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Sample records for rf reactive magnetron

  1. RF Reactive Magnetron Sputter Deposition of Silicon Sub-Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattum, E.D. van

    2007-01-01

    RF reactive magnetron plasma sputter deposition of silicon sub oxide E.D. van Hattum Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University The work described in the thesis has been inspired and stimulated by the use of SiOx layers in the direct inductive printing technology,

  2. Post-deposition annealing effects in RF reactive magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M A; Herrero, J; Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1992-05-01

    Indium tin oxide films have been grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of the deposition parameters on the properties of the films has been investigated and optimized, obtaining a value for the figure of merit of 6700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. As-grown indium tin oxide films were annealed in vacuum and O{sub 2} atmosphere. After these heat treatments the electro-optical properties were improved, with values for the resistivity of 1.9x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and the figure of merit of 26700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. (orig.).

  3. Urea impedimetric biosensor based on reactive RF magnetron sputtered zinc oxide nanoporous transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Rahmanian, Reza; Abedi, Mohammad; Amoli, Hossein Salar

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Application and optimization of reactive RF magnetron sputtering for homogeneous nanoporous ZnO thin film formation. • Exploiting nanoporous ZnO thin film as a good porous framework with large surface area/volume for having stable immobilized enzyme with minimum loss of activity. • Application of impedimetric assessment for urea biosensing due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability. - Abstract: Uniform sputtered nanoporous zinc oxide (Nano-ZnO) thin film on the conductive fluorinated-tin oxide (FTO) layer was applied to immobilize urease enzyme (Urs) for urea detection. Highly uniform nanoporous ZnO thin film were obtained by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system at the optimized instrumental deposition conditions. Characterization of the surface morphology and roughness of ZnO thin film by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) exhibits cavities of nanoporous film as an effective biosensing area for enzyme immobilization. Step by step monitoring of FTO/Nano-ZnO/Urs biosensor fabrication were performed using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Fabricated FTO/Nano-ZnO/Urs biosensor was used for urea determination using EIS experiments. The impedimetric results show high sensitivity for urea detection within 0.83–23.24 mM and limit of detection as 0.40 mM

  4. Corrosion resistance of ZrNxOy thin films obtained by rf reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza, E.; Rocha, L.A.; Vaz, F.; Cunha, L.; Ferreira, S.C.; Carvalho, P.; Rebouta, L.; Alves, E.; Goudeau, Ph.; Riviere, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this work is the investigation of the corrosion resistance of single layered zirconium oxynitride, ZrN x O y , thin films in artificial sweat solution at ambient temperature. The films were produced by rf reactive magnetron sputtering, using a pure Zr target at a constant temperature of 300 deg. C. Two different sets of samples were produced. In the first set of films, the substrate bias voltage was the main variable, whereas in the second set, the flow rate of reactive gases (oxygen/nitrogen ratio) was varied. The control of the amount of oxygen allowed the film properties to be tailored from those of covalent zirconium nitride to those of the correspondent ionic oxide. The corrosion behaviour was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The analysis of EIS data provided detailed information of the corrosion processes occurring at the surface of the system throughout the immersion time. The modifications of the coating microstructure and/or chemical composition induced by the variation of the deposition parameters were also evaluated and correlated with the corrosion mechanisms occurring in each system

  5. Growth of high quality AlN films on CVD diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-xian; Liu, Hao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Cheng-ming; Wang, Yi-chao; An, Kang; Hua, Chen-yi; Liu, Jin-long; Wei, Jun-jun; Hei, Li-fu; Lv, Fan-xiu

    2018-02-01

    A highly oriented AlN layer has been successfully grown along the c-axis on a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Structural, morphological and mechanical properties of the heterostructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nano-indentation and Four-probe meter. A compact AlN film was demonstrated on the diamond layer, showing columnar grains and a low surface roughness of 1.4 nm. TEM results revealed a sharp AlN/diamond interface, which was characterized by the presence of a distinct 10 nm thick buffer layer resulting from the initial AlN growth stage. The FWHM of AlN (002) diffraction peak and its rocking curve are as low as 0.41° and 3.35° respectively, indicating a highly preferred orientation along the c-axis. AlN sputtered films deposited on glass substrates show a higher bulk resistivity (up to 3 × 1012 Ω cm), compared to AlN films deposited on diamond (∼1010 Ω cm). Finally, the film hardness and Young's modulus of AlN films on diamond are 25.8 GPa and 489.5 GPa, respectively.

  6. Properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by rf reactive magnetron sputtering on biased substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezar, Sawsen, E-mail: snezar@cdta.dz [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, Nadia [Equipe Plasma & Applications, Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout 1956, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Sali, Samira [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique (CRTSE Algiers) (Algeria); Faiz, Mohammed; Mekki, Mogtaba [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Laoufi, Nadia Aïcha [Laboratoire des phénomènes de transfert, génie chimique, Faculté de Génie des procèdes, USTHB, BP 32 El-alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Tabet, Nouar [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Doha (Qatar)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on negatively biased substrates by rf magnetron sputtering technique. • The bias favors the formation of TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase. • The roughness of the films increases and the grain size decreases as the bias voltage is varied between (0 and −100 V). • XPS reveals the presence of adsorbed humidity of the surface and Ti{sup 4+} oxidation state in the as prepared samples. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} thin films are of paramount importance due to their pervasive applications. In contrast to previous published works where the substrate was heated at high temperatures to obtain TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase, we show in this study that it is possible to deposit crystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films on biased and unbiased substrate at room temperature using reactive rf magnetron sputtering. The bias voltage was varied from 0 V to −100 V. The deposited films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average crystallite size was estimated using x-ray diffraction. The results showed that the application of negative bias affects the surface roughness of the films and favors the formation of the rutile phase. The root mean square roughness (R{sub rms}), the average grain size and the optical band gap of the films decreased as the substrate bias voltage was varied from 0 to −100 V. The UV–visible transmittance spectra showed that the films were transparent in the visible range and absorb strongly in the UV range. This study shows that biasing the substrate could be a promising and effective alternative to deposit TiO{sub 2} crystallized thin films of engineered properties at room temperature.

  7. Role of copper/vanadium on the optoelectronic properties of reactive RF magnetron sputtered NiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Vengatesh; Chinnakutti, Karthik Kumar; Thankaraj Salammal, Shyju; Soman, Ajith Kumar; Parasuraman, Kuppusami; Vishwakarma, Vinita; Kanagasabai, Viswanathan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, pristine nickel oxide (NiO), copper-doped NiO (Cu-NiO) and vanadium-doped NiO (V-NiO) thin films were deposited using reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering as a function of dopant sputtering power. Cu (0-8 at%) and V (0-1 at%) were doped into the NiO lattice by varying the sputtering power of Cu and V in the range of 5-15 W. The effect of dopant concentration on optoelectronic behavior is investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and Hall measurements. XRD analysis showed that the preferred orientation of the cubic phase for undoped NiO changes from (200) to (111) plane when the sputtering parameters are varied. The observed changes in the lattice parameters and bonding states of the doped NiO indicate the substitution of Ni ions by monovalent Cu and trivalent V ions. The optical bandgap of pristine NiO, Cu-NiO, and V-NiO was found to be 3.6, 3.45, and 3.05 eV, respectively, with decreased transmittance and resistivity. Further analysis using SEM and AFM described the morphological behavior of doped NiO thin films and Raman spectroscopy indicated the structural changes on doping. These findings would be helpful in fabricating solid-state solar cells using doped NiO as efficient hole transporting material.

  8. Structural and corrosive properties of ZrO2 thin films on zircaloy-4 by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Ho; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Ko, Jae Hwan; Yoon, Young Soo; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Sang Jin

    2006-01-01

    Zirconium-oxide (ZrO 2 ) thin films as protective layers were grown on a Zircaloy-4 (Z-4) cladding material as a substrate by RF reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. To investigate the effect of plasma immersion on the structural and the corrosive properties of the as-grown ZrO 2 thin film, we immersed Z-4 in plasma during the deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that the as-grown ZrO 2 thin films immersed in plasma had cubic, well as monoclinic and tetragonal, phases whereas those immersed in the plasma had monoclinic and tetragonal phases only. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of the surface morphology showed that the surface roughness of the as-grown ZrO 2 thin films immersed in plasma was larger than that of the films not immersed in plasma. In addition, the corrosive property of the as-grown ZrO 2 thin films immersed in the plasma was characterized using the weight gains of Z-4 after the corrosion test. Compared with the non-immersed films, the weight gains of the immersed films were larger. These results indicate that the ZrO 2 films immersed in plasma cannot protect Z-4 from corrosive phenomena.

  9. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of nitrogen-doped AZO thin films grown on glass by rf reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Shinho, E-mail: scho@silla.ac.kr [Center for Green Fusion Technology and Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heetae [Backlight Technology, LCD Division, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Asan 336-841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Nitrogen-doped aluminum zinc oxide (NAZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at various deposition temperatures by rf reactive magnetron sputtering. The NAZO film deposited at 400 deg. C shows a strongly c-axis preferred orientation and n-type conduction with a resistivity of 2.1 x 10{sup -2} {Omega} cm, Hall mobility of 7.7 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and electron concentration of 3.8 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The optimum crystallographic structure occurs at a deposition temperature of 400 deg. C, where a considerable crystallinity enhancement of the films is observed. The band gap energies of the NAZO films, obtained by using Tauc model and parabolic bands, are found to significantly depend on the deposition temperature, along with the band gap narrowing at higher deposition temperature due to renormalization effects.

  10. Photomodulated reflectance study on optical property of InN thin films grown by reactive gas-timing rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntheeraphat, S.; Nukeaw, J.

    2008-01-01

    The photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the band-gap energy (E g ) of indium nitride (InN) thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering. A novel reactive gas-timing technique applied for the sputtering process has been successfully employed to grow InN thin films without neither substrate heating nor post annealing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibit strong peaks in the orientation along (0 0 2) and (1 0 1) planes, corresponding to the polycrystalline hexagonal-InN structure. The band-gap transition energy of InN was determined by fitting the PR spectra to a theoretical line shape. The PR results show the band-gap energy at 1.18 eV for hexagonal-InN thin films deposited at the rf powers of 100 and 200 W. The high rf sputtering powers in combination with the gas-timing technique should lead to a high concentration of highly excited nitrogen ions in the plasma, which enables the formation of InN without substrate heating. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements further reveal traces of oxygen in these InN films. This should explain the elevated band-gap energy, in reference to the band-gap value of 0.7 eV for pristine InN films

  11. Optical properties and thermal stability of TiAlN/AlON tandem absorber prepared by reactive DC/RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshilia, Harish C.; Selvakumar, N.; Rajam, K.S. [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Biswas, A. [Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2008-11-15

    Spectrally selective TiAlN/AlON tandem absorbers were deposited on copper and stainless steel substrates using a reactive DC/RF magnetron sputtering system. The compositions and thicknesses of the individual component layers were optimized to achieve high absorptance ({alpha}=0.931-0.942) and low emittance ({epsilon}=0.05-0.06) on copper substrate. The experimental spectroscopic ellipsometric data have been fitted with the theoretical models to derive the dispersion of the optical constants (n and k). In order to study the thermal stability of the tandem absorbers, they were subjected to heat treatment (in air and vacuum) for different durations and temperatures. The tandem absorber deposited on Cu substrates exhibited high solar selectivity ({alpha}/{epsilon}) of 0.946/0.07 even after heat treatment in air up to 600 C for 2 h. At 625 C, the solar selectivity decreased significantly on Cu substrates (e.g., {alpha}/{epsilon}=0.924/0.30). The tandem absorber on Cu substrates was also stable in air up to 100 h at 400 C with a solar selectivity of 0.919/0.06. Studies on the accelerated aging tests indicated that the activation energy for the degradation of the tandem absorber is of the order of 100 kJ/mol. (author)

  12. Crystallization of Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 Thin Films on LaNiO3 Electrodes by RF Magnetron Reactive Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Chao-An; Gan, Jon-Yiew

    2000-02-01

    Strontium barium niobium (Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6) (SBN) thin films are prepared on conductive-oxide LNO (LaNiO3) electrodes by the rf magnetron sputtering system. Instead of conventional furnace annealing, SBN thin films are crystallized by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) above 700°C for 5 min. The textured SBN films are crystallized with two orientations: one is the (001) or (310) direction, and the other is the (002) or (620) direction. Films compositions measured by the electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA) quantitative analysis method show nearly the same stoichiometric ratio as the target. The depth profiles of SBN films and the target are examined by secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). The concentrations of the films are quite uniform. After being heat treated at 800°C for 5 min by RTA, La and Ni diffuse into the SBN film. The diffusion coefficient of La in SBN films is also calculated.

  13. Influence of the electrical power applied to the target on the optical and structural properties of ZrON films produced via RF magnetron sputtering in a reactive atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzón, M.J.; Alfonso, J.E.; Olaya, J.J.; Cubillos, G.I.; Romero, E.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the variation of electrical power applied to the target on the morphology and optical properties of zirconium oxynitride - zirconium oxide (ZrON) films deposited via RF magnetron sputtering on common glass substrates in a reactive atmosphere of N 2 /O 2 , with a flow ratio ΦN 2 /ΦO 2 of 1.25 was investigated. The crystallographic structure of the films was established through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the morphology was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the optical behavior was evaluated through transmittance measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the films grew with mixed crystalline structures: monoclinic (ZrO 2 ) and body-centered cubic (Zr 2 ON 2 ). SEM analysis showed that the films grew with a homogeneous morphology, and AFM results established that as the electrical power applied to the target increased, there were changes in the grain size and the roughness of the films. The thickness, refractive index, and absorption coefficient of the films were calculated using the values of the transmittance through the Swanepoel method. Additionally, the energy band gap was determined via analysis of the free interference region. - Highlights: • We growth zirconium oxynitride films by RF magnetron sputtering in reactive atmosphere. • We determine the influence of the electrical power applied at the target in optical and structural properties. • We determine the crystallite size, grain size and roughness of the zirconium oxynitride films. • We determine the optical parameters such refractive index of the zirconium oxynitride films through Swanepoel method. • We calculated the absorption coefficient and optical band gap of the zirconium oxynitride films

  14. Influence of the electrical power applied to the target on the optical and structural properties of ZrON films produced via RF magnetron sputtering in a reactive atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinzón, M.J. [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Alfonso, J.E., E-mail: jealfonsoo@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Olaya, J.J. [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales y Superficies, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia); Cubillos, G.I.; Romero, E. [Grupo de Materiales y Procesos Químicos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490 Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-12-01

    The influence of the variation of electrical power applied to the target on the morphology and optical properties of zirconium oxynitride - zirconium oxide (ZrON) films deposited via RF magnetron sputtering on common glass substrates in a reactive atmosphere of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, with a flow ratio ΦN{sub 2}/ΦO{sub 2} of 1.25 was investigated. The crystallographic structure of the films was established through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the morphology was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the optical behavior was evaluated through transmittance measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the films grew with mixed crystalline structures: monoclinic (ZrO{sub 2}) and body-centered cubic (Zr{sub 2}ON{sub 2}). SEM analysis showed that the films grew with a homogeneous morphology, and AFM results established that as the electrical power applied to the target increased, there were changes in the grain size and the roughness of the films. The thickness, refractive index, and absorption coefficient of the films were calculated using the values of the transmittance through the Swanepoel method. Additionally, the energy band gap was determined via analysis of the free interference region. - Highlights: • We growth zirconium oxynitride films by RF magnetron sputtering in reactive atmosphere. • We determine the influence of the electrical power applied at the target in optical and structural properties. • We determine the crystallite size, grain size and roughness of the zirconium oxynitride films. • We determine the optical parameters such refractive index of the zirconium oxynitride films through Swanepoel method. • We calculated the absorption coefficient and optical band gap of the zirconium oxynitride films.

  15. Structural, chemical and nanomechanical investigations of SiC/polymeric a-C:H films deposited by reactive RF unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomastik, C.; Lackner, J. M.; Pauschitz, A.; Roy, M.

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous carbon (or diamond-like carbon, DLC) films have shown a number of important properties usable for a wide range of applications for very thin coatings with low friction and good wear resistance. DLC films alloyed with (semi-)metals show some improved properties and can be deposited by various methods. Among those, the widely used magnetron sputtering of carbon targets is known to increase the number of defects in the films. Therefore, in this paper an alternative approach of depositing silicon-carbide-containing polymeric hydrogenated DLC films using unbalanced magnetron sputtering was investigated. The influence of the C2H2 precursor concentration in the deposition chamber on the chemical and structural properties of the deposited films was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analysis. Roughness, mechanical properties and scratch response of the films were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation. The Raman spectra revealed a strong correlation of the film structure with the C2H2 concentration during deposition. A higher C2H2 flow rate results in an increase in SiC content and decrease in hydrogen content in the film. This in turn increases hardness and elastic modulus and decreases the ratio H/E and H3/E2. The highest scratch resistance is exhibited by the film with the highest hardness, and the film having the highest overall sp3 bond content shows the highest elastic recovery during scratching.

  16. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  17. High temperature superconducting films by rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadin, A.M.; Ballentine, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have produced sputtered films of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O by rf magnetron sputtering from an oxide target consisting of loose reacted powder. The use of a large 8-inch stoichiometric target in the magnetron mode permits films located above the central region to be free of negative-ion resputtering effects, and hence yields reproducible, uniform stoichiometric compositions for a wide range of substrate temperatures. Superconducting YBCO films have been obtained either by sputtering at low temperatures followed by an 850 0 C oxygen anneal, or alternatively by depositing onto substrates heated to ∼600 - 650 0 C and cooling in oxygen. Films prepared by the former method on cubic zirconia substrate consist of randomly oriented crystallites with zero resistance above 83 K. Those deposited on zirconia at medium temperatures without the high-temperature anneal contain smooth partially oriented crystallites, with a slightly depressed T/sub c/ ∼75K. Finally, superconducting films have been deposited on MgO using a BiSrCaCu/sub 2/O/sub x/ powder target

  18. Determination of the oxidation mechanism to Cd Te obtained by rf reactive magnetron sputtering in a plasma of Ar-N{sub 2}O; Determinacion del mecanismo de oxigenacion del CdTe obtenido por rf sputtering reactivo con magnetron en un plasma de Ar-N{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero B, F.; Zapata N, A.; Bartolo P, P.; Castro R, R.; Zapata T, M.; Cauich, W.; Pena, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro deInvestigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Merida, Apartado postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this work we did studies to determinate the oxidation site and incorporation mechanism of oxygen to Cd Te, when preparing Cd Te:O thin films by r f reactive magnetron sputtering, using a Cd Te target and a controlled plasma of Ar-N{sub 2}O. We study the influence in the oxygen content in films due to the variation of N{sub 2}O partial pressure, plasma power and substrate position. We monitored the process in situ by mass spectrometry to determinate the variation of present compounds when varying the N{sub 2}O partial pressure and plasma power. Thin films composition was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy and their structure by X-ray diffraction. We demonstrate that oxygen incorporation has place mainly in the substrate, forming an amorphous Cd Te:O film. We found that exists Cd Te oxidation without using nitrous oxide, may be due to residual atmosphere. We demonstrate that Cd Te oxidation depends on nitrous oxide partial pressure and plasma power. We found that deposition rate of Cd Te:O thin films depend on nitrous oxide interaction with Cd Te in the target and on the chamber walls. We propose a reaction mechanism to explain the oxygen incorporation to Cd Te. (Author)

  19. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds with the RF- magnetron sputter deposited hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudinova, E; Surmeneva, M; Surmenev, R; Koptioug, A; Scoglund, P

    2016-01-01

    Present paper reports on the results of surface modification of the additively manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was used to modify the surface of the alloy via deposition of the biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of the HA-coated alloy were studied. It was revealed that RF magnetron sputtering allows preparing a homogeneous HA coating onto the entire surface of scaffolds. (paper)

  20. Textured ZnO thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ginting, M; Kang, K H; Kim, S K; Yoon, K H; Park, I J; Song, J S

    1999-01-01

    Textured thin films ZnO has been successfully grown by rf magnetron sputtering method using a special technique of introducing a small amount of water and methanol on the deposition chamber. The grain size of the textured surface is highly dependent on the argon pressure during the deposition. The pressure in this experiment was varied from 50 mTorr down to 5 mTorr and the highest grain size of the film is obtained at 5 mTorr. The total transmittance of the films are more than 85% in the wavelength of 400 to 800 nm, and haze ratio of about 14% is obtained at 400 nm wavelength. Beside the textured surface, these films also have very low resistivity, which is lower than 1.4x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA centre dot cm. X-ray analysis shows that the films with textured surface have four diffraction peaks on the direction of (110), (002), (101) and (112), while the non-textured films have only (110) and (002) peaks. Due to the excellent characteristics of this film, it will make the film very good TCO alternatives for the ...

  1. Physical–chemical and biological behavior of an amorphous calcium phosphate thin film produced by RF-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Euler A. dos; Moldovan, Simona; Mateescu, Mihaela; Faerber, Jacques; Acosta, Manuel; Pelletier, Hervé; Anselme, Karine; Werckmann, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the thermal reactivity and the biological reactivity of an amorphous calcium phosphate thin film produced by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering onto titanium substrates. The analyses showed that the sputtering conditions used in this work led to the deposition of an amorphous calcium phosphate. The thermal treatment of this amorphous coating in the presence of H 2 O and CO 2 promoted the formation of a carbonated HA crystalline coating with the entrance of CO 3 2− ions into the hydroxyl HA lattice. When immersed in culture medium, the amorphous and carbonated coatings exhibited a remarkable instability. The presence of proteins increased the dissolution process, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. Moreover, the carbonated HA coating induced precipitation independently of the presence of proteins under dynamic conditions. Despite this surface instability, this reactive calcium phosphate significantly improved the cellular behavior. The cell proliferation was higher on the Ticp than on the calcium phosphate coatings, but the two coatings increased cellular spreading and stress fiber formation. In this sense, the presence of reactive calcium phosphate coatings can stimulate cellular behavior. - Highlights: ► Functionalization of Ti with reactive CaP thin film by RF-magnetron sputtering. ► De-hydroxylation facilitating the insertion of CO 3 2− into the HA lattice. ► High surface reactivity in the presence of culture medium. ► Cell behavior improved by the presence of reactive films.

  2. Reactive dual magnetron sputtering for large area application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Production lines for large area coating demand high productivity of reactive magnetron sputtering processes. Increased dynamic deposition rates for oxides and nitrides were already obtained by using of highly powered magnetrons in combination with advanced sputter techniques. However, besides high deposition rates the uniformity of such coatings has to be carefully considered. First the basics of reactive sputtering processes and dual magnetron sputtering are summarized. Different methods for process stabilization and control are commonly used for reactive sputtering. The Plasma Emission Monitor (PE M) offers the prerequisite for fast acting process control derived from the in-situ intensity measurements of a spectral line of the sputtered target material. Combined by multiple Plasma Emission Monitor control loops segmented gas manifolds are able to provide excellent thin film uniformity at high deposition rates. The Dual Magnetron allows a broad range of processing by different power supply modes. Medium frequency, DC and pulsed DC power supplies can be used for high quality layers. Whereas the large area coating of highly isolating layers like TiO 2 or SiO 2 is dominated by MF sputtering best results for coating with transparent conductive oxides are obtained by dual DC powering of the dual magnetron arrangement. (Author)

  3. RF Magnetron Sputtering Deposited W/Ti Thin Film For Smart Window Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change reversible and persistent their optical properties in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction according to the applied voltage. A complementary type EC is a device containing two electrochromic layers, one of which is anodically colored such as vanadium oxide (V2 O5) while the other cathodically colored such as tungsten oxide (WO3) which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). The use of a solid electrolyte such as Nafion eliminates the need for containment of the liquid electrolyte, which simplifies the cell design, as well as improves safety and durability. In this work, the EC device was fabricated on a ITO/glass slide. The WO3-TiO2 thin film was deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering using a 2-in W/Ti (9:1%wt) target with purity of 99.9% in a mixture gas of argon and oxygen. As a counter electrode layer, V2O5 film was deposited on an ITO/glass substrate using V2O3 target with the same conditions of reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Modified Nafion was used as an electrolyte to complete EC device. The transmittance spectra of the complementary EC device was measured by optical spectrophotometry when a voltage of +/-3 V was applied to the EC device by computer controlled system. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Fig. 2). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) for EC device was performed by sweeping the potential between +/-3 V at a scan rate of 50 mV/s.

  4. Research and Development for an Alternative RF Source Using Magnetrons in CEBAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    At Jefferson Lab, klystrons are currently used as a radiofrequency (RF) power source for the 1497 MHz Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Continuous Wave (CW) system. A drop-in replacement for the klystrons in the form of a system of magnetrons is being developed. The klystron DC-RF efficiency at CEBAF is 35-51% while the estimated magnetron efficiency is 80-90%. Thus, the introduction of magnetrons to CEBAF will have enormous benefits in terms of electrical power saving. The primary focus of this project was to characterize a magnetron's frequency pushing and pulling curves at 2.45 GHz with stub tuner and anode current adjustments so that a Low Level RF controller for a new 1.497 GHz magnetron can be built. A Virtual Instrument was created in LabVIEW, and data was taken. The resulting data allowed for the creation of many constant lines of frequency and output power. Additionally, the results provided a characterization of magnetron oven temperature drift over the operation time and the relationship between anode current and frequency. Using these results, the control model of different variables and their feedback or feedforward that affect the frequency pushing and pulling of the magnetron is better developed. Department of Energy, Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships, and Jefferson Lab.

  5. RF power dependent formation of amorphous MoO3-x nanorods by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas, I.; Vinodkumar, R.; Detty, A.P.; Mahadevan Pillai, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The fabrication of nanorods has received increasing attention for their unique physical and chemical properties and a wide range of potential applications such as photonics and nanoelectronics Molybdenum oxide nanorods with high activity can be used in a wide variety of applications such as cathodes in rechargeable batteries, field emission devices, solid lubricants, superconductors thermoelectric materials, and electrochromic devices. In this paper, amorphous MoO 3-x nanorods can find excellent applications in electrochromic and gas sensing have been successfully prepared by varying the R F power in R F Magnetron Sputtering system without heating the substrate; other parameters which are optimised in our earlier studies. We have found that the optimum RF power for nanorod formation is 200W. At a moderate RF power (200W), sputtering redeposition takes places constructively which leads to formation of fine nanorods. Large RF power creates high energetic ion bombardment on the grains surfaces which can lead to re-nucleation, so the grains become smaller and columnar growth is interrupted. Beyond the RF power 200W, the etching effect of the plasma became more severe and damaged the surface of the nanorods. All the molybdenum oxide films prepared are amorphous; the XRD patterns exhibit no characteristic peak corresponds to MoO 3 . The amorphous nature is preferred for good electrochromic colouration The spectroscopic properties of the nanorods have been investigated systematically using atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The films exhibit two emission bands; a near band edge UV emission and a defect related deep level visible emission

  6. Chemical mechanical polishing characteristics of ITO thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang-Yeon; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Youn-Ok; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2012-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films have attracted intensive interest because of their unique properties of good conductivity, high optical transmittance over the visible region and easy patterning ability. ITO thin films have found many applications in anti-static coatings, thermal heaters, solar cells, flat panel displays (FPDs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), electroluminescent devices, sensors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). ITO thin films are generally fabricated by using various methods, such as spraying, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), evaporation, electron gun deposition, direct current electroplating, high frequency sputtering, and reactive sputtering. In this research, ITO films were grown on glass substrates by using a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. In order to achieve a high transmittance and a low resistivity, we examined the various film deposition conditions, such as substrate temperature, working pressure, annealing temperature, and deposition time. Next, in order to improve the surface quality of the ITO thin films, we performed a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) with different process parameters and compared the electrical and the optical properties of the polished ITO thin films. The best CMP conditions with a high removal rate, low nonuniformity, low resistivity and high transmittance were as follows: platen speed, head speed, polishing time, and slurry flow rate of 30 rpm, 30 rpm, 60 sec, and 60 ml/min, respectively.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of FC Films Coated on PET Substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mei-lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorocarbon (FC films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET plates and PET fabrics respectively by a radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE as a target. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the morphology, structure and composition of the obtained FC films. The hydrophobicity and uvioresistant properties of the FC film coated fabric were studied. The results show that the FC films were successfully deposited on the PET substrates by a RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films are made up of four components -CF3, -CF2-, CF- and -C-. The proportions of the four components and surface morphologies of the deposited films vary with the sputtering conditions. Compared with the original fabric samples, the hydrophobicity of the FC film coated fabrics is quite good and improved significantly.

  8. Epitaxial growth of "infinite layer” thin films and multilayers by rf magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Fàbrega, L.; Koller, E.; Triscone, J. M.; Fischer, Ø.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of epitaxial ACuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) thin films and multilayers with the so- called infinite layer (IL) structure, by rf magnetron sputtering. Films and multilayers without Ba have a remarkable crystal quality, whereas those containing this large ion are often multiphased and unstable. In spite of the excellent crystalline quality of these samples, obtaining thin films having both IL structure and displaying superconducting properties has not s...

  9. Applying RF Magnetron sputtering to prepare ZnO thin films and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Kassis, A.

    2009-05-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared using Rf magnetron sputtering under several preparation conditions (different values of deposition pressure, Rf power, substrate temperature). The optical properties of these films were investigated by measuring their transmission in the spectral range (300-1000 nm), and the electrical properties were investigated by measuring their electrical resistance. Results have been discussed in terms of the modified Thornton model for sputtered thin metal oxide films. Preparation conditions for depositing the highly resistive transparent i-ZnO buffer layer and the highly conducting transparent n-ZnO window layer for solar cells were proposed. (author)

  10. Development of nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films using RF-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilselvan, N.; Thilakan, Periyasamy

    2013-01-01

    ITO thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using RF Magnetron puttering Technique from the pre-synthesized ITO target. The sputtering parameters such as the deposition temperature, gas composition and the RF power densities were varied. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the crystallization of the films is mostly depending on the RF power density and substrate temperature. Crystallized films exhibited a change in the preferred orientation from (111) plane to (100) plane at specific conditions such as high RF power density and high oxygen mixing to the plasma. Change in the film microstructure and a shift in the optical bandgap were recorded from the SEM and UV-Visible measurements respectively. (author)

  11. Reactive magnetron sputtering model at making Ti-TiOx coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchkin, A G; Kashapov, N F

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical model of reactive magnetron sputtering for plant VU 700-D is described. Approximating curves for experimental current-voltage characteristic for two gas input schemas are shown. Choice of gas input schema influences on model parameters (mainly on pumping speed). Reactive magnetron sputtering model allows develop technology of Ti - TiO x coatings deposition without changing atmosphere and pressure in vacuum chamber

  12. Piezoelectric Response Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Da-Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important parameter of piezoelectric materials is piezoelectric coefficient (d33. In this study, the piezoelectric ZnO thin films were deposited on the SiNx/Si substrate. The 4 inches substrate is diced into 8 cm× 8 cm piece. During the deposition process, a zinc target (99.999 wt% of 2 inches diameter was used. The vertical distance between the target and the substrate holder was fixed at 5 cm. The piezoelectric response of zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were obtained by using a direct measurement system. The system adopts a mini impact tip to generate an impulsive force and read out the piezoelectric signals immediately. Experimentally, a servo motor is used to produce a fixed quantity of force, for giving an impact against to the piezoelectric film. The ZnO thin films were deposited using the reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. The electric charges should be generated because of the material’s extrusion. This phenomenon was investigated through the oscilloscope by one shot trigger. It was apparent that all ZnO films exhibit piezoelectric responses evaluated by our measurement system, however, its exhibit a significant discrepancy. The piezoelectric responses of ZnO thin film at various deposition positions were measured and the crystal structures of the sputtering pressure were also discussed. The crystalline characteristics of ZnO thin films are investigated through the XRD and SEM. The results show the ZnO thin film exhibits good crystalline pattern and surface morphology with controlled sputtering condition. The ZnO thin films sputtered using 2 inches target present various piezoelectric responses. With the exactly related position, a best piezoelectric response of ZnO thin film can be achieved.

  13. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L.

    1983-01-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF 4 using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an r.f. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF 4 [25%]-argon[75%] mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF 4 [87%]-argon[13%] were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF 4 as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined. (orig.)

  14. Catalytic growth of ZnO nanostructures by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Hernández María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic effect of gold seed particles deposited on a substrate prior to zinc oxide (ZnO thin film growth by magnetron sputtering was investigated. For this purpose, selected ultra thin gold layers, with thicknesses close to the percolation threshold, are deposited by thermal evaporation in ultra high vacuum (UHV conditions and subsequently annealed to form gold nanodroplets. The ZnO structures are subsequently deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering in a UHV chamber, and possible morphological differences between the ZnO grown on top of the substrate and on the gold are investigated. The results indicate a moderate catalytic effect for a deposited gold underlayer of 4 nm, quite close to the gold thin film percolation thickness.

  15. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Deposition of amino-rich thin films by RF magnetron sputtering of nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Choukourov, A.; Kousal, J.; Slavínská, D.; Biederman, H.

    2009-07-01

    RF magnetron sputtering of a nylon target in different gas mixtures was studied in order to evaluate the capability of this process to deposit amino-rich coatings needed in a wide range of biomedical applications. It has been demonstrated that both the deposition rate of the coatings and the surface density of primary amino groups are strongly linked with working gas mixture composition. From this point of view, a sufficiently high deposition rate as well as the highest amine efficiency reaching a NH2/C value of 18% was observed in the N2/H2 discharge, which leads to the surface exhibiting a high rate of protein adsorption.

  16. Development of low temperature RF magnetron sputtered ITO films on flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneshwar, T.P.; Varma, V.; Meshram, N; Soni, S.; Dusane, R.O. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the important materials used as transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer in thin film solar cells, digital displays and other similar applications. For applications involving flexible polymeric substrates, it is important that deposition of ITO is carried out at near room temperature. This requirement puts constraint on stoichiometry leading to undesired electrical and optical properties. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on ITO films deposited on flexible Kapton {sup registered} by the RF magnetron sputtering is reported in this paper. (author)

  17. Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyash, K; Froehlich, M; Kersten, H; Thieme, G; Schneider, R; Hannemann, M; Hippler, R

    2004-01-01

    During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed

  18. Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyash, K [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Froehlich, M [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Kersten, H [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Thieme, G [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Schneider, R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hannemann, M [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hippler, R [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2004-10-07

    During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed.

  19. CrN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering for symmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin; Liang, Hanfeng; Zhang, Dongfang; Wu, Zhengtao; Qi, Zhengbing; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2016-01-01

    stability are promising candidates as supercapacitor electrode materials. In this work, we report the fabrication of CrN thin films using reactive DC magnetron sputtering and further their applications for symmetric supercapacitors for the first time. The Cr

  20. Initial growth and texture formation during reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN on Si(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T Q; Tsuji, Y; Ohsawa, T; Komiyama, H

    2002-01-01

    The initial growth and texture formation mechanism of titanium nitride (TiN) films were investigated by depositing TiN films on (111) silicon substrates by using reactive magnetron sputtering of a Ti metallic target under a N sub 2 /Ar atmosphere, and then analyzing the films in detail by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Two power sources for the sputtering, dc and rf, were compared. At the initial growth stage, a continuous amorphous film containing randomly oriented nuclei was observed when the film thickness was about 3 nm. The nuclei grew and formed a polycrystalline layer when the film thickness was about 6 nm. As the film grew further, its orientation changed depending on the deposition conditions. For dc sputtering, the appearance of (111) or (200)-preferred orientations depended on the N sub 2 partial pressure, and the intensity of the preferred orientation increased with increasing film thickness. For rf sputtering, however, when the film thickness was small (...

  1. RF Magnetron Sputtering Coating Of Hydroxyapatite On Alkali Solution Treated Titanate Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA is a material with outstanding biocompatibility. It is chemically similar to natural bone tissue, and has therefore been favored for use as a coating material for dental and orthopedic implants. In this study, RF magnetron sputtering was applied for HA coating. And Alkali treatment was performed in a 5 M NaOH solution at 60°C. The coated HA thin film was heat-treated at a range of temperatures from 300 to 600°C. The morphological characterization and crystal structures of the coated specimens were then obtained via FE-SEM, XRD, and FT-IR. The amorphous thin film obtained on hydrothermally treated nanorods transformed into a crystalline thin film after the heat treatment. The change in the phase transformation, with an enhanced crystallinity, showed a reduced wettability. The hydrothermally treated nanorods with an amorphous thin film, on the other hand, showed an outstanding wettability. The HA thin film perpendicularly coated the nanorods in the upper and inner parts via RF magnetron sputtering, and the FT-IR results confirmed that the molecular bonding of the coated film had an HA structure.

  2. Type II textured molybdenum disulphide films produced by direct vapour transport and rf-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlken, S.F.; Lemon, K.D.; Jakovidis, G.; Taheri, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) is one of the few naturally occurring Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and is the primary source for elemental molybdenum. It displays exceptional lubrication performance in both vacuum and atmospheric conditions over a wide temperature range. An important emerging application of MoS 2 and related materials is photovoltaics. Films of MoS 2 exhibit several morphologies described by the orientation of platelets with respect to the substrate. Films with platelets perpendicular or parallel to the substrate are referred to by their morphology, which is type-I or type-II respectively. Production of exclusive type-II films is highly desirable in applications involving lubrication and photovoltaics. For example, type-II morphology reduces friction and minority carrier recombination centres, thus improving tribological and photovoltaic performance. We have successfully produced type-II films using both direct vapour transport and rf-magnetron sputtering Continuous polycrystalline films (∼ 10 μm thick) grown in our laboratory using vapour transport have typical areas 1000 mm 2 . A novel ejecta filtration technique was applied to rf-magnetron sputtering. Films produced using this approach retain exclusive type-II morphology at thicknesses where type-I would normally be observed (∼ 200nm)

  3. Deposition of lead-silicate glassy thin coatings by RF magnetron sputtering: Correlation between deposition parameters and electrical and structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigato, V.; Maggioni, G.; Boscarino, D.; Della Mea, G.; Univ. di Trento, Mesiano

    1996-01-01

    Lead-silicate glassy thin films produced by means of Reactive Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering have found recent application in the development of MicroStrip Gas Chambers radiation detectors. Here, thin films (100--400 nm) of lead silicate glass have been deposited by RF magnetron sputtering in Ar plasma at different discharge conditions. The interaction of the sputtered species with the gas atoms during the transport process through the discharge region and the kinetics of growth of the films have been investigated as a function of the target composition and of the substrate temperature. This study demonstrates the possibility of controlling the surface electrical resistance of the films in a wide range of values ranging from 10 12 to 10 17 Ω/□ during the film growth

  4. Influence of stress on the structural and dielectric properties of rf magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rashmi; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2008-05-01

    Highly c axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared on 1737 Corning glass substrate by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50mTorr) and different oxygen percentage (40%-100%) in reactive gas mixtures. The as-grown ZnO thin films were found to have stress over a wide range from -6×1010to-9×107dynes/cm2. The presence of stress depends strongly on processing conditions, and films become almost stress free under a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. The studies show a correlation of stress with structural and electrical properties of the ZnO thin film. The stressed films possess high electrical conductivity and exhibits strong dielectric dispersion over a wide frequency (1kHz-1MHz). The dielectric constant ɛ'(ω) of stress free ZnO film was almost frequency independent and was close to the bulk value. The measured value of dc conductivity, σdc(ω) and ac conductivity σac(ω) of stress free ZnO film was 1.3×10-9 and 6.8×10-5Ω-1cm-1, respectively. The observed variation in the structural and electrical properties of ZnO thin film with stress has been analyzed in the light of growth kinetics.

  5. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Lab. for Plasma Materials Processing)

    1983-07-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF/sub 4/ using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an R.F. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF/sub 4/(25%)-argon(75%) mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF/sub 4/(87%)-argon(13%) were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF/sub 4/ as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined.

  6. Deposition of amino-rich thin films by RF magnetron sputtering of nylon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylian, O; Hanus, J; Choukourov, A; Kousal, J; SlavInska, D; Biederman, H, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.co [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 8, 180 00 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-21

    RF magnetron sputtering of a nylon target in different gas mixtures was studied in order to evaluate the capability of this process to deposit amino-rich coatings needed in a wide range of biomedical applications. It has been demonstrated that both the deposition rate of the coatings and the surface density of primary amino groups are strongly linked with working gas mixture composition. From this point of view, a sufficiently high deposition rate as well as the highest amine efficiency reaching a NH{sub 2}/C value of 18% was observed in the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} discharge, which leads to the surface exhibiting a high rate of protein adsorption. (fast track communication)

  7. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications using RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2006-01-01

    The calcium phosphate thin films for medical applications require similar chemical properties as those of natural bone as well as a uniform surface without any defect, such as cracks and pinholes. In this study, the calcium phosphate thin films were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique at discharge power of 200W, 300W and 400W. The target used for the deposition was sintered HAp. RBS analysis showed that the Ca/P ratio increased with the discharge power becoming close to that of Ca/P=1.67 in ideal HAp. XPS analysis revealed the presence of PO 4 3- and OH - bonds in the calcium phosphate films fabricated. The chemical properties of the calcium phosphate thin films were similar to those of ideal HAp. The AFM results revealed that the thin films prepared had a uniform surface

  8. Characterization of barium strontium titanate thin films on sapphire substrate prepared via RF magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, F. W.; Khalid, M. F. Abdul; Mamat, M. H.; Zoolfakar, A. S.; Zulkefle, M. A.; Rusop, M.; Awang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3) is known to have a high dielectric constant and low loss at microwave frequencies. These unique features are useful for many electronic applications. This paper focuses on material characterization of BST thin films deposited on sapphire substrate by RF magnetron sputtering system. The sample was then annealed at 900 °C for two hours. Several methods were used to characterize the structural properties of the material such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the thin film. From the results obtained, it can be shown that the annealed sample had a rougher surface and better crystallinity as compared to as-deposited sample.

  9. Fractal features of CdTe thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinpanahi, Fayegh, E-mail: f.hosseinpanahi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoufi, Davood [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbarghanei, Khadijeh [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Bayan [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Reza [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasani, Ebrahim [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdTe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature with different deposition time 5, 10 and 15 min. • Nanostructure of CdTe layer indicates that CdTe films are polycrystalline and have zinc blende structure, irrespective of their deposition time. • Complexity and roughness of the CdTe films and strength of multifractality increase with increasing deposition time. • Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe films have multifractal nature. - Abstract: Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). The film deposition was performed for 5, 10, and 15 min at power of 30 W with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The crystal structure of the prepared CdTe thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD analyses indicate that the CdTe films are polycrystalline, having zinc blende structure of CdTe irrespective of their deposition time. All CdTe films showed a preferred orientation along (1 1 1) crystalline plane. The surface morphology characterization of the films was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative AFM characterization shows that the RMS surface roughness of the prepared CdTe thin films increases with increasing the deposition time. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe thin films have multifractal nature. The complexity, roughness of the CdTe thin films and strength of the multifractality increase as deposition time increases.

  10. Fractal features of CdTe thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinpanahi, Fayegh; Raoufi, Davood; Ranjbarghanei, Khadijeh; Karimi, Bayan; Babaei, Reza; Hasani, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdTe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature with different deposition time 5, 10 and 15 min. • Nanostructure of CdTe layer indicates that CdTe films are polycrystalline and have zinc blende structure, irrespective of their deposition time. • Complexity and roughness of the CdTe films and strength of multifractality increase with increasing deposition time. • Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe films have multifractal nature. - Abstract: Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). The film deposition was performed for 5, 10, and 15 min at power of 30 W with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The crystal structure of the prepared CdTe thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD analyses indicate that the CdTe films are polycrystalline, having zinc blende structure of CdTe irrespective of their deposition time. All CdTe films showed a preferred orientation along (1 1 1) crystalline plane. The surface morphology characterization of the films was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative AFM characterization shows that the RMS surface roughness of the prepared CdTe thin films increases with increasing the deposition time. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe thin films have multifractal nature. The complexity, roughness of the CdTe thin films and strength of the multifractality increase as deposition time increases.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of CdTe nanostructures grown by RF magnetron sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarnejad, Elaheh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesize Cadmium Telluride nanostructures by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system on soda lime glass at various thicknesses. The effect of CdTe nanostructures thickness on crystalline, optical and morphological properties has been studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The XRD parameters of CdTe nanostructures such as microstrain, dislocation density, and crystal size have been examined. From XRD analysis, it could be assumed that increasing deposition time caused the formation of the wurtzite hexagonal structure of the sputtered films. Optical properties of the grown nanostructures as a function of film thickness have been observed. All the films indicate more than 60% transmission over a wide range of wavelengths. The optical band gap values of the films have obtained in the range of 1.62-1.45 eV. The results indicate that an RF sputtering method succeeded in depositing of CdTe nanostructures with high purity and controllable physical properties, which is appropriate for photovoltaic and nuclear detector applications.

  12. Annealing dependent evolution of columnar nanostructures in RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Maidul Haque, S.; Divakar Rao, K.; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Patidar, Manju M.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2018-01-01

    Present communication focuses on a relatively less explored direction of producing rough polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces for possible hydrophobic applications. The experiments were carried out to make rough PTFE films without losing much of the transmission, which is an important factor while designing futuristic solar cell protection covers. After annealing temperature optimization, as grown RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films (prepared at 160 W RF power) were subjected to vacuum annealing at 200 °C for different time durations ranging from 1 to 4 h. The films show morphological evolution exhibiting formation and growth of columnar nanostructures that are responsible for roughening of the films due to annealing induced molecular migration and rearrangement. In agreement with this, qualitative analysis of corresponding x-ray reflectivity data shows modification in film thickness, which may again be attributed to the growth of columns at the expense of the atoms of remaining film molecules. However, the observations reveal that the film annealed at 200 °C for 2 h gives a combination of patterned columnar structures and reasonable transmission of >85% (in 500-1000 nm wavelength range), both of which are deteriorated when the films are annealed either at high temperature beyond 200 °C or for long durations >3 h. In addition, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results reveal that the molecular bonds remain intact upon annealing at any temperature within the studied range indicating the stable nature of the films.

  13. Characteristics of ZnO/diamond thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y W; Lee, J G; Baik, Y J; Kim, H J; Jung, H J; Choi, W K; Cho, B H; Park, C Y

    1999-01-01

    Due to its high Young's modulus, diamond has the highest acoustic wave velocity among all materials and is expected to be a candidate substrate for high-frequency surface acoustic wave(SAW) devices. In this study, the deposition of ZnO, as a piezoelectric layer, on a diamond substrate is investigated. ZnO has been fabricated by using RF magnetron sputtering with a ZnO target and various Ar/O sub 2 gas ratios, RF powers, and substrate temperatures at a vacuum of 10 sup - sup 5 Torr. The sputtered ZnO films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and I-V characteristics. All the films show only a (002) orientation. The atomic concentration of the sputtered ZnO films is changed by the oxygen gas ratio, and the ZnO films are grown with a homogeneous composition over their entire thickness. The electrical resistivity of the films varied from 4x10 sup 3 to 7x10 sup 8 OMEGA cm, depending on the Ar/O sub 2 gas ratio. The phase...

  14. RF magnetron sputtered La3+-modified PZT thin films: Perovskite phase stabilization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ravindra; Goel, T.C.; Chandra, Sudhir

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report the preparation of lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films in pure perovskite phase by RF magnetron sputtering. Various deposition parameters such as target-to-substrate spacing, sputtering gas composition, deposition temperature, post-deposition annealing temperature and time have been optimized to obtain PLZT films in pure perovskite phase. The films prepared in pure argon at 100 W RF power without external substrate heating exhibit pure perovskite phase after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 700 deg. C for 5 min. The film prepared at 225 deg. C substrate temperature also exhibits pure perovskite phase after RTA at 700 deg. C for 2 min. SIMS depth profile performed on one of the pure perovskite films (RTA at 700 deg. C for 5 min) shows very good stoichiometric uniformity of all elements of PLZT. The surface morphology of the films was examined using SEM and AFM. The dielectric, ferroelectric and electrical properties of the pure perovskite films were also investigated in detail. The remanent polarization for the films annealed at 700 deg. C for 5 and 2 min were found to be 15 and 13.5 μC cm -2 , respectively. Both the films have high DC resistivity of the order of 10 11 Ω cm at the electric field of ∼80 kV cm -1

  15. Titanium dioxide (TIO2) thin film and plasma properties in RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2013-01-01

    Lately, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films with anatase crystalline property received numerous attentions as unique material properties. There are wide applications of TiO 2 thin film such as for photocatalytic application in solar cell. In the present study, radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique has been used to produce high dense, homogeneously controllable film layer at low deposition temperature using titanium (Ti) target. The diameter of the Ti target is 3 inch with fixed discharge power of 400W. Magnetron sputtering plasma has been produced in high purity 99.99% Argon (Ar) and 99.99% Oxygen (O 2 ) environment pressure ranging from 5 to 20 mTorr. The TiO2 were growth on silicon and glass substrates. Substrate temperature during deposition was kept constant at 400°C. The distance between target and substrate holder was maintain at 14 cm with rotation of 10 rotation-per-minutes. Our X-ray diffraction result, shows anatase crystalline successfully formed with characterization peaks of plane (101) at 2θ = 25.28°, plane (202) at 2θ = 48.05° and plane (211) at 2θ = 55.06°. In addition, it is our interest to study the plasma properties and optical spectrum of Ti, Ti+ , O- , ArM and Ar+ in the chamber during the deposition process. Result of emission line intensities, electron density and temperature from optical spectroscope and Langmuir probe will be discuss further during the workshop. This works were supported by Graduate Incentive Scheme of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme of Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. (author)

  16. Effect of N{sub 2} flow rate on the properties of N doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shou [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); Yang, Yong, E-mail: 88087113@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); Li, Gang; Jiang, Jiwen; Jin, Kewu; Yao, TingTing; Zhang, Kuanxiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); Cao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116000 (China); Wang, Yun; Xu, Genbao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China)

    2016-09-05

    N doped TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature using DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering with a TiO{sub 2} ceramic target. The influences of N{sub 2} flow rate on the deposition rate, crystal structure, chemical composition and band gap of the deposited films were investigated by Optical profiler, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The film growth rate gradually decreased with increasing N{sub 2} flow rate. As N{sub 2} flow rate increased, the crystallization of the films deteriorated, and the films tended to form amorphous structure. XPS analysis revealed that N dopant atoms were added at the substitutional sites into TiO{sub 2} lattice structure. FE-SEM results showed that the grain size of the film decreased and the crystallinity degraded as N{sub 2} flow rate increases. In addition, N doping caused an obvious red shift in the optical absorption edge. - Highlights: • N doped TiO{sub 2} films were deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron reactive sputtering. • As N{sub 2} flow rate increases, the crystallization of the deposited films degrades. • The higher N{sub 2} flow rate is beneficial to form more substituted N in the film. • N doping causes an obvious red shift in the absorption wavelength.

  17. Effect of N_2 flow rate on the properties of N doped TiO_2 films deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shou; Yang, Yong; Li, Gang; Jiang, Jiwen; Jin, Kewu; Yao, TingTing; Zhang, Kuanxiang; Cao, Xin; Wang, Yun; Xu, Genbao

    2016-01-01

    N doped TiO_2 films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature using DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering with a TiO_2 ceramic target. The influences of N_2 flow rate on the deposition rate, crystal structure, chemical composition and band gap of the deposited films were investigated by Optical profiler, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The film growth rate gradually decreased with increasing N_2 flow rate. As N_2 flow rate increased, the crystallization of the films deteriorated, and the films tended to form amorphous structure. XPS analysis revealed that N dopant atoms were added at the substitutional sites into TiO_2 lattice structure. FE-SEM results showed that the grain size of the film decreased and the crystallinity degraded as N_2 flow rate increases. In addition, N doping caused an obvious red shift in the optical absorption edge. - Highlights: • N doped TiO_2 films were deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron reactive sputtering. • As N_2 flow rate increases, the crystallization of the deposited films degrades. • The higher N_2 flow rate is beneficial to form more substituted N in the film. • N doping causes an obvious red shift in the absorption wavelength.

  18. Influences of the RF power ratio on the optical and electrical properties of GZO thin films by DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shou [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu 233018 (China); Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233018 (China); Yao, Tingting, E-mail: yaott0815@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu 233018 (China); Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233018 (China); Yang, Yong; Zhang, Kuanxiang; Jiang, Jiwen; Jin, Kewu; Li, Gang; Cao, Xin; Xu, Genbao; Wang, Yun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu 233018 (China); Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233018 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Ga-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films were deposited by closed field unbalanced DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering system at room temperature. The RF sputtering power ratio was adjusted from 0% to 100%. The crystal structure, surface morphology, transmittance and electrical resistivity of GZO films mainly influenced by RF sputtering power ratio were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electronic microscope, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The research results indicate that the increasing RF power ratio can effectively reduce the discharge voltage of system and increase the ionizing rate of particles. Meanwhile, the higher RF power ratio can increase the carrier mobility in GZO thin film and improve the optical and electrical properties of GZO thin film significantly. Within the optimal discharge voltage window, the film deposits at 80% RF power ratio exhibits the lowest resistivity of 2.6×10{sup −4} Ω cm. We obtain the GZO film with the best average optical transmittance is approximately 84% in the visible wavelength. With the increasing RF power ratio, the densification of GZO film is enhanced. The densification of GZO film is decrease when the RF power ratio is 100%.

  19. Development of a Magnetron Resonance Frequency Auto Tuning System for Medical Xband [9300 MHz] RF Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sung Su; Lee, Byung Cheol [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Cha, Hyungki; Lee, Soo Min; Song, Ki Baek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The total components of the accelerator are the magnetron, electron gun, accelerating structure, a set of solenoid magnets, four sets of steering coils, a modulator, and a circulator. One of the accelerator components of the accelerating structure is made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC), and its volume is changed according to the ambient temperature. As the volume changes, the resonant frequency of the accelerating structure is changed. Accordingly, the resonance frequency is mismatched between the source of the magnetron and the accelerating structure. An automatic frequency tuning system is automatically matched with the resonant frequency of the magnetron and accelerating structure, which allows a high output power and reliable accelerator operation. An automatic frequency tuning system is composed of a step motor control part for correcting the frequency of the source and power measuring parts, i.e., the forward and reflected power between the magnetron and accelerating structure. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the automatic frequency tuning system for the X-band linac are presented. A frequency tuning system was developed to overcome an unstable accelerator operation owing to the frequency mismatch between the magnetron and accelerating structure. The frequency measurement accuracy is 100 kHz and 0.72 degree per pulse.

  20. INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE ON STRUCTURAL, ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ITO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    OpenAIRE

    BO HE; LEI ZHAO; JING XU; HUAIZHONG XING; SHAOLIN XUE; MENG JIANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using ceramic target to find the optimal condition for fabricating optoelectronic devices. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films prepared at various substrate temperatures were investigated. The results indicate the grain size increases with substrate temperature increases. As the substrate temperature grew up, the resistivity of ITO films grea...

  1. Morphology control of tungsten nanorods grown by glancing angle RF magnetron sputtering under variable argon pressure and flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedir, Khedir R.; Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Woo, Justin; Ryerson, Charles; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2010-01-01

    Morphologically novel tungsten nanorods (WNRs) with the co-existence of two crystalline phases, α-W (thermodynamically stable) and β-W, were fabricated by glancing angle RF magnetron sputtering technique under various Ar pressures and flow rates. For these nanorods, a significant variation in their morphology and surface roughness was observed. These structures could be useful in a wide range of applications such as field emission, robust superhydrophobic coatings, energy, and medicine.

  2. Recent Developments in R.F. Magnetron Sputtered Thin Films for pH Sensing Applications—An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    D. K. Maurya; A. Sardarinejad; K. Alameh

    2014-01-01

    pH sensors are widely used in chemical and biological applications. Metal oxides-based pH sensors have many attractive features including insolubility, stability, mechanical strength, electrocatalyst and manufacturing technology. Various metal oxide thin films prepared by radio frequency (R.F.) magnetron sputtering have attractive features, including high pH sensitivity, fast response, high resolution, good stability and reversibility as well as potential for measuring pH under conditions th...

  3. Characterization of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) thin film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynthia, S. R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Ponmudi, S. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi-630004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-630004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films have attracted significant interest recently for use in optoelectronic application such as solar cells, flat panel displays, photonic devices, laser diodes and gas sensors because of their desirable electrical and optical properties and wide band gap. In the present study, thin films of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  4. Investigation of optical and microstructural properties of RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.; Haque, S. Maidul; Rao, K. Divakar; De, Rajnarayan; Shripathi, T.; Deshpande, U.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polytetrafluoroethylene films were made by RF sputtering by varying deposition time. • With increasing deposition time, thickness shows unusual trend due to backsputtering. • Major contribution of CF 2 and CF 3 bonds in the samples is seen by ATR-FTIR. • Deposition time influences film thickness but all samples remain hydrophobic. • XPS spectra show strong CF x bonds at the surface. - Abstract: The deposition time dependence of optical, structural and morphological properties of thin as well as ultrathin Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sputtered films have been explored in the present communication. The films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering under high vacuum condition, as a function of deposition time. The ellipsometry as well as X-ray reflectivity data show a drastic reduction in film thickness as the deposition time increases from 5 s to 10 s, possibly as a consequence of back sputtering. With subsequent deposition, back sputtering component decreases and hence, thickness increases with increase in deposition time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show a slight change in growth morphology although roughness is independent of deposition time. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements showed the presence of C−C and CF x (x = 1–3) bonds in all the PTFE films. Supporting this, corresponding X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) curves fitted for C-1s and F-1s peaks revealed a major contribution from CF 2 bonds along with significant contribution from CF 3 bonds leading to an F/C ratio of ∼1.5 giving hydrophobic nature of all the films.

  5. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to

  6. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx

  7. Indium tin oxide thin films by bias magnetron rf sputtering for heterojunction solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Zhou Zhibin; Peng Hua; Cui Rongqiang

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation ITO thin films were prepared by bias magnetron rf sputtering technique at substrate temperature of 180 deg. C and low substrate-target distance for future a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction (HJ) solar cells application. Microstructure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of these films were characterized and analyzed. The effects of ion bombardments on growing ITO films are well discussed. XRD analysis revealed a change in preferential orientation of polycrystalline structure from (2 2 2) to (4 0 0) plane with the increase of negative bias voltage. Textured surface were observed on AFM graphs of samples prepared at high negative bias. Hall measurements showed that the carrier density and Hall mobility of these ITO films are sensitive to the bias voltage applied. We attributed these effects to the sensitivity of energy of Ar + ions bombarding on growing films to the applied bias voltage in our experiments. At last the figure of merit was calculated to evaluate the quality of ITO thin films, the results of which show that sample prepared at bias voltage of -75 V is good to be used in HJ cells application

  8. Thickness characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Hideo; Jinno, Makoto; Takashima, Osamu; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Akinori; Kojima, Kenzo; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Ohashi, Asao

    1994-01-01

    The practical use of oxide high temperature superconductors for electronics field has been advanced. The oxide high temperature superconductor thin films is very sensitive to the production conditions, and their making with good reproducibility is difficult. In this study, the method of producing the thin films having good quality with good reproducibility by RF magnetron sputtering, and the relation of the film thickness with the superconductivity characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films in the different methods of substrate washing were examined. The sputtering conditions are shown. For the purpose of preventing the worsening of the film quality due to the reverse sputtering of oxygen negative ions to the thin film surface, sputtering gas pressure was set up high at 30 Pa. The film thickness and the temperature-resistance characteristics were measured. The experimental method and the experimental results are reported. By keeping the temperature on substrate surfaces constant, the reproducibility in the production of the thin films was improved remarkably. The effect of substrate washing was large. (K.I.)

  9. Deposition of nanostructured fluorocarbon plasma polymer films by RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylian, Ondrej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Drabik, Martin; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Cechvala, Juraj; Artemenko, Anna; Gordeev, Ivan; Choukourov, Andrei; Matolinova, Iva; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek, E-mail: bieder@kmf.troja.mff.cuni.cz

    2011-07-29

    The RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene target is studied with the aim to find out conditions leading to the deposition of super-hydrophobic thin films. It is shown that such coatings can be prepared at elevated pressures and a longer distance between the sputtered target and the substrate. This is explained by an increase in the density of longer C{sub x}F{sub y} molecules that reach the substrate and a lower flux of ions and CF{sub 2} radicals on the surface of growing film under such deposition conditions, as observed by optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Such changes in plasma composition result in a deposition of rough films having F/C ratio close to 2 as observed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. These findings clearly distinguish our results from the previous investigations of polytetrafluoroethylene sputtering performed at shorter distances from the target, where either low F/C ratio or low roughness of the deposited films did not allow reaching super-hydrophobic character of the coatings.

  10. Growth of TiO2 Thin Film on Various Substrates using RF Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2011-01-01

    The conductivity of Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin film fabricated using Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering on Silicon (Si), Indium doped--Tin Oxide (ITO) and microscope glass (M) substrates is presented in this paper. The dependant of thin film thickness and type of substrate been discussed. TiO 2 was deposited using Ti target in Ar+O 2 (45:10) mixture at 250 W for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 minute. Resultant thickness varies from 295 nm to 724 nm with deposition rate 6.4 nm/min. On the other hand, resistivity, Rs value for ITO substrate is between 5.72x10 -7 to 1.54x10 -6 Ω.m, Si substrate range is between 3.52x10 -6 to 1.76x10 -5 Ω.m and M substrate range is between 99 to 332 Ω.m. The value of resistivity increases with the thickness of the thin film.

  11. Biocompatibility of GaSb thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Fujihara, Junko; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2017-07-01

    GaSb may be suitable for biological applications, such as cellular sensors and bio-medical instrumentation because of its low toxicity compared with As (III) compounds and its band gap energy. Therefore, the biocompatibility and the film properties under physiological conditions were investigated for GaSb thin films with or without a surface coating. GaSb thin films were grown on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and then coated with (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPT). The electrical properties, surface morphology, and crystal structure of the GaSb thin film were unaffected by the MPT coating. The cell viability assay suggested that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible. Bare GaSb was particularly unstable in pH9 buffer. Ga elution was prevented by the MPT coating, although the Ga concentration in the pH 9 buffer was higher than that in the other solutions. The surface morphology and crystal structure were not changed by exposure to the solutions, except for the pH 9 buffer, and the thin film properties of MPT-coated GaSb exposed to distilled water and H2O2 in saline were maintained. These results indicate that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible and could be used for temporary biomedical devices.

  12. Substrates effect on Zn1-xMnxO thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elanchezhiyan, J.; Bhuvana, K.P.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have presented the surface effect of the substrates on Mn doped ZnO (Zn 1-x Mn x O) thin films grown on Si(1 0 0) and sapphire [i.e. Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1)] by RF magnetron sputtering. These grown films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to know its structural, optical and magnetic properties. All these properties have been found to be strongly influenced by the substrate surface on which the films have been deposited. The XRD results show that the Mn doped ZnO films deposited on Si(1 0 0) exhibit a polycrystalline nature whereas the films on sapphire substrate have only (0 0 2) preferential orientations indicating that the films are single crystalline. The studies of room temperature PL spectra reveal that the Zn 1-x Mn x O/Si(1 0 0) system is under severe compressive strain while the strain is almost relaxed in Zn 1-x Mn x O/Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1) system. It has been observed from VSM studies that Zn 1-x Mn x O/Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1) system shows ferromagnetic nature while the paramagnetic behaviour observed in Zn 1-x Mn x O/Si(1 0 0) system

  13. Characterization of AZO and Ag based films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Dagang; Jiang, Shouxiang; Zhao, Hongmei; Shang, Songmin; Chen, Zhuoming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly infrared reflective AZO and Ag based films were prepared. • Ag showed better crystallization on AZO film than on glass substrate. • Infrared reflection rate was inversely proportional to the film sheet resistance. • Film with infrared reflection of 97% in FIR region was acquired. - Abstract: Ag, AZO/Ag, Ag/AZO and AZO/Ag/AZO films were prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technology. The prepared films were systematically investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), UV–visible spectrophotometer, a four-point probe system and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results indicated that Ag inner layer starts forming a continuous film at the thickness of 10 nm and Ag layer presents superior crystallization on AZO substrate than that on glass substrate. The continuous Ag inner layer film provided the highest average visible transmittance of 85.4% (AZO/Ag/AZO). The lowest sheet resistance of 3.21 Ω/sq and the highest infrared reflection rate of 97% in FIR region can be obtained on AZO/Ag (15 nm)/AZO film. The high infrared reflection property of the AZO/Ag/AZO coating makes it a promising candidate for solar control films

  14. RF magnetron sputtering of a hydroxyapatite target: A comparison study on polytetrafluorethylene and titanium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmenev, Roman A.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Grubova, Irina Yu.; Chernozem, Roman V.; Krause, Bärbel; Baumbach, Tilo; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    A pure hydroxyapatite (HA) target was used to prepare the biocompatible coating of HA on the surface of a polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) substrate, which was placed on the same substrate holder with technically pure titanium (Ti) in the single deposition runs by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The XPS, XRD and FTIR analyses of the obtained surfaces showed that for all substrates, instead of the HA coating deposition, the coating of a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium fluoride was grown. According to SEM investigations, the surface of PTFE was etched, and the surface topography of uncoated Ti was preserved after the depositions. The FTIR results reveal no phosphate bonds; only calcium tracks were observed in the EDX-spectra on the surface of the coated PTFE substrates. Phosphate oxide (V), which originated from the target, could be removed using a vacuum pump system, or no phosphate-containing bonds could be formed on the substrate surface because of the severe substrate bombardment process, which prevented the HA coating deposition. The observed results may be connected with the surface re-sputtering effect of the growing film by high-energy negatively charged ions (most probably oxygen or fluorine), which are accelerated in the cathode dark sheath.

  15. Transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering with dc and rf powers applied in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ohtani, Yuusuke; Miyata, Toshihiro; Kuboi, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin-film magnetron-sputtering deposition technique that decreases resistivity, improves resistivity distribution, and produces high-rate depositions has been demonstrated by dc magnetron-sputtering depositions that incorporate rf power (dc+rf-MS), either with or without the introduction of H 2 gas into the deposition chamber. The dc+rf-MS preparations were carried out in a pure Ar or an Ar+H 2 (0%-2%) gas atmosphere at a pressure of 0.4 Pa by adding a rf component (13.56 MHz) to a constant dc power of 80 W. The deposition rate in a dc+rf-MS deposition incorporating a rf power of 150 W was approximately 62 nm/min, an increase from the approximately 35 nm/min observed in dc magnetron sputtering with a dc power of 80 W. A resistivity as low as 3x10 -4 Ω cm and an improved resistivity distribution could be obtained in AZO thin films deposited on substrates at a low temperature of 150 deg. C by dc+rf-MS with the introduction of hydrogen gas with a content of 1.5%. This article describes the effects of adding a rf power component (i.e., dc+rf-MS deposition) as well as introducing H 2 gas into dc magnetron-sputtering preparations of transparent conducting AZO thin films

  16. Gas barrier properties of titanium oxynitride films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, L.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lschang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Lin, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-03-30

    Titanium oxynitride (TiN{sub x}O{sub y}) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by means of a reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system in which the power density and substrate bias were the varied parameters. Experimental results show that the deposited TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films exhibited an amorphous or a columnar structure with fine crystalline dependent on power density. The deposition rate increases significantly in conjunction as the power density increases from 2 W/cm{sup 2} to 7 W/cm{sup 2}. The maximum deposition rate occurs, as the substrate bias is -40 V at a certain power densities chosen in this study. The film's roughness slightly decreases with increasing substrate bias. The TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films deposited at power densities above 4 W/cm{sup 2} show a steady Ti:N:O ratio of about 1:1:0.8. The water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of the TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films reach values as low as 0.98 g/m{sup 2}-day-atm and 0.60 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-day-atm which are about 6 and 47 times lower than those of the uncoated PET substrate, respectively. These transmission rates are comparable to those of DLC, carbon-based and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier films. Therefore, TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films are potential candidates to be used as a gas permeation barrier for PET substrate.

  17. Reactive magnetron sputtering of N-doped carbon thin films on quartz glass for transmission photocathode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Huran, J.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Sasinková, V.; Boháček, P.; Arbet, J.

    2018-03-01

    N-doped carbon thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate and quartz glass by RF reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and an Ar+N2 gas mixture. During the magnetron sputtering, the substrate holder temperatures was kept at 800 °C. The carbon film thickness on the silicon substrate was about 70 nm, while on the quartz glass it was in the range 15 nm – 60 nm. The elemental concentration in the films was determined by RBS and ERD. Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the intensity ratios I D/I G of the D and G peaks of the carbon films. The transmission photocathodes prepared were placed in the hollow-cathode assembly of a Pierce-structure DC gun to produce photoelectrons. The quantum efficiency (QE) was calculated from the laser energy and cathode charge measured. The properties of the transmission photocathodes based on semitransparent N-doped carbon thin films on quartz glass and their potential for application in DC gun technology are discussed.

  18. Geometric considerations in magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The recent development of high performance magnetron type discharge sources has greatly enhaced the range of coating applications where sputtering is a viable deposition process. Magnetron sources can provide high current densities and sputtering rates, even at low pressures. They have much reduced substrate heating rates and can be scaled to large sizes. Magnetron sputter coating apparatuses can have a variety of geometric and plasma configurations. The target geometry affects the emission directions of both the sputtered atoms and the energetic ions which are neutralized and reflected at the cathode. This fact, coupled with the long mean free particle paths which are prevalent at low pressures, can make the coating properties very dependent on the apparatus geometry. This paper reviews the physics of magnetron operation and discusses the influences of apparatus geometry on the use of magnetrons for rf sputtering and reactive sputtering, as well as on the microstructure and internal stresses in sputtered metallic coatings. (author) [pt

  19. Ultra-hard AlMgB14 coatings fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a stoichiometric target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, A. M.; Khartsev, S. I.; Böhlmark, J.; Ahlgren, M.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time hard aluminum magnesium boride films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a single stoichiometric ceramic AlMgB14 target. Optimized processing conditions (substrate temperature, target sputtering power and target-to-substrate distance) enable fabrication of stoichiometric in-depth compositionally homogeneous films with the peak values of nanohardness 88 GPa and Young's modulus 517 GPa at the penetration depth of 26 nm and, respectively, 35 and 275 GPa at 200 nm depth in 2 μm thick film.

  20. Effects of various deposition times and RF powers on CdTe thin film growth using magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type II-VI compound semiconductor, which is an active component for producing photovoltaic solar cells in the form of thin films, due to its desirable physical properties. In this study, CdTe film was deposited using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system onto a glass substrate. To improve the properties of the CdTe film, effects of two experimental parameters of deposition time and RF power were investigated on the physical properties of the CdTe films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometer were used to study the structural, morphological and optical properties of the CdTe samples grown at different experimental conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that film properties strongly depend on the experimental parameters and by optimizing these parameters, it is possible to tune the desired structural, morphological and optical properties. From XRD data, it is found that increasing the deposition time and RF power leads to increasing the crystallinity as well as the crystal sizes of the grown film, and all the films represent zinc blende cubic structure. Roughness values given from AFM images suggest increasing the roughness of the CdTe films by increasing the RF power and deposition times. Finally, optical investigations reveal increasing the film band gaps by increasing the RF power and the deposition time.

  1. Optimizing electrical conductivity and optical transparency of IZO thin film deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films of In2O3, SnO2, ZnO, and their mixtures have been extensively used in optoelectronic applications such as transparent electrodes in solar photovoltaic devices. In this project I deposited amorphous indium-zinc oxide (IZO) thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a In2O3-10 wt.% ZnO sintered ceramic target to optimize the RF power, argon gas flowing rate, and the thickness of film to reach the maximum conductivity and transparency in visible spectrum. The results indicated optimized conductivity and transparency of IZO thin film is closer to ITO's conductivity and transparency, and is even better when the film was deposited with one specific tilted angle. National Science Foundation (NSF) MRSEC program at University of Nebraska Lincoln, and was hosted by Professor Jeff Shields lab.

  2. Effect of R.F. Power to the Structural Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, N.D.M.; Rusop, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of RF power variation (100 watt∼400 watt ) on the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films electrical, optical and structural properties were examined using current voltage (I-V) measurement, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). ZnO thin films were prepared at room temperature in pure argon atmosphere by a RF magnetron sputtering using ZnO target. The resistivity of thin film show the lowest at 300 watt. The absorption coefficient spectra obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer measurement show all films have low absorbance in visible and near infrared (IR) region but have high UV absorption properties using UV-VIS spectrophotometer (JASCO 670) . Highly oriented ZnO thin films [002] direction were obtained by using Rigaku Ultima IV. (author)

  3. Properties of reactively radio frequency-magnetron sputtered (Zr,Sn)TiO4 dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-L.; Hsu, C.-H.

    2004-01-01

    Zirconium tin titanium oxide doped 1 wt % ZnO thin films on n-type Si substrate were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at a fixed rf power of 350 W with various argon-oxygen (Ar/O 2 ) mixture and different substrate temperatures. Electrical properties and microstructures of ZnO-doped (Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 )TiO 4 thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on n-type Si(100) substrates at different Ar/O 2 ratios and substrate temperatures have been investigated. The surface structural and morphological characteristics analyzed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope were sensitive to the deposition conditions, such as Ar/O 2 ratio (100/0-80/20) and substrate temperature (350 deg. C-450 deg. C). The selected-area diffraction pattern showed that the deposited films exhibited a polycrystalline microstructure. All films exhibited ZST (111) orientation perpendicular to the substrate surface and the grain size as well as the deposition rate of the films increased with the increase of both the Ar partial pressure and the substrate temperature. At a Ar/O 2 ratio of 100/0, rf power level of 350 W and substrate temperature of 450 deg. C, the Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 TiO 4 films with 6.44 μm thickness possess a dielectric constant of 42 (at 10 MHz), a dissipation factor of 0.065 (at 10 MHz), and a leakage current density of 2x10 -7 A/cm 2 at an electrical field of 1 kV/cm

  4. Influence of Substrate Temperature on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Ito Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Jing; Xing, Huaizhong; Xue, Shaolin; Jiang, Meng

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using ceramic target to find the optimal condition for fabricating optoelectronic devices. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films prepared at various substrate temperatures were investigated. The results indicate the grain size increases with substrate temperature increases. As the substrate temperature grew up, the resistivity of ITO films greatly decreased. The ITO film possesses high quality in terms of electrode functions, when substrate temperature is 480°C. The resistivity is as low as 9.42 × 10-5 Ω•cm, while the carrier concentration and mobility are as high as 3.461 × 1021 atom/cm3 and 19.1 cm2/Vṡs, respectively. The average transmittance of the film is about 95% in the visible region. The novel ITO/np-Silicon frame, which prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at 480°C substrate temperature, can be used not only for low-cost solar cell, but also for high quantum efficiency of UV and visible lights enhanced photodetector for various applications.

  5. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd, E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  6. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  7. Structural and optical properties of titanium dioxide films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in pure oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanuma, T.; Matsutani, T.; Liu, C.; Mihara, T.; Kiuchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were deposited on unheated quartz (SiO 2 ) substrates in 'pure oxygen' plasma by reactive radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The structural and optical properties of deposited films were systematically studied by changing the deposition parameters, and it was very recently found that crystalline TiO 2 films grew effectively in pure O 2 atmosphere. For TiO 2 films deposited at a rf power P rf of 200 W, x-ray diffraction patterns show the following features: (a) no diffraction peak was observed at a total sputtering pressure p tot of 1.3 Pa; (b) rutile (110) diffraction was observed at 4.0 Pa, (c) the dominant diffraction was from anatase (101) planes, with additional diffraction from (200), under p tot between 6.7 and 13 Pa. For the deposition at 140 W, however, crystalline films with mixed phases were observed only between 4.0 and 6.7 Pa. The peaks of both the deposition rate and the anatase weight ratio for the films produced at 140 W were found at p tot of approximately 6.7 Pa. This suggests that the nucleation and growth of TiO 2 films were affected by the composition, density, and kinetic energy of the particles impinging on the substrate surface. The optical absorption edge analysis showed that the optical band gap E g and the constant B could sensitively detect the film growth behavior, and determine the film structure and optical absorption. The change in the shape of the fundamental absorption edge is considered to reflect the variation of density and the short-range structural modifications

  8. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Tongda, Nanjing (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Zhuge, L.J. [Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Analysis and Testing Center, Suzhou (China); Wu, X.M. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-01-23

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO{sub x} are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf{sup 2+} and Hf{sup 4+}. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO{sub 2}, HfO and ErO{sub x}, which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO{sub 2} in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  9. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.Y.; He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C.; Zhuge, L.J.; Wu, X.M.

    2015-01-01

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO x are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf 2+ and Hf 4+ . The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO 2 , HfO and ErO x , which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO 2 in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO 2 are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  10. Properties of RF magnetron sputtered gallium nitride semiconductors doped with erbium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina, Vratislav; Macková, Anna; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Prajzler, V.; Machovič, V.; Matějka, P.; Schröfel, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 8 (2004), s. 952-954 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/0387 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : Er-doped GaN * luminescence * magnetron sputtering Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.209, year: 2004

  11. Growth behavior of rat bone marrow cells on RF magnetron sputtered hydroxyapatite and dicalcium pyrophosphate coatings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Y.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Ruijter, A. De; Yubao, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of magnetron sputtered dicalcium pyrophaosphate (DCPP) and hydroxylapatite (HA) coatings. Therefore, DCPP and HA coatings were deposited on grit-blasted titanium discs. The substrates were used as-prepared or received an additional heat

  12. Rutile TiO2 thin films grown by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnarsson, B.; Magnus, F.; Tryggvason, T.K.; Ingason, A.S.; Leosson, K.; Olafsson, S.; Gudmundsson, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Thin TiO 2 films were grown on Si(001) substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Optical and structural properties of films were compared both before and after post-annealing using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray reflection (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both dcMS- and HiPIMS-grown films reveal polycrystalline rutile TiO 2 , even prior to post-annealing. The HiPIMS-grown films exhibit significantly larger grains compared to that of dcMC-grown films, approaching 100% of the film thickness for films grown at 700 °C. In addition, the XRR surface roughness of HiPIMS-grown films was significantly lower than that of dcMS-grown films over the whole temperature range 300–700 °C. Dispersion curves could only be obtained for the HiPIMS-grown films, which were shown to have a refractive index in the range of 2.7–2.85 at 500 nm. The results show that thin, rutile TiO 2 films, with high refractive index, can be obtained by HiPIMS at relatively low growth temperatures, without post-annealing. Furthermore, these films are smoother and show better optical characteristics than their dcMS-grown counterparts. - Highlights: • We demonstrate growth of rutile TiO 2 on Si (111) by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • The films exhibit significantly larger grains than dc magnetron sputtered films • TiO 2 films with high refractive index are obtained without post-growth annealing

  13. Niobium-based catalysts prepared by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and arc plasma methods as non-noble metal cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Ryohji; Katayama, Masao; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    Two vacuum methods, reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and arc plasma deposition, were used to prepare niobium-based catalysts for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as non-noble metal cathodes for polymer electrode fuel cells (PEFCs). Thin films with various N and O contents, denoted as NbO x and Nb-O-N, were prepared on glassy carbon plates by RF magnetron sputtering with controlled partial pressures of oxygen and nitrogen. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the introduction of the nitrogen species into the thin film resulted in improved ORR activity compared to the oxide-only film. Using an arc plasma method, niobium was deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates, and the sub-nanoscale surface morphology of the deposited particles was investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). To prepare practical cathode catalysts, niobium was deposited on carbon black (CB) powders by arc plasma method. STM and transmission electron microscopy observations of samples on HOPG and CB indicated that the prepared catalysts were highly dispersed at the atomic level. The onset potential of oxygen reduction on Nb-O-N/CB was 0.86 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode, and the apparent current density was drastically improved by the introduction of nitrogen.

  14. On the synthesis of a compound with positive enthalpy of formation: Zinc-blende-like RuN thin films obtained by rf-magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattaruzza, E., E-mail: cattaruz@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre-VE (Italy); Battaglin, G.; Riello, P. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre-VE (Italy); Cristofori, D. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice and Centre for Electron Microscopy “Giovanni Stevanato”, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre-VE (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • RuN thin films in the zinc-blende structure have been synthesized by rf-magnetron sputtering. • Contribute is given to the understanding of phase-formation mechanisms in systems that under ambient conditions present positive enthalpies of formation. • Contribute is given to the understanding of phenomena occurring during reactive sputtering processes. • Nanopillar structure: suitable for application requiring a high effective area, like sensing, catalysis, and electrode material for energy-storage devices. - Abstract: 4d- and 5d-transition metal nitrides are of interest both because of their importance for the understanding of mechanisms of phase formation in systems that under ambient conditions present positive enthalpies of formation and because of their appealing structural and electronic properties. In this study, we report the synthesis of thin films of ruthenium mononitride (RuN) in the zinc-blende structure by radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering. Films present a characteristic structure of packed columns ending with tetrahedral tips. The effect of changing the synthesis parameters was investigated in detail. It was found that RuN can be formed if the nitrogen partial pressure exceeds a minimum value and that the addition of argon has the major effect of increasing the deposition rate because of its higher sputter ability. Temperature plays an important role: if it is too high, decomposition/desorption effects overcome those leading to the formation of the compound. Phenomena resulting in the formation of RuN occur at the surface of the growing films and are related to the interactions of ruthenium with energetic nitrogen ions, or atoms, which can penetrate the first atomic layers by low energy implantation. Because of its properties and structure, this material is a promising candidate for applications like sensing, catalysis, and electrode material for energy-storage devices.

  15. 125 MeV Si 9+ ion irradiation of calcium phosphate thin film coated by rf-magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M. I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R. V.; Kalkura, S. Narayana; Palanichamy, M.; Ashok, M.; Sivakumar, V. V.; Kulriya, P. K.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium substrate was coated with hydroxyapatite by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (rf-magnetron sputtering) technique and subjected to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of 125 MeV with Si 9+ at fluences of 1 × 10 10, 1 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2. The glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis confirmed the HAp phase of the irradiated film. There was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and particle size after irradiation. In addition, DRS-UV reflectance spectra revealed a decrease in optical band gap ( Eg) from 5.2 to 4.6 eV. Wettability of biocompatible materials plays an important role in biological cells proliferation for tissue engineering, drug delivery, gene transfer and bone growth. HAp thin films irradiated with 1 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 fluence showed significant increase in wettability. While the SHI irradiated samples exhibited enhanced bioactivity, there was no significant variation in cell viability. Surface roughness, pores and average particle size were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  16. Effect of thickness on optoelectrical properties of Nb-doped indium tin oxide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-na; Ma, Rui-xin; Ma, Chun-hong; Li, Dong-ran; Xiao, Yu-qin; He, Liang-wei; Zhu, Hong-min

    2013-05-01

    Niobium-doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Nb) thin films are prepared on glass substrates with various film thicknesses by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from one piece of ceramic target material. The effects of thickness (60-360 nm) on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ITO: Nb films are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. XRD patterns show the highly oriented (400) direction. The lowest resistivity of the films without any heat treatment is 3.1×10-4Ω·cm-1, and the resistivity decreases with the increase of substrate temperature. The highest Hall mobility and carrier concentration are 17.6 N·S and 1.36×1021 cm-3, respectively. Band gap energy of the films depends on substrate temperature, which varies from 3.48 eV to 3.62 eV.

  17. SiC formation for a solar cell passivation layer using an RF magnetron co-sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of amorphous silicon carbide film formation for a solar cell passivation layer. The film was deposited on p-type silicon (100) and glass substrates by an RF magnetron co-sputtering system using a Si target and a C target at a room-temperature condition. Several different SiC [Si1-xCx] film compositions were achieved by controlling the Si target power with a fixed C target power at 150 W. Then, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Si1-xCx films were studied. The structural properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The optical properties were achieved by UV-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The performance of Si1-xCx passivation was explored by carrier lifetime measurement. PMID:22221730

  18. Magnetic Properties of Fe(001) Thin Films on GaAs(001) Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yutaka; Inaba, Nobuyuki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    Fe thin films, down to 6 nm thick, were prepared on GaAs(001) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that the epitaxial thin films of Fe(001) were grown with cube-on-cube orientation on GaAs(001). Magnetic properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. The magnetization curves obtained by applying in-plane magnetic fields indicate that easy (hard) direction is along [100] ([110]) and the saturation magnetization is close to the bulk values. The in-plane magnetic anisotropy measured by FMR shows four-fold symmetry, as expected for bcc Fe. We did not observe the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy reported on the MBE-grown Fe films on GaAs substrates.

  19. Thin Film growth and characterization of Ti doped ZnO by RF/DC magnetron sputtering

    KAUST Repository

    Baseer Haider, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thin film Ti doped ZnO (Ti-ZnO) film were grown on sapphire (0001) substrate by RF and DC magnetron sputtering. Films were grown at a substrate temperature of 250 °C with different Ti/Zn concentration. Surface chemical study of the samples was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the stoichiometry and Ti/Zn ratio for all samples. Surface morphology of the samples were studied by atomic force microscopy. X-ray diffraction was carried out to determine the crystallinity of the film. No secondary phases of TixOy was observed. We observed a slight increase in the lattice constant with the increase in Ti concentration in ZnO. No ferromagnetic signal was observed for any of the samples. However, some samples showed super-paramagnetic phase. © 2015 Materials Research Society.

  20. Effect of thickness on surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of RF magnetron sputtered CCTO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadipour, Mohsen [Structural Materials Niche Area, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ain, Mohd Fadzil [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zainal Arifin, E-mail: srzainal@usm.my [Structural Materials Niche Area, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • CCTO thin film was synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering successfully. • Increase in thickness lead to increase in grain size and decrease in band gap. • Short response times and recovery times of lead CCTO humidity sensor. • Sensor could detect humidity range (30–90%). - Abstract: In this study, calcium copper titanate (CCTO) thin films were deposited on ITO substrates successfully by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method in argon atmosphere. The CCTO thin films present a polycrystalline, uniform and porous structure. The surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of the synthesized CCTO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV–vis spectrophotometer and current-voltage (I–V) analysis. XRD and AFM confirmed that the intensity of peaks and pore size of CCTO thin films were enhanced by increasing the thin films. Tauc plot method was adopted to estimate the optical band gaps. The surface structure and energy band gaps of the deposited films were affected by film thickness. Energy band gap of the layers were 3.76 eV, 3.68 eV and 3.5 eV for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films layer, respectively. The humidity sensing properties were measured by using direct current (DC) analysis method. The response times were 12 s, 22 s, and 35 s while the recovery times were 500 s, 600 s, and 650 s for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films, respectively at humidity range of 30–90% relative humidity (RH).

  1. RF magnetron sputtering and evaporation of polyisobutylene and low density polyethylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kousal, J.; Hanuš, J.; Choukourov, A.; Hlídek, P.; Biederman, H.; Slavinská, D.; Zemek, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 200, 1-4 (2005), s. 472-475 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 527.10; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetron * radio frequency * sputtering * polyethylene * polyisobutylene Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2005

  2. Bioactivity and Surface Reactivity of RF-sputtered Calcium Phosphate Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, Edwin van der

    2003-01-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaP) are known to be bioactive, i.e. able to bond to bone. This makes CaPs very suitable to be aplied as thin coatings on bone-implants. In this work we studied the physicochemical behaviour of CaP coatings applied with radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, a deposition

  3. Effect of deposition parameters on properties of ITO films prepared by reactive middle frequency pulsed dual magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozin, A.I.; Vinnichenko, M.V.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

    2004-01-01

    ITO layers with low resistivity and high visible transmittance were produced by means of middle frequency reactive dual magnetron sputtering. The influence of base pressure, Ar/O 2 ratio and magnetron pulse duration on the film composition, structure, electrical, and optical properties has been investigated. The deposition rate is proportional to the magnetron operation power at changing pulse duration and constant Ar and O 2 flows. At enhanced O 2 flows an onset of the magnetron target oxidation is discussed as a reason for the decrease of the deposition rate. The presence of water vapor in the residual gas is determined to be a reason for deterioration of resistivity and optical transmittance observed for ITO films produced at a base pressures higher than 5·10 -4 Pa. It is demonstrated that spectroscopic ellipsometry can be used as a noncontact tool to monitor the resistivity of ITO films

  4. Rf reactive sputtering of indium-tin-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvarozek, V.; Novotny, I.; Harman, R.; Kovac, J.

    1986-01-01

    Films of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) have been deposited by rf reactive diode sputtering of metallic InSn alloy targets, or ceramic ITO targets, in an Ar and Ar+0 2 atmosphere. Electrical as well as optical properties of ITO films were controlled by varying sputtering parameters and by post-deposition heat-treatment in Ar, H 2 , N 2 , H 2 +N 2 ambients. The ITO films exhibited low resistivity approx. 2 x 10 -4 Ω cm, high transmittance approx. 90% in the visible spectral region and high reflectance approx. 80% in the near infra-red region. (author)

  5. Control of the optical properties of silicon and chromium mixed oxides deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, L.; Galindo, R. Escobar; Martinez, R.; Sanchez, O.; Palacio, C.; Albella, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The development of mixed-oxide thin films allows obtaining materials with better properties than those of the different binary oxides, which makes them suitable for a great number of applications in different fields, such as tribology, optics or microelectronics. In this paper we investigate the deposition of mixed chromium and silicon oxides deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering with a view to use them as optical coatings with an adjustable refractive index. These films have been characterized by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry so as to determine how the deposition conditions influence the characteristics of the material. We have found that the deposition parameter whose influence determines the properties of the films to a greater extent is the amount of oxygen in the reactive sputtering gas.

  6. Coating of titanium implants with boron nitride by RF-magnetron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Gazi University, Biskek caddesi 84.sokak, ... was repeated after RF power of the system was increased and voltage values were ... ination, cohesive and adhesive failures and porosity of the.

  7. Development of thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries in the material system Li–Mn–O by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J., E-mail: julian.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Adelhelm, C.; Bergfeldt, T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chang, K. [RWTH Aachen University, Materials Chemistry, Kopernikusstrasse 10, 46 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ziebert, C.; Leiste, H.; Stüber, M.; Ulrich, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Music, D.; Hallstedt, B. [RWTH Aachen University, Materials Chemistry, Kopernikusstrasse 10, 46 52074 Aachen (Germany); Seifert, H.J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-01-01

    Today most commercially available lithium ion batteries are still based on the toxic and expensive LiCoO{sub 2} as a standard cathode material. However, lithium manganese based cathode materials are cheaper and environmentally friendlier. In this work cubic-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel, monoclinic-Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} and orthorhombic-LiMnO{sub 2} thin films have been synthesized by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering from two ceramic targets (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiMnO{sub 2}) in a pure argon discharge. The deposition parameters, namely target power and working gas pressure, were optimized in a combination with a post deposition heat treatment with respect to microstructure and electrochemical behavior. The chemical composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and carrier gas hot extraction. The films' crystal structure, phase evolution and morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction, micro Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Due to the fact that these thin films consist of the pure active material without any impurities, such as binders or conductive additives like carbon black, they are particularly well suited for measurements of the intrinsic physical properties, which is essential for fundamental understanding. The electrochemical behavior of the cubic and the orthorhombic films was investigated by galvanostatic cycling in half cells against metallic lithium. The cubic spinel films exhibit a maximum specific capacity of ∼ 82 mAh/g, while a specific capacity of nearly 150 mAh/g can be reached for the orthorhombic counterparts. These films are promising candidates for future all solid state battery applications. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of 3 Li–Mn–O structures by one up-scalable thin film deposition method ► Formation of o-LiMnO{sub 2} by r.f. magnetron sputtering in combination with post-annealing ► Discharge capacity with o-LiMnO{sub 2} cathodes twice as high as for c

  8. Development of thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries in the material system Li–Mn–O by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Adelhelm, C.; Bergfeldt, T.; Chang, K.; Ziebert, C.; Leiste, H.; Stüber, M.; Ulrich, S.; Music, D.; Hallstedt, B.; Seifert, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Today most commercially available lithium ion batteries are still based on the toxic and expensive LiCoO 2 as a standard cathode material. However, lithium manganese based cathode materials are cheaper and environmentally friendlier. In this work cubic-LiMn 2 O 4 spinel, monoclinic-Li 2 MnO 3 and orthorhombic-LiMnO 2 thin films have been synthesized by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering from two ceramic targets (LiMn 2 O 4 , LiMnO 2 ) in a pure argon discharge. The deposition parameters, namely target power and working gas pressure, were optimized in a combination with a post deposition heat treatment with respect to microstructure and electrochemical behavior. The chemical composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and carrier gas hot extraction. The films' crystal structure, phase evolution and morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction, micro Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Due to the fact that these thin films consist of the pure active material without any impurities, such as binders or conductive additives like carbon black, they are particularly well suited for measurements of the intrinsic physical properties, which is essential for fundamental understanding. The electrochemical behavior of the cubic and the orthorhombic films was investigated by galvanostatic cycling in half cells against metallic lithium. The cubic spinel films exhibit a maximum specific capacity of ∼ 82 mAh/g, while a specific capacity of nearly 150 mAh/g can be reached for the orthorhombic counterparts. These films are promising candidates for future all solid state battery applications. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of 3 Li–Mn–O structures by one up-scalable thin film deposition method ► Formation of o-LiMnO 2 by r.f. magnetron sputtering in combination with post-annealing ► Discharge capacity with o-LiMnO 2 cathodes twice as high as for c-LiMn 2 O 4 ► Thin film deposition of m-Li 2 MnO 3 and

  9. Dielectric properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Al2O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, S.; Mohan Rao, G.; Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Ganesan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) thin films were sputter deposited over well-cleaned glass and Si substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering under various oxygen gas pressures and sputtering powers. The composition of the films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an optimal O/Al atomic ratio of 1.59 was obtained at a reactive gas pressure of 0.03 Pa and sputtering power of 70 W. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the films were amorphous until 550 °C. The surface morphology of the films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the as-deposited films were found to be smooth. The topography of the as-deposited and annealed films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and a progressive increase in the rms roughness of the films from 3.2 nm to 4.53 nm was also observed with increase in the annealing temperature. Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were then fabricated on glass substrates to study the effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric property of the films. Temperature coefficient of capacitance, AC conductivity and activation energy were determined and the results are discussed. - Highlights: ► Al 2 O 3 thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. ► The films were found to be amorphous up to annealing temperature of 550 C. ► An increase in rms roughness of the films was observed with annealing. ► Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were fabricated and dielectric constant was 7.5. ► The activation energy decreased with increase in frequency.

  10. Morphological analysis of TiB2 thin film prepared by rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wei; Zhang Tongjun; Yang Junyou; Sun Rongxing; Xu Juliang

    2008-01-01

    Superhard TiB 2 thin films were deposited on steel substrates using the radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering technique with a low normalized substrate temperature (0.1 s /T m 2 thin films were overstoichiometric and that the diffusion of Ti and B atoms on the substrate surface was greatly improved at a temperature of 350 deg. C. Moreover, a new dense structure, named the ''equiaxed'' grain structure, was observed by FESEM at this substrate temperature. GIXRD was carried out at different directions with same the grazing-incidence method and the variation of diffraction intensity of the nonrandom textured grains was confirmed. Combined with FESEM and AES analysis, it is suggested that the equiaxed grain structure was located in zone 2 at the normalized substrate temperature as low as 0.18

  11. UV-Enhanced Ethanol Sensing Properties of RF Magnetron-Sputtered ZnO Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinyu; Du, Yu; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Hao; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tian, Xiaoqing

    2017-12-26

    ZnO film was deposited by the magnetron sputtering method. The thickness of ZnO film is approximately 2 μm. The influence of UV light illumination on C₂H₅OH sensing properties of ZnO film was investigated. Gas sensing results revealed that the UV-illuminated ZnO film displays excellent C₂H₅OH characteristics in terms of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, rapid response/recovery, and low detection limit down to 0.1 ppm. The excellent sensing performance of the sensor with UV activation could be attributed to the photocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the ZnO film, the planar film structure with high utilizing efficiency of UV light, high electron mobility, and a good surface/volume ratio of of ZnO film with a relatively rough and porous surface.

  12. RF magnetron-sputtered coatings deposited from biphasic calcium phosphate targets for biomedical implant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Prosolov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from biphasic targets of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, sintered at different mass % ratios. According to Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction data, the deposited hydroxyapatite coatings have a disordered structure. High-temperature treatment of the coatings in air leads to a transformation of the quasi-amorphous structure into a crystalline one. A correlation has been observed between the increase in the Ca content in the coatings and a subsequent decrease in Ca in the biphasic targets after a series of deposition processes. It was proposed that the addition of tricalcium phosphate to the targets would led to a finer coating's surface topography with the average size of 78 nm for the structural elements.

  13. Deposition and characterization of ZrMoN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes Junir, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Oliveira, G.B. de; Fernandez, D.R.; Carvalho, R.G.; Tentardini, E.K.; Silva Junior, A.H. da

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of ZrMoN were deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering technique in order to study the molybdenum influence on the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of these coatings. Three thin films with molybdenum concentrations from 25 to 40 at.% were selected. The displacement of characteristic peaks of ZrN where identified by GIXRD results of films with larger Mo content. This result is indicative of the Mo accommodation in the lattice structure. Hardness tests revealed favorable results with values up to 33 GPa. Oxidation tests showed that ZrN oxidized at 500 °C with a monoclinic ZrO 2 and tetragonal formation; whereas the thin films with Mo addition impeded the formation of the monoclinic ZrO 2 phase at partial oxidation. (author)

  14. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Rafieian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx<2, obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, whereas stoichiometric films formed anatase. This route therefore presents a formation route for rutile films via lower (<500 °C temperature pathways. The dynamics of the annealing process were followed by in situ ellipsometry, showing the optical properties transformation. The final crystal structures were identified by XRD. The anatase film obtained by this deposition method displayed high carriers mobility as measured by time-resolved microwave conductance. This also confirms the high photocatalytic activity of the anatase films.

  15. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, India and Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gupta, V. K. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R. [Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  16. Bioactivity response of Ta_1_-_xO_x coatings deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Alves, C.F.; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants is sometimes accompanied by failure due to periimplantitis disease and subsequently poor esthetics when soft–hard tissue margin recedes. As a consequence, further research is needed for developing new bioactive surfaces able to enhance the osseous growth. Tantalum (Ta) is a promising material for dental implants since, comparing with titanium (Ti), it is bioactive and has an interesting chemistry which promotes the osseointegration. Another promising approach for implantology is the development of implants with oxidized surfaces since bone progenitor cells interact with the oxide layer forming a diffusion zone due to its ability to bind with calcium which promotes a stronger bond. In the present report Ta-based coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto Ti CP substrates in an Ar + O_2 atmosphere. In order to assess the osteoconductive response of the studied materials, contact angle and in vitro tests of the samples immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) were performed. Structural results showed that oxide phases where achieved with larger amounts of oxygen (70 at.% O). More compact and smooth coatings were deposited by increasing the oxygen content. The as-deposited Ta coating presented the most hydrophobic character (100°); with increasing oxygen amount contact angles progressively diminished, down to the lowest measured value, 63°. The higher wettability is also accompanied by an increase on the surface energy. Bioactivity tests demonstrated that highest O-content coating, in good agreement with wettability and surface energy values, showed an increased affinity for apatite adhesion, with higher Ca/P ratio formation, when compared to the bare Ti substrates. - Highlights: • Ta_1_-_xO_x coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. • Amorphous oxide phases were achieved with higher oxygen amounts. • Contact angles progressively diminished, with increasing oxygen content. • Ta oxide surface

  17. Determination of the number density of excited and ground Zn atoms during rf magnetron sputtering of ZnO target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaloul, L.; Gangwar, R. K.; Stafford, L., E-mail: luc.stafford@umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    A combination of optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS) and optical emission spectroscopy measurements was used to monitor the number density of Zn atoms in excited 4s4p ({sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable states as well as in ground 4s{sup 2} ({sup 1}S{sub 0}) state in a 5 mTorr Ar radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering plasma used for the deposition of ZnO-based thin films. OAS measurements revealed an increase by about one order of magnitude of Zn {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable atoms by varying the self-bias voltage on the ZnO target from −115 to −300 V. Over the whole range of experimental conditions investigated, the triplet-to-singlet metastable density ratio was 5 ± 1, which matches the statistical weight ratio of these states in Boltzmann equilibrium. Construction of a Boltzmann plot using all Zn I emission lines in the 200–500 nm revealed a constant excitation temperature of 0.33 ± 0.04 eV. In combination with measured populations of Zn {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable atoms, this temperature was used to extrapolate the absolute number density of ground state Zn atoms. The results were found to be in excellent agreement with those obtained previously by actinometry on Zn atoms using Ar as the actinometer gas [L. Maaloul and L. Stafford, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 31, 061306 (2013)]. This set of data was then correlated to spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of the deposition rate of Zn atoms on a Si substrate positioned at 12 cm away from the ZnO target. The deposition rate scaled linearly with the number density of Zn atoms. In sharp contrast with previous studies on RF magnetron sputtering of Cu targets, these findings indicate that metastable atoms play a negligible role on the plasma deposition dynamics of Zn-based coatings.

  18. Reactive magnetron sputtering deposition of bismuth tungstate onto titania nanoparticles for enhancing visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T. [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Tosheva, Lubomira; Edge, Michele [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Bismuth tungstate coatings were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • Oscillating bowl was introduced to the system to enable coating of nanopartulates. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} enhanced visible light activity of titania nanoparticles. • The best results were obtained for coating with Bi:W ratio of approximately 2:1. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} onto TiO{sub 2} resulted in more efficient electron-hole separation. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide − bismuth tungstate composite materials were prepared by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering of bismuth and tungsten metallic targets in argon/oxygen atmosphere onto anatase and rutile titania nanoparticles. The use of an oscillating bowl placed beneath the two magnetrons arranged in a co-planar closed field configuration enabled the deposition of bismuth tungstate onto loose powders, rather than a solid substrate. The atomic ratio of the bismuth/tungsten coatings was controlled by varying the power applied to each target. The effect of the bismuth tungstate coatings on the phase, optical and photocatalytic properties of titania was investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an acetone degradation test. The latter involved measurements of the rate of CO{sub 2} evolution under visible light irradiation of the photocatalysts, which indicated that the deposition of bismuth tungstate resulted in a significant enhancement of visible light activity, for both anatase and rutile titania particles. The best results were achieved for coatings with a bismuth to tungsten atomic ratio of 2:1. In addition, the mechanism by which the photocatalytic activity of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was enhanced by compounding it with bismuth tungstate was studied by microwave cavity perturbation. The results of these

  19. Composition and optical properties tunability of hydrogenated silicon carbonitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, A.; Bousquet, A.; Mehdi, H.; Monier, G.; Robert-Goumet, C.; Thomas, L.; Belmahi, M.; Goullet, A.; Sauvage, T.; Tomasella, E.

    2018-06-01

    Radiofrequency reactive magnetron sputtering was used to deposit hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbonitride (a-SiCxNy:H) at 400 °C by sputtering a silicon target under CH4 and N2 reactive gas mixture. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry revealed that the change of reactive gases flow rate (the ratio R = FN2/(FN2+FCH4)) induced a smooth chemical composition tunability from a silicon carbide-like film for R = 0 to a silicon nitride-like one at R = 1 with a large area of silicon carbonitrides between the two regions. The deconvolution of Fourier Transform InfraRed and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum highlighted a shift of the chemical environment of the deposited films corresponding to the changes seen by RBS. The consequence of these observations is that a control of refractive index in the range of [1.9-2.5] at λ = 633 nm and optical bandgap in the range [2 eV-3.8 eV] have been obtained which induces that these coatings can be used as antireflective coatings in silicon photovoltaic cells.

  20. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF InN PARTICLES OBTAINED BY RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bernal Correa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available InN layers were prepared by magnetron sputtering, in a mixed atmosphere of argon and nitrogen on Si substrates (100, Si (111, and glass. The substrate temperature Ts was varied (300-500 oC in order to correlate it with the optical, structural, and morphological properties of the layers. X-ray results have revealed a presence of hexagonal InN type wurtzite in each of the layers in addition to oxides of indium (InxOy attributed to different factors. Dependence was evident on the crystalline quality of each layer according to Ts. The optical absorption coefficient and the band gap were determined from the absorbance and transmittance spectra obtained by UV/Vis. Vibration modes associated with the semiconductor InN and InxOy were identified by Raman microscopy. The morphology of the layers and the grain size was analyzed from SEM micrographs where it was determined the formation of particulates  ~ 0.5 mm and ~ 50 nm of different geometries.

  1. ZnO:Al thin films deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering with tunable and uniform properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miorin, E; Montagner, F; Battiston, S; Fiameni, S; Fabrizio, M

    2011-03-01

    Nanostructured, high quality and large area Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films were obtained by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The sample rotation during deposition has resulted in excellent spatial distribution of thickness and electro-optical properties compared to that obtained under static conditions. ZnO:Al thin films are employed in a large number of devices, including thin film solar cells, where the uniformity of the properties is a key factor for a possible up-scaling of the research results to industrially relevant substrate sizes. A chemical post etching treatment was employed achieving tunable surface nanotextures to generate light scattering at the desired wavelength for improved cell efficiency. Since the film resistivity is only slightly increased by the etching, this post-deposition step allows separating the optimization of electro-optical properties from light scattering behavior. The thin films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, UV-VIS spectroscopy, four probe and van der Paw techniques.

  2. Growth of epitaxial Pt thin films on (0 0 1) SrTiO{sub 3} by rf magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahsay, A. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Polo, M.C., E-mail: mcpolo@ub.edu [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ferrater, C.; Ventura, J. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rebled, J.M. [Departament d’Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia IN 2UB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Varela, M. [Departament de Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The growth of platinum thin film by rf magnetron sputtering on SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrates for oxide based devices was investigated. Platinum films grown at temperatures higher than 750 °C were epitaxial ([1 0 0]Pt(0 0 1)//[1 0 0]STO(0 0 1)), whereas at lower temperatures Pt(1 1 1) films were obtained. The surface morphology of the Pt films showed a strong dependence on the deposition temperature as was revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). At elevated temperatures there is a three-dimensional (3D) growth of rectangular atomically flat islands with deep boundaries between them. On the other hand, at low deposition temperatures, a two-dimensional (2D) layered growth was observed. The transition from 2D to 3D growth modes was observed that occurs for temperatures around 450 °C. The obtained epitaxial thin films also formed an atomically sharp interface with the SrTiO{sub 3}(0 0 1) substrate as confirmed by HRTEM.

  3. Characterization of high quality Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchama, Idris [Departement d' Electronique, Faculte de Technologie, Universite de Msila (Algeria); Djessas, Kamal [Laboratoire Procedes Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES-CNRS, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, Technosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Bouloufa, Abdeslam [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et Materiaux, Universite Ferhat Abbas de Setif (Algeria); Gauffier, Jean-Luc [Departement de Physique, INSA de Toulouse, 135, Avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-01-15

    This paper reports the production of high quality polycrystalline thin layers of CuIn{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}Se{sub 2} (CIGS), using rf-magnetron sputtering, from a powder target. These films are designed to be used as absorbers in solar cells. The depositions were carried out at substrate temperatures below 250 C and glass substrates was used. The influence of the substrate temperatures on the crystalline quality as well as structural, optical and electrical properties of thin layers obtained has been studied. X-ray diffraction showed that the films were highly orientated in the (112) and/or (204)/(220) direction. In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} secondary phase was observed on the samples grown at lower substrate temperatures. The surface morphology of CIGS layers studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) has been also discussed. The most surprising and exciting outcome of this study was that the as grown films were of near stoichiometric composition. Resistivity measurements were carried out using the four point probe method. The optical absorption showed that energy gap values are between 1.13 and 1.18 eV and rather sharp absorption fronts. Thin film resistivities are between 10.7 and 60.9 {Omega}.cm depending on the experimental growth conditions (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Influence of oxygen flow rate on metal-insulator transition of vanadium oxide thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xu; Liu, Xinkun; Li, Haizhu; Huang, Mingju [Henan University, Key Lab of Informational Opto-Electronical Materials and Apparatus, School of Physics and Electronics, Kaifeng (China); Zhang, Angran [South China Normal University, Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-03-15

    High-quality vanadium oxide (VO{sub 2}) films have been fabricated on Si (111) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering deposition method. The sheet resistance of VO{sub 2} has a significant change (close to 5 orders of magnitude) in the process of the metal-insulator phase transition (MIT). The field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) results show the grain size of VO{sub 2} thin films is larger with the increase of oxygen flow. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate the thin films fabricated at different oxygen flow rates grow along the (011) crystalline orientation. As the oxygen flow rate increases from 3 sccm to 6 sccm, the phase transition temperature of the films reduces from 341 to 320 K, the width of the thermal hysteresis loop decreases from 32 to 9 K. The thin films fabricated in the condition of 5 sccm have a high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) -3.455%/K with a small resistivity of 2.795 ρ/Ω cm. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of the nanomechanical properties of vanadium and native oxide vanadium thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, M.A.; Zhang, K.; Baumgart, H.; Elmustafa, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • V films of 50, 75, 100 nm thickness were deposited on Si by RF magnetron sputtering. • We studied structural/mechanical properties by XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, and nanoindentation. • The hardness increased from 9.0 to 14.0 GPa for 100 to 50 nm. • The modulus showed no correlation with thickness or native oxide formation. • Native oxide formation resulted in grain enlargement and roughness reduction. - Abstract: Polycrystalline vanadium thin films of 50, 75, and 100 nm thickness were deposited by magnetron sputtering of a vanadium metal target of 2 inch diameter with 99.9% purity on native oxide covered Si substrates. One set of the fabricated samples were kept in moisture free environment and the other set was exposed to ambient air at room temperature for a long period of time that resulted in formation of native oxide prior to testing. The crystal structure and phase purity of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results yield a preferential (1 1 0), and (2 0 0) orientation of the polycrystalline V films and (0 0 4) vanadium oxide (V 3 O 7 ). The vanadium films thickness were verified using field emission scanning electron microscopy and the films surface morphologies were inspected using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images reveal surface roughness was observed to increase with increasing film thickness and also subsequent to oxidation at room temperature. The nanomechanical properties were measured by nanoindentation to evaluate the modulus and hardness of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium thin films. The elastic modulus of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium films was estimated as 150 GPa at 30% film thickness and the elastic modulus of the bulk vanadium target is estimated as 135 GPa. The measured hardness of the vanadium films at 30% film thickness varies between 9 and 14 GPa for the 100 and 50 nm films, respectively, exhibiting size effects

  6. Residual stress and texture in Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide layers deposited by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azanza Ricardo, C.L., E-mail: Cristy.Azanza@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Pastorelli, M.; D' Incau, M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Aswath, P. [College of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, TX (United States); Scardi, P. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy)

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide thin films were deposited on standard soda-lime substrates by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Residual stress and texture were studied by X-ray diffraction, while X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy provided information on the Al environment in the best performing thin films. The influence of deposition parameters on structural and microstructural properties is discussed. A correlation between microstructure and residual stress state with electrical and optical properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Al doped ZnO thin films were obtained by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Correlation of stresses and texture with electrical and optical properties is shown. • Homogeneous and stress-free thin-films are the best performing ones. • XANES confirmed the doping mechanism and excluded some spurious phases.

  7. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, T.J.; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx), obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, ...

  8. Optical emission and mass spectroscopy of plasma processes in reactive DC pulsed magnetron sputtering of aluminium oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Pokorný, Petr; Bočan, Jiří; Fitl, Přemysl; Lančok, Ján; Musil, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), 697-700 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100718; GA AV ČR KAN400100653; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : reactive magnetron sputtering * alumina * plasma spectroscopy * mass spectroscopy * optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010

  9. Structural and dielectric studies of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural, dielectric and leakage current properties of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films deposited on platinized silicon (Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The role of oxygen mixing percentage (OMP on the growth, morphology, electrical and dielectric properties of the thin films has been investigated. A preferred orientation of grains along (110 direction has been observed with increasing the OMP. Such evolution of the textured growth is explained on the basis of the orientation factor analysis followed the Lotgering model. (Mg1-xCoxTiO3 (x = 0.05 thin films exhibits a maximum relative dielectric permittivity of ɛr = 12.20 and low loss (tan δ ∼ 1.2 × 10−3 over a wide range of frequencies for 75% OMP. The role of electric field frequency (f and OMP on the ac-conductivity of (Mg0.95Co0.05TiO3 have been studied. A progressive increase in the activation energy (Ea and relative permittivity ɛr values have been noticed up to 75% of OMP, beyond which the properties starts deteriorate. The I-V characteristics reveals that the leakage current density decreases from 9.93 × 10−9 to 1.14 × 10−9 A/cm2 for OMP 0% to 75%, respectively for an electric field strength of 250 kV/cm. Our experimental results reveal up to that OMP ≥ 50% the leakage current mechanism is driven by the ohmic conduction, below which it is dominated by the schottky emission.

  10. Titanium dioxide fine structures by RF magnetron sputter method deposited on an electron-beam resist mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Hideomi; Miyazaki, Yuta; Matsushita, Sachiko

    2013-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been draw attention for wide range of applications from photonic crystals for visible light range by its catalytic characteristics to tera-hertz range by its high refractive index. We present an experimental study of fabrication of fine structures of TiO2 with a ZEP electron beam resist mask followed by Ti sputter deposition techniques. A TiO2 thin layer of 150 nm thick was grown on an FTO glass substrate with a fine patterned ZEP resist mask by a conventional RF magnetron sputter method with Ti target. The deposition was carried out with argon-oxygen gases at a pressure of 5.0 x 10 -1 Pa in a chamber. During the deposition, ratio of Ar-O2 gas was kept to the ratio of 2:1 and the deposition ratio was around 0.5 Å/s to ensure enough oxygen to form TiO2 and low temperature to avoid deformation of fine pattern of the ZPU resist mask. Deposited TiO2 layers are white-transparent, amorphous, and those roughnesses are around 7 nm. Fabricated TiO2 PCs have wider TiO2 slabs of 112 nm width leaving periodic 410 x 410 nm2 air gaps. We also studied transformation of TiO2 layers and TiO2 fine structures by baking at 500 °C. XRD measurement for TiO2 shows that the amorphous TiO2 transforms to rutile and anatase forms by the baking while keeping the same profile of the fine structures. Our fabrication method can be one of a promising technique to optic devices on researches and industrial area.

  11. Optimal conditions for the deposition of novel anticorrosive coatings by RF magnetron sputtering for aluminum alloy AA6082

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachetti-Sibaja, S.B.; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Rodil, S.E.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-conventional technique for improving the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys. • Effect of the deposition parameters: power, substrate temperature and deposition time. • Changes in the crystallinity of the coatings are observed with the temperature. • The structure of these coatings is found to be dependent on the nature of the substrate. • La coatings can provide a better physical barrier to inhibit the corrosion attack. - Abstract: Cerium and lanthanum coatings were deposited on glass, silicon (1 0 0), and aluminum alloy by RF magnetron sputtering in which several experimental conditions such as power, substrate temperature, and deposition time were varied, using pure CeO 2 and La 2 O 3 targets. The effect of deposition parameters on the bonding structure, surface morphology and properties against corrosion of rare earth (RE) coatings formed on metallic substrate was reported. The microstructure and chemistry of the thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); whereas their use as corrosion resistant coatings was studied in aqueous NaCl solution (3.0 wt%) by using polarization curves. Variations in these properties were observed by increasing the substrate temperature which modifies the crystallinity of the rare earth coatings. XRD and XPS findings indicate that the cerium coatings are composed by CeO 2 and a significant quantity of Ce 2 O 3 due to oxygen deficiency in the sputtering chamber, whereas La 2 O 3 /La(OH) 3 and some La intermetallic compounds are detected in the lanthanum films. Variations in the E corr and I corr were found as a function of the thickness, texture, and morphology of the as-prepared coatings

  12. Combinatorial study of WInZnO films deposited by rf magnetron co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Park, Jae-Cheol; Lee, Young-Jun; Cha, Sang-Jun; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Kwang-Young; Kim, Tae-Won; Heo, Gi-Seok

    2011-01-01

    The compositional dependence of co-sputtered tungsten indium zinc oxide (WInZnO) film properties was first investigated by means of a combinatorial technique. Indium zinc oxide (IZO) and WO 3 targets were used with different target power. W composition ratio [W/(In+Zn+W)] was varied between 3 and 30 at% and film thickness was reduced as the sample position moved toward WO 3 target. Furthermore, the optical bandgap energy increased gradually, which might be affected by the reduction in film thickness. All the WInZnO films showed an amorphous phase regardless of the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio. As the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio in WInZnO films increased, the carrier concentration was restricted, causing the increase in electrical resistivity. W cations worked as oxygen binders in determining the electronic properties, resulting in suppressing the formation of oxygen vacancies. Consequentially, W metal cations were effectively incorporated into the WInZnO films as a suppressor against the oxygen vacancies and the carrier generation by employing the combinatorial technique. - Graphical abstract: The film thickness and the sheet resistance (R s ) with respect to the sample position of WInZnO films, which is compositionally graded by rf power for each target, are exhibited. Highlights: → The compositional dependence of co-sputtered WInZnO film properties is first investigated. → W cations work as oxygen binders in determining the electronic properties. → All the WInZnO films show an amorphous phase regardless of the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio. → W metal cations are effectively incorporated into the WInZnO films by the combinatorial technique.

  13. CrN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering for symmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin

    2016-12-29

    Supercapacitors have been becoming indispensable energy storage devices in micro-electromechanical systems and have been widely studied over the past few decades. Transition metal nitrides with excellent electrical conductivity and superior cycling stability are promising candidates as supercapacitor electrode materials. In this work, we report the fabrication of CrN thin films using reactive DC magnetron sputtering and further their applications for symmetric supercapacitors for the first time. The CrN thin film electrodes fabricated under the deposition pressure of 3.5 Pa show an areal specific capacitance of 12.8 mF cm at 1.0 mA cm and high cycling stability with 92.1% capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles in a 0.5 M HSO electrolyte. Furthermore, our developed CrN//CrN symmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy density of 8.2 mW h cm at the power density of 0.7 W cm along with outstanding cycling stability. Thus, the CrN thin films have great potential for application in supercapacitors and other energy storage systems.

  14. Electrical and optical properties of reactive DC magnetron sputtered silver oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Barik, Ullash; Srinivasan, S; Nagendra, C L; Subrahmanyam, A

    2003-04-01

    Silver oxide thin films have been prepared on soda lime glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC Magnetron sputtering technique using pure silver metal target; the oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-2.01 sccm. The X-ray diffraction data on these films show a systematic change from metallic silver to silver (sub) oxides. The electrical resistivity increases with increasing oxygen flow. The films show a p-type behavior (by both Hall and Seebeck measurements) for the oxygen flow rates of 0.54, 1.09 and 1.43 sccm. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) decreases with increasing oxygen content and is in the range 1.167-1.145, whereas the p-type films show a higher refractive index (1.186-1.204). The work function of these silver oxide films has been measured by Kelvin Probe technique. The results, in specific, the p-type conductivity in the silver oxide films, have been explained on the basis of the theory of partial ionic charge proposed by Sanderson.

  15. Electrical and optical properties of reactive DC magnetron sputtered silver oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Barik, Ullash; Srinivasan, S.; Nagendra, C.L.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2003-01-01

    Silver oxide thin films have been prepared on soda lime glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC Magnetron sputtering technique using pure silver metal target; the oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-2.01 sccm. The X-ray diffraction data on these films show a systematic change from metallic silver to silver (sub) oxides. The electrical resistivity increases with increasing oxygen flow. The films show a p-type behavior (by both Hall and Seebeck measurements) for the oxygen flow rates of 0.54, 1.09 and 1.43 sccm. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) decreases with increasing oxygen content and is in the range 1.167-1.145, whereas the p-type films show a higher refractive index (1.186-1.204). The work function of these silver oxide films has been measured by Kelvin Probe technique. The results, in specific, the p-type conductivity in the silver oxide films, have been explained on the basis of the theory of partial ionic charge proposed by Sanderson

  16. Aluminum oxide films deposited in low pressure conditions by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, T

    2002-01-01

    The reactive pulsed dc sputtering technique is widely used for the deposition of oxide films. The operating pressure for sputtering is commonly above 0.13 Pa. In this study, however, aluminum oxide (alumina) films were deposited at operating pressures from 0.06 to 0.4 Pa using a sputtering system equipped with a scanning magnetron cathode and a pulsed dc power supply. The pulsed dc power was found to be useful not only to reduce arcing, but also to sustain the discharge at low pressure. The electrical breakdown field, intrinsic stress, O/Al ratio, refractive index, and surface roughness were investigated. Both a low intrinsic stress and an O/Al ratio around the stoichiometry were required to get the film having a high breakdown field. A low operating pressure of 0.1 Pa was found to provide the necessary stress and O/Al ratio targets. A 50-nm-thick alumina film having a maximum breakdown field of 7.4 MV/cm was obtained.

  17. Chemical environment of iron atoms in iron oxynitride films synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafoute, M.; Petitjean, C.; Rousselot, C.; Pierson, J.F.; Greneche, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    An iron oxynitride film was deposited on silicon and glass substrates by magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N 2 -O 2 reactive mixture. Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry was used to determine the film composition (Fe 1.06 O 0.35 N 0.65 ). X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of a face-centred cubic (fcc) structure with a lattice parameter close to that of γ'''-FeN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the occurrence of Fe-N and Fe-O bonds in the film. The local environment of iron atoms studied by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectrometry at both 300 and 77 K gives clear evidence that the Fe 1.06 O 0.35 N 0.65 is not a mixture of iron oxide and iron nitride phases. Despite a small amount of an iron nitride phase, the main sample consists of an iron oxynitride phase with an NaCl-type structure where oxygen atoms partially substitute for nitrogen atoms, thus indicating the formation of a iron oxynitride with an fcc structure

  18. Thermal stability of tungsten sub-nitride thin film prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Wu, Y.Z., E-mail: youzhiwu@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Mu, B. [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Qiao, L. [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Li, W.X.; Li, J.J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, P., E-mail: pengwang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Tungsten sub-nitride thin films deposited on silicon samples by reactive magnetron sputtering were used as a model system to study the phase stability and microstructural evolution during thermal treatments. XRD, SEM&FIB, XPS, RBS and TDS were applied to investigate the stability of tungsten nitride films after heating up to 1473 K in vacuum. At the given experimental parameters a 920 nm thick crystalline film with a tungsten and nitrogen stoichiometry of 2:1 were achieved. The results showed that no phase and microstructure change occurred due to W{sub 2}N film annealing in vacuum up to 973 K. Heating up to 1073 K led to a partial decomposition of the W{sub 2}N phase and the formation of a W enrichment layer at the surface. Increasing the annealing time at the same temperature, the further decomposition of the W{sub 2}N phase was negligible. The complete decomposition of W{sub 2}N film happened as the temperature reached up to 1473 K.

  19. Deposition and characterization of NbAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, R.G.; Felix, L.C.; Fernandez, D.A.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Oliveira, G.B.; Tentardini, E.K.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study NbAlN thin films and the influence of variation in the concentration of aluminum in the crystal structure and oxidation resistance of these coatings. The thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and oxidation tests at high temperatures. NbAlN thin films were deposited and present at concentration of 10, 20 and 42 at% Al. The NbAlN crystalline phase obtained was the δ-NbN, however it was observed a shift of the peaks in the patterns obtained GIXRD of regions for larger angles for these samples, indicating the formation of a solid solution. The higher oxidation resistance temperature was 700° C for the sample with 42 in at% Al. From the SEM analysis it was possible to observe the surface of the film after oxidation, all films showed defects, however the amount of such defects was lower in samples with higher aluminum concentrations. (author)

  20. Deposition and characterization of IrOx nanofoils on carbon nanotube templates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Min; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Tiong, Kwong-Kau

    2012-01-01

    Large surface area IrO x nanofoils (IrO x NF) were deposited on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) templates, forming IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites, by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering using Ir metal target. The structural and spectroscopic properties of IrO x NF were characterized. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of foil-like structure for the as-deposited samples. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the contiguous presence of glassy iridium oxide, iridium metal, and iridium dioxide nanocrystals in the foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis provided the information of the oxidation states and the stoichiometry of IrO x NF. Raman spectra revealed the amorphous-like phase of the as-deposited IrO x NF. The nanofoil structure provided ultra-high surface area for electrical charge storage which made the IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites as an attractive candidate for the supercapacitor applications.

  1. Adhesion analysis for chromium nitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, F. M.; Merie, V. V.; Pintea, I. M.; Molea, A.

    2016-08-01

    The thin film industry is continuously growing due to the wide range of applications that require the fabrication of advanced components such as sensors, biological implants, micro-electromechanical devices, optical coatings and so on. The selection regarding the deposition materials, as well as the deposition technology influences the properties of the material and determines the suitability of devices for certain real-world applications. This paper is focused on the adhesion force for several chromium nitride thin films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering. All chromium nitride thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, the discharge current and the argon flow being kept constant. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the influence of deposition parameters on the adhesion force. Therefore some of the deposition parameters were varied in order to study their effect on the adhesion force. Experimentally, the values of the adhesion force were determined in multiple points for each sample using the spectroscopy in point mode of the atomic force microscope. The obtained values were used to estimate the surface energy of the CrN thin films based on two existing mathematical models for the adhesion force when considering the contact between two bodies.

  2. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh, E-mail: rajphyind@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam - 530 045, A.P. (India); Rao, T. Subba, E-mail: thotasubbarao6@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapuramu - 515 003, A.P. (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  3. Structural and mechanical properties of ZrSiN thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, F.G.R.; Conceicao, A.G.S.; Vitoria, E.R.; Carvalho, R.G.; Tentardini, E.K.; Hübler, R.; Soares, G.

    2014-01-01

    Zirconium silicon nitride (ZrSiN) thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in order to verify the silicon influence on coating morphology and mechanical properties. The Si/(Zr+Si) ratio was adjusted between 0 to 14.5% just modifying the power applied on the silicon target. Only peaks associated to ZrN crystalline structure were observed in XRD analysis, since Si_3N_4 phase was amorphous. All samples have (111) preferred orientation, but there is a peak intensity reduction and a broadening increase for the sample with the highest Si/(Zr+Si) ratio (14.5%), demonstrating a considerable loss of crystallinity or grain size reduction (about 8 nm calculated by Scherrer). It was also observed that the texture coefficient for (200) increases with silicon addition. Chemical composition and thickness of the coatings were determined by RBS analysis. No significant changes in nano hardness with increasing Si content were found. The thin film morphology observed by SEM presents columnar and non columnar characteristics. The set of results suggests that Si addition is restricting the columnar growth of ZrN thin films. This conclusion is justified by the fact that Si contributes to increase the ZrN grains nucleation during the sputtering process. (author)

  4. Mass spectrometric characterizations of ions generated in RF magnetron discharges during sputtering of silver in Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, D.; Novotný, Michal; Musil, Jindřich; Fitl, Přemysl; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2013), s. 593-602 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101271 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : double charge ions * mass spectrometry * noble gas * RF magnetron discharges * silver * single charge ions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.964, year: 2013

  5. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hänninen, Tuomas, E-mail: tuoha@ifm.liu.se; Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  6. High-speed deposition of protective films of aluminium oxide by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, S.P.; Zakhrov, A.N.; Ladyzhenskii, O.P.; Sochugov, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The high optical characteristics of aluminium films made them attractive for different functional and decorative applications. It is well-known that the corrosion resistance of alloying is determined by the presence of the oxide film on its surface, but on the aluminium films, deposited by vacuum methods, the resistance is extremely low resulting in the relatively rapid failure of the coating. At present, there is a large number of methods of depositing the films of aluminium oxide. In most cases, it is recommended to use reactive magnetron sputtering of an aluminium target in a magnetron spraying system (MSS) using direct current, on dispersion of the target of aluminium oxide in a high-frequency MSS

  7. Microstructure and tribological properties of NbN-Ag composite films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hongbo; Xu, Junhua, E-mail: jhxu@just.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • NbN-Ag films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • The fcc-NbN, hcp-NbN and fcc-Ag coexisted in NbN-Ag films. • The incorporation of Ag into NbN matrix led to the decrease of hardness. • The films (9.2–13.5 at.% Ag) were found to be optimized for wear resistance tools. - Abstract: Recently, the chameleon thin films were developed with the purpose of adjusting their chemistry at self-mating interfaces in response to environmental changes at a wide temperature range. However, very few studies have focused on what state the lubricious noble metal exists in the films and the tribological properties at room temperature (RT). Composite NbN-Ag films with various Ag content (Ag/(Nb + Ag)) were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering to investigate the crystal structure, mechanical and tribological properties. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses showed that face-centered cubic (fcc) NbN, hexagonal close-packed (hcp) NbN and fcc silver coexisted in NbN-Ag films. The incorporation of soft Ag into NbN matrix led to the hardness decrease from 29.6 GPa at 0 at.% Ag to 11.3 GPa at 19.9 at.% Ag. Tribological properties of NbN-Ag films performed using dry pin-on-disc wear tests against Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} depended on Ag content to a large extent. The average friction coefficient and wear rate of NbN-Ag films decreased as Ag content increased from 4.0 to 9.2 at.%. With a further increase of Ag content, the average friction coefficient further decreased, while the wear rate increased gradually. The optimal Ag content was found to be 9.2–13.5 at.%, which showed low average friction coefficient values of 0.46–0.40 and wear rate values of 1.1 × 10{sup −8} to 1.7 × 10{sup −8} mm{sup 3}/(mm N). 3D Profiler and Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the lubricant tribo-film AgNbO{sub 3} detected on the surface of the

  8. Quantitative characterization of silicon- and aluminium oxynitride films produced by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreer, S.

    2000-05-01

    The deposition of aluminum and silicon oxynitride films by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering was systematically planned by design of experiments, carried out and evaluated with the application of specialized statistics software. The influence of the deposition parameters on the resulting films was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. With the obtained data a model of the deposition process for the quantitative prediction of the deposition parameters necessary to obtain films with desired composition was built. This is also of technological importance, since the physical properties of the films strongly depend on their composition. Furthermore, the long term repeatability of the deposition process was implemented into the model. A precise and economic way for quantitative bulk analysis of silicon/aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen based on EPMA was presented and the use of data gained by the latter method is discussed for the calculation of relative sensitivity factors for SIMS and hf-SNMS. Advantages and disadvantages of SIMS, hf-SNMS, hf-GD-OES, and sputter AES were compared. The combination FT-IR/EPMA/SIMS at present offers the best possibility for a quantitative bulk and in depth distribution analysis of such films in the range of 20 to 1000 nm thickness. The films were also characterized by XRD and PAA. The refractive index and the growth rate of the films were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. With indentation by a nano hardness tester the hardness and the Young's modulus of the films were obtained. The results of these measurements were evaluated by statistical software. The dependencies of the physical properties on the deposition parameters and on the film thickness were evaluated and quantified. Furthermore, the dependencies of the physical properties on the film composition represented by the oxygen content were evaluated. (author)

  9. Preparation of transparent Cu{sub 2}Y{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Te-Wei, E-mail: tewei@ntut.edu.tw; Chang, Chih-Hao; Yang, Li-Wei; Wang, Yung-Po

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}Y{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. • Cu{sub 2}Y{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films have high transmittance and antibacterial properties. • Mechanical properties of Cu{sub 2}Y{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were investigated. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}Y{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films were deposited on non-alkali glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Its crystal structure, microstructure, optical property, mechanical property, and antibacterial activity were investigated by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, transmittance spectra, nanoindenter, and antibiotics test, respectively. A single-phase of Cu{sub 2}Y{sub 2}O{sub 5} was obtained while annealing at 700 °C in air and its optical transparency was >80% in the visible region. The hardness and elastic modulus of the film were 6.7 GPa and 82 GPa, respectively. Antibiotics testing result revealed that Cu{sub 2}Y{sub 2}O{sub 5} surface had a superior antibacterial performance even at a dark environment. Therefore, Cu{sub 2}Y{sub 2}O{sub 5} is a promising novel transparent antibacterial hard coating material.

  10. Growth of polycrystalline Pr_2NiO_4_+_δ coating on alumina substrate by RF magnetron co-sputtering from composite targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediri, A.; Zaghrioui, M.; Barichard, A.; Autret, C.; Negulescu, B.; Del Campo, L.; Echegut, P.; Laffez, P.

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline Pr_2NiO_4_+_δ coatings have been deposited on alumina substrates at room temperature by RF magnetron co-sputtering from Pr and Ni metallic composite target. The mixed target's area and the sputtering conditions were optimized to reach an atomic ratio Pr/Ni of 2. A subsequent annealing, at 1050–1100 °C, allowed obtaining Pr_2NiO_4_+_δ phase after in situ high temperature x-ray diffraction study performed on as-deposited film. Microstructural analyses (SEM and AFM) revealed dense and rough microstructure. Normal spectral emittance measurements performed at 794 °C in the spectral range 400–5000 cm"-"1 showed an emissivity of ε ≈ 0.8. - Highlights: • Pr_2NiO_4_+_δ coatings deposited by RF magnetron co-sputtering • Crystallization kinetic studied by X-ray diffraction versus temperature • SEM and AFM observations showed dense and rough microstructure • Normal spectral emittance reaches to ε = 0.8 at 794 °C in the opaque zone.

  11. Growth of polycrystalline Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} coating on alumina substrate by RF magnetron co-sputtering from composite targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sediri, A., E-mail: amal.sediri@univ-tours.fr [Université François-Rabelais de Tours, GREMAN UMR 7347 CNRS, IUT de Blois 15 rue de la chocolaterie CS 2903, 41029 Blois Cedex (France); Zaghrioui, M.; Barichard, A.; Autret, C.; Negulescu, B. [Université François-Rabelais de Tours, GREMAN UMR 7347 CNRS, IUT de Blois 15 rue de la chocolaterie CS 2903, 41029 Blois Cedex (France); Del Campo, L.; Echegut, P. [CNRS, UPR 3079 CEMHTI, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Laffez, P. [Université François-Rabelais de Tours, GREMAN UMR 7347 CNRS, IUT de Blois 15 rue de la chocolaterie CS 2903, 41029 Blois Cedex (France)

    2016-02-01

    Polycrystalline Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} coatings have been deposited on alumina substrates at room temperature by RF magnetron co-sputtering from Pr and Ni metallic composite target. The mixed target's area and the sputtering conditions were optimized to reach an atomic ratio Pr/Ni of 2. A subsequent annealing, at 1050–1100 °C, allowed obtaining Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} phase after in situ high temperature x-ray diffraction study performed on as-deposited film. Microstructural analyses (SEM and AFM) revealed dense and rough microstructure. Normal spectral emittance measurements performed at 794 °C in the spectral range 400–5000 cm{sup -1} showed an emissivity of ε ≈ 0.8. - Highlights: • Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} coatings deposited by RF magnetron co-sputtering • Crystallization kinetic studied by X-ray diffraction versus temperature • SEM and AFM observations showed dense and rough microstructure • Normal spectral emittance reaches to ε = 0.8 at 794 °C in the opaque zone.

  12. Structural and electrical properties of sputtering power and gas pressure on Ti-dope In2O3 transparent conductive films by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoumead, Accarat; Joo, Bong-Hyun; Kwak, Dong-Joo; Sung, Youl-Moon

    2013-06-01

    Transparent conductive titanium-doped indium oxide (ITiO) films were deposited on Corning glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method. The effects of RF sputtering power and Ar gas pressure on the structural and electrical properties of the films were investigated experimentally, using a 2.5 wt% TiO2-doped In2O3 target. The deposition rate was in the range of around 20-60 nm/min under the experimental conditions of 5-20 mTorr of gas pressure and 220-350 W of RF power. The lowest resistivity of 1.2 × 10-4 Ω cm, the average optical transmittance of 75%, the high hall mobility of 47.03 cm2/V s and the relatively low carrier concentration of 1.15E+21 cm-3 were obtained for the ITiO film, prepared at RF power of 300 W and Ar gas pressure of 15 mTorr. This resistivity of 1.2 × 10-4 Ω cm is low enough as a transparent conducting layer in various electro-optical devices and it is comparable with that of ITO or ZnO:Al conducting layer.

  13. In Situ and Ex Situ Studies of Molybdenum Thin Films Deposited by rf and dc Magnetron Sputtering as a Back Contact for CIGS Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aryal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum thin films were deposited by rf and dc magnetron sputtering and their properties analyzed with regards to their potential application as a back contact for CIGS solar cells. It is shown that both types of films tend to transition from tensile to compressive strain when the deposition pressure increases, while the conductivity and the grain size decreas. The nucleation of the films characterized by in situ and real time spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that both films follow a Volmer-Weber growth, with a higher surface roughness and lower deposition rate for the rf deposited films. The electronic relaxation time was then extracted as a function of bulk layer thickness for rf and dc films by fitting each dielectric function to a Drude free-electron model combined with a broad Lorentz oscillator. The values were fitted to a conical growth mode and demonstrated that the rf-deposited films have already smaller grains than the dc films when the bulk layer thickness is 30 nm.

  14. Comparison study of V-doped ZnO thin films on polycarbonate and quartz substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tomoya, E-mail: tomoya@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Chiba, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Tomoyuki; Washio, Katsuyoshi

    2016-04-30

    Vanadium (V) doped ZnO (VZO) thin films were deposited on flexible polymer and quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and influences of deposition parameters of V concentration, RF power and growth temperature on resistivity, transmittance and crystallinity were investigated. For the polymer substrates, both a high heat-resistant polycarbonate (PC) film and a functional-layer-coated PC film were adopted. The resistivity decreased gradually but the transmittance was worsened with increasing V concentration. Low RF power and high growth temperature improved both transparency and conductivity. By over-coating of the functional layers, c-axis orientation was deteriorated while low-resistivity and high-transmittance characteristics were achieved. Resistivity and average visible-transmittance (wavelength = 450–800 nm) of VZO films on untreated PC and over-coated PC substrates were 0.98 mΩ cm and 83.7%, and 1.2 mΩ cm and 80.3%, respectively, at V concentration of 2 at.%, RF power of 100 W and growth temperature of 175 °C. VZO films on the polymer substrates had slightly high resistivity but nearly the same optical transmittance, compared to those on quartz, under the identical deposition parameters. These results indicate that good electrical and optical properties can be achieved for the VZO films on PC substrate. - Highlights: • V-doped ZnO (VZO) was deposited on polymer substrate. • Effects of V concentration, RF power and growth temperature were investigated. • Resistivity decreased gradually with increasing V concentration. • Low RF power was suitable to obtain low resistivity and high transmittance. • High growth temperature improved both transparency and conductivity.

  15. Thermal conductivity of nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannadham, Kasichainula

    2015-01-01

    Nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering from metal targets in argon and nitrogen plasma. TiN films with (200) orientation were achieved on silicon (100) at the substrate temperature of 500 and 600 °C. The films were polycrystalline at lower temperature. An amorphous interface layer was observed between the TiN film and Si wafer deposited at 600 °C. TiN film deposited at 600 °C showed the nitrogen to Ti ratio to be near unity, but films deposited at lower temperature were nitrogen deficient. CrN film with (200) orientation and good stoichiometry was achieved at 600 °C on Si(111) wafer but the film deposited at 500 °C showed cubic CrN and hexagonal Cr 2 N phases with smaller grain size and amorphous back ground in the x-ray diffraction pattern. An amorphous interface layer was not observed in the cubic CrN film on Si(111) deposited at 600 °C. Nitride film of tungsten deposited at 600 °C on Si(100) wafer was nitrogen deficient, contained both cubic W 2 N and hexagonal WN phases with smaller grain size. Nitride films of tungsten deposited at 500 °C were nonstoichiometric and contained cubic W 2 N and unreacted W phases. There was no amorphous phase formed along the interface for the tungsten nitride film deposited at 600 °C on the Si wafer. Thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance of all the nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were determined by transient thermoreflectance technique. The thermal conductivity of the films as function of deposition temperature, microstructure, nitrogen stoichiometry and amorphous interaction layer at the interface was determined. Tungsten nitride film containing both cubic and hexagonal phases was found to exhibit much higher thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance. The amorphous interface layer was found to reduce effective thermal conductivity of TiN and CrN films

  16. Ion beam analysis, corrosion resistance and nanomechanical properties of TiAlCN/CN{sub x} multilayer grown by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemón, B.; Flores, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, J. Guadalupe Zuno 48, Los Belenes, Zapopan, Jal. 45101 (Mexico); Canto, C. [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Avenida de la Investigación S/N, Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Andrade, E., E-mail: andrade@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Avenida de la Investigación S/N, Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Lucio, O.G. de [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Avenida de la Investigación S/N, Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Rocha, M.F. [ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ALM Zacatenco, Mexico, DF 07738 (Mexico); Broitman, E. [Thin Films Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    A novel TiAlCN/CN{sub x} multilayer coating, consisting of nine TiAlCN/CN{sub x} periods with a top layer 0.5 μm of CN{sub x}, was designed to enhance the corrosion resistance of CoCrMo biomedical alloy. The multilayers were deposited by dc and RF reactive magnetron sputtering from Ti{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5} and C targets respectively in a N{sub 2}/Ar plasma. The corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray diffraction tests were used to measure the element composition profiles and crystalline structure of the films. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements using simulated body fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature and the nanomechanical properties of the multilayer evaluated by nanoindentation tests were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. It was found that the multilayer hardness and the elastic recovery are higher than the substrate of CoCrMo. Furthermore the coated substrate shows a better general corrosion resistance than that of the CoCrMo alloy alone with no observation of pitting corrosion.

  17. Giant Negative Piezoresistive Effect in Diamond-like Carbon and Diamond-like Carbon-Based Nickel Nanocomposite Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering of Ni Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meškinis, Šaru Nas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis

    2018-01-01

    deposited by either reactive HIPIMS or dc magnetron sputtering of Ni target was explained by possible clustering of the sp2-bonded carbon and/or formation of areas with the decreased hydrogen content. It was suggested that the tensile stress-induced rearrangements of these conglomerations have resulted......Piezoresistive properties of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC-based nickel nanocomposite (DLC:Ni) films were studied in the range of low concentration of nickel nanoparticles. The films were deposited by reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Ni target, and some...... samples were deposited by direct current (dc) reactive magnetron sputtering for comparison purposes. Raman scattering spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the structure and chemical composition of the films. A four...

  18. Composite SiOx/hydrocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of SiO2 and polyimide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabik, M.; Kousal, J.; Pinosh, Y.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Macková, Anna; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Pešička, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 7 (2007), s. 920-927 ISSN 0042-207X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite films * magnetron * sputtering * polyimide * SiO2 Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2007

  19. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polášek, J.; Mašek, K.; Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O"− ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  20. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polášek, J., E-mail: xpolasekj@seznam.cz [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Mašek, K. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J. [HVM Plasma Ltd., Na Hutmance 2, Prague 5, CZ-158 00 (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-30

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O{sup −} ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  1. Superhydrophobic photocatalytic PTFE – Titania coatings deposited by reactive pDC magnetron sputtering from a blended powder target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com; Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T.

    2017-04-01

    The production of photocatalytic coatings with superhydrophobic properties, as opposed to the conventional hydrophilic properties, is desirable for the prevention of adhesion of contaminants to photocatalytic surfaces with subsequent deterioration of photocatalytic properties. In this work polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) – TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were deposited using a novel method of reactive pulsed direct current (pDC) magnetron sputtering of a blended PTFE – titanium oxide powder target. The surface characteristics and photocatalytic properties of the deposited composite coatings were studied. The as-deposited coatings were annealed at 523 K in air and analysed with Raman spectroscopy, optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrophobicity was assessed though measurements of water contact angles, and photocatalytic properties were studied via methylene blue dye degradation under UV irradiation. It was found that variations of gas flow and, hence, process pressures allowed deposition of samples combining superhydrophobicity with stable photocatalytic efficiency under UV light irradiation. Reversible wettability behaviour was observed with the alternation of light-dark cycles. - Highlights: • PTFE-TiO{sub 2} coatings were deposited by pDC reactive magnetron sputtering. • Blended powder target was used for coatings deposition. • Deposited coatings combined superhydrophobic and photocatalytic properties. • Under UV irradiation coatings exhibited reversible wettability.

  2. Preparation and characterization of RF magnetron sputtered CuO/CaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Congfei; Liang, Xiaojuan, E-mail: lxj6126@126.com; Hu, Guangcai; Hu, Xie; Chen, Xipeng; Li, Pengzhi; Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: xiangweidong001@126.com

    2017-04-15

    The titanate, is a material of interest for various energy applications, including photovoltaics, catalysts, and high-rate energy storage devices. Herein, its related materials, CuO/CaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} [CCTO] thin films, were successfully fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering assisted with subsequent oxygen annealing. This obtained CCTO thin films were then systemically studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scan electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that CuO and CaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} (001) particles were closely accumulated together on the surface of the substrate in the annealing process after comparing with that of the as-prepared thin film, which was verified by SEM and AFM results. Furthermore, we investigated the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the as-prepared and annealed CCTO thin film by means of the Z-scan technique using 650 nm femtosecond laser pulse. Post-deposition oxygen annealing was found to modify the morphological characteristics of the films, resulting in enhancing their NLO properties. The observation of NLO performance of annealed CCTO thin film indicates that RF magnetron sputtering is a feasible method for the fabrication of optical thin films, which can be expanded to fabricate other NLO materials from the corresponding dispersions. Naturally, we concluded that the CCTO thin film occupy a better NLO property, and thus enlarge its application in nonlinear optics. - Highlights: • The CCTO thin film was prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering and oxygen annealing. • The film was prepared on the SrTiO{sub 3}(100) substrates with a Ca{sub 2}CuO{sub 3} target. • The oxygen annealing was found can effectively enhance the film quality and NLO property. • The film was characterized using XPS, SEM, AFM, TEM, XRD and Z-scan techniques.

  3. Observation of a periodic runaway in the reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmohammad Shayestehaminzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the observation of a periodic runaway of plasma to a higher density for the reactive discharge of the target material (Ti with moderate sputter yield. Variable emission of secondary electrons, for the alternating transition of the target from metal mode to oxide mode, is understood to be the main reason for the runaway occurring periodically. Increasing the pulsing frequency can bring the target back to a metal (or suboxide mode, and eliminate the periodic transition of the target. Therefore, a pulsing frequency interval is defined for the reactive Ar/O2 discharge in order to sustain the plasma in a runaway-free mode without exceeding the maximum power that the magnetron can tolerate.

  4. Decorative black TiCxOy film fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering without importing oxygen reactive gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Katsushi; Wakabayashi, Masao; Tsukakoshi, Yukio; Abe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    Decorative black TiCxOy films were fabricated by dc (direct current) magnetron sputtering without importing the oxygen reactive gas into the sputtering chamber. Using a ceramic target of titanium oxycarbide (TiC1.59O0.31), the oxygen content in the films could be easily controlled by adjustment of total sputtering gas pressure without remarkable change of the carbon content. The films deposited at 2.0 and 4.0 Pa, those are higher pressure when compared with that in conventional magnetron sputtering, showed an attractive black color. In particular, the film at 4.0 Pa had the composition of TiC1.03O1.10, exhibited the L* of 41.5, a* of 0.2 and b* of 0.6 in CIELAB color space. These values were smaller than those in the TiC0.29O1.38 films (L* of 45.8, a* of 1.2 and b* of 1.2) fabricated by conventional reactive sputtering method from the same target under the conditions of gas pressure of 0.3 Pa and optimized oxygen reactive gas concentration of 2.5 vol.% in sputtering gas. Analysis of XRD and XPS revealed that the black film deposited at 4.0 Pa was the amorphous film composed of TiC, TiO and C. The adhesion property and the heat resisting property were enough for decorative uses. This sputtering process has an industrial advantage that the decorative black coating with color uniformity in large area can be easily obtained by plain operation because of unnecessary of the oxygen reactive gas importing which is difficult to be controlled uniformly in the sputtering chamber.

  5. Effect of RF power and substrate temperature on physical properties of Zr0.8Sn0.2TiO4 films by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu Cheng-Shing; Huang Cheng-Liang

    2001-01-01

    Physical properties of rf-sputtered crystalline (Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 )TiO 4 (ZST) thin films deposited on n-type Si(100) substrates at different rf powers and substrate temperatures have been investigated. The structural and morphological characteristics analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were found to be sensitive to deposition conditions, such as rf power from 300 W to 400 W and substrate temperature (400degC, 450degC). Highly oriented ZST (111) and (002) perpendicular to the substrate surface were identified at a rf power of 400 W and a substrate temperature of 450degC. The selected-area diffraction pattern showed that the deposited films exhibited a polycrystalline microstructure. The grain size as well as the deposition rate of the film increased with the increase in both the rf power and the substrate temperature. The leakage current decreased with increasing rf power and substrate temperature. As rf power = 400 W and substrate temperature = 450degC, a leakage current of 7.2x10 -11 A was obtained at 1 V. (author)

  6. Mn-coatings on the micro-pore formed Ti-29Nb-xHf alloys by RF-magnetron sputtering for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Yeong; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    In this study, Mn-coatings on the micro-pore formed Ti-29Nb-xHf alloys by RF-magnetrons sputtering for dental applications were studied using different experimental techniques. Mn coating films were formed on Ti-29Nb-xHf alloys by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique for 0, 1, 3, and 5 min at 45 W. The microstructure, composition, and phase structure of the coated alloys were examined by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The microstructure of Ti-29Nb alloy showed α" phase in the needle-like structure and Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloy showed β phase in the equiaxed structure. As the sputtering time increased, the circular particles of Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb alloy increased at inside and outside surfaces. As the sputtering time increased, [Mn + Ca/P] ratio of the plasma electrolytic oxidized films in Ti- 29Nb-xHf alloys increased. The corrosion potential (Ecorr) of Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb alloy showed higher than that of Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloy. The passive current density (Ipass) of the Mn coating on the Ti-29Nb alloy and Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloy was less noble than the non-Mn coated Ti-29Nb and Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloys surface.

  7. Growth of Sr1-xNdxCuOy thin films by rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugii, N.; Ichikawa, M.; Kuba, K.; Sakurai, T.; Iamamoto, K.; Yamauchi, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Sr 1- x Nd x CuO y thin films grown on SrTiO 3 substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The sputter-deposited film with x=0 has an infinite-layer structure whose lattice constants are: a=0.390 nm and c=0.347 nm. When x is larger than 0.1, the films contain a phase of the Sr 14 Cu 24 O 41 structure. The laser-deposited films of Sr 1- x Nd x CuO y with x ≥ 0.075 were single phase of the infinite-layer structure. The lattice parameter c decreased and the lattice parameter a increased, as the Nd content, x, increased. The films with x=0.10 and 0.125 exhibited superconducting onset temperatures around 26 K. Weak Meissner signals were observed for these films at temperatures below 30 K

  8. Influence of rf-magnetron Sputtered ITO and Al:ZnO on Photovoltaic Behaviour Related to CuInSe2-Based Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.A.; Guillen, C; Dona, J. M.; Herrero, J; Gutierrez, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes several investigations, made in the CIEMAT, on the capability of depositing transparent conducting oxides at room temperature by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their application in CuInSe 2 -based photovoltaic solar cells. ITO and Al:ZnO thin films having simultaneously high transmittance in the visible range and low resistivity, 10 3 -10 - 4 Ωcm, can be obtained only if oxygen mass-flow rate is constrained to a very narrow range (0.5 - 1 sccm). Cell efficiency enhance when transparent conducting oxides are made without intentional heating and, after, the total devices are annealed in air at 200 degree centigree. (Author) 40 refs

  9. Effect of stress, strain and optical properties in vacuum and normal annealed ZnO thin films using RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Santhosh; Purvaja, K.; Harinee, N.; Venkateswaran, C.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been deposited on quartz substrate using RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films were subjected to different annealing atmosphere at a fixed temperature of 500 °C for 5h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveals the shift in the peak of both normal annealed and vacuum annealed thin films when compared to as-deposited ZnO film. The crystallite size, intrinsic stress and other parameters were calculated from XRD data. The surface morphology of the obtained films were studied using Atomic force microscopy (AFM). From Uv-Visible spectroscopy, the peak at 374 nm of all the films is characteristics of ZnO. The structural, thermal stability and optical properties of the annealed ZnO films are discussed in detail.

  10. Generation of positive and negative oxygen ions in magnetron discharge during reactive sputtering of alumina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján; Musil, Jindřich; Novotný, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2010), s. 910-914 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100718; GA AV ČR KAN400100653; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : aluminium oxide * ion-energy distribution function * magnetron * mass spectrometry * pulsed discharges Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2010

  11. Reactive magnetron sputtering of Si-C-N films with controlled mechanical and optical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, J.; Kormunda, M.; Čížek, J.; Soukup, Z.; Peřina, Vratislav; Zemek, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2003), s. 1287-1294 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 203; GA MŠk OC 527.90 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 235200002 Keywords : silicon-carbon-nitride films * magnetron co-sputtering Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2003

  12. Effects of Al concentrations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–Al–N films deposited by RF-ICPIS enhanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongke [The School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, SCNU, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Chen, JunFang, E-mail: chenjf@scnu.edu.com [The School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, SCNU, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Research Resources Center, SCNU, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Zou, Changwei, E-mail: qingyihaiyanas@163.com [Department of Physics and Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in University of Guangdong, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Ma, Junhui; Li, Pengfei; Li, Ye [The School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, SCNU, Guangzhou 510000 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • RF-ICPIS enhanced magnetron sputtering technique is used for Ti–Al–N deposition. • Al contents has closed relation with total gas pressure. • Ti–Al–N films with high Al contents of 34.16 at.% are obtained. • Effects of Al on the microstructure and mechanical properties are discussed. - Abstract: Ti–Al–N films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and mirror-polished stainless steel at 300 °C by RF-ICPIS enhanced magnetron sputtering technique. Focusing on the effects of Al concentrations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–Al–N films, the structure and the growth morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Ti–Al–N films with highest Al contents of were deposited at total gas pressure of 1.0 Pa. XRD experiments exhibited that the Ti–Al–N films were f.c.c structure with diffraction peaks at 2θ = 37.1°, 43.5°, 63.2°, and 75.1°, respectively. The FWHM values of (1 1 1) diffraction peaks showed a decrease while the (2 2 0) diffraction peaks showed an increase trend with the increasing of Al concentrations. With the variation of total gas pressure from 0.5 to 1.5 Pa, the RMS values of Ti–Al–N films increased from 1.286 to 7.751 nm. The hardness of the Ti–Al–N films was in the range of 28.4–36.2 GPa while the friction coefficients were in the range of 0.339–0.732.

  13. Electrical transport properties of V2O5 thin films obtained by thermal annealing of layers grown by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannetta, H.M.R.; Calaza, C.; Lamas, D.G.; Fonseca, L.; Fraigi, L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the main electrical transport mechanism in V 2 O 5 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on the basis of the Mott's small polaron hopping model. The material under test was obtained at room temperature from a V 2 O 5 target and then oxidized at high temperature under air atmosphere to obtain the desired V 2 O 5 phase. The dependence of the electrical conductivity of the V 2 O 5 thin films with temperature was analyzed using the Mott's small polarons hopping transport model under the Schnakenberg form. Model results suggest a polaron binding energy W H = 0.1682 eV, with a structural disorder energy W D = 0.2241 eV and an optical phonon frequency ν 0 = 0.468 × 10 13 s −1 . These results are in agreement with data reported in literature for single crystal V 2 O 5 . However, the carrier mobility μ = 1.5019 × 10 −5 cm 2 /Vs computed in the non-adiabatic regime is significantly smaller than that of the single crystal, suggesting a strong electron–phonon coupling in the V 2 O 5 thin films obtained with the proposed deposition method. - Highlights: • A two-stage deposition method compatible with lift-off patterning is proposed. • V 2 O 5 films are deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and then annealed in air. • Films are analyzed by SEM and its pure phase nature is confirmed by XRD. • Electrical conductivity was fitted using Mott's model for small polarons. • Fit derived parameters confirm charge transport through small-polarons hopping

  14. Electrical transport properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films obtained by thermal annealing of layers grown by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetta, H.M.R., E-mail: hgiann@inti.gov.ar [Centro de Micro y Nano Electrónica del Bicentenario (CMNB), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN) — Facultad Regional Buenos Aires (FRBA) (Argentina); Calaza, C. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Lamas, D.G. [Universidad Nacional del Comahue CONICET-CITEFA — Laboratorio de Caracterización de Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería, Neuquen (Argentina); Fonseca, L. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Fraigi, L. [Centro de Micro y Nano Electrónica del Bicentenario (CMNB), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN) — Facultad Regional Buenos Aires (FRBA) (Argentina)

    2015-08-31

    The present study investigates the main electrical transport mechanism in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on the basis of the Mott's small polaron hopping model. The material under test was obtained at room temperature from a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} target and then oxidized at high temperature under air atmosphere to obtain the desired V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase. The dependence of the electrical conductivity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films with temperature was analyzed using the Mott's small polarons hopping transport model under the Schnakenberg form. Model results suggest a polaron binding energy W{sub H} = 0.1682 eV, with a structural disorder energy W{sub D} = 0.2241 eV and an optical phonon frequency ν{sub 0} = 0.468 × 10{sup 13}s{sup −1}. These results are in agreement with data reported in literature for single crystal V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. However, the carrier mobility μ = 1.5019 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/Vs computed in the non-adiabatic regime is significantly smaller than that of the single crystal, suggesting a strong electron–phonon coupling in the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films obtained with the proposed deposition method. - Highlights: • A two-stage deposition method compatible with lift-off patterning is proposed. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films are deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and then annealed in air. • Films are analyzed by SEM and its pure phase nature is confirmed by XRD. • Electrical conductivity was fitted using Mott's model for small polarons. • Fit derived parameters confirm charge transport through small-polarons hopping.

  15. Structural and optical properties of zirconia thin films deposited by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Jin, Jie [Tianjin University, School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin (China); Cheng, Jui-Ching, E-mail: juiching@ntut.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei [Ming Chi University of Technology, College of Materials Engineering, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Wu, Kuo-Hong [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Tsai, Jung-Ruey [Asia University, Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Kou-Chen, E-mail: jacobliu@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technology on glass and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/glass substrates. Preparation, microstructure and optical characteristics of the films have been studied. During deposition, the influence of the target power and duty cycle on the peak current–voltage and power density has been observed in oxide mode. Transparent thin films under different oxygen proportions are obtained on the two substrates. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the surface roughness of the films was lower by reactive HiPIMS than DC sputtering for all oxygen contents. The transmission and reflectance properties of differently grown zirconia films were also investigated using an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. The optical transmittance of films grown on glass substrates by HiPIMS reached maximum values above 90%, which exceeded that by DC sputtering. The band edge near 5.86 eV shifted to a lower wavelength for zirconia films prepared with oxygen flow rates lower than 4.5 sccm. For the films prepared on ITO/glass substrates, the transmittance and the band gap of zirconia films were limited by ITO films; a maximum average transmittance of 84% was obtained at 4.5 sccm O{sub 2} and the energy band gap was in the range of 3.7–3.8 eV for oxygen flow rates ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 sccm. Finally, the electrical properties of zirconia films have also been discussed. - Highlights: • Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • Low roughness films are obtained. • Films show a high transmittance (> 90%). • Films prepared on glass have a band gap of 5.9 eV.

  16. Dielectric properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna, S. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Mohan Rao, G. [Department of Instrumentation, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, 560 012 (India); Jayakumar, S., E-mail: s_jayakumar_99@yahoo.com [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Kannan, M.D. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Ganesan, V. [Low Temperature Lab, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (CSR), Indore, 452 017 (India)

    2012-01-31

    Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were sputter deposited over well-cleaned glass and Si < 100 > substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering under various oxygen gas pressures and sputtering powers. The composition of the films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an optimal O/Al atomic ratio of 1.59 was obtained at a reactive gas pressure of 0.03 Pa and sputtering power of 70 W. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the films were amorphous until 550 Degree-Sign C. The surface morphology of the films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the as-deposited films were found to be smooth. The topography of the as-deposited and annealed films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and a progressive increase in the rms roughness of the films from 3.2 nm to 4.53 nm was also observed with increase in the annealing temperature. Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al thin film capacitors were then fabricated on glass substrates to study the effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric property of the films. Temperature coefficient of capacitance, AC conductivity and activation energy were determined and the results are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films were found to be amorphous up to annealing temperature of 550 C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in rms roughness of the films was observed with annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al thin film capacitors were fabricated and dielectric constant was 7.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation energy decreased with increase in frequency.

  17. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, U.K.

    2006-01-01

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10 0 -10 -3 Ωcm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  18. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A; Barik, U K [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Chennai (India)

    2006-07-15

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup -3} {omega}cm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  19. Incorporation of N in TiO{sub 2} films grown by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serio, S. [CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Melo Jorge, M.E. [CCMM, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, Y. [CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear and CFNUL, E.N. 10, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Alves, E., E-mail: ealves@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear and CFNUL, E.N. 10, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Munnik, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2} are expected to play an important role on emerging technologies based on OH radicals to destroy harmful nonbiodegradable organic and inorganic contaminants in water. The drawback is the wide band gap of TiO{sub 2} (3.2 eV) limiting its use to the UV part of electromagnetic spectrum under sunlight. Therefore, modifications of TiO{sub 2} are needed to tune the gap in order to allow an efficient use of the entire solar spectrum. One possibility is N-doping of TiO{sub 2} to make the photocatalytic activity possible under visible light and more suitable for water treatment. In our study nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}) films were deposited by DC-reactive magnetron sputtering using a dual-magnetron co-deposition apparatus on unheated glass and silicon substrates using a pure titanium target. The depth profile of nitrogen was measured with heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis combined with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and correlated with the optical and structural properties obtained by UV-VIS spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  20. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O_2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  1. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  2. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunj, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhkunj22@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O{sub 2}/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  3. Bonding structure and morphology of chromium oxide films grown by pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago, R., E-mail: rgago@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Vinnichenko, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Hübner, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Redondo-Cubero, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-07-05

    Chromium oxide (CrO{sub x}) thin films were grown by pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputter deposition in an Ar/O{sub 2} discharge as a function of the O{sub 2} fraction in the gas mixture (ƒ) and for substrate temperatures, T{sub s}, up to 450 °C. The samples were analysed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). On unheated substrates, by increasing ƒ the growth rate is higher and the O/Cr ratio (x) rises from ∼2 up to ∼2.5. Inversely, by increasing T{sub s} the atomic incorporation rate drops and x falls to ∼1.8. XRD shows that samples grown on unheated substrates are amorphous and that nanocrystalline Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 1.5) is formed by increasing T{sub s}. In amorphous CrO{sub x}, XANES reveals the presence of multiple Cr environments that indicate the growth of mixed-valence oxides, with progressive promotion of hexavalent states with ƒ. XANES data also confirms the formation of single-phase nanocrystalline Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} at elevated T{sub s}. These structural changes also reflect on the optical and morphological properties of the films. - Highlights: • XANES of CrO{sub x} thin films grown by pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputtering. • Identification of mixed-valence amorphous CrO{sub x} oxides on unheated substrates. • Promotion of amorphous chromic acid (Cr{sup VI}) by increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure. • Production of single-phase Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by increasing substrate temperature. • Correlation of bonding structure with morphological and optical properties.

  4. Bioactivity response of Ta{sub 1-x}O{sub x} coatings deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Alves, C.F., E-mail: cristiana.alves@fisica.uminho.pt [GRF-CFUM, Physics Departament, University of Minho, Campus of Azurem, Guimaraes 4800-058 (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-788 (Portugal); Carvalho, S. [GRF-CFUM, Physics Departament, University of Minho, Campus of Azurem, Guimaraes 4800-058 (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3030-788 (Portugal)

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants is sometimes accompanied by failure due to periimplantitis disease and subsequently poor esthetics when soft–hard tissue margin recedes. As a consequence, further research is needed for developing new bioactive surfaces able to enhance the osseous growth. Tantalum (Ta) is a promising material for dental implants since, comparing with titanium (Ti), it is bioactive and has an interesting chemistry which promotes the osseointegration. Another promising approach for implantology is the development of implants with oxidized surfaces since bone progenitor cells interact with the oxide layer forming a diffusion zone due to its ability to bind with calcium which promotes a stronger bond. In the present report Ta-based coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto Ti CP substrates in an Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere. In order to assess the osteoconductive response of the studied materials, contact angle and in vitro tests of the samples immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) were performed. Structural results showed that oxide phases where achieved with larger amounts of oxygen (70 at.% O). More compact and smooth coatings were deposited by increasing the oxygen content. The as-deposited Ta coating presented the most hydrophobic character (100°); with increasing oxygen amount contact angles progressively diminished, down to the lowest measured value, 63°. The higher wettability is also accompanied by an increase on the surface energy. Bioactivity tests demonstrated that highest O-content coating, in good agreement with wettability and surface energy values, showed an increased affinity for apatite adhesion, with higher Ca/P ratio formation, when compared to the bare Ti substrates. - Highlights: • Ta{sub 1-x}O{sub x} coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. • Amorphous oxide phases were achieved with higher oxygen amounts. • Contact angles progressively diminished, with increasing oxygen content. • Ta

  5. Process stabilization by peak current regulation in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T; Villamayor, M; Helmersson, U; Lundin, D

    2016-01-01

    A simple and cost effective approach to stabilize the sputtering process in the transition zone during reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is proposed. The method is based on real-time monitoring and control of the discharge current waveforms. To stabilize the process conditions at a given set point, a feedback control system was implemented that automatically regulates the pulse frequency, and thereby the average sputtering power, to maintain a constant maximum discharge current. In the present study, the variation of the pulse current waveforms over a wide range of reactive gas flows and pulse frequencies during a reactive HiPIMS process of Hf-N in an Ar–N 2 atmosphere illustrates that the discharge current waveform is a an excellent indicator of the process conditions. Activating the reactive HiPIMS peak current regulation, stable process conditions were maintained when varying the N 2 flow from 2.1 to 3.5 sccm by an automatic adjustment of the pulse frequency from 600 Hz to 1150 Hz and consequently an increase of the average power from 110 to 270 W. Hf–N films deposited using peak current regulation exhibited a stable stoichiometry, a nearly constant power-normalized deposition rate, and a polycrystalline cubic phase Hf-N with (1 1 1)-preferred orientation over the entire reactive gas flow range investigated. The physical reasons for the change in the current pulse waveform for different process conditions are discussed in some detail. (paper)

  6. Highly c-axis oriented ZnO:Ni thin film nanostructure by RF magnetron sputtering: Structural, morphological and magnetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddheswaran, R.; Savková, Jarmila; Medlín, Rostislav; Očenášek, Jan; Životský, Ondřej; Novák, Petr; Šutta, Pavol

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly preferred oriented columnar ZnO:Ni thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • XRD and azimuthal studies explain the characteristics of orientation in [0 0 1] direction. • Surface morphology and grains distribution were explained by FE-SEM. • XTEM specimen prepared by ion slicing used for TEM microstructure analyses. • Tendency of ferromagnetism by influence of Ni content was studied by VSM. - Abstract: Nickel doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ni) thin films with different Ni concentrations were deposited on silicon substrates at 400 °C by reactive magnetron sputtering using a mixture of Ar and O 2 gases. The X-ray diffraction and azimuthal patterns of the ZnO:Ni were carried out, and the quality of the strong preferred orientation of crystalline columns in the direction [0 0 1] perpendicular to the substrate surface were analysed. The grain size, distribution, and homogeneity of the thin film surfaces were studied by FE-SEM. The EDX and mapping confirmed that the Ni is incorporated into ZnO uniformly. The microstructure of the textured columns was analysed by TEM and HRTEM analyses. The average thickness and length of the columns were found to be about 50 nm and 600 nm, respectively. The rise of ferromagnetism by the influence of Ni content was studied by VSM magnetic studies at room temperature

  7. Study on the preheating duration of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} thin films using RF magnetron sputtering technique for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuchen; He, Jun; Li, Xinran; Chen, Ye; Sun, Lin, E-mail: lsun@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2016-04-25

    Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} (CTS) thin films are prepared by sulfurization the stacked metallic precursors deposited by raido-frequency magnetron sputtering method on molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates. The details of sulfurization process and the effect of preheating duration on the properties of CTS thin films have been investigated. It is found that the content of element tin strongly depend on the preheating duration. X-ray diffraction patterns identify that the CTS thin films exhibit the monoclinic structure. Raman scattering spectra make a further confirmation for the crystal structure. Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR) is first used to study the properties of CTS thin films. The assigned active modes in Raman scattering spectra is consistent with the analysis in FTIR. Morphology analysis reveals long preheating duration would make the quality of films deteriorate. The thin film solar cell (TFSC) fabricated using the CTS absorber layer synthesized at preheating duration of 15 min shows that a power conversion efficiency up to 0.76% for a 0.19 cm{sup 2} area. The electrical characterization of CTS TFSC is first studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which implies the existence of MoS{sub x} and defects in the CTS/CdS interface. - Highlights: • CTS thin films and solar cells prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. • Preheating duration is a critical way to remain the Sn content in CTS thin film. • XRD, Raman, FTIR and XPS confirmed the single phase of CTS thin film. • The device characterization of CTS solar cell has been systematically investigated.

  8. Improvement of corrosion protection property of Mg-alloy by DLC and Si-DLC coatings with PBII technique and multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masami, Ikeyama; Setsuo, Nakao; Tsutomu, Sonoda; Junho, Choi

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been considered as one of the most promising light weight materials with potential applications for automobile and aircraft components. Their poor corrosion resistance, however, has to date prevented wider usage. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and silicon-incorporated DLC (Si-DLC) coatings are known to provide a high degree of corrosion protection, and hold accordingly promise for enhancing the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloys. In this work we have studied the effect of coating conditions of DLC coatings as well as Si incorporation into coating on corrosion resistance, deposited onto AZ91 magnesium alloy substrates by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). The influences of a Ti interlayer beneath the DLC, Si-DLC and Ti incorporated DLC (Ti-DLC) coatings fabricated by multi-target direct-current radio-frequency (DC-RF) magnetron sputtering were also examined on both the adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the materials. We have also examined the effect of the Si content in the Si-DLC coatings made by magnetron sputtering on the alloys' corrosion resistance. The results of potentiodynamic polarization measurements demonstrate that Si-DLC coating deposited by PBII exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in an aqueous 0.05 M NaCl solution. Although Ti layer is helpful in increasing adhesion between DLC coating and AZ91 substrate, it also influences adversely corrosion protection. The ozone treatment of the magnesium alloy's surface before the formation of coatings has been found to improve both adhesion strength and corrosion resistance.

  9. Improvement of corrosion protection property of Mg-alloy by DLC and Si-DLC coatings with PBII technique and multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masami, Ikeyama; Setsuo, Nakao; Tsutomu, Sonoda; Junho, Choi

    2009-05-01

    Magnesium alloys have been considered as one of the most promising light weight materials with potential applications for automobile and aircraft components. Their poor corrosion resistance, however, has to date prevented wider usage. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and silicon-incorporated DLC (Si-DLC) coatings are known to provide a high degree of corrosion protection, and hold accordingly promise for enhancing the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloys. In this work we have studied the effect of coating conditions of DLC coatings as well as Si incorporation into coating on corrosion resistance, deposited onto AZ91 magnesium alloy substrates by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). The influences of a Ti interlayer beneath the DLC, Si-DLC and Ti incorporated DLC (Ti-DLC) coatings fabricated by multi-target direct-current radio-frequency (DC-RF) magnetron sputtering were also examined on both the adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the materials. We have also examined the effect of the Si content in the Si-DLC coatings made by magnetron sputtering on the alloys' corrosion resistance. The results of potentiodynamic polarization measurements demonstrate that Si-DLC coating deposited by PBII exhibits the highest corrosion resistance in an aqueous 0.05 M NaCl solution. Although Ti layer is helpful in increasing adhesion between DLC coating and AZ91 substrate, it also influences adversely corrosion protection. The ozone treatment of the magnesium alloy's surface before the formation of coatings has been found to improve both adhesion strength and corrosion resistance.

  10. Photoelectron-spectroscopic and reactivity investigation of thin Pd-Sn films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, T.; Veltruska, K.; Sedlacek, L.; Masek, K.; Matolinova, I.; Matolin, V.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied Pd-Sn layers with different composition prepared by magnetron sputtering. Layers were sputtered onto Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 substrates and studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spectra confirmed that after vacuum annealing residual oxygen and carbon have been removed and bimetallic bonds have been created. The shift of Pd 3d 5/2 core level to higher binding energy followed by the peak narrowing in dependence on the composition was observed, accompanied by the shift of the Pd 4d in the valence band region, induced by hybridization of Pd-d and Sn-s,p states. Experiments carried out on a gas-flow reactor indicate increasing temperature of the CO oxidation with tin ratio in the alloy

  11. Substantial difference in target surface chemistry between reactive dc and high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Hultman, L.

    2018-02-01

    The nitride layer formed in the target race track during the deposition of stoichiometric TiN thin films is a factor 2.5 thicker for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), compared to conventional dc processing (DCMS). The phenomenon is explained using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the as-operated Ti target surface chemistry supported by sputter depth profiles, dynamic Monte Carlo simulations employing the TRIDYN code, and plasma chemical investigations by ion mass spectrometry. The target chemistry and the thickness of the nitride layer are found to be determined by the implantation of nitrogen ions, predominantly N+ and N2+ for HIPIMS and DCMS, respectively. Knowledge of this method-inherent difference enables robust processing of high quality functional coatings.

  12. Deposition and characterization of TaAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.B.; Fernandez, D.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Tentardini, E.K.; Silva Junior, A.H. da

    2016-01-01

    Phase stability, oxidation resistance and great mechanical properties are the main objectives when synthesizing protective coatings. The tantalum nitride (TaN) has aroused interest because of its high temperature stability, chemical inertness and thermal conductivity. However, it has a low hardness value when compared to other coatings. Researches has shown that one way to improvements in the properties of a thin film is by adding other elements in the deposition process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to deposit thin films of TaAlN by magnetron sputtering, changing the aluminum concentration of 2, 5, 7, to 14%. Then the coatings were characterized by EDS, RBS, GIXRD and nanohardness. In this study was found that the aluminum deposited did not change the oxidation resistance of the coating, and the highest value of hardness was 28 GPa for the sample with 14 at.%. (author)

  13. A global plasma model for reactive deposition of compound films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B. C.; Wu, Z. L.; Wu, B.; Li, Y. G.; Lei, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    A spatially averaged, time-dependent global plasma model has been developed to describe the reactive deposition of a TiAlSiN thin film by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharges in Ar/N2 mixture gas, based on the particle balance and the energy balance in the ionization region, and considering the formation and erosion of the compound at the target surface. The modeling results show that, with increasing the N2 partial pressure from 0% to 40% at a constant working pressure of 0.3 Pa, the electron temperature during the strongly ionized period increases from 4 to 7 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient, which represents the power fraction that effectively heats the electrons and maintains the discharge, increases from about 4% to 7%; with increasing the working pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa at a constant N2 partial pressure of 25%, the electron temperature decreases from 10 to 4 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient decreases from 8% to 5%. Using the modeled plasma parameters to evaluate the kinetic energy of arriving ions, the ion-to-neutral flux ratio of deposited species, and the substrate heating, the variations of process parameters that increase these values lead to an enhanced adatom mobility at the target surface and an increased input energy to the substrate, corresponding to the experimental observation of surface roughness reduction, the microstructure transition from the columnar structure to the dense featureless structure, and the enhancement of phase separation. At higher N2 partial pressure or lower working pressure, the modeling results demonstrate an increase in electron temperature, which shifts the discharge balance of Ti species from Ti+ to Ti2+ and results in a higher return fraction of Ti species, corresponding to the higher Al/Ti ratio of deposited films at these conditions. The modeling results are well correlated with the experimental observation of the composition variation and the microstructure

  14. Electrical properties of AlN{sub x}O{sub y} thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J., E-mail: joelborges@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Martin, N. [Institut FEMTO-ST, Departement MN2S, UMR 6174 (CNRS, UFC, ENSMM, UTBM) 32, Avenue de l' Observatoire 25044 BESANCON Cedex (France); Barradas, N.P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Instituto Tecnologico Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Eyidi, D.; Beaufort, M.F.; Riviere, J.P. [Institut PPRIME, UPR 3346 CNRS-Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, Departement de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, BP 30179 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope Cedex (France); Vaz, F.; Marques, L. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2012-08-31

    Direct current magnetron sputtering was used to produce AlN{sub x}O{sub y} thin films, using an aluminum target, argon and a mixture of N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} (17:3) as reactive gases. The partial pressure of the reactive gas mixture was increased, maintaining the discharge current constant. Within the two identified regimes of the target (metallic and compound), four different tendencies for the deposition rate were found and a morphological evolution from columnar towards cauliflower-type, ending up as dense and featureless-type films. The structure was found to be Al-type (face centered cubic) and the structural characterization carried out by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy suggested the formation of an aluminum-based polycrystalline phase dispersed in an amorphous aluminum oxide/nitride (or oxynitride) matrix. This type of structure, composition, morphology and grain size, were found to be strongly correlated with the electrical response of the films, which showed a gradual transition between metallic-like responses towards semiconducting and even insulating-type behaviors. A group of films with high aluminum content revealed a sharp decrease of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) as the concentration ratio of non-metallic/aluminum atomic ratio increased. Another group of samples, where the non-metallic content became more important, revealed a smooth transition between positive and negative values of TCR. In order to test whether the oxynitride films have a unique behavior or simply a transition between the typical responses of aluminum and of those of the correspondent nitride and oxide, the electrical properties of the ternary oxynitride system were compared with AlN{sub x} and AlO{sub y} systems, prepared in similar conditions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AlN{sub x}O{sub y} thin films were produced using magnetron sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AlN{sub x}O{sub y} film morphology, composition and

  15. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  16. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaohong, E-mail: yxhong1981_2004@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Xu, Wenzheng, E-mail: xwz8199@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: windhuang325@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: mjuchen@126.com [Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by magnetron sputtering technique. • Ag film was easily oxidized into Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. • The zinc film coated on the surface of Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. • Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film can obtained structural color. • The anti-ultraviolet and antistatic properties of polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film all were good. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  17. Investigation of the physical properties of ion assisted ZrN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signore, M A; Valerini, D; Rizzo, A; Tapfer, L; Capodieci, L; Cappello, A

    2010-01-01

    Ion bombardment during thin film growth is known to cause structural and morphological changes in the deposited films, thus affecting their physical properties. In this work zirconium nitride films have been deposited by the ion assisted magnetron sputtering technique. The ion energy is controlled by varying the voltage applied to the substrate in the range 0-25 V. The deposited ZrN films are characterized for their structure, surface roughness, oxygen contamination, optical reflectance and electrical resistivity. With increasing substrate voltage crystallinity of the films is enhanced with a preferential orientation of the ZrN grains having the (1 1 1) axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. At the same time, a decrease in electrical resistivity and oxygen contamination content is observed up to 20 V. A higher substrate voltage (25 V) causes an inversion in the observed experimental trends. The role of oxygen contamination decrease and generation of nitrogen vacancies due to ionic assistance have been considered as a possible explanation for the experimental results.

  18. Investigation of the physical properties of ion assisted ZrN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signore, M A; Valerini, D; Rizzo, A; Tapfer, L; Capodieci, L; Cappello, A [ENEA, Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, SS7, Appia, km 706, 72100 Brindisi (Italy)

    2010-06-09

    Ion bombardment during thin film growth is known to cause structural and morphological changes in the deposited films, thus affecting their physical properties. In this work zirconium nitride films have been deposited by the ion assisted magnetron sputtering technique. The ion energy is controlled by varying the voltage applied to the substrate in the range 0-25 V. The deposited ZrN films are characterized for their structure, surface roughness, oxygen contamination, optical reflectance and electrical resistivity. With increasing substrate voltage crystallinity of the films is enhanced with a preferential orientation of the ZrN grains having the (1 1 1) axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. At the same time, a decrease in electrical resistivity and oxygen contamination content is observed up to 20 V. A higher substrate voltage (25 V) causes an inversion in the observed experimental trends. The role of oxygen contamination decrease and generation of nitrogen vacancies due to ionic assistance have been considered as a possible explanation for the experimental results.

  19. Effects of deposition temperatures on structure and physical properties of Cd 1-xZn xTe films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dongmei; Jie, Wanqi; Zhou, Hai; Yang, Yingge

    2010-02-01

    Cd 1-xZn xTe films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering from Cd 0.9Zn 0.1Te crystals target at different substrate temperatures (100-400 °C). The effects of the deposition temperature on structure and physical properties of Cd 1-xZn xTe films have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), step profilometer, atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurements. X-ray studies suggest that the deposited films were polycrystalline with preferential (1 1 1) orientation. AFM micrographs show that the grain size was changed from 50 to 250 nm with the increase of deposition temperatures, the increased grain size may result from kinetic factors during sputtering growth. The optical transmission data indicate that shallow absorption edge occurs in the range of 744-835 nm and that the optical absorption coefficient is varied with the increase of deposition temperatures. In Hall Effect measurements, the sheet resistivities of the deposited films are 3.2×10 8, 3.0×10 8, 1.9×10 8 and 1.1×10 8 Ohm/sq, which were decreased with the increase of substrate temperatures. Analysis of the resistivity of films depended on the substrate temperatures is discussed.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 and SiO2 films with fluoropolymer content using rf-plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.

    2008-01-01

    Pure and molecularly mixed inorganic films for protection against atomic oxygen in lower earth orbit were prepared using radio-frequency (rf) plasma magnetron sputtering technique. Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and silica (SiO 2 ) films with average grain size in the range of 30-80 nm and fully dense or dense columnar structure were synthesized under different conditions of pressure and power. Simultaneous oxide sputtering and plasma polymerization (PP) of hexafluoropropylene (HFP) led to the formation of molecularly mixed films with fluoropolymer content. The degree of plasma polymerization was strongly influenced by total chamber pressure and the argon to HFP molar ratio (n Ar /n M ). An order of magnitude increase in pressure due to argon during codeposition changed the plasma-polymerization mechanism from radical-chain- to radical-radical-type processes. Subsequently, a shift from linear CH 2 group based chain polymerization to highly disordered fluoropolymer content with branching and cross-linking was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed chemical interaction between depositing SiO 2 and PP-HFP through appearance of absorption bands characteristic of Si-F stretching and expansion of SiO 2 network. The relative amount and composition of plasma-polymerized fluoropolymer in such films can be controlled by changing argon to HFP flow ratio, total chamber pressure, and applied power. These films offer great potential for use as protective coatings in aerospace applications

  1. Resistance changes of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 films deposited through rf-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwangseok; Han, Seungwoo; Park, Kyoungwan; Sok, Junghyun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the resistance-change behavior of a perovskite material was studied. In particular, Pr 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 (PCMO) films were deposited on a Pt bottom electrode by using an rf-magnetron sputtering system. The PCMO films showed a resistance-switching behavior at room temperature. They were then deposited at 300 .deg. C with different oxygen flow rates, and the deposited films were post-annealed at various temperatures in an O 2 or N 2 atmosphere. The ratio of the resistance change of the post-annealed PCMO films in the high-resistance state to that in the low-resistance state in an O 2 atmosphere turned out to be much larger than that of the post-annealed films in a N 2 atmosphere. The electrical properties of the PCMO films were also significantly affected by the top electrode. The resistance changes of the Ag/PCMO/Pt device turned out to be larger than those of the Au/PCMO/Pt device. It can, therefore, be concluded that the O 2 content and the top electrode improve the electroresistance.

  2. Investigations on structural and electrical parameters of p-Si/ MgxZn1-xO thin film heterojunction diodes grown by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Hazra, Purnima

    2018-05-01

    This work reports fabrication and characterization of p-Si/ MgxZn1-xO thin film heterojunction diodes grown by RF magnetron sputtering technique. In this work, ZnO powder was mixed with MgO powder at per their weight percentage from 0 to 10% to prepare MgxZn1-xO target. The microstructural, surface morphological and optical properties of as-deposited p-Si/MgxZn1-xO heterostructure thin films have been studied using X-ray Diffraction, atomic force microscopy and variable angle ellipsometer. XRD spectra exhibit that undoped ZnO thin films has preferred crystal orientation in (002) plane. However, with increase in Mg-doping, ZnO (101) crystal plane is enhanced progressively due to phase segregation, even though preferred growth orientation of ZnO crystals is still towards (002) plane. The electrical characteristics of Si/ MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes with large area Al/Ti ohmic contacts are evaluated using semiconductor parameter analyzer. With rectification ratio of 27894, reverse saturation current of 20.5 nA and barrier height of 0.724 eV, Si/Mg0.5Zn0.95O thin film heterojunction diode is believed to have potential to be used in wider bandgap nanoelectronic device applications.

  3. Fabrication, ultra-structure characterization and in vitro studies of RF magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeneva, Maria A.; Surmenev, Roman A.; Nikonova, Yulia A.; Selezneva, Irina I.; Ivanova, Anna A.; Putlyaev, Valery I.; Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    A series of nanostructured low-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings averaging 170, 250, and 440 nm in thickness were deposited onto previously etched titanium substrates through radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The HA coatings were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Cross sections of the thin specimens were prepared by FIB to study the microstructure of the coatings by TEM. The deposition process formed nano-scale grains, generating an amorphous layer at the substrate/coating interface and inducing the growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface. A microstructural analysis of the film confirmed that the grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. The nanostructured HA coatings were not cytotoxic, as proven by in vitro assays using primary dental pulp stem cells and mouse fibroblast NCTC clone L929 cells. Low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules on the surface better than uncoated titanium substrates.

  4. Electrical properties of SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films deposited on Si (100) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.; Jha, G.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S.K.; Manna, I.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structures have attracted much attention because of its potentials as nonvolatile memory device with nondestructive readout operation. In the present study ferroelectric SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT) thin films are grown on p-type (100) Si substrates by rf magnetron sputtering method at different deposition conditions. The crystallinity of the films is studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) pattern. The spectra show the film are polycrystalline with dominant orientation along (115) plane. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of Al/SBT/Si capacitors were measured at 100 kHz. The (C-V) characteristic of AI/SBT/Si capacitor post-annealed at 700-800 deg C shows a hysteresis nature with a clockwise rotation and the memory window of the hysteresis loop is 0.88 V when the gate voltage is ± 5 V. The interface trap density (D it ) calculated by using Hills method at room temperature and a value in the order of 10 11 -10 12 eV -1 cm -2 was found at mid gap region depending on the crystallization temperature. The surface morphology was investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). The study showed the potential of SBT for application in metal- ferroelectric-silicon nonvolatile memory devices. (author)

  5. Fabrication, ultra-structure characterization and in vitro studies of RF magnetron sputter deposited nano-hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surmeneva, Maria A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Surmenev, Roman A., E-mail: rsurmenev@gmail.com [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Nikonova, Yulia A.; Selezneva, Irina I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142292 (Russian Federation); Ivanova, Anna A. [Department of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Putlyaev, Valery I. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Vorobievi Gory, 1, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Prymak, Oleg; Epple, Matthias [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface was observed. • Interplanar spacing distances measured using HRTEM were 0.82 and 0.28 nm, corresponding to the (0 0 1) and (2 1 1) lattice planes of hexagonal HA. • Grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. • Nanometer-thick low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules. - Abstract: A series of nanostructured low-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings averaging 170, 250, and 440 nm in thickness were deposited onto previously etched titanium substrates through radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The HA coatings were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Cross sections of the thin specimens were prepared by FIB to study the microstructure of the coatings by TEM. The deposition process formed nano-scale grains, generating an amorphous layer at the substrate/coating interface and inducing the growth of a columnar grain structure perpendicular to the substrate surface. A microstructural analysis of the film confirmed that the grain size and crystallinity increased when increasing the deposition time. The nanostructured HA coatings were not cytotoxic, as proven by in vitro assays using primary dental pulp stem cells and mouse fibroblast NCTC clone L929 cells. Low-crystallinity HA coatings with different thicknesses stimulated cells to attach, proliferate and form mineralized nodules on the surface better than uncoated titanium substrates.

  6. Effect of Ti Doping to Maintain Structural Disorder in InOx-Based Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Shinya

    2017-12-01

    The effect of Ti doping in an indium oxide (InOx)-based semiconductor is investigated for the thin-film transistor (TFT) property and crystal structure of the film. InOx and Ti-doped InOx (InTiOx) films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering under the same O2 partial pressure conditions were systematically compared. The TFT behavior of the InOx showed higher conductivity than that of the InTiOx and was drastically changed to metallic conduction after annealing at 150 °C. Under the annealing conditions when the electrical transition to the metallic behavior occurred, the InOx film was crystallized. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the shrinkage of the In2O3 unit cell is pronounced in the case of InOx films. Thus, Ti dopants may play the role as a suppressor for shrinkage of the unit cell, i.e. maintaining neighboring In-In distances, in addition to suppression of oxygen vacancies. The In-In distance, which is related to the overlapping of In 5 s orbitals, is considered to be one of the key factor for which InOx-based materials are utilized as conducting films or semiconducting channels.

  7. On the Novel Biaxial Strain Relaxation Mechanism in Epitaxial Composition Graded La1−xSrxMnO3 Thin Film Synthesized by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishu Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel method to fabricate composition gradient, epitaxial La1−xSrxMnO3 thin films with the objective to alleviate biaxial film strain. In this work, epitaxial, composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3, and pure LaMnO3 and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films were deposited by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The crystalline and epitaxy of all films were first studied by symmetric θ–2θ X-ray diffraction (XRD and low angle XRD experiments. Detailed microstructural characterization across the film thickness was conducted by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Four compositional gradient domains were observed in the La1−xSrxMnO3 film ranging from LaMnO3 rich to La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 at the surface. A continuous reduction in the lattice parameter was observed accompanied by a significant reduction in the out-of-plane strain in the film. Fabrication of the composition gradient La1−xSrxMnO3 thin film was found to be a powerful method to relieve biaxial strain under critical thickness. Besides, the coexistence of domains with a composition variance is opening up various new possibilities of designing new nanoscale structures with unusual cross coupled properties.

  8. Ultra smooth NiO thin films on flexible plastic (PET) substrate at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering and effect of oxygen partial pressure on their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, S.; Goswami, S.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Transparent p-type nickel oxide thin films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique in argon + oxygen atmosphere with different oxygen partial pressures at room temperature. The morphology of the NiO thin films grown on PET and glass substrates was studied by atomic force microscope. The rms surface roughnesses of the films were in the range 0.63-0.65 nm. These ultra smooth nanocrystalline NiO thin films are useful for many applications. High resolution transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that the grains of NiO films on the highly flexible PET substrate were purely crystalline and spherical in shape with diameters 8-10 nm. XRD analysis also supported these results. NiO films grown on the PET substrates were found to have better crystalline quality with fewer defects than those on the glass substrates. The sheet resistances of the NiO films deposited on PET and glass substrates were not much different; having values 5.1 and 5.3 kΩ/□ and decreased to 3.05, 3.1 kΩ/□ respectively with increasing oxygen partial pressure. The thicknesses of the films on both substrates were ∼700 nm. It was also noted that further increase in oxygen partial pressure caused increase in resistivity due to formation of defects in NiO.

  9. Wet chemical etching of Al-doped ZnO film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method on textured glass substrate for energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ki Hwan; Nam, Sang Hun; Jung, Won Suk; Lee, Yong Min; Yang, Hee Su; Boo, Jin Hyo [Dept. of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The etching of glasses in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions is applied in many technological fields. Particularly, the textured transparent conductive oxide materials on the glass substrate etched by HF were used to improve the current density of solar cells. In this study, the textured glass substrate has been etched by solution and the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films have been prepared on this textured glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method. After the AZO film deposition, the surface of AZO has been etched by hydrochloric acid with different concentration and etching time. Etched AZO thin films had higher haze ratio and sheet resistance than bare AZO glass. Increases in the root-mean-square surface roughness of AZO films enhanced from 53.78 to 84.46 nm the haze ratio in above 700 nm wavelength. Our process could be applicable in texturing glass and etching AZO surface to fabricate solar cell in industrial scale. We also carried out fabricating an organic solar-cell device. Energy conversion efficiency improvement of 123% was obtained with textured AZO-based solar-cell device compared with that of nontextured solar-cell device.

  10. Structural evolution and growth mechanisms of RF-magnetron sputter-deposited hydroxyapatite thin films on the basis of unified principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna A.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Surmenev, Roman A.; Depla, Diederik

    2017-12-01

    The structural features of RF-magnetron sputter-deposited hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are investigated in order to reveal the effect of the working gas composition and the sample position of the substrate relative to the target erosion zone. The film properties were observed to change as a result of bombardment with energetic ions. XRD analysis of the coated substrates indicates that with the increase of the ion-to-atom ratio, the fiber texture changes from a mixed (11 2 bar 2) + (0002) over (0002) orientation, finally reaching a (30 3 bar 0) out-of-plane orientation at high ion-to-atom ratios. TEM reveals that the microstructure of the HA coating consists of columnar grains and differs with the coating texture. The contribution of Ji/Ja to the development of microstructure and texture of the HA coating is schematically represented and discussed. The obtained results may contribute substantially to the progress of research into the development of HA coatings with tailored properties, and these coatings may be applied on the surfaces of metal implants used in bone surgery.

  11. Microstructure and optical properties of Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3 thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjin; Li Songzhan; Zhang Baishun; Pan Ruikun; Jiang Juan; Huang Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Ba 0.65 Sr 0.35 TiO 3 thin films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The crystallization and microstructure of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electronic microstructure (SEM) and atom force microstructure (AFM). As-deposited thin films were found to be amorphous. The more intense characteristic diffraction peaks and improved crystallization can be observed in (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) thin films deposited at high temperatures and annealed at higher than 650degC. Optical constants were determined from transmittance spectra by using the envelope method. The refractive index increased from 1.778 to 1.961 as the substrate temperature increased from 560 to 650degC. Both the refractive index and extinction coefficient increased with annealing temperature. The refractive index and extinction coefficient increased when the oxygen-to-argon ratio increased from 1:4 to 1:1. The dispersion of relation of the extinction coefficient vs wavelength was also investigated. The optical band gap of BST thin films was found to be about 3.56 eV, which decreased apparently with increasing annealing temperature. (author)

  12. Physical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Codoped with Titanium and Hydrogen Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering with Different Substrate Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting titanium-doped zinc oxide (TZO thin films were prepared on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering using 1.5 wt% TiO2-doped ZnO as the target. Electrical, structural, and optical properties of films were investigated as a function of H2/(Ar + H2 flow ratios (RH and substrate temperatures (TS. The optimal RH value for achieving high conducting TZO:H thin film decreased from 10% to 1% when TS increased from RT to 300°C. The lowest resistivity of 9.2×10-4 Ω-cm was obtained as TS=100°C and RH=7.5%. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all of TZO:H films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation in the (002 direction. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed that the film surface roughness increased with increasing RH. The average visible transmittance decreased with increasing RH for the RT-deposited film, while it had not considerably changed with different RH for the 300°C-deposited films. The optical bandgap increased as RH increased, which is consistent with the Burstein-Moss effect. The figure of merits indicated that TS=100°C and RH=7.5% were optimal conditions for TZO thin films as transparent conducting electrode applications.

  13. Transparent Conductive In and Ga Doped ZnO/Cu Bi-Layered Films Deposited by DC and RF Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Song, Young-Hwan; Oh, Jung-Hyun; Heo, Sung-Bo; Kim, Daeil

    2016-01-01

    In- and Ga-doped ZnO (IGZO) films were deposited on 5 nm thick Cu film buffered poly-carbonate substrates with RF magnetron sputtering and the effects of the Cu buffer layer on the optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The IGZO single layer films exhibited an electrical resistivity of 1.2×10"-1 Ω cm while the IGZO/Cu bi-layered films exhibited a lower resistivity of 1.6×10"-3 Ω cm. With respect to optical properties, the optical band gap of the IGZO films appeared to decrease as a result of an increasing carrier concentration due to the Cu buffer layer. In addition, the RMS roughness (8.2 nm) of the IGZO films also decreased to 6.8 nm by a Cu buffer layer in AFM observation. Although the optical transmittance in the range of visible wavelengths was deteriorated by the Cu buffer layer, the IGZO films with a 5 nm thick Cu buffer layer exhibited a higher figure of merit of 2.6×10"-4 Ω"-1 compared with the IGZO single layer films due to enhanced optoelectrical performance.

  14. Transparent Conductive In and Ga Doped ZnO/Cu Bi-Layered Films Deposited by DC and RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Song, Young-Hwan; Oh, Jung-Hyun; Heo, Sung-Bo; Kim, Daeil [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In- and Ga-doped ZnO (IGZO) films were deposited on 5 nm thick Cu film buffered poly-carbonate substrates with RF magnetron sputtering and the effects of the Cu buffer layer on the optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The IGZO single layer films exhibited an electrical resistivity of 1.2×10{sup -}1 Ω cm while the IGZO/Cu bi-layered films exhibited a lower resistivity of 1.6×10{sup -}3 Ω cm. With respect to optical properties, the optical band gap of the IGZO films appeared to decrease as a result of an increasing carrier concentration due to the Cu buffer layer. In addition, the RMS roughness (8.2 nm) of the IGZO films also decreased to 6.8 nm by a Cu buffer layer in AFM observation. Although the optical transmittance in the range of visible wavelengths was deteriorated by the Cu buffer layer, the IGZO films with a 5 nm thick Cu buffer layer exhibited a higher figure of merit of 2.6×10{sup -}4 Ω{sup -}1 compared with the IGZO single layer films due to enhanced optoelectrical performance.

  15. Optical properties of zinc titanate perovskite prepared by reactive RF sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, Jarmila; Šutta, Pavol; Medlín, Rostislav; Netrvalová, Marie; Novák, Petr

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we report results from optical transmittance spectroscopy complemented with data on structure from XRD measurements to determine optical properties of a series of ZnTiO3 perovskite thin films deposited on glass by reactive magnetron co-sputtering. The members of the series differ by the titanium content that was revealed as an origin of the changes not only in structure but also in dispersive optical properties. Low porosity has been discovered and calculated using the Bruggeman effective medium approximation. An apparent blue-shift of the optical band gap energies with increasing titanium content was observed. The observed band gap engineering is a good prospective for eg optoelectronic and photocatalytic applications of ZnTiO3.

  16. Deposition of the low resistive ITO-films by means of reactive magnetron sputtering of the In/Sn target on the cold substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidik, Y. S.; Troyan, P. E.; Baturina, E. V.; Korzhenko, D. V.; Yurjev, Y. N.

    2016-06-01

    Detailed information on the deposition technology of the low-resistive ITO-films in oxygen-containing media by magnetron reactive sputtering from the In(90%)/Sn(10%) target on the cold substrate is given. Developed technology allows deposition ITO-films with sheet resistance 2-3 Ω/□, transparency higher than 90%. Developed technology is notable for high reproducibility of results and is compatible with production technology of semiconductor devices of optoelectronics.

  17. Deposition of the low resistive ITO-films by means of reactive magnetron sputtering of the In/Sn target on the cold substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhidik, Y. S.; Troyan, P. E.; Baturina, E. V.; Korzhenko, Dmitry Vladimirovich; Yuriev, Yuri Nikolaevich

    2016-01-01

    Detailed information on the deposition technology of the low-resistive ITO-films in oxygen-containing media by magnetron reactive sputtering from the In(90%)/Sn(10%) target on the cold substrate is given. Developed technology allows deposition ITO-films with sheet resistance transparency higher than 90%. Developed technology is notable for high reproducibility of results and is compatible with production technology of semiconductor devices of optoelectronics.

  18. Studies on the cross-magnetron effect in the reactive indium tin oxide deposition. Effects of an inhomogeneous plasma distribution on the coating properties in dynamic and static coating by means of a pulsed dual magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhempel, Ronny

    2008-01-01

    In the present thesis the reactive ITO deposition process under application of metallic In:Sn targets is intensively studied. The coating deposition pursues at a symmetric bipolarly pulsed dual magnetron both on resting and moving substrates. The thesis comprehends two partial fields. On the one hand the dynamic deposition process was comprehensively characterized at an near-industry test facility and successfully transformed by means of its physical parameters to an industrial coating facility. On the other hand static depositions were performed. These allow the analysis of the lateral distribution of the functional coating properties. By this a correlation to the lateral distributions of the measured plasma parameters could be elaborated [de

  19. Improvement of adhesion and barrier properties of biomedical stainless steel by deposition of YSZ coatings using RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Z.E. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CICATA-Altamira, Grupo CIAMS, Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps, México (Mexico); CICATA—Altamira, IPN. Grupo CIAMS, Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps, México (Mexico); Domínguez-Crespo, M.A., E-mail: mdominguezc@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CICATA-Altamira, Grupo CIAMS, Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps, México (Mexico); Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Onofre-Bustamante, E. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CICATA-Altamira, Grupo CIAMS, Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps, México (Mexico); Andraca Adame, J. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Nanociencias Micro y Nanotecnologías, Departamento de DRX, C. P. 07300, Mexico, DF, México (Mexico); Dorantes-Rosales, H. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Metalurgia, C. P. 07300 Mexico, DF, México (Mexico)

    2014-05-01

    The AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) has been widely used in both artificial knee and hip joints in biomedical applications. In the present study, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO{sub 2} + 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited on AISI 316L SS by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different power densities (50–250 W) and deposition times (30–120 min) from a YSZ target. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the surface modification on the corrosion performance of AISI 316L SS were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution using an electrochemical test on both the virgin and coated samples. The YSZ coatings have a (111) preferred orientation during crystal growth along the c-axis for short deposition times (30–60 min), whereas a polycrystalline structure forms during deposition times from 90 to 120 min. The corrosion protective character of the YSZ coatings depends on the crystal size and film thickness. A significant increase in adhesion and corrosion resistance by at least a factor of 46 and a higher breakdown potential were obtained for the deposited coatings at 200 W (120 min). - Highlights: • Well-formed and protective YSZ coatings were achieved on AISI 316L SS substrates. • Films grown at high power and long deposition time have polycrystalline structures. • The crystal size varies from ∼ 5 to 30 nm as both power and deposition time increased. • The differences of corrosion resistance are attributed to internal film structure.

  20. Improvement of adhesion and barrier properties of biomedical stainless steel by deposition of YSZ coatings using RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Z.E.; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Onofre-Bustamante, E.; Andraca Adame, J.; Dorantes-Rosales, H.

    2014-01-01

    The AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) has been widely used in both artificial knee and hip joints in biomedical applications. In the present study, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO 2 + 8% Y 2 O 3 ) films were deposited on AISI 316L SS by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different power densities (50–250 W) and deposition times (30–120 min) from a YSZ target. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the surface modification on the corrosion performance of AISI 316L SS were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution using an electrochemical test on both the virgin and coated samples. The YSZ coatings have a (111) preferred orientation during crystal growth along the c-axis for short deposition times (30–60 min), whereas a polycrystalline structure forms during deposition times from 90 to 120 min. The corrosion protective character of the YSZ coatings depends on the crystal size and film thickness. A significant increase in adhesion and corrosion resistance by at least a factor of 46 and a higher breakdown potential were obtained for the deposited coatings at 200 W (120 min). - Highlights: • Well-formed and protective YSZ coatings were achieved on AISI 316L SS substrates. • Films grown at high power and long deposition time have polycrystalline structures. • The crystal size varies from ∼ 5 to 30 nm as both power and deposition time increased. • The differences of corrosion resistance are attributed to internal film structure

  1. Magnetron reactively sputtered Ti-DLC coatings on HNBR rubber : The influence of substrate bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, X.L.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Ti-containing diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) coatings have been deposited on HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubber and also on Si wafer as reference via unbalanced magnetroli reactive sputtering from a Ti target in C2H2/Ar plasma. The deposition rates of coatings on rubber and Si

  2. Composition and morphology of metal-containing diamond-like carbon films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, C.; Pascual, E.; Oncins, G.; Canal, C.; Andujar, J.L.; Bertran, E.

    2005-01-01

    The addition of metal atoms within the matrix of diamond-like carbon films leads to the improvement of their mechanical properties. The present paper discusses the relationship between the composition and morphology of metal-containing (W, Nb, Mo, Ti) diamond-like carbon thin films deposited at room temperature by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metal target in an argon and methane atmosphere. Composition was measured either by electron microprobe technique or by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and shows a smooth variation with relative methane flow. High relative methane flows lead to a bulk saturation of carbon atoms, which leads to a lack of homogeneity in the films as confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Cross-section micrographs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and revealed a structure strongly influenced by the metal inserted and its abundance. The surface pattern obtained by scanning electrochemical potential microscopy provided the metallicity distribution. These measurements were completed with atomic force microscopy of the surface. Selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction measurements provided data of the crystalline structure along with nano-crystallite size. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy provided images of these crystallites

  3. Influence of reactive oxygen species during deposition of iron oxide films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranak, V.; Hubicka, Z.; Cada, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Wulff, H.; Helm, C. A.; Hippler, R.

    2018-03-01

    Iron oxide films were deposited using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of an iron cathode in an argon/oxygen gas mixture at different gas pressures (0.5 Pa, 1.5 Pa, and 5.0 Pa). The HiPIMS system was operated at a repetition frequency f  =  100 Hz with a duty cycle of 1%. A main goal is a comparison of film growth during conventional and electron cyclotron wave resonance-assisted HiPIMS. The deposition plasma was investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy and energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Active oxygen species were detected and their kinetic energy was found to depend on the gas pressure. Deposited films were characterized by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. Optical properties and crystallinity of as-deposited films were found to depend on the deposition conditions. Deposition of hematite iron oxide films with the HiPIMS-ECWR discharge is attributed to the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species.

  4. Microstructure, chemical states, and mechanical properties of V–C–Co coatings prepared by non-reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Bo; Zhan, Zhaolin; Huang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    V–C–Co coatings have been prepared by non-reactive magnetron co-sputtering from VC and Co targets. The microstructure, chemical states, and mechanical properties are examined as a function of Co content in the coatings. The coatings are dense, with columnar growth structures. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies identify a nanocomposite microstructure for the 12.4 at.% Co coating, in which ligament-like Co-rich regions partially separate the nanocrystalline VC grains. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal a noticeable charge transfer from Co 2p states to C 1s states. This charge transfer, in addition to the ligament-like Co-rich regions as revealed by HRTEM, points to the formation of a strong Co/VC interface. The nanoindentation hardness of the coatings drops steadily with the Co content, from 29 GPa for pure VC to ∼ 21 GPa for the 12.4 at.% Co coating. Meanwhile, the plasticity characteristic increased from 0.42 to 0.53. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite V–C–Co coatings with strong Co/VC interfaces were formed. • Found nanocrystalline VC grains separated by ∼ 1 nm thin Co-rich ligaments. • A noticeable amount of C-Co bonds between VC and Co is identified. • V–C–Co coatings exhibited a higher plasticity characteristic than VC

  5. Microstructure, chemical states, and mechanical properties of V–C–Co coatings prepared by non-reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaojuan [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650000 (China); Wang, Bo [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Zhan, Zhaolin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650000 (China); Huang, Feng, E-mail: huangfeng@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China)

    2013-07-01

    V–C–Co coatings have been prepared by non-reactive magnetron co-sputtering from VC and Co targets. The microstructure, chemical states, and mechanical properties are examined as a function of Co content in the coatings. The coatings are dense, with columnar growth structures. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies identify a nanocomposite microstructure for the 12.4 at.% Co coating, in which ligament-like Co-rich regions partially separate the nanocrystalline VC grains. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal a noticeable charge transfer from Co 2p states to C 1s states. This charge transfer, in addition to the ligament-like Co-rich regions as revealed by HRTEM, points to the formation of a strong Co/VC interface. The nanoindentation hardness of the coatings drops steadily with the Co content, from 29 GPa for pure VC to ∼ 21 GPa for the 12.4 at.% Co coating. Meanwhile, the plasticity characteristic increased from 0.42 to 0.53. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite V–C–Co coatings with strong Co/VC interfaces were formed. • Found nanocrystalline VC grains separated by ∼ 1 nm thin Co-rich ligaments. • A noticeable amount of C-Co bonds between VC and Co is identified. • V–C–Co coatings exhibited a higher plasticity characteristic than VC.

  6. Fabrication of thin ZnO films with wide-range tuned optical properties by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, A.; Tselikov, G.; Dilone, D.; Rao, K. V.; Kabashin, A. V.; Belova, L.

    2018-02-01

    We report the manufacturing of thin zinc oxide films by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature, and examine their structural and optical properties. We show that the partial oxygen pressure in DC mode can have dramatic effect on absorption and refractive index (RI) of the films in a broad spectral range. In particular, the change of the oxygen pressure from 7% to 5% can lead to either conventional crystalline ZnO films having low absorption and characteristic descending dependence of RI from 2.4-2.7 RIU in the visible to 1.8-2 RIU in the near-infrared (1600 nm) range, or to untypical films, composed of ZnO nano-crystals embedded into amorphous matrix, exhibiting unexpectedly high absorption in the visible-infrared region and ascending dependence of RI with values varying from 1.5 RIU in the visible to 4 RIU in the IR (1600 nm), respectively. Untypical optical characteristics in the second case are explained by defects in ZnO structure arising due to under-oxidation of ZnO crystals. We also show that the observed defect-related film structure remains stable even after annealing of films under relatively high temperatures (30 min under 450 °C). We assume that both types of films can be of importance for photovoltaic (as contact or active layers, respectively), as well as for chemical or biological sensing, optoelectronics etc.

  7. Structural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of NbCN-Ag Nanocomposite Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjing Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, reactive magnetron sputtering was applied for preparing NbCN-Ag films with different Ag additions. Ag contents in the as-deposited NbCN-Ag films were achieved by adjusting Ag target power. The composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, and tribological properties were characterized using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, Raman spectrometry, nano-indentation, and high-temperature sliding wear tests. Results indicated that face-centered cubic (fcc NbN, hexagonal close-packed (hcp NbN and fcc Ag, amorphous C and amorphous CNx phase co-existed in the as-deposited NbCN-Ag films. After doping with 2.0 at.% Ag, the hardness and elastic modulus reached a maximum value of 33 GPa and 340 GPa, respectively. Tribological properties were enhanced by adding Ag in NbCN-Ag films at room temperature. When the test temperature rose from 300 to 500 °C, the addition of Ag was found beneficial for the friction properties, showing a lowest friction coefficient of ~0.35 for NbCN-12.9 at.% Ag films at 500 °C. This was mainly attributed to the existence of AgOx, NbOx, and AgNbOx lubrication phases that acted as solid lubricants to modify the wear mechanism.

  8. The microstructure and wettability of the TiO{sub x} films synthesized by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Zeng [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation and Die and Mould Technology Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: linzengsy@gmail.com; Liu Kun; Zhang Yichen; Yue Xiangji; Song Guiqiu [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Ba Dechun [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)], E-mail: dechunba@yahoo.com

    2009-01-25

    Different chemical state of titanium oxide films were deposited on commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) by reactive DC magnetron sputtering under different oxygen flow rates to examine a possibility of their applications to endovascular stents. The chemical composition and crystal structure of the obtained films were analyzed by XPS and XRD, respectively. In dependence on the deposition parameters employed, the obtained films demonstrated different mixture of anatase TiO{sub 2}, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO and Ti. The wettability of the films was measured by the water contact angle variation. By formation of titanium oxide film on CP Ti, contact angle was decreased. In order to modify and control the surface wettability, the resultant TiO{sub x} films were etched subsequently by different plasma. The wettability was influenced by etched process according to the decreased contact angle values of etched TiO{sub x} film. Furthermore, TiO{sub x} films became highly hydrophilic by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and returned to the initial relatively hydrophobic state by visible-light (VIS) irradiation. The wettability of the TiO{sub x} film was enabled to convert between hydrophilic and hydrophobic reversibly by alternative UV and VIS irradiation. By adjusting deposition parameter and further modification process, the wettability of the TiO{sub x} films can be changed freely in the range of 0-90 deg.

  9. Characterization and temperature controlling property of TiAlN coatings deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.T.; Wang, J.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.A.; Fan, X.Y.; Wu, Z.G.; Yan, P.X.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) ternary coating is a potential material which is expected to be applied on satellite for thermal controlling. In order to investigate thermal controlling property, TiAlN coatings were deposited on Si wafers with different N 2 and Ar flux ratio by reactive magnetron co-sputtering. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical reflectance are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), atom force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectrophotometer, respectively. The orientation of the coatings depends on the N 2 /Ar flux ratio. The coatings deposited with N 2 /Ar ratio of 10, 30 and 60% show the cubic-TiN [2 2 0] preferred orientation and the coating deposited with N 2 /Ar ratio of 100% exhibits the phase of hexagonal-AlN and cubic-TiN. The surface of the coatings becomes more compact and smoother with the N 2 /Ar ratios increase. XPS spectrum indicates that the oxides (TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 ), oxynitride (TiN x O y ) and nitrides (TiN and AlN x ) appear at the surface of the coatings. Ignoring internal power, the optimum equilibrium temperature of TiAlN coatings is 18 deg. C and the equilibrium temperature after heat-treated has slight change, which provides the prospective application on thermal controlling

  10. Effects of oxygen contents on the electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.-H.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochromism have been extensively investigated due to their potential applications such as smart window of architecture and automobile glazing to save energy and modulate the transmittance of light and solar radiation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of sputtering conditions on the microstructure and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. Experimental results showed that the deposition rate of WO 3-y films decreased with increasing oxygen flow rate. XRD and Raman spectra analysis suggests that the WO 3-y films deposited at various oxygen flow rates are poor crystallinity or amorphous. The transmission change between colored and bleached states at a wavelength of 550 nm was 61.4% as the oxygen content was 60%. The coloration efficiency slightly increases with increasing oxygen flow rate in the low oxygen content region and reaching a maximum value of 38.94 cm 2 /C at 60% oxygen content. In addition, the films deposited at 60% oxygen content showed a good reversibility. The effects of lithium ions intercalated on the transmission of WO 3-y films were also discussed

  11. Synthesis and characterization of porous crystalline SiC thin films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, Afzaal, E-mail: afzaalqamar@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, Nilore, Islamabad, Punjab 42600 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Arshad [National Institute of Laser and Optronics, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sarwar, Tuba; Ahmed, Nadeem [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, Nilore, Islamabad, Punjab 42600 (Pakistan)

    2011-05-15

    Hexagonal SiC thin films have been deposited using radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering technique by varying the substrate temperature and other deposition conditions. Prior to deposition surface modification of the substrate Si(1 0 0) played an important role in deposition of the hexagonal SiC structure. The effect of substrate temperature during deposition on structure, composition and surface morphology of the SiC films has been analyzed using atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. X-ray diffraction in conventional {theta}-2{theta} mode and omega scan mode revealed that the deposited films were crystalline having 8H-SiC structure and crystallinity improved with increase of deposition temperature. The bonding order and Si-C composition within the films showed improvement with the increase of deposition temperature. The surface of thin films grew in the shape of globes and columns depending upon deposition temperature. The optical properties also showed improvement with increase of deposition temperature and the results obtained by ellipsometry reinforced the results of other techniques.

  12. Preparation of p-type transparent conducting tin-antimony oxide thin films by DC reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Zhenguo [College of Electronic Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou (China); State Key Laboratory for Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Xi, Junhua; Huo, Lijuan; Zhao, Yi [State Key Laboratory for Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2008-07-01

    P-type transparent conducting tin-antimony oxide (TAO) films were successfully prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering followed by post annealing in the air. Structural, optical and electrical properties of the TAO films were investigated. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the films are polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. UV-Visible absorption and transmittance spectra showed that the optical band-gap of the TAO films is about 3.90 eV, and the overall transmittance is higher than 85% in the visible region. Hall effect measurement indicated that the Sn/Sb ratio is a critical parameter to get p-type conducting TAO films. It was found that 0.19

  13. Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menner, R.; Hariskos, D.; Linss, V.; Powalla, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sputtering ZnO as transparent front contact (TCO) is standard in today's industrial scale Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) module manufacturing. Although innovative concepts like rotatable magnetron sputtering from ceramic targets have been realised, costs are still high due to expensive ceramic targets. Significant cost reductions are expected by using reactive sputtering of metallic targets. Therefore, ZSW and industrial partners investigated the reactive sputtering of Al-doped zinc oxide (ZAO) as TCO on CIGS absorbers of high quality and industrial relevance. The reactive DC sputtering from rotatable magnetron targets is controlled in the transition mode by adjusting oxygen flow and discharge voltage. Optimisation leads to ZAO films with a TCO quality nearly comparable to standard films deposited by DC ceramic sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Hall analyses of the ZAO films are performed. Medium-size CIGS modules are coated with reactively sputtered ZAO, resulting in 12.8% module efficiency and surpassing the efficiency of the ceramic witness device. Cd-free buffered devices are also successfully coated with reactive TCO. Damp heat stability according to IEC61646 is met by all reactively sputtered devices.

  14. Composition, structure and properties of SiN x films fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wan, G.J.; Leng, Y.X.; Chen, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) thin films are of special interest in both scientific research and industrial applications due to their remarkable properties such as high thermal stability, chemical inertness, high hardness and good dielectric properties. In this work, SiN x films were fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity single crystal silicon targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effect of N 2 partial pressure on the film composition, chemical bonding configurations, surface morphology, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties were investigated. We showed that with increased N 2 partial pressure, the N to Si ratio (N/Si) in the film increased and N atoms are preferentially incorporated in the NSi 3 stoichiometric configuration. It leads the Si-N network a tendency to chemical order. Films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The film surface transformed from a loose granular structure with microporosity to a homogeneous, continuous, smooth and dense structure. A progressive densification of the film microstructure occurs as the N 2 fraction is increased. The reduced surface roughness and the increased N incorporation in the film give rise to the increased contact angle with double-distilled water from 24 o to 49.6 o . To some extent, the SiN x films deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering are hydrophilic in nature. The as-deposited SiN x films exhibit good optical transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap E opt can be varied from 1.68 eV for a-Si to 3.62 eV for SiN x films, depending on the synthesis parameters. With the increase of the N/Si atomic ratio, wear resistance of the SiN x films was improved, a consequence of increased hardness and elastic modulus. The SiN x films have lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction, where the SiN x films experienced only fatigue wear

  15. Fabrication and Physical Properties of Titanium Nitride/Hydroxyapatite Composites on Polyether Ether Ketone by RF Magnetron Sputtering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupangtha, W.; Boonyawan, D.

    2017-09-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings have been used very successfully in a variety of applications because of their excellent properties, such as the high hardness meaning good wear resistance and also used for covering medical implants. Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that contributes to the restoration of bone tissue, which together with titanium nitride may contribute to obtaining a superior composite in terms of mechanical and bone tissue interaction matters. This paper aims to explain how to optimize deposition conditions for films synthesis on PEEK by varying sputtering parameters such as nitrogen flow rate and direction, deposition time, d-s (target-to-substrate distance) and 13.56 MHz RF power. The plasma conditions used to deposit films were monitored by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Titanium nitride/Hydroxyapatite composite films were performed by gas mixture with nitrogen and argon ratio of 1:3 and target-to-substrate distance at 8 cm. The gold colour, as-deposited film was found on PEEK with high hardness and higher surface energy than uncoated PEEK. X-ray diffraction characterization study was carried to study the crystal structural properties of these composites.

  16. Optical constants, dispersion energy parameters and dielectric properties of ultra-smooth nanocrystalline BiVO4 thin films prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S.; Das, N. S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    BiVO4 thin films have been prepared through radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering of a pre-fabricated BiVO4 target on ITO coated glass (ITO-glass) substrate and bare glass substrates. BiVO4 target material was prepared through solid-state reaction method by heating Bi2O3 and V2O5 mixture at 800 °C for 8 h. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, LCR meter, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. BiVO4 thin films deposited on the ITO-glass substrate are much smoother compared to the thin films prepared on bare glass substrate. The rms surface roughness calculated from the AFM images comes out to be 0.74 nm and 4.2 nm for the films deposited on the ITO-glass substrate and bare glass substrate for the deposition time 150 min respectively. Optical constants and energy dispersion parameters of these extra-smooth BiVO4 thin films have been investigated in detail. Dielectric properties of the BiVO4 thin films on ITO-glass substrate were also investigated. The frequency dependence of dielectric constant of the BiVO4 thin films has been measured in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 2 MHz. It was found that the dielectric constant increased from 145 to 343 at 20 Hz as the film thickness increased from 90 nm to 145 nm (deposition time increased from 60 min to 150 min). It shows higher dielectric constant compared to the literature value of BiVO4.

  17. Structure and optical band-gap energies of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhimou; Suzuki, Masato; Yokoyama, Shin

    2005-01-01

    The structure and optical band-gap energies of Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST0.5) thin films prepared on SiO 2 /Si and fused quartz substrates by RF magnetron plasma sputtering were studied in terms of deposition temperature and film thickness. Highly (100)-oriented BST0.5 thin films were successfully sputtered on a Si substrate with an approximately 1.0-μm-thick SiO 2 layer at a deposition temperature of above 450degC. The optical transmittance of BST0.5 thin films weakly depended on the magnitude of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensity. This is very helpful for monolithic integration of BST0.5 films for electrooptical functions directly onto a SiO 2 /Si substrate. The band-gap energies showed a strong dependence on the deposition temperature and film thickness. It was mainly related to the quantum size effect and the influence of the crystallinity of thin films, such as grain boundaries, grain size, oriented growth, and the existence of an amorphous phase. The band-gap energy values, which were much larger than those of single crystals, decreased with the increase in the deposition temperature and the thickness of BST0.5 thin films. The band-gap energy of 311-nm-thick amorphous BST0.5 thin film was about 4.45 eV and that of (100)-oriented BST0.5 thin film with a thickness of 447 nm was about 3.89 eV. It is believed that the dependence of the band-gap energies of the thin films on the crystallinity for various values of deposition temperature and film thickness means that there could be application in integrated optical devices. (author)

  18. Effects of annealing temperature on the structural, mechanical and electrical properties of flexible bismuth telluride thin films prepared by high-pressure RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkaselit, Kamolmad; Sakulkalavek, Aparporn; Sakdanuphab, Rachsak

    2017-09-01

    In this work Bi x Te y thin films were deposited on polyimide substrate by a high-pressure RF magnetron sputtering technique. The deposited condition was maintained using a high pressure of 1.3  ×  10-2 mbar. The as-deposited films show Bi2Te3 structure with Te excess phase (Te-rich Bi2Te3). After that, as-deposited films were annealed in the vacuum chamber under the N2 flow at temperatures from 250 to 400 °C for one hour. The microstructure, cross-section, [Bi]:[Te] content, and the mechanical, electrical and thermoelectric properties of as-deposited and different annealed films were investigated. It was found that the annealing temperature enhanced the crystallinity and film density for the temperature range 250-300 °C. However, the crystal structure of Bi2Te3 almost changed to the BiTe structure after annealing the films above 350 °C, due to the re-evaporation of Te. Nano-indentation results and cross-section images indicated that the hardness of the films related to the film density. The maximum hardness of 2.30 GPa was observed by annealing the films at 300 °C. As a result of an improvement in crystallinity and phase changes, the highest power factor of 11.45  ×  10-4 W m-1K-2 at 300 °C with the carrier concentration and mobility of 6.15  ×  1020 cm-3 and 34.03 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, was achieved for the films annealed at 400 °C. Contribution at the 4th Southeast Asia Conference on Thermoelectrics 2016 (SACT 2016), 15-18 December 2016, Da Nang City, Vietnam.

  19. High-rate reactive magnetron sputtering of zirconia films for laser optics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juskevicius, K.; Subacius, A.; Drazdys, R.; Juskenas, R.; Audronis, M.; Matthews, A.; Leyland, A.

    2014-01-01

    ZrO 2 exhibits low optical absorption in the near-UV range and is one of the highest laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) materials; it is, therefore, very attractive for laser optics applications. This paper reports explorations of reactive sputtering technology for deposition of ZrO 2 films with low extinction coefficient k values in the UV spectrum region at low substrate temperature. A high deposition rate (64 % of the pure metal rate) process is obtained by employing active feedback reactive gas control which creates a stable and repeatable deposition processes in the transition region. Substrate heating at 200 C was found to have no significant effect on the optical ZrO 2 film properties. The addition of nitrogen to a closed-loop controlled process was found to have mostly negative effects in terms of deposition rate and optical properties. Open-loop O 2 gas-regulated ZrO 2 film deposition is slow and requires elevated (200 C) substrate temperature or post-deposition annealing to reduce absorption losses. Refractive indices of the films were distributed in the range n = 2.05-2.20 at 1,000 nm and extinction coefficients were in the range k = 0.6 x 10 -4 and 4.8 x 10 -3 at 350 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed crystalline ZrO 2 films consisted of monoclinic + tetragonal phases when produced in Ar/O 2 atmosphere and monoclinic + rhombohedral or a single rhombohedral phase when produced in Ar/O 2 + N 2 . Optical and physical properties of the ZrO 2 layers produced in this study are suitable for high-power laser applications in the near-UV range. (orig.)

  20. Deposition and characterization of TaAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering; Deposicao e caracterizacao de filmes finos de TaAIN depositados por magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.B.; Fernandez, D.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Tentardini, E.K. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Hubler, R. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), RS (Brazil); Silva Junior, A.H. da, E-mail: brito-g@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Phase stability, oxidation resistance and great mechanical properties are the main objectives when synthesizing protective coatings. The tantalum nitride (TaN) has aroused interest because of its high temperature stability, chemical inertness and thermal conductivity. However, it has a low hardness value when compared to other coatings. Researches has shown that one way to improvements in the properties of a thin film is by adding other elements in the deposition process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to deposit thin films of TaAlN by magnetron sputtering, changing the aluminum concentration of 2, 5, 7, to 14%. Then the coatings were characterized by EDS, RBS, GIXRD and nanohardness. In this study was found that the aluminum deposited did not change the oxidation resistance of the coating, and the highest value of hardness was 28 GPa for the sample with 14 at.%. (author)

  1. The influence of annealing on yttrium oxide thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering: Process and microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium oxide thin films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering in different deposition condition with various oxygen flow rates. The annealing influence on the yttrium oxide film microstructure is investigated. The oxygen flow shows a hysteresis behavior on the deposition rate. With a low oxygen flow rate, the so called metallic mode process with a high deposition rate (up to 1.4µm/h was achieved, while with a high oxygen flow rate, the process was considered to be in the poisoned mode with an extremely low deposition rate (around 20nm/h. X-ray diffraction (XRD results show that the yttrium oxide films that were produced in the metallic mode represent a mixture of different crystal structures including the metastable monoclinic phase and the stable cubic phase, while the poisoned mode products show a dominating monoclinic phase. The thin films prepared in metallic mode have relatively dense structures with less porosity. Annealing at 600 °C for 15h, as a structure stabilizing process, caused a phase transformation that changes the metastable monoclinic phase to stable cubic phase for both poisoned mode and metallic mode. The composition of yttrium oxide thin films changed from nonstoichiometric to stoichiometric together with a lattice parameter variation during annealing process. For the metallic mode deposition however, cracks were formed due to the thermal expansion coefficient difference between thin film and the substrate material which was not seen in poisoned mode deposition. The yttrium oxide thin films that deposited in different modes give various application options as a nuclear material.

  2. Characterization and temperature controlling property of TiAlN coatings deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.T. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, J. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); National Key Laboratory of Surface Engineering, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.A.; Fan, X.Y.; Wu, Z.G. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yan, P.X. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute Chemical and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: pxyan@lzu.edu.cn

    2009-03-20

    Titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) ternary coating is a potential material which is expected to be applied on satellite for thermal controlling. In order to investigate thermal controlling property, TiAlN coatings were deposited on Si wafers with different N{sub 2} and Ar flux ratio by reactive magnetron co-sputtering. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical reflectance are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), atom force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectrophotometer, respectively. The orientation of the coatings depends on the N{sub 2}/Ar flux ratio. The coatings deposited with N{sub 2}/Ar ratio of 10, 30 and 60% show the cubic-TiN [2 2 0] preferred orientation and the coating deposited with N{sub 2}/Ar ratio of 100% exhibits the phase of hexagonal-AlN and cubic-TiN. The surface of the coatings becomes more compact and smoother with the N{sub 2}/Ar ratios increase. XPS spectrum indicates that the oxides (TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), oxynitride (TiN{sub x}O{sub y}) and nitrides (TiN and AlN{sub x}) appear at the surface of the coatings. Ignoring internal power, the optimum equilibrium temperature of TiAlN coatings is 18 deg. C and the equilibrium temperature after heat-treated has slight change, which provides the prospective application on thermal controlling.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of epitaxial ScN films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto MgO(001) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrova, Polina V.; Maassen, Jesse; Favaloro, Tela; Saha, Bivas; Salamat, Shuaib; Rui Koh, Yee; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.

    2013-04-01

    Epitaxial ScN(001) thin films were grown on MgO(001) substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The deposition was performed in an Ar/N2 atmosphere at 2 × 10-3 Torr at a substrate temperature of 850 °C in a high vacuum chamber with a base pressure of 10-8 Torr. In spite of oxygen contamination of 1.6 ± 1 at. %, the electrical resistivity, electron mobility, and carrier concentration obtained from a typical film grown under these conditions by room temperature Hall measurements are 0.22 mΩ cm, 106 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 2.5 × 1020 cm-3, respectively. These films exhibit remarkable thermoelectric power factors of 3.3-3.5 × 10-3 W/mK2 in the temperature range of 600 K to 840 K. The cross-plane thermal conductivity is 8.3 W/mK at 800 K yielding an estimated ZT of 0.3. Theoretical modeling of the thermoelectric properties of ScN calculated using a mean-free-path of 23 nm at 300 K is in very good agreement with the experiment. These results also demonstrate that further optimization of the power factor of ScN is possible. First-principles density functional theory combined with the site occupancy disorder technique was used to investigate the effect of oxygen contamination on the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of ScN. The computational results suggest that oxygen atoms in ScN mix uniformly on the N site forming a homogeneous solid solution alloy. Behaving as an n-type donor, oxygen causes a shift of the Fermi level in ScN into the conduction band without altering the band structure and the density of states.

  4. High rate reactive sputtering in an opposed cathode closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, William D.; Rudnik, Paul J.; Graham, Michael E.; Rohde, Suzanne L.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to an opposed cathode sputtering system constructed with the ability to coat parts with a size up to 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Initial trials with this system revealed very low substrate bias currents. When the AlNiCo magnets in the two opposed cathodes were arranged in a mirrored configuration, the plasma density at the substrate was low, and the substrate bias current density was less than 1 mA/sq cm. If the magnets were arranged in a closed-field configuration where the field lines from one set of magnets were coupled with the other set, the substrate bias current density was as high as 5.7 mA/sq cm when NdFeB magnets were used. In the closed-field configuration, the substrate bias current density was related to the magnetic field strength between the two cathodes and to the sputtering pressure. Hard well-adhered TiN coatings were reactively sputtered in the opposed cathode system in the closed-field configuration, but the mirrored configuration produced films with poor adhesion because of etching problems and low plasma density at the substrate.

  5. SnO{sub 2}:F thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering: effect of the SnF{sub 2} amount in the target on the physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Moure F, F. [universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Facultad de Quimica Materiales, Queretaro 76010, Queretaro (Mexico); Guillen C, A.; Nieto Z, K. E.; Quinones G, J. G.; Hernandez H, A.; Melendez L, M.; Olvera, M. de la L., E-mail: fcomoure@hotmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-08-01

    SnO{sub 2}:F thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering onto glass substrates using SnF{sub 2} as fluorine source. The films were deposited under a mixed argon/hydrogen atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 500 C. The X-ray diffraction shows that polycrystalline films were grown with a phases mixture of SnO{sub 2} and Sn O. The optical transmittance is between 80 and 90%. The physical properties of the films suggest that SnO{sub 2} thin films grown with small SnF{sub 2} content in the target can be considered as candidates for transparent electrodes. (Author)

  6. Hetero-epitaxial growth of TiC films on MgO(001) at 100 °C by DC reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braic, M.; Zoita, N.C.; Danila, M.; Grigorescu, C.E.A.; Logofatu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hetero-epitaxial TiC thin films were deposited at 100 °C on MgO(001) by DC reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixture of Ar and CH 4 . The 62 nm thick films were analyzed for elemental composition and chemical bonding by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The crystallographic structure investigation by high resolution X-ray diffraction revealed that the films consist of two layers: an interface partially strained epilayer with high crystalline quality, and a relaxed layer, formed by columnar grains, maintaining the epitaxial relationship with the substrate. The films presented smooth surfaces (RMS roughness ~ 0.55 nm), with circular equi-sized grains/crystallites, as observed by atomic force microscopy. The Hall measurements in Van der Pauw geometry revealed relatively high resistivity value ~ 620 μΩ cm, ascribed to electron scattering on interfaces, on grain boundaries and on different defects/dislocations. - Highlights: • Hetero-epitaxial TiC 0.84 thin films were grown on MgO(001) at 100 °C by magnetron sputtering. • 62 nm thick films were synthesized by magnetron sputtering, using Ti, Ar and CH 4 . • The film comprises a partially strained interface epilayer and a relaxed top layer. • Both layers preserve the epitaxial relationship with the substrate. • Low RMS surface roughness ~ 0.55 nm and grains with mean lateral size of ~ 38.5 nm were observed

  7. Hetero-epitaxial growth of TiC films on MgO(001) at 100 °C by DC reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braic, M. [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor St., 077125 Magurele (Romania); Zoita, N.C., E-mail: cnzoita@inoe.ro [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor St., 077125 Magurele (Romania); Danila, M. [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae Blvd., 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Grigorescu, C.E.A. [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor St., 077125 Magurele (Romania); Logofatu, C. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor St., 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2015-08-31

    Hetero-epitaxial TiC thin films were deposited at 100 °C on MgO(001) by DC reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixture of Ar and CH{sub 4}. The 62 nm thick films were analyzed for elemental composition and chemical bonding by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The crystallographic structure investigation by high resolution X-ray diffraction revealed that the films consist of two layers: an interface partially strained epilayer with high crystalline quality, and a relaxed layer, formed by columnar grains, maintaining the epitaxial relationship with the substrate. The films presented smooth surfaces (RMS roughness ~ 0.55 nm), with circular equi-sized grains/crystallites, as observed by atomic force microscopy. The Hall measurements in Van der Pauw geometry revealed relatively high resistivity value ~ 620 μΩ cm, ascribed to electron scattering on interfaces, on grain boundaries and on different defects/dislocations. - Highlights: • Hetero-epitaxial TiC{sub 0.84} thin films were grown on MgO(001) at 100 °C by magnetron sputtering. • 62 nm thick films were synthesized by magnetron sputtering, using Ti, Ar and CH{sub 4}. • The film comprises a partially strained interface epilayer and a relaxed top layer. • Both layers preserve the epitaxial relationship with the substrate. • Low RMS surface roughness ~ 0.55 nm and grains with mean lateral size of ~ 38.5 nm were observed.

  8. Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Anna University, Dindugal-624622 (India); Subramanian, N. Sankara [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai -625015, Tamilnadu (India); Loganathan, S. [Ion Plating, Titan Industries Ltd., Hosur - 635126, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-04-24

    Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

  9. Cathode and ion-luminescence of Eu:ZnO thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma decomposition of non-volatile precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Rostra, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC, Univ. Sevilla, C/Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ferrer, Francisco J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CSIC, Univ. Sevilla, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Martín, Inocencio R. [Departamento de Física Fundamental y Experimental, Electrónica y Sistemas, U. La Laguna, C/Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n, E-38206 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Yubero, Francisco [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC, Univ. Sevilla, C/Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    This paper reports the luminescent behavior of Eu:ZnO thin films prepared by an one-step procedure that combines reactive magnetron sputtering deposition of ZnO with the plasma activated decomposition of a non-volatile acetylacetonate precursor of Eu sublimated in an effusion cell. Chemical composition and microstructure of the Eu:ZnO thin films have been characterized by several methods and their photo-, cathode- and ion-luminescent properties studied as a function of Eu concentration. The high transparency and well controlled optical properties of the films have demonstrated to be ideal for the development of cathode- and ion- luminescence sensors.

  10. Hybrid biocomposites based on titania nanotubes and a hydroxyapatite coating deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering: Surface topography, structure, and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernozem, Roman V.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Krause, Bärbel; Baumbach, Tilo; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tyurin, Alexander I.; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias; Surmenev, Roman A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, biocomposites based on porous titanium oxide structures and a calcium phosphate (CaP) or hydroxyapatite (HA) coating are described and prepared. Nanotubes (NTs) with different pore dimensions were processed using anodic oxidation of Ti substrates in a NH4F-containing electrolyte solution at anodization voltages of 30 and 60 V with a DC power supply. The external diameters of the nanotubes prepared at 30 V and 60 V were 53 ± 10 and 98 ± 16 nm, respectively. RF-magnetron sputtering of the HA target in a single deposition run was performed to prepare a coating on the surface of TiO2 NTs prepared at 30 and 60 V. The thickness of the CaP coating deposited on the mirror-polished Si substrate in the same deposition run with TiO2 NTs was determined by optical ellipsometry (SE) 95 ± 5 nm. Uncoated and CaP-coated NTs were annealed at 500 °C in air. Afterwards, the presence of TiO2 (anatase) was observed. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nanoindentation results revealed the influence that the NT dimensions had on the CaP coating deposition process. The tubular surfaces of the NTs were completely coated with the HA coating when prepared at 30 V, and no homogeneous CaP coating was observed when prepared at 60 V. The XRD patterns show peaks assigned to crystalline HA only for the coated TiO2 NTs prepared at 30 V. High-resolution XPS spectra show binding energies (BE) of Ca 2p, P 2p and O 1s core-levels corresponding to HA and amorphous calcium phosphate on TiO2 NTs prepared at 30 V and 60 V, respectively. Fabrication of TiO2 NTs results in a significant decrease to the elastic modulus and nanohardness compared to the Ti substrate. The porous structure of the NTs causes an increase in the elastic strain to failure of the coating (H/E) and the parameter used to describe the resistance of the material to plastic deformation (H3/E2) at the nanoscale level compared to the Ti substrate. Furthermore

  11. Residual stress, mechanical and microstructure properties of multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN coating produced by R.F Magnetron discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaouina, B., E-mail: b.bouaouina@gmail.com [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Besnard, A. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech—LaBoMaP, 71250 Cluny (France); Abaidia, S.E. [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Haid, F. [CDTA, Plasma discharges Group, Baba hassen, Algers (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Depositing of crystallized molybdenum nitride and chromium nitride multilayer at room temperature. • Correlation between stress measurement and the shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N. • Studied the effect of the bi-layer thickness on the mechanical properties. - Abstract: We have investigated the effect of the period thickness of the multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN deposited on Si substrate produced by reactive magnetron sputtering. Mo{sub 2}N presents a face centered cubic structure and CrN an orthorhombic one. The residual stress of the coatings was determined by the measurement of the substrate curvature. The microstructure of the multilayer was investigated from the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (cross section images). The residual stresses resulting from the deposition of the different bi-layer thickness were measured and correlated to the structural properties of the coating as well as the nanoindentation analysis of the coating. The stresses are compressive and tensile for the individual Mo{sub 2}N and CrN layer respectively. The result shows that an increase of the multilayer coatings Mo{sub 2}N/CrN thicknesses induce an increase of the hardness and the elastic modulus, in the other hand the tensile stress increases. The shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N at high angle which means the reduction of the residual stress is in good agreement with the residual stresses measurements.

  12. 3C-SiC epitaxial films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering: Growth, characterization and device development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahab, Qamar ul.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial 3C-SiC films were grown on silicon substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering of pure Si target in a mixed Ar-CH[sub 4] discharges. Films were grown on Si(001), and 4 degrees off-oriented (001) substrates. Epitaxial 3C-SiC films with sharp interface to Si substrates have been grown at substrate temperatures [<=] 900 degrees C. Above 900 degrees C interfacial reaction starts resulting in a rough SiC/Si interface. The carbon content as well as the crystalline structure was also found to be strongly dependent on CH[sub 4] partial pressure (PCH[sub 4]) and stoichiometric composition can only be obtained in a narrow PCH[sub 4] range. Films grown on Si(001) substrates contained anti domain boundaries as evident by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Films grown on (111)-oriented substrates were epitaxial at 850 degrees C but contained double positioning domains as determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and XTEM. High quality films were obtained on 4 degrees off-oriented Si(001) substrates at T[sub s]=850 degrees C and PCH[sub 4]=0.6 mTorr. Films grown on off-oriented substrates showed atomically sharp interface to Si and also a smooth top surface. SiO[sub 2] layer grown on such films showed atomically sharp oxide/film interface. Also the growth of epitaxial Si films on top of SiC films was realized. Au-Schottky diodes fabricated on (001)-oriented 3C-SiC films showed good rectification with a leakage current density = 4 [mu]A cm[sup -2], a breakdown voltage of -15 V, an ideality factor of 1.27 and a barrier height of 1.04 eV. Metal oxide semiconductor structures were fabricated by thermally grown SiO[sub 2] on (111)-oriented SiC films. The capacitance-voltage measurements showed the accumulation, depletion and deep depletion region in the C-V curve. The interface trap densities were 3-7 x 10[sup 11] cm[sup -2] eV[sup -1]. Finally 3C-SiC/Si heterojunction diodes processed showed good rectification and the diode had a breakdown at -110 V.

  13. 3C-SiC epitaxial films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering: Growth, characterization and device development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Qamar ul.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial 3C-SiC films were grown on silicon substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering of pure Si target in a mixed Ar-CH 4 discharges. Films were grown on Si(001), and 4 degrees off-oriented (001) substrates. Epitaxial 3C-SiC films with sharp interface to Si substrates have been grown at substrate temperatures ≤ 900 degrees C. Above 900 degrees C interfacial reaction starts resulting in a rough SiC/Si interface. The carbon content as well as the crystalline structure was also found to be strongly dependent on CH 4 partial pressure (PCH 4 ) and stoichiometric composition can only be obtained in a narrow PCH 4 range. Films grown on Si(001) substrates contained anti domain boundaries as evident by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Films grown on (111)-oriented substrates were epitaxial at 850 degrees C but contained double positioning domains as determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and XTEM. High quality films were obtained on 4 degrees off-oriented Si(001) substrates at T s =850 degrees C and PCH 4 =0.6 mTorr. Films grown on off-oriented substrates showed atomically sharp interface to Si and also a smooth top surface. SiO 2 layer grown on such films showed atomically sharp oxide/film interface. Also the growth of epitaxial Si films on top of SiC films was realized. Au-Schottky diodes fabricated on (001)-oriented 3C-SiC films showed good rectification with a leakage current density = 4 μA cm -2 , a breakdown voltage of -15 V, an ideality factor of 1.27 and a barrier height of 1.04 eV. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structures were fabricated by thermally grown SiO 2 on (111)-oriented SiC films. The capacitance-voltage measurements showed the accumulation, depletion and deep depletion region in the C-V curve. The interface trap densities were 3-7 x 10 11 cm -2 eV -1 . Finally 3C-SiC/Si heterojunction diodes processed showed good rectification and the diode had a breakdown at -110 V. 59 refs, figs, tabs

  14. AES depth profiles in Mo-coated 304L stainless steel achieved by RF-magnetron sputtering and influence of Mo on the corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Saoula, N. [Division des Milieux Ionisés et Lasers, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées CDTA, Cité du 20 août 1956, Baba Hassan, BP n 17, Alger (Algeria); Siad, M. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Biberian, J.P. [CINaM, UMR 7525 CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Mo coating of 304L stainless steel is achieved via RF-magnetron sputtering. • The AES depth profiles before and after annealing in air (at 973 K) are analyzed. • The corrosions in NaCl solution of bare and Mo-coated samples are compared. • Mo-coated steels exhibit better corrosion behaviors. • The positive action of Mo oxide via its semi-conducting properties is deduced. - Abstract: Molybdenum-coated 304L stainless steel samples, fabricated by RF-magnetron sputtering, are characterized by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) before and after annealing in air at 973 K. The electrochemical parameters of bare and coated materials, in NaCl 3.5% water solution at 298 K, are derived from the potentiodynamic polarization curves. The corrosion current of Mo-coated samples (before and after annealing) is significantly lower than that of its bare counterpart. The information gained from the AES depth profiles leads us to infer that the positive action of molybdenum on the corrosion behavior may be attributed to the changes induced by the semi-conducting properties of Mo oxide in the passive film.

  15. RF magnetron sputtering of polypropylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Biederman, H.; Slavinská, D.; Trchová, Miroslava; Hlídek, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2004), s. 207-215 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 553; GA MŠk ME 554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : materials science, multidisciplinary, physics, applied Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.902, year: 2004

  16. Bunch motion in the presence of the self-induced voltage due to a reactive impedance with RF off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnikova, E [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    Analytic self-consistent solutions have been found for the nonlinear Vlasov equation describing different types of behaviour with time of an intense bunch under the influence of voltage induced due to a reactive part of broad band impedance. The problem is solved for the particular type of the initial distribution function in longitudinal phase space which is elliptic and corresponds to parabolic line density. This paper is devoted to the consideration of the effects in the machine with RF off. In this case the induced voltage is changing with time and can significantly affect bunch motion. The same method applied in the case with RF on allows the time dependent effects of potential well distortion to be analysed. Numerical estimations for the CERN SPS show that effect of induced voltage is important for beam manipulations with RF off. Measurements of the change in the rate of debunching with intensity can be used to estimate the value of the reactive impedance. (author)

  17. Combined optical emission and resonant absorption diagnostics of an Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce-reactive magnetron sputtering discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Mel, A.A. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière B.P. 32229, Nantes Cedex 3 44322 (France); Ershov, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Britun, N., E-mail: nikolay.britun@umons.ac.be [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Ricard, A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, Toulouse Cedex 9 F-31062 (France); Konstantinidis, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, Avenue Copernic 1, Mons B-7000 (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    We report the results on combined optical characterization of Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges by optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy. In this study, a DC magnetron sputtering system equipped with a movable planar magnetron source with a Ce target is used. The intensities of Ar, O, and Ce emission lines, as well as the absolute densities of Ar metastable and Ce ground state atoms are analyzed as a function of the distance from the magnetron target, applied DC power, O{sub 2} content, etc. The absolute number density of the Ar{sup m} is found to decrease exponentially as a function of the target-to-substrate distance. The rate of this decrease is dependent on the sputtering regime, which should be due to the different collisional quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents. Quantitatively, the absolute number density of Ar{sup m} is found to be equal to ≈ 3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3} in the metallic, and ≈ 5 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup −3} in the oxidized regime of sputtering, whereas Ce ground state densities at the similar conditions are found to be few times lower. The absolute densities of species are consistent with the corresponding deposition rates, which decrease sharply during the transition from metallic to poisoned sputtering regime. - Highlights: • Optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy are employed to study Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges. • The density of argon metastables is found to decrease exponentially when increasing the target-to-substrate distance. • The collision-quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents is demonstrated. • The deposition rates of cerium and cerium oxide thin films decrease sharply during the transition from the metallic to the poisoned sputtering regime.

  18. High-rate deposition of Ta-doped SnO2 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Nakatomi, S.; Oka, N.; Iwabuchi, Y.; Kotsubo, H.; Shigesato, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ta-doped SnO 2 films were deposited on glass substrate (either unheated or heated at 200 °C) by reactive magnetron sputtering with a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target using a plasma control unit (PCU) and mid-frequency (mf, 50 kHz) unipolar pulsing. The PCU feedback system precisely controlled the flow of the reactive and sputtering gases (O 2 and Ar, respectively) by monitoring either discharge impedance or the plasma emission of the atomic O* line at 777 nm. The planar target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in unipolar pulse mode. Power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The lowest obtained resistivity for the films deposited on heated substrate was 6.4 × 10 −3 Ωcm, where the deposition rate was 250 nm min −1 .

  19. Influence of reactive oxygen species during deposition of iron oxide films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, V.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Bogdanowicz, R.; Wulff, H.; Helm, C.A.; Hippler, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 9 (2018), s. 1-12, č. článku 095205. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-08389S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) * iron oxide thin films * wüstite * magnetite * maghemite * hematite Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  20. Annealing of RF-magnetron sputtered SnS{sub 2} precursors as a new route for single phase SnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, M.G., E-mail: martasousa@ua.pt [AIN, I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cunha, A.F. da, E-mail: antonio.cunha@ua.pt [AIN, I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, P.A., E-mail: pafernandes@ua.pt [AIN, I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-04-01

    Tin sulphide thin films have been grown on soda-lime glass substrates through the annealing of RF-magnetron sputtered SnS{sub 2} precursors. Three different approaches to the annealing were compared and the resulting films thoroughly studied. One series of precursors was annealed in a tubular furnace directly exposed to a flux of sulphur vapour plus forming gas, N{sub 2} + 5%H{sub 2}, and at a constant pressure of 500 mbar. The other two series of identical precursors were annealed in the same furnace but inside a graphite box with and without elemental sulphur evaporation again in the presence of N{sub 2} + 5%H{sub 2} and at the same pressure as for the sulphur flux experiments. Different maximum annealing temperatures for each set of samples, in the range of 300–570 °C, were tested to study their effects on the properties of the final films. The resulting phases were structurally investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Annealing of SnS{sub 2} precursors in sulphur flux produced films where SnS{sub 2} was dominant for temperatures up to 480 °C. Increasing the temperature to 530 °C and 570 °C led to films where the dominant phase became Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Annealing of SnS{sub 2} precursors in a graphite box with sulphur vapour at temperatures in the range between 300 °C and 480 °C the films are multi-phase, containing Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, SnS{sub 2} and SnS. For high annealing temperatures of 530 °C and 570 °C the films have SnS as the dominant phase. Annealing of SnS{sub 2} precursors in a graphite box without sulphur vapour at 300 °C and 360 °C the films are essentially amorphous, at 420 °C SnS{sub 2} is the dominant phase. For temperatures of 480 °C and 530 °C SnS is the dominant phase but also same residual SnS{sub 2} and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phases are observed. For annealing at 570 °C, according to the XRD results the films appear to be single phase SnS. The composition was studied using energy dispersive spectroscopy being

  1. CEERI-CAT joint venture for development of accelerator magnetrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Sharda; Kaushik, S.C.; Mahesh Kumar; Chaudhary, P.; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Wanmode, Y.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    LINAC and Microtron systems for electron acceleration up to few tens of MeV, requires pulsed RF sources such as magnetron and klystron in S-Band frequency range with peak power in the range of few MW. The major emphasis under this program was to develop critical technologies involved in the development of 2 MW magnetron. This paper discusses the development of 2 MW magnetron along with critical technologies involved and test facilities developed by CAT for testing of this magnetron

  2. Crystal Structure And Optical Properties Of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared By Reactive RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sputtering deposition process of TiO2, metal Ti or sintered TiO2 target is used as deposition source. In this study, we have compared the characteristic of target materials. When TiO2 target was used, stoichiometric TiO2 films was deposited under the Ar atmosphere containing 1.0% of oxygen. The highest sputtering rate under this atmosphere was 3.9nm/min at 3.4W/cm2. But, sintered TiO2 target is fragile and cannot endure higher density of input power than 3.4W/cm2. On the other hand, Ti target needs higher oxygen concentration (8% in sputtering gas atmosphere for obtaining rutile/anatase. Even though Ti target can be input twice power density of 7.9W/cm2, the highest deposition rate for Ti target was 1.4/nm, which was ~35% of the highest rate for TiO2 target. Then we have study out the composite target consisting of Ti plate and TiO2 chips. Using the composite target, stoichiometric TiO2 films were prepared in the rate of 9.6nm/min at 6.8 W/cm2 under the atmosphere of Ar/2.5%O2. Furthermore, we have found that the TiO2 films obtained from the composite target consisted of about 100% anatase, whereas TiO2 films obtained from other target have rutile dominant structure. The optical band gap energy of the film is determined by using the Tauc plot. The calculated band gap energies for the films deposited by Ti target and composite target were 2.95 and 3.24eV, which are equivalent to that of rutile and anatase structure, respectively.

  3. Synthesis of self-assembled Ge nano crystals employing reactive RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez H, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Escuela Superior de Apan, Calle Ejido de Chimalpa Tlalayote s/n, Col. Chimalpa, Apan, Hidalgo (Mexico); Hernandez H, L. A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07730 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy, B. M.; Santana R, G. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Santoyo S, J.; Gallardo H, S. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14740, 07300 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquez H, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Departamento de Ingenieria Agricola, Km. 9 Carretera Irapuato-Silao, 36500 Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Mani G, P. G.; Melendez L, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, 32310 Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the results of a simple methodology able to control crystal size, dispersion and spatial distribution of germanium nano crystals (Ge-NCs). It takes advantage of a self-assembled process taken place during the deposit of the system SiO{sub 2}/Ge/SiO{sub 2} by reactive RF sputtering. Nanoparticles formation is controlled mainly by the roughness of the first SiO{sub 2} layer buy the ulterior interaction of the interlayer with the top layer also play a role. Structural quality of germanium nano crystals increases with roughness and the interlayer thickness. The tetragonal phase of germanium is produced and its crystallographic quality improves with interlayer thickness and oxygen partial pressure. Room temperature photoluminescence emission without a post growth thermal annealing process indicates that our methodology produces a low density of non-radiative traps. The surface topography of SiO{sub 2} reference samples was carried out by atomic force microscopy. The crystallographic properties of the samples were studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction at 1.5 degrees carried out in a Siemens D-5000 system employing the Cu Kα wavelength. (Author)

  4. Zinc sulfide thin films deposited by RF reactive sputtering for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lexi; Chang, K.-H.; Hwang, H.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films with nano-scale grains of about 50 nm were deposited on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C via RF reactive sputtering by using zinc plate target and hydrogen sulfide gas. The structure, compositions, electrical and optical characteristics of the deposited films were investigated for the photovoltaic device applications. All films showed a near stoichiometric composition as indicated in their AES data. Distinct single crystalline phase with preferential orientation along the (0 0 0 1) plane of wurtzite or the (1 1 1) plane of zinc blende (ZB) was revealed in their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and the spacing of the planes are well matched to those of (1 1 2) plane of the chalcopyrite CuInS 2 (CIS). UV-Vis measurement showed that the films had more than 65% transmittance in the wavelength larger than 350 nm, and the fundamental absorption edge shifted to shorter wavelength with the increase of sulfur incorporated in the films, which corresponds to an increase in the energy band gap ranging from 3.59 to 3.72 eV. It was found that ZnS films are suitable for use as the buffer layer of the CIS solar cells, and it is the viable alternative for replacing CdS in the photovoltaic cell structure

  5. Investigation of CaTiO3:Pr3+ thin films deposited by radiofrequency reactive magnetron sputtering for electroluminescence application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarakha, L; Bousquet, A; Tomasella, E; Boutinaud, P; Mahiou, R

    2010-01-01

    In this report we successfully deposited thin films of CaTiO 3 :Pr 3+ by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. The films were studied and we tried to understand the evolution of their optical and electrical properties. We noticed that the annealing temperature and the deposition pressures have an important influence on these properties. Thin films with good optical and electrical properties have been obtained. These films are transparent and are characterized by an intense red photoluminescence and a low fixed charge density. They are well dedicated for electroluminescence purposes.

  6. Optical and structural properties of TiO2/Ti/Ag/TiO2 and TiO2/ITO/Ag/ITO/TiO2 metal-dielectric multilayers by RF magnetron sputtering for display application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hyu; Hwangbo, Chang-Kwon; Lee, Kwang-Su

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding and near-infrared (NIR) cutoff filters for plasma display panels, based on fundamental structures (ITO/Ag/ITO), (TiO 2 /Ti/Ag/TiO 2 ) and (TiO 2 /ITO/Ag/ITO/TiO 2 ), were designed and prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering. The optical, structural and electrical properties of the filters were investigated by using spectrophotometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and four-point-probe measurements. The results show that ITO films as the barriers and base layers lead to higher transmittance in the visible spectrum and smoother surface roughness than Ti metal barriers, while maintaining high NIR cutoff characteristics and chemical stability, which may be attributed to the lower absorption in the interfacial layers and better protection of the Ag layers by the ITO layers.

  7. Plasma diagnostic studies of the influence of process variables upon the atomic and molecular species ejected from (1-x)Li4SiO4:xLi3PO4 targets during rf-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachs, A.L.; Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    The deposition of thin-film electrolytes is a critical step in the development of lithium microbatteries with the potential for circuit integration. We have performed a preliminary study of the rf-magnetron sputtering of (1-x)Li 4 SiO 4 :xLi 3 PO 4 targets used to deposit amorphous thin-film electrolytes formed of the three-component system Li 2 O--SiO 2 --P 2 O 5 . Mass and optical emission spectroscopies have been used to investigate the effects of target composition and the deposition conditions upon the atomic and molecular species ejected from the targets. The data provide important information for understanding the mechanism of film formation and for monitoring the Li atomic flux onto the substrates during film growth. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  8. Enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells based on MgO-coated TiO2 electrodes by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sujuan; Han Hongwei; Tai Qidong; Zhang Jing; Xu Sheng; Zhou Conghua; Yang Ying; Hu Hao; Chen Bolei; Sebo, Bobby; Zhao Xingzhong

    2008-01-01

    A surface modification method was carried out by reactive DC magnetron sputtering to fabricate TiO 2 electrodes coated with insulating MgO for dye-sensitized solar cells. The MgO-coated TiO 2 electrode had been characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The study results revealed that the TiO 2 modification increases dye adsorption, decreases trap states and suppresses interfacial recombination. The effects of sputtering MgO for different times on the performance of DSSCs were investigated. It indicated that sputtering MgO for 3 min on TiO 2 increases all cell parameters, resulting in increasing efficiency from 6.45% to 7.57%

  9. Cu2SixSn1-xS3 Thin Films Prepared by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering For Low-Cost Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang; Liu, Fang-Yang; Lai, Yan-Qing; Li, Jie; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    We report the preparation of Cu2SixSn1-xS3 thin films for thin film solar cell absorbers using the reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique. Energy dispersive spectrometer and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate that Cu2Si1-xSnxS3 thin films can be synthesized successfully by partly substituting Si atoms for Sn atoms in the Cu2SnS3 lattice, leading to a shrinkage of the lattice, and, accordingly, by 2θ shifting to larger values. The blue shift of the Raman peak further confirms the formation of Cu2SixSn1-xS3. Environmental scanning electron microscope analyses reveal a polycrystalline and homogeneous morphology with a grain size of about 200-300 nm. Optical measurements indicate an optical absorption coefficient of higher than 104 cm-1 and an optical bandgap of 1.17±0.01 eV.

  10. Room Temperature Optical Constants and Band Gap Evolution of Phase Pure M1-VO2 Thin Films Deposited at Different Oxygen Partial Pressures by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic ellipsometry study was employed for phase pure VO2(M1 thin films grown at different oxygen partial pressures by reactive magnetron sputtering. The optical constants of the VO2(M1 thin films have been determined in a photon energy range between 0.73 and 5.05 eV. The near-infrared extinction coefficient and optical conductivity of VO2(M1 thin films rapidly increase with decreasing O2-Ar ratios. Moreover, two electronic transitions can be uniquely assigned. The energy gaps correlated with absorption edge (E1 at varied O2-Ar ratios are almost the same (~2.0 eV; consequently, the absorption edge is not significantly changed. However, the optical band gap corresponding to semiconductor-to-metal phase transition (E2 decreases from 0.53 to 0.18 eV with decreasing O2-Ar ratios.

  11. Studies of the composition, tribology and wetting behavior of silicon nitride films formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Wang, J.; Wen, F.; Leng, Y.X.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon nitride films were formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity Si targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effects of N 2 fraction on the chemical composition, and tribological and wetting behaviors were investigated. The films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The surface microstructure changed from continuous granular surrounded by tiny void regions to a homogeneous and dense microstructure, and densitied as the N 2 fraction is increased. The as-deposited films have a relatively low friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction and experienced only abrasive wear. The decreased surface roughness and increased nitrogen incorporation in the film give rise to increased contact angle with double-stilled water from 24 deg. to 49.6 deg. To some extent, the silicon nitride films deposited are hydrophilic in nature

  12. Dependence of RF power on the content and configuration of hydrogen in amorphous hydrogenated silicon by reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, T; Ushita, K; Mogi, K; Hiraki, A [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1981-06-01

    Infrared absorption spectra at stretching bands of Si-H were investigated in hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by reactive sputtering in the atmosphere of Ar and H/sub 2/ (10 mole%) at various input rf powers in the range from 0.8 to 3.8 W/cm/sup 2/. Hydrogen content mainly due to the configuration of Si=H/sub 2/ in the film increased with the decreasing rf power, as the deposition rate was decreased. On the other hand, the quantity of the monohydride (Si-H) configuration depended less on the power. Attachment of hydrogen molecules onto the fresh and reactive surface of silicon deposited successively was proposed for possible process of hydrogen incusion into amorphous silicon resulting in Si=H/sub 2/ configuration. The photoconductivity increased as the input power became higher, when the deposition rate also increased linearly with the power.

  13. Structural, electrical and magnetic characterization of in-situ crystallized ZnO:Co thin films synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardjane, Soumia, E-mail: lardjanesoumia@yahoo.fr [IRTES-LERMPS, UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Division Etude et Prédiction des Matériaux, Unité de Recherche Matériaux et Energies Renouvelables, Université Abou Bekr Belkaid, Tlemcen (Algeria); Pour Yazdi, Mohammad Arab [IRTES-LERMPS, UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Martin, Nicolas [FEMTO-ST, Département MN2S, UMR 6174 CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, ENSMM, UTBM, 32, Avenue de l’Observatoire, 25044 Besancon Cedex (France); Bellouard, Christine [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Nancy University, CNRS, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Fenineche, Nour-eddine [IRTES-LERMPS, UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Schuler, Andreas [Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory, EPFL ENAC IIC LESO-PB, Station 18, Bâtiment LE, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Merad, Ghouti [Division Etude et Prédiction des Matériaux, Unité de Recherche Matériaux et Energies Renouvelables, Université Abou Bekr Belkaid, Tlemcen (Algeria); Billard, Alain [IRTES-LERMPS, UTBM, Site de Montbéliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O (0 < x < 0.146) conductive thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of metallic Zn and Co targets at high pressure and temperature. The structural properties have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It has been observed that all as-deposited films are crystallized in pure hcp ZnO structure and neither traces of metallic nor oxide Co-rich clusters were detected. The average grain size estimated from full width at half maximum of XRD results varied between 65 and 83 nm. XPS analyses exhibit that Co ions are successfully entered into ZnO lattice as Co{sup +2}. The electrical properties including conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility were determined by Hall effect measurements in a temperature range from 300 K to 475 K. The conductivity of the films decreases from σ{sub 300K} = 2.2 × 10{sup 4} to 2.3 × 10{sup −1} Sm{sup −1} as the Co content changes from 0 to 0.146. Magnetic measurements reveal the absence of ferromagnetism even at 3 K and a paramagnetic Curie–Weiss behavior associated to magnetic clusters. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O conductive thin films were synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering. • Structural characterization exhibited the absence of Co clusters or secondary phases. • The film conductivity decreased with increasing of Co concentration. • No ferromagnetism was observed in all Co doped ZnO samples. • Magnetic properties are described by a Curie–Weiss behavior associated to clusters.

  14. Composite SiO.sub.x./sub./hydrocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of SiO.sub.2./sub. and polyethylene or polypropylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pihosh, Y.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Kousal, J.; Choukourov, A.; Trchová, Miroslava; Macková, Anna; Boldyryeva, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 81, 1-4 (2006), s. 32-37 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite films * magnetron * sputtering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.834, year: 2006

  15. Composite SiOx/fluorocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by r.f. magnetron sputtering of SiO2 and PTFE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pihosh, Y.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Kousal, J.; Choukourov, A.; Trchová, Miroslava; Macková, Anna; Boldyryeva, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 81, 1-4 (2006), s. 38-44 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 527.10; GA MŠk ME 553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite films * magnetron * sputtering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.834, year: 2006

  16. Tube Inner Coating of Non-Conductive Films by Pulsed Reactive Coaxial Magnetron Plasma with Outer Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Timan Idriss Gasab

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The double-ended coaxial magnetron pulsed plasma (DCMPP method with auxiliary outer anode was introduced in order to achieve the uniform coating of non-conductive thin films on the inner walls of insulator tubes. In this study, titanium (Ti was employed as a cathode (sputtering target, and a glass tube was used as a substrate. In an argon (Ar and oxygen (O2 gas mixture, magnetron plasma was generated. Oxygen gas was introduced to deposit a titanium oxide (TiO2 film. A comparison between films coated with and without an auxiliary outer anode was made. As a result, it was clearly shown that the DCMPP method using an auxiliary outer anode enhanced the uniformity of the deposited non-conductive film compared to the conventional DCMPP method. Moreover, the optimum conditions under which the thin TiO2 film was deposited on the inner wall of the glass tube were revealed. From the results, it was supposed that the auxiliary outer anode contributed to the uniformity of the distributions of deposited negative charge on the non-conductive film and consequently the electric field and the plasma density uniform.

  17. Effect of N Concentration on Microstructure Evolution of the Nanostructured (Al, Ti, SiN Coatings Prepared by d.c. Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jakab-Farkas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured (Al, Ti, SiN thin film coatings were synthesized by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering, performed in an Ar/N2 gas mixture from a planar rectangular Al:Ti:Si=50:25:25 alloyed target. The mass flow of N2 reactive gas was strictly controlled in sputtering process. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM technique was used for microstructure investigation of the as deposited films. Cross-sectional cuts performed through the deposited films revealed distinct microstructure evolution for different samples. It was found that the variation of the reactive gas amount induced changes in film microstructure. The metallic AlTiSi film exhibited strong columnar growth with a crystalline structure. The addition of a small amount of nitrogen to the process gas leads to a crystallite refinement. Further increase of N concentration resulted in evolution of fine lamellae growth morphology consisting of hainlike pearls in a dendrite, clusters of very fine grains in close crystallographic orientation.

  18. Effect of organic-buffer-layer on electrical property and environmental reliability of Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by RF plasma assisted DC magnetron sputtering on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinoki, Toshio; Kyuhara, Chika; Agura, Hideaki; Yazawa, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kentaro; Ohmi, Koutoku; Kishida, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conductive films have been prepared by RF plasma assisted DC magnetron sputtering under a reductive atmosphere on organic-buffer-layer (OBL) coated polyethylene telephthalate (PET) substrates without intentionally heating substrates. Electrical and optical properties, crystallinity, and environmental reliability of the GZO films have been investigated. The distributional characteristic of resistivity is observed in the GZO film deposited on the OBL-coated PET substrates. The high resistivity at facing the erosion area in the source target is reduced by providing the RF plasma and H 2 gas near the substrate, resulting in a uniform distribution of the sheet resistance. It has been also found that the increase of resistivity by an accelerated aging test performed under a storage condition at 60 o C and at a relative humidity of 95% is suppressed by employing the OBL. The OBL suppresses the formation of cracks, which are induced by the aging test. These facts are thought to contribute to a high environmental reliability of GZO films on PET substrates. Values of resistivity, Hall mobility and carrier concentration are obtained: 5.0-20 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 4.0 cm 2 /Vs, and 3.8 x 10 20 cm -3 , respectively. An average transmittance of the GZO film including OBL and PET substrate is 78% in a visible region. The OBL enables to realize the practical use of GZO films on PET sheets.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of anatase/rutile–TiO2 thin films by magnetron sputtering: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae Tanemura, Lei Miao, Wilfried Wunderlich, Masaki Tanemura, Yukimasa Mori, Shoichi Toh and Kenji Kaneko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article summarizes briefly some important achievements of our recent reserach on anatase and/or rutile TiO2 thin films, fabricated by helicon RF magnetron sputtering, with good crystal quality and high density, and gives the-state-of-the-art of the knowledge on systematic interrelationship for fabrication conditions, crystal structure, composition, optical properties, and bactericidal abilities, and on the effective surface treatment to improve the optical reactivity of the obtained films.

  20. Amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide films deposited by magnetron sputtering with various reactive gases: Spatial distribution of thin film transistor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the spatial distribution of electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide film (a-ITZO), and how they depend on the magnetron sputtering conditions using O 2 , H 2 O, and N 2 O as the reactive gases. Experimental results show that the electrical properties of the N 2 O incorporated a-ITZO film has a weak dependence on the deposition location, which cannot be explained by the bombardment effect of high energy particles, and may be attributed to the difference in the spatial distribution of both the amount and the activity of the reactive gas reaching the substrate surface. The measurement for the performance of a-ITZO thin film transistor (TFT) also suggests that the electrical performance and device uniformity of a-ITZO TFTs can be improved significantly by the N 2 O introduction into the deposition process, where the field mobility reach to 30.8 cm 2 V –1 s –1 , which is approximately two times higher than that of the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFT

  1. Photoluminescence study of trap-state defect on TiO2 thin films at different substrate temperature via RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S. A.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Nafarizal, N.; Saim, H.; Bakri, A. S.; Cik Rohaida, C. H.; Adriyanto, F.; Sari, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This paper highlights the defect levels using photoluminescence spectroscopy of TiO2 thin films. The TiO2 were deposited by Magnetron Sputtering system with 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C substrate temperature on microscope glass substrate. The PL result shows profound effect of various substrate temperatures to defect levels of oxygen vacancies and Ti3+ at titanium interstitial site. Increasing temperature would minimize the oxygen vacancy defect, however Ti3+ shows otherwise. Green region of PL consist of trapped hole for oxygen vacancy, while red region of PL is trapped electron associated to structural defect Ti3+. Green PL is dominant peak at temperature 200 °C, indicating that oxygen vacancy is the main defect at this temperature. However, PL peak shows slightly same value for others samples indicating that the temperature did not give high influence to other level of defect after 200 °C.

  2. Bunch motion in the presence of the self-induced voltage due to a reactive impedance; 1, RF off

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena

    1995-01-01

    Analytic self-consistent solutions have been found for the nonlinear Vlasov equation describing different types of behaviour with time of an intense bunch under the influence of voltage induced due to a reactive part of broad band impedance. The problem is solved for the particular type of the initial distribution function in longitudinal phase space which is elliptic and corresponds to parabolic line density. The first part of the paper is devoted to the consideration of the effects in the machine with RF off. In this case induced voltage is changing with time and, as in the case with RF on, can have a significant effect on bunch motion. Numerical estimations for the SPS show that this effect can be important for manipulations with beam at 26GeV. Measurements of the change in the rate of debunching with intensity can also be used to estimate the value of the impedance. The same method is applied in the second part of the paper to analyse time dependent effects of potential well distortion when RF is on.

  3. Effect of various nitrogen flow ratios on the optical properties of (Hf:N-DLC films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Qi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hf and N co-doped diamond-like carbon [(Hf:N-DLC] films were deposited on 316L stainless steel and glass substrates through reactive magnetron sputtering of hafnium and carbon targets at various nitrogen flow ratios (R=N2/[N2+CH4+Ar]. The effects of chemical composition and crystal structure on the optical properties of the (Hf:N-DLC films were studied. The obtained films consist of uniform HfN nanocrystallines embedded into the DLC matrix. The size of the graphite clusters with sp2 bonds (La and the ID/IG ratio increase to 2.47 nm and 3.37, respectively, with increasing R. The optical band gap of the films decreases from 2.01 eV to 1.84 eV with increasing R. This finding is consistent with the trends of structural transformations and could be related to the increase in the density of π-bonds due to nitrogen incorporation. This paper reports the influence of nitrogen flow ratio on the correlation among the chemical composition, crystal structure, and optical properties of (Hf:N-DLC films.

  4. Structure and phase composition of the titanium dioxide thin films deposited on the surface of the metallized track membranes from polyethyleneterephthalate by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artoshina, O.V.; Semina, V.K.; Kochnev, Yu.K.; Nechaev, A.N.; Apel', P.Yu.; Milovich, F.O.; Iskhakova, L.D.; Ermakov, R.P.; Rossouw, A.; Gorberg, B.L.

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of TiO 2 , Ag, Ag-TiO 2 , Cu-TiO 2 deposited on the surface of polyethyleneterephthalate track membranes (TM) were investigated. Metals and oxide deposition was carried out by the method of vacuum reactive sputtering with application of a planar magnetron. The microstructure of samples was studied by the scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The elemental composition of coatings was investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For the identification of phase structure, X-ray diffraction phase analysis was used at various temperatures, and the XRD crystal structure patterns of the samples were obtained by the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) in TEM analysis. It was found that titanium dioxide on the TM surface can be present in three forms: nanocrystals of tetragonal anatase with impurity of rhombic brookite and the so-called X-ray amorphous TiO 2 . Cubical Cu 2 O was identified in TM metallized by copper. Optical properties of composite membranes and films were investigated by the method of absorption spectroscopy. Calculation of energies of the direct and indirect allowed optical transitions was carried out based on the analysis of absorption spectra of the studied composite membranes. [ru

  5. Studies on the electrical properties of reactive DC magnetron-sputtered indium-doped silver oxide thin films: The role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Barik, Ullash Kumar [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-03-15

    Indium ({approx}10 at.%)-doped silver oxide (AIO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target made of pure (99.99%) silver and indium (90:10 at.%) metals. The oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-3.44 sccm during sputtering. The X-ray diffraction data on these indium-doped silver oxide films show polycrystalline nature. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the carrier concentration, the Hall mobility and the electron mean free path decrease. These films show a very low positive temperature coefficient of resistivity {approx}3.40x10{sup -8} ohm-cm/K. The work function values for these films (measured by Kelvin probe technique) are in the range 4.81-5.07 eV. The high electrical resistivity indicate that the films are in the island state (size effects). Calculations of the partial ionic charge (by Sanderson's theory) show that indium doping in silver oxide thin films enhance the ionicity.

  6. Studies on the electrical properties of reactive DC magnetron-sputtered indium-doped silver oxide thin films: The role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, Ullash Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Indium (∼10 at.%)-doped silver oxide (AIO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target made of pure (99.99%) silver and indium (90:10 at.%) metals. The oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-3.44 sccm during sputtering. The X-ray diffraction data on these indium-doped silver oxide films show polycrystalline nature. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the carrier concentration, the Hall mobility and the electron mean free path decrease. These films show a very low positive temperature coefficient of resistivity ∼3.40x10 -8 ohm-cm/K. The work function values for these films (measured by Kelvin probe technique) are in the range 4.81-5.07 eV. The high electrical resistivity indicate that the films are in the island state (size effects). Calculations of the partial ionic charge (by Sanderson's theory) show that indium doping in silver oxide thin films enhance the ionicity

  7. Transmission photocathodes based on stainless steel mesh and quartz glass coated with N-doped DLC thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Huran, J.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Arbet, J.

    2016-03-01

    The influence was investigated of N-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films properties on the quantum efficiency of a prepared transmission photocathode. N-doped DLC thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, a stainless steel mesh and quartz glass (coated with 5 nm thick Cr adhesion film) by reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and gas mixture Ar, 90%N2+10%H2. The elements' concentration in the films was determined by RBS and ERD. The quantum efficiency was calculated from the measured laser energy and the measured cathode charge. For the study of the vectorial photoelectric effect, the quartz type photocathode was irradiated by intensive laser pulses to form pin-holes in the DLC film. The quantum efficiency (QE), calculated at a laser energy of 0.4 mJ, rose as the nitrogen concentration in the DLC films was increased and rose dramatically after the micron-size perforation in the quartz type photocathodes.

  8. Computer modelling of RF ablation in cortical osteoid osteoma: Assessment of the insulating effect of the reactive zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza, Ramiro M; Trujillo, Macarena; Martel Villagrán, Jose; Berjano, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to study by computer simulations the insulating role of the reactive zone surrounding a cortical osteoid osteoma (OO) in terms of electrical and thermal performance during radiofrequency ablation (RFA). We modelled a cortical OO consisting of a nidus (10 mm diameter) enclosed by a reactive zone. The OO was near a layer of cortical bone 1.5 mm thick. Trabecular bone partially surrounds the OO and there was muscle around the cortical bone layer. We modelled RF ablations with a non-cooled-tip 17-gauge needle electrode (300 s duration and 90 °C target temperature). Sensitivity analyses were conducted assuming a reactive zone electrical conductivity value (σrz) within the limits of the cortical and trabecular bone, i.e. 0.02 S/m and 0.087 S/m, respectively. In this way we were really modelling the different degrees of osteosclerosis associated with the reactive zone. The presence of the reactive zone drastically reduced the maximum temperature reached outside it. The temperature drop was proportional to the thickness of the reactive zone: from 68 °C when it was absent to 44 °C when it is 7.5 mm thick. Higher nidus conductivity values (σn) implied higher temperatures, while lower temperatures meant higher σrz values. Changing σrz from 0.02 S/m to 0.087 S/m reduced lesion diameters from 2.4 cm to 1.8 cm. The computer results suggest that the reactive zone plays the role of insulator in terms of reducing the temperature in the surrounding area.

  9. Mechanical properties, chemical analysis and evaluation of antimicrobial response of Si-DLC coatings fabricated on AISI 316 LVM substrate by a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method for potential biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Sobczyk-Guzenda, Anna; Szymanski, Witold; Jedrzejczak, Anna; Jastrzebska, Aleksandra; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    In this study silicon doped diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) coatings were synthesized on two substrates: silicon and AISI 316LVM stainless steel using a multi-target DC-RF magnetron sputtering method. The Si content in the films ranged between 4 and 16 at.%, and was controlled by the electrical power applied in RF regime to Si cathode target. The character of the chemical bonds was revealed by FTIR analysis. With the addition of silicon the hydroxyl absorption (band in the range of 3200-3600 cm-1) increased what suggests more hydrophilic character of the coating. There were also observed significant changes in bonding of Si atoms. For low content of dopant, Si-O-Si bond system is predominant, while for the highest content of silicon there is an evidence of the shift to Si-C bonds in close proximity to methyl groups. The Raman spectroscopy revealed that the G peak position is shifted to a lower wavenumber and the ID/IG ratio decreased with increasing Si content, which indicates an increase in the C-sp3 content. Regardless of the coatings' composition, the improvement of hardness in comparison to pure substrate material (AISI 316 LVM) was observed. Although the reduction of the level of hardness from the level of 10.8 GPa for pure DLC to about 9.4 GPa for the silicon doped coatings was observed, the concomitant improvement of films adhesion with higher amount of Si was revealed. Although incorporation of the dopant to DLC coatings increases the number of E. coli cells which adhered to the examined surfaces, the microbial colonisation remains on the level of substrate material. The presented results prove the potential of Si-DLC coatings in biomedical applications from the point of view of their mechanical properties.

  10. Effect of Nb doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of RF magnetron sputtered In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshmi Krishnan, R.; Chalana, S.R.; Suresh, S.; Sudheer, S.K.; Mahadevan Pillai, V.P. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala (India); Sudarsanakumar, C. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala (India); Santhosh Kumar, M.C. [Optoelectronic Materials and Devices Lab, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli (India)

    2017-01-15

    Undoped and niobium (Nb) doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films are prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of Nb on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}films are analyzed using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. XRD analysis reveals that the as-deposited undoped and Nb doped films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic bixbyite structure. Raman analysis supports the presence of cubic bixbyite structure of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}in the films. XPS analysis shows a decrease of oxygen deficiency due to Nb and the existence of Nb as Nb{sup 4+} in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}lattice. The band gap energy of the films increases with increase in Nb concentration. PL spectra reveal intense UV and visible emissions in all the films. Optical constants of the films are determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The thickness of films estimated using FESEM and ellipsometry are in good agreement. The carrier concentration, mobility and nature of carriers are measured using Hall measurement technique in Van der Pauw configuration at room temperature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Influence of annealing temperature on the structural, mechanical and wetting property of TiO2 films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Swati S.; Sahoo, Sambita; Pradhan, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 films have been deposited on silicon substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a pure Ti target in Ar/O 2 plasma. The TiO 2 films deposited at room temperature were annealed for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 400 o C to 800 o C. The structural, morphological, mechanical properties and the wetting behavior of the as deposited and annealed films were obtained using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation and water contact angle (CA) measurements. The as deposited films were amorphous, and the Raman results showed that anatase phase crystallization was initiated at annealing temperature close to 400 o C. The film annealed at 400 o C showed higher hardness than the film annealed at 600 o C. In addition, the wettability of film surface was enhanced with an increase in annealing temperature from 400 o C to 800 o C, as revealed by a decrease in water CA from 87 o to 50 o . Moreover, the water CA of the films obtained before and after UV light irradiation revealed that the annealed films remained more hydrophilic than the as deposited film after irradiation.

  12. Unusual photoelectric behaviors of Mo-doped TiO2 multilayer thin films prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering: effect of barrier tunneling on internal charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B. X.; Luo, S. Y.; Mao, X. G.; Shen, J.; Zhou, Q. F.

    2013-01-01

    Mo-doped TiO2 multilayer thin films were prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering. Microstructures, crystallite parameters and the absorption band were investigated with atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Internal carrier transport characteristics and the photoelectric property of different layer-assemble modes were examined on an electrochemical workstation under visible light. The result indicates that the double-layer structure with an undoped surface layer demonstrated a red-shifted absorption edge and a much stronger photocurrent compared to the uniformly doped sample, signifying that the electric field implanted at the interface between particles in different layers accelerated internal charge transfer effectively. However, a heavily doped layer implanted at the bottom of the three-layer film merely brought about negative effects on the photoelectric property, mainly because of the Schottky junction existing above the substrate. Nevertheless, this obstacle was successfully eliminated by raising the Mo concentration to 1020 cm-3, where the thickness of the depletion layer fell into the order of angstroms and the tunneling coefficient manifested a dramatic increase. Under this circumstance, the Schottky junction disappeared and the strongest photocurrent was observed in the three-layer film.

  13. Influences of Indium Tin Oxide Layer on the Properties of RF Magnetron-Sputtered (BaSr)TiO3 Thin Films on Indium Tin Oxide-Coated Glass Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Song; Oh, Myung Hwan; Kim, Chong Hee

    1993-06-01

    Nearly stoichiometric ((Ba+Sr)/Ti=1.08-1.09) and optically transparent (BaSr)TiO3 thin films were deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by means of rf magnetron sputtering for their application to the insulating layer of an electroluminescent flat panel display. The influence of the ITO layer on the properties of (BaSr)TiO3 thin films deposited on the ITO-coated substrate was investigated. The ITO layer did not affect the crystallographic orientation of (BaSr)TiO3 thin film, but enhanced the grain growth. Another effect of the ITO layer on (BaSr)TiO3 thin films was the interdiffusion phenomenon, which was studied by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As the substrate temperature increased, interdiffusion intensified at the interface not only between the grown film and ITO layer but also between the ITO layer and base glass substrate. The refractive index (nf) of (BaSr)TiO3 thin film deposited on a bare glass substrate was 2.138-2.286, as a function of substrate temperature.

  14. Effects of in-plane compressive stress on electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin film capacitors prepared by on- and off-axis rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Young; Ahn, Kun Ho; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the structural and electrical properties of (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) thin film capacitors with thicknesses ranging from 18 to 215 nm, which were prepared by on- and off-axis rf magnetron sputtering technique on Pt/SiO 2 /Si substrates. The deposition rate and cation composition ratios of the films were controlled to be the same regardless of the sputtering geometry. All the films show elongations in the out-of-plane lattice spacing, suggesting the presence of compressive stress with a smaller value by on-axis sputtering than by the off-axis system. There was no thickness dependence of the strain in the polycrystalline BST films. The BST films deposited using the on-axis system showed a higher bulk dielectric constant with a higher interfacial capacitance and a lower leakage current level than the films produced by the off-axis system. The strain effect was proposed to explain the correlations between the structural and electrical properties

  15. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cell with a specially tailored TiO{sub 2} compact layer prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.H., E-mail: hanapiah801@ppinang.uitm.edu.my [NANO-Electronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-Electronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-05

    Highlights: • A novel gradient index antireflective TiO{sub 2} compact layer based DSSC was fabricated. • Higher right-shifted transmittance spectra favour the spectral response of N719 dye. • The arc-TiO{sub 2} film on ITO has decreased the charge interfacial resistance, R{sub 1}. • The arc-TiO{sub 2} film prevents electrons recombination at ITO and nc-TiO{sub 2} interfaces. • Almost 42% increment in the overall efficiency compared to the bare ITO cell. - Abstract: We demonstrate that a graded index TiO{sub 2} antireflective compact layer (arc-TiO{sub 2}) employed by RF sputtering can modulate the optical transmittance and reduce the electron recombination in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The spectral response of the DSSC is improved, due to higher and red-shifted transmittance spectra in a specific region that favours the sensitization effect of the dye. The effects of arc-TiO{sub 2} prepared at various RF sputtering powers to the performances of DSSC were investigated by means of the incident photo to current efficiency (IPCE), open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The slow decay of the photo-voltage attributed to the desirable merits of the arc-TiO{sub 2} compact layer has been evidenced by the OCVD measurement. Meanwhile, the improvement of adhesion between an arc-TiO{sub 2} film and porous-TiO{sub 2} has decreased the interfacial-charge resistance, R{sub 1} in the EIS measurement. This lower R{sub 1} then facilitates the charge-transfer process of the electron in the DSSC. At 100 W of RF power, these blended effects improved the overall conversion efficiency of the DSSC by an increase of 42% compared to the cell without the compact layer.

  16. Mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of CrBN films deposited by combined direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahodova, Vera; Ding, Xing-zhao; Seng, Debbie H.L.; Gulbinski, W.; Louda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cr–B–N films were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a combined direct current and radio frequency (RF) reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process using two elemental Cr and one compound BN targets. Boron content in the as-deposited films was qualitatively analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Films' microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments. Corrosion behavior of the Cr–B–N films was evaluated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization method in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. All the films were crystallized into a NaCl-type cubic structure. At lower RF power applied on the BN target (≤ 600 W), films are relatively randomly oriented, and films' crystallinity increased with increasing RF power. With increasing RF power further (≥ 800 W), films became (200) preferentially oriented, and films' crystallinity decreased gradually. With incorporation of a small amount of boron atoms into the CrN films, hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance were all improved evidently. The best wear and corrosion resistance was obtained for the film deposited with 600 W RF power applied on the BN target. - Highlights: • CrBN films deposited by direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • CrBN exhibited higher hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance than pure CrN. • The best wear- and corrosion-resistant film was deposited with 600 W RF power

  17. Epitaxial growth of Sb-doped nonpolar a-plane ZnO thin films on r-plane sapphire substrates by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-Guang, E-mail: houguang@isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Hung, Sung-Po [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Sb-doped nonpolar a-plane ZnO layers were epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates. ► Crystallinity and electrical properties were studied upon growth condition and doping concentration. ► The out-of-plane lattice spacing of ZnO films reduces monotonically with increasing Sb doping level. ► The p-type conductivity of ZnO:Sb film is closely correlated with annealing condition and Sb doping level. -- Abstract: In this study, the epitaxial growth of Sb-doped nonpolar a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) ZnO thin films on r-plane (11{sup ¯}02) sapphire substrates was performed by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The influence of the sputter deposition conditions and Sb doping concentration on the microstructural and electrical properties of Sb-doped ZnO epitaxial films was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Hall-effect measurement. The measurement of the XRD phi-scan indicated that the epitaxial relationship between the ZnO:Sb layer and sapphire substrate was (112{sup ¯}0){sub ZnO}//(11{sup ¯}02){sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}} and [11{sup ¯}00]{sub ZnO}//[112{sup ¯}0]{sub Al{sub 2O{sub 3}}}. The out-of-plane a-axis lattice parameter of ZnO films was reduced monotonically with the increasing Sb doping level. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) observation confirmed the absence of any significant antimony oxide phase segregation across the thickness of the Sb-doped ZnO epitaxial film. However, the epitaxial quality of the films deteriorated as the level of Sb dopant increased. The electrical properties of ZnO:Sb film are closely correlated with post-annealing conditions and Sb doping concentrations.

  18. Raman studies of reactive DC-magnetron sputtered thin films of YBaCuO on MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, K.C.; Lee, S.J.; Shen, Y.H.; Wang, X.K.; Rippert, E.D.; Van Duyne, R.P.; Ketterson, J.B.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was employed to study Y-Ba-Cu-O films prepared by multilayer, reactive sputtering from separate Y, Cu, and Ba 0.5 Cu 0.5 targets. A set of films having the composition Y x Ba 2 Cu y O z with 0.7 c (R=0), ranging from 25 to 90 K was studied with the Raman technique. The correlation between Raman data and critical temperature, T c , was investigated. This technique provides important information concerning the film crystallinity, homogeneity, and impurity content (including other phases) which is useful in judging the quality of high T c superconducting films. We also found that the rapid thermal annealing process is a very efficient way to reduce chemical reactions between the film and the substrate

  19. Morphology and structure evolution of Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} films deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering with electron cyclotron resonance plasma assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Man, E-mail: man.nie@helmholtz-berlin.de; Ellmer, Klaus [Department of Solar Fuels and Energy Storage Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-28

    Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} (CIGS) films were deposited on Mo coated soda lime glass substrates using an electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced one-step reactive magnetron co-sputtering process (ECR-RMS). The crystalline quality and the morphology of the Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence. We also compared these CIGS films with films previously prepared without ECR assistance and find that the crystallinity of the CIGS films is correlated with the roughness evolution during deposition. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the surface topography and to derive one-dimensional power spectral densities (1DPSD). All 1DPSD spectra of CIGS films exhibit no characteristic peak which is typical for the scaling of a self-affine surface. The growth exponent β, characterizing the roughness R{sub q} evolution during the film growth as R{sub q} ∼ d{sup β}, changes with film thickness. The root-mean-square roughness at low temperatures increases only slightly with a growth exponent β = 0.013 in the initial growth stage, while R{sub q} increases with a much higher exponent β = 0.584 when the film thickness is larger than about 270 nm. Additionally, we found that the H{sub 2}S content of the sputtering atmosphere and the Cu- to-(In + Ga) ratio has a strong influence of the morphology of the CIGS films in this one-step ECR-RMS process.

  20. Low-loss interference filter arrays made by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) for high-performance multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broßmann, Jan; Best, Thorsten; Bauer, Thomas; Jakobs, Stefan; Eisenhammer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Optical remote sensing of the earth from air and space typically utilizes several channels in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Thin-film optical interference filters, mostly of narrow bandpass type, are applied to select these channels. The filters are arranged in filter wheels, arrays of discrete stripe filters mounted in frames, or patterned arrays on a monolithic substrate. Such multi-channel filter assemblies can be mounted close to the detector, which allows a compact and lightweight camera design. Recent progress in image resolution and sensor sensitivity requires improvements of the optical filter performance. Higher demands placed on blocking in the UV and NIR and in between the spectral channels, in-band transmission and filter edge steepness as well as scattering lead to more complex filter coatings with thicknesses in the range of 10 - 25μm. Technological limits of the conventionally used ion-assisted evaporation process (IAD) can be overcome only by more precise and higher-energetic coating technologies like plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) in combination with optical broadband monitoring. Optics Balzers has developed a photolithographic patterning process for coating thicknesses up to 15μm that is fully compatible with the advanced PARMS coating technology. This provides the possibility of depositing multiple complex high-performance filters on a monolithic substrate. We present an overview of the performance of recently developed filters with improved spectral performance designed for both monolithic filter-arrays and stripe filters mounted in frames. The pros and cons as well as the resulting limits of the filter designs for both configurations are discussed.

  1. Characterization of single crystal uranium-oxide thin films grown via reactive-gas magnetron sputtering on yttria-stabilized zirconia and sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehle, Melissa M.; Heuser, Brent J., E-mail: bheuser@illinois.edu; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S.; Han Xiaochun; Gennardo, David J.; Pappas, Harrison K.; Ju, Hyunsu

    2012-06-30

    The microstructure and valence states of three single crystal thin film systems, UO{sub 2} on (11{sup Macron }02) r-plane sapphire, UO{sub 2} on (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} on (11{sup Macron }02) r-plane sapphire, grown via reactive-gas magnetron sputtering are analyzed primarily with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). XRD analysis indicates the growth of single crystal domains with varying degrees of mosaicity. XPS and UPS analyses yield U-4f, U-5f, O-1s, and O-2p electron binding energies consistent with reported bulk values. A change from p-type to n-type semiconductor behavior induced by preferential sputtering of oxygen during depth profile analysis was observed with both XPS and UPS. Trivalent cation impurities (Nd and Al) in UO{sub 2} lower the Fermi level, shifting the XPS spectral weight. This observation is consistent with hole-doping of a Mott-Hubbard insulator. The uranium oxide-(11{sup Macron }02) sapphire system is unstable with respect to Al interdiffusion across the film-substrate interface at elevated temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal uranium-oxides grown on sapphire and yttria-stabilized zirconia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anion and cation valence states studied by photoelectron emission spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trivalent Nd and Al impurities lower the Fermi level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uranium-oxide films on sapphire found to be unstable with respect to Al interdiffusion.

  2. Compositionally modulated multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings with AlTiSi multi-doping by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Jingmao; Kwon, Se-Hun; Wang, Qimin

    2017-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with AlTiSi multi-doping were prepared by a reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering with using a gas mixture of Ar and C2H2 as precursor. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, and mechanical property of the as-deposited DLC coatings were studied systemically by using SEM, XPS, TEM, Raman spectrum, stress-tester, and nanoindentation as a function of the Ar fraction. The results show that the doping concentrations of the Al, Ti and Si atoms increased as the Ar fraction increased. The doped Ti and Si preferred to bond with C while the doped Al mainly existed in oxidation state without bonding with C. As the doping concentrations increased, TiC carbide nanocrystals were formed in the DLC matrix. The microstructure of coatings changed from an amorphous feature dominant AlTiSi-DLC to a carbide nanocomposite AlTiSi-DLC with TiC nanoparticles embedding. In addition, the coatings exhibited the compositionally modulated multilayer consisting of alternate Al-rich layer and Al-poor layer due to the rotation of the substrate holder and the diffusion behavior of the doped Al which tended to separate from C and diffuse towards the DLC matrix surface owing to its weak interactions with C. The periodic Al-rich layer can effectively release the compressive stress of the coatings. On the other hand, the hard TiC nanoparticles were conducive to the hardness of the coatings. Consequently, the DLC coatings with relatively low residual stress and high hardness could be acquired successfully through AlTiSi multi-doping. It is believed that the AlCrSi multi-doping may be a good way for improving the comprehensive properties of the DLC coatings. In addition, we believe that the DLC coatings with Al-rich multilayered structure have a high oxidation resistance, which allows the DLC coatings application in high temperature environment.

  3. Temperature dependence of InN film deposition by an RF plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mutsukura, Nobuki

    2005-01-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates using a radiofrequency (RF) plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the InN films suggest that the InN films deposited at substrate temperatures up to 370 deg C were cubic crystalline InN; and at 500 deg C, the InN film was hexagonal crystalline InN. In a scanning electron microscope image of the InN film surface, facets of cubic single-crystalline InN grains were clearly observed on the InN film deposited at 370 deg C. The inclusion of metallic indium appeared on the InN film deposited at 500 deg C

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr-Si-N films prepared by rf-reactive sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Nose, M; Zhou, M; Mae, T; Meshii, M

    2002-01-01

    ZrN and ZrSiN films were prepared in an rf sputtering apparatus that has a pair of targets facing each other (referred to as the facing target--type rf sputtering). Films were deposited on silicon wafers without bias application or substrate heating in order to examine only the effect of silicon addition to the transition metal nitride films. The contents of zirconium, nitrogen, and silicon of the films were determined with an electron probe microanalyzer. The transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in addition to x-ray diffraction. For the high resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, the field emission type transmission electron microscope was used, which provides a point-to-point resolution of 0.1 nm. The samples were observed both parallel and perpendicular to the film surface, which were plane and cross sectional views, respectively. In order to investigate the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructure of films, the hardness was measured by a nano...

  5. Removal of carbon contaminations by RF plasma generated reactive species and subsequent effects on optical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P. K., E-mail: praveenyadav@rrcat.gov.in; Rai, S. K.; Modi, M. H.; Nayak, M.; Lodha, G. S. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.; Naik, P. A. [Laser Plasma Laboratory, Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Carbon contamination on optical elements is a serious issue in synchrotron beam lines for several decades. The basic mechanism of carbon deposition on optics and cleaning strategies are not fully understood. Carbon growth mechanism and optimized cleaning procedures are worldwide under development stage. Optimized RF plasma cleaning is considered an active remedy for the same. In present study carbon contaminated optical test surfaces (carbon capped tungsten thin film) are exposed for 30 minutes to four different gases, rf plasma at constant power and constant dynamic pressure. Structural characterization (thickness, roughness and density) of virgin samples and plasma exposed samples was done by soft x-ray (λ=80 Å) reflectivity measurements at Indus-1 reflectivity beam line. Different gas plasma removes carbon with different rate (0.4 to 0.65 nm /min). A thin layer 2 to 9 nm of different roughness and density is observed at the top surface of tungsten film. Ar gas plasma is found more suitable for cleaning of tungsten surface.

  6. Deposition of PZT thin film onto copper-coated polymer films by mean of pulsed-DC and RF-reactive sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Labitzke, R.; Adolphi, B.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Adámek, Petr; Drahokoupil, Jan; Hubička, Zdeněk; Kiselev, D.A.; Kholkin, A. L.; Gerlach, G.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2011), S241-S244 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : pulsed DC reactive sputtering * RF reactive sputtering * complex oxide film deposition * polymer substrate Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2011

  7. Optoelectronic properties of R-F magnetron sputtered Cadmium Tin Oxide (Cd2SnO4) thin films for CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyadheepan, K.; Thamilselvan, M.; Kim, Kyunghae; Yi, Junsin; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of “as-prepared” Cd 2 SnO 4 thin films ideal for thin film solar cells. • Lowest value of resistivity with high mobility attained for the as-prepared Cd 2 SnO 4 films. • Maximum transmittance of 93% in the visible range for the as-prepared films. • Effect of substrate temperature on the scattering mechanism of TCO. - Abstract: The influence of substrate temperature on the microstructural behavior, optical, electrical properties and on the scattering mechanism of charge carriers were studied for the as-prepared radio-frequency (R-F) magnetron sputtered Cadmium Tin Oxide (Cd 2 SnO 4 ) thin films. Films prepared at the substrate temperature of 300 °C were found to be polycrystalline in nature with preferential orientation along (3 1 1) plane. Well pronounced Moss–Burstein shift, in the transmittance spectra with dispersions in the optical band gap from 3.07 to 3.30 eV, was observed at substrate temperatures between 25 and 300 °C. Optical property of high visible transmittance was retained by the films. Analysis of the electrical properties on the prepared crystalline Cd 2 SnO 4 films showed a calculated resistivity of 10 −3 –10 −4 Ω cm, with n-type carrier density in the range of 10 19 –10 20 cm −3 and the charge carrier mobility in the range of 63–30 cm 2 /V s. The effects of structural, compositional and optical properties on the scattering mechanism of charge carrier are elaborated and reported to be an experimental evidence for the theoretical predictions. The results revealed the essential DC electrical conduction behavior, which is ideal for the fabrication of Cd 2 SnO 4 -based CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells

  8. Preparation of transparent conducting zinc oxide films by rf reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanelli, L.; Valentini, A.; Losacco, A.

    1986-01-01

    Transparent conducting zinc oxide films have been prepared by reactive sputtering in a Ar/H/sub 2/ mixture. The optical and electrical properties of the films are presented and discussed. The effects of some post-deposition thermal treatment have been also investigated. ZnO/CdTe heterojunctions have been prepared by sputtering ZnO films on CdTe single crystals. The photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of the obtained solar cells was 6.8%

  9. Influence of vanadium incorporation on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of Nb–V–Si–N films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hongbo; Xu, Junhua, E-mail: jhxu@just.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Composite Nb–V–Si–N films with various V contents (3.7–13.2 at.%) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and the effects of V content on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of Nb–V–Si–N films were investigated. The results revealed that a three-phase structure, consisting of face-centered cubic (fcc) Nb–V–Si–N, hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Nb–V–Si–N and amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, co-exists in the Nb–V–Si–N films and the cubic phase is dominant. The hardness and critical load (L{sub c}) of Nb–V–Si–N films initially increased gradually and reached a summit, then decreased with the increasing V content in the films and the maximum values were 35 GPa and 9.8 N, respectively, at 6.4 at.% V. The combination of V into Nb–Si–N film led to the fracture toughness linearly increasing from 1.11 MPa·m{sup 1/2} at 3.7 at.% V to 1.67 MPa·m{sup 1/2} at 13.2 at.% V. At room temperature (RT), the average friction coefficient decreased from 0.80 at 3.7 at.% V to 0.55 at 13.2 at.% V for the Nb–V–Si–N films. The wear rate of Nb–V–Si–N films initially decreased and then increased after reaching a minimum value of about 6.35 × 10{sup −} {sup 7} mm{sup 3}/N·mm at 6.4 at.% V. As the rise of testing temperature from 200 °C to 600 °C, the average friction coefficient of Nb–V–Si–N films decreased with the increase of the testing temperature regardless of V content. However, the wear rate gradually increased for all films. The average friction coefficient and wear rate at RT and elevated temperatures were mainly influenced by the vanadium oxides with weakly bonded lattice planes. - Highlight: • Fcc-Nb–V–Si–N, hcp-Nb–V–Si–N and amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} co-existed in the films. • The amount of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} decreased with increasing V content in the films. • Hardness of Nb–V–Si–N film (6.4 at.%) reached a maximum value of 35 GPa. • Addition of V led to the

  10. Nitrogen doping on NiO by reactive magnetron sputtering: A new pathway to dynamically tune the optical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keraudy, Julien, E-mail: julien.keraudy@liu.se [Institut de Recherche Technologique (IRT), Chemin du Chaffault, 44340, Bouguenais (France); Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP32229, 44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Plasma & Coatings Physics Division, IFM Materials Physics, Linköping University, Linköping, SE 581-83 (Sweden); Ferrec, Axel; Richard-Plouet, Mireille; Hamon, Jonathan; Goullet, Antoine; Jouan, Pierre-Yves [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP32229, 44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen doping into NiO lattice (4 at.%) is achieved by only monitoring the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas ratio in the plasma. • The replacement of O by N leads to a narrowing of the optical band-gap energy from 3.6 to 2.3 eV. • The origin of the narrowing is explained by the presence of an intermediate band and the introduction of occupied N 2p states. • Electrical conductivity of NiO:N samples depends on the amount of nickel vacancies and the nitrogen doping. - Abstract: N-doped nickel oxide (NiO:N) thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} gas atmosphere with a series of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas ratio ranging from 0 to 80%. X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed that the films are constituted of Ni{sub 1-x}O grains and showed enhanced polycrystalline features with increasing N-doping concentration. For the first time, we report here that N-doping in the Ni-deficient NiO (Ni{sub 1-x}O) film leads to a band-gap narrowing from 3.6 to 2.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements proved that up to 4 atomic percent (at.%) nitrogen can be incorporated at least at the surface of the NiO:N samples. In addition, XPS valence band spectra and UV–vis transmission measurements have demonstrated that the band-gap narrowing may originates from the contribution of an intermediate band (IB) ∼2.4 eV just above the valence band maximum and the up-shifting of the valence band edge (∼0.3 eV) due to the introduction of occupied N 2p states. Local I–V measurements, carried out by conductive AFM (C-AFM), have revealed that the extrinsic doping of N atoms within the oxide can be a good way to precisely control the electrical conductivity of such p-type materials.

  11. MuRF1 activity is present in cardiac mitochondria and regulates reactive oxygen species production in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattox, Taylor A; Young, Martin E; Rubel, Carrie E

    2014-01-01

    MuRF1 is a previously reported ubiquitin-ligase found in striated muscle that targets troponin I and myosin heavy chain for degradation. While MuRF1 has been reported to interact with mitochondrial substrates in yeast two-hybrid studies, no studies have identified MuRF1's role in regulating mitoc...

  12. Preparation of RF reactively sputtered indium-tin oxide thin films with optical properties suitable for heat mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, S; Dobrikov, G; Rassovska, M

    2008-01-01

    Technologies are discussed for preparing and characterizing indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films with properties appropriate for usage as heat mirrors in solar thermal collectors. The samples were prepared by means of radio frequency (RF) reactive sputtering of indium-tin targets in oxygen. The technological parameters were optimized to obtain films with optimal properties for heat mirrors. The optical properties of the films were studied by visible and infra-red (IR) spectrophotometry and laser ellipsometry. The reflectance of the films in the thermal IR range was investigated by a Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrophotometer. Heating of the substrates during the sputtering and their post deposition annealing in different environments were also studied. The ultimate purpose of the present research being the development of a technological process leading to low-cost ITO thin films with high transparency in the visible and near IR (0.3-2.4 μm) and high reflection in the thermal IR range (2.5-25 μm), we investigated the correlation of the ITO thin films structural and optical properties with the technological process parameters - target composition and heat treatment

  13. Study of the oxidation resistance of ZrxNand ZrxSi1-xN thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering; Estudo da resistencia a oxidacao de filmes finos de ZrxN e ZrxSi1-xN depositados por magnetron sputtering reativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, D.R.; Freitas, F.G.R.; Felix, L.C.; Carvalho, R.G.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Tentardini, E.K., E-mail: daniel.angel0275@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Silva Junior, H. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the oxidation resistance on pure zirconium nitride thin films and with silicon addition (ZrN and ZrSiN respectively). The thin films deposition were performed using reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings were characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), grazing angle X ray diffraction (GAXRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM-FEG) and oxidation tests starting from 500°C to 700°C. This study evaluated thin films with silicon content up to 14,9 at.%. GAXRD results showed only ZrN characteristics peaks, which allow the inference that Si3N4 has an amorphous structure. Oxidation tests demonstrate that the film with highest silicon content shows an increase of 200°C in oxidation temperature when compared with ZrN pure thin film. (author)

  14. Methods of Phase and Power Control in Magnetron Transmitters for Superconducting Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazadevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Schappert, W. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Various methods of phase and power control in magnetron RF sources of superconducting accelerators intended for ADS-class projects were recently developed and studied with conventional 2.45 GHz, 1 kW, CW magnetrons operating in pulsed and CW regimes. Magnetron transmitters excited by a resonant (injection-locking) phasemodulated signal can provide phase and power control with the rates required for precise stabilization of phase and amplitude of the accelerating field in Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities of the intensity-frontier accelerators. An innovative technique that can significantly increase the magnetron transmitter efficiency at the widerange power control required for superconducting accelerators was developed and verified with the 2.45 GHz magnetrons operating in CW and pulsed regimes. High efficiency magnetron transmitters of this type can significantly reduce the capital and operation costs of the ADSclass accelerator projects.

  15. Effect of nitrogen doping on TiO.sub.x./sub.N.sub.y./sub. thin film formation at reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, Vítězslav; Quaas, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Steffen, H.; Wulff, H.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Tichý, M.; Hippler, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 28 (2010), s. 1-7 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * TiO 2 * pulse discharge * XRD * band gap Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/43/28/285203/

  16. Deposition of SiOx thin films on Y-TZP by reactive magnetron sputtering: influence of plasma parameters on the adhesion properties between Y-TZP and resin cement for application in dental prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Calvacanti de Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper SiOx thin films were deposited on Y-TZP ceramics by reactive magnetron sputtering technique in order to improve the adhesion properties between Y-TZP and resin cement for applications in dental prosthesis. For fixed cathode voltage, target current, working pressure and target-to-substrate distance, SiOx thin films were deposited at different oxygen concentrations in the Ar+O2 plasma forming gas. After deposition processes, SiOx thin films were characterized by profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Adhesion properties between Y-TZP and resin cement were evaluated by shear testing. Results indicate that films deposited at 20%O2 increased the bond strength to (32.8 ± 5.4 MPa. This value has not been achieved by traditional methods.

  17. Reactive sputter deposition of boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; McKernan, M.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    The preparation of fully dense, boron targets for use in planar magnetron sources has lead to the synthesis of Boron Nitride (BN) films by reactive rf sputtering. The deposition parameters of gas pressure, flow and composition are varied along with substrate temperature and applied bias. The films are characterized for composition using Auger electron spectroscopy, for chemical bonding using Raman spectroscopy and for crystalline structure using transmission electron microscopy. The deposition conditions are established which lead to the growth of crystalline BN phases. In particular, the growth of an adherent cubic BN coating requires 400--500 C substrate heating and an applied -300 V dc bias

  18. Optical and structural properties of TiO{sub 2}/Ti/Ag/TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/ITO/Ag/ITO/TiO{sub 2} metal-dielectric multilayers by RF magnetron sputtering for display application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hyu; Hwangbo, Chang-Kwon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwang-Su [Quantum Photonic Science Research Center, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    Electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding and near-infrared (NIR) cutoff filters for plasma display panels, based on fundamental structures (ITO/Ag/ITO), (TiO{sub 2}/Ti/Ag/TiO{sub 2}) and (TiO{sub 2}/ITO/Ag/ITO/TiO{sub 2}), were designed and prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering. The optical, structural and electrical properties of the filters were investigated by using spectrophotometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and four-point-probe measurements. The results show that ITO films as the barriers and base layers lead to higher transmittance in the visible spectrum and smoother surface roughness than Ti metal barriers, while maintaining high NIR cutoff characteristics and chemical stability, which may be attributed to the lower absorption in the interfacial layers and better protection of the Ag layers by the ITO layers.

  19. Influence of rf-magnetron Sputtered ITO and Al:ZnO on Photovoltaic Behaviour Related to CuInSe{sub 2}-Based Photovoltaic Solar Cells; Influencia del ITO y Al:ZnO, Fabricados mediante Pulverizacion Cataodica, sobre el Comportamiento Fotovoltaico de Dispositivos Basados en el CuInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M. A.; Guillen, C.; Dona, J. M.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M. T. [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes several investigations, made in the CIEMAT, on the capability of depositing transparent conducting oxides at room temperature by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their application inCuInSe{sub 2}-based photovoltaic solar cells. ITO and Al:ZnO thin films having simultaneously high transmittance in the visible range and low resistivity, 10''3-10''4{omega}cm, can be obtained only if oxygen mass-flow rate is constrained to a very narrow range (0.5-1 sccm). Cell efficiency enhance when transparent conducting oxides are made without intentional heating and, after, the total devices are annealed in air at 200 degree centigree. (Author) 40 refs.

  20. Investigation of parameters of the working substance - low temperature plasma in the ionization resonator chamber of the RF reactive engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, V.S.; Zajtzev, B.V.; Kobetz, A.F.; Bomko, V.A.; Rashkovan, V.M.; Bazyma, L.A.; Belokon, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is the extension of investigations of the RF engine designed for orientation and stabilization of the spacecrafts orbit, and it is undertaken for measuring of plasma parameters of RF discharge in the ionization resonator chamber. The experiments were performed at the frequency of 80 MHz on the model engine, in which a length of coaxial line with shortening capacities at the ends was used as the ionization resonator chamber. As the result of the experiments, conditions of the RF discharge ignition in the resonator chamber are studied; dependencies of plasma density and temperature versus applied power and working body pressure are obtained for various gases. The measurements of the thrust were performed at the special-purpose test bench

  1. Pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatrowski, A.; Posadowski, W. M.; Radzimski, Z. J.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetron sputtering has become one of the commonly used techniques for industrial deposition of thin films and coatings due to its simplicity and reliability. At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure of ∼0.5 Pa) inert gas particles (necessary to sustain discharge) are often entrapped in the deposited films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated during the self-sustained magnetron sputtering (SSS) process, where the presence of the inert gas is not a necessary requirement. Moreover the SSS process that is possible due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered material also gives a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. So far it has been shown that the self-sustained mode of magnetron operation can be obtained using dc powering (dc-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of the dc-SSS process is its instability related to random arc formation. In such case the discharge has to be temporarily extinguished to prevent damaging both the magnetron source and power supply. The authors postulate that pulsed powering could protect the SSS process against arcs, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron deposition processes of insulating thin films. To put this concept into practice, (i) the high enough plasma density has to be achieved and (ii) the type of pulsed powering has to be chosen taking plasma dynamics into account. In this article results of pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed dc-SSS) are presented. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was used during the experiments. The maximum target power was about 11 kW, which corresponded to the target power density of ∼560 W/cm 2 . The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulse frequency (20-100 kHz) and pulse duty factor (50%-90%). The discharge (argon) extinction pressure level was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410 nm range) and deposition

  2. Improved Magnetron Stability and Reduced Noise in Efficient Transmitters for Superconducting Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2018-04-01

    State of the art high-current superconducting accelerators require efficient RF sources with a fast dynamic phase and power control. This allows for compensation of the phase and amplitude deviations of the accelerating voltage in the Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities caused by microphonics, etc. Efficient magnetron transmitters with fast phase and power control are attractive RF sources for this application. They are more cost effective than traditional RF sources such as klystrons, IOTs and solid-state amplifiers used with large scale accelerator projects. However, unlike traditional RF sources, controlled magnetrons operate as forced oscillators. Study of the impact of the controlling signal on magnetron stability, noise and efficiency is therefore important. This paper discusses experiments with 2.45 GHz, 1 kW tubes and verifies our analytical model which is based on the charge drift approximation.

  3. Simulation Study Using an Injection Phase-locked Magnetron as an Alternative Source for SRF Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Plawski, Tomasz E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As a drop-in replacement for the CEBAF CW klystron system, a 1497 MHz, CW-type high-efficiency magnetron using injection phase lock and amplitude variation is attractive. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using analytical models and MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron has not been built yet, previously measured characteristics of a 2.45GHz cooker magnetron are used as reference. The results of linear responses to the amplitude and phase control of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity, and the expected overall benefit for the current CEBAF and future MEIC RF systems are presented in this paper.

  4. Influence of substrate biasing on the growth of c-axis oriented AlN thin films by RF reactive sputtering in pure nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo-Lerma, L.; Naranjo, F.B.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    We report on the investigation of the influence of deposition conditions on structural, morphological and optical properties of AlN thin films deposited on sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by radio-frequency (RF) reactive sputtering. The deposition parameters studied are RF power, substrate temperature and substrate bias, while using pure nitrogen as reactive gas. The effect of such deposition parameters on AlN film properties are analyzed by different characterization methods as high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and linear optical transmission. AlN thin films with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve obtained for the (0002) diffraction peak of 1.2 are achieved under optimized conditions. The time resolved evolution of the self and externally-induced biasing of the substrate during deposition process is monitored and analyzed in terms of the rate of atomic species incorporation into the layer. The bias-induced change of the atomic incorporation leads to an enhancement in the structural quality of the layer and an increase of the deposition rate. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Surface treatment of diamond-like carbon films by reactive Ar/CF{sub 4} high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Takashi, E-mail: t-kimura@nitech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, Ryotaro [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Azuma, Kingo [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Nakao, Setsuo; Sonoda, Tsutomu; Kusumori, Takeshi; Ozaki, Kimihiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) - Chubu, 2266-98 Anagahora, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Surface modification of diamond-like carbon films deposited by a high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) of Ar was carried out by a HPPMS of Ar/CF{sub 4} mixture, changing a CF{sub 4} fraction from 2.5% to 20%. The hardness of the modified films markedly decreased from about 13 to about 3.5 GPa with increasing CF{sub 4} fraction, whereas the water contact angle of the modified films increased from 68° to 109° owing to the increase in the CF{sub x} content on the film surface. C 1s spectra in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that a graphitic structure of modified films was formed at CF{sub 4} fractions less than 5%, above which the modified films possessed a polymer-like structure. Influence of treatment time on the properties of the modified films was also investigated in the range of treatment time from 5 to 30 min. The properties of the modified films did not depend on the treatment time in the range of treatment time longer than 10 min, whereas the water contact angle was not sensitive to the treatment time at any treatment time.

  6. Structure and electronic properties of AlCrO{sub x}N{sub 1−x} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, H.; Karimi, A. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (ICMP), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Oveisi, E. [Electron Spectrometry and Microscopy Laboratory (LSME-ICMP), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Morstein, M. [PLATIT AG, Advanced Coating Systems, CH-2545 Selzach (Switzerland)

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the main attempt is devoted to investigating the microstructure and electronic properties of AlCrO{sub x}N{sub 1−x} films in a wide range of oxygen concentrations from 0 to 1. These oxynitride films were deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from Al{sub 55}Cr{sub 45} targets. Our results showed that films with x = O/(O + N) < 0.6, exhibit a cubic (B1) lattice with a well-developed columnar structure. The incorporation of oxygen into the films without any oxide segregation results in the formation of a substitutional AlCrO{sub x}N{sub 1−x} solid solution and material system behaves like nitrides electronically. In the range of oxygen contents from 0.6 ≤ O/(O + N) < 0.97, coatings with fine columns, diffuse boundaries and high values of metal vacancies were formed. However, the B1 lattice survived despite the large proportion of oxygen. According to the structural and electronic properties of the corresponding layers, we assign this region to the formation of an amorphous phase and metastable monoxides with a B1 structure. Coatings with O/(O + N) ≥ 0.97 are electronically assigned to a solid solution of α-(Al,Cr){sub 2}(O{sub 0.97},N{sub 0.03}){sub 3} with corundum lattice and finer columnar structure. - Highlights: • AlCr(O{sub x}N{sub 1−x}) layers with variable oxygen content 0 < x < 1 were grown. • The layers with the lowest oxygen content, x < 0.6, electronically behave like nitrides. • Coatings with 0.6 ≤ x < 0.97 are assigned to metastable monoxides. • The oxide region consisted of a solid solution of α-phase with a corundum structure.

  7. Modeling and experimental studies of a side band power re-injection locked magnetron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Ping; Zhu, Hua-Cheng; Huang, Ka-Ma; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-01

    A side band power re-injection locked (SBPRIL) magnetron is presented in this paper. A tuning stub is placed between the external injection locked (EIL) magnetron and the circulator. Side band power of the EIL magnetron is reflected back to the magnetron. The reflected side band power is reused and pulled back to the central frequency. A phase-locking model is developed from circuit theory to explain the process of reuse of side band power in SBPRIL magnetron. Theoretical analysis proves that the side band power is pulled back to the central frequency of the SBPRIL magnetron, then the amplitude of the RF voltage increases and the phase noise performance is improved. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of a 10-vane continuous wave (CW) magnetron model is presented. Computer simulation predicts that the frequency spectrum’s peak of the SBPRIL magnetron has an increase of 3.25 dB compared with the free running magnetron. The phase noise performance at the side band offset reduces 12.05 dB for the SBPRIL magnetron. Besides, the SBPRIL magnetron experiment is presented. Experimental results show that the spectrum peak rises by 14.29% for SBPRIL magnetron compared with the free running magnetron. The phase noise reduces more than 25 dB at 45-kHz offset compared with the free running magnetron. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328902) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61501311).

  8. High-rate reactive deposition of transparent SiO.sub.2./sub. films containing low amount of Zr from molten magnetron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Jindřich; Satava, V.; Baroch, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 519, č. 2 (2010), s. 775-777 ISSN 0040-6090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : sputtering * evaporation * reactive deposition * target power density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.909, year: 2010

  9. Tribological characterization of TiN coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Nishant S.; Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Sonera, Akshay L.; Chauhan, Dharmesh B.; Dave, Divyeshkumar P.; Rawal, Sushant K.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coating deposited on aluminium and brass pin substrates using RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural properties and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). There was formation of (101) Ti2N, (110) TiN2 and (102) TiN0.30 peaks at 3.5Pa, 2Pa and 1.25Pa sputtering pressure respectively. The tribological properties of coating were inspected using pin on disc tribometer equipment. It was observed that TiN coated aluminium and brass pins demonstrated improved wear resistance than uncoated aluminium and brass pins.

  10. The properties of TiN ultra-thin films grown on SiO{sub 2} substrate by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering under various growth angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayestehaminzadeh, S., E-mail: ses30@hi.is [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Tryggvason, T.K. [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Karlsson, L. [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Olafsson, S. [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Gudmundsson, J.T. [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong University, University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-12-02

    Thin TiN films were grown on SiO{sub 2} by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) while varying the angle between the target and the substrate surface from 0° (on-axis growth) to 90° (off-axis growth). Surface morphology and structural characterization were carried out using X-ray diffraction and reflection methods and the film properties were compared. The dcMS process shows higher growth rate than the HiPIMS process for on-axis grown films but the dcMS growth rate drops drastically for off-axis growth while the HiPIMS growth rate decreases slowly with increased angle between target and substrate for off-axis growth and becomes comparable to the dcMS growth rate. The dcMS grown films exhibit angle dependence in the density and surface roughness while the HiPIMS process creates denser and smoother films that are less angle dependent in all aspects. It was observed that the HiPIMS grown films remain poly-crystalline for all angles of rotation while the dcMS grown films are somewhat amorphous after 60°. The [111] and [200] grain sizes are comparable to the total film thickness in the HiPIMS grown films for all angles of rotation. In the case of dcMS, the [111], [200] and [220] grain sizes are roughly of the same size and much smaller than the total thickness for all growth angles except at 60° and higher. - Highlights: • TiN films were grown on SiO{sub 2} by HiPIMS and dcMS under various growth angles. • Influence of growth angle α = 0–90° on deposition rate and film quality was studied. • The HiPIMS process produces denser and smoother films for all growth angles. • At α = 0°, the growth rate of HiPIMS is 25% of dcMS while it is 50% at 90°. • The HiPIMS grown films remain poly-crystalline for all growth angles.

  11. Inverted relativistic magnetron with a single axial output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, W.P.; Earley, L.M.; Wharton, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    A twelve vane, 1 MV, S-band magnetron has been designed and tested. An inverted design was selected to minimize the parasitic axial electron losses. The stainless steel anode is approximately one wavelength long. One end is partially short-circuited to rf, while the other end has a mode transformer to couple the 3.16 GHz π-mode out into a TM 01 circular waveguide. The magnetron has a loaded output Q of about 100. Operation at 1 MV, 0.31 T, 5 kA routinely produces approx.150 MW peak rms and 100 MW average rms with pulse lengths adjustable from 5 to 70 ns. The microwave power pulse has a rise time of approx.2 ns. The output power is diagnosed using four methods: calorimetry, two circular-waveguide directional couplers installed on the magnetron, two transmitting-receiving systems, and gaseous breakdown. Operation at other voltages and magnetic fields shows that the oscillation frequency is somewhat dependent on the magnetron current. Frequency changes of approx.20 MHz/kA occur as the operating conditions are varied. A series of experiments varying the anode conductivity, the electron emission profile, and the output coupling transformer design showed that none of these significantly increased the output power. Therefore, we have concluded that this magnetron operates in saturation. Because of the anode lifetime and repeatability, this magnetron has the potential to be repetitively pulsed. 36 refs., 16 figs

  12. Measurement and modeling of plasma parameters in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of Ti in Ar/O.sub.2./sub. mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čada, Martin; Lundin, D.; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 17 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 171913. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00863S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 608800 - HIPPOCAMP Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : reactive sputtering * HiPIMS * Langmuir probe * R-IRM model * plasma density * electron temperature Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  13. Magnetron plasma and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashtanov, Pavel V; Smirnov, Boris M; Hippler, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Magnetron plasma processes involving metal atoms and clusters are reviewed. The formation of metal atoms near the cathode and their nucleation in a buffer gas flow are discussed. The flow of a buffer gas with metal clusters through a magnetron chamber disturbs the equilibrium between the buffer gas flow and clusters near the exit orifice and is accompanied by cluster attachment to the chamber walls. Cluster charging far off the cathode, the disturbance of equilibrium between the buffer gas flow and cluster drift, and the attachment of charged clusters to the chamber walls - the factors determining the output parameters of the cluster beam escaping the magnetron chamber - are analyzed. Cluster deposition on a solid surface and on dusty plasma particles is considered. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. Computer modelling of RF ablation in cortical osteoid osteoma: Assessment of the insulating effect of the reactive zone

    OpenAIRE

    Irastorza, Ramiro M.; Trujillo Guillen, Macarena; Martel Villagran, Jose; Berjano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in International Journal of Hyperthermia on 10 Feb 2016, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.3109/02656736.2015.1135998 Purpose: The aim was to study by computer simulations the insulating role of the reactive zone surrounding a cortical osteoid osteoma (OO) in terms of electrical and thermal performance during radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Material and methods: We modelled a cortical OO consi...

  15. Reactive sputter deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Mahieu, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    In this valuable work, all aspects of the reactive magnetron sputtering process, from the discharge up to the resulting thin film growth, are described in detail, allowing the reader to understand the complete process. Hence, this book gives necessary information for those who want to start with reactive magnetron sputtering, understand and investigate the technique, control their sputtering process and tune their existing process, obtaining the desired thin films.

  16. Electrochemical behavior of single layer CrN, TiN, TiAlN coatings and nanolayered TiAlN/CrN multilayer coatings prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William Grips, V.K.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Selvi, V. Ezhil; Kalavati; Rajam, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of single layer TiN, CrN, TiAlN and multilayer TiAlN/CrN coatings, deposited on steel substrate using a multi-target reactive direct current magnetron sputtering process, were studied in 3.5% NaCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The total thickness of the coatings was about 1.5 μm. About 0.5 μm thick chromium interlayer was used for improved adhesion of the coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that for all the coatings the corrosion potential shifted to higher values as compared to the uncoated substrate. Similarly, the corrosion current density decreased for coated samples, indicating better corrosion resistance of the coated samples. The multilayer coatings of TiAlN/CrN exhibited superior corrosion behavior as compared to the single layer coatings. The Nyquist and the Bode plots obtained from the EIS measurements were fitted by appropriate equivalent circuits to calculate the pore resistance, the charge transfer resistance and the capacitance. These studies revealed that the pore resistance was lowest for TiN coatings, which increased for TiAlN coatings. TiAlN/CrN multilayer coatings exhibited highest pore resistance. No significant change in the capacitive behavior of the coatings was observed, suggesting minimal morphological changes as a result of immersion in the electrolyte. This could be attributed to shorter immersion durations. These studies were confirmed by examining the corroded samples under scanning electron microscope. Preliminary experiments conducted with additional interlayer of electroless nickel (5.0 μm thick) have shown significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of the coatings

  17. NOVEL TECHNIQUE OF POWER CONTROL IN MAGNETRON TRANSMITTERS FOR INTENSE ACCELERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M.; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Schappert, W. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2016-10-21

    A novel concept of a high-power magnetron transmitter allowing dynamic phase and power control at the frequency of locking signal is proposed. The transmitter compensating parasitic phase and amplitude modulations inherent in Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities within closed feedback loops is intended for powering of the intensity-frontier superconducting accelerators. The con- cept uses magnetrons driven by a sufficient resonant (in- jection-locking) signal and fed by the voltage which can be below the threshold of self-excitation. This provides an extended range of power control in a single magnetron at highest efficiency minimizing the cost of RF power unit and the operation cost. Proof-of-principle of the proposed concept demonstrated in pulsed and CW regimes with 2.45 GHz, 1kW magnetrons is discussed here. A conceptual scheme of the high-power transmitter allowing the dynamic wide-band phase and y power controls is presented and discussed.

  18. High-rate deposition of high-quality Sn-doped In2O3 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using alloy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Nobuto; Kawase, Yukari; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) films were deposited on heated (200 °C) fused silica glass substrates by reactive DC sputtering with mid-frequency pulsing (50 kHz) and a plasma control unit combined with a feedback system of the optical emission intensity for the atomic O* line at 777 nm. A planar In–Sn alloy target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in the unipolar pulse mode. The power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The feedback system precisely controlled the oxidation of the target surface in “the transition region.” The ITO film with lowest resistivity (3.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm) was obtained with a deposition rate of 310 nm min −1 and transmittance in the visible region of approximately 80%. The deposition rate was about 6 times higher than that of ITO films deposited by conventional sputtering using an oxide target.

  19. Checkerboard deposition of lithium manganese oxide spinel (LiMn2O4) by RF magnetron sputtering on a stainless steel in all-solid-state thin film battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, T. H.; Yu, Y. Q.; Jan, D. J.; Su, C. H.; Chang, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    All-solid-state thin film lithium batteries (TFLBs) are the most competitive low-power sources to be applied in various kinds of micro-electro-mechanical systems and have been draw a lot of attention in academic research. In this paper, the checkerboard deposition of all-solid-state TFLB was composed of thin film lithium metal anode, lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) solid electrolyte, and checkerboard deposition of lithium manganese oxide spinel (LiMn2O4) cathode. The LiPON and LiMn2O4 were deposited by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system, and the lithium metal was deposited by a thermal evaporation coater. The electrochemical characterization of this lithium battery showed the first discharge capacity of 107.8 μAh and the capacity retention was achieved 95.5% after 150 charge-discharge cycles between 4.3V and 3V at a current density of 11 μA/cm2 (0.5C). Obviously, the checkerboard of thin film increased the charge exchange rate; also this lithium battery exhibited high C-rate performance, with better capacity retention of 82% at 220 μA/cm2 (10C).

  20. Influence of Magnetron Effect on Barium Hexaferrite Thin Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassane, H.; Chatelon, J.P.; Rousseau, J.J; Siblini, A.; Kriga, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of a magnet, located in the cathode, on barium hexaferrite thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique. During the process, these effects can modify thickness, roughness and stress of coatings. The characteristics of the deposited layers depend on the substrate position that is located opposite of magnetron cathode. In the m agnetron area , one can observe that the high stress can produce cracks or detachment of layers and the increasing of both depositing rate and surface roughness. After sputtering elaboration, barium hexaferrite films are in a compressive stress mode. But, after the post-deposition heat treatment these films are in a tensile stress mode. To improve the quality of BaM films, the subsrtate has to be set outside the magnetron area. (author)

  1. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  2. Ring magnetron ionizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A ring magnetron D - charge exchange ionizer has been built and tested. An H - current of 500 μA was extracted with an estimated H 0 density in the ionizer of 10 12 cm -3 . This exceeds the performance of ionizers presently in use on polarized H - sources. The ionizer will soon be tested with a polarized atomic beam

  3. Design and preliminary characterization of a miniature pulsed RF APGD torch with downstream injection of the source of reactive species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveille, V; Coulombe, S

    2005-01-01

    The design of a miniature low-power atmospheric pressure glow discharge torch (APGD-t) and the results of its preliminary electrical and spectroscopic characterization are presented. A capacitively-coupled pulsed RF (13.56 MHz) helium plasma jet is formed in a converging confinement tube and O 2 is injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through a capillary electrode. With 1 SLM He, the APGD-t produced a non-thermal plasma jet of 500 μm-diameter and ∼2.5 mm-long at power levels ranging from 1 to 5 W. At ∼1 W, the gas temperature and He excitation temperature near the nozzle exit were ∼50 0 C and slightly below 2000 K, respectively. The breakdown voltage in 1 SLM He is approximately 220 V pk-to-0 . Careful electric probe measurements and circuit analysis revealed the strong effect of the voltage probe on the total load impedance. The injection of 10 SCCM O 2 through the capillary electrode led to the transport of atomic O further downstream in the plasma jet and to a slight increase of the He excitation temperature without significant effects on the electrical properties and jet length. Alternatively, the addition of an equivalent amount of O 2 (1 v/v%) to the plasma-forming gas affected the electrical properties slightly, but led to a drastic contraction of the plasma jet. The atomic oxygen production and transport conditions provided by the APGD-t are promising for precise bio-applications such as the treatment of skin tissues and cells

  4. Studies on the reactive pulsed-magnetron sputtering of ITO from metallic targets; Untersuchungen zum reaktiven Pulsmagnetronsputtern von ITO von metallischen Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnehr, W.M.

    2006-06-15

    The thesis deals with a reactive sputter process for the deposition of ITO- films. In contrast to the usual technique, the sputter targets consists of indium-tin-alloy instead of ceramic ITO. All experiments were conducted on an inline coater with 600 mm target-width. The process is stabilized by a control loop based on optical emission detection. The experiments prove, that this control loop guarantees a long term stability of the outcomes of the coating process.Process parameters, that are crucial for the optical and electrical properties of the deposited thin films are identified and studied. Among them are the flow of oxygen and the substrate temperature but also less obvious parameters such as the distance between target and substrate.Througout the work the focus is on the film deposition with pulsed plasmas. Novel bipolar DC pulse- and pulse package generators are employed for the deposition.In order to shed some light onto the influence of certain pulse parameters on the outcome of a particular coating process, a Monte-Carlo-Simulation of the particle flow in pulsed plasmas is developed. This simulation yields the distribution of particles and their respective energies on deliberately placed planes in the process chamber. Particles under investigation are both sputtered species and neutral sputter gas atoms reflected at the target. The results of this simulation provide an explanation for the influence of certain pulse parameters on the outcome of the coating process. The further investigations deal with the influence of the construction of the process chamber on the coating process. For this purpose, locally resolved optical spectra are recorded. In order to analyse these spectra, a novel connected fit algorithm is developed.This algorithm yields the distribution of certain fitparameters on the substrate. Provided the most complex of the discussed parametrizations of the dielectric function are used, these can be crucial properties such as the carrier

  5. A novel injection-locked amplitude-modulated magnetron at 1497 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) uses low efficiency klystrons in the CEBAF machine. In the older portion they operate at 30% efficiency with a tube mean time between failure (MTBF) of five to six years. A highly efficient source (>55-60%) must provide a high degree of backwards compatibility, both in size and voltage requirements, to replace the klystron presently used at JLab, while providing energy savings. Muons, Inc. is developing a highly reliable, highly efficient RF source based upon a novel injection-locked amplitude modulated (AM) magnetron with a lower total cost of ownership, >80% efficiency, and MTBF of six to seven years. The design of the RF source is based upon a single injection-locked magnetron system at 8 kW capable of operating up to 13 kW, using the magnetron magnetic field to achieve the AM required for backwards compatibility to compensate for microphonics and beam loads. A novel injection-locked 1497 MHz 8 kW AM magnetron with a trim magnetic coil was designed and its operation numerically simulated during the Phase I project. The low-level RF system to control the trim field and magnetron anode voltage was designed and modeled for operation at the modulation frequencies of the microphonics. A plan for constructing a prototype magnetron and control system was developed.

  6. Special traits of the millimeter wave relativistic magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdin, S.A.; Chizhov, K.V.; Gadetski, N.P.; Korenev, V.G.; Lebedenko, A.N.; Marchenko, M.I.; Magda, I.I.; Melezhik, O.G.; Sinitsin, V.G.; Soshenko, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    A 8 mm band relativistic magnetron is investigated experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The physical effects are analyzed which influence negatively the r.f. generation. The processes capable of reducing effectiveness of the generation and duration of the generated pulse include forward and backward axial flows of electrons, and intense electric fields - the generated microwaves and the fields owing to the space charge

  7. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O 2 ) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 x 10 11 to -2 x 10 8 dyne/cm 2 that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  8. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Tan, H. H.; Sreenivas, K.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-03-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O2) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 × 1011 to -2 × 108 dyne/cm2 that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  9. Effect of electroless nickel interlayer on the electrochemical behavior of single layer CrN, TiN, TiAlN coatings and nanolayered TiAlN/CrN multilayer coatings prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grips, V.K. William; Ezhil Selvi, V.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Rajam, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of single layer TiN, CrN, TiAlN and multilayer TiAlN/CrN coatings, deposited on steel substrates using a multi-target reactive direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering process, was studied in 3.5% NaCl solution. The total thickness of the coatings was about 1.5 μm. About 0.5 μm thick chromium interlayer was used to improve adhesion of the coatings. With an aim to improve the corrosion resistance, an additional interlayer of approximately 5 μm thick electroless nickel (EN) was deposited on the substrate. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to study the corrosion behavior of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the corroded samples. The potentiodynamic polarization tests showed lower corrosion current density and higher polarization resistance (R p ) for the coatings with EN interlayer. For example, the corrosion current density of TiN coated steel was decreased by a factor of 10 by incorporating 5 μm thick EN interlayer. Similarly, multilayer coatings of TiAlN/CrN with EN interlayer showed about 30 times improved corrosion resistance as compared to the multilayers without EN interlayer. The porosity values were calculated from the potentiodynamic polarization data. The Nyquist and the Bode plots obtained from the EIS data were fitted by appropriate equivalent circuits. The pore resistance (R pore ), the charge transfer resistance (R ct ), the coating capacitance (Q coat ) and the double layer capacitance (Q dl ) of the coatings were obtained from the equivalent circuit. Multilayer coatings showed higher R pore and R ct values as compared to the single layer coatings. Similarly, the Q coat and Q dl values decreased from uncoated substrate to the multilayer coatings, indicating a decrease in the defect density by the addition of EN interlayer. These studies were confirmed by examining the corroded samples under

  10. Metal-semiconductor transition materials. FeS and VO{sub 2} thin films by RF reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Ganhua

    2007-06-15

    In the present work, two MST systems, FeS and VO{sub 2} thin films were investigated. Iron sulfide thin films over a range of composition were prepared by reactive sputtering. The influence of the substrate, sputter power, substrate temperature and stoichiometry on the structure and MST of iron sulfide films was investigated. Iron sulfide films deposited at different temperatures show temperature dependent structure and MST. FeS films on float glass show (110) and (112) orientations when the substrate temperature is 200 and 500 C, respectively. The transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop determined from the temperature dependent conductivity curves of iron sulfide films decrease with the substrate temperature. Fe and S excess in FeS films both result in the decrease of the transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop. The vacuum-annealing affects the MST of FeS films significantly. When FeS films were annealed below the deposition temperature, the transition temperature decreases; otherwise increases. The residual stress plays an important role during the annealing process. The higher the residual stress inside the FeS films is, the higher the transition temperature of FeS films. With the increase of the annealing temperature, the residual stress in FeS films is first released and then enhances, which gives rise first to the decrease and then increase of the transition temperature of FeS films. At high substrate temperatures, the residual stress is higher. In addition, the MST of FeS films was influenced by the ambient aging. With the increase of the aging time, the transition temperature first increases and then decreases. FeS films with different thicknesses were prepared. The correlation between the film thickness (grain size) and the MST switching characteristics of FeS films was established. With the decrease of the grain size, the density of grain boundaries increases, causing the increase of the conductivity of the semiconducting

  11. Metal-semiconductor transition materials. FeS and VO2 thin films by RF reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Ganhua

    2007-06-01

    In the present work, two MST systems, FeS and VO 2 thin films were investigated. Iron sulfide thin films over a range of composition were prepared by reactive sputtering. The influence of the substrate, sputter power, substrate temperature and stoichiometry on the structure and MST of iron sulfide films was investigated. Iron sulfide films deposited at different temperatures show temperature dependent structure and MST. FeS films on float glass show (110) and (112) orientations when the substrate temperature is 200 and 500 C, respectively. The transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop determined from the temperature dependent conductivity curves of iron sulfide films decrease with the substrate temperature. Fe and S excess in FeS films both result in the decrease of the transition temperature and width of the hysteresis loop. The vacuum-annealing affects the MST of FeS films significantly. When FeS films were annealed below the deposition temperature, the transition temperature decreases; otherwise increases. The residual stress plays an important role during the annealing process. The higher the residual stress inside the FeS films is, the higher the transition temperature of FeS films. With the increase of the annealing temperature, the residual stress in FeS films is first released and then enhances, which gives rise first to the decrease and then increase of the transition temperature of FeS films. At high substrate temperatures, the residual stress is higher. In addition, the MST of FeS films was influenced by the ambient aging. With the increase of the aging time, the transition temperature first increases and then decreases. FeS films with different thicknesses were prepared. The correlation between the film thickness (grain size) and the MST switching characteristics of FeS films was established. With the decrease of the grain size, the density of grain boundaries increases, causing the increase of the conductivity of the semiconducting phase

  12. Influence of post-treatment on properties of Cu(In{sub ,}Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using a quaternary single target for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hee; Choi, Soon Ja; Chung, Chee Won, E-mail: cwchung@inha.ac

    2014-11-03

    The deposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films has been performed by one-step RF sputtering using a single quaternary target and followed by sulfurization to incorporate S into CIGS films. The effect of sulfurization temperature and time on the properties of the films was studied. The sulfurized Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} (CIGSeS) films show that the chalcopyrite peaks shifted to high diffraction angles and the CuS and InS second phases could be formed at low sulfurization temperature. These indicate possible incorporation of S into the films. The formation and disappearance of these second phases depended on the sulfurization temperature and time. The band gap increased with increasing sulfurization temperature and time because of the shift of the absorption edge due to the increase of S/(S + Se) ratio. It was revealed that the resistivity of the as-deposited CIGS film increased after sulfurization while the carrier concentration and mobility decreased. It is believed that the sulfurization process of CIGS films can be utilized as a method to control the properties of the films. - Highlights: • Development of sputtering process of CIGS thin films using single quaternary target • Effect of sulfurization temperature and time on the properties of CIGS films • Application of sulfurization process to improve the properties of CIGS films • Successful transformation of CIGS films to chalcopyrite structure through post-sulfirization.

  13. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF DC REACTIVE MAGNETRON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    value of the AC resistivity was given by the ZnO:Al film with the highest value of ... Compared to other thin film ... critical parameters in determining the ... approach in studying the electronic transport ..... J 2009 Electrical and optical studies of.

  14. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  15. RF MEMS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At the bare die level the insertion loss, return loss and the isolation ... ing and packaging of a silicon on glass based RF MEMS switch fabricated using DRIE. ..... follows the power law based on the asperity deformation model given by Pattona & ... Surface mount style RF packages (SMX series 580465) from Startedge Corp.

  16. Deposition of indium tin oxide films on acrylic substrates by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, B.S.; Hsieh, S.T.; Wu, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto acrylic substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. Low substrate temperature (< 80 C) and low rf power (< 28 W) were maintained during sputtering to prevent acrylic substrate deformation. The influence of sputtering parameters, such as rf power, target-to-substrate distance, and chamber pressure, on the film deposition rate, the electrical properties, as well as the optical properties of the deposited films was investigated. Both the refractive index and the extinction coefficient were derived. The high reflection at wavelengths greater than 3 μm made these sputtered ITO films applicable to infrared mirrors

  17. Studies on the reactive deposition of TiN{sub x} and TiO{sub x} in a DC magnetron plasma; Untersuchungen zur reaktiven Abscheidung von TiN{sub x} und TiO{sub x} in einem DC-Magnetronplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrehde, Stefan

    2009-10-30

    In the present thesis experiments in a magnetron coating plasma on the (reactive) deposition of Ti, Ti{sub x}, and TiO{sub x} layers were performed. The aim was to meet by correlation of measurements of the ion and energy current on the substrate during the coating procedure with studies of the properties of the deposed layers statements about the connections of deposition conditions and layer properties. The layers deposed in the argon plasma without reactive gas contained beside titanium as main component also small concentrations of oxygen in the range of 8..15%, no completely pure respectively metallic titanium layers could be deposed. In the layers deposed in the argon-nitrogen plasma the increasing nitrogen admixture to the plasma leads mto an increasing nitridation of the layers. The measurements of the crystal structure show higher macroscopical stresses in the layers deposed in the unbalanced mode. From the combination of the higher thicknesses and densities of the layers deposed in the unbalanced mode in this operation mode of the magnetron higher deposition rates result. In the argon-oxygen plasma at increasing oxygen part it comes to a distinct increasement of the oxygen concentration at simultaneous decreasement of the relative titanium concentration in the deposed layers. The deposition in the unbalanced mode leads against the that in the balanced mode to a slightly lower oxygen concentration in the layers. The measurements of the crystal structure show also a lower oxygen insertion and tendentially lower macroscopical stresses in the layers deposed in the unbalanced mode. The measured densities of the layers deposed in the unbalanced mode are distinctly lower than to be expected, and above all smaller than those of the layers deposed in the balanced mode.

  18. Relation between the plasma characteristics and physical properties of functional zinc oxide thin film prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Che-Wei; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Huang, Wen-Hsien; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Cheng, Cheng-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Huang, Shih-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    The ZnO thin film was deposited on a glass substrate by a RF reactive magnetron sputtering method. Results showed that plasma density, electron temperature, deposition rate and estimated ion bombardment energy increase with increasing applied RF power. Three distinct power regimes were observed, which are strongly correlated with plasma properties. In the low-power regime, the largest grain size was observed due to slow deposition rate. In the medium-power regime, the smallest grain size was found, which is attributed to insufficient time for the adatoms to migrate on substrate surface. In the high-power regime, relatively larger grain size was found due to very large ion bombardment energy which enhances the thermal migration of adatoms. Regardless of pure ZnO thin film or ZnO on glass, high transmittance (> 80%) in the visible region can be generally observed. However, the film thickness plays a more important role for controlling optical properties, especially in the UV region, than the applied RF power. In general, with properly coated ZnO thin film, we can obtain a glass substrate which is highly transparent in the visible region, is of good anti-UV characteristics, and is highly hydrophobic, which is highly suitable for applications in the glass industry.

  19. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Prosthodontics and Restorative Science, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + 3 mM NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings.

  20. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO 3 ) 2 + 3 mM NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings

  1. Study of static properties of magnetron-type space charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcroix, Jean-Loup

    1953-01-01

    This research thesis reports an in-depth analysis of physical properties of static regimes to address the issue of space charges. This theoretical study of the Hull magnetron is followed by the description of experiments on the Hull magnetron which highlight transitions between the different regimes. Then, another theoretical approach aims at generalising the magnetron theory, based on other types of magnetron theory (general equations of magnetron-type space charges, inverted Hull magnetron theory, circular field magnetron theory)

  2. Corrosion of thin, magnetron sputtered Nb_2O_5 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser; Geribola, Guilherme Altomari; Scheidt, Guilherme; Gonçalves de Araújo, Edval; Lopes de Oliveira, Mara Cristina; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Niobium oxide based films were obtained by DC magnetron sputtering. • Different deposition times were tested. • The best corrosion resistance was obtained for the Nb_2O_5 film produced at 15′. • Film porosity determines the corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Niobium oxide based thin films were deposited on AISI 316 stainless steel substrates using reactive DC magnetron sputtering. Structure, composition and corrosion resistance of the niobium oxide films were studied. The corrosion behavior of the specimens was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The concentration of niobium and oxygen in the films was obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The corrosion resistance of the substrate was improved by the Nb_2O_5 layers. The best protective performance was achieved for the deposition time of 15 min.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Physics and phenomena in pulsed magnetrons: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J. W.; Welzel, T.

    2009-05-01

    This paper reviews the contribution made to the observation and understanding of the basic physical processes occurring in an important type of magnetized low-pressure plasma discharge, the pulsed magnetron. In industry, these plasma sources are operated typically in reactive mode where a cathode is sputtered in the presence of both chemically reactive and noble gases typically with the power modulated in the mid-frequency (5-350 kHz) range. In this review, we concentrate mostly, however, on physics-based studies carried out on magnetron systems operated in argon. This simplifies the physical-chemical processes occurring and makes interpretation of the observations somewhat easier. Since their first recorded use in 1993 there have been more than 300 peer-reviewed paper publications concerned with pulsed magnetrons, dealing wholly or in part with fundamental observations and basic studies. The fundamentals of these plasmas and the relationship between the plasma parameters and thin film quality regularly have whole sessions at international conferences devoted to them; however, since many different types of magnetron geometries have been used worldwide with different operating parameters the important results are often difficult to tease out. For example, we find the detailed observations of the plasma parameter (particle density and temperature) evolution from experiment to experiment are at best difficult to compare and at worst contradictory. We review in turn five major areas of studies which are addressed in the literature and try to draw out the major results. These areas are: fast electron generation, bulk plasma heating, short and long-term plasma parameter rise and decay rates, plasma potential modulation and transient phenomena. The influence of these phenomena on the ion energy and ion energy flux at the substrate is discussed. This review, although not exhaustive, will serve as a useful guide for more in-depth investigations using the referenced

  4. Physics and phenomena in pulsed magnetrons: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J W; Welzel, T

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the contribution made to the observation and understanding of the basic physical processes occurring in an important type of magnetized low-pressure plasma discharge, the pulsed magnetron. In industry, these plasma sources are operated typically in reactive mode where a cathode is sputtered in the presence of both chemically reactive and noble gases typically with the power modulated in the mid-frequency (5-350 kHz) range. In this review, we concentrate mostly, however, on physics-based studies carried out on magnetron systems operated in argon. This simplifies the physical-chemical processes occurring and makes interpretation of the observations somewhat easier. Since their first recorded use in 1993 there have been more than 300 peer-reviewed paper publications concerned with pulsed magnetrons, dealing wholly or in part with fundamental observations and basic studies. The fundamentals of these plasmas and the relationship between the plasma parameters and thin film quality regularly have whole sessions at international conferences devoted to them; however, since many different types of magnetron geometries have been used worldwide with different operating parameters the important results are often difficult to tease out. For example, we find the detailed observations of the plasma parameter (particle density and temperature) evolution from experiment to experiment are at best difficult to compare and at worst contradictory. We review in turn five major areas of studies which are addressed in the literature and try to draw out the major results. These areas are: fast electron generation, bulk plasma heating, short and long-term plasma parameter rise and decay rates, plasma potential modulation and transient phenomena. The influence of these phenomena on the ion energy and ion energy flux at the substrate is discussed. This review, although not exhaustive, will serve as a useful guide for more in-depth investigations using the referenced

  5. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  6. Hybrid plasma system for magnetron deposition of coatings with ion assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilin, K V; Kralkina, E A; Nekludova, P A; Petrov, A. K; Nikonov, A M; Pavlov, V B; Airapetov, A A; Odinokov, V V; Pavlov, G Ya; Sologub, V A

    2016-01-01

    The results of the study of the plasma hybrid system based on the combined magnetron discharge and high-frequency inductive discharge located in the external magnetic field is presented. Magnetron discharge provides the generation of atoms and ions of the target materials while the flow of accelerated ions used for the ion assistance is provided by the RF inductive discharge. An external magnetic field is used to optimize the power input to the discharge, to increase the ion current density in the realm of substrate and to enhance the area of uniform plasma. The joint operation of magnetron and RF inductive discharge leads to a substantial increase (not equal to the sum of the parameters obtained under separate operation of two hybrid system channels) of the ion current density and intensity of sputtered material spectral lines radiation. Optimal mode of the hybrid plasma system operation provides uniform ion current density on the diameter of at least 150mm at 0.7PA argon pressure. The optimal values of the magnetic fields in the region of the substrate location lie in the range 2-8 mTl, while in the region of the RF input power unit lie in the range 0.5-25 mTl. (paper)

  7. Magnetron sputtered gadolinia-doped ceria diffusion barriers for metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Steffen; Klemensø, Trine; Christensen, Bjarke H.

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale setup and implemented as barrier layers between the cathode and electrolyte in metal-based solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a metal support, an electrolyte of ZrO2 co-doped with Sc2O3...

  8. Setup for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth by magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ellmer, K; Weiss, V; Rossner, H

    2001-01-01

    A novel method is described for the in situ-investigation of nucleation and growth of thin films during magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron light is used for the structural analysis during film growth. An in situ-magnetron sputtering chamber was constructed and installed at a synchrotron radiation beam line with a bending magnet. The white synchrotron light (1-70 keV) passes the sputtering chamber through Kapton windows and hits one of the substrates on a four-fold sample holder. The diffracted beam, observed under a fixed diffraction angle between 3 deg. and 10 deg., is energy analyzed by a high purity Ge-detector. The in situ-EDXRD setup is demonstrated for the growth of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic target.

  9. Transparent conducting zinc oxide thin film prepared by off-axis rf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Highly conducting and transparent ZnO : Al thin films were grown by off-axis rf magnetron sputtering on amorphous silica substrates without any post-deposition annealing. The electrical and optical properties of the films deposited at various substrate temperatures and target to substrate distances were investigated in detail ...

  10. Status and prospects of a compact FIR FEL driven by a magnetron-based microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Uk; Kazakevitch, Grigori M.; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Cho, Sung Oh; Gavrilov, Nicolai G.; Lee, Jongmin

    2002-01-01

    A magnetron-based microtron as a driver of FIR FEL has several prominent advantages in cost, size, beam quality and operation convenience. However, it has some disadvantages due to the instability of the RF frequency and a low current. In order to overcome these disadvantages, the frequency stability of the magnetron was improved, and the interaction between the electron beam and the FIR radiation was enhanced by using a high-performance undulator and a low-loss waveguide-mode optical resonator. The FEL is now under upgrade in order to extend the wavelength range to cover 90-300 μm, which can be done by increasing the energy range of electron beam to 4.3-7 MeV. In this paper, we report the results of investigations on output characteristics of the FEL depending on cavity detuning, electron beam matching, and RF instability. Based on the results, we discuss the prospects of wide-band FIR FELs driven by magnetron-based microtrons as potent sources of radiation for scientific applications

  11. Comparison of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi{sup 3+} phosphor thin films fabricated by the spin coating and radio frequency magnetron techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafer, R.M.; Yousif, A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Postal Code 11115 Omdurman (Sudan); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Pathak, Trilok Kumar [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Semiconductor Physics Lab, Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India); Purohit, L.P. [Semiconductor Physics Lab, Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Coetsee, E., E-mail: CoetseeE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2016-09-15

    The reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and spin coating fabrication techniques were used to fabricate Y{sub 2−x}O{sub 3}:Bi{sub x=0.5%} phosphor thin films. The two techniques were analysed and compared as part of investigations being done on the application of down-conversion materials for a Si solar cell. The morphology, structural and optical properties of these thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction results of the thin films fabricated by both techniques showed cubic structures with different space groups. The optical properties showed different results because the Bi{sup 3+} ion is very sensitive towards its environment. The luminescence results for the thin film fabricated by the spin coating technique is very similar to the luminescence observed in the powder form. It showed three obvious emission bands in the blue and green regions centered at about 360, 410 and 495 nm. These emissions were related to the {sup 3}P{sub 1}–{sup 1}S{sub 0} transition of the Bi{sup 3+} ion situated in the two different sites of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix with I a-3(206) space group. Whereas the thin film fabricated by the radio frequency magnetron technique showed a broad single emission band in the blue region centered at about 416 nm. This was assigned to the {sup 3}P{sub 1}–{sup 1}S{sub 0} transition of the Bi{sup 3+} ion situated in one of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix's sites with a Fm-3 (225) space group. The spin coating fabrication technique is suggested to be the best technique to fabricate the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi{sup 3+} phosphor thin films. - Highlights: • RF sputtering and spin coating were used to fabricate Y{sub 2−x}O{sub 3}:Bi{sub x=0.5%} phosphor thin films. • XRD results of the two films showed cubic structures with different space groups. • PL showed different emission for the Bi{sup 3+} ions in the two films. • Three emission bands in the blue and green regions centered at about 360, 410 and 495 nm. • RF

  12. The Pulsed Cylindrical Magnetron for Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The magnetron sputtering deposition of films and coatings broadly uses in microelectronics, material science, environmental applications and etc. The rate of target evaporation and time for deposition of films and coatings depends on magnetic field. These parameters link with efficiency of gas molecules ionization by electrons. The cylindrical magnetrons use for deposition of films and coatings on inside of pipes for different protective films and coatings in oil, chemical, environmental applications. The classical forming of magnetic field by permanent magnets or coils for big and long cylindrical magnetrons is complicated. The new concept of pulsed cylindrical magnetron for high rate deposition of films and coating for big and long pipes is presented in this paper. The proposed cylindrical magnetron has azimuthally pulsed high magnetic field, which allows forming the high ionized plasma and receiving high rate of evaporation material of target (central electrode). The structure of proposed pulsed cylindrical magnetron sputtering system is given. The main requirements to deposition system are presented. The preliminary data for forming of plasma and deposition of Ta films and coatings on the metal pipers are discussed. The comparison of classical and proposed cylindrical magnetrons is given. The analysis of potential applications is considered.

  13. Changes in the structural and electrical properties of vacuum post-annealed tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide (IWO and ITiO) filmswere deposited at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, and vacuum post-annealing was used to improve the electron mobility. With increasing deposition power, the as deposited films showed an increasingly

  14. Negative Ion Sources: Magnetron and Penning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    The history of the magnetron and Penning electrode geometry is briefly outlined. Plasma generation by electrical discharge-driven electron impact ionization is described and the basic physics of plasma and electrodes relevant to magnetron and Penning discharges are explained. Negative ions and their applications are introduced, along with their production mechanisms. Caesium and surface production of negative ions are detailed. Technical details of how to build magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are given, along with examples of specific sources from around the world. Failure modes are listed and lifetimes compared. (author)

  15. Negative Ion Sources: Magnetron and Penning

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    The history of the magnetron and Penning electrode geometry is briefly outlined. Plasma generation by electrical discharge-driven electron impact ionization is described and the basic physics of plasma and electrodes relevant to magnetron and Penning discharges are explained. Negative ions and their applications are introduced, along with their production mechanisms. Caesium and surface production of negative ions are detailed. Technical details of how to build magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are given, along with examples of specific sources from around the world. Failure modes are listed and lifetimes compared.

  16. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  17. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  18. Development of an Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) System for RF Electron Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Lee, Soo Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the AFC system for the X-band linac are presented. The main function of the AFC system is automatically matching of the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure and the RF frequency of the magnetron. For the frequency tuning, a fine tuning of 10 kHz is possible by rotating the tuning shaft with a rotation of 0.72 degree per pulse. Therefore, the frequency deviation is about 0.01%, and almost full RF power (2.1 MW) transmission was obtained because the reflected power is minimized. The Radiation Equipment Research Division of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing and upgrading a medical/industrial X-band RF electron linear accelerators. The medical compact RF electron linear accelerator consists of an electron gun, an acceleration tube (accelerating structure), two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, modulator, an automatic frequency control (AFC) system, and an X-ray generating target. The accelerating structure of the component is composed of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the volume of the structure, hence, its resonance frequency can easily be changeable if the ambient temperature and pressure are changed. If the RF frequency of the 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of accelerating structure are not matched, performance of the structure can be degraded. An AFC system is automatically matched with the RF frequency of the magnetron and resonance frequency of the accelerating structure, which obtained a high output power and reliable accelerator operation

  19. Development of an Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) System for RF Electron Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Lee, Soo Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the AFC system for the X-band linac are presented. The main function of the AFC system is automatically matching of the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure and the RF frequency of the magnetron. For the frequency tuning, a fine tuning of 10 kHz is possible by rotating the tuning shaft with a rotation of 0.72 degree per pulse. Therefore, the frequency deviation is about 0.01%, and almost full RF power (2.1 MW) transmission was obtained because the reflected power is minimized. The Radiation Equipment Research Division of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing and upgrading a medical/industrial X-band RF electron linear accelerators. The medical compact RF electron linear accelerator consists of an electron gun, an acceleration tube (accelerating structure), two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, modulator, an automatic frequency control (AFC) system, and an X-ray generating target. The accelerating structure of the component is composed of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the volume of the structure, hence, its resonance frequency can easily be changeable if the ambient temperature and pressure are changed. If the RF frequency of the 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of accelerating structure are not matched, performance of the structure can be degraded. An AFC system is automatically matched with the RF frequency of the magnetron and resonance frequency of the accelerating structure, which obtained a high output power and reliable accelerator operation.

  20. Growth of ZnO nanocrystals in silica by rf co-sputter deposition and post-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Kumar, V.V.; Singh, F.; Kumar, Amit; Avasthi, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Thin films with ZnO nanocrystals in silica were synthesized by rf reactive magnetron co-sputter deposition and post-annealing. The films were deposited from a ZnO/Si composite target in an rf oxygen plasma. The deposited films were annealed in air/vacuum at high temperatures to grow ZnO nanocrystals. The deposited and annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), uv-vis spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. FT-IR results of the films show the vibrational features of Si-O-Si and Zn-O bonds. UV-VIS spectra of the deposited film shows the band edge of ZnO. The XRD results of the films annealed at 750 deg. C and 1000 deg. C indicate the growth of ZnO nanocrystals with average crystallite sizes between 7 nm and 26 nm. PL measurements of the deposited film show a broad visible luminescence peak which can be due to ZnO. These results suggest the growth of ZnO nanocrystals in silica matrix

  1. Hydroxyapatite thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering on PMMA substrates for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socol, G.; Macovei, A.M.; Miroiu, F.; Stefan, N.; Duta, L.; Dorcioman, G.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Petrescu, S.M.; Stan, G.E.; Marcov, D.A.; Chiriac, A.; Poeata, I.

    2010-01-01

    Functionalized implants represent an advanced approaching in implantology, aiming to improve the biointegration and the long-term success of surgical procedures. We report on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films on polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) substrates - used as cranio-spinal implant-type structures - by two alternative methods: pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (MS). The deposition parameters were optimized in order to avoid the substrate overheating. Stoichiometric HA structures were obtained by PLD with incident laser fluences of 1.4-2.75 J/cm 2 , pressures of 30-46.66 Pa and 10 Hz pulses repetition rate. The MS depositions were performed at constant pressure of 0.3 Pa in inert and reactive atmospheres. SEM-EDS, XRD, FTIR and pull-out measurements were performed assessing the apatitic-type structure of the prepared films along with their satisfactory mechanical adhesion. Cell viability, proliferation and adhesion tests in osteosarcoma SaOs2 cell cultures were performed to validate the bioactive behaviour of the structures and to select the most favourable deposition regimes. For PLD, this requires a low fluence of 1.4 J/cm 2 , reduced pressure of water vapours and a 100 o C/4 h thermal treatment. For MS, the best results were obtained for 80% Ar + 20% O 2 reactive atmosphere at low RF power (∼75 W). Cells grown on these coatings exhibit behaviour similar to those grown on the standard borosilicate glass control: increased viability, good proliferation, and optimal cell adhesion. In vitro tests proved that HA/PMMA neurosurgical structures prepared by PLD and MS are compatible for the interaction with human bone cells.

  2. A Plasma Lens for Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Brown, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A plasma lens, consisting of a solenoid and potential-defining ring electrodes, has been placed between a magnetron and substrates to be coated. Photography reveals qualitative information on excitation, ionization, and the transport of plasma to the substrate.

  3. Deposition and characterization of single magnetron deposited Fe:SnO{sub x} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormunda, Martin, E-mail: martin.kormunda@ujep.cz [J.E. Purkinje University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Fischer, Daniel; Hertwig, Andreas; Beck, Uwe [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 6 4 Surface Technologies, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Sebik, Matej; Pavlik, Jaroslav [J.E. Purkinje University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Esser, Norbert [Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften — ISAS e.V., Department Berlin, Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-30

    Coatings deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from a single RF magnetron with a ceramic SnO{sub 2} target with iron inset in argon plasma were studied. The mass spectra of the process identified Sn{sup +} and SnO{sup +} species as the dominant species sputtered from the target, but no SnO{sub 2}{sup +} species were detected. The dominant positive ions in argon plasma are Ar{sup +} species. The only detected negative ions were O{sup −}. Sputtered neutral tin related species were not detected. Iron related species were also not detected because their concentration is below the detection limit. The concentration of iron dopant in the tin oxide coatings was controlled by the RF bias applied on the substrate holder while the discharge pressure also has some influence. The iron concentration was in the range from 0.9 at.% up to 19 at.% increasing with the substrate bias while the sheet resistivity decreases. The stoichiometry ratio of O/(Sn + Fe) in the coatings increased from 1.7 up to 2 in dependence on the substrate bias from floating bias (− 5 V) up to − 120 V of RF self-bias, respectively. The tin in the coatings was mainly bonded in Sn{sup 4+} state and iron was mainly in Fe{sup 2+} state when other tin bonding states were detected only in a small amounts. Iron bonding states in contrary to elemental compositions of the coatings were not influenced by the RF bias applied on the substrate. The coatings showed high transparency in the visible spectral range. However, an increased metallic behavior could be detected by using a higher RF bias for the deposition. The X-ray diffraction patterns and electron microscopy pictures made on the coatings confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase. - Highlights: • RF magnetron sputtering of SnO{sub 2} target with Fe inset in argon investigated by mass spectrometry • Optical properties of Fe doped SnO{sub x} coatings characterized • Analyses of overlapped XPS peaks at a spectrum from Fe doped SnO{sub x} coatings

  4. Study of static properties of magnetron-type space charges; Etude des proprietes statiques des charges d'espace du type magnetron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcroix, Jean-Loup

    1953-05-30

    This research thesis reports an in-depth analysis of physical properties of static regimes to address the issue of space charges. This theoretical study of the Hull magnetron is followed by the description of experiments on the Hull magnetron which highlight transitions between the different regimes. Then, another theoretical approach aims at generalising the magnetron theory, based on other types of magnetron theory (general equations of magnetron-type space charges, inverted Hull magnetron theory, circular field magnetron theory)

  5. Properties of RF sputtered zinc oxide based thin films made from different targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M A; Herrero, J; Gutierrez, M T [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-01-01

    The effect of deposition parameters on optoelectronic and structural properties of ZnO based thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering have been studied. Different targets (pure Zn, ZnO, Zn-Al (98/2 at%), ZnO-Al (98/2 at%), and ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (98/2 wt%)) have been investigated to compare resulting samples and establish the best target composition. From reactive sputtering, using a Zn-Al target, transparent conductive zinc oxide has been obtained at 380{sup o}C with E{sub g}=3.25-3.35 eV and {rho}=4.8x10{sup -4} {Omega}cm. Reduction of substrate temperature at 200{sup o}C has been possible by nonreactive sputtering from ZnO-Al and ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets. The values of the energy gap and resistivity under these conditions are 3.30-3.35 eV and 1x10{sup -3} {Omega}cm respectively

  6. Stability of Brillouin flow in planar, conventional, and inverted magnetrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.; Wong, P.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    The Brillouin flow is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. We systematically study its stability in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron geometry. To investigate the intrinsic negative mass effect in Brillouin flow, we consider electrostatic modes in a nonrelativistic, smooth bore magnetron. We found that the Brillouin flow in the inverted magnetron is more unstable than that in a planar magnetron, which in turn is more unstable than that in the conventional magnetron. Thus, oscillations in the inverted magnetron may startup faster than the conventional magnetron. This result is consistent with simulations, and with the negative mass property in the inverted magnetron configuration. Inclusion of relativistic effects and electromagnetic effects does not qualitatively change these conclusions

  7. Arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment for nanocomposite coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, N.N.; Borisov, D.P.; Savostikov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that characteristics of nanocomposite coatings produced by reactive magnetron sputtering undergo an essential influence on the following parameters such as original component composition of targets being sputtered, as well as abundance ratio of such components in the coatings deposited, relative content of inert and reactionary gases in a gas mixture used and a value of operating pressure in a chamber, substrate temperature, and a value of substrate bias potential, determining energy of ionized atoms, ionized atoms flow density, i.e. ion current density on a substrate. The multifactor character of production process of nanocomposite coatings with certain physical and mechanical properties demands a purposeful and complex control on all above-mentioned parameters. To solve such a problem, an arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment including a vacuum chamber of approximately ∼ 0.5 m 3 with a built-in low-pressure plasma generator made on the basis of non-self-sustained discharge with a thermal cathode and a planar magnetron combined with two sputtered targets has been created. Construction of such a complex set-up provides both an autonomous mode of operation and simultaneous operation of an arc plasma generator and magnetron sputtering system. Magnetron sputtering of either one or two targets simultaneously is provided as well. An arc plasma generator enables ions current density control on a substrate in a wide range due to discharge current varying from 1 to 100 A. Energy of ions is also being controlled in a wide range by a negative bias potential from 0 to 1000 V applied to a substrate. The wide control range of gas plasma density of a arc discharge of approximately 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and high uniformity of its distribution over the total volume of an operating chamber (about 15% error with regard to the mean value) provides a purposeful and simultaneous control either of magnetron discharge characteristics (operating pressure of

  8. Analysis of peer-to-peer locking of magnetrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengvanich, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Cruz, E.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B.; Luginsland, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The condition for mutual, or peer-to-peer, locking of two magnetrons is derived. This condition reduces to Adler's classical phase-locking condition in the limit where one magnetron becomes the ''master'' and the other becomes the ''slave.'' The formulation is extended to the peer-to-peer locking of N magnetrons, under the assumption that the electromagnetic coupling among the N magnetrons is modeled by an N-port network.

  9. Determination of the sputter rate variation pattern of a silicon carbide target for radio frequency magnetron sputtering using optical transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez de la Puente, G.; Guerra Torres, J.A.; Erlenbach, O.; Steidl, M.; Weingaertner, R.; De Zela, F.; Winnacker, A.

    2010-01-01

    We produce amorphous silicon carbide thin films (a-SiC) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from SiC bulk target. We present the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target as a function of process parameters, like target sample distance, rf power, sputtering rate and process gas pressure. The emission pattern is determined by means of thickness distribution of the deposited a-SiC films obtained from optical transmission measurements using a slightly improved method of Swanepoel concerning the determination of construction of the envelopes in the interference pattern of the transmission spectra. A calibration curve is presented which allows the conversion of integrated transmission to film thickness. Holding constant a set of process parameters and only varying the target sample distance the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target was determined, which allowed us to predict the deposition rate distribution for a wide range of process parameters and target geometry. In addition, we have found that the transmission spectra of the a-SiC films change with time and saturate after approximately 10 days. Within this process no change in thickness is involved, so that the determination of thickness using transmission data is justified.

  10. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering of transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittinger, V.; Ruske, F.; Werner, W.; Jacobs, C.; Szyszka, B.; Christie, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) has been used in order to study the deposition of transparent conducting oxides. We summarize the studies carried out on different materials (indium tin oxide-ITO and aluminium-doped zinc oxide-AZO) using rather different technological approaches, namely sputtering of ceramic targets and reactive sputtering. For the deposition of AZO reactive HPPMS for metallic targets has been used. A feedback control loop has been implemented in order to stabilize the discharge at any given setpoint on the hysteresis curve. The hysteresis was also found to have a rather untypical form. Reactive HPPMS was found to be a promising tool for obtaining high quality films of low total thickness. In the case of ITO deposition a ceramic target has been used. The process has been characterized in terms of its plasma emission and increasing indium ionization was found for higher peak power densities. The properties of the deposited films were compared to DC sputtered films. While for DC sputtering the choice of oxygen addition and shieldings is crucial for determining surface morphology and resistivity, in HPPMS sputtering peak power density has been found to be a good parameter for influencing the crystal structure. The morphologies obtained differ strongly from those seen in DC sputtering. At high power densities films with low surface roughness and excellent resistivity could be deposited without the use of shieldings

  11. Study on the preparation of boron-rich film by magnetron sputtering in oxygen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhangmin; Yang, Yiming; Huang, Jian; Ren, Bing; Yu, Hongze; Xu, Run; Ji, Huanhuan; Wang, Lin; Wang, Linjun, E-mail: ljwang@shu.edu.cn

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Boron ({sup 10}B) oxide films were successfully grown using RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the property of the films were studied. • Substrates were covered with B-rich film and film surface was covered with B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The growth mechanism of films in oxygen atmosphere was analyzed using XPS. - Abstract: In this paper, the growth of boron ({sup 10}B) oxide films on (1 0 0) silicon substrate were achieved by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering under the different oxygen partial pressure with a target of boron and boron oxide. The structure and properties of deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The results showed that the substrate was covered with boron-rich films tightly and the surface of films was covered with B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. And the growth mechanism of boron-rich film in oxygen atmosphere was also analyzed.

  12. RF Characterization of Niobium Films for Superconducting Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Aull† , S; Doebert, S; Junginger, T; Ehiasarian, AP; Knobloch, J; Terenziani, G

    2013-01-01

    The surface resistance RS of superconductors shows a complex dependence on the external parameters such as temperature, frequency or radio-frequency (RF) field. The Quadrupole Resonator modes of 400, 800 and 1200 MHz allow measurements at actual operating frequencies of superconducting cavities. Niobium films on copper substrates have several advantages over bulk niobium cavities. HIPIMS (High-power impulse magnetron sputtering) is a promising technique to increase the quality and therefore the performance of niobium films. This contribution will introduce CERNs recently developed HIPIMS coating apparatus. Moreover, first results of niobium coated copper samples will be presented, revealing the dominant loss mechanisms.

  13. RF and dc desensitized electroexplosive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainiak, John W.; Speaks, Paul D.; Cornett, Michael S.

    1989-07-01

    This patent application relates to electroexplosive devices (EEDs) such as detonators, blasting caps and squibs, in particular to a method and device for desensitizing EEDs to electromagnetic radiation and electrostatic charges with the added ability to desensitize the device to essentially dc currents. An insensitive electroexplosive device to electrically ignite explosive is disclosed. This device is inherently immune to radio frequency (RF) radiation, and also provides protection against dc or very low frequency RF induced by arcing. A central feature is use of zeners and capacitors to form a reactively balanced bridge circuit. When constructed in semiconductor form, as described in this application, the device is capable of incorporation in small caliber ordnance.

  14. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  15. RF guns: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travier, C.

    1990-06-01

    Free Electron Lasers and future linear colliders require very bright electron beams. Conventional injectors made of DC guns and RF bunchers have intrinsic limitations. The recently proposed RF guns have already proven their capability to produce bright beams. The necessary effort to improve further these performances and to gain reliability is now undertaken by many laboratories. More than twenty RF gun projects both thermionic and laser-driven are reviewed. Their specific characteristics are outlined and their nominal performances are given

  16. The Development and Application of the Magnetron,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-31

    of *medicine. The power of the magnetron used is from several tens of watts to several hundred watts. Microwave physiotherapy has been used in...clinical practice for the fast cure of arthritis , rheumatism and the subsidence of swelling. Therapeutic results have been excellent. In recent years

  17. Discharge Characteristic of VHF-DC Superimposed Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hirotaka; Fukuoka, Yushi; Fukui, Takashi; Takada, Noriharu; Sasai, Kensuke

    2014-10-01

    Magnetron plasmas are one of the most important tools for sputter deposition of thin films. However, energetic particles from the sputtered target such as backscattered rare gas atoms or oxygen negative ions from oxide targets sometimes induce physical and chemical damages as well as surface roughening to the deposited film surface during the sputtering processes. To suppress kinetic energy of such particles, superposition of RF or VHF power to the DC power has been investigated. In this study, influence of the VHF power superposition on the DC target voltage, which is important factor to determine kinetic energy of high energy particles, is investigated. In the study, 40 MHz VHF power was superimposed to an ITO target and decrease in the target DC voltage was measured as well as deposited film deposition properties such as deposition rate or electrical conductivity. From systematic measurement of the target voltage, it was revealed that the target voltage can be determined by a very simple parameter, i.e., a ratio of VHF power to the total input power (DC and VHF powers) in spite of the DC discharge current. Part of this work was supported by ASTEP, JST.

  18. Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline palladium prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrup, Anna; Hahn, Horst [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany); Scherer, Torsten; Ivanisenko, Yulia; Choi, In-Suk; Kraft, Oliver [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nanocrystalline metals and alloys with grain sizes well below 100 nm often demonstrate unique deformation behaviour and therefore attract a great interest in material science. The understanding of deformation mechanisms operating in nanocrystalline materials is important to predict their mechanical properties. In the present study Pd films of 1{mu}m thickness were prepared using UHV rf magnetron sputtering on dog bone shaped Kapton substrates and on Si/SiO2 wafers. The films were sputtered using multilayer technology with an individual layer thickness of 10 nm. This resulted in grain sizes of about 20 nm. Initial microstructure and texture were characterized using conventional XRD measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in both cross section- and plane view. The mechanical properties were investigated using tensile testing and nanoindentation at several strain rates. An increased hardness and strength as compared to coarse grained Pd was observed, as well as high strain rate sensitivity. The microstructure in the gauge section after tensile testing was again analyzed using TEM in order to reveal signatures of deformation mechanisms like dislocation motion or twinning.

  19. Rf power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the author reports on RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach will be with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. The author pays close attention to electron- positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. Circular machines, cyclotrons, synchrotrons, etc. have usually not been limited by the RF power available and the machine builders have usually had their RF power source requirements met off the shelf. The main challenge for the RF scientist has been then in the areas of controls. An interesting example of this is in the Conceptual Design Report of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) where the RF system is described in six pages of text in a 700-page report. Also, the cost of that RF system is about one-third of a percent of the project's total cost. The RF system is well within the state of the art and no new power sources need to be developed. All the intellectual effort of the system designer would be devoted to the feedback systems necessary to stabilize beams during storage and acceleration, with the main engineering challenges (and costs) being in the superconducting magnet lattice

  20. RF Energy Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1980-02-01

    The RF Energy Compressor, REC described here, transforms cw rf into periodic pulses using an energy storage cavity, ESC, whose charging is controlled by 180 0 bi-phase modulation, PSK, and external Q switching, βs. Compression efficiency, C/sub e/, of 100% can be approached at any compression factor C/sub f/

  1. Practical RF system design

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, William F

    2003-01-01

    he ultimate practical resource for today's RF system design professionals Radio frequency components and circuits form the backbone of today's mobile and satellite communications networks. Consequently, both practicing and aspiring industry professionals need to be able to solve ever more complex problems of RF design. Blending theoretical rigor with a wealth of practical expertise, Practical RF System Design addresses a variety of complex, real-world problems that system engineers are likely to encounter in today's burgeoning communications industry with solutions that are not easily available in the existing literature. The author, an expert in the field of RF module and system design, provides powerful techniques for analyzing real RF systems, with emphasis on some that are currently not well understood. Combining theoretical results and models with examples, he challenges readers to address such practical issues as: * How standing wave ratio affects system gain * How noise on a local oscillator will affec...

  2. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu, E-mail: sscha@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University(SKKU), Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Buaphad, Pikad [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Accelerator and Nuclear Fusion Physical Engineering, University of Science and Technology(UST), Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-21

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  3. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-05-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  4. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-01-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  5. Fabrication and RF characterization of zinc oxide based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Raju; Bansal, Deepak; Agrawal, Vimal Kumar; Rangra, Kamaljit; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2018-06-01

    This work reports fabrication and characterization of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) to improve the performance characteristics for RF filter and sensing application. Zinc oxide as a piezoelectric (PZE) material was deposited on an aluminum bottom electrode using an RF magnetron sputtering, at room temperature, and gold as top electrode for the resonator. Tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) setup was used for bulk silicon etching to make back side cavity to confine the acoustic signals. The transmission characteristics show that the FBARs have a central frequency at 1.77 GHz with a return loss of -10.7 dB.

  6. Functional nanostructured titanium nitride films obtained by sputtering magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, O.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Navas, D.; Auger, M.A.; Baldonedo, J.L.; Sanz, R.; Pirota, K.R.; Vazquez, M.

    2006-01-01

    Development of new methods in the formation of hollow structures, in particular, nanotubes and nanocages are currently generating a great interest as a consequence of the growing relevance of these nanostructures on many technological fields, ranging from optoelectronics to biotechnology. In this work, we report the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) nanotubes and nanohills via reactive sputtering magnetron processes. Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) were used as template substrates to grow the TiN nanostructures. The AAM were obtained through electrochemical anodization processes by using oxalic acid solutions as electrolytes. The nanotubes were produced at temperatures below 100 deg. C, and using a pure titanium (99.995%) sputtering target and nitrogen as reactive gas. The obtained TiN thin films showed surface morphologies adjusted to pore diameter and interpore distance of the substrates, as well as ordered arrays of nanotubes or nanohills depending on the sputtering and template conditions. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) was used to elucidate both the surface order and morphology of the different grown nanostructures. The crystalline structure of the samples was examined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns and their qualitative chemical composition by using X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS) in a scanning electron microscopy

  7. Fabrication and characterization of He-charged ODS-FeCrNi films deposited by a radio-frequency plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Le; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Wang; Jiang, Weibing; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Qianfeng; Liu, Changsong

    2017-04-01

    He-charged oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrNi films were prepared by a radio-frequency (RF) plasma magnetron sputtering method in a He and Ar mixed atmosphere at 150 °C. As a comparison, He-charged FeCrNi films were also fabricated at the same conditions through direct current (DC) plasma magnetron sputtering. The doping of He atoms and Y2O3 in the FeCrNi films was realized by the high backscattered rate of He ions and Y2O3/FeCrNi composite target sputtering method, respectively. Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the existence of Y2O3 in FeCrNi films, and Y2O3 content hardly changed with sputtering He/Ar ratio. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the FeCrNi films were composed of dense columnar nanocrystallines and the thickness of the films was obviously dependent on He/Ar ratio. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the FeCrNi films fabricated through DC/RF plasma magnetron sputtering methods exhibited similar hardness values at each He/Ar ratio, while the dispersion of Y2O3 apparently increased the hardness of the films. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) showed that DC/RF magnetron sputtered FeCrNi films contained similar He amounts (˜17 at.%). Compared with the minimal change of He level with depth in DC-sputtered films, the He amount decreases gradually in depth in the RF-sputtered films. The Y2O3-doped FeCrNi films were shown to exhibit much smaller amounts of He owing to the lower backscattering possibility of Y2O3 and the inhibition effect of nano-sized Y2O3 particles on the He element.

  8. Electron relaxation properties of Ar magnetron plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinjing, CAI; Xinxin, WANG; Xiaobing, ZOU

    2018-03-01

    An understanding of electron relaxation properties in plasmas is of importance in the application of magnetrons. An improved multi-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation is employed to study electron transport and relaxation properties in plasmas. Elastic, inelastic and nonconservative collisions between electrons and neutral particles are considered. The expressions for the transport coefficients are obtained using the expansion coefficients and the collision operator term. Numerical solutions of the matrix equations for the expansion coefficients are also investigated. Benchmark calculations of the Reid model are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the improved multi-term approximation. It is shown that the two-term approximation is generally not accurate enough and the magnetic fields can reduce the anisotropy of the velocity distribution function. The electron relaxation properties of Ar plasmas in magnetrons for various magnetic fields are studied. It is demonstrated that the energy parameters change more slowly than the momentum parameters.

  9. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  10. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, T.J., E-mail: tjpetty@liv.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Khan, A. [Pariser Building-G11, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Heil, T. [NiCaL, Block C Waterhouse Building, 1-3 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GL (United Kingdom); Bradley, J.W., E-mail: j.w.bradley@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10{sup 23}–3.0 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ{sup 1/2} relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  11. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, T.J.; Khan, A.; Heil, T.; Bradley, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10 23 –3.0 × 10 24  m −2 , the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10 24  m −2 , and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ 1/2 relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  12. Versatile rf controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1985-05-01

    The low level rf system developed for the new Bevatron local injector provides precise control and regulation of the rf phase and amplitude for three 200 MHz linac cavities. The main features of the system are: extensive use of inexpensive, off-the-shelf components, ease of maintenance, and adaptability to a wide range of operation frequencies. The system utilizes separate function, easily removed rf printed circuit cards interconnected via the edge connectors. Control and monitoring are available both locally and through the computer. This paper will describe these features as well as the few component changes that would be required to adapt the techniques to other operating frequencies. 2 refs

  13. A PLL based automated magnetron tuning mechanism for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A M; Mahfooz, Mohammed; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on a control system developed to tune the magnetron frequency to get the maximum beam pulse in a Microtron (an electron accelerator facility at Mangalore University). The control system so designed consists of a Microcontroller Unit (MCU), a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) and a Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) to track and tune the magnetron frequency. A PLL is used to track the deviation of the magnetron output frequency, and by monitoring the reflected wave voltage level, the microcontroller unit tunes the magnetron with the help of a tuner mechanism connected through a stepper motor.

  14. A PLL based automated magnetron tuning mechanism for electron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A M; Mahfooz, Mohammed [Dept. of Electronics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Karnataka State, India - 574 199 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Karnataka State, India - 574 199 (India)], E-mail: mahfooz_81@yahoo.com

    2008-09-15

    In this paper we report on a control system developed to tune the magnetron frequency to get the maximum beam pulse in a Microtron (an electron accelerator facility at Mangalore University). The control system so designed consists of a Microcontroller Unit (MCU), a Phase Locked Loop (PLL) and a Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) to track and tune the magnetron frequency. A PLL is used to track the deviation of the magnetron output frequency, and by monitoring the reflected wave voltage level, the microcontroller unit tunes the magnetron with the help of a tuner mechanism connected through a stepper motor.

  15. Rheumatoid factor (RF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003548.htm Rheumatoid factor (RF) To use the sharing features on this ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  16. RF radiation safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Ronald.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency radiation can be dangerous in a number of ways. Hazards include electromagnetic compatibility and interference, electro-explosive vapours and devices, and direct effects on the human body. This book is a general introduction to the sources and nature of RF radiation. It describes the ways in which our current knowledge, based on relevant safety standards, can be used to safeguard people from any harmful effects of RF radiation. The book is designed for people responsible for, or concerned with, safety. This target audience will primarily be radio engineers, but includes those skilled in other disciplines including medicine, chemistry or mechanical engineering. The book covers the problems of RF safety management, including the use of measuring instruments and methods, and a review of current safety standards. The implications for RF design engineers are also examined. (Author)

  17. Microbunching and RF Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-01-01

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  18. Rf power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs

  19. Effect of Ge Content on the Formation of Ge Nanoclusters in Magnetron-Sputtered GeZrOx-Based Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Khomenkova, L.; Lehninger, D.; Kondratenko, O.; Ponomaryov, S.; Gudymenko, O.; Tsybrii, Z.; Yukhymchuk, V.; Kladko, V.; von Borany, J.; Heitmann, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ge-rich ZrO2 films, fabricated by confocal RF magnetron sputtering of pure Ge and ZrO2 targets in Ar plasma, were studied by multi-angle laser ellipsometry, Raman scattering, Auger electron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction for varied deposition conditions and annealing treatments. It was found that as-deposited films are homogeneous for all Ge contents, thermal treatment stimulated a phase separation and a formation of crystalline Ge and ZrO2. The ?...

  20. RF Measurement Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2014-01-01

    For the characterization of components, systems and signals in the radiofrequency (RF) and microwave ranges, several dedicated instruments are in use. In this article the fundamentals of the RF signal techniques are discussed. The key element in these front ends is the Schottky diode which can be used either as a RF mixer or as a single sampler. The spectrum analyser has become an absolutely indispensable tool for RF signal analysis. Here the front end is the RF mixer as the RF section of modern spectrum analyses has a ra ther complex architecture. The reasons for this complexity and certain working principles as well as limitations are discussed. In addition, an overview of the development of scalar and vector signal analysers is given. For the determination of the noise temperature of a one-port and the noise figure of a two-port, basic concepts and relations are shown as well as a brief discussion of commonly used noise-measurement techniques. In a further part of this article the operating principles of n...

  1. Improvement of dielectric properties of BLT thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besland, M P; Barroy, P R J; Richard-Plouet, M; Tessier, P Y; Brohan, L; Djouadi, M A [Universite de Nantes - Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, UMR CNRS 6502, 2, rue de la Houssiniere BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex (France); Borderon, C; Tacon, S Le; Averty, D; Gundel, H W [Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique, UPRES-EA 1770, IREENA, Universite de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marie-Paule.Besland@cnrs-imn.fr

    2008-01-15

    Well crystallized BLT thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using a target of Aurivillius phase Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}(BLT{sub 0,75}), elaborated in our institute. RF sputtering experiments were performed at room temperature with an argon/oxygen mixture, in a pressure range of 20-50 mTorr. Optimisation of the plasma parameters, namely deposition pressure, RF power and oxygen content in the gas phase, allows obtaining BLT films with a chemical composition close to Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. After ex-situ annealing under oxygen atmosphere at 650 deg. C, BLT films deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si (multilayer) substrates exhibit well defined rod-like grains morphology. A two step deposition process appeared to be necessary in order to reach satisfying dielectric properties. The effect of the plasma parameters on the chemical composition and electrical properties are presented and discussed.

  2. Improvement of dielectric properties of BLT thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besland, M P; Barroy, P R J; Richard-Plouet, M; Tessier, P Y; Brohan, L; Djouadi, M A; Borderon, C; Tacon, S Le; Averty, D; Gundel, H W

    2008-01-01

    Well crystallized BLT thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using a target of Aurivillius phase Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 (BLT 0,75 ), elaborated in our institute. RF sputtering experiments were performed at room temperature with an argon/oxygen mixture, in a pressure range of 20-50 mTorr. Optimisation of the plasma parameters, namely deposition pressure, RF power and oxygen content in the gas phase, allows obtaining BLT films with a chemical composition close to Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 . After ex-situ annealing under oxygen atmosphere at 650 deg. C, BLT films deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si (multilayer) substrates exhibit well defined rod-like grains morphology. A two step deposition process appeared to be necessary in order to reach satisfying dielectric properties. The effect of the plasma parameters on the chemical composition and electrical properties are presented and discussed

  3. Microstructural variation in titanium oxide thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Natarajan, Gomathi; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the microstructural evolution of titanium oxide thin films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering using titanium metal target. By varying the ratio of sputter-gas mixture containing argon, oxygen and nitrogen various phases of titanium oxide, almost pure rutile, rutile-rich and anatase-rich nano-crystalline, were deposited on Si substrates at room temperature. Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman techniques the microstructure of the films were revealed. The relationship between the microstructure of the films and the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering is discussed

  4. The influence of RF power on the electrical properties of sputtered amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin films and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Junfei; Dong Chengyuan; Wu Jie; Chen Yuting; Zhan Runze; Dai Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    The influence of radio frequency (RF) power on the properties of magnetron sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films and the related thin-film transistor (TFT) devices is investigated comprehensively. A series of a-IGZO thin films prepared with magnetron sputtering at various RF powers are examined. The results prove that the deposition rate sensitively depends on RF power. In addition, the carrier concentration increases from 0.91 × 10 19 to 2.15 × 10 19 cm −3 with the RF power rising from 40 to 80 W, which may account for the corresponding decrease in the resistivity of the a-IGZO thin films. No evident impacts of RF power are observed on the surface roughness, crystalline nature and stoichiometry of the a-IGZO samples. On the other hand, optical transmittance is apparently influenced by RF power where the extracted optical band-gap value increases from 3.48 to 3.56 eV with RF power varying from 40 to 80 W, as is supposed to result from the carrier-induced band-filling effect. The rise in RF power can also affect the performance of a-IGZO TFTs, in particular by increasing the field-effect mobility clearly, which is assumed to be due to the alteration of the extended states in a-IGZO thin films. (semiconductor devices)

  5. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • a-C:Ti nanocomposite coatings were prepared on 316L stainless steel by using R.F. magnetron sputtering method. • Properties of the nanocomposite coatings were analyzed with respect to titanium content. • Corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and hydrophobicity of nanocomposite coating were enhanced with increasing titanium content. • Coating with 2.33 at.% titanium showed superior tribological properties compared to other coatings. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp"2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  6. DEVICE FOR INVESTIGATION OF MAGNETRON AND PULSED-LASER PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Burmakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modifications of complex pulsed laser and magnetron deposition thin-film structures unit are presented. They include joint and separate variants of layer deposition. Unit realizes the plasma parameters control and enhances the possibility of laser-plasma and magnetron methods of coatings deposition.

  7. Properties of nickel films growth by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at elevated substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslim, Noormariah, E-mail: 14h8702@ubd.edu.bn [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Soon, Ying Woan [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Physical and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Lim, Chee Ming; Voo, Nyuk Yoong [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam)

    2016-08-01

    Pure nickel (Ni) thin films of thicknesses of 100 nm were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at a power of 100 W and at various substrate temperatures i.e., room temperature, 100, 200, and 300 °C. The crystalline structure, surface topography, surface morphology, electrical resistivity, and optical properties of the deposited films were studied. The properties of the Ni films could be controlled by altering the substrate temperature. Specifically, the films featured a face-centered cubic crystalline structure with predominant (111) crystallite orientation at all the substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the X-ray diffraction analysis. Films deposited at substrate temperatures greater than 200 °C additionally displayed crystalline (200) and (220) diffraction peaks. The surface morphology analysis revealed that the grain size of the Ni thin films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed. This increase was accompanied with a decrease in the resistivity of the Ni films. The surface roughness of the films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the atomic force microscopy analysis. - Highlights: • RF magnetron sputtering is a good alternative method to deposit Ni films. • Properties of Ni films could be controlled simply by tuning substrate temperatures. • Crystallite size and surface roughness increased with substrate temperatures. • Electrical resistivity reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. • Optical properties also changed with substrate temperatures.

  8. Annealing induced morphological modifications in PTFE films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Rao, K. Divakar; Haque, S. Maidul; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2017-05-01

    As grown RF magnetron sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films were subjected to vacuum annealing at optimized elevated temperature of 200° C for varying time duration and corresponding surface morphological changes were recorded. The columnar structures appearing after an annealing duration of 2 hours are interesting for fabrication of rough PTFE surfaces towards possible applications in hydrophobicity along with high transmission. Supported by transmission data, the AFM images show a transformation of smooth PTFE surface with less than 2 nm rms roughness to a very rough surface. The results are interpreted in terms of thermal energy induced modifications only at the surface without any change in the original bonding structure on the surface and inside the sample. Preliminary studies indicate that the optimization of roughness and transmission together on such surfaces may lead to high water contact angles.

  9. Structural and morphological properties of ITO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2015-10-01

    Physical properties of transparent and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films grown by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering are studied systematically by changing deposition time. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicate polycrystalline thin films with grain orientations predominantly along the (2 2 2) and (4 0 0) directions. From atomic force microscopy (AFM) it is found that by increasing the deposition time, the roughness of the film increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show a network of a high-porosity interconnected nanoparticles, which approximately have a pore size ranging between 20 and 30 nm. Optical measurements suggest an average transmission of 80 % for the ITO films. Sheet resistances are investigated using four-point probes, which imply that by increasing the film thickness the resistivities of the films decrease to 2.43 × 10-5 Ω cm.

  10. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  11. A microcontroller based tuning mechanism for the magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Mahfooz, M.; Hanumaiah, B.; Ganesh; Siddappa, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on a control system developed to tune the magnetron frequency to get the maximum beam pulse in the microtron (electron accelerator facility at Mangalore University). The control system so designed consists of a microcontroller, a phase locked loop (PLL) and a digital to analog converter (DAC) to control the magnetron frequency. The voltage value given by the microcontroller through the DAC decides the reference frequency. The PLL gives the error voltage whenever there is difference between the reference and the magnetron frequencies. The microcontroller unit tracks the error voltage and tunes the magnetron with the help of a tuner mechanism connected through a stepper motor. The microcontroller also monitors the beam current level and accordingly adjusts the reference frequency to successfully tune the magnetron. (author)

  12. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing, E-mail: yuezhx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80 W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup ¯}0)//α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)

  13. Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of zirconium oxynitride thin film growth by RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Olaya, J. J.; Clavijo, D.; Alfonso, J. E. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 No. 26-85, AA 14490 Bogota D. C. (Colombia); Bethencourt, M., E-mail: jealfonsoo@unal.edu.co [Universidad de Cadiz, Centro Andaluz de Ciencia y Tecnologia Marinas, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica, Av. Republica de Saharaui, Puerto Real, E-11510 Cadiz (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Thin films of zirconium oxynitride were grown on common glass, silicon (100) and stainless steel 316 L substrates using the reactive RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films were analyzed through structural, morphological and biocompatibility studies. The structural analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphological analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These studies were done as a function of growth parameters, such as power applied to the target, substrate temperature, and flow ratios. The corrosion resistance studies were made on samples of stainless steel 316 L coated and uncoated with Zr{sub x}N{sub y}O films, through of polarization curves. The studies of biocompatibility were carried out on zirconium oxynitride films deposited on stainless steel 316 L through proliferation and cellular adhesion. The XRD analysis shows that films deposited at 623 K, with a flow ratio {Phi}N{sub 2}/{Phi}O{sub 2} of 1.25 and a total deposit time of 30 minutes grew preferentially oriented along the (111) plane of the zirconium oxynitride monoclinic phase. The Sem analyses showed that the films grew homogeneously, and the AFM studies indicated that the average rugosity of the film was 5.9 nm and the average particle size was 150 nm. The analysis of the corrosion resistant, shows that the stainless steel coated with the film was increased a factor 10. Finally; through the analysis of the biocompatibility we established that the films have a better surface than the substrate (stainless steel 316 L) in terms of the adhesion and proliferation of bone cells. (Author)

  14. The FELIX RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manintveld, P.; Delmee, P.F.M.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Meddens, B.J.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Amersfoort, P.W. van

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the RF system for the Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments (FELIX) is discussed. The RF system provides the input power for a triode gun (1 GHz, 100 W), a prebuncher (1 GHz, 10 kW), a buncher (3 GHz, 20 MW), and two linacs (3 GHz, 8 MW each). The pulse length in the system is 20 μs. The required electron beam stability imposes the following demands on the RF system: a phase stability better than 0.3 deg for the 1 GHz signals and better than 1 deg for the 3 GHz signals; the amplitude stability has to be better than 1% for the 1 GHz and better than 0.2% for the 3 GHz signals. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  15. RF and feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.

    1994-01-01

    The radiofrequency system of the Tau Charm Factory accelerating 10 11 particles per bunch and a circulating current of 0.5 A is presented. In order to produce the very short bunches required, the RF system of TCF must provide a large RF voltage (8 MV) at a frequency in the neighbourhood of 400-500 MHz. It appears very attractive to produce the high voltage required with superconducting cavities, for which wall losses are negligible. A comparison between the sc RF system proposed and a possible copper system run at an average 1 MV/m, shows the clear advantage of sc cavities for TCF. (R.P.). 2 figs,. 1 tab

  16. The influence of target erosion grade in the optoelectronic properties of AZO coatings growth by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, C.; G-Berasategui, E.; Ciarsolo, I.; Barriga, J.; Gaspar, D.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High quality AZO films deposited at low temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. • Transmittance values of 84% and resistivity of 1.9 × 10"−"3 Ω cm were obtained. • Stable optoelectronic and structural properties during whole life of the target. • RF MS: robust and reliable for the industrial manufacture of AZO frontal electrode. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductor coating has emerged as promising substitute to tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) as electrode in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics or light emitting diodes (LEDs). Besides its high transmission in the visible spectral region and low resistivity, AZO presents a main advantage over other candidates such as graphene, carbon nanotubes or silver nanowires; it can be deposited using the technology industrially implemented to manufacture ITO layers, the magnetron sputtering (MS). This is a productive, reliable and green manufacturing technique. But to guarantee the robustness, reproducibility and reliability of the process there are still some issues to be addressed, such as the effect and control of the target state. In this paper a thorough study of the influence of the target erosion grade in developed coatings has been performed. AZO films have been deposited from a ceramic target by RF MS. Structure, optical transmittance and electrical properties of the produced coatings have been analyzed as function of the target erosion grade. No noticeable differences have been found neither in optoelectronic properties nor in the structure of the coatings, indicating that the RF MS is a stable and consistent process through the whole life of the target.

  17. The influence of target erosion grade in the optoelectronic properties of AZO coatings growth by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta, C., E-mail: cristina.zubizarreta@tekniker.es [IK4-Tekniker, Research Centre, c/ Iñaki Goenaga, 5, 20600 Eibar, Guipuzkoa (Spain); G-Berasategui, E.; Ciarsolo, I.; Barriga, J. [IK4-Tekniker, Research Centre, c/ Iñaki Goenaga, 5, 20600 Eibar, Guipuzkoa (Spain); Gaspar, D.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High quality AZO films deposited at low temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. • Transmittance values of 84% and resistivity of 1.9 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm were obtained. • Stable optoelectronic and structural properties during whole life of the target. • RF MS: robust and reliable for the industrial manufacture of AZO frontal electrode. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductor coating has emerged as promising substitute to tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) as electrode in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics or light emitting diodes (LEDs). Besides its high transmission in the visible spectral region and low resistivity, AZO presents a main advantage over other candidates such as graphene, carbon nanotubes or silver nanowires; it can be deposited using the technology industrially implemented to manufacture ITO layers, the magnetron sputtering (MS). This is a productive, reliable and green manufacturing technique. But to guarantee the robustness, reproducibility and reliability of the process there are still some issues to be addressed, such as the effect and control of the target state. In this paper a thorough study of the influence of the target erosion grade in developed coatings has been performed. AZO films have been deposited from a ceramic target by RF MS. Structure, optical transmittance and electrical properties of the produced coatings have been analyzed as function of the target erosion grade. No noticeable differences have been found neither in optoelectronic properties nor in the structure of the coatings, indicating that the RF MS is a stable and consistent process through the whole life of the target.

  18. ISR RF cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    In each ISR ring the radiofrequency cavities were installed in one 9 m long straight section. The RF system of the ISR had the main purpose to stack buckets of particles (most of the time protons)coming from the CPS and also to accelerate the stacked beam. The installed RF power per ring was 18 kW giving a peak accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The system had a very fine regulation feature allowing to lower the voltage down to 75 V in a smooth and well controlled fashion.

  19. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  20. Growth of Ge/Si(100) Nanostructures by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: the Role of Annealing Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALIREZA Samavati; S. K. Ghoshal; Z. Othaman

    2012-01-01

    Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined.Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃,700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure.Atomic force microscopy,field emission scanning electron microscopy,visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed.The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented.The density,size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.%Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined. Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃, 700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure. Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed. The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented. The density, size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature. A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.

  1. The TESLA RF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, S.

    2003-01-01

    The TESLA project proposed by the TESLA collaboration in 2001 is a 500 to 800GeV e+/e- linear collider with integrated free electron laser facility. The accelerator is based on superconducting cavity technology. Approximately 20000 superconducting cavities operated at 1.3GHz with a gradient of 23.4MV/m or 35MV/m will be required to achieve the energy of 500GeV or 800GeV respectively. For 500GeV ∼600 RF stations each generating 10MW of RF power at 1.3GHz at a pulse duration of 1.37ms and a repetition rate of 5 or 10Hz are required. The original TESLA design was modified in 2002 and now includes a dedicated 20GeV electron accelerator in a separate tunnel for free electron laser application. The TESLA XFEL will provide XFEL radiation of unprecedented peak brilliance and full transverse coherence in the wavelength range of 0.1 to 6.4nm at a pulse duration of 100fs. The technology of both accelerators, the TESLA linear collider and the XFEL, will be identical, however the number of superconducting cavities and RF stations for the XFEL will be reduced to 936 and 26 respectively. This paper describes the layout of the entire RF system of the TESLA linear collider and the TESLA XFEL and gives an overview of its various subsystems and components

  2. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  3. Beyond the RF photogun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, O.J.; Rozenzweig, J.; Travish, G.

    2003-01-01

    Laser-triggered switching of MV DC voltages enables acceleration gradients an order of magnitude higher than in state-of-the-art RF photoguns. In this way ultra-short, high-brightness electron bunches may be generated without the use of magnetic compression. The evolution of the bunch during the

  4. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, G [Jefferson Lab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  5. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  6. RF magnetron sputter deposition and characterization of Ca5(PO4)3OH-coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Kitty van

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Calcium phosphates, especially hydroxyapatite (HA), are preferred implant materials for implants used to replace bone tissue, like hip-implants, due to their excellent biological properties and bone bonding behaviour. To avoid its poor fatigue properties in loaded applications, HA is

  7. Production and characterization of Si-N films obtained by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.; Cavaleiro, A.; Vieira, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Si-N films were deposited by sputtering from an Si 3 N 4 target with different deposition pressures and negative substrate bias. The films were amorphous and showed a ''featureless'' morphology. A high oxygen content was detected in unbiased films. For these films the Si/N ratio was very high compared with the target composition, whereas for biased films the opposite was observed. Si-N films presented cohesive failures for loads as high as 21 N and adhesive failure at 45 N when they were analysed by scratch test. Very high hardness (45 GPa) was obtained, particularly for biased films. Unbiased films were softer, which is attributed to the formation of silicon oxide and/or to a lower compressive stress level. (orig.)

  8. RETRACTED: Application of RF magnetron sputtering for growth of AZO on glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-08-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Principal Editor. After a thorough investigation, the Editor has concluded that the review process for this article was compromised. The acceptance was based on information from at least one reviewer report that was submitted from an email account provided to the journal as a suggested reviewer during the submission of the article. Although purportedly a real reviewer account, the Editor has concluded that this was not of an appropriate, independent reviewer. This manipulation of the peer-review process represents a clear violation of the fundamentals of peer review, our publishing policies, and publishing ethics standards. Apologies are offered to the reviewers whose identities were assumed and to the readers of the journal that this deception was not detected during the submission process. In addition, the author names Z. Ghorannevis and E. Akbarnejad were added to the article at revision - the corresponding author was not able to explain the reason.

  9. RF magnetron sputtered TiNiCu shape memory alloy thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yongqing; Du Hejun

    2003-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer a unique combination of novel properties, such as shape memory effect, super-elasticity, biocompatibility and high damping capacity, and thin film SMAs have the potential to become a primary actuating mechanism for micro-actuators. In this study, TiNiCu films were successfully prepared by mix sputtering of a Ti 55 Ni 45 target with a separated Cu target. Crystalline structure, residual stress and phase transformation properties of the TiNiCu films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and curvature measurement methods. Effects of the processing parameters on the film composition, phase transformation and shape-memory effects were analyzed. Results showed that films prepared at a high Ar gas pressure exhibited a columnar structure, while films deposited at a low Ar gas pressure showed smooth and featureless structure. Chemical composition of TiNiCu thin films was dependent on the DC power of copper target. DSC, XRD and curvature measurement revealed clearly the martensitic transformation of the deposited TiNiCu films. When the free-standing film was heated and cooled, a 'two-way' shape-memory effect can be clearly observed

  10. Preparation of YBaCuO superconducting tape by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukutomi, Masao; Akutsu, Nakao; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Asano, Toshihisa; Maeda, Hiroshi (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan); Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    The effect of buffer layers, conditions of film preparation, and the relation between superconducting characteristics and bombardment of high energy ions on films were discussed in an attempt to fabricate YBaCuO films on metallic substrates by sputtering. Hastelloy-X tapes and Chromel (Ni-10Cr) fine wires were used as metallic substrates, and MgO films as buffer layers, which were provided by sputtering a MgO sintered target and annealing. As a result, superconducting films were favorably obtained on the Hastelloy tapes with the MgO buffer layers, however, counter diffusion at the interface of the film and layer was unavoidable in annealing. C axis-highly oriented film with high zero resistance Tc was obtained in such an arrangement of the target and substrate as to lower the effect of 0{sup {minus}} ion resputtering, resulting in the most favorable Tc=80.4K. YBaCuO superconducting films could be also deposited on a bundle of Chromel fine wires preliminarily. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  11. On angle resolved RF magnetron sputtering of Ge-Sb-Te thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gutwirth, J.; Wágner, T.; Bezdička, Petr; Hrdlička, M.; Vlček, Milan; Frumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 355, 37-42 (2009), s. 1935-1938 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA ČR GA203/06/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : amorphous semiconductors * films and coatings * sputtering Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.252, year: 2009

  12. Wettability of Thin Silicate-Containing Hydroxyapatite Films Formed by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodzha, S. N.; Surmeneva, M. A.; Surmenev, R. A.; Gribennikov, M. V.; Pichugin, V. F.; Sharonova, A. A.; Pustovalova, A. A.; Prymack, O.; Epple, M.; Wittmar, A.; Ulbricht, M.; Gogolinskii, K. V.; Kravchuk, K. S.

    2014-02-01

    Using the methods of electron and atomic force microscopy, X-ray structural analysis and measurements of the wetting angle, the features of morphology, structure, contact angle and free surface energy of silicon-containing calcium-phosphate coatings formed on the substrates made from titanium VT1-0 and stainless steel 12Cr18Ni10Ti are investigated. It is shown that the coating - substrate system possesses bimodal roughness formed by the substrate microrelief and coating nanostructure, whose principal crystalline phase is represented by silicon-substituted hydroxiapatite with the size of the coherent scattering region (CSR) 18-26 nm. It is found out that the formation of a nanostructured coating on the surface of rough substrates makes them hydrophilic. The limiting angle of water wetting for the coatings formed on titanium and steel acquires the values in the following ranges: 90-92 and 101-104°, respectively, and decreases with time.

  13. Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Physics and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2009-11-22

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase of the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes to due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes of the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction of the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits considered.

  14. Deposition rates of high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Physics and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase in the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes in the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction in the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits are considered.

  15. Influence of reactive gas admixture on transition metal cluster nucleation in a gas aggregation cluster source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tilo; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Gojdka, Björn; Mohammad Ahadi, Amir; Strunskus, Thomas; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Biederman, Hynek; Faupel, Franz

    2012-12-01

    We quantitatively assessed the influence of reactive gases on the formation processes of transition metal clusters in a gas aggregation cluster source. A cluster source based on a 2 in. magnetron is used to study the production rate of titanium and cobalt clusters. Argon served as working gas for the DC magnetron discharge, and a small amount of reactive gas (oxygen and nitrogen) is added to promote reactive cluster formation. We found that the cluster production rate depends strongly on the reactive gas concentration for very small amounts of reactive gas (less than 0.1% of total working gas), and no cluster formation takes place in the absence of reactive species. The influence of discharge power, reactive gas concentration, and working gas pressure are investigated using a quartz micro balance in a time resolved manner. The strong influence of reactive gas is explained by a more efficient formation of nucleation seeds for metal-oxide or nitride than for pure metal.

  16. Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppley, K.R.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT'S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field ( port approximation''). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.

  17. Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppley, K.R.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT`S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field (``port approximation``). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation.

  18. Modelling RF sources using 2-D PIC codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.R.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years, many types of RF sources have been successfully modelled using 2-D PIC codes. Both cross field devices (magnetrons, cross field amplifiers, etc.) and pencil beam devices (klystrons, gyrotrons, TWT'S, lasertrons, etc.) have been simulated. All these devices involve the interaction of an electron beam with an RF circuit. For many applications, the RF structure may be approximated by an equivalent circuit, which appears in the simulation as a boundary condition on the electric field (''port approximation''). The drive term for the circuit is calculated from the energy transfer between beam and field in the drift space. For some applications it may be necessary to model the actual geometry of the structure, although this is more expensive. One problem not entirely solved is how to accurately model in 2-D the coupling to an external waveguide. Frequently this is approximated by a radial transmission line, but this sometimes yields incorrect results. We also discuss issues in modelling the cathode and injecting the beam into the PIC simulation

  19. Phase and Frequency Locked Magnetrons for SRF Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Popovic, M.; Moretti, A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetrons are low-cost highly-efficient microwave sources, but they have several limitations, primarily centered about the phase and frequency stability of their output. When the stability requirements are low, such as for medical accelerators or kitchen ovens, magnetrons are the very efficient power source of choice. But for high energy accelerators, because of the need for frequency and phase stability - proton accelerators need 1-2 degrees source phase stability, and electron accelerators need .1-.2 degrees of phase stability - they have rarely been used. We describe a novel variable frequency cavity technique which will be utilized to phase and frequency lock magnetrons.

  20. Unbalanced Cylindrical Magnetron for Accelerating Cavities Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Rosaz, Guillaume; Calatroni, Sergio; Sublet, Alban; Tobarelli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We report in this paper the design and qualification of a cylindrical unbalanced magnetron source. The dedicated magnetic assemblies were simulated using a finite element model. A hall-effect magnetic probe was then used to characterize those assemblies and compared to the theoretical magnet profiles. These show a good agreement between the expected and actual values. the qualification of the different magnetic assemblies was then performed by measuring the ion flux density reaching the surface of the sample to be coated using a commercial retarding field energy analyzer. The strongest unbalanced configuration shows an increase from 0.016A.cm^-2 to 0.074A.cm^-2 of the ion flux density reaching the sample surface compared to the standard balanced configuration for a pressure 5.10^-3 mbar and a plasma source power of 300W.

  1. Biased HiPIMS technology for superconducting rf accelerating cavities coating

    CERN Document Server

    G. Rosaz, G.; Sonato, D.; Calatroni, S.; Ehiasarian, A.; Junginger, T.; Taborelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. CERN already studied the possibility to use such a coating method for SRF accelerating cavities. Results are promising but not better from a RF point of view than dcMS coatings. Thanks to these results the next step is to go towards a biased HiPIMS approach. However the geometry of the cavities leads to complex changes in the coating setup in order to apply a bias voltage. Coating system tweaking and first superconducting properties of biased samples are presented.

  2. Barrier rf systems in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Chandra M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, many interesting applications of the barrier RF system in hadron synchrotrons have been realized. A remarkable example of this is the development of longitudinal momentum mining and implementation at the Fermilab Recycler for extraction of low emittance pbars for the Tevatron shots. At Fermilab, we have barrier RF systems in four different rings. In the case of Recycler Ring, all of the rf manipulations are carried out using a barrier RF system. Here, the author reviews various uses of barrier rf systems in particle accelerators including some new schemes for producing intense proton beam and possible new applications

  3. Racetrack microtron rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Keffeler, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The rf system for the National Bureau of Standards (NBS)/Los Alamos cw racetrack microtron is described. The low-power portion consists of five 75-W amplifers that drive two input ports in each of two chopper deflection cavities and one port in the prebuncher cavity. A single 500-kW klystron drives four separate 2380-MHz cavity sections: the two main accelerator sections, a capture section, and a preaccelerator section. The phases and amplitudes in all cavities are controlled by electronic or electromechanical controls. The 1-MW klystron power supply and crowbar system were purchased as a unit; several modifications are described that improve power-supply performance. The entire rf system has been tested and shipped to the NBS, and the chopper-buncher system has been operated with beam at the NBS. 5 refs., 2 figs

  4. RF Gun Optimization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

    2007-01-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation

  5. Structural and optical properties of magnetron sputtered MgxZn1-xO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gupte, Vinay; Sreenivas, K

    2006-01-01

    Mg x Zn 1-x O (MZO) thin films prepared by an rf magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were grown at room temperature and at relatively low rf power of 50 W. MZO thin films were found to possess preferred c-axis orientation and exhibited hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO up to a Mg concentration of 42 mol%. A small variation in the c-axis lattice parameter of around 0.3% was observed with increasing Mg composition, showing the complete solubility of Mg in ZnO. The band gap of the MZO films in the wurtzite phase varied linearly with the Mg concentration and a maximum band gap ∼4.19 eV was achieved at x = 0.42. The refractive indices of the MgO films were found to decrease with increasing Mg content. The observed optical dispersion data are in agreement with the single oscillator model. A photoluminescence study revealed a blue shift in the near band edge emission peak with increasing Mg content in the MZO films. The results show the potential of MZO films in various opto-electronic applications

  6. Pulsed rf operation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Cornacchia, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a very low final amplifier output impedance, always associated with class A operation, requires a very large power waste in the final tube. The recently suggested pulsed rf operation, while saving a large amount of power, increases the inherent final amplifier non linearity. A method is presented for avoiding the large signal non linear analysis and it is shown how each component of the beam induced voltage depends upon all the beam harmonics via some coupling coefficients which are evaluated

  7. RF pulse compression development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    The body of this paper discusses the theory and some rules for designing a multistage Binary Energy Compressor (BEC) including its response to nonstandard phase coding, describes some proof-of-principle experiments with a couple of low power BECs, presents the design parameters for some sample linear collider rf systems that could possibly use a BEC to advantage and outlines in the conclusion some planned R and D efforts. 8 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  8. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  9. Microwave and RF engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sorrentino, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    An essential text for both students and professionals, combining detailed theory with clear practical guidance This outstanding book explores a large spectrum of topics within microwave and radio frequency (RF) engineering, encompassing electromagnetic theory, microwave circuits and components. It provides thorough descriptions of the most common microwave test instruments and advises on semiconductor device modelling. With examples taken from the authors' own experience, this book also covers:network and signal theory;electronic technology with guided electromagnetic pr

  10. Characterization and Optimization of the Magnetron Directional Amplifier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatfield, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... A conventional microwave oven magnetron may be converted into a two-port amplifier capable of delivering over 30 dB of gain, while remaining phase-locked to the input signal over a wide frequency range...

  11. Life test on indigenous s-band pulsed magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanmode, Y.D.; Shrivastava, P.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    A 2 MW S-band pulsed magnetron has been developed under joint collaboration between CAT and CEERI. In this development effort several lab prototypes were evaluated on 2 MW microwave test facility developed at CAT. One magnetron is subjected to life test. The present paper describes the setup and procedures used for life test. Various observations and corrections made during the life tests are also described. Results of the tests are discussed. (author)

  12. Indium oxide-based transparent conductive films deposited by reactive sputtering using alloy targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Maruyama, Eri; Jia, Junjun; Machinaga, Hironobu; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2017-04-01

    High-quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films, Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and In2O3-ZnO (IZO), were successfully deposited on either synthetic silica or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates in the “transition region” by reactive dc magnetron sputtering using In-Zn and In-Sn alloy targets, respectively, with a specially designed plasma emission feedback system. The composition, crystallinity, surface morphology, and electrical and optical properties of the films were analyzed. All of the IZO films were amorphous, whereas the ITO films were polycrystalline over a wide range of deposition conditions. The minimum resistivities of the IZO and ITO films deposited on the heated PET substrates at 150 °C were 3.3 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm, respectively. By applying rf bias to unheated PET substrates, ITO films with a resistivity of 4.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm were deposited at a dc self-bias voltage of -60 V.

  13. Structure dependent resistivity and dielectric characteristics of tantalum oxynitride thin films produced by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D., E-mail: daniel.cristea@unitbv.ro [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crisan, A. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Cretu, N. [Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Department, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Borges, J. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, C.; Cunha, L. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Ion, V.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, “Photonic Processing of Advanced Materials” Group, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Apreutesei, M. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, 21 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully F-69134 (France); Munteanu, D. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Tantalum oxynitride thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering, in various configurations. • The rising of the reactive gases mixture flow has the consequence of a gradual increase in the non-metallic content in the films, which results in a 10 orders of magnitude resistivity domain. • The higher resistivity films exhibit dielectric constants up to 41 and quality factors up to 70. - Abstract: The main purpose of this work is to present and to interpret the change of electrical properties of Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} thin films, produced by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Some parameters were varied during deposition: the flow of the reactive gases mixture (N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, with a constant concentration ratio of 17:3); the substrate voltage bias (grounded, −50 V or −100 V) and the substrate (glass, (1 0 0) Si or high speed steel). The obtained films exhibit significant differences. The variation of the deposition parameters induces variations of the composition, microstructure and morphology. These differences cause variation of the electrical resistivity essentially correlated with the composition and structural changes. The gradual decrease of the Ta concentration in the films induces amorphization and causes a raise of the resistivity. The dielectric characteristics of some of the high resistance Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films were obtained in the samples with a capacitor-like design (deposited onto high speed steel, with gold pads deposited on the dielectric Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films). Some of these films exhibited dielectric constant values higher than those reported for other tantalum based dielectric films.

  14. RF linacs for FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are twenty rf linac-driven Free Electron Lasers (FELs) existing or under construction throughout the world and proposals for several more. A number of these FELs have recently been established as facilities to produce coherent optical beams for materials and biomedical research. Both short pulse low duty factor and long pulse high duty factor linac-driven FELs will be discussed. Accelerator issues that influence the performance of an FEL as a scientific instrument will be indicated. (Author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  16. Low frequency rf current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.

    1992-01-01

    An unshielded antenna for rf heating has been developed and tested during this report period. In addition to design specifications being given, some experimental results are presented utilizing: (1) an unprotected Faraday shield, (2) insulating guard limiters, (3) unshielded antenna experiments, (4) method for detecting small rf driven currents, (5) rf fast wave current drive experiments, (6) alfven wave interactions with electrons, and (7) machine conditioning, impurity generation and density control

  17. Development of new cylindrical magnetrons for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, B.

    2000-09-01

    A number of alternative techniques were considered and tested with a view to the construction of a cylindrical sputtering device. This device was required to be capable of depositing tribological coatings inside approximately cylindrical substrates of diameters less than 100mm, in an industrial situation. A cylindrical magnetron device was designed, and constructed as a prototype, using a magnetic assembly inside a cylindrical target with outside diameter (o.d.) 40mm. Two alternative magnetic assemblies were tested, and found to have complimentary advantages. The magnetron characteristics of the device were tested, as were key properties (such as adhesion level and hardness) of the coatings deposited. In all cases good results were obtained. A 22mm o.d. device based on the same design was shown to operate, but with less satisfactory characteristics. In an attempt to improve the miniaturised design, the feasibility of gas cooling (rather than water cooling) the cylindrical magnetron was demonstrated. A system incorporating four 40mm o.d. cylindrical magnetrons was designed, constructed and briefly tested. This was intended to prove the feasibility of using a multi-magnetron system to reduce the cost to coat. Its dimensions and design were tailored to an industrially specified engine block. In use the plasma rings formed on the 40mm magnetron target surfaces during operation were found to be of unequal intensities, especially on the shorter magnetron design used in the four-fold system. In an attempt to tackle this problem, a finite element model of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic assembly was built, run and verified. Changes were made to this model, and a new .magnet assembly was built and tested based on the results obtained. This did not lead to a final solution of the problem, but has set bounds within which the solution must lie. (author)

  18. Evolution of film temperature during magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, L.R.; Han, J.G.; Shaginyan, V.R.; Musil, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of measurements of the temperature T F surf which developed on the surface of films deposited by magnetron sputtering of chromium and copper targets on cooling and non-cooling silicon substrates. The T F surf and substrate temperature (T s ) were simultaneously measured using high-resolution IR camera and thermocouple, respectively. We revealed that the T F surf steeply grows, keeps constant when it achieves saturation level, and rapidly drops to the value of the T s after stopping the deposition. At the same time, the T s either does not change for the case of cooling substrate or increases to a certain level for noncooling substrate. However, in both cases the T s remains several times lower than the T F surf . The T F surf is proportional to the flux of energy delivered to the growth surface by sputtered atoms and other fast particles, weakly depends on the depositing metal and can achieve several hundreds of deg. C. This phenomenon is explained by a model assuming formation of a hot thin surface layer (HTSL) on the top of the growing film, which exists only during film deposition and exhibits extremely low thermal conductivity. Due to this unique property the temperature T F surf of HTSL is several times higher than the T s . Variations in the T F surf fairly correlate with structure changes of Cr films along thickness investigated in detail previously

  19. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  20. rf experiments on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Hooke, W.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of rf experiments are being conducted on PLT in order to explore rf techniques which could improve tokamak performance parameters. Of special importance are the studies of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) heating, lower hybrid MHD stabilization and electron heating, down-shifted electron cyclotron heating, and fast wave current drive. Ion Bernstein wave heating results at modest power indicate that the particle confinement time could be enhanced relative to that for fast wave heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and neutral beam heating. At these power levels a conclusive determination of energy confinement scaling with power cannot yet be given. Central sawtooth and m = 1 MHD stabilization is being obtained with centrally peaked lower hybrid (LH) current drive and the central electron temperature is peaking to values (approx.5 keV) well outside the bounds of ''profile consistency.'' In this case the electron energy confinement is apparently increased relative to the ohmic value. The production of relativistic electrons via heating at the down-shifted electron cyclotron (EC) frequency is found to be consistent with theoretical predictions and lends support to the use of this method for heating in relatively high magnetic field devices

  1. Magnetron sputtered Hf-B-Si-C-N films with controlled electrical conductivity and optical transparency, and with ultrahigh oxidation resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, V.; Vlček, J.; Zuzjaková, Š.; Houška, J.; Shen, Y.; Jiang, J. C.; Meletis, E. I.; Peřina, Vratislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 5 (2018), s. 333-340 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Hf-B-Si-C-N films * pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering * electrical conductivitiy * optical transparency * high-temperature oxidation resistance Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  2. Mass spectrometry investigation of magnetron sputtering discharges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr; Musil, Jindřich; Lančok, Ján; Fitl, Přemysl; Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Vlček, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 6 (2017), s. 438-443 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03010490; GA ČR GA17-13427S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mass spectrometry * atoms * radicals and ions * RF discharge * contamination * metallic films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.530, year: 2016

  3. Accurate modeling of complete functional RF blocks: CHAMELEON RF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.H.J.M.; Niehof, J.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Ciuprina, G.; Ioan, D.

    2007-01-01

    Next-generation nano-scale RF-IC designs have an unprecedented complexity and performance that will inevitably lead to costly re-spins and loss of market opportunities. In order to cope with this, the aim of the European Framework 6 CHAMELEON RF project is to develop methodologies and prototype

  4. The Spallation Neutron Source RF Reference System

    CERN Document Server

    Piller, Maurice; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Ma, Hengjie

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) RF Reference System includes the master oscillator (MO), local oscillator(LO) distribution, and Reference RF distribution systems. Coherent low noise Reference RF signals provide the ability to control the phase relationships between the fields in the front-end and linear accelerator (linac) RF cavity structures. The SNS RF Reference System requirements, implementation details, and performance are discussed.

  5. Growth and characterization of a-axis oriented Cr-doped AlN films by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Padmalochan; Ramaseshan, R., E-mail: seshan@igcar.gov.in; Dash, S. [Materials Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Krishna, Nanda Gopala [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Wurtzite type Cr-doped AlN thin films were grown on Si (100) substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering with a function of N{sub 2} concentration (15 to 25%). Evolution of crystal structure of these films was studied by GIXRD where a-axis preferred orientation was observed. The electronic binding energy and concentration of Cr in these films were estimated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). We have observed indentation hardness (H{sub IT}) of around 28.2 GPa for a nitrogen concentration of 25%.

  6. Characterization and device applications of ZnO films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, J. G.; Mayes, E. L. H.; McDougall, N. L.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McCulloch, D. G.

    2013-04-01

    ZnO films have been reactively deposited on sapphire substrates at 300 °C using a high impulse power magnetron sputtering deposition system and characterized structurally, optically and electronically. The unintentionally doped n-type ZnO films exhibit high transparency, moderate carrier concentration (˜5 × 1018 cm-3) and a Hall mobility of 8.0 cm2 V-1 s-1, making them suitable for electronic device applications. Pt/ZnO Schottky diodes formed on the HiPIMS deposited ZnO exhibited rectification ratios up to 104 at ±2 V and sensitivity to UV light.

  7. Circuit design for RF transceivers

    CERN Document Server

    Leenaerts, Domine; Vaucher, Cicero S

    2007-01-01

    Second edition of this successful 2001 RF Circuit Design book, has been updated, latest technology reviews have been added as well as several actual case studies. Due to the authors being active in industry as well as academia, this should prove to be an essential guide on RF Transceiver Design for students and engineers.

  8. RF-Station control crate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzekom, M.G. van; Es, J.T. van.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives a description of the electronic control-system for the RF-station of AmPS. The electronics form the connection between the computer-system and the hardware of the RF-station. Only the elements of the systems which are not described in the other NIKHEF-reports are here discussed in detail. (author). 7 figs

  9. Synthesis of ReN3 Thin Films by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work ReNx films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature and deposited on a silicon wafer. It was found that the diffractograms of the nitrogen-rich rhenium film are consistent with those produced by high-pressure high-temperature methods, under the assumption that the film is oriented on the substrate. Using density functional calculations it was found that the composition of this compound could be ReN3, instead of ReN2, as stated on previous works. The ReN3 compound fits in the Ama2 (40 orthorhombic space group, and due to the existence of N3 anions between Re layers it should be categorized as an azide. The material is exceptionally brittle and inherently unstable under indentation testing.

  10. Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, P. N., E-mail: ftt@uni.udm.ru; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

  11. Ionic conductivity and thermal stability of magnetron-sputtered nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillassen, M.; Eklund, P.; Sridharan, M.

    2009-01-01

    Thermally stable, stoichiometric, cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-film electrolytes have been synthesized by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering from a Zr–Y (80/20 at. %) alloy target. Films deposited at floating potential had a texture. Single-line profile analysis of the 111 x.......5% at bias voltages of −175 and −200 V with additional incorporation of argon. The films were thermally stable; very limited grain coarsening was observed up to an annealing temperature of 800 °C. Temperature-dependent impedance spectroscopy analysis of the YSZ films with Ag electrodes showed that the in......-plane ionic conductivity was within one order of magnitude higher in films deposited with substrate bias corresponding to a decrease in grain size compared to films deposited at floating potential. This suggests that there is a significant contribution to the ionic conductivity from grain boundaries...

  12. Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xingmin; Hao Yanqing; Zhang Dongping; Fan Ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, InN thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and K9 glass by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. The target was In metal with the purity of 99.999% and the gases were Ar (99.999%) and N 2 (99.999%). The properties of InN thin films were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film surface is very rough and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that the film contains In, N and very little O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering reveal that the film mainly contains hexagonal InN. The four-probe measurement shows that InN film is conductive. The transmission measurement demonstrates that the transmission of InN deposited on K9 glass is as low as 0.5% from 400 nm to 800 nm.

  13. Electron beam gun with kinematic coupling for high power RF vacuum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchard, Philipp

    2016-11-22

    An electron beam gun for a high power RF vacuum device has components joined by a fixed kinematic coupling to provide both precise alignment and high voltage electrical insulation of the components. The kinematic coupling has high strength ceramic elements directly bonded to one or more non-ductile rigid metal components using a high temperature active metal brazing alloy. The ceramic elements have a convex surface that mates with concave grooves in another one of the components. The kinematic coupling, for example, may join a cathode assembly and/or a beam shaping focus electrode to a gun stem, which is preferably composed of ceramic. The electron beam gun may be part of a high power RF vacuum device such as, for example, a gyrotron, klystron, or magnetron.

  14. Influence of RF power on the properties of sputtered ZnO:Al thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Aldrin; Carreras, Paz; Keitzl, Thomas; Roldan, Ruben; Nos, Oriol; Frigeri, Paolo; Asensi, Jose Miguel; Bertomeu, Joan [Grup d' Energia Solar, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Transparent conducting, aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al) were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The RF power was varied from 60 to 350 W whereas the substrate temperature was kept at 160 C. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the as-deposited films were found to be influenced by the deposition power. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all the films have a strong preferred orientation along the [001] direction. The crystallite size was varied from 14 to 36 nm, however no significant change was observed in the case of lattice constant. The optical band gap varied in the range 3.44-3.58 eV. The lowest resistivity of 1.2 x 10{sup -3}{omega} cm was shown by the films deposited at 250 W. The mobility of the films was found to increase with the deposition power. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Investigation of MIM Diodes for RF Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    zero bias condition as well as the possibility of realizing them through printing makes them attractive for (Radio Frequency) RF applications. However, MIM diodes have not been explored much for RF applications. One reason preventing their widespread RF

  16. Refurbishments of RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baelde, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the activities of the R.F. System group during the years 1995-1996 in the frame of the refurbishment of the control system at GANIL accelerator. Modifications concerning the following sub-assemblies are mentioned: 1. voltage standards; 2. link card between the step by step motor control and the local control systems; 3. polarization system; 4. computer software for different operations. Also reported is the installation of ECR 4 source for the CO2. In this period the R2 Regrouping system has been installed, tested and put into operation. Several problems concerning the mechanical installation of the coupling loop and other problems related to the electronics operation were solved. The results obtained with the THI machine are presented

  17. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  18. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  19. Substrate heating and cooling during magnetron sputtering of copper target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalov, Viktor I.; Komlev, Andrey E.; Bondarenko, Anastasia S., E-mail: stopnastia@gmail.com; Baykov, Pavel B.; Karzin, Vitaliy V.

    2016-02-22

    Heating and cooling processes of the substrate during the DC magnetron sputtering of the copper target were investigated. The sensitive element of a thermocouple was used as a substrate. It was found, that the heat outflow rate from the substrate is lower when the magnetron is turned off rather than when it is turned on. Furthermore, the heating rate, the ultimate temperature, and the heat outflow rate related to the deposition of copper atoms are directly proportional to the discharge current density. - Highlights: • New effect of heat outflow from substrate when magnetron is on was discovered. • This new effect is linear in terms of heat outflow rate to target current ratio. • Kinetic equation for heating process additively considers this effect.

  20. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for