnetron plasma and their electrical characteristics as a crystal resonator were measured. As a result, it was found that the fundamental mode of the crystal resonators was about 120MHz for 13.8μm in thickness.

  15. Characterization of superconducting nanometric multilayer samples for superconducting rf applications: First evidence of magnetic screening effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. Antoine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The best rf bulk niobium accelerating cavities have nearly reached their ultimate limits at rf equatorial magnetic field H≈200  mT close to the thermodynamic critical field H_{c}. In 2006 Gurevich proposed to use nanoscale layers of superconducting materials with high values of H_{c}>H_{c}^{Nb} for magnetic shielding of bulk niobium to increase the breakdown magnetic field of superconducting rf cavities. Depositing good quality layers inside a whole cavity is rather difficult, so as a first step, characterization of single layer coating and multilayers was conducted on high quality sputtered samples by applying the technique used for the preparation of superconducting electronics circuits. The samples were characterized by x-ray reflectivity, dc resistivity (PPMS, and dc magnetization (SQUID measurements. Dc magnetization curves of a 250 nm thick Nb film have been measured, with and without a magnetron sputtered coating of a single or multiple stack of 15 nm MgO and 25 nm NbN layers. The Nb samples with/without the coating exhibit different behaviors and clearly show an enhancement of the magnetic penetration field. Because SQUID measurements are influenced by edge and shape effects, we propose to develop a specific local magnetic measurement of H_{C1} based on ac third harmonic analysis in order to reveal the true screening effect of multilayers.

  16. Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.Q.

    1989-12-01

    The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.

  17. Sputtering and mixing of supported nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Sáez, J.C., E-mail: jc.jimenez@upm.es [Dept. Física y Química Aplicadas a la Técnica Aeronaútica, ETSIAE, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pérez-Martín, A.M.C.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, J.J. [Dept. Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    Sputtering and mixing of Co nanoparticles supported in Cu(0 0 1) under 1-keV argon bombardment are studied using molecular-dynamics simulations. Particles of different initial size have been considered. The cluster height decreases exponentially with increasing fluence. In nanoparticles, sputtering yield is significantly enhanced compared to bulk. In fact, the value of this magnitude depends on the cluster height. A theoretical model for sputtering is introduced with acceptable results compared to those obtained by simulation. Discrepancies happen mainly for very small particles. Mixing rate at the interface is quantified; and besides, the influence of border effects for clusters of different initial size is assessed. Mixing rate and border length–surface area ratio for the initial interface show a proportionality relation. The phenomenon of ion-induced burrowing of metallic nanoparticles is analysed.

  18. Resumen de tesis. El partido socialista galego (P.S.G.) y el discurso de los derechos del franquismo a la transición democrática

    OpenAIRE

    Carbajo Vázquez, Judith

    2016-01-01

    [ES] En el Partido Socialista Galego (PSG) confluyen tanto los herederos del Partido Galeguista de preguerra, o la vanguardia culturalista galleguista, en sus orígenes, como algunos de los llamados a ser protagonistas de la Galicia democrática, ya militando en el socialismo (a partir de la conformación del PSdG-PSOE) ya en el nacionalismo, liderados por su secretario xeral, Xosé M. Beiras, cabeza del futuro BNG. En esta tesis se analizan la formación, evolución histórica, prácticas discur...

  19. Biased HiPIMS technology for superconducting rf accelerating cavities coating

    CERN Document Server

    G. Rosaz, G.; Sonato, D.; Calatroni, S.; Ehiasarian, A.; Junginger, T.; Taborelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. CERN already studied the possibility to use such a coating method for SRF accelerating cavities. Results are promising but not better from a RF point of view than dcMS coatings. Thanks to these results the next step is to go towards a biased HiPIMS approach. However the geometry of the cavities leads to complex changes in the coating setup in order to apply a bias voltage. Coating system tweaking and first superconducting properties of biased samples are presented.

  20. Tailoring the soft magnetic properties of sputtered multilayers by microstructure engineering for high frequency applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu V. Falub

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic Ni78.5Fe21.5, Co91.5Ta4.5Zr4 and Fe52Co28B20 thin films laminated with SiO2, Al2O3, AlN, and Ta2O5 dielectric interlayers were deposited on 8” Si wafers using DC, pulsed DC and RF cathodes in the industrial, high-throughput Evatec LLS-EVO-II magnetron sputtering system. A typical multilayer consists of a bilayer stack up to 50 periods, with alternating (50-100 nm thick magnetic layers and (2-20 nm thick dielectric interlayers. We introduced the in-plane magnetic anisotropy in these films during sputtering by a combination of a linear magnetic field, seed layer texturing by means of linear collimators, and the oblique incidence inherent to the geometry of the sputter system. Depending on the magnetic material, the anisotropy field for these films was tuned in the range of ∼(7-120 Oe by choosing the appropriate interlayer thickness, the aspect ratios of the linear collimators in front of the targets, and the sputter process parameters (e.g. pressure, power, DC pulse frequency, while the coercivity was kept low, ∼(0.05-0.9 Oe. The alignment of the easy axis (EA on the 8” wafers was typically between ±1.5° and ±4°. We discuss the interdependence of structure and magnetic properties in these films, as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM, X-ray reflectivity (XRR with reciprocal space mapping (RSM and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE measurements.

  1. Tailoring the soft magnetic properties of sputtered multilayers by microstructure engineering for high frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falub, Claudiu V.; Rohrmann, Hartmut; Bless, Martin; Meduňa, Mojmír; Marioni, Miguel; Schneider, Daniel; Richter, Jan H.; Padrun, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Soft magnetic Ni78.5Fe21.5, Co91.5Ta4.5Zr4 and Fe52Co28B20 thin films laminated with SiO2, Al2O3, AlN, and Ta2O5 dielectric interlayers were deposited on 8" Si wafers using DC, pulsed DC and RF cathodes in the industrial, high-throughput Evatec LLS-EVO-II magnetron sputtering system. A typical multilayer consists of a bilayer stack up to 50 periods, with alternating (50-100) nm thick magnetic layers and (2-20) nm thick dielectric interlayers. We introduced the in-plane magnetic anisotropy in these films during sputtering by a combination of a linear magnetic field, seed layer texturing by means of linear collimators, and the oblique incidence inherent to the geometry of the sputter system. Depending on the magnetic material, the anisotropy field for these films was tuned in the range of ˜(7-120) Oe by choosing the appropriate interlayer thickness, the aspect ratios of the linear collimators in front of the targets, and the sputter process parameters (e.g. pressure, power, DC pulse frequency), while the coercivity was kept low, ˜(0.05-0.9) Oe. The alignment of the easy axis (EA) on the 8" wafers was typically between ±1.5° and ±4°. We discuss the interdependence of structure and magnetic properties in these films, as revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) with reciprocal space mapping (RSM) and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements.

  2. Characteristics of sputtered Al-doped ZnO films for transparent electrodes of organic thin-film transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Seob, E-mail: yongspark2011@gmail.com [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Seonam University, Asan-si, 336-922 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han-Ki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Seonam University, Asan-si, 336-922 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-01

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films were deposited with various RF powers at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The electrical properties of the AZO film were improved with the increasing RF power. These results can be explained by the improvement of the crystallinity in the AZO film. We fabricated the organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) of the bottom gate structure using pentacene active and poly-4-vinyl phenol gate dielectric layers on the indium tin oxide gate electrode, and estimated the device properties of the OTFTs including drain current-drain voltage (I{sub D}-V{sub D}), drain current-gate voltage (I{sub D}-V{sub G}), threshold voltage (V{sub T}), on/off ratio and field effect mobility. The AZO film that grown at 160 W RF power exhibited low resistivity (1.54 x 10{sup -3} {Omega}.cm), high crystallinity and uniform surface morphology. The pentacene thin-film transistor using the AZO film that's fabricated at 160 W RF power exhibited good device performance such as the mobility of 0.94 cm{sup 2}/V s and the on/off ratio of {approx} 10{sup 5}. Consequently, the performance of the OTFT such as larger field-effect carrier mobility was determined the conductivity of the AZO source/drain (S/D) electrode. AZO films prepared at room temperature by the sputtering method are suitable for the S/D electrodes in the OTFTs.

  3. Collimated Magnetron Sputter Deposition for Mirror Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vickery, A.; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2008-01-01

    At the Danish National Space Center (DNSC), a planar magnetron sputtering chamber has been established as a research and production coating facility for curved X-ray mirrors for hard X-ray optics for astronomical X-ray telescopes. In the following, we present experimental evidence that a collimat......At the Danish National Space Center (DNSC), a planar magnetron sputtering chamber has been established as a research and production coating facility for curved X-ray mirrors for hard X-ray optics for astronomical X-ray telescopes. In the following, we present experimental evidence...

  4. Photonometers for coating and sputtering machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václavík J.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of photonometers (alternative name of optical monitor of a vacuum deposition process for coating and sputtering machines is based on photonometers produced by companies like SATIS or HV Dresden. Photometers were developed in the TOPTEC centre and its predecessor VOD (Optical Development Workshop of Institut of Plasma Physics AS CR for more than 10 years. The article describes current status of the technology and ideas which will be incorporated in next development steps. Hardware and software used on coating machines B63D, VNA600 and sputtering machine UPM810 is presented.

  5. Control of p-type and n-type thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride thin films by combinatorial sputter coating technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masahiro, E-mail: goto.masahiro@nims.go.jp [Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Green Research on Energy and Environmental Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Sasaki, Michiko [Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Xu, Yibin [Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Materials Database Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhan, Tianzhuo [Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Isoda, Yukihiro [Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Green Research on Energy and Environmental Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Shinohara, Yoshikazu [Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Green Research on Energy and Environmental Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • p- and n-type bismuth telluride thin films have been synthesized using a combinatorial sputter coating system (COSCOS) while changing only one of the experimental conditions, the RF power. • The dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was optimized by the technique. • The fabrication of a Π-structured TE device was demonstrated. - Abstract: p- and n-type bismuth telluride thin films have been synthesized by using a combinatorial sputter coating system (COSCOS). The crystal structure and crystal preferred orientation of the thin films were changed by controlling the coating condition of the radio frequency (RF) power during the sputter coating. As a result, the p- and n-type films and their dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) were optimized by the technique. The properties of the thin films such as the crystal structure, crystal preferred orientation, material composition and surface morphology were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Also, the thermoelectric properties of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were measured. ZT for n- and p-type bismuth telluride thin films was found to be 0.27 and 0.40 at RF powers of 90 and 120 W, respectively. The proposed technology can be used to fabricate thermoelectric p–n modules of bismuth telluride without any doping process.

  6. RF Group Annual Report 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Betz, M; Brunner, O; Baudrenghien, P; Calaga, R; Caspers, F; Ciapala, E; Chambrillon, J; Damerau, H; Doebert, S; Federmann, S; Findlay, A; Gerigk, F; Hancock, S; Höfle, W; Jensen, E; Junginger, T; Liao, K; McMonagle, G; Montesinos, E; Mastoridis, T; Paoluzzi, M; Riddone, G; Rossi, C; Schirm, K; Schwerg, N; Shaposhnikova, E; Syratchev, I; Valuch, D; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Völlinger, C; Vretenar, M; Wuensch, W

    2012-01-01

    The highest priority for the RF group in 2011 was to contribute to a successful physics run of the LHC. This comprises operation of the superconducting 400 MHz accelerating system (ACS) and the transverse damper (ADT) of the LHC itself, but also all the individual links of the injector chain upstream of the LHC – Linac2, the PSB, the PS and the SPS – don’t forget that it is RF in all these accelerators that truly accelerates! A large variety of RF systems had to operate reliably, often near their limit. New tricks had to be found and implemented to go beyond limits; not to forget the equally demanding operation with Pb ions using in addition Linac3 and LEIR. But also other physics users required the full attention of the RF group: CNGS required in 2011 beams with very short, intense bunches, AD required reliable deceleration and cooling of anti-protons, Isolde the post-acceleration of radioactive isotopes in Rex, just to name a few. In addition to the supply of beams for physics, the RF group has a num...

  7. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  8. Metal bonding during sputter film deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimatsu, T.; Shimatsu, T.; Mollema, R.H.; Monsma, D.J.; Keim, Enrico G.; Lodder, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the bonding between two flat Si substrates with thin metal films. The bonding was accomplished during thin film sputter deposition on contamination free surfaces of metal films. In this work we used Ti and Pt. Successful bonding of these metal films (each having a thickness of 10–20 nm)

  9. Lithium insertion in sputtered vanadium oxide film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, K.; Zachau-Christiansen, B.; Skaarup, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    were oxygen deficient compared to V2O5. Films prepared in pure argon were reduced to V(4) or lower. The vanadium oxide films were tested in solid-state lithium cells. Films sputtered in oxygen showed electrochemical properties similar to crystalline V2O5. The main differences are a decreased capacity...

  10. KRYPTON INCORPORATION IN SPUTTERED SILICON FILMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GREUTER, MJW; NIESEN, L; HAKVOORT, RA; DEROODE, J; VANVEEN, A; BERNTSEN, AJM; SLOOF, WG

    1993-01-01

    The incorporation of Kr in sputtered a-Si films has been investigated in a systematic way by varying the Kr to Si flux, yielding Kr concentrations up to 5 at %. Compositions were determined with X-ray microanalysis. A model has been applied to describe the composition of the growing film. The layers

  11. Sputtering of indium-tin oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, R. P.; Safi, I.; Hall, G. W.; Danson, N.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we have brought together investigations by ourselves of the sputtering of thin films of Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO), onto substrates which are at ambient temperature, in which we sought to produce films with the highest electrical conductivity and visible transparancy. The work included investigations of the optimum alloy ratio, stoichiometry control techniques and different reactive sputtering systems. These continuously operating systems are compared with new ion-assisted, successive-layer anodisation processes for their preparation. Our investigations of the optimum doping of the indium oxide with tin have demonstrated that the addition of any tin will result in a loss of performance, compared to that achieved with stoichiometry control through the amount of oxygen incorporated into the pure indium oxide. The sputtering of a compacted oxide target was the easiest, only a small amount of non-critically controlled oxygen had to be added to the sputtering atmosphere to give adequate electrically conducting and visible-transmitting films. Better films could be made more quickly reactively from metal targets but were much more critical in the control of the conditions which they required. The use of alloy targets and successive ion-assisted plasma anodisation techniques made this a much less critical process.

  12. Ion bombardment in RF photoguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozdeyev,E.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2009-05-04

    A linac-ring eRHIC design requires a high-intensity CW source of polarized electrons. An SRF gun is viable option that can deliver the required beam. Numerical simulations presented elsewhere have shown that ion bombardment can occur in an RF gun, possibly limiting lifetime of a NEA GaAs cathode. In this paper, we analytically solve the equations of motion of ions in an RF gun using the ponderomotive potential of the Rf field. We apply the method to the BNL 1/2-cell SRF photogun and demonstrate that a significant portion of ions produced in the gun can reach the cathode if no special precautions are taken. Also, the paper discusses possible mitigation techniques that can reduce the rate of ion bombardment.

  13. S¯adhan¯a Vol. 34, 2009 Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhambhani V see Ahn Hyo-Sung. 833. Bhatt V. Microstructures using RF sputtered PSG film as a sacrificial layer in surface micromachining. 557. Bhatt V see Chandra S. 543. Bhattacharya B. Reliability of redundant ductile structures with uncertain system failure criteria. 903. Bhattacharya E see Sujatha L. 643. Biswas S K.

  14. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  15. Effect of Ge Content on the Formation of Ge Nanoclusters in Magnetron-Sputtered GeZrOx-Based Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Khomenkova, L.; Lehninger, D.; O. Kondratenko; Ponomaryov, S.; Gudymenko, O.; Tsybrii, Z.; Yukhymchuk, V.; Kladko, V.; von Borany, J.; Heitmann, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ge-rich ZrO2 films, fabricated by confocal RF magnetron sputtering of pure Ge and ZrO2 targets in Ar plasma, were studied by multi-angle laser ellipsometry, Raman scattering, Auger electron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction for varied deposition conditions and annealing treatments. It was found that as-deposited films are homogeneous for all Ge contents, thermal treatment stimulated a phase separation and a formation of crystalline Ge and ZrO2. The ?...

  16. Sputtering of the 1020 AISI steel in abnormal glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Zúñiga, J. A.; Sarmiento Santos, A.; Álvarez Luna, B.

    2017-12-01

    In all material treated in Sbnormal Glow Discharge (AGD) the phenomenon of sputtering occurs. In this work we study the sputtering suffered at different temperatures by AISI 1020 steel subjected to a DC discharge in two types of atmospheres. The steel samples were previously sanded until obtaining mirror brightness and subjected to the AGD plasma in the gaseous atmospheres of H2 and Ar. The temperature for each sputtering process was set in the range of 420°C to 600°C. In these samples the mass variation was measured and the yield sputtering processes was determined. Next, the simulation of the sputtering process was performed in the SRIM/TRIM 2008 software, by adjusting sputtering yield computational computations to those experimentally measured, in order to determine the energy with which the responsible ions of the sputtering collide with studied target.

  17. Bias sputtered NbN and superconducting nanowire devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Andrew E.; McCaughan, Adam N.; Zhu, Di; Zhao, Qingyuan; Kim, Chung-Soo; Calandri, Niccolo; Agarwal, Akshay; Bellei, Francesco; Berggren, Karl K.

    2017-09-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) promise to combine near-unity quantum efficiency with >100 megacounts per second rates, picosecond timing jitter, and sensitivity ranging from x-ray to mid-infrared wavelengths. However, this promise is not yet fulfilled, as superior performance in all metrics is yet to be combined into one device. The highest single-pixel detection efficiency and the widest bias windows for saturated quantum efficiency have been achieved in SNSPDs based on amorphous materials, while the lowest timing jitter and highest counting rates were demonstrated in devices made from polycrystalline materials. Broadly speaking, the amorphous superconductors that have been used to make SNSPDs have higher resistivities and lower critical temperature (Tc) values than typical polycrystalline materials. Here, we demonstrate a method of preparing niobium nitride (NbN) that has lower-than-typical superconducting transition temperature and higher-than-typical resistivity. As we will show, NbN deposited onto unheated SiO2 has a low Tc and high resistivity but is too rough for fabricating unconstricted nanowires, and Tc is too low to yield SNSPDs that can operate well at liquid helium temperatures. By adding a 50 W RF bias to the substrate holder during sputtering, the Tc of the unheated NbN films was increased by up to 73%, and the roughness was substantially reduced. After optimizing the deposition for nitrogen flow rates, we obtained 5 nm thick NbN films with a Tc of 7.8 K and a resistivity of 253 μΩ cm. We used this bias sputtered room temperature NbN to fabricate SNSPDs. Measurements were performed at 2.5 K using 1550 nm light. Photon count rates appeared to saturate at bias currents approaching the critical current, indicating that the device's quantum efficiency was approaching unity. We measured a single-ended timing jitter of 38 ps. The optical coupling to these devices was not optimized; however, integration with front-side optical

  18. Improvement of the homogeneity of high mobility In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:H films by sputtering through a mesh electrode studied by Monte Carlo simulation and thin film analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherg-Kurmes, Harald; Hafez, Ahmad; Szyszka, Bernd [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Einsteinufer 25, 10587, Berlin (Germany); Siemers, Michael; Pflug, Andreas [Fraunhofer IST, Bienroder Weg 54E, 38108, Braunschweig (Germany); Schlatmann, Rutger [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, PVcomB, Schwarzschildstr. 3, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Rech, Bernd [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekulestrasse 5, 12489, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (IOH) is a transparent conductive oxide offering great potential to optoelectronic applications because of its high mobility of over 100 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1}s{sup -1}. In films deposited statically by RF magnetron sputtering, a small area directly opposing the target center with a higher resistivity and lower crystallinity than the rest of the film has been found via hall- and XRD-measurements, which we attribute to plasma damage. In order to investigate the distribution of particle energies during the sputtering process we have simulated the RF-sputtering deposition process of IOH by particle-in-cell Monte Carlo (PICMC) simulation. At the surface of ceramic sputtering targets, negatively charged oxygen ions are created. These ions are accelerated toward the substrate in the plasma sheath with energies up to 150 eV. They damage the growing film and reduce its crystallinity. The influence of a negatively biased mesh inside the sputtering chamber on particle energies and distributions has been simulated and investigated. We found that the mesh decreased the high-energetic oxygen ion density at the substrate, thus enabling a more homogeneous IOH film growth. The theoretical results have been verified by XRD X-ray diffractometry (XRD), 4-point probe, and hall measurements of statically deposited IOH films on glass. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Electrical resistivity and its thermal coefficient of TiW alloy thin films prepared by two different sputtering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yutaka; Ikeda, Shinji; Sakamoto, Yoshinori [Toyama National College of Technology, 13 Hongo, Toyama 939-8630 (Japan); Takeda, Yuya [Takeda Design and Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 2-7-36 Meieki-minami, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya 450-0003 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Electrical resistivity and its thermal coefficient (TCR) of TiW alloy thin films which were prepared by using two different sputtering systems have been investigated. System A is a DC-magnetron sputtering system equipped with a single composite-target that allows the contents controllable by an external field of solenoid as reported in previous papers (Sakurai and Takeda, Abstract of E-MRS 2005 Fall Meeting [1] and Sakurai et al., Solid State Phenom. 154, 175 (2009) [2]). The system A prepared specimens with the range of 21.6 to 36.6 at% of W-contents. The TCR varies from minus to plus at 32 at% of W-content. On the other hand, System B is a RF-magnetron sputtering system equipped with multi-targets and multi-sputtering-sources. The system B covered the whole binary composition ranges by controlling power ratio for two independent sputtering sources. The resistivity characteristics show a parabolic curve with the maximum value on Ti-rich contents. The TCR decreases at the contents that shows the maximum resistivity, but the TCR is always plus and does not cross zero. Difference of the properties by using the two systems will be discussed. In the system A, the background is exhausted by an oil diffusion pump and the pressure is higher (lower vacuum degree) than the background in the system B with a turbo molecular pump. This suggests that zero TCR would be achieved by introducing the controlled impurities (O{sub 2} or N{sub 2}) into the binary alloy films. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Reliability engineering in RF CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis new developments are presented for reliability engineering in RF CMOS. Given the increase in use of CMOS technology in applications for mobile communication, also the reliability of CMOS for such applications becomes increasingly important. When applied in these applications, CMOS is

  1. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  2. RF breakdown by toroidal helicons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bounded whistlers are well-known for their efficient plasma production capabilities in thin cylindrical tubes. ... evolution processes in a pulse RF plasma produced by toroidal helicons. 2. Experimental set-up and .... of probe potential to show initial hump and transient nature of sheath at the end of the pulse. It is to check the ...

  3. The influence of target erosion grade in the optoelectronic properties of AZO coatings growth by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta, C., E-mail: cristina.zubizarreta@tekniker.es [IK4-Tekniker, Research Centre, c/ Iñaki Goenaga, 5, 20600 Eibar, Guipuzkoa (Spain); G-Berasategui, E.; Ciarsolo, I.; Barriga, J. [IK4-Tekniker, Research Centre, c/ Iñaki Goenaga, 5, 20600 Eibar, Guipuzkoa (Spain); Gaspar, D.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High quality AZO films deposited at low temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. • Transmittance values of 84% and resistivity of 1.9 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm were obtained. • Stable optoelectronic and structural properties during whole life of the target. • RF MS: robust and reliable for the industrial manufacture of AZO frontal electrode. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductor coating has emerged as promising substitute to tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) as electrode in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics or light emitting diodes (LEDs). Besides its high transmission in the visible spectral region and low resistivity, AZO presents a main advantage over other candidates such as graphene, carbon nanotubes or silver nanowires; it can be deposited using the technology industrially implemented to manufacture ITO layers, the magnetron sputtering (MS). This is a productive, reliable and green manufacturing technique. But to guarantee the robustness, reproducibility and reliability of the process there are still some issues to be addressed, such as the effect and control of the target state. In this paper a thorough study of the influence of the target erosion grade in developed coatings has been performed. AZO films have been deposited from a ceramic target by RF MS. Structure, optical transmittance and electrical properties of the produced coatings have been analyzed as function of the target erosion grade. No noticeable differences have been found neither in optoelectronic properties nor in the structure of the coatings, indicating that the RF MS is a stable and consistent process through the whole life of the target.

  4. Portable 433 MHz RFQ linac RF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorogushin, M.F. [Efremov Scientific Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Principle and experimental analysis of RF power feed system, based on 3 db directional couplers, for undesirable modes eliminating, divided power coupling with the RFQ accelerating structure, endotron type RF power source matching, are presented. The structure fine tuning and the system adjustment results and high-speed RF autocontrol system design are considered also.

  5. RF digital-to-analog converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, P.H.; Yu, D.U.L.

    1995-02-28

    A digital-to-analog converter is disclosed for producing an RF output signal proportional to a digital input word of N bits from an RF reference input, N being an integer greater or equal to 2. The converter comprises a plurality of power splitters, power combiners and a plurality of mixers or RF switches connected in a predetermined configuration. 18 figs.

  6. Production of Zr-89 using sputtered yttrium coin targets (89)Zr using sputtered yttrium coin targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queern, Stacy Lee; Aweda, Tolulope Aramide; Massicano, Adriana Vidal Fernandes; Clanton, Nicholas Ashby; El Sayed, Retta; Sader, Jayden Andrew; Zyuzin, Alexander; Lapi, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    An increasing interest in zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) can be attributed to the isotope's half-life which is compatible with antibody imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The goal of this work was to develop an efficient means of production for (89)Zr that provides this isotope with high radionuclidic purity and specific activity. We investigated the irradiation of yttrium sputtered niobium coins and compared the yields and separation efficiency to solid yttrium coins. The sputtered coins were irradiated with an incident beam energy of 17.5MeV or 17.8MeV providing a degraded transmitted energy through an aluminum degrader of 12.5MeV or 12.8MeV, respectively, with various currents to determine optimal cyclotron conditions for (89)Zr production. Dissolution of the solid yttrium coin took 2h with 50mL of 2M HCl and dissolution of the sputtered coin took 15-30min with 4mL of 2M HCl. During the separation of (89)Zr from the solid yttrium coins, 77.9 ± 11.2% of the activity was eluted off in an average of 7.3mL of 1M oxalic acid whereas for the sputtered coins, 91 ± 6% was eluted off in an average of 1.2mL of 1M oxalic acid with 100% radionuclidic purity. The effective specific activity determined via DFO-SCN titration from the sputtered coins was 108±7mCi/μmol as compared to 20.3mCi/μmol for the solid yttrium coin production. ICP-MS analysis of the yttrium coin and the sputtered coins showed 99.99% yttrium removed with 178μg of yttrium in the final solution and 99.93-100% of yttrium removed with remaining range of 0-42μg of yttrium in the final solution, respectively. The specific activity calculated for the solid coin and 3 different sputtered coins using the concentration of Zr found via ICP-MS was 140±2mCi/μmol, 300±30mCi/μmol, 410±60mCi/μmol and 1719±5mCi/μmol, respectively. Labeling yields of the (89)Zr produced via sputtered targets for (89)Zr- DFO-trastuzumab were >98%. Overall, these results show the irradiation of yttrium sputtered niobium

  7. Reactive sputtering of electrically conducting tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, R.P. (Univ. of Tech., Loughborough (UK)); Barankova, H. (Inst. of Chemical Tech., Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Spencer, A.G. (Vacuum Coating Group, Loughborough Consultants Ltd. (UK))

    1991-02-15

    Tin was sputtered from a d.c. planar magnetron target in a confined volume. Stability was maintained in the reactive sputtering by controlling the oxygen partial pressure through observation of the light emitted by the oxygen in the plasma of the magnetron. The material deposited on the walls of the chamber was used to getter the system of impurities. The oxygen consumption at the set point was a good indication of the approach to stoichiometry of the film. It was observed that transparent conducting films were prepared at the point where the oxygen consumption indicated a break from full incorporation into the growing film. Films there had a resistivity of 100 {mu}{Omega} m for a 600 {Omega}/square sheet resistance, a thickness of about 150 nm. (orig.).

  8. A Complementary Type of Electrochromic Device by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change their optical properties reversibly in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction reactions according to the applied voltage. A complementary type of EC device composes of two electrochromic layers, which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). In this work, the EC device was fabricated using vanadium oxide (V2O5) and titanium doped tungsten oxide (WO3-TiO2) electrodes. The EC electrodes were deposited as thin film structures by a reactive RF magnetron sputtering system in a medium of gas mixture of argon and oxygen. surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Electrochemical property and durability of the EC device was investigated by a potentiostat system. Optical measurement was examined under applied voltages of +/- 2.5 V by a computer-controlled system, constantly.

  9. The electronic structure of co-sputtered zinc indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Paz; Antony, Aldrin; Bertomeu, Joan [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gutmann, Sebastian [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Zinc indium tin oxide (ZITO) transparent conductive oxide layers were deposited via radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature. A series of samples with gradually varying zinc content was investigated. The samples were characterized with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, UPS) to determine the electronic structure of the surface. Valence and conduction bands maxima (VBM, CBM), and work function were determined. The experiments indicate that increasing Zn content results in films with a higher defect rate at the surface leading to the formation of a degenerately doped surface layer if the Zn content surpasses {approx}50%. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrate that ZITO is susceptible to ultraviolet light induced work function reduction, similar to what was earlier observed on ITO and TiO{sub 2} films.

  10. The electronic structure of co-sputtered zinc indium tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Paz; Gutmann, Sebastian; Antony, Aldrin; Bertomeu, Joan; Schlaf, Rudy

    2011-10-01

    Zinc indium tin oxide (ZITO) transparent conductive oxide layers were deposited via radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature. A series of samples with gradually varying zinc content was investigated. The samples were characterized with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, UPS) to determine the electronic structure of the surface. Valence and conduction bands maxima (VBM, CBM), and work function were determined. The experiments indicate that increasing Zn content results in films with a higher defect rate at the surface leading to the formation of a degenerately doped surface layer if the Zn content surpasses ˜50%. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrate that ZITO is susceptible to ultraviolet light induced work function reduction, similar to what was earlier observed on ITO and TiO2 films.

  11. Sputtered of ZnO:Al thin Films for Application in Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Flickyngerova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High transparent and conductive, aluminium - doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al, were prepared by radio –frequency (RF diode sputtering from ZnO+2 wt. % Al2O3 target on Eutal glass substrates. Surfaces of the samples weretreated by various technological steps during preparation. The ion bombardment and the substrate temperature modified theirstructure, surface morphology, electrical and optical parameters. In this work we present changes between samples preparedat room temperature (RT and at 200°C, between samples on ion etched substrate and non-modified substrate, and effect ofion etching of the sample surface. We measured transmittance, resistivity and microroughness by AFM on all samples.

  12. Characterization of reactively sputtered c-axis aligned nanocrystalline InGaZnO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, David M.; Zhu, Bin; Ast, Dieter G.; Thompson, Michael O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Levin, Barnaby D. A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Muller, David A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Greene, Raymond G. [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Crystallinity and texturing of RF sputtered c-axis aligned crystal InGaZnO{sub 4} (CAAC IGZO) thin films were quantified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Above 190 °C, nanocrystalline films with an X-ray peak at 2θ = 30° (009 planes) developed with increasing c-axis normal texturing up to 310 °C. Under optimal conditions (310 °C, 10% O{sub 2}), films exhibited a c-axis texture full-width half-maximum of 20°. Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed these results, showing alignment variation of ±9° over a 15 × 15 nm field of view and indicating formation of much larger aligned domains than previously reported. At higher deposition temperatures, c-axis alignment was gradually lost as polycrystalline films developed.

  13. Effect of sputtering power on the structure and optical band gap of SiC thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Huang, Xiaozhong; Du, Zuojuan; Xiao, Jianrong

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous SiC (a-SiC) thin films with a quartz plate as the substrate were prepared under different radio frequency (RF) powers through RF magnetron sputtering. Films structures were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum. The absorption spectra of the thin films were acquired with UV-visible spectroscopy. Results showed that thin films prepared under different RF powers have different structures. With the increase in power, the maximum peak height, mean roughness, and mean square roughness increase initially and then decrease. The thin films are mainly composed of SiC and SiO2 bonds and contain abundant C. ID/IG increases as power increases. The UV-visible light absorption spectra confirmed that the thin films have strong UV absorption capacity but low absorption capacity in the infrared region. The optical band gap of the thin films ranges between 1.29 and 1.80 eV. With the increase in RF power, the sp3/sp2C hybrid bond in the thin films increases, resulting in a reduction of the optical band gap.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Cold Dense Plasma Sputtering with VORPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuandong; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth

    2009-10-01

    Sputtering is an evaporation process that physically removes atoms from a solid target material. This process takes place under bombardment of the target surface by energetic ions. Sputtering is widely applied in material processing and coating, such as etching and thin film deposition. Numerical simulation of sputtering process requires both accurate models of nuclear stopping in materials, particle dynamics and consistent electromagnetic fields. The particle in cell code VORPAL can simulate cold dense plasma under many different electromagnetic configurations. The dynamics of both incident particles and sputtered neutral atoms are simulated in VORPAL, and the sputtering yield is calculated from a standalone numerical library for a variety of materials that are commonly used in industrial applications. Numerical simulation of the spatial distribution of sputtering resulting from a cold dense plasma under externally applied magnetic field and self-consistent electric field is presented.

  15. Sputtering: A vacuum deposition method for coating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1972-01-01

    The sputtering process is described in terms of its features: versatility, momentum transfer, configuration of target, precise controls and the relatively slow deposition rate. Sputtered films are evaluated in terms of adherence, coherence, and internal stresses. The strong adherence is attributed to the high kinetic energies of the sputtered material, sputter etched (cleaned) surface, and the submicroscopic particle size. An illustration is a sputtered solid film lubricant such as MoS2. Friction tests were conducted on a thin, 2000 A deg thick MoS2 film. These films are very dense and without observable pinholes, and the particle to particle cohesion is strong. Tolerances (film thickness) can be controlled to a millionth of a centimeter. Very adherent films of sputtered Teflon can be deposited in a single operation on any type of material (metal, glass, paper) and on any geometrical configuration with a dense adherent film.

  16. Time-Domain Modeling of RF Antennas and Plasma-Surface Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in finite-difference time-domain (FDTD modeling techniques allow plasma-surface interactions such as sheath formation and sputtering to be modeled concurrently with the physics of antenna near- and far-field behavior and ICRF power flow. Although typical sheath length scales (micrometers are much smaller than the wavelengths of fast (tens of cm and slow (millimeter waves excited by the antenna, sheath behavior near plasma-facing antenna components can be represented by a sub-grid kinetic sheath boundary condition, from which RF-rectified sheath potential variation over the surface is computed as a function of current flow and local plasma parameters near the wall. These local time-varying sheath potentials can then be used, in tandem with particle-in-cell (PIC models of the edge plasma, to study sputtering effects. Particle strike energies at the wall can be computed more accurately, consistent with their passage through the known potential of the sheath, such that correspondingly increased accuracy of sputtering yields and heat/particle fluxes to antenna surfaces is obtained. The new simulation capabilities enable time-domain modeling of plasma-surface interactions and ICRF physics in realistic experimental configurations at unprecedented spatial resolution. We will present results/animations from high-performance (10k-100k core FDTD/PIC simulations of Alcator C-Mod antenna operation.

  17. Comparative study between zinc oxide elaborated by spray pyrolysis, electron beam evaporation and rf magnetron techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, A.; Abdallah, M.; El Hajj Moussa, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences II, Universite, Libanaise-Fanar (Lebanon); Al Asmar, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences II, Universite, Libanaise-Fanar (Lebanon); CEM2 - UMR CNRS 5507, Universite Montpellier II, Montpellier (France); Foucaran, A. [CEM2 - UMR CNRS 5507, Universite Montpellier II, Montpellier (France)

    2010-08-15

    Zinc oxide thin films have been fabricated by spray pyrolysis, reactive e-beam, and rf magnetron sputtering techniques. Structural, optical, and electrical properties have been compared in order to clarify the characteristics of each technique. X-ray diffraction measurements have shown that ZnO films deposited by reactive e-beam evaporation reveal tensile stress and ZnO thin layers deposited by magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis reveal compressive stress. Raman studies confirm the results obtained with XRD. Concerning the electric resistivity studies, we have seen that the layers exhibiting tensile stress are conductors whereas the films exhibiting compressive stress leads to insulators materials. The optical transmittance shows that the film evaporated by e-beam exhibits a maximum transmittance of over 60%, the film deposited by electrostatic spray pyrolysis exhibits a maximum transmittance less than 70% and the one fabricated by magnetron was found to have a maximum transparency less than 75%. Finally, the study of the surface morphology has shown that the most respected stoichiometry ratio between Zn and O was obtained using the e-beam evaporation and sputtering techniques. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Influence of annealing on the optical properties of reactively sputtered BCN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todi, Vinit O.; Shantheyanda, Bojanna P.; Sundaram, Kalpathy B., E-mail: kalpathy.sundaram@ucf.edu

    2013-09-16

    Optical properties of the Boron Carbon Nitride (BCN) thin films deposited in a multi gun radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering system using a B{sub 4}C target have been studied. Films of different compositions were deposited by varying the ratio of argon and nitrogen in the sputtering ambient. The films were annealed in dry oxygen ambient in the temperature range of 300 °C–700 °C. The effect of annealing on the optical properties of the films was investigated. It was found that the optical transmission of the films increased with nitrogen incorporation. Annealing at higher temperatures leads to considerable increase in optical transmission. Optical energy gaps (Tauc gap) calculated from the absorption data are influenced by annealing temperatures. Changes in optical properties were correlated to the chemical modifications in the films due to annealing through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Studies reveal that the carbon and nitrogen concentrations in the films are highly sensitive to temperature. Annealing at higher temperatures leads to broken C–N bonds which results in the loss of C and N in the films. This is believed to be the primary cause for variations in optical properties of the films. - Highlights: • Boron Carbon Nitride thin films were sputter deposited by varying Ar/N2 ratio. • Deposited films were annealed in dry oxygen in the range of 300 °C–700 °C. • The effect of annealing on the optical properties of the films was investigated. • Changes in optical properties were correlated to the chemical modifications.

  19. Protection of Accelerator Hardware: RF systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S.-H.

    2016-01-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) system is the key element that generates electric fields for beam acceleration. To keep the system reliable, a highly sophisticated protection scheme is required, which also should be designed to ensure a good balance between beam availability and machine safety. Since RF systems are complex, incorporating high-voltage and high-power equipment, a good portion of machine downtime typically comes from RF systems. Equipment and component damage in RF systems results in long and expensive repairs. Protection of RF system hardware is one of the oldest machine protection concepts, dealing with the protection of individual high-power RF equipment from breakdowns. As beam power increases in modern accelerators, the protection of accelerating structures from beam-induced faults also becomes a critical aspect of protection schemes. In this article, an overview of the RF system is given, and selected topics of failure mechanisms and examples of protection requirements are introduced.

  20. SPS RF System a Tetrode

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also gradually increased: by end 1980 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.

  1. Linearisation of RF Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Asbeck

    2001-01-01

    of circuitry such as the linearisation circuit. The amplifier has the highest output power compared to other published class B power in the same process. The design phase including the on-chip inductor and the lateral flux capacitors is described. The other test chips designed are envelope detectors. Three......This thesis deals with linearisation techniques of RF power amplifiers (PA), PA design techniques and integration of the necessary building blocks in a CMOS technology. The opening chapters introduces the theory of transmitter architectures, RF-signal representation and the principles of digital...... modulation. Furthermore different types of power amplifiers, models and measures of non-linearities are presented. A chapter is also devoted to different types of linearisation systems. The work carried out and described in this thesis can be divided into a more theoretical and system oriented treatment...

  2. Gold-Catalyzed Growth of Aluminium-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorods by Sputtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rosli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO nanorods thin films were grown by RF magnetron sputtering on gold (Au metal catalyst. The Au catalyst layers with 5, 10, and 15 nm thickness were deposited on glass substrates by sputtering method followed by annealing for 15 min at 500°C to form Au nanostructures on the glass substrate. The AZO thin films were then deposited on the Au catalyst at different deposition temperature varying from 200 to 500°C. Postdeposition annealing processes of the Au catalyst resulted in different morphologies of the Au catalyst layers depending on their thicknesses. This in turn gave different AZO morphologies which suggest that the Au catalyst layer thickness and the deposition temperature contribute to the growth mechanism of the AZO nanostructures. AZO nanorods thin films having hexagonal wurtzite structure with individual nanorods on the film surface were obtained from the samples deposited on 5 and 10 nm thick Au catalyst with the deposition temperature of 300°C.

  3. Erosion of nanostructured tungsten by laser ablation, sputtering and arcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogyun Hwangbo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of nanostructured tungsten, which was formed by helium plasma irradiation, due to laser ablation, sputtering, and arcing was investigated. Below the helium sputtering energy threshold (200eV. Reduction in sputtering on nanostructured surface was observed. Arcing was initiated using laser pulses, and the erosion rate by arcing was measured. The erosion rate increased with arc current, while the erosion per Coulomb was not affected by arc current.

  4. Low jitter RF distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Russell; Doolittle, Lawrence; Huang, Gang

    2012-09-18

    A timing signal distribution system includes an optical frequency stabilized laser signal amplitude modulated at an rf frequency. A transmitter box transmits a first portion of the laser signal and receive a modified optical signal, and outputs a second portion of the laser signal and a portion of the modified optical signal. A first optical fiber carries the first laser signal portion and the modified optical signal, and a second optical fiber carries the second portion of the laser signal and the returned modified optical signal. A receiver box receives the first laser signal portion, shifts the frequency of the first laser signal portion outputs the modified optical signal, and outputs an electrical signal on the basis of the laser signal. A detector at the end of the second optical fiber outputs a signal based on the modified optical signal. An optical delay sensing circuit outputs a data signal based on the detected modified optical signal. An rf phase detect and correct signal circuit outputs a signal corresponding to a phase stabilized rf signal based on the data signal and the frequency received from the receiver box.

  5. Modeling and stability analysis of the nonlinear reactive sputtering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Katalin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The model of the reactive sputtering process has been determined from the dynamic equilibrium of the reactive gas inside the chamber and the dynamic equilibrium of the sputtered metal atoms which form the compound with the reactive gas atoms on the surface of the substrate. The analytically obtained dynamical model is a system of nonlinear differential equations which can result in a histeresis-type input/output nonlinearity. The reactive sputtering process has been simulated by integrating these differential equations. Linearization has been applied for classical analysis of the sputtering process and control system design.

  6. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep

    2010-01-01

    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  7. Argon ion sputtering of niobium and niobium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, Peter Francis [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Polycrystalline niobium was irradiated by a beam of 15-keV argon ions, and the effect of certain metallurgical and environmental conditions was studied. Macroscopic sputtering yields were measured for well-annealed niobium and also for Nb--V and Nb--O alloys, cold-worked and recovered niobium and for sputtering conducted in an oxygen atmosphere. In all cases, the resulting surface topography was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Selected area electron channeling patterns were used to determine the texture of the annealed niobium and to correlate sputter-induced surface features with grain orientations. The surface chemistry of sputtered targets was checked with a scanning Auger microprobe. Results indicate that ion channeling and surface mobility are important in the 15-keV argon sputtering of niobium. The sputtering yield for annealed niobium was accurately described by modifying a sputtering theory for amorphous solids through use of a correction factor based on ion channeling which was calculated from the experimentally determined texture. The sputter topography was varied and, at times, complex. Surface features were dependent on crystallography, background pressure, temperature and the metallurgical conditions of cold work, recovery, annealing, interstitial solute and precipitation structure. The sputtering yield was also determined to be a function of the metallurgical conditions, the crystallography, and pressure. 62 figures, 10 tables.

  8. EGFET pH Sensor Performance Dependence on Sputtered TiO2 Sensing Membrane Deposition Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Aimi Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were sputtered by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method and have been employed as the sensing membrane of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET for pH sensing detection application. The TiO2 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrates at room temperature and 200°C, respectively. The effect of deposition temperature on thin film properties and pH detection application was analyzed. The TiO2 samples used as the sensing membrane for EGFET pH-sensor and the current-voltage (I-V, hysteresis, and drift characteristics were examined. The sensitivity of TiO2 EGFET sensing membrane was obtained from the transfer characteristic (I-V curves for different substrate heating temperatures. TiO2 thin film sputtered at room temperature achieved higher sensitivity of 59.89 mV/pH compared to the one deposited at 200°C indicating lower sensitivity of 37.60 mV/pH. Moreover the hysteresis and the drift of TiO2 thin film deposited at room temperature showed lower values compared to the one at 200°C. We have also tested the effect of operating temperature on the performance of the EGFET pH-sensing and found that the temperature effect was very minimal.

  9. Dependence of superconducting properties of NbN thin films on sputtering parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Trupti; Carter, Faustin; Ding, Junjia; Posada, Chrystian; Bender, Amy; Wang, Gensheng; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Pearson, John; Padin, Steve; Chang, Clarence; Hoffmann, Axel; Novosad, Valentyn; SPT3G Collaboration

    Recently, there has been growing interest in utilizing NbN, TiN, NbTiN thin films in superconducting device applications (e.g. detectors for CMB, mm and sub-mm astronomy). In this work, we have fabricated NbN superconducting thin films by DC reactive magnetron sputtering of Nb in the presence of argon and nitrogen gases. We found that the critical temperature of NbN films is sensitive to various deposition parameters like nitrogen flow rate, target voltage, base pressure, RF substrate bias, and the substrate temperature. By studying each of these factors we have been able to create highly reproducible NbN thin films. We obtained a Tc of 15.25 +/-0.25 K for 300 nm thick NbN film grown on silicon substrate at modest temperature of 250 C in the presence of RF substrate bias. We are also investigating the microwave properties of these NbN films at temperatures well below 50 mK by fabricating quarter wavelength CPW resonators out of NbN and characterizing their frequency shifts and quality factors as functions of temperature and power. In this work we present the results of these analyses. This work was supported by BES-DOE Grant DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  10. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  11. Moscow Meson Factory DTL RF System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Esin, S K; Kvasha, A I; Serov, V L

    2004-01-01

    The last paper devoted to description of the first part (DTL) RF system of Moscow Meson Factory upgrade was published in the Proceedings of PAC95 Conference in Dallas. Since then some new works directed at improvement of reliability and efficiency of the RF system were carried out. Among them there are a new powerful pulse triode “Katran” installed in the output RF power amplifiers (PA) of three channels, modifications of the anode modulator control circuit and crow-bar system, a new additional RF channel for RF supply of RFQ and some alterations in placing of the anode modulator equipment decreasing a level of interference’s at crow-bar circuits. Some new checked at MMF RF channels ideas concerning of PA tuning are of interest for people working in this sphere of activity.

  12. Robust multiplatform RF emitter localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Issa, Huthaifa; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, position based services has increase. Thus, recent developments in communications and RF technology have enabled system concept formulations and designs for low-cost radar systems using state-of-the-art software radio modules. This research is done to investigate a novel multi-platform RF emitter localization technique denoted as Position-Adaptive RF Direction Finding (PADF). The formulation is based on the investigation of iterative path-loss (i.e., Path Loss Exponent, or PLE) metrics estimates that are measured across multiple platforms in order to autonomously adapt (i.e. self-adjust) of the location of each distributed/cooperative platform. Experiments conducted at the Air-Force Research laboratory (AFRL) indicate that this position-adaptive approach exhibits potential for accurate emitter localization in challenging embedded multipath environments such as in urban environments. The focus of this paper is on the robustness of the distributed approach to RF-based location tracking. In order to localize the transmitter, we use the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) data to approximate distance from the transmitter to the revolving receivers. We provide an algorithm for on-line estimation of the Path Loss Exponent (PLE) that is used in modeling the distance based on Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements. The emitter position estimation is calculated based on surrounding sensors RSS values using Least-Square Estimation (LSE). The PADF has been tested on a number of different configurations in the laboratory via the design and implementation of four IRIS wireless sensor nodes as receivers and one hidden sensor as a transmitter during the localization phase. The robustness of detecting the transmitters position is initiated by getting the RSSI data through experiments and then data manipulation in MATLAB will determine the robustness of each node and ultimately that of each configuration. The parameters that are used in the functions are

  13. Topology optimized RF MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, M. A.; Zareie, H.; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    optimization for an RF MEM capacitive switch. Extensive experimental data confirms that the switches perform as designed by the optimizations, and that our simulation models are accurate. A subset of measurements are presented here. Broader results have been submitted in full journal format.......Topology optimization is a rigorous and powerful method that should become a standard MEMS design tool - it can produce unique and non-intuitive designs that meet complex objectives and can dramatically improve the performance and reliability of MEMS devices. We present successful uses of topology...

  14. Lattice dynamics during electronic sputtering of solid Ne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutkiewicz, L.; Pedrys, R.; Schou, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Electronic sputtering of solid neon has been studied with molecular dynamics. The cavity formation around an excited atom and particle migration in the surface region, as well as the sputtering process have been studied. A single atomic exciton has been observed to produce a desorption of up...

  15. Sputtering of solid nitrogen by keV helium ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, O.; Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Solid nitrogen has become a standard material among the frozen molecular gases for electronic sputtering. We have combined measurements of sputtering yields and energy spectra from nitrogen bombarded by 4-10 keV helium ions. The data show that the erosion is electronic rather than knockon...

  16. Sputtering of Thick Deuterium Films by KeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    Sputtering of thick films of solid deuterium up to several μm by keV electrons is reported for the first time. The sputtering yield increases within a narrow range of thicknesses around 1.6 μm by about 2 orders of magnitude for 1.5 keV electrons. A similar behavior has not been observed for ion...

  17. Ion tracking in photocathode rf guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lewellen

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Projected next-generation linac-based light sources, such as PERL or the TESLA free-electron laser, generally assume, as essential components of their injector complexes, long-pulse photocathode rf electron guns. These guns, due to their design rf pulse durations of many milliseconds to continuous wave, may be more susceptible to ion bombardment damage of their cathodes than conventional rf guns, which typically use rf pulses of microsecond duration. This paper explores this possibility in terms of ion propagation within the gun, and presents a basis for future study of the subject.

  18. RF front-end world class designs

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Janine

    2009-01-01

    All the design and development inspiration and direction a harware engineer needs in one blockbuster book! Janine Love site editor for RF Design Line,columnist, and author has selected the very best RF design material from the Newnes portfolio and has compiled it into this volume. The result is a book covering the gamut of RF front end design from antenna and filter design fundamentals to optimized layout techniques with a strong pragmatic emphasis. In addition to specific design techniques and practices, this book also discusses various approaches to solving RF front end design problems and h

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of nanoscale focused neon ion beam sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Rack, Philip D

    2013-12-13

    A Monte Carlo simulation is developed to model the physical sputtering of aluminum and tungsten emulating nanoscale focused helium and neon ion beam etching from the gas field ion microscope. Neon beams with different beam energies (0.5-30 keV) and a constant beam diameter (Gaussian with full-width-at-half-maximum of 1 nm) were simulated to elucidate the nanostructure evolution during the physical sputtering of nanoscale high aspect ratio features. The aspect ratio and sputter yield vary with the ion species and beam energy for a constant beam diameter and are related to the distribution of the nuclear energy loss. Neon ions have a larger sputter yield than the helium ions due to their larger mass and consequently larger nuclear energy loss relative to helium. Quantitative information such as the sputtering yields, the energy-dependent aspect ratios and resolution-limiting effects are discussed.

  20. Sputter-deposited fuel cell membranes and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Ruiz, Ron P. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing a membrane for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of providing an electrolyte membrane, and sputter-depositing a catalyst onto the electrolyte membrane. The sputter-deposited catalyst may be applied to multiple sides of the electrolyte membrane. A method for forming an electrode for use in a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly includes the steps of obtaining a catalyst, obtaining a backing, and sputter-depositing the catalyst onto the backing. The membranes and electrodes are useful for assembling fuel cells that include an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, a fuel supply, and an electrolyte membrane, wherein the electrolyte membrane includes a sputter-deposited catalyst, and the sputter-deposited catalyst is effective for sustaining a voltage across a membrane electrode assembly in the fuel cell.

  1. Characterization of reactive magnetron sputtering plasma during thin film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rylan; Mahabaduge, Hasitha

    Reactive magnetron sputtering is used extensively as a thin film deposition technique. During sputtering, a plasma is generated. The evolution of the plasma dictates the thin film composition and structure. The residence time of a reactive gas molecule, the mean time it remains in the process chamber before being pumped away also plays an important role in reactive sputtering. We simulated the residence time and partial pressure of the respective reactive gasses in magnetron sputtering environment using Matlab. Using Optical Emission Spectroscopy we confirmed the trend in mean residence time of the reactive gasses. The thin film properties of reactively sputtered aluminum-doped zinc oxide will be presented along with the correlation to the plasma properties during the deposition.

  2. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2015-03-24

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  3. Influence of sputtering deposition parameters on electrical and optical properties of aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Ewelina; Agata, Zdyb; Gulkowski, Slawomir; Fave, Alain; Fourmond, Erwann

    2017-11-01

    Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCOs) characterized by high visible transmittance and low electrical resistivity play an important role in photovoltaic technology. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is one of the TCOs that can find its application in thin film solar cells (CIGS or CdTe PV technology) as well as in other microelectronic applications. In this paper some optical and electrical properties of ZnO:Al thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method have been investigated. AZO layers have been deposited on the soda lime glass substrates with use of variable technological parameters such as pressure in the deposition chamber, power applied and temperature during the process. The composition of AZO films has been investigated by EDS method. Thickness and refraction index of the deposited layers in dependence on certain technological parameters of sputtering process have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The measurements of transmittance and sheet resistance were also performed.

  4. RF Power Generation in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, O C; Valuch, D

    2003-01-01

    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be captured and then accelerated to their final energies of 2 x 7 TeV by two identical 400 MHz RF systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell super-conducting (SC) cavity. Four klystrons are powered by a 100 kV, 40A AC/DC power converter, previously used for the operation of the LEP klystrons. A five-gap thyratron crowbar protects the four klystrons in each of these units. The technical specification and measured performance of the various high-power elements are discussed. These include the 400MHz/300kW klystrons with emphasis on their group delay and the three-port circulators, which have to cope with peak reflected power levels up to twice the simultaneously applied incident power of 300 kW. In addition, a novel ferrite loaded waveguide absorber, used as termination for port No...

  5. SPS RF System Amplifier plant

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows a 2 MW, 200 MHz amplifier plant with feeder lines. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.

  6. Sputtering effect of low-energy ions on biological target: The analysis of sputtering product of urea and capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lili [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China); Xu, Xue [Rice Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nongke South Road 40, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Yuejin, E-mail: yjwu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Sputtering is a process whereby atoms are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles. Recent years, ion implantation was successfully applied to biological research based on the fragments sputtering and form open paths in cell structure caused by ion sputtering. In this study, we focused on urea and chilli pepper pericarp samples implanted with N{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions. To investigate the sputtering effect, we designed a collecting unit containing a disk sample and a glass pipe. The urea content and capsaicin content recovered from glass pipes were adopted to represent the sputtering product. The result of urea showed that the sputtering effect is positively correlated with the ion energy and dose, also affected by the ion type. The result of capsaicin was different from that of urea at 20 keV and possibly due to biological complex composition and structure. Therefore the sputtering yield depended on both the parameters of incident ions and the state of target materials. The sputtering yield of urea was also simulated by computational method achieved through the TRIM program. The trajectories of primary and recoiled atoms were calculated on the basis of the binary collision approximation using Monte Carlo method. The experimental results were much higher than the calculated results. The possible explanation is that in the physical model the target were assumed as a disordered lattice and independent atoms, which is much less complicated than that of the biological models.

  7. Impurity migration pattern under RF sheath potential in tokamak and the response of Plasma to RMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaotao; Gui, Bin; Xia, Tianyang; Xu, Xueqiao; Sun, Youwen

    2017-10-01

    The migration pattern of impurity sputtered from RF guarder limiter, is simulated by a test particle module. The electric potential with RF sheath boundary condition on the guard limiter and the thermal sheath boundary condition on the divertor surface are used. The turbulence transport is implemented by random walk model. It is found the RF sheath potential enhances the impurity percentage lost at low filed side middle plane, and decreases impurity percentage drifting into core region. This beneficial effect is stronger when sheath potential is large. When turbulence transport is strong enough, their migration pattern will be dominated by transport, not by sheath potential. The Resonant Magnetic field Perturbation (RMP) is successfully applied in EAST experiment and the suppression and mitigation effect on ELM is obtained. A two field fluid model is used to simulate the plasma response to RMP in EAST geometry. The current sheet on the resonance surface is obtained initially and the resonant component of radial magnetic field is suppressed there. With plasma rotation, the Alfven resonance occurs and the current is separated into two current sheets. The simulation result will be integrated with the ELM simulations to study the effects of RMP on ELM. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and the China Natural Science Foundation under Contract No. 11405215, 11505236 and 11675217.

  8. Fluence-dependent sputtering yield of micro-architectured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Christopher S.R.; Ghoniem, Nasr M., E-mail: ghoniem@ucla.edu; Li, Gary Z.; Matlock, Taylor S.; Goebel, Dan M.; Dodson, Chris A.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Sputtering yield is shown to be transient and heavily dependent on surface architecture. • Fabricated nano- and Microstructures cause geometric re-trapping of sputtered material, which leads to a self-healing mechanism. • Initially, the sputtering yield of micro-architectured Mo is approximately 1/2 the value as that of a planar surface. • The study demonstrates that the sputtering yield is a dynamic property, dependent on the surface structure of a material. • A developed phenomenological model mathematically describes the transient behavior of the sputtering yield as a function of plasma fluence. - Abstract: We present an experimental examination of the relationship between the surface morphology of Mo and its instantaneous sputtering rate as function of low-energy plasma ion fluence. We quantify the dynamic evolution of nano/micro features of surfaces with built-in architecture, and the corresponding variation in the sputtering yield. Ballistic deposition of sputtered atoms as a result of geometric re-trapping is observed, and re-growth of surface layers is confirmed. This provides a self-healing mechanism of micro-architectured surfaces during plasma exposure. A variety of material characterization techniques are used to show that the sputtering yield is not a fundamental property, but that it is quantitatively related to the initial surface architecture and to its subsequent evolution. The sputtering yield of textured molybdenum samples exposed to 300 eV Ar plasma is roughly 1/2 of the corresponding value for flat samples, and increases with ion fluence. Mo samples exhibited a sputtering yield initially as low as 0.22 ± 5%, converging to 0.4 ± 5% at high fluence. The sputtering yield exhibits a transient behavior as function of the integrated ion fluence, reaching a steady-state value that is independent of initial surface conditions. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain the observed transient sputtering phenomenon, and to

  9. Investigation of microstructural and electrical properties of composition dependent co-sputtered Hf1‑x Ta x O2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K. C.; Tripathy, N.; Ghosh, S. P.; Mohanta, S. K.; Nakamura, A.; Kar, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    Tantalum doped HfO2 gate dielectric thin films were deposited on silicon substrates using RF reactive co-sputtering by varying RF power of Ta target from 15 W to 90 W. The morphological, compositional and electrical properties of Hf1‑x Ta x O2 films were systematically investigated. The Ta content was found to be increased up to 21% for a Ta target power of 90 W. The evolution of monoclinic phase of Hf1‑x Ta x O2 was seen from XRD study upto RF power of 60 W and afterwards, the amorphous like behaviour is appeared. The featureless smooth surface with the decrease in granular morphology has been observed from FESEM micrographs of the doped films at higher RF powers of Ta. The flatband voltage is found to be shifted towards negative voltage in the capacitance–voltage plot, which was attributed to the enhancement in positive oxide charge density with rise in RF power. The interface charge density has a minimum value of 7.85  ×  1011 eV‑1 cm‑2 for the film deposited at Ta RF power of 75 W. The Hf1‑x Ta x O2 films deposited at Ta target RF power of 90 W has shown lower leakage current. The high on/off ratio of the current during the set process in Hf1‑x Ta x O2 based memristors is found suitable for bipolar resistive switching memory device applications.

  10. LTE RF subsystem power consumption modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new power consumption emulation model, for all possible scenarios of the RF subsystem, when transmitting a LTE signal. The model takes the logical interface parameters, Tx power, carrier frequency and bandwidth between the baseband and RF subsystem as inputs to compute...

  11. 47 CFR 101.1525 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1525 Section 101.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1525 RF safety. Licensees in the 70...

  12. 47 CFR 27.52 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 27.52 Section 27.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.52 RF safety. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to the...

  13. 47 CFR 90.1335 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 90.1335 Section 90.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1335 RF safety...

  14. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable devices...

  15. 17th International Conference on RF Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Laxdal, Robert E.; Schaa, Volker R.W.

    2015-01-01

    RF superconductivity is the key technology of accelerators for particle physics, nuclear physics and light sources. SRF 2015 covered the latest advances in the science, technology, and applications of superconducting RF. There was also an industrial exhibit during the conference with the key vendors in the community available to discuss their capabilities and products.

  16. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2010-10-13

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is pulsed sputtering where the peak power exceeds the time-averaged power by typically two orders of magnitude. The peak power density, averaged over the target area, can reach or exceed 107 W/m2, leading to plasma conditions that make ionization of the sputtered atoms very likely. A brief review of HIPIMS operation is given in a tutorial manner, illustrated by some original data related to the self-sputtering of niobium in argon and krypton. Emphasis is put on the current-voltage-time relationships near the threshold of self-sputtering runaway. The great variety of current pulse shapes delivers clues on the very strong gas rarefaction, self-sputtering runaway conditions, and the stopping of runaway due to the evolution of atom ionization and ion return probabilities as the gas plasma is replaced by metal plasma. The discussions are completed by considering instabilities and the special case of ?gasless? self-sputtering.

  17. RF power generation for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Miller, R.H.; Pearson, C.; Spalek, G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    The next linear collider will require 200 MW of rf power per meter of linac structure at relatively high frequency to produce an accelerating gradient of about 100 MV/m. The higher frequencies result in a higher breakdown threshold in the accelerating structure hence permit higher accelerating gradients per meter of linac. The lower frequencies have the advantage that high peak power rf sources can be realized. 11.42 GHz appears to be a good compromise and the effort at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is being concentrated on rf sources operating at this frequency. The filling time of the accelerating structure for each rf feed is expected to be about 80 ns. Under serious consideration at SLAC is a conventional klystron followed by a multistage rf pulse compression system, and the Crossed-Field Amplifier. These are discussed in this paper.

  18. RF Transceiver Design for MIMO Wireless Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    This practical resource offers a thorough examination of RF transceiver design for MIMO communications.  Offering a practical view on MIMO wireless systems, this book extends fundamental concepts on classic wireless transceiver design techniques to MIMO transceivers. This helps reader gain a very comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume describes many theoretical and implementation challenges on MIMO transceivers and provides the practical solutions for these issues. This comprehensive book provides thorough descriptions of MIMO theoretical concepts, MIMO single carrier and OFDM modulation, RF transceiver design concepts, power amplifier, MIMO transmitter design techniques and their RF impairments, MIMO receiver design methods, RF impairments study including nonlinearity, DC-offset, I/Q imbalance and phase noise and their compensation in OFDM and MIMO techniques. In addition, it provides the most practical techniques to realize RF front-ends in MIMO systems. This book is supported wit...

  19. Magnetoplasmonic RF mixing and nonlinear frequency generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firby, C. J., E-mail: firby@ualberta.ca; Elezzabi, A. Y. [Ultrafast Optics and Nanophotonics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada)

    2016-07-04

    We present the design of a magnetoplasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator facilitating radio-frequency (RF) mixing and nonlinear frequency generation. This is achieved by forming the MZI arms from long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides containing bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG). The magnetization of the Bi:YIG can be driven in the nonlinear regime by RF magnetic fields produced around adjacent transmission lines. Correspondingly, the nonlinear temporal dynamics of the transverse magnetization component are mapped onto the nonreciprocal phase shift in the MZI arms, and onto the output optical intensity signal. We show that this tunable mechanism can generate harmonics, frequency splitting, and frequency down-conversion with a single RF excitation, as well as RF mixing when driven by two RF signals. This magnetoplasmonic component can reduce the number of electrical sources required to generate distinct optical modulation frequencies and is anticipated to satisfy important applications in integrated optics.

  20. Closed field magnetron sputtering: new generation sputtering process for optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2008-09-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished simply using time, although optical monitoring can be used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, thermal control filters, graded coatings, narrowband filters as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide and carbide films. Benefits of the CFM sputter process are described.

  1. Efficient planar n-i-p type heterojunction flexible perovskite solar cells with sputtered TiO2electron transporting layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Sawanta S; Hong, Chang Kook; Inamdar, A I; Im, Hyunsik; Shim, Sang Eun

    2017-03-02

    The development of hybrid organo-lead trihalide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) comprising an electron transporting layer (ETL), a perovskite light absorber and a hole transporting layer (HTL) has received significant attention for their potential in efficient PSCs. However, the preparation of a compact and uniform ETL and the formation of a uniform light absorber layer suffer from a high temperature processing treatment and the formation of unwanted perovskite islands, respectively. A low temperature/room temperature processed ETL is one of the best options for the fabrication of flexible PSCs. In the present work, we report the implementation of a room temperature processed compact TiO 2 ETL and the synthesis of extremely uniform flexible planar PSCs based on methylammonium lead mixed halides MAPb(I 1-x Br x ) 3 (x = 0.1) via RF-magnetron sputtering and a toluene dripping treatment, respectively. The compact TiO 2 ETLs with different thicknesses (30 to 100 nm) were directly deposited on a flexible PET coated ITO substrate by varying the RF-sputtering time and used for the fabrication of flexible PSCs. The photovoltaic properties revealed that flexible PSC performance is strongly dependent on the TiO 2 ETL thickness. The open circuit voltage (V OC ) and fill factor (FF) are directly proportional to the TiO 2 ETL thickness while the 50 nm thick TiO 2 ETL shows the highest current density (J SC ) of 20.77 mA cm -2 . Our controlled results reveal that the room temperature RF-magnetron sputtered 50 nm-thick TiO 2 ETL photoelectrode exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) in excess of 15%. The use of room temperature synthesis of the compact TiO 2 ETL by RF magnetron sputtering results in an enhancement of the device performance for cells prepared on flexible substrates. The champion flexible planar PSC based on this architecture exhibited a promising power conversion efficiency as high as 15.88%, featuring a high FF of 0.69 and V OC of 1.108 V with a negligible

  2. Femtosecond precision measurement of laser–rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Libing; Zhao, Lingrong; Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao, E-mail: dxiang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-03-21

    We report on the measurement of the laser–rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun with femtosecond precision. In this experiment four laser pulses with equal separation are used to produce electron bunch trains; then the laser–rf phase jitter is obtained by measuring the variations of the electron bunch spacing with an rf deflector. Furthermore, we show that when the gun and the deflector are powered by the same rf source, it is possible to obtain the laser–rf phase jitter in the gun through measurement of the beam–rf phase jitter in the deflector. Based on these measurements, we propose an effective time-stamping method that may be applied in MeV ultrafast electron diffraction facilities to enhance the temporal resolution.

  3. New Driver For The Powerful Output Rf Amplifier Of Mmf Dtl Rf System

    CERN Document Server

    Kvasha, A I; Vassilyev, A G

    2004-01-01

    More than 30 years ago a few powerful vacuum tubes were specially designed and produced in the former design office Swetlana for the Moscow meson factory DTL RF system. Among them was tetrode GI-51A with output pulse RF power up to 300 kW at frequency 198.2 MHz, which was used as driver for RF power amplifier with output RF pulse power (2-3) MW. In connection with well-known events in our country manufacture of these tubes, including GI-51A was finished about 10 years ago. In "SED-SPb" (successor of the design office Swetlana) triode GI-57A was offered instead of GI-51A. In this paper results of calculations and design of RF amplifier with new triode are presented. Preliminary results of RF amplifier tests, also presented in the paper, showed that triode GI-57A will be able successfully used in the DTL RF system channels.

  4. Optical Properties Of Sputtered Si: H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. M.; Pawlewicz, W. T.; Mann, I. B.

    1982-04-01

    Sputtered Si:H is a very promising material for use in thin-film solar cells, solar selective absorbers and optical coatings for the near infrared region. Optical property-composition relationships have been determined for Si:H coatings having wide ranges of H content and Si-H bonding. The dependence of the optical absorption edge, optical band gap and refractive index at 2 μm wavelength on H content and Si-H bonding is described. Microstructural and topographical features of the films that influence their absorption and scattering characteristics are discussed. Composition and bonding diagrams used to select deposition conditions for the desired optical properties are also presented. Finally, multilayer Si:H/Si02 all-dielectric laser mirrors with reflectances greater than 99% at 1.315, 2.7 and 3.8 μm are described to illustrate the application of these coatings.

  5. Ion Beam Sputtered Coatings of Bioglass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hench, Larry L.; Wilson, J.; Ruzakowski, Patricia Henrietta Anne

    1982-01-01

    The ion beam sputtering technique available at the NASA-Lewis was used to apply coatings of bioglass to ceramic, metallic, and polymeric substrates. Experiments in vivo and in vitro described investigate these coatings. Some degree of substrate masking was obtained in all samples although stability and reactivity equivalent to bulk bioglass was not observed in all coated samples. Some degree of stability was seen in all coated samples that were reacted in vitro. Both metallic and ceramic substrates coated in this manner failed to show significantly improved coatings over those obtained with existing techniques. Implantation of the coated ceramic substrate samples in bone gave no definite bonding as seen with bulk glass; however, partial and patchy bonding was seen. Polymeric substrates in these studies showed promise of success. The coatings applied were sufficient to mask the underlying reactive test surface and tissue adhesion of collagen to bioglass was seen. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic, charged, and uncharged polymeric surfaces were successfully coated.

  6. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, T.J., E-mail: tjpetty@liv.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Khan, A. [Pariser Building-G11, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Heil, T. [NiCaL, Block C Waterhouse Building, 1-3 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GL (United Kingdom); Bradley, J.W., E-mail: j.w.bradley@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10{sup 23}–3.0 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ{sup 1/2} relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  7. RF low power subsampling architecture for wireless communication applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meng, Fanzhen; Liu, Hong; Wang, Mingliang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Tian, Tong

    2016-01-01

    ...) transmission devices, especially the RF receiver. In order to alleviate this problem, an RF low power subsampling architecture for wireless communication applications is proposed in this paper...

  8. Estimates of RF-Induced Erosion at Antenna-Connected Beryllium Plasma-Facing Components in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodin, D. [Association EURATOM-FZJ, Julich, Germany; Groth, M. [Aalto University, Finland; Airila, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Jacquet, P. [EURATOM / UKAEA, Abingdon, UK; Kirschner, A. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany; Lasa, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2016-01-01

    During high-power, ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), RF sheath rectification and RF induced plasma-wall interactions (RF-PWI) can potentially limit long-pulse operation. With toroidally-spaced ICRH antennas, in an ITER-like wall (ILW) environment, JET provides an ideal environment for ITER-relevant, RF-PWI studies. JET pulses combining sequential toggling of the antennas with q95 (edge safety factor) sweeping were recently used to localize RF-enhanced Be I and Be II spectral line emission at outboard poloidal (beryllium) limiters. These measurements were carried out in the early stages of JET-ILW and in ICRF-only, L-mode discharges. The appearance of enhanced emission spots was explained by their magnetic connection to regions of ICRH antennas associated with higher RF-sheath rectification [1]. The measured emission lines were the same as those already qualified in ERO modelling of inboard limiter beryllium erosion in JET limiter plasmas [2]. In the present work, we revisit this spectroscopic study with the focus on obtaining estimates of the impact of these RF-PWI on sputtering and on net erosion of the affected limiter regions. To do this, the ERO erosion and re-deposition code [2] is deployed with the detailed geometry of a JET outboard limiter. The effect of RF-PWI on sputtering is represented by varying the surface negative biasing, which affects the incidence energy and the resulting sputtering yield. The observed variations in line emission, from [1], for JET pulse 81173 of about factor 3 can be reproduced with ~ 100 200 V bias. ERO simulations show that the influence of the respective E-field on the local Be transport is localized near the surface and relatively small. Still, the distribution of the 3D plasma parameters, shadowing and other geometrical effects are quite important. The plasma parameter simulated by Edge2D-EIRENE [3] are extrapolated towards the surface and mapped in 3D. These initial modelling results are consistent with the range of

  9. Sputter-Resistant Materials for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 2 project shall develop sputter-resistant materials for use in electric propulsion test facilities and for plume shields on spacecraft using electric...

  10. Adhesion of Sputtered Nickel Films on Polycarbonate Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueqiang; Pang, Xiaolu; Gao, Kewei; Yang, Huisheng; Jin, Jie; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2014-03-01

    Nickel films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on top of polycarbonate substrates. Surface energy of the substrate was measured by means of the contact angle technique. Effects of sputtering parameters on the critical load between the film and the substrate were determined by the universal mechanical testing system. Optimized fabrication parameters and their influence on the critical load between sputtered nickel films and polymer substrate were studied by means of the orthogonal experimental design. Increasing radio frequency power and time improved film critical load. The radio frequency power had a more pronounced effect on critical load than the sputter power. The plasma pretreatment with Ar gas modified the surface, leading to an increased surface energy, improving the chemical bonds between nickel and carbon atoms, and thereby enhanced the critical load. The adhesion mechanism is also discussed in this paper.

  11. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan W; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J; Ryan, Joseph V; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Kelvin H. L; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampilai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-01-01

    The use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials...

  12. Bolometric properties of reactively sputtered TiO2-x films for thermal infrared image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Kang, In-Ku; Shin, Young Bong; Lee, Hee Chul

    2015-09-01

    A heat-sensitive layer (TiO2-x ) was successfully deposited by RF reactive magnetron sputtering for infrared (IR) image sensors at different relative mass flow of oxygen gas (R O2) levels. The deposition rate was decreased with an increase in the percentage of R O2 from 3.4% to 3.7%. TiO2-x samples deposited at room temperature exhibited amorphous characteristics. Oxygen deficiency causes a change in the oxidation state and is assumed to decrease the Ti4+ component on the surfaces of TiO2-x films. The oxygen stoichiometry (x) in TiO2-x films decreased from 0.35 to 0.05 with increasing the R O2 level from 3.4% to 3.7%, respectively. In TiO2-x -test-patterned samples, the resistivity decreased with the temperature, confirming the typical semiconducting property. The bolometric properties of the resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the flicker (1/ f) noise parameter were determined at different x values in TiO2-x samples. The rate of TCR dependency with regard to the 1/ f noise parameter is a universal bolometric parameter (β), acting as the dynamic element in a bolometer. It is high when a sample has a relatively low resistivity (0.82 Ω·cm) and a lower 1/ f noise parameter (3.16   ×   10-12). The results of this study indicate that reactively sputtered TiO2-x is a viable bolometric material for uncooled IR image sensor devices.

  13. Effects of calcium phosphate composition in sputter coatings on in vitro and in vivo performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia Edreira, Eva R; Wolke, Joop G C; Aldosari, Abdullah AlFarraj; Al-Johany, Sulieman S; Anil, Sukumaran; Jansen, John A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic coatings have been used to enhance the biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties of metallic implants. The chemical composition of these ceramic coatings is an important parameter, which can influence the final bone performance of the implant. In this study, the effect of phase composition of CaP-sputtered coatings was investigated on in vitro dissolution behavior and in vivo bone response. Coatings were prepared by a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique; three types of CaP target materials were used to obtain coatings with different stoichiometry and calcium to phosphate ratios (hydroxyapatite (HA), α-tricalciumphosphate (α-TCP), and tetracalciumphosphate (TTCP)) were compared with non-coated titanium controls. The applied ceramic coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The in vitro dissolution/precipitation of the CaP coatings was evaluated using immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). To mimic the in vivo situation, identical CaP coatings were also evaluated in a femoral condyle rabbit model. TCPH and TTCPH showed morphological changes during 4-week immersion in SBF. The results of bone implant contact (BIC) and peri-implant bone volume (BV) showed a similar response for all experimental coatings. An apparent increase in tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive staining was observed in the peri-implant region with decreasing coating stability. In conclusion, the experimental groups showed different coating properties when tested in vitro and an apparent increase in bone remodeling with increasing coating dissolution in vivo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nb-Pb superconducting RF-gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekutowicz, J.; Iversen, J.; Kreps, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (DE)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  15. Nb-Pb superconducting RF gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Sekutowicz; J. Iversen; G. Kreps; W.D. Moller; W. Singer; X. Singer; I. Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; J. Smedley; T. Rao; M. Ferrario; P. Kneisel; J. Langner; P. Strzyzewski; R. Lefferts; A. Lipski; K. Szalowski; K. Ko; L. Xiao

    2006-04-14

    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  16. Nb-Pb Superconducting RF Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekutowicz, J.; Iversen, J.; Kreps, G.; Moller, W.D.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.; /DESY; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Smedley, J.; Rao, T.; /Brookhaven; Ferrario, M.; /Frascati; Kneisel, P.; /Jefferson Lab; Langner, J.; Strzyzewski, P.; /Warsaw, Inst. Nucl. Studies; Lefferts, R.; Lipski, A.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; Szalowski, K.; /Lodz U.; Ko, K.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2006-03-29

    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  17. Practical guide to RF-MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Iannacci, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    Closes the gap between hardcore-theoretical and purely experimental RF-MEMS books. The book covers, from a practical viewpoint, the most critical steps that have to be taken in order to develop novel RF-MEMS device concepts. Prototypical RF-MEMS devices, both including lumped components and complex networks, are presented at the beginning of the book as reference examples, and these are then discussed from different perspectives with regard to design, simulation, packaging, testing, and post-fabrication modeling. Theoretical concepts are introduced when necessary to complement the practical

  18. RF engineering basic concepts: S-parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2011-01-01

    The concept of describing RF circuits in terms of waves is discussed and the S-matrix and related matrices are defined. The signal flow graph (SFG) is introduced as a graphical means to visualize how waves propagate in an RF network. The properties of the most relevant passive RF devices (hybrids, couplers, non-reciprocal elements, etc.) are delineated and the corresponding S-parameters are given. For microwave integrated circuits (MICs) planar transmission lines such as the microstrip line have become very important.

  19. CO2 gas sensitivity of sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. For the first time, sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been used as a CO2 gas sensor. Zinc oxide thin films have been synthesized using reactive d.c. sputtering method for gas sensor applications, in the deposition temperature range from 130–153°C at a chamber pressure of 8⋅5 mbar for 18 h. Argon and ...

  20. Recent Developments In Reactively Sputtered Optical Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, W. T.; Martin, P. M.; Hays, D. D.; Mann, I. B.

    1982-04-01

    Highlights of a multiyear effort to develop new or improved thin-film, optical-coating materials through the use of reactive sputtering techniques are presented. Reactive sputtering is shown to be an extremely versatile technique capable of straightforward synthesis of broad classes of materials. The exceptional utility of sputtering for preparation of hard coatings such as oxides, nitrides and novel materials based on Si and Ge is described. Some of these coating materials cannot be made by conventional evaporative techniques. Reactive sputtering allows precise control of coating composition, microstructure and the resulting optical properties. Supporting data are presented for TiO2, for which record high damage thresholds were obtained, and for Si-based coatings, for which record low infrared absorptance was achieved. Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings with low sheet resistance and high visible and near infrared transmission can also be made. These coatings have many electro-optic contact and electromagnetic shielding applications. Examples of multilayer coatings such as all-dielectric and dielectric-enhanced mirrors made from reactively sputtered materials are included, and simple yet elegant fabrication techniques are introduced. The reactive sputtering technique and equipment used specifically for optical coatings are briefly described, and comparison is made with the conventional evaporative approach.

  1. KSTAR RF heating system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, J. G.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, C. K. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    Design, high-voltage test, and installation of 6 MW ICRF heating system for KSTAR is completed. The antenna demonstrated satisfactory standoff at high voltages up to 41 kV for 300 sec. The result indicates good power handling capabilities of the antenna as high as 10 MW/m2. This power density is equivalent to RF power coupling of 6 MW into a 4 {omega}/m target plasma, and is typical of advanced tokamak heating scenarios. In addition, vacuum feed through, DC break, and liquid stub developed for 300 sec operation are installed, as well as a 2 MW, 30-60MHz transmitter. The transmitter successfully produced output powers of 600 kW continuously, 1.5{approx}1.8 MW for 300 sec, and 2 MW for 100 msec or shorter pulses. A realtime control system based on DSP and EPICS is developed, installed, and tested on the ICRF system. Initial results from feasibility study indicate that the present antenna and the transmission lines could allow load-resilient operation on KSTAR. Until the KSTAR tokamak start to produce plasmas in 2008, however, hands-on operational experiences are obtained from participating in ICRF heating experiments at ASDEX and DIII-D tokamaks arranged through international cooperation.

  2. Highly-enhanced reflow characteristics of sputter deposited Cu interconnections of large scale integrated devices by optimizing sputtering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Takashi; Mizuno, Masao; Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Munemasa, Jun; Mizuno, Masataka; Kihara, Teruo; Araki, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2013-07-01

    Improving the reflow characteristics of sputtered Cu films was attempted by optimizing the sputtering conditions. The reflow characteristics of films deposited under various sputtering conditions were evaluated by measuring their filling level in via holes. It was found that the reflow characteristics of the Cu films are strongly influenced by the deposition parameters. Deposition at low temperatures and the addition of H2 or N2 to the Ar sputtering gas had a significant influence on the reflow characteristics. Imperfections in the Cu films before and after the high-temperature, high-pressure treatments were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results showed that low temperature and the addition of H2 or N2 led to films containing a large number of mono-vacancies, which accelerate atomic diffusion creep and dislocation core diffusion creep, improving the reflow characteristics of the Cu films.

  3. Properties of reactively sputtered AlxNy thin films for pyroelectric detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvano, Nicholas; Chrostoski, Philip; Voshell, Andrew; Braithwaite, Keesean; Rana, Mukti

    2017-08-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors are utilized in various radiometric devices and cameras because of their low cost, light weight and performance. A pyroelectric detector is a class of uncooled infrared detector whose polarization changes with change in temperature. Infrared radiation from objects falls on top of the sensing layer of the pyroelectric detector and the absorbed radiation causes the temperature of the sensing layer to change. This work describes the deposition and characterization of AlxNy thin films for using them as pyroelectric detector's sensing material. To test the sensitivity of infrared detection or pyroelectric effect of AlxNy thin films, capacitors of various sizes were fabricated. The diameter of the electrodes for capacitor used during testing of the device was 1100 μm while the distances between these two electrodes was 1100 μm. On a 3-inch diameter cleaned silicon wafer, 100 nm thick AlxNy thin films were deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering from an Al target in Ar: N2 environment. On top of this, a 100-nm thick Au layer was deposited and lifted off by using conventional photo lithography to form the electrodes of capacitors. All the layers were deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature. The thin film samples were annealed at 700 °C in N2 environment for 10 minutes. X-ray diffraction showed the films are poly-crystalline with peaks in (100), (002) and (101) directions. When the temperature varied between 303 K to 353 K, the pyroelectric coefficient was increased from 8.60 × 10-9 C/m2K to 3.76 × 10-8C/m2K with a room temperature pyroelectric coefficient value of 8.60×10-9C/m2K. The non-annealed films were found to be transparent between the wavelengths of 600 nm to 3000 nm. The refraction coefficient was found to be varied between 2.0 and 2.2 while the extinction coefficient was found to be zero. The optical bandgap determined using Tauc's equation was 1.65 eV.

  4. Modular open RF architecture: extending VICTORY to RF systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melber, Adam; Dirner, Jason; Johnson, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency products spanning multiple functions have become increasingly critical to the warfighter. Military use of the electromagnetic spectrum now includes communications, electronic warfare (EW), intelligence, and mission command systems. Due to the urgent needs of counterinsurgency operations, various quick reaction capabilities (QRCs) have been fielded to enhance warfighter capability. Although these QRCs were highly successfully in their respective missions, they were designed independently resulting in significant challenges when integrated on a common platform. This paper discusses how the Modular Open RF Architecture (MORA) addresses these challenges by defining an open architecture for multifunction missions that decomposes monolithic radio systems into high-level components with welldefined functions and interfaces. The functional decomposition maximizes hardware sharing while minimizing added complexity and cost due to modularization. MORA achieves significant size, weight and power (SWaP) savings by allowing hardware such as power amplifiers and antennas to be shared across systems. By separating signal conditioning from the processing that implements the actual radio application, MORA exposes previously inaccessible architecture points, providing system integrators with the flexibility to insert third-party capabilities to address technical challenges and emerging requirements. MORA leverages the Vehicular Integration for Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR)/EW Interoperability (VICTORY) framework. This paper concludes by discussing how MORA, VICTORY and other standards such as OpenVPX are being leveraged by the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CERDEC) to define a converged architecture enabling rapid technology insertion, interoperability and reduced SWaP.

  5. Low temperature sputter-deposited ZnO films with enhanced Hall mobility using excimer laser post-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakonas, C.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Cranton, W. M.; Kalfagiannis, N.; Abusabee, K. M.; Koutsogeorgis, D. C.; Abeywickrama, N.; Edwards, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    We report the low temperature (T  ZnO thin films (~140 nm) with Hall mobility of up to 17.3 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 making them suitable for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at T  V‑1 s‑1 at a carrier density of 2.3  ×  1018 cm‑3 was measured from a 1 GΩ as deposited and aged film after the laser treatment. We suggest that the aging of non-processed films reduces structural defects mainly at grain boundaries by air species chemisorption, with concomitant increase in thermal conductivity so that laser processing can have an enhancing effect. Such a processing combination can act synergistically and produce suitable active layers for TFT applications with low temperature processing requirements.

  6. Oxygen pressure effect on optical properties and dye degradation of ZnO nanostructured films prepared by sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakanta Reddy, I.; Gobi Saravanan, K.; Venkata Reddy, Ch; Cho, Migyung; Shim, Jaesool; Kim, Dongseob

    2017-09-01

    The effect of oxygen pressure on structural, morphological and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanostructured films deposited on glass substrates via RF magnetron sputtering was investigated. The structural, morphology and oxidation states of the films were investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to analyze the degradation and optical properties of ZnO thin films. The grown films showed wurtzite hexagonal crystalline nanostructures with a favored orientation along the direction of (0 0 2) lattice plane. The morphology images showed a hierarchical ZnO nanostructured films with various shapes from circulars to foils and even much more multifaceted circular shapes and triangular sheets-like shapes by varying the oxygen pressure. The foil type ZnO nanostructured films showed significant photocatalytic activity concerning the degradation of methyl orange, mainly due to their surface-to-volume ratio.

  7. Activities on heavy ion RFQ and RF superconducting cavities at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.E.; Fang, J.X.; Yu, J.X.; Zhao, K. [IHIP, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    1998-11-01

    Progress on an Integrated Split Ring (ISR) RFQ with water-cooled mini vane electrodes was reported. N{sup +}, O{sup +} and O{sup -} ions have been accelerated to more than 300 KeV. The beam transmission efficiency of the RFQ reached more than 84% with an average current of {approx}38.4 {mu}A. Feasibility study of accelerating both O{sup +} and O{sup -} ion beams simultaneously in the same RFQ was also performed. An ISR RFQ for accelerating oxygen ion beam up to I MeV was designed and constructed. Two superconducting cavities with China made niobium were successfully manufactured and tested by the RF Superconductivity group. A DC photo cathode electron gun with a 2 MeV superconducting booster and a Cu-Nb sputtering system have been designed, manufactured and installed. The feasibility of a heavy ion superconducting booster with sputtering Nb QWR cavities was studied in collaboration with CIAE for their proposed project of Beijing Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. Both SC and RFQ groups of PKU are collaborating with IHEP and CIAE for a new proposal of accelerator driven nuclear energy source. (author)

  8. Rapidly Tunable Dual-Comb RF Photonic Filter for Ultrabroadband RF Spread Spectrum Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2016.2599162 We demonstrate a rapidly frequency-tunable radio frequency (RF) filter using microwave photonics technology for ultrawideband RF spread spectrum applications. A pair of electro-optic frequency combs is arranged as a dispersive tapped delay line in a differential detection configuration to implement a programmable finite impulse response RF f...

  9. RF accelerating unit installed in the PSB

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    RF accelerating unit installed in the PSB ring between two bending magnets. Cool air from a heat exchanger is injected into the four cavities from the central feeder and the hot air recirculated via the lateral ducts.

  10. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  11. FERMILAB CRYOMODULE TEST STAND RF INTERLOCK SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Troy [Fermilab; Diamond, J. S. [Fermilab; McDowell, D. [Fermilab; Nicklaus, D. [Fermilab; Prieto, P. S. [Fermilab; Semenov, A. [Fermilab

    2016-10-12

    An interlock system has been designed for the Fermilab Cryo-module Test Stand (CMTS), a test bed for the cryo- modules to be used in the upcoming Linac Coherent Light Source 2 (LCLS-II) project at SLAC. The interlock system features 8 independent subsystems, one per superconducting RF cavity and solid state amplifier (SSA) pair. Each system monitors several devices to detect fault conditions such as arcing in the waveguides or quenching of the SRF system. Additionally each system can detect fault conditions by monitoring the RF power seen at the cavity coupler through a directional coupler. In the event of a fault condition, each system is capable of removing RF signal to the amplifier (via a fast RF switch) as well as turning off the SSA. Additionally, each input signal is available for re- mote viewing and recording via a Fermilab designed digitizer board and MVME 5500 processor.

  12. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: fuwa@kyticr.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Yamazaki, Atsushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H{sub 2} gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at the exit of RF resonator by a probe.

  13. Prototype storage cavity for LEP accelerating RF

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The principle of an RF storage cavity was demonstrated with this prototype, working at 500 MHz. Ian Wilso seems to hold it in his hands. The storage cavities had 4 portholes, 1 each for: RF feed; tuning; connection to the accelerating cavity; vacuum pump. The final storage cavities were larger, to suit the lower LEP accelerating frequency of 352.2 MHz. See also 8002294, 8006510X, 8109346, 8407619X, and Annual Report 1980, p.115.

  14. Integrated Photonics Technology and RF over Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    lmco.com Abstract: Integrated photonics technology has the capability to enable the insertion of RF over Fiber into military platforms. This paper...significantly lower CSWaP [1]. A PIC based RF over Fiber solution could enable this technology to be inserted into many systems as an alternative to...This protection is usually provided via metallic shielding of the conductor. Unfortunately, this translates into cables that are larger and have a

  15. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  16. Vortex formation during rf heating of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motley, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on a test plasma show that the linear theory of waveguide coupling to slow plasma waves begins to break down if the rf power flux exceeds approx. 30 W/cm/sup 2/. Probe measurements reveal that within 30 ..mu..s an undulation appears in the surface plasma near the mouth of the twin waveguide. This surface readjustment is part of a vortex, or off-center convective cell, driven by asymmetric rf heating of the plasma column.

  17. RF waveguide phase-directed power combiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantista, Christopher D.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2017-05-02

    High power RF phase-directed power combiners include magic H hybrid and/or superhybrid circuits oriented in orthogonal H-planes and connected using E-plane bends and/or twists to produce compact 3D waveguide circuits, including 8.times.8 and 16.times.16 combiners. Using phase control at the input ports, RF power can be directed to a single output port, enabling fast switching between output ports for applications such as multi-angle radiation therapy.

  18. Estimates of Sputter Yields of Solar-Wind Heavy Ions of Lunar Regolith Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, Abdulmasser F.; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    At energies of approximately 1 keV/amu, solar-wind protons and heavy ions interact with the lunar surface materials via a number of microscopic interactions that include sputtering. Solar-wind induced sputtering is a main mechanism by which the composition of the topmost layers of the lunar surface can change, dynamically and preferentially. This work concentrates on sputtering induced by solar-wind heavy ions. Sputtering associated with slow (speeds the electrons speed in its first Bohr orbit) and highly charged ions are known to include both kinetic and potential sputtering. Potential sputtering enjoys some unique characteristics that makes it of special interest to lunar science and exploration. Unlike the yield from kinetic sputtering where simulation and approximation schemes exist, the yield from potential sputtering is not as easy to estimate. This work will present a preliminary numerical scheme designed to estimate potential sputtering yields from reactions relevant to this aspect of solar-wind lunar-surface coupling.

  19. Overview of High Power Vacuum Dry RF Load Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    A specific feature of RF linacs based on the pulsed traveling wave (TW) mode of operation is that only a portion of the RF energy is used for the beam acceleration. The residual RF energy has to be terminated into an RF load. Higher accelerating gradients require higher RF sources and RF loads, which can stably terminate the residual RF power. RF feeders (from the RF source though the accelerating section to the load) are vacuumed to transmit multi-megawatt high power RF. This overview will outline vacuumed RF loads only. A common method to terminate multi-MW RF power is to use circulated water (or other liquid) as an absorbing medium. A solid dielectric interface (a high quality ceramic) is required to separate vacuum and liquid RF absorber mediums. Using such RF load approaches in TW linacs is troubling because there is a fragile ceramic window barrier and a failure could become catastrophic for linac vacuum and RF systems. Traditional loads comprising of a ceramic disk have limited peak and average power handling capability and are therefore not suitable for high gradient TW linacs. This overview will focus on ''vacuum dry'' or ''all-metal'' loads that do not employ any dielectric interface between vacuum and absorber. The first prototype is an original design of RF loads for the Stanford Two-Mile Accelerator.

  20. Ion beam sputter coatings for laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristau, Detlev; Gross, Tobias

    2005-09-01

    The initial motivation for the development of Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) processes was the need for optical coatings with extremely low optical scatter losses for laser gyros. Especially, backscattering of the gyro-mirrors couples the directional modes in the ring resonator leading to the lock in effect which limits the sensitivity of the gyro. Accordingly, the first patent on IBS was approved for an aircraft company (Litton) in 1978. In the course of the rapid development of the IBS-concept during the last two decades, an extremely high optical quality could be achieved for laser coatings in the VIS- and NIR-spectral region. For example, high reflecting coatings with total optical losses below 1 ppm were demonstrated for specific precision measurement applications with the Nd:YAG-laser operating at 1.064 μm. Even though the high quality level of IBS-coatings had been confirmed in many applications, the process has not found its way into the production environment of most optical companies. Major restrictions are the relatively low rate of the deposition process and the poor lateral homogeneity of the coatings, which are related to the output characteristics of the currently available ion sources. In the present contribution, the basic principles of IBS will be discussed in the context of the demands of modern laser technology. Besides selected examples for special applications of IBS, aspects will be presented for approaches towards rapid manufacturing of coatings and the production of rugate filters on the basis of IBS-techniques.

  1. Sputtering of neutral and ionic indium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.; Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Von Nagy-Felsobuki, E.I.

    1993-10-01

    Secondary neutral and secondary ion cluster yields were measured during the sputtering of a polycrystalline indium surface by normally incident {approximately}4 keV Ar{sup +} ions. In the secondary neutral mass spectra, indium clusters as large as In{sub 32} were observed. In the secondary ion mass spectra, indium clusters up to In{sub 18}{sup +} were recorded. Cluster yields obtained from both the neutral and ion channel exhibited a power law dependence on the number of constituent atoms, n, in the cluster, with the exponents measured to be {minus}5.6 and {minus}4. 1, respectively. An abundance drop was observed at n=8, 15, and 16 in both the neutral and ion yield distributions suggesting that the stability of the ion (either secondary ion or photoion) plays a significant role in the observed distributions. In addition, our experiments suggest that unimolecular decomposition of the neutral cluster may also plays an important role in the measured yield distributions.

  2. Low reflectance high power RF load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  3. Photoirradiation Caused Controllable Wettability Switching of Sputtered Highly Aligned c-Axis-Oriented Zinc Oxide Columnar Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the microstructure morphology and UV photoirradiation coupling effects of the c-axis-oriented zinc oxide (ZnO columnar films. Highly aligned c-axis-oriented films have been deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature by radio-frequency (RF magnetron sputtering without introducing any oxygen source under different sputtering powers ranging from 50 to 150 W. Self-assembled ZnO columnar structures that were successfully obtained belong to wurtzite structure, and the corresponding columnar structures and crystalline orientation were confirmed by the FE-SEM and XRD, respectively. All the ZnO columnar films exhibit good transparency with a visible light averaged transmittance over 82%. According to water contact angle (CA measurement, ZnO columnar films exhibit hydrophobic behavior. After exposing to photoirradiation under ultraviolet (UV environment, all the ZnO samples showed remarkable transition from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic surfaces and could return to their original hydrophobicity after being placed in the dark. It is demonstrated that the controllable wettability of ZnO columnar films under changing between the UV photoirradiation and dark storage is due to the surface charges accumulation and discharging processes. As a result, this study could provide important applications for many fields such as ZnO-based hybrid sensors/solar cells functional devices with photoirradiation disinfection surfaces accompanied with reversible wettability switches.

  4. Control of p-type and n-type thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride thin films by combinatorial sputter coating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Michiko; Xu, Yibin; Zhan, Tianzhuo; Isoda, Yukihiro; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2017-06-01

    p- and n-type bismuth telluride thin films have been synthesized by using a combinatorial sputter coating system (COSCOS). The crystal structure and crystal preferred orientation of the thin films were changed by controlling the coating condition of the radio frequency (RF) power during the sputter coating. As a result, the p- and n-type films and their dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) were optimized by the technique. The properties of the thin films such as the crystal structure, crystal preferred orientation, material composition and surface morphology were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Also, the thermoelectric properties of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were measured. ZT for n- and p-type bismuth telluride thin films was found to be 0.27 and 0.40 at RF powers of 90 and 120 W, respectively. The proposed technology can be used to fabricate thermoelectric p-n modules of bismuth telluride without any doping process.

  5. Optimization of aluminum-doped zinc oxide films deposited at low temperature by radio-frequency sputtering on flexible substrates for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica (GRIFO), Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at 100 C on polyethylene terephthalate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The sputtering parameters such as RF power and Argon working pressure were varied from 25 to 125 W and from 1.1 to 0.2 Pa, respectively. The structural properties of as-deposited films were analysed by X-ray diffraction, showing that all the deposited films were polycrystalline, with hexagonal structure and a strong preferred c-axis orientation (0 0 2). Full width at half maximum and grain sizes were around 0.27 and ranged from 24 to 32 nm, respectively. The strain state of the samples was also estimated from X-ray diffraction measurements, obtaining compressive stresses from 0.29 to 0.05 GPa. Resistivity as low as 1.1 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm was achieved for the film deposited at 75 W and 0.2 Pa, sample that showed a low strain state of -0.06 GPa. High optical transmittance ({proportional_to}80%) was exhibited when films were deposited at RF powers below 100 W. Band gap energies ranged from 3.36 to 3.39 eV and a refractive index of 1.80{+-}0.05, constant in the visible region, was also obtained. (author)

  6. Reactive magnetron sputtering of silicon to produce silicon oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, R. P.; Danson, N.; Hall, G. W.

    1997-01-01

    Well controlled silicon dioxide films with refractive index 1.400-1.490 have been deposited at rates of up to 0.85 nm/s from a 100 mm diameter polycrystalline silicon cathode, sputtered at 200 W of 40 kHz rectified AC power in a reactive environment. This frequency used with control of the partial pressure of the oxygen in the system from the cathode potential has demonstrated an ability to reactively sputter silicon oxide of high quality. Stress/stoichiometry curves showed a peak in stress at a refractive index of 1.460 indicating both a dense structure and optimised SiO 2. We have demonstrated a pulsing system for the admission of oxygen into the silicon sputtering system which is under the control of a signal derived from the voltage appearing on the cathode when sputtering at constant power. Such a signal indicates the sputtering status of the target as to the degree to which the cathode is covered with oxide i.e. poisoned. By varying combinations of reactive gas flow rate and switching levels, different film compositions could be reproducibly and reliably obtained. The growing films could be subjected to a externally-varied degree of argon-ion bombardment with a simple modification of the geometry of the unbalanced magnetron used for the sputtering. The amount of ion bombardment with such a system was also a function of the argon sputtering pressure that was used. Increased argon-ion bombardment resulted in more compressive stress in the film that was produced.

  7. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF: Glyphosate tolerant, high-yielding upland cotton cultivars for central Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo de Lelis Morello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF were developed by the EMBRAPA as a part of efforts to create high-yielding germplasm with combinations of transgenic traits. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF are midseason cultivars and have yield stability, adaptation to the central Brazilian savanna, good fiber quality and tolerance to glyphosate herbicide.

  8. ZnO Nanowire Formation by Two-Step Deposition Method Using Energy-Controlled Hollow-Type Magnetron RF Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Ono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowire was produced in RF (radio frequency discharge plasma. We employed here a two-step deposition technique. In the 1st step, zinc atoms were sputtered from a zinc target to create zinc nuclei on a substrate before the growth of ZnO nanostructure. Here, we used pure argon plasma for physical sputtering. In the 2nd step, we employed an oxygen discharge mixed with argon, where oxygen radicals reacted with zinc nuclei to form ZnO nanostructures. Experimental parameters such as gas flow ratio and target bias voltage were controlled in O2/Ar plasma. Properties of the depositions were analysed by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. We found that many folded and bundled nanowires formed in the 2nd step. The diameter of wires was typically 10–100 nm. We also discussed a growth mechanism of ZnO nanowires.

  9. Report on Superconducting RF Activities at CERN from 2001 to 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Losito, R; Chiaveri, Enrico; Montesinos, E; Tückmantel, Joachim; Valuch, D; 11th Workshop on RF Superconductivity

    2003-01-01

    The main project on superconducting RF at CERN in the period from 2001 to 2003 has been the 400 MHz SC system for the LHC. Five modules, each containing four single-cell niobium (Nb) sputtered cavities, have been assembled and low-power tested at room temperature and at 4.5 K. Production of the first four power couplers has been delayed but high-power tests should start on the first module this autumn. A small program of R&D is maintained on the SPL. Both the beta = 0.7 and beta = 0.8 cavities have been high-power tested up to nominal field without particular problems. A detailed characterization of the cavity mechanical resonances is going on and some preliminary results are presented. A computer code has been written to predict the effects of Lorentz detuning and microphonics on the stability of the RF feedback loops in SC linacs where several cavities are driven by a single high power source. Fast ferrite phase shifters are being developed to allow the decoupling of the feedback loops of individual cav...

  10. Performance of the BATMAN RF source with a large racetrack shaped driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.

    2017-08-01

    In the negative ion sources in neutral beam injection systems (NBI) of future fusion reactors the plasma is generated in up to eight cylindrical RF sources ("drivers") from which it expands into the main volume. For these large sources, in particular those used in the future DEMO NBI, a high RF efficiency and operational reliability is required. To achieve this it could be favorable to substitute each pair of drivers by one larger one. To investigate this option the cylindrical driver of the BATMAN source at IPP Garching has been replaced by a large source with a racetrack shaped base area and tested using the same extraction system. The main differences are a five times larger source volume and another position of the Cs oven which is mounted onto the driver`s back plate and not onto the expansion volume. The conditioning characteristics and the plasma symmetry in front of the plasma grid were very similar. The extracted H- current densities jex are comparable to that achieved with the small driver at the same power. Because no saturation of jex occurred at 0.6 Pa at high power and the source allows high power operation, a maximum value 45.1 mA/cm2 at 103 kW has been reached. Sputtered Cu from the walls of the expansion volume affected the performance at low pressure, particularly in deuterium. The experiments will be therefore continued with Mo coating of all inner walls.

  11. Dynamical simulation of sputtering and reflection from a ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshinaga, H.; Yamamura, Y.

    The sputtering and the reflection from a Tb0.2Fe0.7Co0.1 alloy due to Ar+ ion bombardment have been investigated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT-DIFFUSE which include the compositional change induced by ion influence. In the Tb-Fe-Co system, Fe atoms are preferentially sputtered. The atomic size of a Tb atom is the largest of these three atoms, and so Tb atoms trap preferentially in vacancies. The steady-state concentration of Tb atoms at the topmost layer is larger than the bulk concentration for the low energy ions due to radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering of Fe atoms. As the ion fluence increases, the atomic fractions of sputtered atoms calculated by the ACAT-DIFFUSE code become those of the bulk concentration. The depth profiles of each element at the steady state depend on the incident energy. The total sputtering yield and the reflection coefficient from a Tb-Fe-Co alloy calculated by the ACAT-DIFFUSE code are larger than those by the ACAT code at near-threshold energies, where the ACAT code does not include the ion-influence effect. The energy spectra of back-scattered Ar atoms from the present ternary alloy have very similar profiles to those from a monoatomic Tb target, especially for low-energy Ar+ ions.

  12. Projectile charge state dependent sputtering of solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hayderer, G

    2000-01-01

    dependence on the ion kinetic energy. This new type of potential sputtering not only requires electronic excitation of the target material, but also the formation of a collision cascade within the target in order to initiate the sputtering process and has therefore been termed kinetically assisted potential sputtering. In order to study defects induced by potential sputtering on the atomic scale we performed measurements of multiply charged Ar ion irradiated HOPG (highly oriented pyrolitic graphite) samples with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The only surface defects found in the STM images are protrusions. The mean diameter of the defects increases with projectile charge state while the height of the protrusions stays roughly the same indicating a possible pre-equilibrium effect of the stopping of slow multiply charged projectiles in HOPG. Total sputter yields for impact of slow singly and multiply charged ions on metal- (Au), oxide- (Al2O3, MgO) and alkali-halide surfaces (LiF) have been measured as a...

  13. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  14. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A

  15. Heteroepitaxial growth of TiN film on MgO (100) by reactive magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Peng, Chun-Yen; Chang, Li

    2014-01-01

    TiN thin films were deposited on MgO (100) substrates at different substrate temperatures using rf sputtering with Ar/N2 ratio of about 10. At 700°C, the growth rate of TiN was approximately 0.05 μm/h. The structural and electrical properties of TiN thin films were characterized with x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Hall measurements. For all deposition conditions, XRD results show that the TiN films can be in an epitaxy with MgO with cube-on-cube orientation relationship of (001)TiN // (001)MgO and [100]TiN // [100]MgO. TEM with selected-area electron diffraction pattern verifies the epitaxial growth of the TiN films on MgO. SEM and AFM show that the surface of the TiN film is very smooth with roughness approximately 0.26 nm. The minimum resistivity of the films can be as low as 45 μΩ cm.

  16. Nanostructured multilayers of TiN/ZrN obtained by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo A., J.C. [CDT ASTIN, SENA Regional Valle, Cali (Colombia); Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, CENM, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Bejarano G., G. [CDT ASTIN, SENA Regional Valle, Cali (Colombia); Group of Corrosion and Protection, Antioquia University, Medellin (Colombia); Gomez, M.E. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, CENM, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, CENM, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Cortez, C.; Munoz, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del CINVESTAV-IPN, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In order to find an industrial application for thin films of TiN and ZrN monolayers, as well as TiN/ZrN multilayers were deposited onto silicon (100) and AISI 5160 steel substrates by r.f. (13.56 MHz) multi-target magnetron sputtering from high-purity (99.5%) Ti and (99.5%) Zr targets in an Ar (93%)/N{sub 2} (7%) gas mixture. For their deposition, we applied a substrate bias voltage of -100 V and a target power of 350 W. The films were deposited at a pressure of 6x10{sup -3} mbar and a temperature of 250 C. The structure, composition, morphology, and topography were characterized by, XRD, FTIR, SEM, AFM, and optical microscopy. Mechanical properties like hardness and elastic modulus were determined by Nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the films increased proportionally to the number of bilayers. Finally, cutting tools were coated with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 bilayers of TiN/ZrN. Cutting tests on paper blades were conducted. Increased cut quality performance was observed for cutting tools coated with 8 bilayers, as compared to uncoated tools. This work opens the possibility to use coated AISI 5160 as cutting tools for the paper industry, reducing the import of expensive high-quality tool steel. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. SAW characteristics of AlN films sputtered on silicon substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, M; Vergara, L; Sangrador, J; Iborra, E; Sanz-Hervás, A

    2004-04-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the electroacoustic response of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters made of aluminium nitride (AlN) thin films on various types of Si wafers. AlN films with (00.2) orientation were deposited by RF reactive sputtering of an Al target in Ar and N(2) admixtures on Si(100) and (111) wafers with resistivities ranging between 10 and 2000 Omega cm. The electroacoustic response of SAW filters with an acoustic wavelength of 40 microm was analysed by measuring the Sij parameters with a network analyser. We have determined that the out-of-band loss is directly related to the Si substrate resistivity, varying from 26 dB for 10 Omega cm to 55 dB for 2000 Omega cm. The SAW velocity depends on the orientation of the Si wafer, being approximately 4700 m/s for Si(111) and 5100 m/s for Si(100). The electroacoustic responses of the SAW filters were fitted by computations based on a simple circuital model that takes into account parasitic effects such as airborne electromagnetic coupling and conduction through the substrate. This procedure provides accurate values of the electromechanical coupling factor k2 even for devices with poor characteristics. Good quality SAW filters of AlN on high resistivity Si(100) wafers with k2 larger than 0.12% are demonstrated.

  18. Microstructure and magnetic properties of sputtered Fe-Pt thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalingam, T; Chen, J H; Wang, S F; Inoue, K

    2003-01-01

    The characterization of rf magnetron-sputtered Fe-Pt thin films at various compositions (Pt = 15, 24, 46 and 78 at%) is reported. X-ray diffraction studies on annealed Fe-46%Pt thin films at 600 deg C revealed an ordered L1 sub 0 gamma sub 2 -FePt phase with fct structure whereas annealed Fe-24%Pt and Fe-78%Pt films exhibited ordered gamma sub 1 -Fe sub 3 Pt and gamma sub 3 -FePt sub 3 phases, respectively. The effects of argon quenching and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the structural and magnetic properties are investigated. When the films are annealed at 600 deg C for 1 h and then quenched to room temperature in argon gas, ordered gamma sub 2 -FePt with L1 sub 0 phase is obtained. Argon-quenched and rapid thermal annealed films exhibit microtwins in scanning electron microscopy analysis. The appearance of microtwins may be attributed to the planar defects developed in the FePt films due to the release of elastic strain during annealing. The saturation magnetization is found to increase with ferrous cont...

  19. Mechanical and Tribological Behavior of VN and HfN Films Deposited via Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, C.; Villarreal, M.; Caicedo, J. C.; Esteve, J.; Prieto, P.

    2013-07-01

    HfN and VN thin films were deposited onto silicon and 4140 steel substrates with r.f. reactive magnetron sputtering by using Hf and V metallic targets with 4-inch diameter and 99.9% purity in argon/nitrogen atmosphere, applying a substrate temperature of 250°C and a pressure of 1.2 × 10-3 mbar. In order to evaluate the structural, chemical, morphological, mechanical and tribological properties, we used X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation, pin-on-disc and scratch tests. Film structure determined by XRD showed that FCC (NaCl-type) films are formed in both the cases by δ-HfN and δ-VN phases. Hardness and elastic modulus values obtained for both the films were 21 and 224 GPa for the HfN film and 19 and 205 GPa for the VN film, respectively. Additionally, the films showed low friction coefficient of 0.44 for HfN and 0.62 for VN when these films were evaluated against 100 Cr6 steel, and finally the critical load was found at 41 N for the HfN film and 34 N for the VN film.

  20. Optical properties of tungsten oxide thin films by non-reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, M., E-mail: milenis@yahoo.co [Laboratorio de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Avenida Industrias No Contaminantes S/N, A.P. 150, Cordemex, Merida (Mexico); Gonzalez, D.; Riech, I. [Laboratorio de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Avenida Industrias No Contaminantes S/N, A.P. 150, Cordemex, Merida (Mexico)

    2009-07-31

    Tungsten oxide thin films were grown on glass substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature using a tungsten trioxide target for several values of the argon pressure (P{sub Ar}). The structural and morphological properties of these films were studied using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The as-deposited films were amorphous irrespective of the argon pressure, and crystallized in a mixture of hexagonal and monoclinic phases after annealing at a temperature of 350 {sup o}C in air. Surface-roughness increased by an order of magnitude (from 1 nm to 20 nm) after thermal treatment. The argon pressure, however, had a strong influence on the optical properties of the films. Three different regions are clearly identified: deep blue films for P{sub Ar} {<=} 2.67 Pa with low transmittance values, light blue films for 2.67 Pa < P{sub Ar} < 6 Pa with intermediate transmittance values and transparent films for P{sub Ar} {>=} 6 Pa with high transmittance values. We suggest that the observed changes in optical properties are due to an increasing number of oxygen vacancies as the growth argon pressure decreases.

  1. Indium oxide-based transparent conductive films deposited by reactive sputtering using alloy targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Maruyama, Eri; Jia, Junjun; Machinaga, Hironobu; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2017-04-01

    High-quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films, Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and In2O3-ZnO (IZO), were successfully deposited on either synthetic silica or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates in the “transition region” by reactive dc magnetron sputtering using In-Zn and In-Sn alloy targets, respectively, with a specially designed plasma emission feedback system. The composition, crystallinity, surface morphology, and electrical and optical properties of the films were analyzed. All of the IZO films were amorphous, whereas the ITO films were polycrystalline over a wide range of deposition conditions. The minimum resistivities of the IZO and ITO films deposited on the heated PET substrates at 150 °C were 3.3 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm, respectively. By applying rf bias to unheated PET substrates, ITO films with a resistivity of 4.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm were deposited at a dc self-bias voltage of -60 V.

  2. Focusing properties of discrete RF quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Jun

    2017-08-01

    The particle motion equation for a Radio Frequency (RF) quadrupole is derived. The motion equation shows that the general transform matrix of a RF quadrupole with length less than or equal to 0.5βλ (β is the relativistic velocity of particles and λ is wavelength of radio frequency electromagnetic field) can describe the particle motion in an arbitrarily long RF quadrupole. By iterative integration, the general transform matrix of a discrete RF quadrupole is derived from the motion equation. The transform matrix is in form of a power series of focusing parameter B. It shows that for length less than βλ, the series up to the 2nd order of B agrees well with the direct integration results for B up to 30, while for length less than 0.5βλ, the series up to 1st order is already a good approximation of the real solution for B less than 30. The formula of the transform matrix can be integrated into linac or beam line design code to deal with the focusing of discrete RF quadrupoles. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375122, 11511140277) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA03020705)

  3. Influence of Nb Doping Concentration on Bolometric Properties of RF Magnetron Sputtered Nb:TiO2- x Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Shin, Young Bong; Kang, In-Ku; Lee, Hee Chul

    2018-03-01

    The present study directly addresses the improved bolometric properties by means of different Nb doping concentrations into TiO2- x films. The x-ray diffraction patterns do not display any obvious diffraction peaks, suggesting that all the films deposited at room temperature had an amorphous structure. A small binding energy shift was observed in x-ray photo electron spectroscopy due to the change of chemical composition with Nb doping concentration. All the device samples exhibit linear I- V characteristics, which attests to the formation of good ohmic contact with low contact resistance between the Nb:TiO2- x (TNO) film and the electrode (Ti) material. The performance of the bolometric material can be evaluated through the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the absolute value of TCR was found to be increased from 2.54% to 2.78% with increasing the Nb doping concentration. The voltage spectral density of 1/ f noise was measured in the frequency range of 1-60 Hz and found to be decreased with increase of Nb doping concentration. As a result, for 1 at.% Nb-doped TNO sample exhibits improved bolometric properties towards the good infrared image sensor device.

  4. The Role of Edge Dislocations on the Red Luminescence of ZnO Films Deposited by RF-Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Félix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of extended defects (i.e., dislocations in inorganic semiconductors, such as GaN or ZnO, responsible for broad emission peaks in photoluminescence analysis remains unresolved. The possible assignments of these luminescence bands are still matter of discussion. In this study, two different zinc oxide samples, grown under different oxygen partial pressures and substrate temperatures, are presented. Epitaxial and structural properties were analysed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. They confirm that the layers are single-phase with a good crystalline quality. Nevertheless, a different density of threading dislocations, with a higher contribution of edge dislocations, was found. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to investigate the optical properties. The steady state luminescence spectra performed at 14 K evidenced the donor bound exciton recombination and deep green and red emission bands. The red band with a maximum at 1.78 eV was found to be stronger in the sample grown at lower oxygen pressure which also shows higher density of threading dislocations. From the temperature and excitation density dependence of the red band, a donor acceptor pair recombination model was proposed, where hydrogen and zinc vacancies are strong candidates for the donor and acceptor species, respectively.

  5. Influence of Nb Doping Concentration on Bolometric Properties of RF Magnetron Sputtered Nb:TiO2-x Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Shin, Young Bong; Kang, In-Ku; Lee, Hee Chul

    2017-12-01

    The present study directly addresses the improved bolometric properties by means of different Nb doping concentrations into TiO2-x films. The x-ray diffraction patterns do not display any obvious diffraction peaks, suggesting that all the films deposited at room temperature had an amorphous structure. A small binding energy shift was observed in x-ray photo electron spectroscopy due to the change of chemical composition with Nb doping concentration. All the device samples exhibit linear I-V characteristics, which attests to the formation of good ohmic contact with low contact resistance between the Nb:TiO2-x (TNO) film and the electrode (Ti) material. The performance of the bolometric material can be evaluated through the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the absolute value of TCR was found to be increased from 2.54% to 2.78% with increasing the Nb doping concentration. The voltage spectral density of 1/f noise was measured in the frequency range of 1-60 Hz and found to be decreased with increase of Nb doping concentration. As a result, for 1 at.% Nb-doped TNO sample exhibits improved bolometric properties towards the good infrared image sensor device.

  6. Rf Station For Ion Beam Staking In Hirfl-csr

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuzov, V S; Bushuev, A A; Dranichnikov, A N; Gorniker, E I; Kendjebulatov, E K; Kondakov, A A; Kondaurov, M; Kruchkov, Ya G; Krutikhin, S A; Kurkin, G Ya; Mironenko, L A; Motygin, S V; Osipov, V N; Petrov, V M; Pilan, Andrey M; Popov, A M; Rashenko, V V; Selivanov, A N; Shteinke, A R; Vajenin, N F

    2004-01-01

    BINP has developed and produced the RF station for Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Lanzhou, China, for multipurpose accelerator complex with electron cooling. The RF station will be used for accumulation of ion beams in the main ring of the system. It was successfully tested in IMP and installed into the main accelerator ring of the complex. The RF station includes accelerating RF cavity and RF power generator with power supplies. The station works within frequency range 6.0 - 14.0 MHz, maximum voltage across the accelerating gap of the RF cavity - 20 kV. In the RF cavity the 200 VNP ferrite is utilized. A residual gas pressure in vacuum chamber does not exceed 2,5E-11 mbar. Maximum output power of the RF generator 25 kW. The data acquisition and control of the RF station is based on COMPACT - PCI bus and provides all functions of monitoring and control.

  7. The influence of target erosion grade in the optoelectronic properties of AZO coatings growth by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubizarreta, C.; G-Berasategui, E.; Ciarsolo, I.; Barriga, J.; Gaspar, D.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductor coating has emerged as promising substitute to tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) as electrode in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics or light emitting diodes (LEDs). Besides its high transmission in the visible spectral region and low resistivity, AZO presents a main advantage over other candidates such as graphene, carbon nanotubes or silver nanowires; it can be deposited using the technology industrially implemented to manufacture ITO layers, the magnetron sputtering (MS). This is a productive, reliable and green manufacturing technique. But to guarantee the robustness, reproducibility and reliability of the process there are still some issues to be addressed, such as the effect and control of the target state. In this paper a thorough study of the influence of the target erosion grade in developed coatings has been performed. AZO films have been deposited from a ceramic target by RF MS. Structure, optical transmittance and electrical properties of the produced coatings have been analyzed as function of the target erosion grade. No noticeable differences have been found neither in optoelectronic properties nor in the structure of the coatings, indicating that the RF MS is a stable and consistent process through the whole life of the target.

  8. Composition and structure of sputter deposited erbium hydride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS,DAVID P.; ROMERO,JUAN A.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; FLORO,JERROLD A.; BANKS,JAMES C.

    2000-05-10

    Erbium hydride thin films are grown onto polished, a-axis {alpha} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sapphire) substrates by reactive ion beam sputtering and analyzed to determine composition, phase and microstructure. Erbium is sputtered while maintaining a H{sub 2} partial pressure of 1.4 x 10{sup {minus}4} Torr. Growth is conducted at several substrate temperatures between 30 and 500 C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analyses after deposition show that the H/Er areal density ratio is approximately 3:1 for growth temperatures of 30, 150 and 275 C, while for growth above {approximately}430 C, the ratio of hydrogen to metal is closer to 2:1. However, x-ray diffraction shows that all films have a cubic metal sublattice structure corresponding to that of ErH{sub 2}. RBS and Auger electron that sputtered erbium hydride thin films are relatively free of impurities.

  9. Ion beam sputter target and method of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Clifton; Elmoursi, Alaa A.; Goldsmith, Jason; Cook, Bruce; Blau, Peter; Jun, Qu; Milner, Robert

    2014-09-02

    A target for use in an ion beam sputtering apparatus made of at least two target tiles where at least two of the target tiles are made of different chemical compositions and are mounted on a main tile and geometrically arranged on the main tile to yield a desired chemical composition on a sputtered substrate. In an alternate embodiment, the tiles are of varied thickness according to the desired chemical properties of the sputtered film. In yet another alternate embodiment, the target is comprised of plugs pressed in a green state which are disposed in cavities formed in a main tile also formed in a green state and the assembly can then be compacted and then sintered.

  10. Particle-in-Cell Modeling of Magnetron Sputtering Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, John R.; Jenkins, T. G.; Crossette, N.; Stoltz, Peter H.; McGugan, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    In magnetron sputtering devices, ions arising from the interaction of magnetically trapped electrons with neutral background gas are accelerated via a negative voltage bias to strike a target cathode. Neutral atoms ejected from the target by such collisions then condense on neighboring material surfaces to form a thin coating of target material; a variety of industrial applications which require thin surface coatings are enabled by this plasma vapor deposition technique. In this poster we discuss efforts to simulate various magnetron sputtering devices using the Vorpal PIC code in 2D axisymmetric cylindrical geometry. Field solves are fully self-consistent, and discrete models for sputtering, secondary electron emission, and Monte Carlo collisions are included in the simulations. In addition, the simulated device can be coupled to an external feedback circuit. Erosion/deposition profiles and steady-state plasma parameters are obtained, and modifications due to self consistency are seen. Computational performance issues are also discussed. and Tech-X Corporation.

  11. Alternatives to polysomnography (PSG): A validation of wrist actigraphy and a partial-PSG system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Zhou, Xuan; Roach, Gregory D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of a sleep/wake activity monitor, an energy expenditure activity monitor, and a partial-polysomnography system at measuring sleep and wake under...

  12. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan (China); Houng, Mau-Phon, E-mail: mphoung@eembox.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm{sup 2}/V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  13. High RF Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I; Adli, E; Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous mode. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and delivered to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability and main linac RF power needs. Another requirement is to provide local RF power termination in case of accelerating structure failure (ON/OFF capability). Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design

  14. Investigation of RF Signal Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudeh Heydari Nasab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential utilization of RF signals for DC power is experimentally investigated. The aim of the work is to investigate the levels of power that can be harvested from the air and processed to achieve levels of energy that are sufficient to charge up low-power electronic circuits. The work presented shows field measurements from two selected regions: an urbanized hence signal congested area and a less populated one. An RF harvesting system has been specifically designed, built, and shown to successfully pick up enough energy to power up circuits. The work concludes that while RF harvesting was successful under certain conditions, however, it required the support of other energy harvesting techniques to replace a battery. Efficiency considerations have, hence, placed emphasis on comparing the developed harvester to other systems.

  15. Some Particularities of Operation of Sputter Ion Pumps and Non-Evaporable Getters

    CERN Document Server

    Nesterov, A V

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that hydrogen is the main component of the residual gases in a sputter ion pump which is not baked after a contact with the atmosphere. This makes it appropriate to use a sputter ion pump and a non-evaporate getter simultaneously. Pumping of a sputter ion pump by a non-evaporate getter followed by their simultaneous operation leads to a considerable decrease in the ultimate pressure of the sputter ion pump.

  16. Magnetostriction of sputtered Sm-Fe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T. (Tokin Corp., Sendai (Japan). Sendai Research Lab.); Hayashi, Y.; Arai, K.I.; Ishiyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Institute of Electrical Communication)

    1993-11-01

    The magnetostriction and the magnetic properties of amorphous Sm[sub x]Fe[sub 100[minus]x] thin films prepared by sputtering were investigated at room temperature. The magnetostriction, -[lambda], of these films increased rapidly in low fields (<1kOe) and reached the maximum values of 300--400[times]10[sup [minus]6] at 16kOe for x = 30--40. These results suggest that Sm-Fe thin films could be used for micro-actuators. lie magnetic properties of Sm-Fe thin films did not show clear dependence on the sputtering conditions such as input power, Ar gas pressure, and substrate temperature.

  17. Raman imaging of biofilms using gold sputtered fiber optic probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Christina Grace Charlet; Manoharan, Hariharan; Subrahmanyam, Aryasomayajula; Sai, V. V. Raghavendra

    2016-12-01

    In this work we report characterization of bacterial biofilm using gold sputtered optical fiber probe as substrates for confocal Raman spectroscopy measurements. The chemical composition and the heterogeneity of biofilms in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was evaluated. The spatial distribution of bacterial biofilm on the substrates during their growth phase was studied using Raman imaging. Further, the influence of substrate's surface on bacterial adhesion was investigated by studying growth of biofilms on surfaces with hydrophilic and hydrophobic coatings. This study validates the use of gold sputtered optical fiber probes as SERS substrates in confocal microscopic configuration to identify and characterize clinically relevant biofilms.

  18. Discharge current modes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhen Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the production and disappearance of ions and electrons in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma near the target, the expression of the discharge current is derived. Depending on the slope, six possible modes are deduced for the discharge current and the feasibility of each mode is discussed. The discharge parameters and target properties are simplified into the discharge voltage, sputtering yield, and ionization energy which mainly affect the discharge plasma. The relationship between these factors and the discharge current modes is also investigated.

  19. Mechanical and structural properties of sputtered Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kumar, M.; Boeni, P.; Tixier, S.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ni/Ti bilayers have been prepared by dc-magnetron sputtering in order to study their mechanical and structural properties. A remarkable reduction of stress is observed when the Ni layers are sputtered reactively in argon with a high partial pressure of air. The high angle x-ray diffraction studies show a tendency towards amorphisation of the Ni layers with increasing air flow. The low angle measurements indicate a substantial reduction of interdiffusion resulting in smoother interfaces with increasing air content. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  20. Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Bingwen; Zhao, Evan; Jin, Ke; Du, Yingge; Neeway, James J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Mina; Le Guernic, Solenne; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-08-01

    For the first time, the use of an argon cluster ion sputtering source has been demonstrated to perform superiorly relative to traditional oxygen and cesium ion sputtering sources for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials. The superior performance has been attributed to effective alleviation of surface charging. A simulated nuclear waste glass, SON68, and layered hole-perovskite oxide thin films were selected as model systems due to their fundamental and practical significance. Our study shows that if the size of analysis areas is same, the highest sputter rate of argon cluster sputtering can be 2-3 times faster than the highest sputter rates of oxygen or cesium sputtering. More importantly, high quality data and high sputter rates can be achieved simultaneously for argon cluster sputtering while this is not the case for cesium and oxygen sputtering. Therefore, for deep depth profiling of insulating samples, the measurement efficiency of argon cluster sputtering can be about 6-15 times better than traditional cesium and oxygen sputtering. Moreover, for a SrTiO3/SrCrO3 bi-layer thin film on a SrTiO3 substrate, the true 18O/16O isotopic distribution at the interface is better revealed when using the argon cluster sputtering source. Therefore, the implementation of an argon cluster sputtering source can significantly improve the measurement efficiency of insulating materials, and thus can expand the application of ToF-SIMS to the study of glass corrosion, perovskite oxide thin films, and many other potential systems.

  1. Design of an L-band normally conducting RF gun cavity for high peak and average RF power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, V., E-mail: paramono@inr.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 60-th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Philipp, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Rybakov, I.; Skassyrskaya, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 60-th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stephan, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-05-11

    To provide high quality electron bunches for linear accelerators used in free electron lasers and particle colliders, RF gun cavities operate with extreme electric fields, resulting in a high pulsed RF power. The main L-band superconducting linacs of such facilities also require a long RF pulse length, resulting in a high average dissipated RF power in the gun cavity. The newly developed cavity based on the proven advantages of the existing DESY RF gun cavities, underwent significant changes. The shape of the cells is optimized to reduce the maximal surface electric field and RF loss power. Furthermore, the cavity is equipped with an RF probe to measure the field amplitude and phase. The elaborated cooling circuit design results in a lower temperature rise on the cavity RF surface and permits higher dissipated RF power. The paper presents the main solutions and results of the cavity design.

  2. Design of an L-band normally conducting RF gun cavity for high peak and average RF power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, V.; Philipp, S.; Rybakov, I.; Skassyrskaya, A.; Stephan, F.

    2017-05-01

    To provide high quality electron bunches for linear accelerators used in free electron lasers and particle colliders, RF gun cavities operate with extreme electric fields, resulting in a high pulsed RF power. The main L-band superconducting linacs of such facilities also require a long RF pulse length, resulting in a high average dissipated RF power in the gun cavity. The newly developed cavity based on the proven advantages of the existing DESY RF gun cavities, underwent significant changes. The shape of the cells is optimized to reduce the maximal surface electric field and RF loss power. Furthermore, the cavity is equipped with an RF probe to measure the field amplitude and phase. The elaborated cooling circuit design results in a lower temperature rise on the cavity RF surface and permits higher dissipated RF power. The paper presents the main solutions and results of the cavity design.

  3. RF installation for the grain disinfestation

    CERN Document Server

    Zajtzev, B V; Kobetz, A F; Rudiak, B I

    2001-01-01

    The ecologically pure method of grain product disinfestations through the grain treatment with the RF electric field is described. The experimental data obtained showed that with strengths of the electrical RF field of E=5 kV/cm and frequency of 80 MHz the relative death rate is 100%.The time of the grain treatment it this case is 1 sec. The pulses with a duration of 600 mu s and repetition rate of 2 Hz were used, the duration of the front was 10 mu s. The schematic layout of installation with a productivity of 50 tones/h and power of 10 kW is given.

  4. RF MEMS theory, design, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rebeiz, Gabriel M

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasmall Radio Frequency and Micro-wave Microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMs), such as switches, varactors, and phase shifters, exhibit nearly zero power consumption or loss. For this reason, they are being developed intensively by corporations worldwide for use in telecommunications equipment. This book acquaints readers with the basics of RF MEMs and describes how to design practical circuits and devices with them. The author, an acknowledged expert in the field, presents a range of real-world applications and shares many valuable tricks of the trade.

  5. Fundamentals of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder J

    2009-01-01

    A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power, high-efficiency, and high-voltage. Topics covered include modeling, analysis, design, packaging, and thermal and fabrication considerations. Through a unique integration of theory and practice, readers will learn to solve amplifier-related design problems ranging from matching networks to biasing and stability. More than 240 problems are included to help read

  6. Lumped elements for RF and microwave circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder

    2003-01-01

    Due to the unprecedented growth in wireless applications over the past decade, development of low-cost solutions for RF and microwave communication systems has become of great importance. This practical new book is the first comprehensive treatment of lumped elements, which are playing a critical role in the development of the circuits that make these cost-effective systems possible. The books offers you an in-depth understanding of the different types of RF and microwave circuit elements, including inductors, capacitors, resistors, transformers, via holes, airbridges, and crossovers. Support

  7. Cryoelectron Microscopic Structures of Eukaryotic Translation Termination Complexes Containing eRF1-eRF3 or eRF1-ABCE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Preis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Termination and ribosome recycling are essential processes in translation. In eukaryotes, a stop codon in the ribosomal A site is decoded by a ternary complex consisting of release factors eRF1 and guanosine triphosphate (GTP-bound eRF3. After GTP hydrolysis, eRF3 dissociates, and ABCE1 can bind to eRF1-loaded ribosomes to stimulate peptide release and ribosomal subunit dissociation. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopic (cryo-EM structures of a pretermination complex containing eRF1-eRF3 and a termination/prerecycling complex containing eRF1-ABCE1. eRF1 undergoes drastic conformational changes: its central domain harboring the catalytically important GGQ loop is either packed against eRF3 or swung toward the peptidyl transferase center when bound to ABCE1. Additionally, in complex with eRF3, the N-terminal domain of eRF1 positions the conserved NIKS motif proximal to the stop codon, supporting its suggested role in decoding, yet it appears to be delocalized in the presence of ABCE1. These results suggest that stop codon decoding and peptide release can be uncoupled during termination.

  8. Simulations of S-band RF gun with RF beam control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. M.; Levichev, A. E.; Maltseva, M. V.; Nikiforov, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The RF gun with RF control is discussed. It is based on the RF triode and two kinds of the cavities. The first cavity is a coaxial cavity with cathode-grid assembly where beam bunches are formed, the second one is an accelerating cavity. The features of such a gun are the following: bunched and relativistic beams in the output of the injector, absence of the back bombarding electrons, low energy spread and short length of the bunches. The scheme of the injector is shown. The electromagnetic field simulation and longitudinal beam dynamics are presented. The possible using of the injector is discussed.

  9. Magnetron sputtering process of carbon-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mao-Chia [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Sheng [Green Energy & Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jing-Chie [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Hsu, E-mail: yhchang@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Institute of Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen, E-mail: ccwu@itri.org.tw [Green Energy & Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • Carbon-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were synthesized by sputtering process. • The parameter of C-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was RF power of graphite target. • The photoelectrochemical characteristics of C-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were investigated. - Abstract: Thin films of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped with carbon have been fabricated on F-doped SnO{sub 2} glass substrate by magnetron sputtering process via DC power on the pure Fe target (99.99%) combined with RF power on the pure graphite target (99.99%). The influences of RF power (0, 40, 80 and 120 W) on optical, structural and photoelectrochemical (PEC) characteristics have been investigated. The as-obtained samples after annealing in Ar ambient were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, UV–visible spectra and electrochemical analysis. After annealing, all samples revealed only hematite characteristics in XRD pattern and Raman spectra. Thickness of annealed thin films was ∼350 nm measured via SEM cross-section image. The optical band gap and carrier concentration of samples were in the range of 2.13–2.16 eV and 6.28 × 10{sup 17} to 3.11 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}, respectively. Based upon our observations, the 4.56 at.% carbon-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film deposited via 80 W RF power has a better PEC response with photocurrent density of ∼1.18 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V vs. SCE. This value was about three times higher than the un-doped film (0 W of RF power, reference sample). Observed higher photocurrent density was likely due to a suitable carbon-doping concentration causing a higher carrier concentration.

  10. Modeling and simulation for RF system design

    CERN Document Server

    Frevert, Ronny; Jancke, Roland; Knöchel, Uwe; Schwarz, Peter; Kakerow, Ralf; Darianian, Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    Focusing on RF specific modeling and simulation methods, and system and circuit level descriptions, this work contains application-oriented training material. Accompanied by a CD- ROM, it combines the presentation of a mixed-signal design flow, an introduction into VHDL-AMS and Verilog-A, and the application of commercially available simulators.

  11. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern

  12. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop®, copper silver, and silver plated copper. The samples were exposed to different machining and heat treatment processes prior to rf processing. Each sample was tested to a peak pulsed heating temperature of approximately 110°C and remained at this temperature for approximately 10×10^{6} rf pulses. In general, the results showed the possibility of pushing the gradient limits due to pulsed heating fatigue by the use of copper zirconium and copper chromium alloys.

  13. RF building block modeling: optimization and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, W.

    2012-01-01

    For circuit designers it is desirable to have relatively simple RF circuit models that do give decent estimation accuracy and provide sufficient understanding of circuits. Chapter 2 in this thesis shows a general weak nonlinearity model that meets these demands. Using a method that is related to

  14. Commissioning of the MICE RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, A.; Stanley, T.; White, C.; Ronald, K.; Whyte, C.G.; Dick, A.J.; Speirs, D.C.; Alsari, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is being constructed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. The muon beam will be cooled using multiple hydrogen absorbers then reaccelerated using an RF cavity system operating at 201MHz. This paper describes recent progress in commissioning the amplifier systems at their design operation conditions, installation and operation as part of the MICE project.

  15. Higher-order mode rf guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lewellen

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional photocathode rf gun design is based around the use of TM_{0,1,0}-mode cavities. This is typically done in the interest of obtaining the highest possible gradient per unit supplied rf power and for historical reasons. In a multicell, aperture-coupled photoinjector, however, the gun as a whole is produced from strongly coupled cavities oscillating in a π mode. This design requires very careful preparation and tuning, as the field balance and resonant frequencies are easily disturbed. Side-coupled designs are often avoided because of the dipole modes introduced into the cavity fields. This paper proposes the use of a single higher-order mode rf cavity in order to generate the desired on-axis fields. It is shown that the field experienced by a beam in a higher-order mode rf gun is initially very similar to traditional 1.5- or 2.5-cell π-mode gun fields, and projected performance in terms of beam quality is also comparable. The new design has the advantages of much greater ease of fabrication, immunity from coupled-cell effects, and simpler tuning procedures. Because of the gun geometry, the possibility also exists for improved temperature stabilization and cooling for high duty-cycle applications.

  16. Prototype storage cavity for LEP accelerating RF

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The principle of an RF storage cavity was demonstrated with this prototype, working at 500 MHz. The final storage cavities were larger, to suit the LEP accelerating frequency of 352.2 MHz. Cu-tubes for watercooling are brazed onto the upper half, the lower half is to follow. See also 8006061, 8109346, 8407619X, and Annual Report 1980, p.115.

  17. Sources of Emittance in RF Photocathode Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-11

    Advances in electron beam technology have been central to creating the current generation of x-ray free electron lasers and ultra-fast electron microscopes. These once exotic devices have become essential tools for basic research and applied science. One important beam technology for both is the electron source which, for many of these instruments, is the photocathode RF gun. The invention of the photocathode gun and the concepts of emittance compensation and beam matching in the presence of space charge and RF forces have made these high-quality beams possible. Achieving even brighter beams requires a taking a finer resolution view of the electron dynamics near the cathode during photoemission and the initial acceleration of the beam. In addition, the high brightness beam is more sensitive to degradation by the optical aberrations of the gun’s RF and magnetic lenses. This paper discusses these topics including the beam properties due to fundamental photoemission physics, space charge effects close to the cathode, and optical distortions introduced by the RF and solenoid fields. Analytic relations for these phenomena are derived and compared with numerical simulations.

  18. 47 CFR 101.1425 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1425 Section 101.1425 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE... safety. MVDDS stations in the 12.2-12.7 GHz frequency band do not operate with output powers that equal...

  19. European Frontiers in RF GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, F.E. van; Hek, P. de

    2015-01-01

    In this overview paper, a summary of the European academic and industrial status on RF GaN is given. The roles of EDA and ESA are highlighted, and examples of on-going research activities are presented. A set of HPAs over frequency, representative of today's European status, is discussed. © 2015

  20. RF Voltage Measurements on ICRF Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G. L.; Goulding, R. H.; Hoffman, D. J.; Wilgen, J. B.; Zhang, H. M.; Ryan, P. M.; Syed, G. M. S.; Kaye, A. S.

    1996-11-01

    Particle and heat flux on the plasma facing surfaces of high-power RF antennas used in fusion devices can result in damage to the antenna structures. High impedance capacitive probe measurements of the RF voltages on Faraday shields of several loop antennas indicate that voltages as high as 30% of the drive voltage can exist for 0/0 phasing (D.J. Hoffman, et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 355), 368 (Palm Spgs., CA, 1995).. These voltages can contribute to increased energy deposition on the antenna owing to increased RF sheath voltages. We report on continued efforts to understand the source and to control these RF voltages. E and B field distributions have been measured on the mock-up of the JET A2 antenna using standard B-dot probes and novel E-field probes positioned with a new automated scanning system. These data are compared with calculated fields from 3-D antenna models. The measurements demonstrate the dependency of the surface E-fields on the phasing of the strap currents and show the charge accumulation at the antenna top and bottom predicted by the models.