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Sample records for rf plasma nitriding

  1. RF plasma nitriding of severely deformed iron-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferkel, H.; Glatzer, M.; Estrin, Y.; Valiev, R.Z.; Blawert, C.; Mordike, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of severe plastic deformation by cold high pressure torsion (HPT) on radio frequency (RF) plasma nitriding of pure iron, as well as St2K50 and X5CrNi1810 steels was investigated. Nitriding was carried out for 3 h in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 10 -5 bar and temperatures of 350 and 400 deg. C. Nitrided specimens were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and micro hardness measurements. It was found that HPT enhances the effect of nitriding leading almost to doubling of the thickness of the nitrided layer for pure iron and the high alloyed steel. The largest increase in hardness was observed when HPT was combined with RF plasma nitriding at 350 deg. C. In the case of pure iron, the X-ray diffraction spectra showed the formation of ε and γ' nitrides in the compound layer, with a preferential formation of γ' at the expense of the α-phase at the higher nitriding temperature. The corresponding surface hardness was up to 950 HV0.01. While the HPT-processed St2K50 exhibits both nitride phases after nitriding at 350 deg. C, only the γ'-phase was observed after nitriding at 400 deg. C. A surface hardness of up to 1050 HV0.01 was measured for this steel. The high alloyed steel X5CrNi1810 exhibited the highest increase in surface hardness when HPT was combined with nitriding at 350 deg. C. The surface hardness of this steel was greater than 1400 HV0.025. The XRD analyses indicate the formation of the expanded austenite (S-phase) in the surface layer as a result of RF plasma nitriding. Furthermore, after HPT X5CrNi1810 was transformed completely into deformation martensite which did not transform back to austenite under thermochemical treatment. However, in the case of nitriding of the HPT-processed high alloyed steel at 400 deg. C, the formation of the S-phase was less pronounced. In view of the observed XRD peak broadening, the formation of nitrides, such as e.g. CrN, cannot be ruled out

  2. Sputter deposition of tantalum-nitride films on copper using an rf-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, K.C.; Fetherston, R.P.; Sridharan, K.; Chen, A.; Shamim, M.M.; Conrad, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    A tantalum-nitride film was successfully deposited at ambient temperature on copper with a modified ion-assisted-deposition (IAD) technique. The process uses an argon and nitrogen plasma to sputter deposit from a tantalum rf-cathode and ion implant the deposited film simultaneously. Both argon and nitrogen ions are used for sputtering and ion implantation. Auger spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the resulting film

  3. Rf-plasma synthesis of nanosize silicon carbide and nitride. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, R.J.

    1997-02-01

    A pulsed rf plasma technique is capable of generating ceramic particles of 10 manometer dimension. Experiments using silane/ammonia and trimethylchlorosilane/hydrogen gas mixtures show that both silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can be synthesized with control of the average particle diameter from 7 to 200 nm. Large size dispersion and much agglomeration appear characteristic of the method, in contrast to results reported by another research group. The as produced powders have a high hydrogen content and are air and moisture sensitive. Post-plasma treatment in a controlled atmosphere at elevated temperature (800{degrees}C) eliminates the hydrogen and stabilizes the powder with respect to oxidation or hydrolysis.

  4. Surface improvement and biocompatibility of TiAl{sub 24}Nb{sub 10} intermetallic alloy using rf plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Rahman, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmedphys96@hotmail.com; Maitz, M.F. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf (Germany); Kassem, M.A. [Department of Materials and Metals Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); El-Hossary, F.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University (Egypt); Prokert, F.; Reuther, H.; Pham, M.T.; Richter, E. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf (Germany)

    2007-09-30

    The present work describes the surface improvement and biocompatibility of TiAl{sub 24}Nb{sub 10} intermetallic alloy using rf plasma nitriding. The nitriding process was carried out at different plasma power from 400 W to 650 W where the other plasma conditions were fixed. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), tribometer and a nanohardness tester were employed to characterize the nitrided layer. Further potentiodynamic polarization method was used to describe the corrosion behavior of the un-nitrided and nitrided alloy. It has been found that the Vickers hardness (HV) and corrosion resistance values of the nitrided layers increase with increasing plasma power while the wear rates of the nitrided layers reduce by two orders of magnitude as compared to those of the un-nitrided layer. This improvement in surface properties of the intermetallic alloy is due to formation of a thin modified layer which is composed of titanium nitride in the alloy surface. Moreover, all modified layers were tested for their sustainability as a biocompatible material. Concerning the application area of biocompatibility, the present treated alloy show good surface properties especially for the nitrided alloy at low plasma power of 400 W.

  5. First results on nitriding aluminium alloys in a low-pressure RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewell, M.P.; Priest, J.M.; Collins, G.A.; Short, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Aluminium alloys are now well established as materials of choice for many commercial applications, especially where strength-to-weight ratio is a critical parameter. However, their more widespread use is inhibited by their low surface hardness. For steels, similar problems can be overcome by nitriding. The nitrogen-rich surface layer has high hardness and load-bearing capacity, and is very well bonded to the substrate. The development of a similar surface-treatment process for aluminium alloys is clearly a desirable goal. It is therefore not surprising that many research groups worldwide have attempted to nitride aluminium. Much of this work studied pure aluminium, a material of no interest for structural applications. Previous investigations into nitriding aluminium alloys' had indifferent results. However, they have served to identify the key issues, which are the importance of a pre-cleaning steps to remove the surface oxide, of impurity control during the nitriding and the desirability of using as low a process temperature as possible. In all of these areas, our process using a low-pressure RF plasma is likely to be competitive. In view of this, we have undertaken a comparative study of a range of commercially available aluminium alloys. All treatments were carried out in the hot-wall nitriding reactor at ANSTO. The samples consist of disks 25mm in diameter and ∼3mm thick which were polished and ultrasonically cleaned in alcohol prior to treatment. The samples were stored in air at all times except when in the nitriding reactor. In a series of treatments, the treatment time was varied in the range 1-16 h and the temperature in the range 350-500 deg C. All treatments were preceeded by a plasma cleaning step in a H 2 /50%Ar mixture for a duration of 1.5-2.0 h while the reactor reached processing temperature. The treatments all used pure N 2 at a pressure of 0.4Pa and a nitrogen flow rate of 12μmol s -1 , with 245W of rf power at 13.56MHz applied to

  6. Passivation of Ge/high-κ interface using RF Plasma nitridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushaq, Ghada; Nayfeh, Ammar; Rasras, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, plasma nitridation of a germanium surface using NH3 and N2 gases is performed with a standard RF-PECVD method at a substrate temperature of 250 °C. The structural and optical properties of the Ge surface have been investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometery (VASE). Study of the Ge (100) surface revealed that it is nitrated after plasma treatment while the GeO2 regrowth on the surface has been suppressed. Also, stability of the treated surface under air exposure is observed, where all the measurements were performed at room ambient. The electrical characteristics of fabricated Al/Ti/HfO2/GeON/p-Ge capacitors using the proposed surface treatment technique have been investigated. The C-V curves indicated a negligible hysteresis compared to ˜500 mV observed in untreated samples. Additionally, the C-V characteristic is used to extract the high-κ/Ge interface trap density using the most commonly used methods in determining the interface traps. The discussion includes the Dit calculation from the high-low frequency (Castagné-Vapaille) method and Terman (high-frequency) method. The high-low frequency method indicated a low interface trap density of ˜2.5 × 1011 eV-1.cm-2 compared to the Terman method. The J-V measurements revealed more than two orders of magnitude reduction of the gate leakage. This improved Ge interface quality is a promising low-temperature technique for fabricating high-performance Ge MOSFETs.

  7. Some Temperature Effects on AISI-304 Nitriding in an Inductively Coupled RF Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Munoz-Castro, A. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Rosa-Vazquez, J. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.

    2006-01-01

    Some recent results obtained from nitriding AISI 304 stainless steel samples, 1.2 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm thick are reported here in the case of an 85% hydrogen and 15% nitrogen mixture work gas. The process was carried out from 300 to 400 W for (13.56 MHz) inductively coupled plasma within a 60 cm long pyrex glass tube 3.5 cm in diameter where the samples were biased up to -300 V with respect to earth. The resulting hardness appears to be a function of the substrate temperature which varied from 200 deg. C at a 0 V bias to 550 deg. C at -300 V. The plasma density at 400 W reached 3x1010 cm-3 with a 4 eV electron temperature. Prior to nitriding, all the samples were polished with 0.05 μm diamond paste, leading to a 30 nm average roughness (Ra). After nitriding at -300 V, the Ra rose until ∼400 nm while hardness values of 1500 HV under 300 g loads were measured. X ray diffraction indicates that the extended phase amplitude (γN), Fe and Cr nitride depends on the substrate temperature

  8. Low temperature RF plasma nitriding of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes for effective bandgap reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Thiago Scremin; Pereyra, Inés

    2018-06-01

    Titanium dioxide is a widely studied semiconductor material found in many nanostructured forms, presenting very interesting properties for several applications, particularly photocatalysis. TiO2 nanotubes have a high surface-to-volume ratio and functional electronic properties for light harvesting. Despite these manifold advantages, TiO2 photocatalytic activity is limited to UV radiation due to its large band gap. In this work, TiO2 nanotubes produced by electrochemical anodization were submitted to plasma nitriding processes in a PECVD reactor. The plasma parameters were evaluated to find the best conditions for gap reduction, in order to increase their photocatalytic activity. The pressure and RF power density were varied from 0.66 to 2.66 mbar and 0.22 to 3.51 W/cm2 respectively. The best gap reduction, to 2.80 eV, was achieved using a pressure of 1.33 mbar and 1.75 W/cm2 RF power at 320 °C, during a 2-h process. This leads to a 14% reduction in the band gap value and an increase of 25.3% in methylene blue reduction, doubling the range of solar photons absorption from 5 to 10% of the solar spectrum.

  9. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  10. Radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Microstructural and micromechanical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouanis, F.Z.; Bentiss, F.; Bellayer, S.; Vogt, J.B.; Jama, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → C38 carbon steel samples were plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge. → RF plasma treatment enables nitriding for non-heated substrates. → The morphological and chemical analyses show the formation of a uniform thickness on the surface of the nitrided C38 steel. → Nitrogen plasma active species diffuse into the samples and lead to the formation of Fe x N. → The increase in microhardness values for nitrided samples with plasma processing time is interpreted by the formation of a thicker nitrided layer on the steel surface. - Abstract: In this work, C38 carbon steel was plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge on non-heated substrates. General characterizations were performed to compare the chemical compositions, the microstructures and hardness of the untreated and plasma treated surfaces. The plasma nitriding was carried out on non-heated substrates at a pressure of 16.8 Pa, using N 2 gas. Surface characterizations before and after N 2 plasma treatment were performed by means of the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Vickers microhardness measurements. The morphological and chemical analysis showed the formation of a uniform structure on the surface of the nitrided sample with enrichment in nitrogen when compared to untreated sample. The thickness of the nitride layer formed depends on the treatment time duration and is approximately 14 μm for 10 h of plasma treatment. XPS was employed to obtain chemical-state information of the plasma nitrided steel surfaces. The micromechanical results show that the surface microhardness increases as the plasma-processing time increases to reach, 1487 HV 0.005 at a plasma processing time of 8 h.

  11. Radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Microstructural and micromechanical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouanis, F.Z. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Bellayer, S.; Vogt, J.B. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jama, C., E-mail: charafeddine.jama@ensc-lille.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2011-05-16

    Highlights: {yields} C38 carbon steel samples were plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge. {yields} RF plasma treatment enables nitriding for non-heated substrates. {yields} The morphological and chemical analyses show the formation of a uniform thickness on the surface of the nitrided C38 steel. {yields} Nitrogen plasma active species diffuse into the samples and lead to the formation of Fe{sub x}N. {yields} The increase in microhardness values for nitrided samples with plasma processing time is interpreted by the formation of a thicker nitrided layer on the steel surface. - Abstract: In this work, C38 carbon steel was plasma nitrided using a radiofrequency (rf) nitrogen plasma discharge on non-heated substrates. General characterizations were performed to compare the chemical compositions, the microstructures and hardness of the untreated and plasma treated surfaces. The plasma nitriding was carried out on non-heated substrates at a pressure of 16.8 Pa, using N{sub 2} gas. Surface characterizations before and after N{sub 2} plasma treatment were performed by means of the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Vickers microhardness measurements. The morphological and chemical analysis showed the formation of a uniform structure on the surface of the nitrided sample with enrichment in nitrogen when compared to untreated sample. The thickness of the nitride layer formed depends on the treatment time duration and is approximately 14 {mu}m for 10 h of plasma treatment. XPS was employed to obtain chemical-state information of the plasma nitrided steel surfaces. The micromechanical results show that the surface microhardness increases as the plasma-processing time increases to reach, 1487 HV{sub 0.005} at a plasma processing time of 8 h.

  12. Surface modification of titanium by plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapczinski Myriam Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation was undertaken on commercially pure titanium submitted to plasma nitriding. Thirteen different sets of operational parameters (nitriding time, sample temperature and plasma atmosphere were used. Surface analyses were performed using X-ray diffraction, nuclear reaction and scanning electron microscopy. Wear tests were done with stainless steel Gracey scaler, sonic apparatus and pin-on-disc machine. The obtained results indicate that the tribological performance can be improved for samples treated with the following conditions: nitriding time of 3 h; plasma atmosphere consisting of 80%N2+20%H2 or 20%N2+80%H2; sample temperature during nitriding of 600 or 800 degreesC.

  13. Vortex formation during rf heating of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on a test plasma show that the linear theory of waveguide coupling to slow plasma waves begins to break down if the rf power flux exceeds approx. 30 W/cm 2 . Probe measurements reveal that within 30 μs an undulation appears in the surface plasma near the mouth of the twin waveguide. This surface readjustment is part of a vortex, or off-center convective cell, driven by asymmetric rf heating of the plasma column

  14. Plasma nitridation optimization for sub-15 A gate dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubaynes, F.N; Schmitz, Jurriaan; van der Marel, C.; Snijders, J.H.M.; Veloso, A.; Rothschild, A.; Olsen, C.; Date, L.

    The work investigates the impact of plasma nitridation process parameters upon the physical properties and upon the electrical performance of sub-15 A plasma nitrided gate dielectrics. The nitrogen distribution and chemical bonding of ultra-thin plasma nitrided films have been investigated using

  15. Plasma edge cooling during RF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Hawryluk, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to prevent the influx of high-Z impurities into the core of a tokamak discharge by using RF power to modify the edge plasma temperature profile is presented. This concept is based on spectroscopic measurements on PLT during ohmic heating and ATC during RF heating. A one dimensional impurity transport model is used to interpret the ATC results

  16. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  17. RF and microwave diagnostics of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, J.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of RF and microwave investigations carried out at laboratory plasma is presented. Both the immersive and non-immersive RF probes of various types are discussed, the major emphasis being laid on the work carried out in extending the scope of the immersive impedance probe and non-immersive coil probe. The standard microwave methods for plasma diagnosis are mentioned. The role of relatively new diagnostic tool, viz., a dielectric-rod waveguide, is described, and the technique of measuring the admittance of such a waveguide (or an antenna) enveloped in plasma is discussed. (K.B.)

  18. RF Electron Gun with Driven Plasma Cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    It's known that RF guns with plasma cathodes based on solid-state dielectrics are able to generate an intense electron beam. In this paper we describe results of experimental investigation of the single cavity S-band RF gun with driven plasma cathode. The experimental sample of the cathode based on ferroelectric ceramics has been designed. Special design of the cathode permits to separate spatially processes of plasma development and electron acceleration. It has been obtained at RF gun output electron beam with particle energy ~500 keV, pulse current of 4 A and pulse duration of 80 ns. Results of experimental study of beam parameters are referred in. The gun is purposed to be applied as the intense electron beam source for electron linacs.

  19. Modelling of an RF plasma shower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanasova, M.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Mihailova, D.B.; Benova, E.; Degrez, G.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A capacitive radiofrequency (RF) discharge at atmospheric pressure is studied by means of a time-dependent, two-dimensional fluid model. The plasma is created in a stationary argon gas flow guided through two perforated electrodes, hence resembling a shower. The inner electrode, the electrode facing

  20. Rf-biasing of highly idealized plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, R.H.J.; Blauw, M.A.; Goedheer, W.J.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.

    2007-01-01

    Remote plasmas, which are subjected to a radio-frequency (RF) biased surface, have been investigated theoretically and experimentally for decades. The relation between the complex power (DC) voltage characteristics, the ion energy distribution and control losses of the ion bombardment are of

  1. Conductivity of rf-heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1984-05-01

    The electron velocity distribution of rf-heated plasma may be so far from Maxwellian that Spitzer conductivity no longer holds. A new conductivity for such plasmas is derived and the result can be put in a remarkably general form. The new expression should be of great practical value in examining schemes for current ramp-up in tokamaks by means of lower-hybrid or other waves

  2. Equiintensities of RF plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaculik, R.; Brablec, A.; Kapicka, V.; St'astny, F.

    1998-01-01

    The presented diagnostic tool can provide information of temperature distribution in the plasma. The main advantage of the method is relatively simple, low cost and quick procedure. On the other hand the individual isoline corresponds to some mean values for the wide bandwidth of interference filter. However, in real plasma sources is usually difficult to find isolated intensive line which is characterized by excitation temperature. Nevertheless, we believe that application is useful and fulfills other diagnostics methods. The visualisation of temperature field can help to understand conditions in plasmas and processes occurring there. However, the fast procedure (in real time) will be useful only. It has to be done during each experiment and carefully coupled with other diagnostic methods. It means that the device must be the low cost one. (author)

  3. Radio-frequency plasma nitriding and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.; Chu, P.K.; Tang, B.Y.; Zeng, X.C.; Wang, X.F.; Chen, Y.B.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation improves the wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloys by forming a hard TiN superficial passivation layer. However, the thickness of the layer formed by traditional ion implantation is typically 100-200 nm and may not be adequate for many industrial applications. We propose to use radio-frequency (RF) plasma nitriding and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) to increase the layer thickness. By using a newly designed inductively coupled RF plasma source and applying a series of negative high voltage pulses to the Ti-6Al-4V samples. RF plasma nitriding and nitrogen PIII can be achieved. Our process yields a substantially thicker modified layer exhibiting more superior wear resistance characteristics, as demonstrated by data from micro-hardness testing, pin-on-disc wear testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The performance of our newly developed inductively coupled RF plasma source which is responsible for the success of the experiments is also described. (orig.)

  4. The Influence of Hot-Rolled Temperature on Plasma Nitriding Behavior of Iron-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hossary, F. M.; Khalil, S. M.; Lotfy, Kh.; Kassem, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    Experiments were performed with an aim of studying the effect of hot-rolled temperature (600 and 900°C) on radio frequency (rf) plasma nitriding of Fe93Ni4Zr3 alloy. Nitriding was carried out for 10 min in a nitrogen atmosphere at a base pressure of 10-2 mbarr. Different continuous plasma processing powers of 300-550 W in steps 50 W or less were applied. Nitrided hot-rolled specimens were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness measurements. The results reveal that the surface of hot-rolled rf plasma nitrided specimens at 600°C is characterized with a fine microstructure as a result of the high nitrogen solubility and diffusivity. Moreover, the hot-rolled treated samples at 600°C exhibit higher microhardness value than the associated values of hot-rolled treated samples at 900°C. The enhancement of microhardness is due to precipitation and predominance of new phases ( γ and ɛ phases). Mainly, this conclusion has been attributed to the high defect densities and small grain sizes of the samples hot-rolled at 600°C. Generally, the refinement of grain size plays a dramatic role in improvement of mechanical properties of tested samples.

  5. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  6. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, S.; Röpcke, J.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , HCN, and NH 3 ). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined

  7. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, S., E-mail: hamann@inp-greifswald.de; Röpcke, J. [INP-Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Strämke, M.; Strämke, S. [ELTRO GmbH, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Ring 3, 52499 Baesweiler (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  8. Plasma nitriding - an eco friendly surface hardening process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Surface hardening is a process of heating the metal such that the surface gets only hardened. This process is adopted for many components like gears, cams, and crankshafts, which desire high hardness on the outer surface with a softer core to withstand the shocks. So, to attain such properties processes like carburising, nitriding, flame hardening and induction hardening are employed. Amongst these processes nitriding is the most commonly used process by many industries. In nitriding process the steel material is heated to a temperature of around 550 C and then exposed to atomic nitrogen. This atomic nitrogen reacts with iron and other alloying elements and forms nitrides, which are very hard in nature. By this process both wear resistance and hardness of the product can be increased. The atomic nitrogen required for this process can be obtained using ammonia gas (gas nitriding), cyanide based salt bath (liquid nitriding) and plasma medium (plasma nitriding). However, plasma nitriding has recently received considerable industrial interest owing to its characteristic of faster nitrogen penetration, short treatment time, low process temperature, minimal distortion, low energy use and easier control of layer formation compared with conventional techniques such as gas and liquid nitriding. This process can be used for all ferrous materials including stainless steels. Plasma nitriding is carried out using a gas mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gas at sub atmospheric pressures hence, making it eco-friendly in nature. Plasma nitriding allows modification of the surface layers and hardness profiles by changing the gas mixture and temperature. The wide applicable temperature range enables a multitude of applications, beyond the possibilities of gas or salt bath processes. This has led to numerous applications of this process in industries such as the manufacture of machine parts for plastics and food processing, packaging and tooling as well as pumps and hydraulic, machine

  9. Fabrication and Physical Properties of Titanium Nitride/Hydroxyapatite Composites on Polyether Ether Ketone by RF Magnetron Sputtering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupangtha, W.; Boonyawan, D.

    2017-09-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings have been used very successfully in a variety of applications because of their excellent properties, such as the high hardness meaning good wear resistance and also used for covering medical implants. Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that contributes to the restoration of bone tissue, which together with titanium nitride may contribute to obtaining a superior composite in terms of mechanical and bone tissue interaction matters. This paper aims to explain how to optimize deposition conditions for films synthesis on PEEK by varying sputtering parameters such as nitrogen flow rate and direction, deposition time, d-s (target-to-substrate distance) and 13.56 MHz RF power. The plasma conditions used to deposit films were monitored by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Titanium nitride/Hydroxyapatite composite films were performed by gas mixture with nitrogen and argon ratio of 1:3 and target-to-substrate distance at 8 cm. The gold colour, as-deposited film was found on PEEK with high hardness and higher surface energy than uncoated PEEK. X-ray diffraction characterization study was carried to study the crystal structural properties of these composites.

  10. RF current drive and plasma fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Yves; Decker, Joan; Morini, L; Coda, S

    2011-01-01

    The role played by electron density fluctuations near the plasma edge on rf current drive in tokamaks is assessed quantitatively. For this purpose, a general framework for incorporating density fluctuations in existing modelling tools has been developed. It is valid when rf power absorption takes place far from the fluctuating region of the plasma. The ray-tracing formalism is modified in order to take into account time-dependent perturbations of the density, while the Fokker–Planck solver remains unchanged. The evolution of the electron distribution function in time and space under the competing effects of collisions and quasilinear diffusion by rf waves is determined consistently with the time scale of fluctuations described as a statistical process. Using the ray-tracing code C3PO and the 3D linearized relativistic bounce-averaged Fokker–Planck solver LUKE, the effect of electron density fluctuations on the current driven by the lower hybrid (LH) and the electron cyclotron (EC) waves is estimated quantitatively. A thin fluctuating layer characterized by electron drift wave turbulence at the plasma edge is considered. The effect of fluctuations on the LH wave propagation is equivalent to a random scattering process with a broadening of the poloidal mode spectrum proportional to the level of the perturbation. However, in the multipass regime, the LH current density profile remains sensitive to the ray chaotic behaviour, which is not averaged by fluctuations. The effect of large amplitude fluctuations on the EC driven current is found to be similar to an anomalous radial transport of the fast electrons. The resulting lower current drive efficiency and broader current profile are in better agreement with experimental observations. Finally, applied to the ITER ELMy H-mode regime, the model predicts a significant broadening of the EC driven current density profile with the fluctuation level, which can make the stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode potentially

  11. Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1994-01-01

    Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  12. Titanium oxidation by rf inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2014-01-01

    The development of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films in the rutile and anatase phases is reported. The films have been obtained from an implantation/diffusion and sputtering process of commercially pure titanium targets, carried out in up to 500 W plasmas. The experimental outcome is of particular interest, in the case of anatase, for atmospheric pollution degradation by photocatalysis and, as to the rutile phase, for the production of biomaterials required by prosthesis and implants. The reactor employed consists in a cylindrical pyrex-like glass vessel inductively coupled to a 13.56 MHz RF source. The process takes place at a 5×10 −2 mbar pressure with the target samples being biased from 0 to -3000 V DC. The anatase phase films were obtained from sputtering the titanium targets over glass and silicon electrically floated substrates placed 2 cm away from the target. The rutile phase was obtained by implantation/diffusion on targets at about 700 °C. The plasma was developed from a 4:1 argon/oxygen mixture for ∼5 hour processing periods. The target temperature was controlled by means of the bias voltage and the plasma source power. The obtained anatase phases did not require annealing after the plasma oxidation process. The characterization of the film samples was conducted by means of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy

  13. Microstructural characterization of pulsed plasma nitrided 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgari, M.; Barnoush, A.; Johnsen, R.; Hoel, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The low temperature pulsed plasma nitrided layer of 316 SS was studied. → The plastic deformation induced in the austenite due to nitriding is characterized by EBSD at different depths (i.e., nitrogen concentration). → Nanomechanical properties of the nitride layer was investigated by nanoindentation at different depths (i.e., nitrogen concentration). → High hardness, high nitrogen concentration and high dislocation density is detected in the nitride layer. → The hardness and nitrogen concentration decreased sharply beyond the nitride layer. - Abstract: Pulsed plasma nitriding (PPN) treatment is one of the new processes to improve the surface hardness and tribology behavior of austenitic stainless steels. Through low temperature treatment (<440 deg. C), it is possible to obtain unique combinations of wear and corrosion properties. Such a combination is achieved through the formation of a so-called 'extended austenite phase'. These surface layers are often also referred to as S-phase, m-phase or γ-phase. In this work, nitrided layers on austenitic stainless steels AISI 316L (SS316L) were examined by means of a nanoindentation method at different loads. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the S-phase at different depths were studied. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the layer showed a high amount of plasticity induced in the layer during its formation. XRD results confirmed the formation of the S-phase, and no deleterious CrN phase was detected.

  14. Characterization of plasma nitrided layers produced on sintered iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Fontes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasma nitriding is a thermo-physical-chemical treatment process, which promotes surface hardening, caused by interstitial diffusion of atomic nitrogen into metallic alloys. In this work, this process was employed in the surface modification of a sintered ferrous alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses, and wear and microhardness tests were performed on the samples submitted to ferrox treatment and plasma nitriding carried out under different conditions of time and temperature. The results showed that the nitride layer thickness is higher for all nitrided samples than for ferrox treated samples, and this layer thickness increases with nitriding time and temperature, and temperature is a more significant variable. The XRD analysis showed that the nitrided layer, for all samples, near the surface consists in a mixture of γ′-Fe4N and ɛ-Fe3N phases. Both wear resistance and microhardness increase with nitriding time and temperature, and temperature influences both the characteristics the most.

  15. Surface modification of 17-4PH stainless steel by DC plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, F.; Leng, Y.X.; Huang, N.; Bai, B.; Zhang, P.Ch.

    2007-01-01

    17-4PH stainless steel was modified by direct current (DC) plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment in this study. The microstructure, wear resistance and corrosion resistance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), pin-on-disk tribological test and polarization experiment. The results revealed that the DC plasma nitriding pretreatment was in favor of improving properties of titanium nitride film. The corrosion resistance and wear resistance of duplex treatment specimen was more superior to that of only coated titanium nitride film

  16. RF induction plasma spheroidization of tungsten powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhogntao; Ye Gaoying; Liu Chuandong; Tong Honghui

    2009-01-01

    Irregularly-shaped tungsten powders (average granular sizes of 512 μm) have been spheroidized by radio frequency (RF)induction plasma. The effects of feed rate, mode of material dispersion, particle size on spheroidization efficiency are investigated. Experimental results show that the spheroidization efficiency decreases rapidly when the feed rate increases to more than 95 g/min. Only 30% spheroidization efficiency is gained at the feed rate of 135.75 g/min. The spheroidization efficiency is also affected by the flow rate of carrier gas. When the flow rate of carrier gas is 0.12 m 3 /h, the dispersion effect is the best, and the spheroidization efficiency is almost 100%. The apparent density of tungsten powders increases a bit with the increase of spheroidization efficiency. And the particle size uniformity of spheroidized tungsten powders is in accordance with that of original powders. (authors)

  17. Effect of gas pressure on active screen plasma nitriding response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Akio; Nagatsuka, Kimiaki; Narita, Ryota; Nii, Hiroaki; Akamatsu, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 was active screen plasma nitrided using a 304 steel screen to investigate the effect of the gas pressure on the ASPN response. The sample was treated for 18 ks at 723 K in 25% N2 + 75% H2 gases. The gas pressure was changed to 100, 600 and 1200 Pa. The distance between screen and sample was also changed to 10, 30 and 50 mm. The nitrided samples were characterized by appearance observation, surface roughness, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. After nitriding, polygonal particles with a normal distribution were observed at the center and edges of all the ASPN-treated sample surfaces. Particles on the sample surfaces were finer with an increase in the gas pressure. The nitrided layer with a greater and homogeneous thickness was obtained at a low gas pressure of 100 Pa. (author)

  18. DC plasma ion implantation in an inductively coupled RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silawatshananai, C.; Matan, N.; Pakpum, C.; Pussadee, N.; Srisantitam, P.; Davynov, S.; Vilaithong, T.

    2004-01-01

    Various modes of plasma ion implantation have been investigated in a small inductively coupled 13.6 MHz RF plasma source. Plasma ion implantation with HVDC(up to -10 kV bias) has been investigated in order to incorporate with the conventional implantation of diamond like carbon. In this preliminary work, nitrogen ions are implanted into the stainless steel sample with a dose of 5.5 x 10 -2 cm for a short implanting time of 7 minutes without target cooling. Surface properties such as microhardness, wear rate and the friction coefficient have been improved. X-ray and SEM analyses show distinct structural changes on the surface. A combination of sheath assisted implantation and thermal diffusion may be responsible for improvement in surface properties. (orig.)

  19. Effects of an RF limiter on TEXTOR's edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedo, J.A.; Sakawa, Y.; Gray, D.S.; Mank, G.; Noda, N.

    1997-01-01

    Studies directed towards the reduction of particle and heat fluxes to plasma facing components by the application of ponderomotive forces generated by radio frequency (RF) are being conducted in TEXTOR. A modified poloidal limiter is used as an antenna with up to 3 kW of RF power; the data obtained show that the plasma is repelled by the RF ponderomotive potential. The density is reduced by a factor of 2-4 and the radial decay length is substantially altered. The density near the limiter decays exponentially with RF power. The electron temperature profile changes, with the decay length becoming longer (almost flat) during the RF. The temperature in the scrape off layer (SOL) increases and its increase is roughly proportional to the RF power until it saturates, suggesting that the heating efficiency drops with power, and that improved performance is to be expected at higher powers. (orig.)

  20. Characteristic performance of radio-frequency(RF) plasma heating using inverter RF power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Takahiro; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Takamura, Shuichi; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Norifumi

    2000-01-01

    High heat flux plasma are produced by high powe (∼14 kW) ICRF heating using inverter power supplies in the linear divertor simulator NAGDIS-II. The power flow of radiated rf power is investigated by a calorimetric method. Conventional power calculation using antenna voltage and current gives that about 70% of the rf power is radiated into the plasma. But increase of the heat load at the target and anode is about 10% of the rf power. Through this experiment, we find that about half of the rf power is lost at the antenna surface through the formation of rf induced sheath. And about 30% of the power is lost into the vacuum vessel through the charge exchange and elastic collision of ions with neutrals. (author)

  1. Hydrogen diffusion between plasma-deposited silicon nitride-polyimide polymer interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, S.V.; Kerbaugh, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports a nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for hydrogen technique used to analyze the hydrogen concentration near plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride-polyimide interfaces at various nitride-deposition and polyimide-polymer-curing temperatures. The CF 4 + O 2 (8% O 2 ) plasma-etch-rate variation of PECVD silicon nitride films deposited on polyimide appeared to correlate well with the variation of hydrogen-depth profiles in the nitride films. The NRA data indicate that hydrogen-depth-profile fluctuation in the nitride films is due to hydrogen diffusion between the nitride-polyimide interfaces during deposition. Annealing treatment of polyimide films in a hydrogen atmosphere prior to the nitride film deposition tends to enhance the hydrogen-depth-profile uniformity in the nitride films, and thus substantially reduces or eliminates variation in the nitride plasma-etch rate

  2. On the distribution of plasma parameters in RF glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Cheng; Liu Zuli; Liu Donghui; Han Caiyuan.

    1993-01-01

    A self-consistent numerical model based on the two-fluid equations for describing the transport of charged particles in the RF glow discharge is presented. For a plasma generator filled with low-pressure air and parallel-plate electrodes, the model is numerical solved. The space-time distribution of parameters and the spatial distribution of some time-averaged parameters in plasma, which show the physical picture of the RF glow discharge, are obtained

  3. Plasma deposition of cubic boron nitride films from non-toxic material at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M.Z.; Cameron, D.C.; Murphy, M.J.; Hashmi, M.S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Boron nitride has become the focus of a considerable amount of interest because of its properties which relate closely to those of carbon. In particular, the cubic nitride phase has extreme hardness and very high thermal conductivity similar to the properties of diamond. The conventional methods of synthesis use the highly toxic and inflammable gas diborane (B 2 H 6 ) as the reactant material. A study has been made of the deposition of thin films of boron nitride (BN) using non-toxic material by the plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition technique. The source material was borane-ammonia (BH 3 -NH 3 ) which is a crystalline solid at room temperature with a high vapour pressure. The BH 3 -NH 3 vapour was decomposed in a 13.56 MHz nitrogen plasma coupled either inductively or capacitively with the system. The composition of the films was assessed by measuring their IR absorption when deposited on silicon and KBr substrates. The hexagonal (graphitic) and cubic (diamond-like) allotropes can be distinguished by their characteristic absorption bands which occur at 1365 and 780 cm -1 (hexagonal) and 1070 cm -1 (cubic). We have deposited BN films consisting of a mixture of hexagonal and cubic phases; the relative content of the cubic phase was found to be directly dependent on r.f. power and substrate bias. (orig.)

  4. Tribological properties of plasma and pulse plasma nitrided AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgornik, B.; Vizintin, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Center of Tribology and Tech. Diagnostics; Leskovsek, V. [Inst. of Metals and Technologies, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1998-10-10

    Plasma nitriding is usually used for ferrous materials to improve their surface properties. Knowledge of the properties of thin surface layers is essential for designing engineering components with optimal wear performance. In our study, we investigated the microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of plasma- and pulse plasma-nitrided AISI 4140 steel in comparison to hardened steel. The influence of nitriding case depth as well as the presence of a compound layer on its tribological behaviour was also examined. Plasma and pulse plasma nitriding were carried out using commercial nitriding processes. Nitrided samples were fully characterised, using metallographic, SEM microscopic, microhardness and profilometric techniques, before and after wear testing. Wear tests were performed on a pin-on-disc wear testing machine in which nitrided pins were mated to hardened ball bearing steel discs. The wear tests were carried out under dry conditions where hardened samples were used as a reference. The resulting wear loss as well as the coefficient of friction was monitored as a function of load and test time. Several microscopic techniques were used to analyse the worn surfaces and wear debris in order to determine the dominant friction and wear characteristics. Results showed improved tribological properties of AISI 4140 steel after plasma and pulse plasma nitriding compared to hardening. However, the compound layer should be removed from the surface by mechanical means or by decreasing the amount of nitrogen in the nitriding atmosphere, to avoid impairment of the tribological properties by fracture of the hard and brittle compound layer followed by the formation of hard abrasive particles. (orig.) 10 refs.

  5. Thermal plasma synthesis of transition metal nitrides and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronsheim, P.; Christensen, A.N.; Mazza, A.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of arc plasma processing to high-temperature chemistry of Group V nitrides and Si and Ge alloys are studied. The transition metal nitrides 4f-VN, 4f-NbN, and 4f-TaN are directly synthesized in a dc argon-nitrogen plasma from powders of the metals. A large excess of N 2 is required to form stoichiometric 4f-VN, while the Nb and Ta can only be synthesized with a substoichiometric N content. In a dc argon plasma the alloys V 3 Si, VSi 2 , NbSi 2 , NbGe 2 , Cr 3 Si, and Mo 3 Si are obtained from powder mixtures of the corresponding elements. The compounds are identified by x-ray diffraction patterns and particle shape and size are studied by electron microscopy

  6. Microparticles in a RF plasma under hyper gravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Stoffels, W.W.; Ockenga, T.; Wolter, M.; Kersten, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary form only given: For diagnostic purposes micrometer-sized particles can be used as floating electrostatic probes. Once injected into a complex rf plasma, these particles will become negatively charged and can be trapped in the plasma sheath due to an equilibrium of several forces working on

  7. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-01-01

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1x10 18 /m 3 , at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  8. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-01

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1×1018/m3, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  9. Radio frequency plasma nitriding of aluminium at higher power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gredelj, Sabina; Kumar, Sunil; Gerson, Andrea R.; Cavallaro, Giuseppe P.

    2006-01-01

    Nitriding of aluminium 2011 using a radio frequency plasma at higher power levels (500 and 700 W) and lower substrate temperature (500 deg. C) resulted in higher AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios than obtained at 100 W and 575 deg. C. AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios derived from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (and corroborated by heavy ion elastic recoil time of flight spectrometry) for treatments preformed at 100 (575 deg. C), 500 (500 deg. C) and 700 W (500 deg. C) were 1.0, 1.5 and 3.3, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that plasma nitrided surfaces obtained at higher power levels exhibited much finer nodular morphology than obtained at 100 W

  10. Plasma rotation and rf heating in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrassie, J.S.; Baker, D.R.; Burrell, K.H.

    1999-05-01

    In a variety of discharge conditions on DIII-D it is observed that rf electron heating reduces the toroidal rotation speed and core ion temperature. The rf heating can be with either fast wave or electron cyclotron heating and this effect is insensitive to the details of the launched toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date all target discharges have rotation first established with co-directed neutral beam injection. A possible cause is enhanced ion momentum and thermal diffusivity due to electron heating effectively creating greater anomalous viscosity. Another is that a counter directed toroidal force is applied to the bulk plasma via rf driven radial current

  11. Plasma rotation and rf heating in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, J. S. de; Baker, D. R.; Burrell, K. H.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Luce, T. C.; Petty, C. C.; Prater, R.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Rice, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    In a variety of discharge conditions on DIII-D it is observed that rf electron heating reduces the toroidal rotation speed and core ion temperature. The rf heating can be with either fast wave or electron cyclotron heating and this effect is insensitive to the details of the launched toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date all target discharges have rotation first established with co-directed neutral beam injection. A possible cause is enhanced ion momentum and thermal diffusivity due to electron heating effectively creating greater anomalous viscosity. Another is that a counter directed toroidal force is applied to the bulk plasma via rf driven radial current. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  12. Plasma Sprayed Coatings for RF Wave Absorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, Jiří; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Chráska, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil

    307-311, - (2002), s. 1334-1338 ISSN 0022-3115 Grant - others: COST (XE) Euratom DV4/04(TWO) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide, thermal spray coatings, fusion materials, RF wave absorption Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2002

  13. Comparative study involving the uranium determination through catalytic reduction of nitrates and nitrides by using decoupled plasma nitridation (DPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Marco Antonio Souza; Gutz, Ivano G. Rolf

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports a comparative study on the determination of uranium through the catalytic reduction of nitrate and nitride using the decoupled plasma nitridation. The uranyl ions are a good catalyst for the reduction of NO - 3 and NO - 2 ions on the surface of a hanging drop mercury electrode (HDME). The presence of NO - in a solution with p H = 3 presented a catalytic signal more intense than the signal obtained with NO - 3 (concentration ten times higher). A detection limit of 1x10 9 M was obtained using the technique of decoupled plasma nitridation (DPN), suggesting the development of a sensitive way for the determination of uranium in different matrixes

  14. Revisiting the Anomalous rf Field Penetration into a Warm Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Polomarov, Oleg V.; Theodosiou, Constantine E.

    2005-01-01

    Radio-frequency [rf] waves do not penetrate into a plasma and are damped within it. The electric field of the wave and plasma current are concentrated near the plasma boundary in a skin layer. Electrons can transport the plasma current away from the skin layer due to their thermal motion. As a result, the width of the skin layer increases when electron temperature effects are taken into account. This phenomenon is called anomalous skin effect. The anomalous penetration of the rf electric field occurs not only for transversely propagating to the plasma boundary wave (inductively coupled plasmas) but also for the wave propagating along the plasma boundary (capacitively coupled plasmas). Such anomalous penetration of the rf field modifies the structure of the capacitive sheath. Recent advances in the nonlinear, non-local theory of the capacitive sheath are reported. It is shown that separating the electric field profile into exponential and non-exponential parts yields an efficient qualitative and quantitative description of the anomalous skin effect in both inductively and capacitively coupled plasma

  15. Humidity-dependent stability of amorphous germanium nitrides fabricated by plasma nitridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsuki, Katsuhiro; Okamoto, Gaku; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the stability of amorphous germanium nitride (Ge 3 N 4 ) layers formed by plasma nitridation of Ge(100) surfaces using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We have found that humidity in the air accelerates the degradation of Ge 3 N 4 layers and that under 80% humidity condition, most of the Ge-N bonds convert to Ge-O bonds, producing a uniform GeO 2 layer, within 12 h even at room temperature. After this conversion of nitrides to oxides, the surface roughness drastically increased by forming GeO 2 islands on the surfaces. These findings indicate that although Ge 3 N 4 layers have superior thermal stability compared to the GeO 2 layers, Ge 3 N 4 reacts readily with hydroxyl groups and it is therefore essential to take the best care of the moisture in the fabrication of Ge-based devices with Ge 3 N 4 insulator or passivation layers

  16. Modelling RF-plasma interaction in ECR ion sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascali David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes three-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulations of wave propagation in magnetoplasmas of Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS. Numerical results can give useful information on the distribution of the absorbed RF power and/or efficiency of RF heating, especially in the case of alternative schemes such as mode-conversion based heating scenarios. Ray-tracing approximation is allowed only for small wavelength compared to the system scale lengths: as a consequence, full-wave solutions of Maxwell-Vlasov equation must be taken into account in compact and strongly inhomogeneous ECRIS plasmas. This contribution presents a multi-scale temporal domains approach for simultaneously including RF dynamics and plasma kinetics in a “cold-plasma”, and some perspectives for “hot-plasma” implementation. The presented results rely with the attempt to establish a modal-conversion scenario of OXB-type in double frequency heating inside an ECRIS testbench.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Plasma in Arc and RF Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic-Markovic, B.; Markovic, Z.; Mohai, I.; Szepvolgyi, J.

    2004-01-01

    Results on studies of molecular spectra emitted in the initial stages of fullerene formation during the processing of graphite powder in induction RF reactor and evaporation of graphite electrodes in arc reactor are presented in this paper. It was found that C2 radicals were dominant molecular species in both plasmas. C2 radicals have an important role in the process of fullerene synthesis. The rotational-vibrational temperatures of C2 and CN species were calculated by fitting the experimental spectra to the simulated ones. The results of optical emission study of C2 radicals generated in carbon arc plasma have shown that rotational temperature of C2 species depends on carbon concentration and current intensity significantly. The optical emission study of induction RF plasma and SEM analysis of graphite powder before and after plasma treatment have shown that evaporation of the processed graphite powder depends on feed rate and composition of gas phase significantly. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that in the plasma region CN radicals could be formed by the reaction of C2 species with atomic nitrogen at smaller loads. At larger feed rate of graphite powder, CN species were produced by surface reaction of the hot carbon particles with nitrogen atoms. The presence of nitrogen in induction RF plasma reduces the fullerene yield significantly. The fullerene yield obtained in two different reactors was: 13% in arc reactor and 4.1% in induction RF reactor. However, the fullerene production rate was higher in induction RF reactor-6.4 g/h versus 1.7 g/h in arc reactor

  18. Process for titanium powders spheroidization by RF induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongtao; Ye Gaoying; Liu Chuandong; Tong Honghui

    2010-01-01

    Spherical titanium (Ti) particles were obtained by the process of heating irregularly shaped Ti powders under the radio frequency induction plasma (RF induction plasma) condition. The effect of feed rate, various dispersion methods and Ti particle size on the spheroidization efficiency was studied. The efficiency of the spheroidization is evaluated through the measurements of the percentage of powder spheroidized based on the electron microscopic observations and the tap density measurement of the processed powder. During the short flight of the particles in the plasma flow, of the order of a few milliseconds, the individual titanium particles of the powder are heated and melt, forming a spherical liquid droplet which upon freezing gives rise to the formation of a perfectly dense spherical solid particle. So RF induction plasma is a promising method for the preparation of spherical titanium powders with high flow ability. (authors)

  19. RF Plasma modeling of the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Kawamura, Y; Yasumoto, M; Schmitzer, C

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the modelling of the ICP RF-plasma in the Linac4 H− ion source currently being constructed at CERN. A self-consistent model of the plasma dynamics with the RF electromagnetic field has been developed by a PIC-MCC method. In this paper, the model is applied to the analysis of a low density plasma discharge initiation, with particular interest on the effect of the external magnetic field on the plasma properties, such as wall loss, electron density and electron energy. The use of a multi-cusp magnetic field effectively limits the wall losses, particularly in the radial direction. Preliminary results however indicate that a reduced heating efficiency results in such a configuration. The effect is possibly due to trapping of electrons in the multi-cusp magnetic field, preventing their continuous acceleration in the azimuthal direction.

  20. Comparative studies of chemically synthesized and RF plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. April 2015 physics pp. 653–665. Comparative studies of ... MS received 16 April 2013; revised 5 February 2014; accepted 28 May 2014 ... RF plasma polymerization; poly(o-toluidine); Fourier transform infrared; UV–visible ... tial applications, e.g., as electrodes and membranes for electrochemical energy ...

  1. Transition of RF internal antenna plasma by gas control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamajima, Takafumi; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Hiruta, Toshihito; Kanno, Yoshinori [Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 HigashiOhi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 140-0011 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    The transition between the capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was investigated with the internal radio frequency (RF) multi-turn antenna. The transition between them showed the hysteresis curve. The radiation power and the period of the self-pulse mode became small in proportion to the gas pressure. It was found that the ICP transition occurred by decreasing the gas pressure from 400 Pa.

  2. High-density plasma etching of III-nitrides: Process development, device applications and damage remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajwinder

    Plasma-assisted etching is a key technology for III-nitride device fabrication. The inevitable etch damage resulting from energetic pattern transfer is a challenge that needs to be addressed in order to optimize device performance and reliability. This dissertation focuses on the development of a high-density inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) etch process for III-nitrides, the demonstration of its applicability to practical device fabrication using a custom built ICP reactor, and development of techniques for remediation of etch damage. A chlorine-based standard dry etch process has been developed and utilized in fabrication of a number of electronic and optoelectronic III-nitride devices. Annealing studies carried out at 700°C have yielded the important insight that the annealing time necessary for making good-quality metal contacts to etch processed n-GaN is very short (water, prior to metallization, removes some of the etch damage and is helpful in recovering contact quality. In-situ treatment consisting of a slow ramp-down of rf bias at the end of the etch is found to achieve the same effect as the ex-situ treatment. This insitu technique is significantly advantageous in a large-scale production environment because it eliminates a process step, particularly one involving treatment in hydrochloric acid. ICP equipment customization for scaling up the process to full 2-inch wafer size is described. Results on etching of state of the art 256 x 256 AlGaN focal plane arrays of ultraviolet photodetectors are reported, with excellent etch uniformity over the wafer area.

  3. Microstructure and antibacterial properties of microwave plasma nitrided layers on biomedical stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Chung; Wu, Ching-Zong; Hung, Jing-Ming; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Nitriding of AISI 303 austenitic stainless steel using microwave plasma system at various temperatures was conducted in the present study. The nitrided layers were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The antibacterial properties of this nitrided layer were evaluated. During nitriding treatment between 350 deg. C and 550 deg. C, the phase transformation sequence on the nitrided layers of the alloys was found to be γ → (γ + γ N ) → (γ + α + CrN). The analytical results revealed that the surface hardness of AISI 303 stainless steel could be enhanced with the formation of γ N phase in nitriding process. Antibacterial test also demonstrated the nitrided layer processed the excellent antibacterial properties. The enhanced surface hardness and antibacterial properties make the nitrided AISI 303 austenitic stainless steel to be one of the essential materials in the biomedical applications.

  4. Device performance of in situ steam generated gate dielectric nitrided by remote plasma nitridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shareef, H. N.; Karamcheti, A.; Luo, T. Y.; Bersuker, G.; Brown, G. A.; Murto, R. W.; Jackson, M. D.; Huff, H. R.; Kraus, P.; Lopes, D.

    2001-01-01

    In situ steam generated (ISSG) oxides have recently attracted interest for use as gate dielectrics because of their demonstrated reliability improvement over oxides formed by dry oxidation. [G. Minor, G. Xing, H. S. Joo, E. Sanchez, Y. Yokota, C. Chen, D. Lopes, and A. Balakrishna, Electrochem. Soc. Symp. Proc. 99-10, 3 (1999); T. Y. Luo, H. N. Al-Shareef, G. A. Brown, M. Laughery, V. Watt, A. Karamcheti, M. D. Jackson, and H. R. Huff, Proc. SPIE 4181, 220 (2000).] We show in this letter that nitridation of ISSG oxide using a remote plasma decreases the gate leakage current of ISSG oxide by an order of magnitude without significantly degrading transistor performance. In particular, it is shown that the peak normalized transconductance of n-channel devices with an ISSG oxide gate dielectric decreases by only 4% and the normalized drive current by only 3% after remote plasma nitridation (RPN). In addition, it is shown that the reliability of the ISSG oxide exhibits only a small degradation after RPN. These observations suggest that the ISSG/RPN process holds promise for gate dielectric applications. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  5. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yingjie Tay, Roland [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hon Tsang, Siu [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Mallick, Govind [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Tong Teo, Edwin Hang, E-mail: htteo@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-21

    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6 eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31 eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12 s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ∼100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing.

  6. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai; Yingjie Tay, Roland; Hon Tsang, Siu; Mallick, Govind; Tong Teo, Edwin Hang

    2014-01-01

    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6 eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31 eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12 s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ∼100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing

  7. On the evaluation of currents in a tokamak plasma during combined Ohmic and RF current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhartt, D.

    1986-09-01

    By taking into account the rf-generated enhancement of the plasma electric conductivity (as formulated by Fisch in the limit of weak dc electric fields) a relation is derived between the ratio of rf to Ohmically driven currents and other plasma parameters to be measured before and after the rf onset under the condition of constant net plasma current. (author)

  8. Frequency effects and properties of plasma deposited fluorinated silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Flamm, D.L.; Ibbotson, D.E.; Mucha, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of low-hydrogen, fluorinated plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride films grown using NF 3 /SiH 4 /N 2 feed mixtures in 200 kHz and 14 MHz discharges were compared. High-energy ion bombardment at 200 kHz is expected to enhance surface diffusion and chemical reconstruction. Compared to fluorinated silicon nitride deposited at 14 MHz under otherwise comparable conditions, the 200 kHz films had a lower Si--H bond concentration (approx. 21 cm -3 ), lower total hydrogen content (5--8 x 10 21 cm -3 ), better resistance to oxidation, lower compressive stress (-0.7 to -1.5 Gdyne/cm), and higher density (3.1 g/cm 3 ). The dielectric constant of better low-frequency Class I films was constant to 500 MHz, while that of high-frequency films fell up to 15% between 100 Hz and 10 MHz. The absorption edges of low-frequency PECVD fluorinated silicon nitride films were between 5.0 and 6.1 eV, which compare with 4.4 to 5.6 eV for the high-excitation frequency fluorinated material and 3 to 4 eV for conventional PECVD nitride. However high-frequency films may have fewer trap centers and a lower dielectric constant. 14 MHz p-SiN:F films grown with NH 3 as an auxiliary nitrogen source showed absorption edges similar to low-frequency material grown from NF 3 /SiH 4 /N 2 , but they have substantially more N--H bonding. The dielectric constant and absorption edge of these films were comparable to those of low-frequency p-SiN:F from NF 3 /SiH 4 /N 2

  9. Plasma diagnosis of RF discharge by using impedance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianjun; Teuner, D.

    2001-01-01

    It is presented that the method known from network analysis with home-made probe and experimental setup to measure current, voltage and phase angle of RF discharge in He gas more accurately. The sheath thickness and the real and imaginary parts of the plasma impedance were obtained by using the equivalent circuit model and taking account stray capacitances of the set-up. In addition, making use of Godyak's RF discharge simple model, the electron density in the discharge was calculated at different pressure and current density

  10. Theoretical characterization of electron energy distribution function in RF plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitelli, M.; Capriati, G.; Dilonardo, M.; Gorse, C.; Longo, S.

    1993-01-01

    Different methods for the modeling of low-temperature plasmas of both technological and fundamental interest are discussed. The main concept of all these models is the electron energy distribution function (eedf) which is necessary to calculate the rate coefficients for any chemical reaction involving electrons. Results of eedf calculations in homogeneous SF 6 and SiH 4 plasmas are discussed based on solution of the time-dependent Boltzmann equation. The space-dependent eedf in an RF discharge in He is calculated taking into account the sheath oscillations by a Monte Carlo model assuming the plasma heating mechanism and the electric field determined by using a fluid model. The need to take into account the ambipolar diffusion of electrons in RF discharge modeling is stressed. A self-consistent model based on coupling the equations of the fluid model and the chemical kinetics ones is presented. (orig.)

  11. Coupling of RF antennas to large volume helicon plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Large volume helicon plasma sources are of particular interest for large scale semiconductor processing, high power plasma propulsion and recently plasma-material interaction under fusion conditions. This work is devoted to studying the coupling of four typical RF antennas to helicon plasma with infinite length and diameter of 0.5 m, and exploring its frequency dependence in the range of 13.56-70 MHz for coupling optimization. It is found that loop antenna is more efficient than half helix, Boswell and Nagoya III antennas for power absorption; radially parabolic density profile overwhelms Gaussian density profile in terms of antenna coupling for low-density plasma, but the superiority reverses for high-density plasma. Increasing the driving frequency results in power absorption more near plasma edge, but the overall power absorption increases with frequency. Perpendicular stream plots of wave magnetic field, wave electric field and perturbed current are also presented. This work can serve as an important reference for the experimental design of large volume helicon plasma source with high RF power.

  12. Study of corrosion resistance properties of nitrided carbon steel using radiofrequency N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} cold plasma process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouanis, F.Z. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jama, C., E-mail: charafeddine.jama@ensc-lille.f [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Traisnel, M. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco)

    2010-10-15

    C38 carbon steel have been plasma-nitrided using a radiofrequency cold plasma discharge treatment in order to investigate the influence of gas composition on corrosion behaviour of nitrided substrates. The investigated C38 steel was nitrided by a RF plasma discharge treatment using two different gas mixtures (75% N{sub 2}/25% H{sub 2} and 25% N{sub 2}/75% H{sub 2}) at different times of plasma-treatment on non-heated substrates. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) showed that the nitrided layer formed using 75% N{sub 2}/25% H{sub 2} gas mixture was thicker compared to those formed in the case of 25% N{sub 2}/75% H{sub 2} or pure N{sub 2}. The modifications of the corrosion resistance characteristics of plasma-nitrided C38 steel in 1 M HCl solution were investigated by weight loss measurements and ac impedance technique. The results obtained from these two evaluation methods were in good agreement. It was shown that the nitriding treatment in both cases (75% N{sub 2}/25% H{sub 2} and 25% N{sub 2}/75% H{sub 2}) improves the corrosion resistance of investigated carbon steel, while the better performance is obtained for the 75% N{sub 2}/25% H{sub 2} gas mixture. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was carried out before and after immersion in corrosive medium in order to establish the mechanism of corrosion inhibition using N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} cold plasma nitriding process.

  13. Directional rf probe for measurement of conductivity of flowing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Chakravarthy, D.P.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    An electrodeless immersible rf probe for measurement of plasma conductivity in the range 0.01 to 100 mho/m has been designed and fabricated. The probe, with an overall diameter of 11 mm, employs unidirectional electromagnetic field lines which reduce the inaccuracies caused by insertion of the probe in a flowing plasma. In the range studied the probe output shows a linear relationship with the conductivity of the medium. Such probes are of interest in the study of MHD and reentry plasmas

  14. Plasma heating: NBI ampersand RF, an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    1996-01-01

    The additional heating and non-inductive current-drive methods are reviewed. First, the limitations of ohmic heating in tokamaks are examined and the motivations for using additional heating in tokamaks or other machines are discussed. Next we sketch the principles of heating by injection of fast neutrals - or Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The principle of the injector is briefly outlined. Positive and negative ion based concepts are discussed. The remainder of the lecture focuses on the processes by which the beam transfers energy to the plasma: the ionisation and slowing-down processes. Next, I make a review of the different heating schemes based on the transfer of electromagnetic energy to the plasma. The different wave heating frequency ranges are listed and the propagation and damping peculiarities are sketched in each domain. Heating in the Alfven and lower hybrid wave domains are described in some more details. 21 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  15. UN{sub 2−x} layer formed on uranium metal by glow plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Zhong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621907 (China); Hu, Yin [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Chen, Lin [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621907 (China); Luo, Lizhu [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Liu, Kezhao, E-mail: liukz@hotmail.com [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Lai, Xinchun, E-mail: lai319@yahoo.com [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We used a very simple method to prepare nitride layer on uranium metal surface. • This modified layer is nitrogen-rich nitride, which should be written as UN{sub 2−x}. • TEM images show the nitride layer is composed of nano-sized grains. • XPS analysis indicates there is uranium with abnormal low valence in the nitride. - Abstract: Glow plasma nitriding is a simple and economical surface treatment method, and this technology was used to prepare nitride layer on the surface of uranium metal with thickness of several microns. The composition and structure of the nitride layer were analyzed by AES and XRD, indicating that this modified layer is nitrogen-rich uranium nitride, which should be written as UN{sub 2−x}. TEM images show the nitride layer is composed of nano-sized grains, with compact structure. And XPS analysis indicates there is uranium with abnormal low valence existing in the nitride. After the treated uranium storage in air for a long time, oxygen just entered the surface several nanometers, showing the nitride layer has excellent oxidation resistance. The mechanism of nitride layer formation and low valence uranium appearance is discussed.

  16. UN2−x layer formed on uranium metal by glow plasma nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Zhong; Hu, Yin; Chen, Lin; Luo, Lizhu; Liu, Kezhao; Lai, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We used a very simple method to prepare nitride layer on uranium metal surface. • This modified layer is nitrogen-rich nitride, which should be written as UN 2−x . • TEM images show the nitride layer is composed of nano-sized grains. • XPS analysis indicates there is uranium with abnormal low valence in the nitride. - Abstract: Glow plasma nitriding is a simple and economical surface treatment method, and this technology was used to prepare nitride layer on the surface of uranium metal with thickness of several microns. The composition and structure of the nitride layer were analyzed by AES and XRD, indicating that this modified layer is nitrogen-rich uranium nitride, which should be written as UN 2−x . TEM images show the nitride layer is composed of nano-sized grains, with compact structure. And XPS analysis indicates there is uranium with abnormal low valence existing in the nitride. After the treated uranium storage in air for a long time, oxygen just entered the surface several nanometers, showing the nitride layer has excellent oxidation resistance. The mechanism of nitride layer formation and low valence uranium appearance is discussed

  17. Rf probe technology for the next generation of technological plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, V.J.; Kenyon, A.J.; Thornhill, N.F.; Seeds, A.J.; Batty, I.

    2001-01-01

    We describe radio frequency (rf) analysis of technological plasmas at the 13.56 MHz fundamental drive frequency and integer narrow-band harmonics up to n = 9. In particular, we demonstrate the use of harmonic amplitude information as a process end-point diagnostic. Using very high frequency (vhf) techniques, we construct non-invasive ex situ remote-coupled probes: a diplexer, an equal-ratio-arm bridge, and a dual directional coupler used as a single directional device. These probes bolt into the plasma-tool 50 Ω transmission-line between the rf generator and matching network, and hence do not require modification of the plasma tool. The 50 Ω probe environment produces repeatable measurements of the chamber capacitance and narrow-band harmonic amplitude with an end-point detection sensitivity corresponding to a 2 dB change in the harmonic amplitude with the removal of 1 cm 2 of photoresist. The methodology and design of an instrument for the measurement of the plasma-tool frequency response, and the plasma harmonic amplitude and phase response are examined. The instrument allows the monitoring of the plasma phase delay, plasma-tool short- and long-term ageing, and process end-point prediction. (author)

  18. Analytic analysis on asymmetrical micro arcing in high plasma potential RF plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y; McKenzie, D R; Bilek, M M M

    2006-01-01

    We report experimental and analytical results on asymmetrical micro arcing in a RF (radio frequency) plasma. Micro arcing, resulting from high plasma potential, in RF plasma was found to occur only on the grounded electrode for a variety of electrode and surface configurations. The analytic derivation was based on a simple RF time-dependent Child-Langmuir sheath model and electric current continuity. We found that the minimum potential difference in one RF period across the grounded electrode sheath depends on the area ratio of the grounded electrode to the powered electrode. As the area ratio increases, the minimum potential difference across a sheath increases for the grounded electrode but not for the RF powered electrode. We showed that discharge time in micro arcing is more than 100 RF periods; thus the presence of a continuous high electric field in one RF cycle results in micro arcing on the grounded electrode. However, the minimum potential difference in one RF period across the powered electrode sheath is always small so that it prevents micro arcing occurring even though the average sheath voltage can be large. This simple analytic model is consistent with particle-in-cell simulation results

  19. Investigating Tribological Characteristics of HVOF Sprayed AISI 316 Stainless Steel Coating by Pulsed Plasma Nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindivan, H.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, surface modification of aluminum alloy using High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray and pulsed plasma nitriding processes was investigated. AISI 316 stainless steel coating on 1050 aluminum alloy substrate by HVOF process was pulsed plasma nitrided at 793 K under 0.00025 MPa pressure for 43200 s in a gas mixture of 75 % N2 and 25 % H2. The results showed that the pulse plasma nitriding process produced a surface layer with CrN, iron nitrides (Fe3N, Fe4N) and expanded austenite (γN). The pulsed plasma nitrided HVOF-sprayed coating showed higher surface hardness, lower wear rate and coefficient of friction than the untreated HVOF-sprayed one.

  20. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Borowski, Tomasz; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Lelątko, Józef; Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications

  1. Structure and properties of nitrided surface layer produced on NiTi shape memory alloy by low temperature plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnowska, Elżbieta [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Borowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Sowińska, Agnieszka [Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Pathology Department, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland); Lelątko, Józef [Silesia University, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Oleksiak, Justyna; Kamiński, Janusz; Tarnowski, Michał [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Wierzchoń, Tadeusz, E-mail: twierz@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Low temperature plasma nitriding process of NiTi shape memory alloy is presented. • The possibility of treatment details of sophisticated shape. • TiN surface layer has diffusive character. • TiN surface layer increases corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy. • Produced TiN layer modify the biological properties of NiTi alloy. - Abstract: NiTi shape memory alloys are used for bone and cardiological implants. However, on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the release of the alloy elements into surrounding tissues, they are subjected to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility without influencing the required shape memory properties. In this paper, the microstructure, topography and morphology of TiN surface layer on NiTi alloy, and corrosion resistance, both before and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at 290 °C, are presented. Examinations with the use of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were carried out and show an increase of corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution after glow-discharge nitriding. This surface titanium nitride layer also improved the adhesion of platelets and the proliferation of osteoblasts, which was investigated in in vitro experiments with human cells. Experimental data revealed that nitriding NiTi shape memory alloy under low-temperature plasma improves its properties for bone implant applications.

  2. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Samulyak, R.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.

    2018-01-01

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  3. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Samulyak, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Freemire, B. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have also been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  4. Low Damage, High Anisotropy Inductively Coupled Plasma for Gallium Nitride based Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Youssef H.

    2013-05-27

    Group III-nitride semiconductors possess unique properties, which make them versatile materials for suiting many applications. Structuring vertical and exceptionally smooth GaN profiles is crucial for efficient optical device operation. The processing requirements for laser devices and ridge waveguides are stringent as compared to LEDs and other electronic devices. Due to the strong bonding and chemically inert nature of GaN, dry etching becomes a critical fabrication step. The surface morphology and facet etch angle are analyzed using SEM and AFM measurements. The influence of different mask materials is also studied including Ni as well as a SiO2 and resist bilayer. The high selectivity Ni Mask is found to produce high sidewall angles ~79°. Processing parameters are optimized for both the mask material and GaN in order to achieve a highly anisotropic, smooth profile, without resorting to additional surface treatment steps. An optimizing a SF6/O2 plasma etch process resulted in smooth SiO2 mask sidewalls. The etch rate and GaN surface roughness dependence on the RF power was also examined. Under a low 2mTorr pressure, the RF and ICP power were optimized to 150W and 300W respectively, such that a smooth GaN morphology and sidewalls was achieved with reduced ion damage. The The AFM measurements of the etched GaN surface indicate a low RMS roughness ranging from 4.75 nm to 7.66 nm.

  5. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  6. Investigation of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a hybrid RF plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A. F.; Petrov, A. K.; Vavilin, K. V.; Kralkina, E. A.; Neklyudova, P. A.; Nikonov, A. M.; Pavlov, V. B.; Ayrapetov, A. A.; Odinokov, V. V.; Sologub, V. A.; Pavlov, G. Ya.

    2016-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a prototype of a hybrid RF plasma system equipped with a solenoidal antenna are described. It is shown that an increase in the external magnetic field leads to the formation of a plasma column and a shift of the maximum ion current along the discharge axis toward the bottom flange of the system. The shape of the plasma column can be controlled via varying the configuration of the magnetic field.

  7. Investigation of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a hybrid RF plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, A. F.; Petrov, A. K., E-mail: alpetrov57@gmail.com; Vavilin, K. V.; Kralkina, E. A.; Neklyudova, P. A.; Nikonov, A. M.; Pavlov, V. B. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Ayrapetov, A. A.; Odinokov, V. V.; Sologub, V. A.; Pavlov, G. Ya. [Research Institute of Precision Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    Results of an experimental study of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a prototype of a hybrid RF plasma system equipped with a solenoidal antenna are described. It is shown that an increase in the external magnetic field leads to the formation of a plasma column and a shift of the maximum ion current along the discharge axis toward the bottom flange of the system. The shape of the plasma column can be controlled via varying the configuration of the magnetic field.

  8. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures ∼ 10 -5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10 -4 -10 -1 Torr and electron densities in the range of 10 8 -10 11 cm -3 . Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10 -6 Torr range with densities of 10 11 cm -3 . Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun

  9. Duplex surface treatment of AISI 1045 steel via plasma nitriding of chromized layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, F.; Sohi, M. Heydarzadeh; Ghani, J. Rasizadeh

    2011-01-01

    In this work AISI 1045 steel were duplex treated via plasma nitriding of chromized layer. Samples were pack chromized by using a powder mixture consisting of ferrochromium, ammonium chloride and alumina at 1273 K for 5 h. The samples were then plasma-nitrided for 5 h at 803 K and 823 K, in a gas mixture of 75%N 2 + 25%H 2 . The treated specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Vickers micro-hardness test. The thickness of chromized layer before nitriding was about 8 μm and it was increased after plasma nitriding. According to XRD analysis, the chromized layer was composed of chromium and iron carbides. Plasma nitriding of chromized layer resulted in the formation of chromium and iron nitrides and carbides. The hardness of the duplex layers was significantly higher than the hardness of the base material or chromized layer. The main cause of the large improvement in surface hardness was due to the formation of Cr x N and Fe x N phases in the duplex treated layers. Increasing of nitriding temperature from 803 to 823 K enhanced the formation of CrN in the duplex treated layer and increased the thickness of the nitrided layer.

  10. Surface Texturing-Plasma Nitriding Duplex Treatment for Improving Tribological Performance of AISI 316 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316, surface-textured 316 (ST-316, and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316 in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a pin-on-disc rotary tribometer against counterparts of high carbon chromium bearing steel GCr15 and silicon nitride Si3N4 balls. The variations in friction coefficient, mass loss, and worn trace morphology of the tested samples were systemically investigated and analyzed. The results showed that a textured surface was formed on 316 after electrochemical processing in a 15 wt % NaCl solution. Grooves and dimples were found on the textured surface. As plasma nitriding was conducted on a 316 substrate and ST-316, continuous and uniform nitriding layers were successfully fabricated on the surfaces of the 316 substrate and ST-316. Both of the obtained nitriding layers presented thickness values of more than 30 μm. The nitriding layers were composed of iron nitrides and chromium nitride. The 316 substrate and ST-316 received improved surface hardness after plasma nitriding. When the tribological tests were carried out under dry sliding and grease lubrication conditions, the tested samples showed different tribological behaviors. As expected, the DT-316 samples revealed the most promising tribological properties, reflected by the lowest mass loss and worn morphologies. The DT-316 received the slightest damage, and its excellent tribological performance was attributed to the following aspects: firstly, the nitriding layer had high surface hardness; secondly, the surface texture was able to capture wear debris, store up grease, and then provide continuous lubrication.

  11. RF-plasma interactions in the antenna near fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colestock, P.; Greene, G.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Stevens, J.E.; Ono, M.; Wilson, J.R. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); D' Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R. (Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (USA)); Lehrman, I.S. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    An assessment is made of the various linear and nonlinear mechanisms that are likely to play a role in the near-field of Faraday shielded inductive antennas commonly used in ICRF heating experiments. A number of low-level, but potentially important, RF loss mechanisms have been proposed as candidates to explain the observed surface phenomena and impurity production associated with ICRF. These range from edge heating via linear processes, such as surface wave or Bernstein wave generation to a variety of nonlinear phenomena including parametric decay and RF-driven sheath effects. The various proposed mechanisms will be examined in this work in terms of the available experimental data and an evaluation will be made of the scaling of these phenomena to higher density and temperature plasmas. (orig.).

  12. Plasma nitriding of a precipitation hardening stainless steel to improve erosion and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, Amado; Bruhl, Sonia P.; Vaca, Laura S.; Charadia, Raul Charadia

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation hardening stainless steels are used as structural materials in the aircraft and the chemical industry because of their good combination of mechanical and corrosion properties. The aim of this work is to analyze the structural changes produced by plasma nitriding in the near surface of Thyroplast PH X Supra®, a PH stainless steel from ThyssenKrupp, and to study the effect of nitriding parameters in wear and corrosion resistance. Samples were first aged and then nitriding was carried out in an industrial facility at two temperatures, with two different nitrogen partial pressures in the gas mixture. After nitriding, samples were cut, polished, mounted in resin and etched with Vilella reagent to reveal the nitrided case. Nitrided structure was also analyzed with XRD. Erosion/Corrosion was tested against sea water and sand flux, and corrosion in a salt spray fog (ASTM B117). All nitrided samples presented high hardness. Samples nitrided at 390 deg C with different nitrogen partial pressure showed similar erosion resistance against water and sand flux. The erosion resistance of the nitrided samples at 500 deg C was the highest and XRD revealed nitrides. Corrosion resistance, on the contrary, was diminished; the samples suffered of general corrosion during the salt spray fog test. (author)

  13. Metallurgical response of an AISI 4140 steel to different plasma nitriding gas mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adão Felipe Oliveira Skonieski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma nitriding is a surface modification process that uses glow discharge to diffuse nitrogen atoms into the metallic matrix of different materials. Among the many possible parameters of the process, the gas mixture composition plays an important role, as it impacts directly the formed layer's microstructure. In this work an AISI 4140 steel was plasma nitrided under five different gas compositions. The plasma nitriding samples were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, microhardness test, X-ray diffraction and GDOES. The results showed that there are significant microstructural and morphological differences on the formed layers depending on the quantity of nitrogen and methane added to the plasma nitriding atmosphere. Thicknesses of 10, 5 and 2.5 µm were obtained when the nitrogen content of the gas mixtures were varied. The possibility to obtain a compound layer formed mainly by γ'-Fe4N nitrides was also shown. For all studied plasma nitriding conditions, the presence of a compound layer was recognized as being the responsible to hinder the decarburization on the steel surface. The highest value of surface hardness - 1277HV - were measured in the sample which were nitrided with 3vol.% of CH4.

  14. Pressure dependence of electron temperature using rf-floated electrostatic probes in rf plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantin, A.; Gagne, R.R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A new technique, which eliminates ac between probe and plasma by means of a ''follower'', permits electrostatic probes to be used in rf plasmas with a degree of confidence and accuracy which is equal, if not better, to that for a dc discharge. Measurements in argon, using this technique, have shown that electron temperature (T/sub e/) in an rf discharge is not higher than in dc discharge. Moreover the values of T/sub e/ do not agree with von Engel's law, but are in close agreement with a theory based on free diffusion and extrapolated up to values of pR=20 Torr cm (pressure times tube radius). These results are in contradiction with published electrostatic probe results for a positive column, but agree with published results as determined by microwave radiometry and optical spectroscopy. The hypothesis is made that the supporting evidence in favor of von Engel's law, afforded by published electrostatic probe results, could be due to an artifact

  15. Plasma nitriding of AISI 52100 ball bearing steel and effect of heat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ††National Engineering Industries Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur 302 006, India. MS received 26 April ... hardened and tempered with spheroidized carbides is the most commonly used mate- ... because they are polluting the environment. Plasma nitrid-.

  16. Measurement of toroidal plasma current in RF heated helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besshou, Sakae

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the measurement of toroidal plasma current by a semiflexible Rogowski coil in a helical vacuum chamber. A Rogowski coil measures the toroidal plasma current with a resolution of 0.1 kA, frequency range of up to 1 kHz and sensitivity of 6.5 x 10 -9 V · s/A. We measured the spontaneous toroidal plasma current (from -1.2 to +1.2 kA) under electron cyclotron resonance heating at 0.94 T toroidal field in the Heliotron-E device. We found that the measured direction of toroidal plasma current changes its sign as in the predicted behavior of a neoclassical diffusion-driven bootstrap current, depending on the horizontal position of the plasma column. We explain the observed plasma currents in terms of the compound phenomenon of an ohmic current and a neoclassical diffusion-driven current. The magnitude of the neoclassical current component is smaller than the value predicted by a collisionless neoclassical theory. (author)

  17. Investigation of rf plasma light sources for dye laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.S.; Jaminet, J.F.

    1975-06-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to assess the applicability of radio frequency (rf) induction heated plasma light sources for potential excitation of continuous dye lasers. Experimental efforts were directed toward development of a continuous light source having spectral flux and emission characteristics approaching that required for pumping organic dye lasers. Analytical studies were performed to investigate (1) methods of pulsing the light source to obtain higher radiant intensity and (2) methods of integrating the source with a reflective cavity for pumping a dye cell. (TFD)

  18. Structure and properties of the Stainless steel AISI 316 nitrided with microwave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerril R, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this work were presented the results obtained by nitridation on stainless steel AISI 316 using a plasma generated through a microwave discharge with an external magnetic field using several moistures hydrogen / nitrogen to form a plasma. The purpose of nitridation was to increase the surface hardness of stainless steel through a phase formation knew as γN which has been reported that produces such effect without affect the corrosion resistance proper of this material. (Author)

  19. Optical characteristics of a RF DBD plasma jet in various A r / O 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the optical emission spectrum analysis of the RF plasma jet, the excitation temperature is determined based on the Boltzmann plot method. The electron density in the plasma medium of the RF plasma jet is obtained by the Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer H β . It is mostly seen that, the radiation intensity of Ar ...

  20. Study on the RF power necessary to ignite plasma for the ICP test facility at HUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Haikun [School of Electronic Information and Communications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Li, Dong; Wang, Chenre; Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Dezhi; Liu, Kaifeng; Zhou, Chi; Pan, Ruimin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-10-15

    An Radio-Frequency (RF) Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) ion source test facility has been successfully developed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). As part of a study on hydrogen plasma, the influence of three main operation parameters on the RF power necessary to ignite plasma was investigated. At 6 Pa, the RF power necessary to ignite plasma influenced little by the filament heating current from 5 A to 9 A. The RF power necessary to ignite plasma increased rapidly with the operation pressure decreasing from 8 Pa to 4 Pa. The RF power necessary to ignite plasma decreased with the number of coil turns from 6 to 10. During the experiments, plasma was produced with the electron density of the order of 10{sup 16}m{sup -3} and the electron temperature of around 4 eV. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. RF atmospheric plasma jet surface treatment of paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlat, Joanna; Terebun, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Michał; Diatczyk, Jaroslaw

    2016-09-01

    A radio frequency RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet was used to enhance the wettability of cellulose-based paper of 90 g m-2 and 160 g m-2 grammage as a perspective platform for antibiotic sensitivity tests. Helium and argon were the carrier gases for oxygen and nitrogen; pure water and rapeseed oil were used for goniometric tests. The influence of the flow rate and gas type, the power of the discharge, and distance from the nozzle was examined. The surface structure was observed using an optical microscope. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra were investigated in order to determine whether cellulose degradation processes occurred. The RF plasma jet allowed us to decrease the surface contact angle without drastic changes in other features of the tested material. Experiments confirmed the significant influence of the distance between the treated sample and reactor nozzle, especially for treatment times longer than 15 s due to the greater concentration of reactive species at the surface of the sample, which decreases with distance—and their accumulation effect with time. The increase of discharge power plays an important role in decreasing the surface contact angle for times longer than 10 s. Higher power had a positive effect on the amount of generated active particles and facilitated the ignition of discharge. However, a too high value can cause a rise in temperature of the material and heat-caused damage.

  2. Effect of plasma nitriding time on surface properties of hard chromium electroplated AISI 1010 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocabas, Mustafa; Uelker, Suekrue

    2015-01-01

    Properties of steel can be enhanced by surface treatments such as coating. In some cases, further treatments such as nitriding can also be used in order to get even better results. In order to investigate the properties of nitride layer on hard Cr coated AISI 1010 steel, substrates were electroplated to form hard Cr coatings. Then hard Cr coatings were plasma nitrided at 700 C for 3 h, 5 h and 7 h and nitride phases on the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The layer thickness and surface properties of nitride films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and adhesion properties of Cr-N phases were examined using nano indentation and Daimler-Benz Rockwell C adhesion tests. The highest measured hardness was 24.1 GPa and all the three samples exhibited poor adhesion.

  3. Effect of plasma nitriding time on surface properties of hard chromium electroplated AISI 1010 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocabas, Mustafa [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.; Danisman, Murat [Gedik Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Electrical and Electronic Engineering Dept.; Cansever, Nurhan [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Uelker, Suekrue [Afyon Kocatepe Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-06-01

    Properties of steel can be enhanced by surface treatments such as coating. In some cases, further treatments such as nitriding can also be used in order to get even better results. In order to investigate the properties of nitride layer on hard Cr coated AISI 1010 steel, substrates were electroplated to form hard Cr coatings. Then hard Cr coatings were plasma nitrided at 700 C for 3 h, 5 h and 7 h and nitride phases on the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The layer thickness and surface properties of nitride films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and adhesion properties of Cr-N phases were examined using nano indentation and Daimler-Benz Rockwell C adhesion tests. The highest measured hardness was 24.1 GPa and all the three samples exhibited poor adhesion.

  4. High plasma rotation velocity and density transitions by biased electrodes in RF produced, magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro

    2001-01-01

    A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)

  5. High plasma rotation velocity and density transitions by biased electrodes in RF produced, magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro [Kyushu Univ., Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)

  6. Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiwei; Bao Weimin; Li Xiaoping; Liu Donglin; Zhou Hui

    2016-01-01

    Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. (paper)

  7. Low frequency RF heating of plasmas in a toroidal stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovato, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transit-time magnetic pumping and Alfven wave heating have been done in the Proto-Cleo stellarator. Both plasma heating and plasma confinement have been investigated. A traveling wave was launched around the Proto-Cleo l = 2, 6 field period stellarator to attempt transit-time magnetic pumping of a pulsed electron beam moving along the magnetic field lines. An apparent loss of the beam was seen when the transit-time magnetic pumping was applied. A random walk diffusion of the beam electrons with a step size determined by the radial EXB drift due to the poloidal electric field agrees well with the experimental results. Alfven wave heating was applied to plasmas in the Proto-Cleo l = 3, 7 field period stellarator. Global excitation of Alfven waves was accomplished by exciting an electrostatically shielded helical winding corresponding to a q = 3 rational field line with a pulsed, high-power RF source. Theoretical analysis of this helical wave launcher predicted effective energy absorption in the Proto-Cleo gun-produced plasma

  8. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N., E-mail: bnwan@ipp.ac.cn; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-12-10

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  9. Coating of titanium implants with boron nitride by RF-magnetron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Gazi University, Biskek caddesi 84.sokak, ... was repeated after RF power of the system was increased and voltage values were ... ination, cohesive and adhesive failures and porosity of the.

  10. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia; Dong, Hanshan; Grover, Liam M.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2013-01-01

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N 2 /H 2 ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of C-N, C=N, and C≡N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  11. Nitriding the influence of plasma in resistance to wear micro abrasive tool steel AISI D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, Vagner Joao; Gobb, Silvio Jose; Silva, Cosme Roberto Moreira da

    2010-01-01

    This work studies the influence of time of treatment in the formation of nitride layer of AISI D2 tool steel and the resistance to micro-abrasive wear from the technique of nitriding in plasma. The samples were nitrides at 400 ° C with a pressure of 4.5 mbar (450 Pa) and using a gas mixture of 80% vol.H2 and 20% vol.N2. The times of treatment were: 30, 60, 120, 180 and 360 minutes. The properties of the layers in the samples obtained nitrides were assessed by surface microhardness, profiles of microhardness, metallography analysis, X-ray diffraction and test for resistance to micro-abrasive wear. The best results for nitriding to 400 deg C, was obtained with the time of treatment of 360 minutes. In this case the increase in surface hardness was 94.6% and resistance to micro-abrasive wear of 15%. This increase in hardness may be associated with high concentration of nitrogen in the crystalline network of iron-α and additional training of nitrides. Low temperature of nitriding reduces between grain fragility to reduce the likelihood of precipitation of nitrides in a continuous manner in the austenite grain boundaries and the absence of previous ε'+ γ phases. (author)

  12. Structure and electrochemical properties of plasma-nitrided low alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyou, S.D.; Shih, H.C. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan))

    1990-10-01

    Plasma-nitrided SAE 4140 steel has been widely applied industrially because of its superior resistance to wear and fatigue. However, its corrosion behaviour in aqueous environments has not been completely explored. The effects of nitriding on corrosion were investigated by performing electrochemical tests on both nitrided and untreated SAE 4140. It was found that, by plasma nitriding, the corrosion resistance improved significantly in HNO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous environments. A reaction model is proposed to explain the beneficial effect of nitride on corrosion resistance. It is concluded that nitrogen and chromium (an alloying element) act synergistically to form a dense protective layer which is responsible for the corrosion resistance. Characterization of the surface layers by Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the protective layer is composed of (Fe, Cr){sub 4}N, (Fe, Cr){sub 2-3}N and CrN in the inner layer, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} together with nitrides in the middle layer, and nitrides, {gamma}'-FeOOH, and Cr(OH){sub 3}.H{sub 2}O in the outermost layer. (orig.).

  13. a Novel Method for Improving Plasma Nitriding Efficiency: Pre-Magnetization by DC Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaci, Halim; Yetim, Ali Fatih; Bozkurt, Yusuf Burak; Çelik, Ayhan

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a novel pre-magnetization process, which enables easy diffusion of nitrogen, was used to enhance plasma nitriding efficiency. Firstly, magnetic fields with intensities of 1500G and 2500G were applied to the untreated samples before nitriding. After the pre-magnetization, the untreated and pre-magnetized samples were plasma nitrided for 4h in a gas mixture of 50% N2-50% H2 at 500∘C and 600∘C. The structural, mechanical and morphological properties of samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness tester and surface tension meter. It was observed that pre-magnetization increased the surface energy of the samples. Therefore, both compound and diffusion layer thicknesses increased with pre-magnetization process before nitriding treatment. As modified layer thickness increased, higher surface hardness values were obtained.

  14. Nitridation Of The A A 2024 T3 Aluminium By The Glow Discharge Plasma Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudjiman, Supardjono; Sujitno, Tjipto; Sudjatmoko

    1996-01-01

    Nitridation of A A 2024 T3 aluminium by means of plasma glow discharge technique has been carried out. For this purpose, the experiments were carried out at the temperature 30 o C, 60 o C, 100 o C, 150 o C, 200 o C, and 250 o C whereas the nitridation time were varied at 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 90 minutes and 180 minutes. The results showed that the optimum temperature and time of nitridation were 60 o C and 90 minutes respectively and the hardness increased from 115 to 166 KHN

  15. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided ferrous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portolan, E. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil); Baumvol, I.J.R. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91509-970 (Brazil); Figueroa, C.A., E-mail: cafiguer@ucs.br [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The electronic structures of the near-surface regions of two different nitrided steels (AISI 316 and 4140) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectron groups from all main chemical elements involved were addressed for steel samples with implanted-N concentrations in the range 16-32 at.%. As the implanted-N concentrations were increased, rather contrasting behaviors were observed for the two kinds of steel. The N1s photoelectrons had spectral shifts toward lower (nitrided AISI 316) or higher (nitrided AISI 4140) binding energies, whereas the Fe2p{sub 3/2} photoelectron spectrum remains at a constant binding energy (nitrided AISI 316) or shifts toward higher binding energies (AISI 4140). These trends are discussed in terms of the metallic nitride formation and the overlapping of atomic orbitals. For nitrided AISI 316, a semi-classical approach of charge transfer between Cr and N is used to explain the experimental facts (formation of CrN), while for nitrided AISI 4140 we propose that the interaction between orbitals 4s from Fe and 2p from N promotes electrons to the conduction band increasing the electrical attraction of the N1s and Fe2p electrons in core shells (formation of FeN{sub x}). The increase in hardness of the steel upon N implantation is attributed to the localization of electrons in specific bonds, which diminishes the metallic bond character.

  16. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided ferrous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolan, E.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Figueroa, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    The electronic structures of the near-surface regions of two different nitrided steels (AISI 316 and 4140) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectron groups from all main chemical elements involved were addressed for steel samples with implanted-N concentrations in the range 16-32 at.%. As the implanted-N concentrations were increased, rather contrasting behaviors were observed for the two kinds of steel. The N1s photoelectrons had spectral shifts toward lower (nitrided AISI 316) or higher (nitrided AISI 4140) binding energies, whereas the Fe2p 3/2 photoelectron spectrum remains at a constant binding energy (nitrided AISI 316) or shifts toward higher binding energies (AISI 4140). These trends are discussed in terms of the metallic nitride formation and the overlapping of atomic orbitals. For nitrided AISI 316, a semi-classical approach of charge transfer between Cr and N is used to explain the experimental facts (formation of CrN), while for nitrided AISI 4140 we propose that the interaction between orbitals 4s from Fe and 2p from N promotes electrons to the conduction band increasing the electrical attraction of the N1s and Fe2p electrons in core shells (formation of FeN x). The increase in hardness of the steel upon N implantation is attributed to the localization of electrons in specific bonds, which diminishes the metallic bond character.

  17. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided ferrous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portolan, E.; Baumvol, I.J.R.; Figueroa, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structures of the near-surface regions of two different nitrided steels (AISI 316 and 4140) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectron groups from all main chemical elements involved were addressed for steel samples with implanted-N concentrations in the range 16-32 at.%. As the implanted-N concentrations were increased, rather contrasting behaviors were observed for the two kinds of steel. The N1s photoelectrons had spectral shifts toward lower (nitrided AISI 316) or higher (nitrided AISI 4140) binding energies, whereas the Fe2p 3/2 photoelectron spectrum remains at a constant binding energy (nitrided AISI 316) or shifts toward higher binding energies (AISI 4140). These trends are discussed in terms of the metallic nitride formation and the overlapping of atomic orbitals. For nitrided AISI 316, a semi-classical approach of charge transfer between Cr and N is used to explain the experimental facts (formation of CrN), while for nitrided AISI 4140 we propose that the interaction between orbitals 4s from Fe and 2p from N promotes electrons to the conduction band increasing the electrical attraction of the N1s and Fe2p electrons in core shells (formation of FeN x ). The increase in hardness of the steel upon N implantation is attributed to the localization of electrons in specific bonds, which diminishes the metallic bond character.

  18. Low temperature high density plasma nitriding of stainless steel molds for stamping of oxide glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a die for mold- and direct-stamping processes of optical oxide glasses. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical oxide-glass elements. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness over 1400 HV within its thickness of 50 μm without any formation of nitrides after plasma nitriding at 693 K for 14.4 ks. This plasma-nitrided mold was utilized for mold-stamping of two colored oxide glass plates at 833 K; these plates were successfully deformed and joined into a single glass plate by this stamping without adhesion or galling of oxide glasses onto the nitrided mold surface.

  19. Degradation of nitride coatings in low-pressure gas discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yurii; Shugurov, Vladimir; Krysina, Olga; Petrikova, Elizaveta; Tolkachev, Oleg

    2017-12-01

    The paper provides research data on the defect structure, mechanical characteristics, and tribological properties of commercially pure VT1-0 titanium exposed to surface modification on a COMPLEX laboratory electron-ion plasma setup which allows nitriding, coating deposition, and etching in low-pressure gas discharge plasma in a single vacuum cycle. It is shown that preliminary plasma nitriding forms a columnar Ti2N phase in VT1-0 titanium and that subsequent TiN deposition results in a thin nanocrystalline TiN layer. When the coating-substrate system is etched, the coating fails and the tribological properties of the material degrade greatly.

  20. Structural materialization of stainless steel molds and dies by the low temperature high density plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various kinds of stainless steels have been widely utilized as a mold substrate material for injection molding and as a die for mold-stamping and direct stamping processes. Since they suffered from high temperature transients and thermal cycles in practice, they must be surface-treated by dry and wet coatings, or, by plasma nitriding. Martensitic stainless steel mold was first wet plated by the nickel phosphate (NiP, which was unstable at the high temperature stamping condition; and, was easy to crystalize or to fracture by itself. This issue of nuisance significantly lowered the productivity in fabrication of optical elements at present. In the present paper, the stainless steel mold was surface-treated by the low-temperature plasma nitriding. The nitrided layer by this surface modification had higher nitrogen solute content than 4 mass%; the maximum solid-solubility of nitrogen is usually 0.1 mass% in the equilibrium phase diagram. Owing to this solid-solution with high nitrogen concentration, the nitrided layer had high hardness of 1400 Hv within its thickness of 40 μm without any formation of nitrides after 14.4 ks plasma nitriding at 693 K. This nitrogen solid-solution treated stainless steel had thermal resistivity even at the mold-stamping conditions up to 900 K.

  1. Rolling Contact Fatigue Failure Mechanisms of Plasma-Nitrided Ductile Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, D.; Soares, G. P. P. P.; Grabarski, M. I.; Weigert, N. B.; Escobar, J. A.; Pintaude, G.; Neves, J. C. K.

    2017-05-01

    Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) of a nitrided ductile cast iron was investigated. Flat washers machined from a pearlitic ductile cast iron bar were quenched and tempered to maximum hardness, ground, polished and divided into four groups: (1) specimens tested as quenched and tempered; (2) specimens plasma-nitrided for 8 h at 400 °C; (3) specimens plasma-nitrided and submitted to a diffusion process for 16 h at 400 °C; and (4) specimens submitted to a second tempering for 24 h at 400 °C. Hardness profiles, phase analyses and residual stress measurements by x-ray diffraction, surface roughness and scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the surfaces at each step of this work. Ball-on-flat washer tests were conducted with a maximum contact pressure of 3.6 GPa, under flood lubrication with a SAE 90 API GL-5 oil at 50 °C. Test ending criterion was the occurrence of a spalling. Weibull analysis was used to characterize RCF's lifetime data. Plasma-nitrided specimens exhibited a shorter RCF lifetime than those just quenched and tempered. The effects of nitriding on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the ductile cast iron are discussed in order to explain the shorter endurance of nitrided samples.

  2. Titanium nitride plasma-chemical synthesis with titanium tetrachloride raw material in the DC plasma-arc reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpichev, D. E.; Sinaiskiy, M. A.; Samokhin, A. V.; Alexeev, N. V.

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of plasmochemical synthesis of titanium nitride is demonstrated in the paper. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of TiCl4 - H2 - N2 system are presented; key parameters of TiN synthesis process are calculated. The influence of parameters of plasma-chemical titanium nitride synthesis process in the reactor with an arc plasmatron on characteristics on the produced powders is experimentally investigated. Structure, chemical composition and morphology dependencies on plasma jet enthalpy, stoichiometric excess of hydrogen and nitrogen in a plasma jet are determined.

  3. Investigation of RF-enhanced plasma potentials on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoukov, R., E-mail: ochoukov@psfc.mit.edu [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Whyte, D.G.; Brunner, D. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cziegler, I. [Center for Energy Research, UCSD, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Myra, J. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue P-5, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Terry, J.; Wukitch, S. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Radio frequency (RF) sheath rectification is a leading mechanism suspected of causing anomalously high erosion of plasma facing materials in RF-heated plasmas on Alcator C-Mod. An extensive experimental survey of the plasma potential (Φ{sub P}) in RF-heated discharges on C-Mod reveals that significant Φ{sub P} enhancement (>100 V) is found on outboard limiter surfaces, both mapped and not mapped to active RF antennas. Surfaces that magnetically map to active RF antennas show Φ{sub P} enhancement that is, in part, consistent with the recently proposed slow wave rectification mechanism. Surfaces that do not map to active RF antennas also experience significant Φ{sub P} enhancement, which strongly correlates with the local fast wave intensity. In this case, fast wave rectification is a leading candidate mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement.

  4. Investigation of RF-enhanced plasma potentials on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D.G.; Brunner, D.; Cziegler, I.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Myra, J.; Terry, J.; Wukitch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) sheath rectification is a leading mechanism suspected of causing anomalously high erosion of plasma facing materials in RF-heated plasmas on Alcator C-Mod. An extensive experimental survey of the plasma potential (Φ P ) in RF-heated discharges on C-Mod reveals that significant Φ P enhancement (>100 V) is found on outboard limiter surfaces, both mapped and not mapped to active RF antennas. Surfaces that magnetically map to active RF antennas show Φ P enhancement that is, in part, consistent with the recently proposed slow wave rectification mechanism. Surfaces that do not map to active RF antennas also experience significant Φ P enhancement, which strongly correlates with the local fast wave intensity. In this case, fast wave rectification is a leading candidate mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement

  5. Temperature dependence of InN film deposition by an RF plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mutsukura, Nobuki

    2005-01-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates using a radiofrequency (RF) plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the InN films suggest that the InN films deposited at substrate temperatures up to 370 deg C were cubic crystalline InN; and at 500 deg C, the InN film was hexagonal crystalline InN. In a scanning electron microscope image of the InN film surface, facets of cubic single-crystalline InN grains were clearly observed on the InN film deposited at 370 deg C. The inclusion of metallic indium appeared on the InN film deposited at 500 deg C

  6. Effect of Plasma Nitriding Process Conditions on Corrosion Resistance of 440B Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łępicka Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are used in a large number of various industrial applications, e.g. molds for plastic injections and glass moldings, automotive components, cutting tools, surgical and dental instruments. The improvement of their tribological and corrosion properties is a problem of high interest especially in medical applications, where patient safety becomes a priority. The paper covers findings from plasma nitrided AISI 440B (PN-EN or DIN X90CrMoV18 stainless steel corrosion resistance studies. Conventionally heat treated and plasma nitrided in N2:H2 reaction gas mixture (50:50, 65:35 and 80:20, respectively in two different temperature ranges (380 or 450°C specimens groups were examined. Microscopic observations and electrochemical corrosion tests were performed using a variety of analytical techniques. As obtained findings show, plasma nitriding of AISI 440B stainless steel, regardless of the process temperature, results in reduction of corrosion current density. Nevertheless, applying thermo-chemical process which requires exceeding temperature of about 400°C is not recommended due to increased risk of steel sensitization to intergranular and stress corrosion. According to the results, material ion nitrided in 450°C underwent leaching corrosion processes, which led to significant disproportion in chemical composition of the corroded and corrosion-free areas. The authors suggest further research into corrosion process of plasma nitrided materials and its degradation products.

  7. The effect of surface nanocrystallization on plasma nitriding behaviour of AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Institute of Metals and Technology, 1 Linghai Street, Dalian 116026 (China); Wang Liang, E-mail: wlimt@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Institute of Metals and Technology, 1 Linghai Street, Dalian 116026 (China); Zhang Dandan; Shen Lie [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Institute of Metals and Technology, 1 Linghai Street, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A plastic deformation surface layer with nanocrystalline grains was produced on AISI 4140 steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Plasma nitriding of SMAT and un-SMAT AISI 4140 steel was carried out by a low-frequency pulse excited plasma unit. A series of nitriding experiments has been conducted at temperatures ranging from 380 to 500 deg. C for 8 h in an NH{sub 3} gas. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The results showed that a much thicker compound layer with higher hardness was obtained for the SMAT samples when compared with un-SMAT samples after nitriding at the low temperature. In particular, plasma nitriding SMAT AISI 4140 steel at 380 deg. C for 8 h can produced a compound layer of 2.5 {mu}m thickness with very high hardness on the surface, which is similar to un-SMAT samples were plasma nitrided at approximately 430 deg. C within the same time.

  8. The effect of surface nanocrystallization on plasma nitriding behaviour of AISI 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Wang Liang; Zhang Dandan; Shen Lie

    2010-01-01

    A plastic deformation surface layer with nanocrystalline grains was produced on AISI 4140 steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Plasma nitriding of SMAT and un-SMAT AISI 4140 steel was carried out by a low-frequency pulse excited plasma unit. A series of nitriding experiments has been conducted at temperatures ranging from 380 to 500 deg. C for 8 h in an NH 3 gas. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The results showed that a much thicker compound layer with higher hardness was obtained for the SMAT samples when compared with un-SMAT samples after nitriding at the low temperature. In particular, plasma nitriding SMAT AISI 4140 steel at 380 deg. C for 8 h can produced a compound layer of 2.5 μm thickness with very high hardness on the surface, which is similar to un-SMAT samples were plasma nitrided at approximately 430 deg. C within the same time.

  9. The effect of surface nanocrystallization on plasma nitriding behaviour of AISI 4140 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Dandan; Shen, Lie

    2010-11-01

    A plastic deformation surface layer with nanocrystalline grains was produced on AISI 4140 steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Plasma nitriding of SMAT and un-SMAT AISI 4140 steel was carried out by a low-frequency pulse excited plasma unit. A series of nitriding experiments has been conducted at temperatures ranging from 380 to 500 °C for 8 h in an NH 3 gas. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The results showed that a much thicker compound layer with higher hardness was obtained for the SMAT samples when compared with un-SMAT samples after nitriding at the low temperature. In particular, plasma nitriding SMAT AISI 4140 steel at 380 °C for 8 h can produced a compound layer of 2.5 μm thickness with very high hardness on the surface, which is similar to un-SMAT samples were plasma nitrided at approximately 430 °C within the same time.

  10. Manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding for improvement of hardness of machine components and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Tjipto Sujitno; Saminto

    2015-01-01

    The manufacturing technology development of plasma/ion nitriding to improve of hardness of machine components and tools has been done. The development of this technology aims to improve device performance plasma nitriding double chamber and conducted with the addition of thermal radiation shield. Testing was done by testing for preheating operation (start-up), test operation for conditions nitriding and test for nitriding process. The results show that: the plasma nitriding device can be operated for nitriding process at the temperature of about 500 °C for 6 hours, using the thermal radiation shield obtained outside wall temperature of about 65 °C and shorten start-up time to about 60 minutes. The use of thermal radiation shield can also improve the efficiency of the electric power supply and increase the operating temperature for nitriding process. Test for nitriding obtained increase of hardness 1.33 times for the original camshaft (genuine parts) and 1.8 times for the imitation camshaft (imitation parts), the results are compared with after the tempering process at a temperature of 600 °C. For sample SS 304 was 2.45 times compared with before nitrided These results indicate that the development of manufacturing technology of plasma/ion nitriding to increase hardness of machine components and tools have been successfully able to increase the hardness, although still need to be optimized. Besides that, these devices can be developed to use for the process of carburizing and carbonitriding. (author)

  11. A Tightly Coupled Non-Equilibrium Magneto-Hydrodynamic Model for Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    development a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for Inductively Coupled Radio- Frequency (RF) Plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE...for Inductively Coupled Radio-Frequency (RF) Plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State...Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) torches have wide range of possible applications which include deposition of metal coatings, synthesis of ultra-fine powders

  12. Selection of suitable diagnostic techniques for an RF atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, M.G.; Deng, X.T.

    2001-01-01

    As an early report of our study, this paper summaries the RF atmospheric pressure plasma system we intend to characterize and a number of diagnostic techniques presently under assessment for our plasma rig. By discussing the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic techniques at this meeting, we hope to gain feedback and comments to improve our choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques as well as our subsequent application of these techniques to nonthermal RF atmospheric pressure plasmas

  13. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M; Hullavarad, S S; Ganesan, V; Bhoraskar, S V

    2006-01-01

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 deg. C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 deg. C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

  14. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, PO Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hullavarad, S S [Center for Superconductivity Research, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ganesan, V [Inter University Consortium, Indore (India); Bhoraskar, S V [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2006-02-15

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 deg. C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 deg. C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  15. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Hullavarad, S. S.; Ganesan, V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2006-02-01

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 °C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 °C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  16. Low-temperature plasma nitriding of sintered PIM 316L austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Aecio Fernando; Scheuer, Cristiano Jose; Joanidis, Ioanis Labhardt; Cardoso, Rodrigo Perito; Mafra, Marcio; Klein, Aloisio Nelmo; Brunatto, Silvio Francisco, E-mail: brunatto@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Tecnologia de Fabricacao Assistida pro Plasma e Metalurgia do Po

    2014-08-15

    This work reports experimental results on sintered PIM 316L stainless steel low-temperature plasma nitriding. The effect of treatment temperature and time on process kinetics, microstructure and surface characteristics of the nitrided samples were investigated. Nitriding was carried out at temperatures of 350, 380, 410 and 440 °C , and times of 4, 8 and 16 h, using a gas mixture composed by 60% N2 + 20% H2 + 20% Ar, at a gas flow rate of 5.00 X 10{sup 6} Nm{sup 3-1}, and a pressure of 800 Pa. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and microhardness measurements. Results indicate that low-temperature plasma nitriding is a diffusion controlled process. The calculated activation energy for nitrided layer growth was 111.4 kJmol{sup -1}. Apparently precipitation-free layers were produced in this study. It was also observed that the higher the treatment temperature and time the higher is the obtained surface hardness. Hardness up to 1343 HV{sub 0.025} was verified for samples nitrided at 440 °C. Finally, the characterization of the treated surface indicates the formation of cracks, which were observed in regions adjacent to the original pores after the treatment. (author)

  17. Deposition of titanium nitride layers by electric arc – Reactive plasma spraying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Roşu, Radu Alexandru; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Pascu, Doru Romulus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Titanium nitride layers deposited by electric arc – reactive plasma spraying method. ► Deposition of titanium nitride layers on C45 steel at different spraying distances. ► Characterization of the coatings hardness as function of the spraying distances. ► Determination of the corrosion behavior of titanium nitride layers obtained. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) is a ceramic material which possesses high mechanical properties, being often used in order to cover cutting tools, thus increasing their lifetime, and also for covering components which are working in corrosive environments. The paper presents the experimental results on deposition of titanium nitride coatings by a new combined method (reactive plasma spraying and electric arc thermal spraying). In this way the advantages of each method in part are combined, obtaining improved quality coatings in the same time achieving high productivity. Commercially pure titanium wire and C45 steel as substrate were used for experiments. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposited coatings are composed of titanium nitride (TiN, Ti 2 N) and small amounts of Ti 3 O. The microstructure of the deposited layers, investigated both by optical and scanning electron microscopy, shows that the coatings are dense, compact, without cracks and with low porosity. Vickers microhardness of the coatings presents maximum values of 912 HV0.1. The corrosion tests in 3%NaCl solution show that the deposited layers have a high corrosion resistance compared to unalloyed steel substrate.

  18. Effect of component's geometry on the plasma nitriding behavior of AISI 4340 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Z. Soltani; Mahboubi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The thickness of the compound layer increases with increasing in temperature and groove width. → Surface layer at the remote regions from the edge is thinner than that of closer regions. → The hardness and the case depth of the nitrided layer increase with increasing the width of the groove. → Intensity of ε phase increases with increasing the width of the groove in both methods. → The ASPN specimens are covered by hexagonal particles and for the CPN by cauliflower shape nitrides. -- Abstract: The main aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the sample geometry on properties of the conventional plasma nitrided (CPN) and active screen plasma nitrided (ASPN) steel. Sample assemblies consisting of rectangular grooved steel blocks with different groove dimensions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 (W) x 40 (H) x 20 (L) mm 3 and AISI 4340 steel plates (substrates) with dimensions of 10 x 40 x 60 mm 3 , to serve as groove cover, were prepared. The sample assemblies were conventional and active screen plasma nitrided under the gas mixture of 75%N 2 + 25%H 2 , at temperatures of 500 o C and 540 o C, pressure of 4 torr, for 5 h. Properties of the nitrided substrates were investigated by evaluating compound layer thickness, case depth, phase composition and hardness profile. Results of the experiments showed that the thickness of the compound layer, hardness and nitrided case depth increased with increasing the width of the groove for both methods. Also, in each sample, nitrogen atoms penetrated more deeply in the regions of the groove closer to the edge. Hallow cathode effect occurred at the sample with 2 mm width groove, in the CPN method, leading to the overheating of the sample. In ASPN, the hardness and the nitrided case depth are lower in comparison with CPN. The surface morphology of the CPN treated samples consists of cauliflower shape surface nitrides while the surface of the AS plasma nitrided samples are covered by the hexagonal particles with

  19. Plasma-nitriding assisted micro-texturing into stainless steel molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizawa Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-texturing has grown up to be one of the most promising procedures. This related application required for large-area, fine micro-texturing onto the stainless steel mold materials. A new method other than laser-machining, micro-milling or micro-EDM was awaited for further advancement of this micro-texturing. In the present paper, a plasma nitriding assisted micro-texturing was developed to make various kinds of micro-patterns onto the martensitic stainless steels. First, original patterns were printed onto the surface of substrate by using the ink-jet printer. Then, the masked substrate was subjected to high density plasma nitriding; the un-masked surfaces were nitrided to have higher hardness. This nitrided substrate was further treated by sand-blasting to selectively dig the soft, masked surfaces. Finally, the micro-patterned martensitic stainless steel substrate was fabricated as a mold to duplicate these micro-patterns onto the work materials. The spatial resolution and depth profile controllability of this plasma nitriding assisted micro-texturing was investigated for variety of initial micro-patterns. The original size and dimension of initial micro-patterns were precisely compared with the three dimensional geometry of micro-textures after blasting treatment. The plastic cover case for smart cellular phones was employed to demonstrate how useful this processing is in practice.

  20. Comparison of ferritic and austenitic plasma nitriding and nitrocarburizing behavior of AISI 4140 low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, M.; Mahboubi, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the ferritic and austenitic plasma nitriding and nitrocarburizing behavior of AISI 4140 low alloy steel carried out to improve the surface corrosion resistance. The gas composition for plasma nitriding was 85% N 2 -15% H 2 and that for plasma nitrocarburizing was 85% N 2 -12% H 2 -3% CO 2 . Both treatments were performed for 5 h, for different process temperatures of 570 and 620 o C for ferritic and austenitic plasma treatment, respectively. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and potentiodynamic polarization technique in 3.5% NaCl solution, were used to study the treated surfaces. The results of X-ray analysis revealed that with increasing the treatment temperature from 570 to 620 o C for both treatments, the amount of ε phase decreased and γ' phase increased. Nitrocarburizing treatment resulted in formation of a more amount of ε phase with respect to nitriding treatment. However, the highest amount of ε phase was observed in the ferritic nitrocarburized sample at 570 o C. The sample nitrided at 620 o C exhibited the thickest layer. The potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that after plasma nitriding and nitrocarburizing at 570 o C, corrosion potential increased with respect to the untreated sample due to the noble nitride and carbonitride phases formed on the surface. After increasing the treatment temperature from 570 to 620 o C, corrosion potential decreased due to the less ε phase development in the compound layer and more porous compound layer formed at 620 o C with respect to the treated samples at 570 o C.

  1. Solid state alloying by plasma nitriding and diffusion annealing treatment for austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, C.E.; Vatavuk, J.; Oliveira, S.D. de; Tschiptschin, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen has been added to stainless steels to improve mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. High nitrogen steel production is limited by high gas pressure requirements and low nitrogen solubility in the melt. One way to overcome this limitation is the addition of nitrogen in solid state because of its higher solubility in austenite. However, gas and salt bath nitriding have been done at temperatures around 550 C, where nitrogen solubility in the steel is still very low. High temperature nitriding has been, thus proposed to increase nitrogen contents in the steel but the presence of oxide layers on top of the steel is a barrier to nitrogen intake. In this paper a modified plasma nitriding process is proposed. The first step of this process is a hydrogen plasma sputtering for oxide removal, exposing active steel surface improving nitrogen pickup. This is followed by a nitriding step where high nitrogen contents are introduced in the outermost layer of the steel. Diffusion annealing is then performed in order to allow nitrogen diffusion into the core. AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel was plasma nitrided and diffusion annealed at 1423K, for 6 hours, with 0.2 MPa nitrogen pressure. The nitrided steel presented ∝60 μm outermost compact layer of (Fe,Cr) 3 N and (Fe,Cr) 4 N with 11 wt.% N measured by surface depth profiling chemical analysis - GDS system. During the annealing treatment the nitride layer was dissolved and nitrogen diffused to the core of the sample leaving more even nitrogen distribution into the steel. Using this technique one-millimetre thick sample were obtained having high nitrogen content and uniform distribution through the thickness. (orig.)

  2. Fatigue improvement in low temperature plasma nitrided Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhzadeh, K.; Edrisy, A., E-mail: edrisy@uwindsor.ca

    2015-01-03

    In this study a low temperature (600 °C) treatment was utilized to improve the fatigue performance of plasma nitrided Ti–6Al–4V alloy by optimization of microstructure. In order to study the fatigue properties, rotation bending tests were conducted, the S–N curves were constructed, and the results were compared with those obtained by an elevated temperature treatment (900 °C) as well as conventional gas/plasma nitriding treatments reported in literature. The plasma nitrided alloy at 600 °C showed an endurance limit of 552 MPa which was higher than those achieved by conventional nitriding treatments performed at 750–1100 °C. In contrast, plasma nitriding at 900 °C resulted in the reduction of fatigue life by at least two orders of magnitude compared to the 600 °C treatment, accompanied by a 13% reduction of tensile strength and a 78% reduction of ductility. The deterioration of mechanical properties after the elevated temperature treatment was attributed to the formation of a thick compound layer (∼6 µm) on the surface followed by an α-Case (∼20 µm) and phase transformation in the bulk microstructure from fully equiaxed to bimodal with coarse grains (∼5 times higher average grain size value). The microstructure developed at 600 °C consisted of a thin compound layer (<2 µm) and a deep nitrogen diffusion zone (∼45 µm) while the bulk microstructure was maintained with only 40% grain growth. The micromechanisms of fatigue failures were identified by examination of the fracture surfaces under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that fatigue failure in the plasma nitrided alloy initiated from the surface in the low cycle region (N≤10{sup 5} cycles) and propagated in a ductile manner leading to the final rupture. No failures were observed in the high cycle region (N>10{sup 5} cycles) and the nitrided alloy endured cyclic loading until the tests were stopped at 10{sup 7} cycles. The thin morphology of the compound layer in this

  3. Fatigue improvement in low temperature plasma nitrided Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farokhzadeh, K.; Edrisy, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study a low temperature (600 °C) treatment was utilized to improve the fatigue performance of plasma nitrided Ti–6Al–4V alloy by optimization of microstructure. In order to study the fatigue properties, rotation bending tests were conducted, the S–N curves were constructed, and the results were compared with those obtained by an elevated temperature treatment (900 °C) as well as conventional gas/plasma nitriding treatments reported in literature. The plasma nitrided alloy at 600 °C showed an endurance limit of 552 MPa which was higher than those achieved by conventional nitriding treatments performed at 750–1100 °C. In contrast, plasma nitriding at 900 °C resulted in the reduction of fatigue life by at least two orders of magnitude compared to the 600 °C treatment, accompanied by a 13% reduction of tensile strength and a 78% reduction of ductility. The deterioration of mechanical properties after the elevated temperature treatment was attributed to the formation of a thick compound layer (∼6 µm) on the surface followed by an α-Case (∼20 µm) and phase transformation in the bulk microstructure from fully equiaxed to bimodal with coarse grains (∼5 times higher average grain size value). The microstructure developed at 600 °C consisted of a thin compound layer (<2 µm) and a deep nitrogen diffusion zone (∼45 µm) while the bulk microstructure was maintained with only 40% grain growth. The micromechanisms of fatigue failures were identified by examination of the fracture surfaces under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that fatigue failure in the plasma nitrided alloy initiated from the surface in the low cycle region (N≤10 5 cycles) and propagated in a ductile manner leading to the final rupture. No failures were observed in the high cycle region (N>10 5 cycles) and the nitrided alloy endured cyclic loading until the tests were stopped at 10 7 cycles. The thin morphology of the compound layer in this study restricted

  4. Experimental study of the interaction between RF antennas and the edge plasma of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubic, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Antennas operating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) provide a useful tool for plasma heating in many tokamaks and are foreseen to play an important role in ITER. However, in addition to the desired heating in the core plasma, spurious interactions with the plasma edge and material boundary are known to occur. Many of these deleterious effects are caused by the formation of radio-frequency (RF) sheaths. The aim of this thesis is to study, mainly experimentally, scrape-off layer (SOL) modifications caused by RF sheaths effects by means of Langmuir probes that are magnetically connected to a powered ICRH antenna. Effects of the two types of Faraday screens' operation on RF-induced SOL modifications are studied for different plasma and antenna configurations - scans of strap power ratio imbalance, injected power and SOL density. In addition to experimental work, the influence of RF sheaths on retarding field analyzer (RFA) measurements of sheath potential is investigated with one-dimensional particle-in-cell code. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the RFA is able to measure reliably the sheath potential only for ion plasma frequencies ω π similar to RF cyclotron frequency ω rf , while for the real SOL conditions (ω π ≥ ω rf ), when the RFA is magnetically connected to RF region, it is strongly underestimated. An alternative method to investigate RF sheaths effects is proposed by using broadening of the ion distribution function as an evidence of the RF electric fields in the sheath. RFA measurements in Tore Supra indicate that RF potentials do indeed propagate from the antenna 12 m along magnetic field lines. (author) [fr

  5. Dynamics of r.f. production of Stellarator plasmas in the ion cyclotron range of frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, V.E.; Lysoivan, A.I.; Kasilov, S.V.; Plyusnin, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    The present study investigated numerically the process of r.f. production of plasma in the URAGAN-3M torsatron in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency (ω ci ). The dynamics of r.f. plasma build-up at the stages of neutral gas burnout and plasma heating were studied using a zero-dimensional transport code, in which the plasma confinement law was determined by large helical device scaling. Two models for input r.f. power were used. In the first case, the r.f. power absorbed by the electrons was computed by a one-dimensional r.f. code solving Maxwell's boundary problem equations. The mechanisms of electron heating through direct excitation of the slow wave (SW) by antennae as well as the conversion of fast wave (FW) into SW in the vicinity of Alfven resonance (scenario of Alfven heating) were taken into account in the computations. In the second case, an 'ideal' model of r.f. power deposition onto the electrons as a linear function of plasma density was employed. A noticeable difference in plasma production dynamics computed for these two cases was found. Better agreement with experimental data obtained from the URAGAN-3M torsatron was found for the first case resulting from combination of the one-dimensional r.f. and zero-dimensional transport codes. ((orig.))

  6. Prototype Design of Plasma-Nitriding Apparatus for Components of Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandriyana, B.; Tutun Nugraha; Silakhuddin

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus to carry-out plasma-nitriding surface treatment has been designed. The construction was planned as a prototype for a larger system at industrial scale. The design was based on a similar apparatus currently operating at the Accelerator Laboratory at the P3TM-BATAN, in Yogyakarta. The system consists of a main vacuum chamber from steel SS-304, 45 cm OD, 55 cm height and is equipped with a nitriding chamber in the inner part that also functions as a plasma container (Quartz, cylindrical, 38 cm OD, 40 cm height). The system utilized an anode-cathode pair to generate nitrogen plasma, as well as to accelerate and direct the positively-charged-plasma toward the surface of the material to be treated. The pressure inside the chamber is designed to be in the region of 10 -3 mb with a temperature between 350-590 o C. Pulsated DC high voltage can be set at 1-50 kV at a frequency between 100-1000 Hz and current 1- 50 mA. The safety and reliability features have been designed to obtain nitriding results that are in accordance with the required technical specification as well as economical constrain. It is hoped that this device can become a prototype for future development of an industrial scale plasma-nitriding apparatus. (author)

  7. Microstructure of Nitrided Aluminum Alloys Using an Electron-Beam-Excited-Plasma (EBEP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Liu; A. Yamamoto; T. Hishida; H. Shoyama; T. Hara; T. Hara

    2004-01-01

    Nitriding of surface of aluminum alloys was carried out with using an electron-beam-excited-plasma (EBEP)technique. The EBEP is sustained by electron impact ionization with energetic electron beam. Two kinds of substrates,aluminum alloys AA5052 and AA5083, were exposed to the down flow of EBEP source at 843 K for 45min. The specimens were characterized with respect to following properties: crystallographic structure (XRD), morphology (SEM) and the cross sectional microstructures of the nitrided layer was observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There are some Al2O3 particles on the surface of the nitrided AA5052 and AA5083. The AIN layers were formed on the substrates with the thickness of 4.5 μ m for AA5052 and 0.5 μ m for AA5083. A relatively uniform nitrided surface layer composed of AIN can be observed on the AA5052 substrate. The grains size near the interfaces between the substrate and AIN layer were smaller than that near the surface. On the surface of AIN layer, the concentration of nitrogen was high and in the middle of AIN layer it had a constant concentration like the aluminum and the concentration was decreased with approaching to the interface. On the surface of nitrided AA5083, a uniform AIN layer was not formed as the reason for the high nitriding temperature.

  8. RF-plasma vapor deposition of siloxane on paper. Part 2: Chemical evolution of paper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Halil Turgut

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigate the detailed RF-cold plasma surface modified paper by XPS and ATR-FTIR. ► Some chemical analysis of RF-cold plasma surface modified paper after RF plasma treatment. ► Identify the connection between RF plasma treatment and the surface chemistry of paper surface. - Abstract: Survey and high-resolution (HR) XPS studies indicate that OMCTSO plasma treatment created a new silicon containing functional groups and changed the hydroxyl content on the surface of paper. Four intense survey XPS spectrum peaks were observed for the OMCTSO plasma treated paper. They were the Si 2p at 100 eV, Si 2s at 160 eV, C 1s at 285 eV, and O 1s at 525 eV for the plasma modified surface. It was realized that the macromolecular chain-breaking mechanisms and plasma-induced etching processes control the number and the availability of OH-functionalities during OMCTSO plasma exposure on paper. The reaction, initiated by these species, depends mainly on the nature of chemicals in the plasma as well as on the energy level of the plasma and the nature of the surface effects in the modification of the paper. The ATR-FTIR spectrum of paper treated with OMCTSO plasma has characteristic absorption bands attributed to the Si-O and Si-O-Si formations on the surface.

  9. Particle melting and particle/plasma interactions in DC and RF plasmas: a modeling study. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, D.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    Integral process models were developed to predict particle melting in both DC and RF plasmas. Specifically, a numerical model has been developed to predict the temperature history of particles injected in a low pressure DC plasma jet. The temperature and velocity fields of the plasma jet are predicted as a free jet by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations using a spatial marching scheme. Correction factors were introduced to take into account non continuum effects encountered in the low pressure environment. The plasma jet profiles as well as the particle/plasma interactions under different jet pressure ratios (from underexpanded to overexpanded) were investigated. The flow and temperature fields in the RF plasma torch are calculated using the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations based on the primitive variables, along with pseudo two-dimensional electromagnetic field equations. Particle trajectories and heat transfer characteristics in both DC and RF plasmas are calculated using predicted plasma jet profiles. Particle melting efficiencies in both DC and RF plasmas are evaluated and compared using model alloy systems. Based on the theoretical considerations, an alternative route of plasma spraying process (hybrid plasma spraying process) is proposed. An evaluation of particle melting in hybrid plasma jets had indicated that further improvement in deposit properties could be made

  10. On the intrinsic moisture permeation rate of remote microwave plasma-deposited silicon nitride layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assche, F. J. H.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Michels, J. J.; van Mol, A. M. B.; van de Weijer, P.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Creatore, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a low substrate temperature (110 °C) remote microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process of silicon nitride barrier layers against moisture permeation for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and other moisture sensitive devices such as organic

  11. Chemical compositions of spherical titanium powders prepared by RF induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongtao; Jin Yuping; Ye Gaoying

    2012-01-01

    Spherical titanium powders were prepared by RF induction plasma technology. The particle size is essentially un- changed, while the particle size distribution is relatively narrow after spheroidization processing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) random testing of the spherical titanium powders shows no structure and phase changes. The content of O, H, N and C decreases, while the content of Ti increases slightly. It indicates that spheroidization with RF plasma can enhance powder purity. (authors)

  12. Effect on antenna structure of high power rf during plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haste, G.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Fadnek, A.; Carter, M.D.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Kuus, H.; Saoutic, B.

    1993-01-01

    High-power, long-pulse operation on the Tore Supra tokamak results in considerable stress on the plasma-facing components. The ICH antennas must deliver high-power rf(up to 4 MW per antenna) in this environment. The antenna structure is therefore subjected to the power flux resulting from the interaction between rf and the edge plasma. The structure's response during operation is described, as is the condition of the antenna after prolonged use

  13. The influence of plasma nitriding on the fatigue behavior of austenitic stainless steel types AISI 316 and AISI 304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varavallo, Rogerio; Manfrinato, Marcos Dorigao; Rossino, Luciana Sgarbi; Spinelli, Dirceu; Riofano, Rosamel Melita Munoz

    2010-01-01

    The plasma nitriding process has been used as an efficient method to optimize the surface properties of steel and alloy in order to increase their wear, fatigue and corrosion resistance. This paper reports on a study of the composition and influence of the nitrided layer on the high-cycle fatigue properties of the AISI 316 and 304 type austenitic stainless steels. Test specimens of AISI 316 and 304 steel were nitrided at 400 deg C for 6 hours under a pressure of 4.5 mbar, using a gas mixture of 80% volume of H 2 and 20% volume of N 2 . The rotary fatigue limit of both nitrided and non-nitrided steels was determined, and the effect of the treatment on the fatigue limit of the two steels was evaluated. The mechanical properties of the materials were evaluated based on tensile tests, and the nitrided layer was characterized by microhardness tests, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The resulting nitride layer showed high hardness and mechanical strength, increasing the fatigue limit of the nitrided material in comparison with the non-nitrided one. The fatigue limit of the 316 steel increased from 400 MPa to 510 MPa in response to nitriding, while that of the 304 steel increased from 380 MPa to 560 MPa. One of the contributing factors of this increase was the introduction of residual compressive stresses during the surface hardening process, which reduce the onset of crack formation underneath the nitride layer. (author)

  14. Sheath and bulk expansion induced by RF bias in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimo; Nam, Woojin; Lee, Jae Koo; Yun, Gunsu

    2017-10-01

    A large axial volume expansion of microwave-driven plasma at atmospheric pressure is achieved by applying a low power radio frequency (RF) bias at an axial location well isolated from the original plasma bulk. The evolution of the plasma plume visualized by high speed ICCD imaging suggest that the free electrons drifting toward the bias electrode cause the prodigious expansion of the sheath, creating a stable plasma stream channel between the microwave and the RF electrodes. For argon plasma in ambient air, enhanced emissions of OH and N2 spectral lines are measured in the extended plume region, supporting the acceleration of electrons and subsequent generation of radical species. The coupling of RF bias with microwave provides an efficient way of enlarging the plasma volume and enhancing the production of radicals. Work supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea under BK21+ program and Grant No. 2015R1D1A1A01061556 (Ministry of Education).

  15. The Use of Plasma Technique in Nitridation Process of Metal Alloy DIN 42CrMo4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanto; Malau, Viktor; Tjipto Sujitno

    2003-01-01

    Nitridation process with plasma technique is one of technique for surface treatment of a material. Research on plasma technique for nitridation process has been carried out to find out the nitridation effect on properties of metal alloy DIN 42CrM04. Nitridation process with plasma technique was conducted in a vacuum tube under following conditions 0.36 torr of pressure, 300 o C of temperature and nitridation times 1, 2, and 3 hours. Nitridation process was followed by hardness test measurement using High Quality Micro Hardness Tester machine, serial number MM-0054, as well as microstructure test using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) EDAX-DX4. The results showed that surface hardness increased after nitridation process. For nitridation processes for 1, 2, and 3 hours, the hardness increased from 291 kg/mm 2 to 303 kg/mm 2 , 324 kg/mm 2 and 403 kg/mm 2 , respectively. The results from micro structure observation showed that new phase of Ferro Nitride (Fe 4 N) has been formed with 4.17% nitrogen weight equivalent to 14.73% nitrogen atom and with the thickness of 5.71 μm, 5.08% nitrogen weight or 17.51% nitrogen atom and 6.78 μm thickness, and 5.69% nitrogen weight or 19.24% nitrogen atom and 8.57 μm thickness. (author)

  16. The difference between the metal ion extracted from the R.F. ion source by applying plasma chemistry reaction and by non-plasma range chemistry reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Gui Bin

    1987-01-01

    The paper introduced the difference between using plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion and non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. By using of the plasma chemistry reaction draw metal ion higher percentage than non-plasma range chemistry reaction in the R.F. ion source. The authors plasma chemistry reaction to R.F. ion source and implanter successfully. The effect is very well, it has its own characteristic

  17. Microstructure and corrosion behaviour of pulsed plasma-nitrided AISI H13 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, Rodrigo L.O.; Pastore, Heloise O.; Schmidt, Vanessa; Baumvol, Israel J.R.; Abarca, Silvia A.C.; Souza, Fernando S. de; Spinelli, Almir; Figueroa, Carlos A.; Giacomelli, Cristiano

    2010-01-01

    The effect of pulsed plasma nitriding temperature and time on the pitting corrosion behaviour of AISI H13 tool steel in 0.9% NaCl solutions was investigated by cyclic polarization. The pitting potential (E pit ) was found to be dependent on the composition, microstructure and morphology of the surface layers, whose properties were determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The best corrosion protection was observed for samples nitrided at 480 o C and 520 o C. Under such experimental conditions the E pit -values shifted up to 1.25 V in the positive direction.

  18. RF compensation of single Langmuir probe in low density helicon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumen, E-mail: soumen@ipr.res.in; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Bora, Dhiraj

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Appropriate density and temperature measurement with Langmuir probe in RF Eenvironment. • Necessity of large auxiliary electrode for RF compensation at low densities (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}). • Measured two temperature electrons in low pressure helicon antenna produced RF plasma. • Tail electrons are localized only at off-axis in our cylindrical plasma system. - Abstract: Interpretations of Single Langmuir probe measurements in electrode-less radio frequency (RF) plasmas are noteworthy tricky and require adequate compensation of RF. Conventional RF compensation technique is limited only at high density (>10{sup 17} m{sup −3}) RF plasmas. RF compensation of single Langmuir probe at low density RF plasmas (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}) is presented in this paper. In RF driven plasmas, where the RF voltage is high (∼50 V) and density is in the range (∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}), the primary RF compensation condition (Z{sub ck} > >Z{sub sh}) is very difficult to fulfill, because of high sheath impedance (Z{sub sh}) at 13.56 MHz and the construction limitation of a self-resonant tiny chock (Z{sub ck}) with very high impedance. Introducing a large auxiliary electrode (A{sub x}), (A{sub x} >>> A{sub p}), close to the small Langmuir probe (A{sub p}) tip, connected in parallel with probe via a coupling capacitor (C{sub cp}), significantly reduces the effective sheath impedance (Z{sub sh}) and allows probe bias to follow the RF oscillation. Dimensional requirements of the auxiliary electrode and the role of suitable coupling capacitor are discussed in this paper. Observations show proper compensation leads to estimation of more positive floating potentials and lower electron temperatures compared to uncompensated probe. The electron energy probability function (EEPF) is also obtained by double differentiating the collected current with respect to the applied bias voltage using an active analog circuit.

  19. Formation of Ti-N graded bioceramic layer by DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-lin

    2004-01-01

    Ti-N graded ceramic layer was formed on titanium by using DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding technique. The structure of Ti-N layer was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry(XRD) with Cu Kα radiation, and the microhardness( HV0.1) was measured from the surface to inner along the cross section of Ti-N layer. The results indicate that the Ti-N graded layer is composed of ε-Ti2 N, δ-TiN and α-Ti(N) phases. Mechanism discussion shows that hollow-cathode discharge can intensify gas ionization, increase current density and enhance the nitriding potential, which directly increases the thickness of the diffusion coatings compared with traditional nitriding methods.

  20. Controlling of Nitriding Process on Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahien, Mohammed [Graduate Student, Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan); Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro, E-mail: mo.shahien@yahoo.com [Toyohashi University of Technology (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) has been considered as a promising technology for in-situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) thermally sprayed coatings. To fabricate thick A lN coatings in RPS process, controlling and improving the in-flight nitriding reaction of Al particles is required. In this study, it was possible to control the nitriding reaction by using ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) powders. Thick and dense AlN coating (more than 300 {mu}m thickness) was successfully fabricated with small addition of NH{sub 4}Cl powders. Thus, addition of NH{sub 4}Cl prevented the Al aggregation by changing the reaction pathway to a mild way with no explosive mode (relatively low heating rates) and it acts as a catalyst, nitrogen source and diluent agent.

  1. Controlling of Nitriding Process on Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) has been considered as a promising technology for in-situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) thermally sprayed coatings. To fabricate thick A lN coatings in RPS process, controlling and improving the in-flight nitriding reaction of Al particles is required. In this study, it was possible to control the nitriding reaction by using ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) powders. Thick and dense AlN coating (more than 300 μm thickness) was successfully fabricated with small addition of NH 4 Cl powders. Thus, addition of NH 4 Cl prevented the Al aggregation by changing the reaction pathway to a mild way with no explosive mode (relatively low heating rates) and it acts as a catalyst, nitrogen source and diluent agent.

  2. Plasma-enhanced growth, composition, and refractive index of silicon oxy-nitride films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry and refractive index measurements have been carried out on silicon oxy-nitride produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Nitrous oxide and ammonia were added to a constant flow of 2% silane in nitrogen, to produce oxy-nitride films with atomic...... nitrogen concentrations between 2 and 10 at. %. A simple atomic valence model is found to describe both the measured atomic concentrations and published material compositions for silicon oxy-nitride produced by PECVD. A relation between the Si–N bond concentration and the refractive index is found......-product. A model, that combine the chemical net reaction and the stoichiometric rules, is found to agree with measured deposition rates for given material compositions. Effects of annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere has been investigated for the 400 °C– 1100 °C temperature range. It is observed that PECVD oxy...

  3. Crystalline and amorphous carbon nitride films produced by high-energy shock plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursilll, L.A.; Peng, Julin; Gurarie, V.N.; Orlov, A.V.; Prawer, S.

    1995-01-01

    High-energy shock plasma deposition techniques are used to produce carbon-nitride films containing both crystalline and amorphous components. The structures are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, parallel-electron-energy loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The crystalline phase appears to be face-centered cubic with unit cell parameter approx. a=0.63nm and it may be stabilized by calcium and oxygen at about 1-2 at % levels. The carbon atoms appear to have both trigonal and tetrahedral bonding for the crystalline phase. There is PEELS evidence that a significant fraction of the nitrogen atoms have sp 2 trigonal bonds in the crystalline phase. The amorphous carbon-nitride film component varies from essentially graphite, containing virtually no nitrogen, to amorphous carbon-nitride containing up to 10 at % N, where the fraction of sp 3 bonds is significant. 15 refs., 5 figs

  4. Effect of plasma nitriding on electrodeposited Ni–Al composite coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daemi, N.; Mahboubi, F.; Alimadadi, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    In this study plasma nitriding is applied on nickel–aluminum composite coating, deposited on steel substrate. Ni–Al composite layers were fabricated by electro-deposition process in Watt’s bath containing Al particles. Electrodeposited specimens were subjected to plasma atmosphere comprising of N2......–20% H2, at 500°C, for 5h. The surface morphology investigated, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the surface roughness was measured by use of contact method. Chemical composition was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and formation of AlN phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction....... The corrosion resistance of composite coatings was measured by potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5% NaCl solution. The obtained results show that plasma nitriding process leads to an increase in microhardness and corrosion resistance, simultaneously....

  5. Diagnostic study of multiple double layer formation in expanding RF plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shamik; Paul, Manash Kumar; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Nath, Aparna

    2018-03-01

    Intensely luminous double layers develop and then expand in size in a visibly glowing RF discharge produced using a plasma source consisting of a semi-transparent cylindrical mesh with a central electrode, in a linear plasma chamber. Although RF discharge is known to be independent of device geometry in the absence of magnetic field, the initiation of RF discharge using such a plasma source results in electron drift and further expansion of the plasma in the vessel. The dynamics of complex plasma structures are studied through electric probe diagnostics in the expanding RF plasma. The measurements made to study the parametric dependence of evolution of double layer structures are analyzed and presented here. The plasma parameter measurements suggest that the complex potential structures initially form with low potential difference between the layers and then gradually expand producing burst oscillations. The present study provides interesting information about the stability of plasma sheath and charge particle dynamics in it that are important to understand the underlying basic sheath physics along with applications in plasma acceleration and propulsion.

  6. Comparative tribological studies of duplex surface treated AISI 1045 steels fabricated by combinations of plasma nitriding and aluminizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftlang, Farahnaz; Habibolahzadeh, Ali; Sohi, Mahmoud Heydarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AlN coating was applied on AISI 1045 steel via plasma nitriding and aluminizing. • Aluminizing of pre-nitrided specimen provides the highest surface hardness. • The lowest wear rate was obtained via aluminizing of pre-nitrided specimen. • Wear mechanism of the modified layer consists of oxidative and spallung wear. - Abstract: Duplex surface treatments via aluminizing and plasma nitriding were carried out on AISI 1045 steel. A number of work pieces were aluminized and subsequently plasma nitrided (Al–PN) and other work pieces were plasma nitrided and then aluminized (PN–Al). Aluminizing was carried out via pack process at 1123 K for 5 h and plasma nitriding was performed at 823 K for 5 h. The fabricated steels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness testing. Tribological behaviors of the duplex treated AISI 1045 steels were examined against tungsten carbide pin using a pin-on-disc apparatus at room temperature. The PN–Al specimen showed higher surface hardness, lower wear rate and coefficient of friction than the Al–PN one. It was noticed from the worn surfaces that tribo-oxidation plays an important role in wear behavior of both specimens

  7. Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata.

    1977-06-01

    The relation between the current generation by RF travelling field and the accompanied power absorption is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gas pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (auth.)

  8. Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the current generated by RF travelling field and the absorbed power is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gap pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (author)

  9. Poloidal plasma rotation in the presence of RF waves in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyssow, B.; Liu, Caigen

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that one of the consequences of strong RF heating is the deformation of the equilibrium distribution function that induces a change in plasma transport and plasma rotation. The poloidal plasma rotation during RF wave heating in tokamaks is investigated using a moment approach. A set of closed, self-consistent transport and rotation equations is derived and reduced to a single equation for the poloidal particle flux. The formulas are sufficiently general to apply to heating schemes that can be represented by a quasilinear operator. (author)

  10. Plasma assisted nitriding for micro-texturing onto martensitic stainless steels*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoh Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-texturing method has grown up to be one of the most promising procedures to form micro-lines, micro-dots and micro-grooves onto the mold-die materials and to duplicate these micro-patterns onto metallic or polymer sheets via stamping or injection molding. This related application requires for large-area, fine micro-texturing onto the martensitic stainless steel mold-die materials. A new method other than laser-machining, micro-milling or micro-EDM is awaited for further advancement of this micro-texturing. In the present paper, a new micro-texturing method is developed on the basis of the plasma assisted nitriding to transform the two-dimensionally designed micro-patterns to the three dimensional micro-textures in the martensitic stainless steels. First, original patterns are printed onto the surface of stainless steel molds by using the dispenser or the ink-jet printer. Then, the masked mold is subjected to high density plasma nitriding; the un-masked surfaces are nitrided to have higher hardness, 1400 Hv than the matrix hardness, 200 Hv of stainless steels. This nitrided mold is further treated by sand-blasting to selectively remove the soft, masked surfaces. Finally, the micro-patterned martensitic stainless steel mold is fabricated as a tool to duplicate these micro-patterns onto the plastic materials by the injection molding.

  11. Diagnostics of an rf induction plasma torch with the aid of a magnetic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, A.; Wooding, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Estimates of a plasma temperature, electrical conductivity, and torch efficiency have been made from simple measurements made on the plasma and on the rf supply. Measurements were made with the aid of a simple magnetic probe and a pickup coil. Estimates are also made of the heating-coil constants

  12. Voltage uniformity study in large-area reactors for RF plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansonnens, L.; Pletzer, A.; Magni, D.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Schmitt, J.P.M. [Balzers Process Systems, Palaiseau (France)

    1996-09-01

    Non-uniform voltage distribution across the electrode area results in inhomogeneous thin-film RF plasma deposition in large area reactors. In this work, a two-dimensional analytic model for the calculation of the voltage distribution across the electrode area is presented. The results of this model are in good agreement with measurements performed without plasma at 13.56 MHz and 70 MHz in a large area reactor. The principal voltage inhomogeneities are caused by logarithmic singularities in the vicinity of RF connections and not by standing waves. These singularities are only described by a two-dimensional model and cannot be intuitively predicted by analogy to a one-dimensional case. Plasma light emission measurements and thickness homogeneity studies of a-Si:H films show that the plasma reproduces these voltage inhomogeneities. Improvement of the voltage uniformity is investigated by changing the number and position of the RF connections. (author) 13 figs., 20 refs.

  13. TEM studies of plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stróz, D; Psoda, M

    2010-03-01

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and X-ray phase analysis were used to study the structure of a layer formed during nitriding the AISI 316L stainless steel at temperature 440 degrees C. It was found that the applied treatment led to the formation of 6-microm-thick layer of the S-phase. There is no evidence of CrN precipitation. The X-ray diffraction experiments proved that the occurred austenite lattice expansion - due to nitrogen atoms - depended on the crystallographic direction. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the layer consisted of a single cubic phase that contained a lot of defects such as dislocations, stacking faults, slip bands and twins. The high-resolution electron microscopy observations were applied to study the defect formation due to the nitriding process. It was shown that the presence of great number of stacking faults leads to formation of nanotwins. Weak, forbidden {100} reflections were still another characteristic feature of the S-phase. These were not detected in the X-ray spectra of the phase. Basing on the high-resolution electron microscopy studies it can be suggested that the short-range ordering of the nitrogen atoms in the octahedral sites inside the f.c.c. matrix lattice takes place and gives rise to appearance of these spots. It is suggested that the cubic lattice undergoes not only expansion but also slight rombohedral distortion that explains differences in the lattice expansion for different crystallographic directions.

  14. Influence of the RF electrode cleanliness on plasma characteristics and dust-particle generation in methane dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géraud-Grenier, I.; Desdions, W.; Faubert, F.; Mikikian, M.; Massereau-Guilbaud, V.

    2018-01-01

    The methane decomposition in a planar RF discharge (13.56 MHz) leads both to a dust-particle generation in the plasma bulk and to a coating growth on the electrodes. Growing dust-particles fall onto the grounded electrode when they are too heavy. Thus, at the end of the experiment, the grounded electrode is covered by a coating and by fallen dust-particles. During the dust-particle growth, the negative DC self-bias voltage (VDC) increases because fewer electrons reach the RF electrode, leading to a more resistive plasma and to changes in the plasma chemical composition. In this paper, the cleanliness influence of the RF electrode on the dust-particle growth, on the plasma characteristics and composition is investigated. A cleanliness electrode is an electrode without coating and dust-particles on its surface at the beginning of the experiment.

  15. RF-heating of plasma in the frequency domain of the ion cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahnekamp, H.G.; Stampa, A.; Tuczek, H.; Laeuter, R.; Wulf, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments on rf-heating of plasmas in the frequency domain of the ion cyclotron harmonics are reported. The rf-power is coupled to the magneto-acoustic wave for frequencies between ωsub(ci) and 5ωsub(ci). The measurements indicate that the damping of the pump wave is mainly due to the excitation of turbulence, whereas direct resonance at 2ωsub(ci) seems to be of minor importance

  16. Effect of residual stresses on fatigue strength of plasma nitrided 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghazadeh, J.; Amidi, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Almost every method that has been presented to determine residual stress has some limitation and complexities. The aim of this work is to present a new, yet simple method so called strain indentation for measuring the residual stresses particularly in thin layers. In this method in addition to the precision measurements, components of residual stress at different directions may be determined. AISI 4140 steel specimens nitrided at 350 d ig C , 450 d ig C and 550 d ig C for 5 hours in the mixture of 75% nitrogen- 25% hydrogen gas. The, components of residual stress in the radials axial and hoop directions in the nitrided layer were determined considering the elastic strain recovery after removal of residual stress inducer(i.e. the nitrided layer). Fatigue strength of the nitrided specimens was obtained by plotting the S-N curves and fractographic studies carried out on the fracture surface of the specimens. The effect of residual stress on the stress pattern was simulated. The calculated residual stress components were in the range of 40-210 Mpa and the radial components of residual stress were more than the other two directions. Maximum fatigue strength improvement of up to 110% was observed in the plasma nitrided specimens at 550 d ig C and also 40% improvement in fatigue strength was detected by increasing the nitriding temperature from 350 d ig C to 550 d ig C . This was due to 100% increase in residual stress. Fatigue crack growth velocity in the hoop direction was more than that of radial direction. This seems to be due to higher radial residual stress component compared with the hoop stress component in the sub layer

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium nitride (Mg3N2) powder using thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Hyun-Woo; Park, Dong-Wha

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium nitride (Mg 3 N 2 ) powder was synthesized from bulk magnesium by thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure. Magnesium vapor was generated through heating the bulk magnesium by DC plasma jet and reacted with ammonia gas. Injecting position and flow rates of ammonia gas were controlled to investigate an ideal condition for Mg 3 N 2 synthesis. The synthesized Mg 3 N 2 was cooled and collected on the chamber wall. Characteristics of the synthesized powders for each experimental condition were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravity analysis (TGA). In absence of NH 3 , magnesium metal powder was formed. The synthesis with NH 3 injection in low temperature region resulted in a formation of crystalline magnesium nitride with trigonal morphology, whereas the mixture of magnesium metal and amorphous Mg 3 N 2 was formed when NH 3 was injected in high temperature region. Also, vaporization process of magnesium was discussed.

  18. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hee Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gallium nitride (GaN nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO33∙xH2O was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6 powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3. Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Plasma-Nitriding Parameters on the Properties of Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravecká, Eva; Slota, Ján; Solfronk, Pavel; Kolnerová, Michaela

    2017-07-01

    This work is concerned with the surface treatment (ion nitriding) of different plasma-nitriding parameters on the characteristics of DIN 1.8519 low-alloy steel. The samples were nitrided from 500 to 570 °C for 5-40 h using a constant 25% N2-75% H2 gaseous mixture. Lower temperature (500-520 °C) favors the formation of compound layers of γ' and ɛ iron nitrides in the surface layers, whereas a monophase γ'-Fe4 N layer can be obtained at a higher temperature. The hardness of this layer can be obtained when nitriding is performed at a higher temperature, and the hardness decreases when the temperature increases to 570 °C. These results indicate that pulsed plasma nitriding is highly efficient at 550 °C and can form thick and hard nitrided layers with satisfactory mechanical properties. The results show the optimized nitriding process at 540 °C for 20 h. This process can be an interesting means of enhancing the surface hardness of tool steels to forge dies compared to stamped steels with zinc coating with a reduced coefficient of friction and improving the anti-sticking properties of the tool surface.

  20. Tungsten nitride coatings obtained by HiPIMS as plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tiron, V.; Velicu, I. L.; Porosnicu, C.; Burducea, I.; Dinca, P.; Malinský, Petr

    Roč. 416, SEP (2017), s. 878-884 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Tugensten nitride layers * m-HIPIMS * deuterium retention * deuterium plasma jet * thermal desorption spectrometry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  1. Cryogenic rf test of the first SRF cavity etched in an rf Ar/Cl2 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, J.; Palczewski, A.; Popović, S.; Valente-Feliciano, A.-M.; Im, Do; Phillips, H. L.; Vušković, L.

    2017-12-01

    An apparatus and a method for etching of the inner surfaces of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities are described. The apparatus is based on the reactive ion etching performed in an Ar/Cl2 cylindrical capacitive discharge with reversed asymmetry. To test the effect of the plasma etching on the cavity rf performance, a 1497 MHz single cell SRF cavity was used. The single cell cavity was mechanically polished and buffer chemically etched and then rf tested at cryogenic temperatures to provide a baseline characterization. The cavity's inner wall was then exposed to the capacitive discharge in a mixture of Argon and Chlorine. The inner wall acted as the grounded electrode, while kept at elevated temperature. The processing was accomplished by axially moving the dc-biased, corrugated inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise manner to establish a sequence of longitudinally segmented discharges. The cavity was then tested in a standard vertical test stand at cryogenic temperatures. The rf tests and surface condition results, including the electron field emission elimination, are presented.

  2. Cryogenic rf test of the first SRF cavity etched in an rf Ar/Cl2 plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Upadhyay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus and a method for etching of the inner surfaces of superconducting radio frequency (SRF accelerator cavities are described. The apparatus is based on the reactive ion etching performed in an Ar/Cl2 cylindrical capacitive discharge with reversed asymmetry. To test the effect of the plasma etching on the cavity rf performance, a 1497 MHz single cell SRF cavity was used. The single cell cavity was mechanically polished and buffer chemically etched and then rf tested at cryogenic temperatures to provide a baseline characterization. The cavity’s inner wall was then exposed to the capacitive discharge in a mixture of Argon and Chlorine. The inner wall acted as the grounded electrode, while kept at elevated temperature. The processing was accomplished by axially moving the dc-biased, corrugated inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise manner to establish a sequence of longitudinally segmented discharges. The cavity was then tested in a standard vertical test stand at cryogenic temperatures. The rf tests and surface condition results, including the electron field emission elimination, are presented.

  3. Argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride (SiN) for improved antireflection coating on c-Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan Kumar; Banerjee, Chandan, E-mail: chandanbanerjee74@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell. • The reduction in reflection due to the formation of a silicon oxynitride/silicon nitride double layer. • EQE reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in J{sub sc} and 4.46% in conversion efficiency. - Abstract: Antireflection properties of argon plasma treated silicon nitride layer and its effect on crystalline silicon solar cell is presented here. Hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiN:H) layer has been deposited on a silicon substrate by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) using a mixture of silane (SiH{sub 4}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gases followed by a argon plasma treatment. Optical analysis reveals a significant reduction in reflectance after argon plasma treatment of silicon nitride layer. While FESEM shows nanostructures on the surface of the silicon nitride film, FTIR reveals a change in Si−N, Si−O and N−H bonds. On the other hand, ellipsometry shows the variation of refractive index and formation of double layer. Finally, a c-Si solar cell has been fabricated with the said anti-reflection coating. External quantum efficiency reveals a relative increase of 2.72% in the short circuit current density and 4.46% in conversion efficiency over a baseline efficiency of 16.58%.

  4. Structure and properties of the Stainless steel AISI 316 nitrided with microwave plasma; Estructura y propiedades del acero inoxidable AISI 316 nitrurado con plasmas de microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril R, F

    1999-07-01

    In this work were presented the results obtained by nitridation on stainless steel AISI 316 using a plasma generated through a microwave discharge with an external magnetic field using several moistures hydrogen / nitrogen to form a plasma. The purpose of nitridation was to increase the surface hardness of stainless steel through a phase formation knew as {gamma}N which has been reported that produces such effect without affect the corrosion resistance proper of this material. (Author)

  5. “Virtual IED sensor” at an rf-biased electrode in low-pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanova, M. A.; Zyryanov, S. M. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, SINP MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lopaev, D. V.; Rakhimov, A. T. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, SINP MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Energy distribution and the flux of the ions coming on a surface are considered as the key-parameters in anisotropic plasma etching. Since direct ion energy distribution (IED) measurements at the treated surface during plasma processing are often hardly possible, there is an opportunity for virtual ones. This work is devoted to the possibility of such indirect IED and ion flux measurements at an rf-biased electrode in low-pressure rf plasma by using a “virtual IED sensor” which represents “in-situ” IED calculations on the absolute scale in accordance with a plasma sheath model containing a set of measurable external parameters. The “virtual IED sensor” should also involve some external calibration procedure. Applicability and accuracy of the “virtual IED sensor” are validated for a dual-frequency reactive ion etching (RIE) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor with a capacitively coupled rf-biased electrode. The validation is carried out for heavy (Ar) and light (H{sub 2}) gases under different discharge conditions (different ICP powers, rf-bias frequencies, and voltages). An EQP mass-spectrometer and an rf-compensated Langmuir probe (LP) are used to characterize plasma, while an rf-compensated retarded field energy analyzer (RFEA) is applied to measure IED and ion flux at the rf-biased electrode. Besides, the pulsed selfbias method is used as an external calibration procedure for ion flux estimating at the rf-biased electrode. It is shown that pulsed selfbias method allows calibrating the IED absolute scale quite accurately. It is also shown that the “virtual IED sensor” based on the simplest collisionless sheath model allows reproducing well enough the experimental IEDs at the pressures when the sheath thickness s is less than the ion mean free path λ{sub i} (s < λ{sub i}). At higher pressure (when s > λ{sub i}), the difference between calculated and experimental IEDs due to ion collisions in the sheath is observed in the low

  6. Application of capacitively coupled rf discharge plasma for sterilization of polymer materials used in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullin, I.Sh.; Avetisov, S.E.; Lipatov, D.V.; Rybakova, E.G.; Bragin, V.E.; Bykanov, A.N.; Kamarentsev, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    The sterilization effect of capacitively coupled rf discharge plasma treatment of contact lenses was investigated. There were used two types of polymer: highly hydrophilic polymer with water content 76% (Navelen-76) and poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). There was demonstrated the possibility of effective sterilization by RF discharge plasma of a set of polymer materials used in ophthalmology. The best results were obtained for hard contact lenses. There was perfect sterilization in this case. There were not perfect sterilization in some cases of soft contact lenses treatment. It may be caused by porous structure of the external layers of this material and limited thickness of the sterilization layer. (author)

  7. Investigation of surface boundary conditions for continuum modeling of RF plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Shotorban, B.

    2018-05-01

    This work was motivated by a lacking general consensus in the exact form of the boundary conditions (BCs) required on the solid surfaces for the continuum modeling of Radiofrequency (RF) plasmas. Various kinds of number and energy density BCs on solid surfaces were surveyed, and how they interacted with the electric potential BC to affect the plasma was examined in two fundamental RF plasma reactor configurations. A second-order local mean energy approximation with equations governing the electron and ion number densities and the electron energy density was used to model the plasmas. Zero densities and various combinations of drift, diffusion, and thermal fluxes were considered to set up BCs. It was shown that the choice of BC can have a significant impact on the sheath and bulk plasma. The thermal and diffusion fluxes to the surface were found to be important. A pure drift BC for dielectric walls failed to produce a sheath.

  8. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  9. Characterization of gaseous species in scanning atmospheric rf plasma with transmission infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong H.; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kang, Bang-Kwon

    2008-01-01

    A scanning atmospheric radio-frequency (rf) plasma was analyzed with transmission infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The IR analyses were made for the plasmas used for hydrophobic coating deposition and superhydrophobic coating deposition processes. Since the rf plasma was generated in a small open space with a high gas flow rate in ambient air, the density of gas-phase molecules was very high and the plasma-generated reactive species seemed to undergo various reactions in the gas phase. So, the transmission IR spectra of the scanning atmospheric rf plasma were dominated by gas-phase reaction products, rather than plasma-generated intermediate species. In the CH 4 /He plasma used for hydrophobic coating deposition, C 2 H 6 , C 2 H 2 , and a small amount of C 2 H 4 as well as CO were detected in transmission IR. The intensities of these peaks increased as the rf power increased. The CO formation is due to the activation of oxygen and water in the air. In the CF 4 /H 2 /He plasma used for deposition of superhydrophobic coatings, C 2 F 6 , CF 3 H, COF 2 , and HF were mainly detected. When the H 2 /CF 4 ratio was ∼0.5, the consumption of CF 4 was the highest. As the H 2 /CF 4 ratio increased higher, the C 2 F 6 production was suppressed while the CF 3 H peak grew and the formation of CH 4 were detected. In both CH 4 /He and CF 4 /H 2 /He plasma systems, the undissociated feed gas molecules seem to be highly excited vibrationally and rotationally. The information on plasma-generated reactive species and their reactions was deduced from the distribution of these gas-phase reaction products

  10. The effect of phase difference between powered electrodes on RF plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proschek, M; Yin, Y; Charles, C; Aanesland, A; McKenzie, D R; Bilek, M M; Boswell, R W

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements carried out on plasmas created in five different RF discharge systems. These systems all have two separately powered RF (13.56 MHz) electrodes, but differ in overall size and in the geometry of both vacuum chambers and RF electrodes or antennae. The two power supplies were synchronized with a phase-shift controller. We investigated the influence of the phase difference between the two RF electrodes on plasma parameters and compared the different system geometries. Single Langmuir probes were used to measure the plasma parameters in a region between the electrodes. Floating potential and ion density were affected by the phase difference and we found a strong influence of the system geometry on the observed phase difference dependence. Both ion density and floating potential curves show asymmetries around maxima and minima. These asymmetries can be explained by a phase dependence of the time evolution of the electrode-wall coupling within an RF-cycle resulting from the asymmetric system geometry

  11. A calibrated, broadband antenna for plasma RF emission measurements below 1 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, P.D.; Rosenberg, D.; Roth, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A constant impedance, constant aperture antenna can make possible broadband plasma RF emission measurements which yield relative and absolute power levels. However, good technique must be followed for the immersion of such an RF probe into plasma radiation. The authors have used a complementary conical spiral antenna to observe plasma RF emission over the frequency range 100 ≤ν≤ 1200 MHz. The RF emission was emitted by a modified Penning discharge. The RF emission from the discharge typically exhibits harmonic structure over a broad frequency range, necessitating a broadband antenna with a flat frequency response curve to allow detailed spectral analysis. The antenna consists of two metal strips of approximately uniform width wound helically on a cone made of Lexan plastic. Since the antenna is a balanced network, a balun is employed to make the transition to a 50-ohm coaxial line. The antenna feed method is critical in maintaining a uniform impedance network. Neglecting stray transmission line effects, the probe circuit for the frequency range 100 ≤ν≤ 500 MHz is 50 ohms due to the spectrum analyzer, paralleled by 291 ohms due to balun magnetization; the combination is fed by a 144 ohm probe aperture

  12. Formation of thermal eddies during rf heating of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.; Hooke, W.M.; Anania, G.

    1979-07-01

    Moderate power (approx.1 kW) excitation of lower hybrid waves in a linear plasma column is found to increase the reflectivity of the phased waveguide exciter and to change the vertical position of the resonance cone. Probing of the plasma near the mouth of the waveguide reveals that the increased reflection results from an undulation in the plasma surface. We present evidence that this surface distortion is driven by thermal eddies associated with asymmetrical electron heating

  13. Changing in Fatigue Life of 300 M Bainitic Steel After Laser Carburizing and Plasma Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Antonio J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work 300M steel samples is used. This high-strength steel is used in aeronautic and aerospace industry and other structural applications. Initially the 300 M steel sample was submitted to a heat treatment to obtain a bainític structure. It was heated at 850 °C for 30 minutes and after that, cooled at 300 °C for 60 minutes. Afterwards two types of surface treatments have been employed: (a using low-power laser CO2 (125 W for introducing carbon into the surface and (b plasma nitriding at a temperature of 500° C for 3 hours. After surface treatment, the metallographic preparation was carried out and the observations with optical and electronic microscopy have been made. The analysis of the coating showed an increase in the hardness of layer formed on the surface, mainly, among the nitriding layers. The mechanical properties were analyzed using tensile and fatigue tests. The results showed that the mechanical properties in tensile tests were strongly affected by the bainitic microstructure. The steel that received the nitriding surface by plasma treatment showed better fatigue behavior. The results are very promising because the layer formed on steel surface, in addition to improving the fatigue life, still improves protection against corrosion and wear.

  14. Corrosion-electrochemical characteristics of oxide-carbide and oxide-nitride coatings formed by electrolytic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashov, N.D.; Chukalovskaya, T.V.; Medova, I.L.; Duradzhi, V.N.; Plavnik, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The composition, structure, microhardness and corrosion-electrochemical properties of oxide-carbide and oxide-nitride coatings on titanium in 5n H 2 SO 4 , 50 deg, produced by the method of chemical-heat treatment in electrolytic plasma, containing saturation components of nitrogen and carbon, were investigated. It is shown that the coatings produced have increased hardness, possess high corrosion resistance in sulfuric acid solution at increased temperature, as to their electrochemcial behaviour they are similar to titanium carbide and nitride respectively. It is shown that high corrosion resistance is ensured by electrochemical mechanism of the oxide-carbide and oxide-nitride coating protection

  15. Effects of plasma-deposited silicon nitride passivation on the radiation hardness of CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of plasma-deposited silicon nitride as a final passivation over metal-gate CMOS integrated circuits degrades the radiation hardness of these devices. The hardness degradation is manifested by increased radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts caused principally by the charging of new interface states and, to a lesser extent, by the trapping of holes created upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The threshold voltage shifts are a strong function of the deposition temperature, and show very little dependence on thickness for films deposited at 300 0 C. There is some correlation between the threshold voltage shifts and the hydrogen content of the PECVD silicon nitride films used as the final passivation layer as a function of deposition temperature. The mechanism by which the hydrogen contained in these films may react with the Si/SiO 2 interface is not clear at this point

  16. Oxygen functionalization of MWCNTs in RF-dielectric barrier discharge Ar/O2 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, E.; Ogawa, D.; Nakamura, K.

    2017-07-01

    The oxygenation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was performed via a radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge (RF-DBD) in an Ar/{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} plasma mixture. The relative intensity of the Ar/{{\\text{O}}2} plasma species was characterized by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The effects of treatment time, RF power and oxygen gas percentage on the chemical composition and surface morphology of MWCNTs were investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results of FTIR and XPS revealed the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the MWCNTs treated in an Ar/{{\\text{O}}2} plasma at an RF power of 50 W and pressure of 400 Pa. The amount of oxygen functional groups (C=O, C-O, and O-COO) also increased by increasing treatment time up to 6 min, but slightly decreased when treatment time was increased by 10 min. The increase of oxygen gas percentage in the plasma mixture does not affect the oxygen content in the treated MWCNTs. Meanwhile, MWCNTs treated at high power (80 W) showed a reduction in oxygen functional groups in comparison with low RF power conditions. The Raman analysis was consistent with the XPS and FTIR results. The integrity of the nanotube patterns also remained damaged as observed by FE-SEM images. The MWCNTs treated in RF-DBD using the Ar/{{\\text{O}}2} plasma mixture showed improved dispersibility in deionized water. A correlation between the OES data and the observed surface characterization for an improved understanding of the functionalization of MWCNTs in Ar/{{\\text{O}}2} plasma was presented.

  17. RF plasma parameter determination by a Langmuir multipoint double probe array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Olmedo, I A; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G

    2012-01-01

    A multipoint double Langmuir (MDL) probe system, which is exempt from interference, has been designed and assembled to be applied to an RF plasma. The system provides the measurement of fundamental plasma parameters such as density, temperature, plasma potential, etc. on the basis of the Bohm Approximation Theory and the Orbital Movement Limit. Thus, one pair of the MDL system is selected so as to consider the right plasma parameters within the prevailing pressure-power intervals. Both the hardware and software of the system have been applied to the modification of material properties by means of the PIII process.

  18. Study of Pulsed vs. RF Plasma Properties for Surface Processing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ricky; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward; Miller, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The ability to manipulate the plasma parameters (density, E/N) was previously demonstrated using a double-pulsed column discharge. Experiments extending this to large-surface plasmas of interest to the plasma processing community were conducted. Differences between an audio-frequency pulsed plasma and a radio-frequency (rf) discharge, both prevalent in plasma processing applications, were studied. Optical emission spectroscopy shows higher-intensity emission in the UV/visible range for the pulsed plasma comparing to the rf plasma at comparable powers. Data suggest that the electron energy is higher for the pulsed plasma leading to higher ionization, resulting in increased ion density and ion flux. Diode laser absorption measurements of the concentration of the 1S5 metastable and 1S4 resonance states of argon (correlated with the plasma E/N) provide comparisons between the excitation/ionization states of the two plasmas. Preliminary modeling efforts suggest that the low-frequency polarity switch causes a much more abrupt potential variation to support interesting transport phenomena, generating a ``wave'' of higher temperature electrons leading to more ionization, as well as ``sheath capture'' of a higher density bolus of ions that are then accelerated during polarity switch.

  19. RF wave simulation for cold edge plasmas using the MFEM library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, S.; Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T.; Kolev, T.; Stowell, M.

    2017-10-01

    A newly developed generic electro-magnetic (EM) simulation tool for modeling RF wave propagation in SOL plasmas is presented. The primary motivation of this development is to extend the domain partitioning approach for incorporating arbitrarily shaped SOL plasmas and antenna to the TORIC core ICRF solver, which was previously demonstrated in the 2D geometry [S. Shiraiwa, et. al., "HISTORIC: extending core ICRF wave simulation to include realistic SOL plasmas", Nucl. Fusion in press], to larger and more complicated simulations by including a 3D realistic antenna and integrating RF rectified sheath potential model. Such an extension requires a scalable high fidelity 3D edge plasma wave simulation. We used the MFEM [http://mfem.org], open source scalable C++ finite element method library, and developed a Python wrapper for MFEM (PyMFEM), and then a radio frequency (RF) wave physics module in Python. This approach allows for building a physics layer rapidly, while separating the physics implementation being apart from the numerical FEM implementation. An interactive modeling interface was built on pScope [S Shiraiwa, et. al. Fusion Eng. Des. 112, 835] to work with an RF simulation model in a complicated geometry.

  20. Direct visual observation of powder dynamics in RF plasma-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C.; Paris, P.J.

    1991-04-01

    Contamination due to particles generated and suspended in silane rf plasmas is investigated. Powder is rendered visible by illumination of the reactor volume. This simple diagnostic for global, spatio-temporal powder dynamics is used to study particle formation, trapping and powder reduction by power modulation. (author) 4 figs., 11 refs

  1. Hydrogen and helium trapping in tungsten deposition layers formed by RF plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunari Katayama; Kazumi Imaoka; Takayuki Okamura; Masabumi Nishikawa

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of tritium behavior in plasma facing materials is an important issue for fusion reactor from viewpoints of fuel control and radiation safety. Tungsten is used as a plasma facing material in the divertor region of ITER. However, investigation of hydrogen isotope behavior in tungsten deposition layer is not sufficient so far. It is also necessary to evaluate an effect of helium on a formation of deposition layer and an accumulation of hydrogen isotopes because helium generated by fusion reaction exists in fusion plasma. In this study, tungsten deposition layers were formed by sputtering method using hydrogen and helium RF plasma. An erosion rate and a deposition rate of tungsten were estimated by weight measurement. Hydrogen and helium retention were investigated by thermal desorption method. Tungsten deposition was performed using a capacitively-coupled RF plasma device equipped with parallel-plate electrodes. A tungsten target was mounted on one electrode which is supplied with RF power at 200 W. Tungsten substrates were mounted on the other electrode which is at ground potential. The plasma discharge was continued for 120 hours where pressure of hydrogen or helium was controlled to be 10 Pa. The amounts of hydrogen and helium released from deposition layers was quantified by a gas chromatograph. The erosion rate of target tungsten under helium plasma was estimated to be 1.8 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. The deposition rate on tungsten substrate under helium plasma was estimated to be 4.1 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. Atomic ratio of hydrogen to tungsten in a deposition layer formed by hydrogen plasma was estimated to be 0.17 by heating to 600 o C. From a deposition layer formed by helium plasma, not only helium but also hydrogen was released by heating to 500 o C. Atomic ratios of helium and hydrogen to tungsten were estimated to be 0.080 and 0.075, respectively. The trapped hydrogen is probably impurity hydrogen

  2. Electromagnetic surface waves for large-area RF plasma productions between large-area planar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, large-area plasma production has been tested by means of a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (RF) discharge between a pair of large-area planar electrodes, approximately 0.5 m x 1.4 m, as one of the semiconductor technologies for fabrication of large-area amorphous silicon solar cells in the ''Sunshine Project'' of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology in Japan. We also confirmed long plasma production between a pair of long electrodes. In this paper, normal electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed in order to study the feasibility of large-area plasma productions by EM wave-discharges between a pair of large-area RF electrodes larger than the half-wavelength of RF wave. In conclusion, plasmas higher than an electron plasma frequency will be produced by an odd TMoo surface mode. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  3. Concept Study of Radio Frequency (RF Plasma Thruster for Space Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Theodora ANDREESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric thrusters are capable of accelerating ions to speeds that are impossible to reach using chemical reaction. Recent advances in plasma-based concepts have led to the identification of electromagnetic (RF generation and acceleration systems as able to provide not only continuous thrust, but also highly controllable and wide-range exhaust velocities. For Future Space Propulsion there is a pressing need for low pressure, high mass flow rate and controlled ion energies. This paper explores the potential of using RF heated plasmas for space propulsion in order to mitigate the electric propulsion problems caused by erosion and gain flexibility in plasma manipulation. The main key components of RF thruster architecture are: a feeding system able to provide the required neutral gas flow, plasma source chamber, antenna/electrodes wrapped around the discharge tube and optimized electromagnetic field coils for plasma confinement. A preliminary analysis of system performance (thrust, specific impulse, efficiency is performed along with future plans of Space Propulsion based on this new concept of plasma mechanism.

  4. Mechanism of laser and rf plasma in vibrational nonequilibrium CO-N2 gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Guofeng; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanism of plasma created by focused CO laser and rf electric field. The plasma is created in a CO/N 2 environment, at a total pressure of 600 torr. Ionization of the gases occurs by an associative ionization mechanism, in collisions of two highly vibrationally excited molecules. These highly vibrationally excited states are populated by resonance absorption of the CO radiation followed by anharmonic vibration-vibration (V-V) pumping. Moreover N 2 also becomes vibrationally excited due to collisions with vibrationally excited CO. The coupled rf reduced electric field E/N is sufficiently low to prevent electron impact ionization that may create plasma individually, so when a subbreakdown rf field is applied to the plasma, collisions between the free electrons heated by the field and the diatomic species create additional vibrational excitation both in the region occupied by the CO laser beam and outside of the laser beam region. The numerical results show plasma created in both regions (in and out of the CO laser beam region) with the associative ionization mechanism. This suggests a method for creating a stable nonequilibrium plasma. The calculation result is verified by comparison the synthetic spectrum to a measured one.

  5. Non-Equilibrium Modeling of Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    wall can be approximated with the expression for an infinite solenoid , B(r = R) = µ0NIc, where quan- tities N and Ic are the number of turns per unit...Modeling of non-equilibrium plasmas in an induc- tively coupled plasma facility. AIAA Paper 2014– 2235, 2014. 45th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers ...1993. 24th Plas- madynamics and Laser Conference, Orlando, FL. [22] M. Capitelli, I. Armenise, D. Bruno, M. Caccia- tore, R. Celiberto, G. Colonna, O

  6. Sensitivity of RF-driven Plasma Filaments to Trace Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, M. J.; Czarnocki, C. J.; Czarnocki, K.; Zweben, S. J.; Zwicker, A.

    2011-10-01

    Filamentary structures have been observed in many types of plasma discharges in both natural (e.g. lightning) and industrial systems (e.g. dielectric barrier discharges). Recent progress has been made in characterizing these structures, though various aspects of their essential physics remain unclear. A common example of this phenomenon can be found within a toy plasma globe (or plasma ball), wherein a primarily neon gas mixture near atmospheric pressure clearly and aesthetically displays filamentation. Recent work has provided the first characterization of these plasma globe filaments [Campanell et al., Physics of Plasmas 2010], where it was noticed that discharges of pure gases tend not to produce filaments. We have extended this initial work to investigate in greater detail the dependence of trace gases on filamentation within a primarily Neon discharge. Our preliminary results using a custom globe apparatus will be presented, along with some discussion of voltage dependencies. Newly supported by the NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering.

  7. Low-temperature ({<=}200 Degree-Sign C) plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of dense titanium nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samal, Nigamananda; Du Hui; Luberoff, Russell; Chetry, Krishna; Bubber, Randhir; Hayes, Alan; Devasahayam, Adrian [Veeco Instruments, 1 Terminal Drive, Plainview, New York 11803 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry for its diffusion barrier and seed layer properties. However, it has seen limited adoption in other industries in which low temperature (<200 Degree-Sign C) deposition is a requirement. Examples of applications which require low temperature deposition are seed layers for magnetic materials in the data storage (DS) industry and seed and diffusion barrier layers for through-silicon-vias (TSV) in the MEMS industry. This paper describes a low temperature TiN process with appropriate electrical, chemical, and structural properties based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition method that is suitable for the DS and MEMS industries. It uses tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-titanium as an organometallic precursor and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as co-reactant. This process was developed in a Veeco NEXUS Trade-Mark-Sign chemical vapor deposition tool. The tool uses a substrate rf-biased configuration with a grounded gas shower head. In this paper, the complimentary and self-limiting character of this process is demonstrated. The effects of key processing parameters including temperature, pulse time, and plasma power are investigated in terms of growth rate, stress, crystal morphology, chemical, electrical, and optical properties. Stoichiometric thin films with growth rates of 0.4-0.5 A/cycle were achieved. Low electrical resistivity (<300 {mu}{Omega} cm), high mass density (>4 g/cm{sup 3}), low stress (<250 MPa), and >85% step coverage for aspect ratio of 10:1 were realized. Wet chemical etch data show robust chemical stability of the film. The properties of the film have been optimized to satisfy industrial viability as a Ruthenium (Ru) preseed liner in potential data storage and TSV applications.

  8. RF Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, P. C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R. C.

    2003-10-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 - 100 times the ion beam density and at a length 0.1-0.5 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 0-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures 10-5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10-4 - 10-1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10^8 - 10^11 cm-3 have been achieved. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10-6 Torr range with densities of 10^11 cm-3. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with NTX and is being used in the experiments. The plasma is approximately 10 cm in length in the direction of the beam propagation. Modifications to the source will be presented that increase its length in the direction of beam propagation.

  9. Remote plasma-assisted nitridation (RPN): applications to Zr and Hf silicate alloys and Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, Chris; Lucovsky, Gerry

    2003-01-01

    Remote plasma-assisted nitridation or RPN is demonstrated to be a processing pathway for nitridation of Zr and Hf silicate alloys, and for Al 2 O 3 , as well. The dependence of nitrogen incorporation on the process pressure is qualitatively similar to what has been reported for the plasma-assisted nitridation of SiO 2 , the lower the process pressure the greater the nitrogen incorporation in the film. The increased incorporation of nitrogen has been correlated with the penetration of the plasma-glow into the process chamber, and the accompanying increase in the concentration of N 2 + ions that participate in the reactions leading to bulk incorporation. The nitrogen incorporation as been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)

  10. RF heating of currentless plasma in Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ion cyclotron range frequency heating (ICRF) experiments performed with a current-free plasma in Heliotron E are described. Parametric studies of ECRH are in progress. For both fundamental and second-harmonic resonances, optimum heating is observed when the plasma density is near the cutoff density (for the ordinary wave, in the case of fundamental resonance and for the extraordinary wave, in the case of second-harmonic resonance) and when a resonance zone exists on the magnetic axis. The maximum heating efficiencies for the fundamental and second-harmonic resonances are 6.5 eV.kW -1 per 10 19 m -3 and 2.4 eV.kW -1 per 10 19 m -3 , respectively. The ray-tracing analysis agrees qualitatively well with the experimental results. The power dependences of the plasma parameters are also investigated. - The first ICRF experiment with fast-wave heating of a current-free plasma has been performed. The ICRF wave power and pulse length are 550 kW and 15 ms, respectively. The frequency is 26.7 MHz. Ions and electrons are heated effectively. The increase in ion temperature is only slightly changed by varying the hydrogen ratio of the gas puff. On the other hand, the electron temperature increase has a definite peak for a high proton ratio (approx. 15%). This agrees qualitatively with the mode conversion picture of minority heating. (author)

  11. Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel surfaces nitrided by plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schibicheski, Bruna Corina Emanuely; Souza, Gelson Biscaia de; Oliveira, Willian Rafael de; Serbena, Francisco Carlos, E-mail: bruna_schibicheski@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Marino, Cláudia E.B. [Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The supermartensitic stainless steel UNS S41426 is employed in marine oil and gas extraction ducts, where it is subjected to severe conditions of temperature, pressure and exposure to corrosive agents (as the H{sub 2}S). In such environments, pitting corrosion is a major cause of degradation of metallic alloys [1]. This work investigated the effectiveness of the nitrogen inlet, attained here by the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technique, in improving the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the material surface. Samples were initially austenitized at 1100°C with a subsequent room temperature oil quenching in order to obtain a fully martensitic structure. The nitriding was carried out under 10 kV implantation energy and 30 ms pulse width. The temperatures ranged from 300 °C to 400°C, achieved by controlling the pulse repetition rates. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, instrumented indentation, scanning electron microscopy, potentiodynamic anodic polarization tests (in NaCl solution), and cathodic hydrogenation tests (in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution). The PIII nitriding produced stratified layers up to 30 mm thick containing nitrogen expanded martensite and iron nitride phases (γ’-Fe{sub 4}N, ε- Fe{sub 2+x}N), depending on the treatment temperature. Consequently, the surface hardness increased from ∼3GPa (reference) up to ∼13GPa (400°C). Regarding the corrosion resistance, the nitrided surfaces presented a significant improvement as compared with the pristine surface, evidenced by the increase of the corrosion potential, which was also correlated to the hydrogen embrittlement reduction and the subsequent suppression of morphological changes. References: [1] M.G. Fontana, Corrosion Engineering, Singapore: McGraw-Hill, 1987. [2] B.C.E.S. Kurelo et al., Applied Surface Science 349 (2015) 403-414. (author)

  12. Plasma-spray synthesis and characterization of ti-based nitride and oxide nanogranules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipas, Georgios S.E., E-mail: gantipas@metal.ntua.gr [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-09-15

    The synthesis of nanosized Ti-based nanogranules via plasma spraying is reported. The synthesis route involved use of both nitrogen and oxygen gases with varying results. In the case of nitrogen, a mixture of titanium nitrides were produced, yielding both the Ti2N and the sub-stoichiometric TiN0.61 compounds. In the case of oxygen, both the stoichiometric rutile and TiO ceramic phases were indexed. Based on EDS analysis, even fractional oxygen concentrations caused tungsten impurities which originated from the cathode electrode. The method yielded particle mass median sizes of the order of 15nm and the smallest particles detected were 5nm. (author)

  13. The Influence Of Nitridation Temperature And Time On The Surface Hardness Of AISI 1010 Low Carbon Steels Nitrided By Means Of Plasma Glow Discharge Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujitno, Tjipto; Mujiman, Supardjono

    1996-01-01

    The results of the influence of nitridation temperature and time on the surface hardness of AISI 1010 low carbon steels nitrided by means of plasma glow discharge technique are presented in this paper. The results are the changing of surface hardiness, the changing of surface microstructure and the penetration profile depth. The experiment has been carried out at the temperature 400 o C, 450 o C, 500 o C, 550 o C, 570 o C and 600 o C, whereas the time is 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 90 minutes and 180 minutes. All the experiments have been carried out at the optimum plasma density condition. The optimum plasma density condition is achieved at the pressure of p = 0.2 torr, when thr gas flow of nitrogen is 0.6 liter/minute and the distance of electrode plate is 4.5 cm. It was found that the optimum hardness of the surface was achieved at the temperature of 570 o C and the time of nitridation was 90 minutes, i.e. 190 KHN

  14. Ion irradiation effects on ionic liquids interfaced with rf discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Kaneko, T.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of plasma ion irradiation toward a gas-liquid interface is investigated in a rf discharge system incorporating an ionic liquid. The introduction of the ionic liquid to the plasma causes the formation of a sheath electric field on the ionic liquid surface, resulting in the acceleration of the ions to the ionic liquid and the generation of secondary electrons from the ionic liquid by the ion irradiation. These effects are found to advance the discharge process and enhance the plasma production

  15. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L.

    1983-01-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF 4 using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an r.f. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF 4 [25%]-argon[75%] mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF 4 [87%]-argon[13%] were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF 4 as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined. (orig.)

  16. Preparation procedure for spherical titanium powders by RF induction plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongtao; Jin Yuping; Ye Gaoying

    2011-01-01

    The paper uses the single-factor method for the study of spherical titanium powder preparation process. Titanium powders with excellent sphericity can be prepared through controlling and regulating the radio frequency plasma anode working current and voltage, central gas flow rate, sheath gas flow rate, powder-carrying gas flow rate, negative ventilation pressure and powder feed rate, etc. Spheroidization of titanium powders with a size of (17.0±2.0) μm is performed by radio frequency plasma technology. With the increase of negative ventilation pressure, the spheroidization rate of titanium powders increases firstly and then decreases rapidly at the turning point around 1800 Pa. With the rate of powder feed increasing, the spheroidization rate of titanium powders increases firstly. When the powder feed rate is greater than 90.0 g/min, the spheroidization rate of titanium powders reduces rapidly as the powder feed rate increases. (authors)

  17. An RF heated tandem mirror plasma propulsion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. F.; Yao, X.; Peng, S.; Krueger, W. A.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results on a tandem mirror hybrid plume rocket involving a three-stage system of plasma injection, heating, and subsequent injection through a magnetic nozzle are presented. In the experiments, a plasma is created by breaking down the gas with electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2 kW in the central cell, and the ion species is then heated to high temperatures with ion cyclotron resonance heating at 10 kW in the end cell. A Langmuir probe measured an electron density of 2.5 x 10 to the 16th/cu m and a temperature of 100 eV in the central cell and an ion density of 1.25 x 10 to the 17th/cu m and a temperature of 500 eV in the end cell.

  18. High power RF heating and nonthermal distributions in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, A.G.

    1994-12-13

    This thesis discusses the nonthermal effects in the electron population of a tokamak, that are generated by the inductive electric field and electron cyclotron resonant heating. The kinetic description of the plasma is given by a Boltzmann equation for the electron velocity distribution, in which the many small angle scattering Coulomb collisions that occur in the plasma are modelled by a Fokker-Planck collision term. These collisions drive the distribution towards the Maxwellian distribution of thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy absorption from the electron cyclotron waves and the acceleration by the toroidal electric field lead to deviations from the Maxwellian destribution. The interaction of the electron cyclotron waves with the plasma is treated within quasilinear theory. Resonant interaction occurs when the wave frequency matches one of the harmonics of the gyration frequency of the electrons in the static magnetic field. The waves generate a diffusion of resonant electrons in velocity space. The inductive electric field accelerates the electrons in the direction prallel to the magnetic field and leads to a convection in velocity space. The equilibrium that is reached between the driving forces of the electric field and the electron cyclotron waves and the restoring force of the collisions is studied in this thesis. The specific geometry of the tokamak is incorporated in the model through an average of the kinetic equation over the electron orbits. (orig./WL).

  19. High power RF heating and nonthermal distributions in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis discusses the nonthermal effects in the electron population of a tokamak, that are generated by the inductive electric field and electron cyclotron resonant heating. The kinetic description of the plasma is given by a Boltzmann equation for the electron velocity distribution, in which the many small angle scattering Coulomb collisions that occur in the plasma are modelled by a Fokker-Planck collision term. These collisions drive the distribution towards the Maxwellian distribution of thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy absorption from the electron cyclotron waves and the acceleration by the toroidal electric field lead to deviations from the Maxwellian destribution. The interaction of the electron cyclotron waves with the plasma is treated within quasilinear theory. Resonant interaction occurs when the wave frequency matches one of the harmonics of the gyration frequency of the electrons in the static magnetic field. The waves generate a diffusion of resonant electrons in velocity space. The inductive electric field accelerates the electrons in the direction prallel to the magnetic field and leads to a convection in velocity space. The equilibrium that is reached between the driving forces of the electric field and the electron cyclotron waves and the restoring force of the collisions is studied in this thesis. The specific geometry of the tokamak is incorporated in the model through an average of the kinetic equation over the electron orbits. (orig./WL)

  20. The Efficiency of Quartz Particles Evaporation in the Argon Plasma Flow of the RF Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Grishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to high-power density and high-purity plasma, a RF inductively coupled plasma torch (ICPT is widely used both in research laboratory and in industry. The potential RF ICPT application areas are powders spheroidisation, waste treatment, thermal spraying, etc.In the last decade the investigation was focused on the treatment processes of quartz into polycrystalline silicon. An analysis of these results has shown that the increasing productivity and producing high-purity silicon can be achieved only when using the electrodeless radio-frequency induction plasma torches and in case the optimum conditions for evaporation of SiO2solid particles are realized.Optimization of the RF ICPT design and power parameters calls for a wide range of computational studies. In spite of the fact that to date a large number of efforts to calculate the evaporation efficiency of powder materials have been made, a number of issues, as applied to the problem of obtaining silicon, require further research.In this paper, we present the results of a two-dimensional numerical simulation of the heating and evaporation of quartz particles in the RF ICPT channel with axial flow of gases. The main aim is to determine how the axial position of the central tube (through which the particles are injected into the discharge zone, the dispersion of the quartz powder, the amplitude of the discharge current (and, respectively, flow regimes impact on the evaporation efficiency of quartz particles.The paper presented the numerical modeling results of heating and evaporation processes of quartz particles supplied by transporting gas to the RF ICPT channel with axial gas flow (argon. Defined the impact of the axial position of the central tube, the plasma flow regime, the discharge current, the flow rate of transporting gas, and other parameters on the evaporation efficiency of quartz particles.It is shown that the evaporation efficiency of particles reaches its maximum when their

  1. Study of RF-excited Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether Plasmas by Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algatti, M A; Mota, R P; Júnior, P W P Moreira; Honda, R Y; Kayama, M E; Kostov, K G

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the fragmentation process of diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (CH 3 O(CH 2 CH 2 O) 2 CH 3 ) (diglyme here in) molecule in low pressure RF excited plasma discharges. The study was carried out using mass spectrometry. The results showed that for a fixed pressure, the increase of the RF power coupled to the plasma chamber from 1 to 35 W produced a plasma environment much more reactive which increases the population of the ionized species like CH 2 + (15 amu), C 2 H 4 + (28 amu), CH 3 O + (31 amu), C 2 H 4 O + (44 amu), CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 + (59 amu) and CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 O + (75 amu). This fact may be attributed to the increase of the electronic temperature that makes predominant the occurrence of inelastic processes that promotes molecular fragmentation. For a fixed value of RF power the increase of pressure from 50 mTorr to 100 mTorr produces the decreasing of the above mentioned chemical species due the lower electronic mean free path. These results suggest that if one wants to keep the monomer's functionality within the plasma deposited films resulting from such kind of discharges one must operate in low power conditions.

  2. Moessbauer spectroscopy study on the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 stainless steel in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.D. de; Olzon-Dionysio, M.; Basso, R.L.O.; Souza, S. de

    2010-01-01

    Plasma nitriding of ASTM F138 stainless steel samples has been carried out using dc glow discharge under 80% H 2 -20% N 2 gas mixture, at 673 K, and 2, 4, and 7 h time intervals, in order to investigate the influence of treatment time on the microstructure and the corrosion resistance properties. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, besides electrochemical tests in NaCl aerated solution. A modified layer of about 6 μm was observed for all the nitrided samples, independent of nitriding time. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows broad γ N phase peaks, signifying a great degree of nitrogen supersaturation. Besides γ N, the Moessbauer spectroscopy results indicated the occurrence of γ' and ε phases, as well as some other less important phases. Corrosion measurements demonstrate that the plasma nitriding time affects the corrosion resistance and the best performance is reached at 4 h treatment. It seems that the ε/γ' fraction ratio plays an important role on the resistance corrosion. Additionally, the Moessbauer spectroscopy was decisive in this study, since it was able to identify and quantify the iron phases that influence the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 samples.

  3. EM Modelling of RF Propagation Through Plasma Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, L.; Bandinelli, M.; Araque Quijano, J. L.; Vecchi, G.; Pawlak, H.; Marliani, F.

    2012-05-01

    Electric propulsion is a commercially attractive solution for attitude and position control of geostationary satellites. Hall-effect ion thrusters generate a localized plasma flow in the surrounding of the satellite, whose impact on the communication system needs to be qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. An electromagnetic modelling tool has been developed and integrated into the Antenna Design Framework- ElectroMagnetic Satellite (ADF-EMS). The system is able to guide the user from the plume definition phases through plume installation and simulation. A validation activity has been carried out and the system has been applied to the plume modulation analysis of SGEO/Hispasat mission.

  4. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A., E-mail: sanin@inp.nsk.su; Sotnikov, O. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (∼0.5 G) provides an enhanced H{sup −} production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H{sup −} production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H{sup −} yield to the high value. The effect of H{sup −} yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H{sup −} yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed.

  5. Frequency threshold for ion beam formation in expanding RF plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty Thakur, Saikat; Harvey, Zane; Biloiu, Ioana; Hansen, Alex; Hardin, Robert; Przybysz, William; Scime, Earl

    2008-11-01

    We observe a threshold frequency for ion beam formation in expanding, low pressure, argon helicon plasma. Mutually consistent measurements of ion beam energy and density relative to the background ion density obtained with a retarding field energy analyzer and laser induced fluorescence indicate that a stable ion beam of 15 eV appears for source frequencies above 11.5 MHz. Reducing the frequency increases the upstream beam amplitude. Downstream of the expansion region, a clear ion beam is seen only for the higher frequencies. At lower frequencies, large electrostatic instabilities appear and an ion beam is not observed. The upstream plasma density increases sharply at the same threshold frequency that leads to the appearance of a stable double layer. The observations are consistent with the theoretical prediction that downstream electrons accelerated into the source by the double layer lead to increased ionization, thus balancing the higher loss rates upstream [1]. 1. M. A. Lieberman, C. Charles and R. W. Boswell, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 (2006) 3294-3304

  6. Time-resolved measurements of highly-polymerised negative ions in rf silane plasma deposition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howling, A.A.; Sansonnens, L.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.

    1993-07-01

    The time-resolved fluxes of negative polysilicon hydride ions from a power-modulated rf silane plasma have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry and modeled using a simple polymerisation scheme. Experiments were performed with plasma parameters suitable for high-quality amorphous silicon deposition. Polysilicon hydride anions diffuse from the plasma with low energy (approximately 0.5 eV) during the afterglow after the electron density has decayed and the sheath fields have collapsed. The mass-dependence of the temporal behavior of the anion loss flux demonstrates that the plasma composition is influenced by the modulation frequency. The negative species attain much higher masses than the positive or neutral species, and anions containing as many as sixteen silicon atoms have been observed, corresponding to the 500 amu limit of the mass spectrometer. This suggests that negative ions could be the precursors to particle formation. Ion-molecule and ion-ion reactions are discussed and a simple negative ion polymerisation scheme is proposed which qualitatively reproduces the experimental results. The model shows that the densities of high mass negative ions in the plasma are strongly reduced by modulation frequencies near 1 kHz. Each plasma period is then too short for the polymerisation chain to propagate to high masses before the elementary anions are lost in each subsequent afterglow period. This explains why modulation of the rf power can reduce particle contamination. We conclude that, for the case of silane rf plasmas, the initiation steps which ultimately lead to particle contamination proceed by negative ion polymerisation. (author) 15 figs., 72 refs

  7. Design and construction of automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device PLC based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminto; Slamet Santosa; Eko Priyono

    2012-01-01

    The automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device has been done. The system is used for operating double chamber plasma nitriding automatically as according to the standard operating procedure by pressing push button on the human machine interface (HMI). The system consists of hardware and software. The hardware was constructed using main components T100MD1616+ PLC module and supported by temperature signal conditioner module, Wheatstone bridge module, isolated amplifier module and EMS 30A H Bridge motor driver module. A software program that is planted on T100MD1616+ PLC using ladder diagrams and Tbasic program. Test system functions performed by inserting a set values of temperature and pressure by pressing the button on the human machine interface (HMI). The test results show that the temperature control with a set of values 100 °C obtained stable coverage of 98 °C to 102 °C, (Δ ± 2 °C) with a 2% tolerance and the output voltage of the DAC is 2.436 volts to 2.913 volts. The pressure control with a set of values 2.169 x 10 -1 mbar obtained stable coverage of 1.995 x 10 -1 mbar to 2.205 x 10 -1 mbar, (Δ ± 0.105 x 10 -1 mbar) with a 5% tol. (author)

  8. Simulation of rarefied low pressure RF plasma flow around the sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltukhin, V S; Shemakhin, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model of the flow of radio frequency plasma at low pressure. The hybrid mathematical model includes the Boltzmann equation for the neutral component of the RF plasma, the continuity and the thermal equations for the charged component. Initial and boundary conditions for the corresponding equations are described. The electron temperature in the calculations is 1-4 eV, atoms temperature in the plasma clot is (3-4) • 10 3 K, in the plasma jet is (3.2-10) • 10 2 K, the degree of ionization is 10 -7 -10 -5 , electron density is 10 15 -10 19 m -3 . For calculations plasma parameters is developed soft package on C++ program language, that uses the OpenFOAM library package. Simulations for the vacuum chamber in the presence of a sample and the free jet flow were carried out. (paper)

  9. Simulation of rarefied low pressure RF plasma flow around the sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltukhin, V. S.; Shemakhin, A. Yu

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model of the flow of radio frequency plasma at low pressure. The hybrid mathematical model includes the Boltzmann equation for the neutral component of the RF plasma, the continuity and the thermal equations for the charged component. Initial and boundary conditions for the corresponding equations are described. The electron temperature in the calculations is 1-4 eV, atoms temperature in the plasma clot is (3-4) • 103 K, in the plasma jet is (3.2-10) • 102 K, the degree of ionization is 10-7-10-5, electron density is 1015-1019 m-3. For calculations plasma parameters is developed soft package on C++ program language, that uses the OpenFOAM library package. Simulations for the vacuum chamber in the presence of a sample and the free jet flow were carried out.

  10. Styrene and methyl methacrylate copolymer synthesized by RF inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z; Gillon, X; Diallo, M; Houssiau, L; Pireaux, J-J, E-mail: zhiling.li@fundp.ac.be [University of Namur (FUNDP) Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), 61, Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2011-01-01

    A series of random copolymers of styrene and methyl methacrylate was prepared on a silicon substrate by RF pulsed inductively coupled plasma. The plasma gas phase was investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The physico-chemical characteristics of the deposited copolymer films were analyzed by several surface techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), etc. OES of the plasma and FT-IR spectra of the films are predictive: plasma emitting a higher relative benzyl radical signal results in the deposition of a more aromatic plasma polymer. The functional thin films can be deposited by selection of the co-monomers.

  11. Plasma processing of large curved surfaces for superconducting rf cavity modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Upadhyay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-based surface modification of niobium is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. We have demonstrated surface layer removal in an asymmetric nonplanar geometry, using a simple cylindrical cavity. The etching rate is highly correlated with the shape of the inner electrode, radio-frequency (rf circuit elements, gas pressure, rf power, chlorine concentration in the Cl_{2}/Ar gas mixtures, residence time of reactive species, and temperature of the cavity. Using variable radius cylindrical electrodes, large-surface ring-shaped samples, and dc bias in the external circuit, we have measured substantial average etching rates and outlined the possibility of optimizing plasma properties with respect to maximum surface processing effect.

  12. Pyrolysis treatment of waste tire powder in a capacitively coupled RF plasma reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Waihuanxi Road, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, L. [Department of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Waihuanxi Road, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A capacitively coupled radio-frequency (RF) plasma reactor was tested mainly for the purpose of solid waste treatment. It was found that using a RF input power between 1600 and 2000 W and a reactor pressure between 3000 and 8000 Pa (absolute pressure), a reactive plasma environment with a gas temperature between 1200 and 1800 K can be reached in this lab scale reactor. Under these conditions, pyrolysis of tire powder gave two product streams: a combustible gas and a pyrolytic char. The major components of the gas product are H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} The physical properties (surface area, porosity, and particle morphology) as well as chemical properties (elemental composition, heating value, and surface functional groups) of the pyrolytic char has also been examined. (author)

  13. Aging and its circumvention in rf-plasma oxidized Pb-alloy Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Nakano, J.

    1987-01-01

    The aging phenomenon of Pb-alloy Josephson junctions is investigated and an effective method of circumventing it is presented. Junctions consist of Pb-alloy electrodes and a tunneling barrier formed by rf-plasma oxidation of the Pb-alloy. First, aging and annealing-driven change in normal tunneling resistance are compared to verify the usage of annealing as an experimental method for simulation and acceleration of aging. Next, process variables affecting the annealing change in junction characteristics are examined and their influence is described. The importance of the oxide-base electrode interface is confirmed and that of the counterelectrode-oxide interface is experimentally shown. Furthermore, possible changes in the oxide itself are discussed. Finally, on the basis of these studies, rf-plasma oxidation in a CO 2 atmosphere is employed and proven to be an effective method for circumventing the annealing change in the junction characteristics

  14. Influence of ECR-RF plasma modification on surface and thermal properties of polyester copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray Miroslawa El

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a study on influence of radio-frequency (RF plasma induced with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR on multiblock copolymer containing butylene terephthalate hard segments (PBT and butylene dilinoleate (BDLA soft segments. The changes in thermal properties were studied by DSC. The changes in wettability of PBT-BDLA surfaces were studied by water contact angle (WCA. We found that ECR-RF plasma surface treatment for 60 s led to decrease of WCA, while prolonged exposure of plasma led to increase of WCA after N2 and N2O2 treatment up to 70°–80°. The O2 reduced the WCA to 50°–56°. IR measurements confirmed that the N2O2 plasma led to formation of polar groups. SEM investigations showed that plasma treatment led to minor surfaces changes. Collectively, plasma treatment, especially O2, induced surface hydrophilicity what could be beneficial for increased cell adhesion in future biomedical applications of these materials.

  15. Nitriding of Ti substrate using energetic ions from plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, A; Bhuyan, H; Favre, M; Bora, B; Wyndham, E; Chuaqui, H; Mändl, S; Gerlach, J W; Manova, D

    2012-01-01

    Plasma Focus (PF) discharge is a pulsed plasma producing discharge that generates high temperature and high density plasma for a short duration. PF devices are known to emit intense ion beams pulses of characteristic energy in the keV to a few MeV range, in a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. We have previously investigated the ion flux and energy spectrum of ion beams emitted from a low energy PF, operating at 20 kV, with 1.8 kJ stored energy. It was observed that the ion beams have wide range of energy and intensity spectra with a clear angular anisotropy. Due to the wide range of ion energy and intensity spectra PF has become a subject of current interest for its applications in material sciences including surface modification and thin film deposition. The purpose of this study is the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) thin film and to investigate the structural properties of the TiN thin films in terms of PF angular positions. Substrates like Ti and Ti/Si were nitrided in a 1.8 kJ PF device at different angular positions with respect to the PF axis in order to correlate their surface properties with ion beam parameters. Preliminary characterizations of the ion implanted substrates have been conducted, using SEM, EDX and XRD. Our results indicate the formation of nanocrystalline TiN thin film only in certain angular positions. Angular dependency of the surface morphology was observed, which shows that the surface features strongly depends on ion beam energy and flux. With increasing angular positions, a reduction in the deposition rate and the sputter rate is observed. A pronounced nanostructured surface is only observed at the axis of the pinched plasma column, indicating the dominant role of sputtering and perhaps melting and fast re-crystallization of the surface in creating the nanostructures.

  16. Effects of rf power on electron density and temperature, neutral temperature, and Te fluctuations in an inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camparo, James; Fathi, Gilda

    2009-01-01

    Atomic clocks that fly on global-navigation satellites such as global positioning system (GPS) and Galileo employ light from low-temperature, inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) for atomic signal generation and detection (i.e., alkali/noble-gas rf-discharge lamps). In this application, the performance of the atomic clock and the capabilities of the navigation system depend sensitively on the stability of the ICP's optical emission. In order to better understand the mechanisms that might lead to instability in these rf-discharge lamps, and hence the satellite atomic clocks, we studied the optical emission from a Rb/Xe ICP as a function of the rf power driving the plasma. Surprisingly, we found that the electron density in the plasma was essentially independent of increases in rf power above its nominal value (i.e., 'rf-power gain') and that the electron temperature was only a slowly varying function of rf-power gain. The primary effect of rf power was to increase the temperature of the neutrals in the plasma, which was manifested by an increase in Rb vapor density. Interestingly, we also found evidence for electron temperature fluctuations (i.e., fluctuations in the plasma's high-energy electron content). The variance of these fluctuations scaled inversely with the plasma's mean electron temperature and was consistent with a simple model that assumed that the total electron density in the discharge was independent of rf power. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that the electrons in alkali/noble-gas ICPs are little affected by slight changes in rf power and that the primary effect of such changes is to heat the plasma's neutral species.

  17. Simulation of spatially dependent excitation rates and power deposition in RF discharges for plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.J.; Anderson, H.M.; Hargis, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    In low pressure, radio frequency (RF) discharges of the type used in plasma processing of semiconductor materials, the rate of electron impact excitation and energy transfer processes depends upon both the phase of the RF excitation and position in the discharge. Electron impact collisions create radicals that diffuse or drift to the surfaces of interest where they are adsorbed or otherwise react. To the extent that these radicals have a finite lifetime, their transport time from point of creation to surface of interest is an important parameter. The spatial dependence of the rate of the initial electron impact collisions is therefore also an important parameter. The power that sustains the discharge is coupled into the system by two mechanisms: a high energy e-beam component of the electron distribution resulting from electrons falling through or being accelerated by the sheaths, and by joule heating in the body of the plasma. In this paper, the authors discuss the spatial dependence of excitation rates and the method of power deposition iin RF discharges of the type used for plasma processing

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride from Bis(tert-butylamino)silane and N2 Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoops, Harm C M; Braeken, Eline M J; de Peuter, Koen; Potts, Stephen E; Haukka, Suvi; Pore, Viljami; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-09-09

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiNx) is deemed essential for a variety of applications in nanoelectronics, such as gate spacer layers in transistors. In this work an ALD process using bis(tert-butylamino)silane (BTBAS) and N2 plasma was developed and studied. The process exhibited a wide temperature window starting from room temperature up to 500 °C. The material properties and wet-etch rates were investigated as a function of plasma exposure time, plasma pressure, and substrate table temperature. Table temperatures of 300-500 °C yielded a high material quality and a composition close to Si3N4 was obtained at 500 °C (N/Si=1.4±0.1, mass density=2.9±0.1 g/cm3, refractive index=1.96±0.03). Low wet-etch rates of ∼1 nm/min were obtained for films deposited at table temperatures of 400 °C and higher, similar to that achieved in the literature using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of SiNx at >700 °C. For novel applications requiring significantly lower temperatures, the temperature window from room temperature to 200 °C can be a solution, where relatively high material quality was obtained when operating at low plasma pressures or long plasma exposure times.

  19. RF-heating and plasma confinement studies in HANBIT mirror device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, M.; Bak, J.G.; Choh, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    HANBIT is a magnetic mirror confinement device. Recently, with almost finishing the first campaign for the basic system development, it started the second campaign for the high-temperature plasma confinement physics study in mirror configuration. Here, we introduce briefly the HANBIT device and report initial physics experiments results on RF-plasma heating and confinement in the simple mirror configuration. It appears that the discharge characteristics of HANBIT are quite different from those in other mirror devices, and an explanation is presented to clarify the difference. (author)

  20. Negative ion mass spectra and particulate formation in rf silane plasma deposition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howling, A.A.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.

    1992-09-01

    Negative ions have been clearly identified in silane rf plasmas used for the deposition of amorphous silicon. Mass spectra were measured for monosilicon up to pentasilicon negative ion radical groups in power-modulated plasmas by means of a mass spectrometer mounted just outside the glow region. Negative ions were only observed over a limited range of power modulation frequency which corresponds to particle-free conditions. The importance of negative ions regarding particulate formation is demonstrated and commented upon. (author) 3 figs., 19 refs

  1. Plasma nitriding of CA-6NM steel: effect of H2 + N2 gas mixtures in nitride layer formation for low N2 contents at 500 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nardelli Allenstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to characterize the phases, thickness, hardness and hardness profiles of the nitride layers formed on the CA-6NM martensitic stainless steel which was plasma nitrided in gas mixtures containing different nitrogen amounts. Nitriding was performed at 500 ºC temperature, and 532 Pa (4 Torr pressure, for gas mixtures of 5% N2 + 95% H2, 10% N2 + 90% H2, and 20% N2 + 80% H2, and 2 hours nitriding time. A 6 hours nitriding time condition for gas mixture of 5% N2 + 95% H2 was also studied. Nitrided samples results were compared with non-nitrided condition. Thickness and microstructure of the nitrided layers were characterized by optical microscopy (OM, using Villela and Nital etchants, and the phases were identified by X-ray diffraction. Hardness profiles and hardness measured on surface steel were determined using Vickers hardness and nanoindentation tester, respectively. It was verified that nitrided layer produced in CA-6NM martensitc stainless steel is constituted of compound layer, being that formation of the diffusion zone was not observed for the studied conditions. The higher the nitrogen amounts in gas mixture the higher is the thickness of the nitrided layer and the probability to form different nitride phases, in the case γ'-Fe4N, ε-Fe2-3N and CrN phases. Intrinsic hardness of the nitrided layers produced in the CA-6NM stainless steel is about 12-14 GPa (~1200-1400 HV.

  2. Removal of carbon contaminations by RF plasma generated reactive species and subsequent effects on optical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P. K., E-mail: praveenyadav@rrcat.gov.in; Rai, S. K.; Modi, M. H.; Nayak, M.; Lodha, G. S. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.; Naik, P. A. [Laser Plasma Laboratory, Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Carbon contamination on optical elements is a serious issue in synchrotron beam lines for several decades. The basic mechanism of carbon deposition on optics and cleaning strategies are not fully understood. Carbon growth mechanism and optimized cleaning procedures are worldwide under development stage. Optimized RF plasma cleaning is considered an active remedy for the same. In present study carbon contaminated optical test surfaces (carbon capped tungsten thin film) are exposed for 30 minutes to four different gases, rf plasma at constant power and constant dynamic pressure. Structural characterization (thickness, roughness and density) of virgin samples and plasma exposed samples was done by soft x-ray (λ=80 Å) reflectivity measurements at Indus-1 reflectivity beam line. Different gas plasma removes carbon with different rate (0.4 to 0.65 nm /min). A thin layer 2 to 9 nm of different roughness and density is observed at the top surface of tungsten film. Ar gas plasma is found more suitable for cleaning of tungsten surface.

  3. Tribocorrosion studies of metallic biomaterials: The effect of plasma nitriding and DLC surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Hua; Aune, Ragnhild E; Espallargas, Nuria

    2016-10-01

    The medical grade pure titanium, stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy have been utilized as biomaterials for load-bearing orthopedic prosthesis. The conventional surgery metals suffer from a combined effect of wear and corrosion once they are implanted, which may significantly accelerate the material degradation process. In this work, the tribocorrosion performance of the metallic biomaterials with different surface modifications was studied in the simulated body fluid for the purpose of investigating the effect of the surface treatments on the tribocorrosion performance and eventually finding the most suitable implantation materials. The metals were subjected to surface modifications by plasma nitriding in different treatment temperatures or physical vapor deposition (PVD) to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating, respectively. The dry wear and tribocorrosion properties of the samples were evaluated by using a reciprocating ball-on-disc tribometer equipped with an electrochemical cell. Prior to the tribocorrosion tests, their electrochemical behavior was measured by the potentiodynamic polarization in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at room temperature. Both stainless steel and CoCrMo after low temperature nitriding kept their passive nature by forming an expanded austenite phase. The DLC coated samples presented the low anodic corrosion current due to the chemical inertness of the carbon layer. During the tribocorrosion tests at open circuit potential, the untreated and low temperature nitrided samples exhibited significant potential drop towards the cathodic direction, which was a result of the worn out of the passive film. Galvanic coupling was established between the depassivated (worn) area and the still passive (unworn) area, making the materials suffered from wear-accelerated corrosion. The DLC coating performed as a solid lubricant in both dry wear and tribocorrosion tests, and the resulting wear after the tests was almost negligible. Copyright

  4. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs

  5. Investigation of Inonotus obliquus (Pers. Pil. Extracts and Melanins after RF-plasma Treatment of Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Kuznetsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency capacitive discharge (RF plasma at low pressure was used as preliminary stage for the intensification of extraction from natural medicinal raw material. RF-plasma treatment was carried out in two modes differed by the nature of plasma-forming gas. Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (Pers. Pil. known as the birch mushroom was selected as a perspective source of raw material. Extraction was carried out in two ways – remaceration and maceration. The analy-sis of chaga extracts and melanins was performed using traditional techniques including determination of physical and chemical, antioxidant and spectral characteristics. The obtained extracts and melanins were compared to the control samples and literature data. RF-plasma treatment of medicinal raw material increased the yield of extractive substances, in particular of the main active component of chaga – melanin. The antioxidant activity of chaga extracts grew, while for melanins it remained at the level similar to that of control samples. The IR spectral characteristics of the studied chaga melanins are similar and agree well with the literature data. Insignificant deviations in the position and intensity of absorption strips were observed for the samples after RF treatment. IR spectra of the studied chaga melanins are similar to those for mushroom melanins, thereby confirming the similarity in their nature. RF-plasma treatment of chaga medicinal raw materials allows to modify them partially. The structural and mechanical properties of melanins modified by RF plasma remain the same.

  6. RF-plasma vapor deposition of siloxane on paper. Part 1: Physical evolution of paper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Halil Turgut

    2013-01-01

    An alternative, new approach to improve the hydrophobicity and barrier properties of paper was evaluated by radio-frequency (RF) plasma octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTSO) vapor treatment. The interaction between OMCTSO and paper, causing the increased hydophobicity, is likely through covalent bonding. The deposited thin silicone-like polymeric layer from OMCTSO plasma treatment possessed desirable hydrophobic properties. The SEM micrographs showed uniformly distributed grainy particles with various shapes on the paper surface. Deposition of the silicone polymer-like layer with the plasma treatment affects the distribution of voids in the network structure and increases the barrier against water intake and air. The water absorptivity was reduced by 44% for the OMCTSO plasma treated sheet. The highest resistance to air flow was an approximately 41% lower air permeability than virgin paper.

  7. Effect of the diameter and depth of pinholes on surface characteristics in the DC pulse plasma nitriding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahonra, M.C.G; Egidi, D.A; Svoboda, H; Corengia, P

    2006-01-01

    The ion nitriding treatment is a process widely used in steel alloys to improve the material's properties; such as surface hardness, resistance to wear, fatigue life and resistance to corrosion. But geometric changes in the components can produce during the nitriding process different effects on the behavior of the plasma, such as local variations in the electric field, an empty cathode effect, etc. These in turn can affect among other factors the local temperature and therefore the kinetics of the process, generating variations in the compound layer thicknesses and zone of diffusion, and micro-hardness profile. These heterogeneities limit the effectiveness of the plasma nitriding process, where control and duplication of the surface modification are most important. This work aims to study the effect of the geometry of the pieces treated with ionic nitriding, especially the effect of the orifices. An understanding of the operating mechanisms is sought in order to predict the development of the compound layer and zone of diffusion inside the pinholes. A series of orifices with different diameters and depths were machine made in AISI 4140 quenched and tempered cylindrical steel test pieces. The diameters analyzed were 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 mm, while the depths studied were 3, 8 and 15 mm, resulting in 15 different configurations. The samples were nitrided by DC-pulse plasma in an industrial reactor, using a mixture of 75% H 2 - 25% N 2 , during 15 hours at a temperature of 500 o C. The nitrided test pieces were characterized with transverse sections using optic and scanning electron microscopy and Vickers micro-hardness profiles, measuring the thicknesses of white layer and zone of diffusion on the wall and base of the orifices. The results show that the sizes of the pinholes made in AISI 4140 steel greatly influence the uniformity and continuity of the compound layers and zones of diffusion. 'Critical diameters' for pinholes were also defined, underneath which the

  8. RF generated currents in a magnetized plasma using a slow wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, B.R.; Cheo, B.R.; Kuo, S.P.; Tang, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    The generation of a dc current in a plasma by using RF waves is of importance for the operation of steadystate toroidal devices. An experimental investigation in the use of unidirectional, low frequency RF waves to drive currents has been made. Instead of using a natural plasma wave a slow wave guiding structure is used along the entire length of the plasma. When the RF wave is injected an increase in ionization and T/sub e/, and hence the background current is observed. However, the change depends on wave direction: The +k/sub z/ excitation yields a much larger electron current compared with the -k/sub z/ excitation indicating a net wave driven current. The measured modification in electron density and T/sub e/ is independent of wave direction. The current with a standing wave excitation generally falls at the average of the travelling wave (+ or - k/sub z/) driven currents. The net wave driven current is proportional to the feed power at approx. = 10 mA/kW. No saturation of the current is observed with feed powers up to 1 kW. Since the exciting structure is only 1 wavelength long, its k/sub z/ spectrum is relatively broad and hence no sharp resonances are observed as various plasma parameters and B/sub O/ are changed. There is no measurable difference between the power absorbed by the load resistors and the input power to the slow wave structure. Thus the current is driven by the wave field exclamation E exclamation 2 rather than the power absorbed in the plasma. The theoretical background and the physical mechanism is presented

  9. Design aspects of 13.56MHz, 1kW, CW-RF oscillator for plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kadia, Bhavesh; Singh, Raj; Varia, Atul; Srinivas, Y S S; Kulkarni, S V

    2010-01-01

    RF produced plasma has many applications in plasma processing and also it is useful in studying the fundamental characteristics of the plasma. A 1KW RF Hartley oscillator is designed and tested at 13.56 MHz. This has been built at RF section of Institute for Plasma Research by using EIMAC (3CX1200A7) triode tube. The RF source is operated in the grounded cathode mode. Triode 3CX1200A7 is operated in class AB and the feedback is Cathode grounded. The tube has sufficient margin in terms of plate dissipation and Grid dissipation that makes it suitable to withstand momentarily load mismatch. To optimize the RF source along with HVDC power supply many mechanical and electrical aspects have been thought of to enhance the overall quality of the system. This source mainly has three sections (The RF section, HVDC Power supply and soft start Filament Power supply). The system is compact and is housed in a 80 cm x 60 cm x 1800 cm aluminum panel. This paper describes the specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters of 1KW Oscillator along with HVDC power supply with necessary interlocks, tests conducted and results obtained of this 1 KW grounded grid Hartley Oscillator on 50 ohm dummy load. This system has been tested for 8 hours of continuous operation without any appreciable deterioration of the RF output power.

  10. Tribological Properties of Surface-Textured and Plasma-Nitrided Pure Titanium Under Oil Lubrication Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baosen; Dong, Qiangsheng; Ba, Zhixin; Wang, Zhangzhong; Shi, Hancheng; Xue, Yanting

    2018-01-01

    Plasma nitriding was conducted as post-treatment for surface texture on pure titanium to obtain a continuous nitriding layer. Supersonic fine particles bombarding (SFPB) was carried out to prepare surface texture. The surface morphologies and chemical composition were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy. The microstructures of modified layers were characterized by transmission electron microscope. The tribological properties of surface-textured and duplex-treated pure titanium under oil lubrication condition were systematically investigated in the ball-on-plate reciprocating mode. The effects of applied load and sliding velocity on the tribological behavior were analyzed. The results show that after duplex treatments, the grains size in modified layer becomes slightly larger, and hardness is obviously improved. Wear resistance of duplex-treated pure titanium is significantly improved referenced to untreated and surface-textured pure titanium, which is 3.22 times as much as untreated pure titanium and 2.15 times of that for surface-textured pure titanium, respectively.

  11. Grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy analyses of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Danilo Olzon Dionysio de; Ardisson, Jose Domingos, E-mail: dolzon@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Edilaine Honorio [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie (Belgium); Olzon-Dionysio, Maristela; Souza, Sylvio Dionysio de; Fabris, Jose Domingos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil); Martinez, L.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: systematic investigation of samples of plasma-nitriding austenitic stainless steels ASTM F138 and AISI 316L is reported. The surface treatment of the steels through plasma-nitriding was used to improve further the hardness, wear and corrosion resistance of these stainless steels. The resulting layered crystallographic structure actually corresponds to several phases with close cell parameters, making their identification and quantification a real experimental challenge. The ASTM F138 and AISI 316L stainless steel disks were plasma nitrided for 4 h at 400 deg C in a 80% H{sub 2} -20% N2 atmosphere at 6 torr, using plasma current frequencies between 6 and 100 kHz. Data of Moessbauer (CEMS and CXMS) and grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD-SR) were systematically collected. The nitrided layer thickness were not in general influenced by the plasma frequency, except at 12 kHz, which produced a layer thickness of approximately 8.0 mm, being in average 40% thicker than for the other samples. CXMS and CEMS Moessbauer spectra for this 12 kHz-sample show a much more pronounced magnetic resonance lines than for the other samples. The Fe{sub 4}N phase presents a single magnetic hyperfine interaction; the other two (Fe{sub 2-3}N and the expanded austenite) present both paramagnetic and magnetic components, even though their hyperfine parameters may not be safely separated. We also present the results of XRD-SR that were probed at several depths. The data from these techniques may be consistently correlated and this leads to an improved model to explain the structure of the nitrided layers. (author)

  12. About of the Electrostatic fields excitation theory by a RF wave in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    In an unidimensional model is shown in the cases of a semi limited plasma and a layer of plasma the excitement mechanism of electrostatic fields for a radiofrequency wave (RF) polarized lineally. This phenomenon depends strongly on the combined action of the Miller force and that of impulsion. It is shown that the action of these forces is carried out in different characteristic times when the front of wave crosses through the plasma. The cases of a semi limited plasma and of a layer of plasma without and with current are analyzed. It is shown that near the frontiers of the plasma where the field is sufficiently big arise oscillations of the width of the field that are slowly muffled in the space in an exponential way. In the cases of a plasma layer its are shown that the processes that arise near the frontier x = L are similar to the processes that arise near the frontier x = 0. The existence of current in the plasma layer leads to the blockade of the excited perturbations in the frontier x = L. (Author)

  13. Hybrid processing of Ti-6Al-4V using plasma immersion ion implantation combined with plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Maria Margareth da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the fact that the Ti-6Al-4V alloy has good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to corrosion and also excellent biocompatibility, however with low wear resistance, this work aims to test plasma processes or combination of plasma and ion implantation processes to improve these characteristics. Two types of processing were used: two steps PIII (Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation combined with PN (Plasma Nitriding and single step PIII treatment. According to Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES results, the best solution was obtained by PIII for 150 minutes resulting in ~ 65 nm of nitrogen implanted layer, while the sample treated with PIII (75 minutes and PN (75 minutes reached ~ 35 nm implanted layer. The improvement of surface properties could also be confirmed by the nanoindentation technique, with values of hardness increasing for both processes. AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy characterization showed that the single step PIII process presented greater efficiency than the duplex process (PIII + PN, probably due to the sputtering occurring during the second step (PN removing partially the implanted layer of first step (PIII.

  14. Nitridation effects of Si(1 1 1) substrate surface on InN nanorods grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shan [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tan, Jin, E-mail: jintan_cug@163.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Bin; Song, Hao; Wu, Zhengbo; Chen, Xin [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Graphical abstract: The morphology evolution of InN nanorods in samples (g)–(i). The alignment of InN nanorods is improved and the deviation angle distribution narrows down with increase in nitriding time. It suggests that extending the nitriding time can enhance the vertical orientation of InN nanorods. - Highlights: • InN nanorods were grown on surface nitrided Si(1 1 1) substrate using PAMBE system. • Nitridation of substrate surface has a strong effect on morphology of InN nanorods. • InN nanorods cannot be formed with 1 min nitridation of Si(1 1 1) substrate. • Increasing nitriding time will increase optimum growth temperature of InN nanorods. • Increasing nitriding time can enhance vertical orientation of InN nanorods. - Abstract: The InN nanorods were grown on Si(1 1 1) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) system, with a substrate nitridation process. The effect of nitriding time of Si(1 1 1) substrate on morphology, orientation and growth temperature of InN nanorods was characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The deviation angle of InN nanorods was measured to evaluate the alignment of arrays. The results showed that InN nanorods could not be formed with 1 min nitridation of Si(1 1 1) substrate, but they could be obtained again when the nitriding time was increased to more than 10 min. In order to get aligned InN nanorods, the growth temperature needed to increase with longer nitriding time. The vertical orientation of InN nanorods could be enhanced with increase in nitriding time. The influence of the substrate nitridation on the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of InN nanorods has been investigated.

  15. Analysis of mechanical properties of steel 1045 plasma nitriding: with and without tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, N.T.B.; Passos, M.L.M. dos; Riani, J.C.; Recco, A.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of tempering during the nitriding of AISI 1045 steel. The objective was to evaluate the possibility of eliminating this phase, with the nitriding properties remaining unaltered. For this, three parameter samples were compared: quenched, tempered and nitrided for 2h; quenching and nitrided for 2h and quenching and nitrided for 4h. The analysis techniques used for characterizing the samples before and after nitriding were optical microscopy, hardness Rockwell C (HRC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that phase γ is the most favorable of all parameters tested. The hardness assays showed that samples with different initial hardness (with and without tempering) and even nitriding time showed similar mechanical properties. This fact suggests that the tempering process occurred parallel to the nitriding process. (author)

  16. RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma

  17. Crystalline and amorphous phases in carbon nitride films produced by intense high-pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.N.; Orlov, A.V.; Bursill, L.A.; JuLin, P.; Nugent, K.W.; Chon, J.W.; Prawer, S.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon-nitride films are prepared using a high-intensity pulsed plasma deposition technique. A wide range of nitrogen pressure and discharge intensity are used to investigate their effect on the morphology, nitrogen content, structure, bonding, phase composition and mechanical characteristics of the CN films deposited. Increasing the nitrogen pressure from 0.1 atm to 10 atm results in an increase of nitrogen incorporation into CN films to maximum of 45 at %. Under the high-energy density deposition conditions which involve ablation of the quartz substrate the CN films are found to incorporate in excess of 60 at %N. Raman spectra of these films contain sharp peaks characteristic of a distinct crystalline CN phase. TEM diffraction patterns for the films deposited below 1 atm unambiguously show the presence of micron-sized crystals displaying a cubic symmetry. (authors)

  18. Plasma-nitride α-βTi alloy: layer characterization and mechanical properties modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveh, A.; Bussiba, A.; Bettelheim, A.; Katz, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Beyond continuous efforts to develop advanced processing methods or new directions in surface modification, the foundations for assessment of appropriate surface layers still remain very challenging. In this context, Ti-6Al-4V α-β alloy was investigated mainly after plasma nitriding by nitrogen or by a nitrogen mixture with hydrogen and/or argon. The current study objectives consist in gradually developing some aspects of the microstructure and property relationship. As such, the study centred on the characterization of refined layers as well as confronting critical questions of how layers and interfacial microstructure might affect the near-surface mechanical properties (i.e. microhardness, fatigue resistance and erosion). In particular, the effects on fatigue behaviour are emphasized by utilizing single edge notched specimens and fatigue stepdown techniques. It is found that two distinct sublayers, comprising δ-TiN and δ-TiN + ε-Ti 2 N phases, were formed with alloying elements in a segregated zone, followed by a solid solution of N in the Ti. Here, the far field affected zone extended up to about 20 μm. It was observed that the formation of the uppermost sublayer (δ-TiN phase) with a composition including H, NH, and N, as well as Ti depleted of Al and V, has a strong effect on the layer properties. A microhardness value as high as 29.4 GPa (3000 kgf mm -2 ) was obtained with significant improvements in the erosion resistance and fatigue life. It was found that in some controlled plasma nitriding conditions the fatigue life for crack initiation increased by more than a factor of 3. Accordingly, the cyclic crack initiation behaviour is described, revealing substantial influences due to crack tip field perturbations, or fracture resistance modifications. Finally, the role of extrinsic crack tip shielding effects as related to closure or to the local effective driving force for microcracking onset is elaborated. (orig.)

  19. Plasma nitriding and simultaneous tempering of VF 800AT tool steel; Nitretacao por plasma com revenimento simultaneo do aco ferramenta VF 800AT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prass, Andre Ricardo; Fontana, Luis Cesar; Recco, Abel Andre Candido, E-mail: prass.andrericardo@gmail.com, E-mail: luis.fontana@udesc.br, E-mail: abel.recco@udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    Plasma nitriding of tool steels improves the surface hardness due to formation of diffusion zone and/or compound layer. The process parameters such as temperature, gas composition and dwell time, allow to control the layer thickness, the microstructure, the crystalline phases and the type of layer (for example white layer or diffusion zone). This paper discusses an alternative procedure for the heat treatment of tempering and surface treatment, both in plasma or combining conventional heat treatment with subsequent plasma nitriding. Carrying out both treatments in plasma could enable reduction in manufacturing costs, lower energy consumption and less time for tools manufacturing. Samples of VF800AT steel were treated and characterized (at surface and core of samples) through the following technique: X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, micro-hardness profile and Rockwell C measurement. Temperature measurements during the plasma treatment, show that arise thermal gradient between the surface and the core of the samples. In this work, it was observed that the surface was up to 7% hotter than the core of sample, during the plasma treatment with temperature of magnitude about 5 x 10{sup 2} °C. This thermal gradient seems inherent to the plasma process, so that it can produce different microstructure, hardness and crystalline phases between core and edge of samples. However, when two tempering operations are prior carried out in a muffle furnace and the third tempering treatment is subsequently carried out simultaneously with the plasma nitriding, it is observed that the microstructure, the crystalline phases, hardness and micro hardness (in both, edge and core) are similar to treatments done in conventional mode cycle (in muffle furnace) with subsequent plasma nitriding. (author)

  20. Plasma flow around and charge distribution of a dust cluster in a rf discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleede, J.; Lewerentz, L.; Bronold, F. X.; Schneider, R.; Fehske, H.

    2018-04-01

    We employ a particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision/particle-particle particle-mesh simulation to study the plasma flow around and the charge distribution of a three-dimensional dust cluster in the sheath of a low-pressure rf argon discharge. The geometry of the cluster and its position in the sheath are fixed to the experimental values, prohibiting a mechanical response of the cluster. Electrically, however, the cluster and the plasma environment, mimicking also the experimental situation, are coupled self-consistently. We find a broad distribution of the charges collected by the grains. The ion flux shows on the scale of the Debye length strong focusing and shadowing inside and outside the cluster due to the attraction of the ions to the negatively charged grains, whereas the electron flux is characterized on this scale only by a weak spatial modulation of its magnitude depending on the rf phase. On the scale of the individual dust potentials, however, the electron flux deviates in the vicinity of the cluster strongly from the laminar flow associated with the plasma sheath. It develops convection patterns to compensate for the depletion of electrons inside the dust cluster.

  1. Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Helen C; Richardson, Patricia R; Campbell, Gaynor A; Jones, Anita C; Baxter, Robert L; Kovalev, Valeri I; Maier, Robert; Barton, James S; DeLarge, Greg; Casey, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The development of methods for measuring the efficiency of gas-plasma decontamination has lagged far behind application. An approach to measuring the efficiency of protein removal from solid surfaces using fluorescein-labelled bovine serum albumin and epifluorescence scanning (EFSCAN) is described. A method for fluorescently labelling proteins, which are adsorbed and denatured on metal surfaces, has been developed. Both approaches have been used to evaluate the efficiency of radio frequency (RF) gas-plasma decontamination protocols. Examples with 'real' surgical instruments demonstrate that an argon-oxygen RF gas-plasma treatment can routinely reduce the protein load by about three orders of magnitude beyond that achieved by current decontamination methods.

  2. Plasma polymer films rf sputtered from PTFE under various argon pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Biederman, H.; Slavinská, D.; Zemek, Josef; Trchová, Miroslava

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2005), s. 131-137 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 527.10; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 527.90 Grant - others:EUREKAΣ2080(XE) OE57 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : RF sputtering * PTFE * fluorcarbon plasma polymers * thin film * teflon * deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2005

  3. Mechanism for heating of nitrogen plasmas in an electrodeless rf capacitive discharge at medium pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdichevskii, M.G.; Marusin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The possible contributions of several processes to the experimentally observed heating of nitrogen plasmas in an electarodeless rf capacitive discharge at pressures of p=2.7-67 kPa are discussed. These processes are electron-rotational, vibrational--translational (V--T), and nonresonance vibrational--vibrational (V--V) energy exchange and effects due to O 2 , H 2 O, and NO impurities in the gas. It is shown that as the pressure is decreased the heating mechanism changes from quasiequilibrium to nonequilibrium V--T heating caused by overpopulation of high vibrational levels in the ground state of the nitrogen molecule

  4. Development of an rf-driven plasma neutralizer for negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    The assertion that beams of negative ions can be neutralized more efficiently by impacting a plasma, rather than a cold gas target, is confirmed scientifically by the work of K.H. Berkner et al. What remains to be done is the realization of practical means of generating plasmas efficiently with appropriate integrated line densities (target thickness). The work performed by JAYCOR, under this grant, over the past few years has made significant progress towards that goal. In this work, large volumes of plasma are generated using low-frequency pulsed inductive rf discharges within a ring cusp multipole-magnetic field geometry. These plasmas exhibit sufficient line-integrated electron densities and degrees of ionization to neutralize beams of energetic negative ions whose energies exceed 500 keV. The method of plasma generation and the cell configuration used in these studies are directly applicable to higher energy neutral beam injector systems (NBIS). Innate scalability and modularity of the system design facilitates linear stacking to achieve a desired target thickness. Further, the plasma formation process is accomplished with an electrical economy consistent with increased overall electrical efficiency of the NBIS compared to that possible using a cold gas target. 5 refs., 16 figs

  5. RF plasma production and heating below ion-cyclotron frequencies in Uragan torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, V.E.; Berezhnyj, V.L.; Bondarenko, V.N.; Burchenko, P.Ya.; Chechkin, V.V.; Chernyshenko, V.Ya.; Dreval, M.B.; Garkusha, I.E.; Glazunov, G.P.; Grigor'eva, L.I.; Konovalov, V.G.; Kotsubanov, V.D.; Kramskoi, Ye.D.; Kulaga, A.E.; Lozin, A.V.; Castejon, F.; Hidalgo, C.; Hartmann, D.; Koch, R.; Lyssoivan, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    In the IPP-Kharkiv there are two torsatrons (stellarators) in operation, and in both of them Alfven resonance heating under high-k || conditions is used. This method of heating is advantageous for small-size devices, since in contrast to the minority and second-harmonic heating it can be realized at lower plasma densities. A series of experiments has been performed at the Uragan-3M torsatron with an aim to investigate the features of the discharge with a three-half-turn antenna. Electron temperatures in the T-bar = 0.2-0.5 keV range are achieved at plasma densities n-bar e approx. (0.5-1.5) x 10 13 cm -3 . The plasma energy content has increased by a factor of 2 with respect to the plasma produced with the frame antenna. A new four-strap shielded antenna has been manufactured and installed in the Uragan-2M. A high-frequency discharge for wall conditioning is introduced in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The discharge is sustained by a specially designed small frame antenna, and efficient hydrogen dissociation is achieved. A self-consistent model has been developed for simulation of plasma production in ICRF. The model includes a set of particle and energy-balance equations for the electrons, and the boundary problem for the Maxwell equations. The first calculation results on RF plasma production in the Uragan-2M stellarator with the frame-type antenna are presented.

  6. Effects of RF plasma treatment on spray-pyrolyzed copper oxide films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Rozen Grace B.; Martinez, Melanie M.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of radio-frequency (RF) argon (Ar) plasma treatment on the structural, morphological, electrical and compositional properties of the spray-pyrolyzed p-type copper oxide films on n-type (100) silicon (Si) substrates were investigated. The films were successfully synthesized using 0.3 M copper acetate monohydrate sprayed on precut Si substrates maintained at 350 °C. X-ray diffraction revealed cupric oxide (CuO) with a monoclinic structure. An apparent improvement in crystallinity was realized after Ar plasma treatment, attributed to the removal of residues contaminating the surface. Scanning electron microscope images showed agglomerated monoclinic grains and revealed a reduction in size upon plasma exposure induced by the sputtering effect. The current-voltage characteristics of CuO/Si showed a rectifying behavior after Ar plasma exposure with an increase in turn-on voltage. Four-point probe measurements revealed a decrease in sheet resistance after plasma irradiation. Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses also showed O-H and C-O bands on the films. This work was able to produce CuO thin films via spray pyrolysis on Si substrates and enhancement in their properties by applying postdeposition Ar plasma treatment.

  7. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Lab. for Plasma Materials Processing)

    1983-07-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF/sub 4/ using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an R.F. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF/sub 4/(25%)-argon(75%) mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF/sub 4/(87%)-argon(13%) were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF/sub 4/ as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined.

  8. Modeling of polarization phenomena due to RF sheaths and electron beams in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudot, E.

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the problematic of hot spots induced by accelerated particle fluxes in tokamaks. It is shown that the polarization due to sheaths in the edge plasma in which an electron beam at a high level of energy is injected, can reach several hundreds volts and thus extend the deposition area. The notion of obstructed sheath is introduced and explains the acceleration of energy deposition by the decreasing of the sheath potential. Then, a 2-dimensional fluid modeling of flux tubes in front of ICRF antennae allows us to calculate the rectified potentials taking into account RF polarization currents transverse to magnetic field lines. The 2-dimensional fluid code designed validates the analytical results which show that the DC rectified potential is 50% greater with polarization currents than without. Finally, the simultaneous application of an electron beam and a RF potential reveals that the potentials due to each phenomenon are additives when RF potential is much greater than beam polarization. The density depletion of polarized flux tubes in 2-dimensional PIC (particles in cells) simulations is characterized but not yet explained. (author)

  9. Nonlinear plasma experiments in geospace with gigawatts of RF power at HAARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheerin, J. P., E-mail: jsheerin@emich.edu [Physics and Astronomy, Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti, MI 48197 (United States); Cohen, Morris B., E-mail: mcohen@gatech.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    The ionosphere is the ionized uppermost layer of our atmosphere (from 70 – 500 km altitude) where free electron densities yield peak critical frequencies in the HF (3 – 30 MHz) range. The ionosphere thus provides a quiescent plasma target, stable on timescales of minutes, for a whole host of active plasma experiments. High power RF experiments on ionospheric plasma conducted in the U.S. have been reported since 1970. The largest HF transmitter built to date is the HAARP phased-array HF transmitter near Gakona, Alaska which can deliver up to 3.6 Gigawatts (ERP) of CW RF power in the range of 2.8 – 10 MHz to the ionosphere with microsecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. With an ionospheric background thermal energy in the range of only 0.1 eV, this amount of power gives access to the highest regimes of the nonlinearity (RF intensity to thermal pressure) ratio. HAARP’s unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of unique nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including generation of artificial aurorae, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, parametric instabilities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the HF-enhanced plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. One of the primary missions of HAARP, has been the generation of ELF (300 – 3000 Hz) and VLF (3 – 30 kHz) radio waves which are guided to global distances in the Earth

  10. Application of plasma silicon nitride to crystalline thin-film silicon solar cells. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.; Oberbeck, L.; Rinke, T.J.; Berge, C.; Bergmann, R.B.

    2002-07-01

    We use plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition to deposit silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) films at low temperature(400 C) onto the front surface of two different types of crystalline thin-film Si solar cells. The silicon nitride acts as an excellent antireflection coating on Si and provides a very high degree of electronic surface passivation over a wide range of compositions, including near-stoichiometric and Si-rich SiN{sub x}. Application of stoichiometric SiN{sub x} to non-textured thin-film cells, epitaxially grown at low temperature by ion-assisted deposition onto a monocrystalline Si substrate, results in an open-circuit voltage of 622 mV, a short-circuit current density of 26.6 mA/cm{sup 2} and an efficiency of 12.7%. It is shown that the SiN{sub x}-passivated in-situ grown n{sup +}-emitter of this cell type allows to reach open-circuit voltages of up to 667 mV. Silicon-rich SiN{sub x} is applied to the phosphorus-diffused n{sup +}-emitter of a textured thin-film cell on a glass superstrate fabricated by layer-transfer. The emitter saturation current density of these cells is only 40-64 fA/cm{sup 2}, which allows for open-circuit voltages of up to 699 mV. An impressively high open-circuit voltage of 638 mV and a short-circuit current density of 32.0 mA/cm{sup 2} are obtained for a 25 {mu}m thick SiN{sub x}-passivated, random pyramid-textured transfer cell. A transfer cell efficiency of 15.3% is independently confirmed.

  11. Structural and chemical analysis of annealed plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition aluminum nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broas, Mikael, E-mail: mikael.broas@aalto.fi; Vuorinen, Vesa [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Sippola, Perttu; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University. P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-07-15

    Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition was utilized to grow aluminum nitride (AlN) films on Si from trimethylaluminum and N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} plasma at 200 °C. Thermal treatments were then applied on the films which caused changes in their chemical composition and nanostructure. These changes were observed to manifest in the refractive indices and densities of the films. The AlN films were identified to contain light element impurities, namely, H, C, and excess N due to nonideal precursor reactions. Oxygen contamination was also identified in the films. Many of the embedded impurities became volatile in the elevated annealing temperatures. Most notably, high amounts of H were observed to desorb from the AlN films. Furthermore, dinitrogen triple bonds were identified with infrared spectroscopy in the films. The triple bonds broke after annealing at 1000 °C for 1 h which likely caused enhanced hydrolysis of the films. The nanostructure of the films was identified to be amorphous in the as-deposited state and to become nanocrystalline after 1 h of annealing at 1000 °C.

  12. Synthesis of Ni2B nanoparticles by RF thermal plasma for fuel cell catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y; Tanaka, M; Watanabe, T; Choi, S Y; Shin, M S; Lee, K H

    2014-01-01

    The catalyst of Ni 2 B nanoparticles was successfully prepared using nickel and boron as precursors with the quenching gas in radio frequency thermal plasmas. The generating of Ni 2 B needs adequate reaction temperature and boron content in precursors. The quenching gas is beneficial for the synthesis of Ni 2 B in RF thermal plasma. The effect of quenching rate, powder feed rate and boron content in feeding powders on the synthesis of nickel boride nanoparticles was studied in this research. The high mass fraction of 28 % of Ni 2 B nanoparticles can be generated at the fixed initial composition of Ni:B = 2:3. Quenching gas is necessary in the synthesis of Ni 2 B nanoaprticles. In addition, the mass fraction of Ni 2 B increases with the increase of quenching gas flow rate and powder feed rate

  13. Advancement of In-Flight Alumina Powder Spheroidization Process with Water Droplet Injection Using a Small Power DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Juyong; Takana, Hidemasa; Park, Sangkyu; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2012-09-01

    The correlation between plasma thermofluid characteristics and alumina powder spheroidization processes with water droplet injection using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system was experimentally clarified. Micro-sized water droplets with a low water flow rate were injected into the tail of thermal plasma flow so as not to disturb the plasma flow directly. Injected water droplets were vaporized in the thermal plasma flow and were transported upstream in the plasma flow to the torch by the backflow. After dissociation of water, the production of hydrogen was detected by the optical emission spectroscopy in the downstream RF plasma flow. The emission area of the DC plasma jet expanded and elongated in the vicinity of the RF coils. Additionally, the emission area of RF plasma flow enlarged and was visible as red emission in the downstream RF plasma flow in the vicinity below the RF coils due to hydrogen production. Therefore, the plasma flow mixed with produced hydrogen increased the plasma enthalpy and the highest spheroidization rate of 97% was obtained at a water flow rate of 15 Sm l/min and an atomizing gas flow rate of 8 S l/min using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system.

  14. Iterative Addition of Kinetic Effects to Cold Plasma RF Wave Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David; Berry, Lee; RF-SciDAC Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The hot nature of fusion plasmas requires a wave vector dependent conductivity tensor for accurate calculation of wave heating and current drive. Traditional methods for calculating the linear, kinetic full-wave plasma response rely on a spectral method such that the wave vector dependent conductivity fits naturally within the numerical method. These methods have seen much success for application to the well-confined core plasma of tokamaks. However, quantitative prediction of high power RF antenna designs for fusion applications has meant a requirement of resolving the geometric details of the antenna and other plasma facing surfaces for which the Fourier spectral method is ill-suited. An approach to enabling the addition of kinetic effects to the more versatile finite-difference and finite-element cold-plasma full-wave solvers was presented by where an operator-split iterative method was outlined. Here we expand on this approach, examine convergence and present a simplified kinetic current estimator for rapidly updating the right-hand side of the wave equation with kinetic corrections. This research used resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  15. RF plasma cleaning of silicon substrates with high-density polyethylene contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagomoc, Charisse Marie D.; De Leon, Mark Jeffry D.; Ebuen, Anna Sophia M.; Gilos, Marlo Nicole R.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Upon contact with a polymeric material, microparticles from the polymer may adhere to a silicon (Si) substrate during device processing. The adhesion contaminates the surface and, in turn, leads to defects in the fabricated Si-based microelectronic devices. In this study, Si substrates with artificially induced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) contamination was exposed to 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma utilizing argon and oxygen gas admixtures at a power density of 5.6 W/cm2 and a working pressure of 110 Pa for up to 6 min of treatment. Optical microscopy studies revealed the removal of up to 74% of the polymer contamination upon plasma exposure. Surface free energy (SFE) increased owing to the removal of contaminants as well as the formation of polar groups on the Si surface after plasma treatment. Atomic force microscopy scans showed a decrease in surface roughness from 12.25 nm for contaminated samples to 0.77 nm after plasma cleaning. The smoothening effect can be attributed to the removal of HDPE particles from the surface. In addition, scanning electron microscope images showed that there was a decrease in the amount of HDPE contaminants adhering onto the surface after plasma exposure.

  16. Time-Domain Modeling of RF Antennas and Plasma-Surface Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in finite-difference time-domain (FDTD modeling techniques allow plasma-surface interactions such as sheath formation and sputtering to be modeled concurrently with the physics of antenna near- and far-field behavior and ICRF power flow. Although typical sheath length scales (micrometers are much smaller than the wavelengths of fast (tens of cm and slow (millimeter waves excited by the antenna, sheath behavior near plasma-facing antenna components can be represented by a sub-grid kinetic sheath boundary condition, from which RF-rectified sheath potential variation over the surface is computed as a function of current flow and local plasma parameters near the wall. These local time-varying sheath potentials can then be used, in tandem with particle-in-cell (PIC models of the edge plasma, to study sputtering effects. Particle strike energies at the wall can be computed more accurately, consistent with their passage through the known potential of the sheath, such that correspondingly increased accuracy of sputtering yields and heat/particle fluxes to antenna surfaces is obtained. The new simulation capabilities enable time-domain modeling of plasma-surface interactions and ICRF physics in realistic experimental configurations at unprecedented spatial resolution. We will present results/animations from high-performance (10k-100k core FDTD/PIC simulations of Alcator C-Mod antenna operation.

  17. The characteristics of RF modulated plasma boundary sheaths: An analysis of the standard sheath model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naggary, Schabnam; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of radio frequency (RF) modulated plasma boundary sheaths are studied on the basis of the so-called ``standard sheath model.'' This model assumes that the applied radio frequency ωRF is larger than the plasma frequency of the ions but smaller than that of the electrons. It comprises a phase-averaged ion model - consisting of an equation of continuity (with ionization neglected) and an equation of motion (with collisional ion-neutral interaction taken into account) - a phase-resolved electron model - consisting of an equation of continuity and the assumption of Boltzmann equilibrium -, and Poisson's equation for the electrical field. Previous investigations have studied the standard sheath model under additional approximations, most notably the assumption of a step-like electron front. This contribution presents an investigation and parameter study of the standard sheath model which avoids any further assumptions. The resulting density profiles and overall charge-voltage characteristics are compared with those of the step-model based theories. The authors gratefully acknowledge Efe Kemaneci for helpful comments and fruitful discussions.

  18. Surface Modification of C17200 Copper-Beryllium Alloy by Plasma Nitriding of Cu-Ti Gradient Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. D.; Yan, M. F.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, C. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, a copper-titanium film of gradient composition was firstly fabricated by the dual magnetron sputtering through power control and plasma nitriding of the film was then conducted to modify C17200 Cu alloy. The results showed that the prepared gradient Cu-Ti film by magnetron sputtering was amorphous. After plasma nitriding at 650 °C, crystalline Cu-Ti intermetallics appeared in the multi-phase coating, including CuTi2, Cu3Ti, Cu3Ti2 and CuTi. Moreover, even though the plasma nitriding duration of the gradient Cu-Ti film was only 0.5 h, the mechanical properties of the modified Cu surface were obviously improved, with the surface hardness enhanced to be 417 HV0.01, the wear rate to be 0.32 × 10-14 m3/Nm and the friction coefficient to be 0.075 at the load of 10 N, which are all more excellent than the C17200 Cu alloy. In addition, the wear mechanism also changed from adhesion wear for C17200 Cu substrate to abrasive wear for the modified surface.

  19. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prysiazhnyi, V.; Slavíček, P.; Mikmeková, Eliška; Klíma, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2016), s. 430-437 ISSN 1009-0630 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : atmospheric pressure plasma * plasma jet * aluminium * surface treatment * surface processing * chemical precleaning Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2016

  20. Enhancement of corrosion resistance for plasma nitrided AISI 4140 steel by plain air plasma post-oxidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiqiang; Liu, Han; Ye, Xuemei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Chai, Yating [Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Hu, Jing, E-mail: jinghoo@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Plain air was primarily used for plasma post-oxidation for AISI 4140 steel. • A thin iron oxide layer composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed on top of the compound layer. • The ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was closely related to the post-oxidizing conditions. • Post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min brought out highest ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and optimum corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Plasma post-oxidizing was conducted immediately after plasma nitriding in the same equipment for AISI 4140 steel, and plain air was used as the oxygen bearing gas. The cross-sectional microstructures of the treated samples were observed by optical metallography and scanning electron microcopy (SEM), and the thickness of compound layer was measured accordingly. The phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical polarization, and the surface morphology before and after polarization test was also observed by SEM. Meanwhile, standard Gibbs free energy of the oxidation reactions existed in Fe–O system was calculated. The results show that a thin iron oxide layer composed of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is formed on top of the compound layer during plasma post-oxidizing process, and the ratio of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) to hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is depended on plasma post-oxidizing temperature and time. Highest ratio of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is obtained while post-oxidizing at 673 K for 60 min due to lower standard Gibbs free energy and appropriate forming rate for the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} at this temperature. The thin oxide layer brings out significant enhancement of corrosion resistance, especially at higher ratios of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, due to the dense and adherent characteristic of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} oxide. Surface images of the post-oxidizing specimen

  1. Preliminary results of a broad beam RF ion source with electron plasma interaction. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E; Zakhary, S G; Ghanem, A A; Abdel-Ghaffar, A M [Ion Sources and Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A new design of a broad beam RF ion source is made to be capable to deliver wide and uniform beam with currents reaching (100 {mu} A up to 30 mA) at extraction voltages (200 V up to 2 kV). Its plasma intensifying system is made with the addition of electrons from an immersed filament in the discharge and axial magnetic field (70 up to 300 G). A uniform beam distribution is made with a planner graphite cathode which has a number of holes arranged to produce perveance matching with the normal Gaussian distribution of the beam density. These holes are arranged in a consequent orbits with equal distance between the adjacent holes in each orbit. These holes increase in diameter with increasing the orbit radius. This allows increasing the extracted ion currents at the source outer edges and decreases its value at the source inner region; producing wide and uniform beam which is suitable for material modifications. The beam profiles are traced with electromechanical scanner and X-Y recorder. The perveance matching is found to produce a beam uniformity of =66% of its width which reaches =6 cm. The variation of the output currents are with the variation of extraction voltages, magnetic field, discharge pressure and electron injection into the plasma. The extracted current increases with the increase of the discharge pressure, RF power and magnetic field intensity. The influence of electron plasma interaction is found to have a great effect on increasing the ion currents to about four times its value without electron interaction, however, this increase is limited due to presence of breakdown at V{sub ex} > 2 kV. The simple design of this source, its cleanness due to the use of pyrex discharge bottle, easy operation and maintenance adds other features to this broad beam type ion source which makes it suitable for metallurgical applications in broad beam accelerators. 6 figs.

  2. Mechanical and tribological properties of AISI 304 stainless steel nitrided by glow discharge compared to ion implantation and plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.E.; Serbena, F.C.; Silva, S.L.R. da; Lepienski, C.M.; Siqueira, C.J. de M.; Ueda, M.

    2007-01-01

    Results about mechanical and tribological behavior of AISI 304 stainless steel nitrided by three different ion beam processes - glow discharge (GD), ion implantation (II) and plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) are reported. Expanded austenite γ N and nitrides phases (Fe 2+x N, γ'-Fe 4 N and Cr-N) were identified as a function of nitriding conditions. Hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) profiles were obtained by instrumented penetration. The hardness reached values as high as 21 GPa by PI3. Tribological behavior was studied by reciprocating sliding tests with a WC (Co) ball at room temperature (RT) in dry condition. Different wear regimes were identified in the friction coefficient profiles. The profile form and the running-in distance are strongly dependent on the nitriding process. Adhesive and abrasive wear components can be inferred from these friction profiles. Hardness and tribological performance, after the nitriding processes, are discussed in terms of surface microstructure

  3. CN.sub.x./sub. coatings deposited by pulsored RF supersonic plasma jet: hardness, nitrogenation and optical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubička, Zdeněk; Šícha, Miloš; Pajasová, Libuše; Soukup, Ladislav; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Chvostová, Dagmar; Wagner, T.

    142-144, - (2001), s. 681-687 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1592; GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : carbon nitrides * plasma-chemical deposition * tribology * optical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.236, year: 2001

  4. Treatment of nitridation by microwave post discharge plasma in an AISI 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina F, A.; Rodriguez L, V.; Zamora R, L.; Oseguera P, J.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine through X-ray diffraction, microhardness measurement and scanning electron microscopy those main operation parameters of the microwave post discharge treatment (temperature of treatment, gas mixture and permanence time) nitriding an AISI 4140 steel and to characterize the compact layer of nitrides formed during the treatment. (Author)

  5. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prysiazhnyi, Vadym; Slavicek, Pavel; Klima, Milos; Mikmekova, Eliska

    2016-01-01

    This paper is aimed to show the influence of initial chemical pretreatment prior to subsequent plasma activation of aluminum surfaces. The results of our study showed that the state of the topmost surface layer (i.e. the surface morphology and chemical groups) of plasma modified aluminum significantly depends on the chemical precleaning. Commonly used chemicals (isopropanol, trichlorethane, solution of NaOH in deionized water) were used as precleaning agents. The plasma treatments were done using a radio frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma pencil developed at Masaryk University, which operates in Ar, Ar/O 2 gas mixtures. The effectiveness of the plasma treatment was estimated by the wettability measurements, showing high wettability improvement already after 0.3 s treatment. The effects of surface cleaning (hydrocarbon removal), surface oxidation and activation (generation of OH groups) were estimated using infrared spectroscopy. The changes in the surface morphology were measured using scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements in the near-to-surface region with temperature calculations showed that plasma itself depends on the sample precleaning procedure. (paper)

  6. Influence of Chemical Precleaning on the Plasma Treatment Efficiency of Aluminum by RF Plasma Pencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadym, Prysiazhnyi; Pavel, Slavicek; Eliska, Mikmekova; Milos, Klima

    2016-04-01

    This paper is aimed to show the influence of initial chemical pretreatment prior to subsequent plasma activation of aluminum surfaces. The results of our study showed that the state of the topmost surface layer (i.e. the surface morphology and chemical groups) of plasma modified aluminum significantly depends on the chemical precleaning. Commonly used chemicals (isopropanol, trichlorethane, solution of NaOH in deionized water) were used as precleaning agents. The plasma treatments were done using a radio frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma pencil developed at Masaryk University, which operates in Ar, Ar/O2 gas mixtures. The effectiveness of the plasma treatment was estimated by the wettability measurements, showing high wettability improvement already after 0.3 s treatment. The effects of surface cleaning (hydrocarbon removal), surface oxidation and activation (generation of OH groups) were estimated using infrared spectroscopy. The changes in the surface morphology were measured using scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements in the near-to-surface region with temperature calculations showed that plasma itself depends on the sample precleaning procedure.

  7. Deposition of titanium nitride on Si(1 0 0) wafers using plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Tousif; Ahmad, R.; Khan, I.A.; Siddiqui, Jamil; Khalid, Nida; Bhatti, Arshad Saleem; Naseem, Shahzad

    2009-01-01

    Titanium nitride thin films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates by using a low energy (2.3 KJ) Mather-type plasma focus device. The composition of the deposited films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size has strong dependence on the numbers of focus shots. The crystallinity of TiN thin films is found to increase with increasing the number of focus shots. The effect of different number of focus shots on micro structural changes of thin films was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). SEM results showed net-like structure for film deposited for 15 numbers of shots, which are elongated grains of Si 3 N 4 in amorphous form embedded into TiN crystals. The average surface roughness was calculated from AFM images of the thin films. These results indicated that the average surface roughness increased for films deposited with increased number of focus shots. The least crystallite size and roughness are observed for film deposited with 25 focus shots.

  8. Plasma Nitriding of AISI 304 Stainless Steel in Cathodic and Floating Electric Potential: Influence on Morphology, Chemical Characteristics and Tribological Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Yongyong; Wang, Wei; Mao, Junyuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Yijie; Ye, Qianwen

    2018-03-01

    In direct current plasma nitriding (DCPN), the treated components are subjected to a high cathodic potential, which brings several inherent shortcomings, e.g., damage by arcing and the edging effect. In active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes, the cathodic potential is applied to a metal screen that surrounds the workload, and the component to be treated is placed in a floating potential. Such an electrical configuration allows plasma to be formed on the metal screen surface rather than on the component surface; thus, the shortcomings of the DCPN are eliminated. In this work, the nitrided experiments were performed using a plasma nitriding unit. Two groups of samples were placed on the table in the cathodic and the floating potential, corresponding to the DCPN and ASPN, respectively. The floating samples and table were surrounded by a steel screen. The DCPN and ASPN of the AISI 304 stainless steels are investigated as a function of the electric potential. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscope. Dry sliding ball-on-disk wear tests were conducted on the untreated substrate, DCPN and ASPN samples. The results reveal that all nitrided samples successfully produced similar nitrogen-supersaturated S phase layers on their surfaces. This finding also shows the strong impact of the electric potential of the nitriding process on the morphology, chemical characteristics, hardness and tribological behavior of the DCPN and ASPN samples.

  9. INFLUENCE OF PLASMA NITRIDING ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOUR AND ADHESION OF DLC COATINGS DEPOSITED ON AISI 420 STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N. Pecina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the corrosion behavior and adhesion of two DLC (“Diamond Like Carbon” films (“Soft” and “Hard” were studied. Both coatings were deposited by PACVD (“Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition” on plasma-nitrided and non-nitrided AISI 420 stainless steel. Raman spectroscopy was conducted and surface hardness was measured. The microstructure by OM and SEM, was observed. Adhesion tests were performed with C. Rockwell indentation test. Salt Spray and immersion were performed in HCl. The “Soft” coating was 20 μm thick, the “Hard” film was about 2.5 μm. The hardness was of 500 HV in the “Soft” DLC and 1400 HV in the “Hard” DLC. Both coatings presented low friction coefficient and good adhesion when they were deposited on nitrided steel. Also presented good resistance to atmospheric corrosion. HCl DLC degradation slowed rapidly introduced uncoated samples.

  10. Investigation of parameters of the working substance - low temperature plasma in the ionization resonator chamber of the RF reactive engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, V.S.; Zajtzev, B.V.; Kobetz, A.F.; Bomko, V.A.; Rashkovan, V.M.; Bazyma, L.A.; Belokon, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is the extension of investigations of the RF engine designed for orientation and stabilization of the spacecrafts orbit, and it is undertaken for measuring of plasma parameters of RF discharge in the ionization resonator chamber. The experiments were performed at the frequency of 80 MHz on the model engine, in which a length of coaxial line with shortening capacities at the ends was used as the ionization resonator chamber. As the result of the experiments, conditions of the RF discharge ignition in the resonator chamber are studied; dependencies of plasma density and temperature versus applied power and working body pressure are obtained for various gases. The measurements of the thrust were performed at the special-purpose test bench

  11. Structural, optical and electrical peculiarities of r.f. plasma sputtered indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boycheva, Sylvia; Sytchkova, Anna Krasilnikova; Grilli, Maria Luisa; Piegari, Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this work the influence of the deposition conditions on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films was studied. Films were deposited by r.f. plasma sputtering technique in Ar and varying Ar + O 2 gas mixtures, with and without substrate heating. Transmittance and reflectance of the films were measured in the range 350-2500 nm; the refractive index (n) and the extinction coefficient (k) were calculated by the spectral data simulation. The sheet resistance of the films was measured by four-point probe method. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to study the texture of the films. Threshold behaviour was observed in the optical and electrical properties of ITO films deposited in Ar + O 2 atmosphere at a certain oxygen concentration determined by a fix combination of all other deposition conditions. A schematic diagram for the change of the film properties versus composition was suggested, which explains the obtained results

  12. RF plasma-driven hydrogen permeation through a biased iron membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, T.; Waelbroeck, F.; Winter, J.

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state RF plasma-driven hydrogen permeation through an electrically biased iron membrane has been investigated as a function of the bias potential Vsub(M) for membrane temperatures in the range of 150-400 0 C. Vsub(M) has been gradually increased positively from the floating potential of the membrane. The permeation flux decreases when Vsub(M) increases at low voltages: positive hydrogen ions are repelled. The membrane temperature does not influence this effect measurably. The permeation flux starts to increase when Vsub(M) is raised higher, i.e. when energetic electrons strike the surface. This phenomenon shows a pronounced temperature dependence - the enhancement is largest for the lowest temperatures. The effect is interpreted in terms of an electron-induced dissociation of hydrogen molecules on the membrane surface. (orig.)

  13. Development of solid oxide fuel cells by applying DC and RF plasma deposition technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, G.; Henne, R.; Lang, M.; Mueller, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Postfach 800370, 70503 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Based on advanced plasma deposition technology with both DC and RF plasmas DLR Stuttgart has developed a concept of a planar SOFC with consecutive deposition of all layers of a thin-film cell onto a porous metallic substrate support. This concept is an alternative approach to conventionally used sintering techniques for SOFC fabrication without needing any sintering steps or other thermal post-treatment. Furthermore, is has the potential to be developed into an automated continous production process. For both stationary and mobile applications, adequate stack designs and stack technologies have been developed. Future development work will focus on light-weight stacks to be applied as an Auxillary Power Unit (APU) for on-board electricity supply in passenger cars and airplanes. This paper describes the plasma deposition technologies used for cell fabrication and the DLR spray concept including the resulting stack designs. The current status of development and recent progress with respect to materials development and electrochemical characterization of single cells and short-stacks is presented. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Hydrogen retention in carbon-tungsten co-deposition layer formed by hydrogen RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, K.; Kawasaki, T.; Manabe, Y.; Nagase, H.; Takeishi, T.; Nishikawa, M.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-tungsten co-deposition layers (C-W layers) were formed by sputtering method using hydrogen or deuterium RF plasma. The deposition rate of the C-W layer by deuterium plasma was faster than that by hydrogen plasma, where the increase of deposition rate of tungsten was larger than that of carbon. This indicates that the isotope effect on sputtering-depositing process for tungsten is larger than that for carbon. The release curve of hydrogen from the C-W layer showed two peaks at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C. Comparing the hydrogen release from the carbon deposition layer and the tungsten deposition layer, it is considered that the increase of the release rate at 400 deg. C is affected by tungsten and that at 700 deg. C is affected by carbon. The obtained hydrogen retention in the C-W layers which have over 60 at.% of carbon was in the range between 0.45 and 0.16 as H/(C + W)

  15. Plasma Turbulence Suppression and Transport Barrier Formation by Externally Driven RF Waves in Spherical Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S.C.; Komoshvili, K.

    2002-01-01

    Turbulent transport of heat and particles is the principle obstacle confronting controlled fusion today. Thus, we investigate quantitatively the suppression of turbulence and formation of transport barriers in spherical tokamaks by sheared electric fields generated by externally driven radio-frequency (RF) waves, in the frequency range o)A n o] < o)ci (e)A and o)ci are the Alfven and ion cyclotron frequencies). This investigation consists of the solution of the full-wave equation for a spherical tokamak in the presence of externally driven fast waves and the evaluation of the power dissipation by the mode-converted Alfven waves. This in turn, provides a radial flow shear responsible for the suppression of plasma turbulence. Thus, a strongly non-linear equation for the radial sheared electric field is solved, the turbulent transport suppression rate is evaluated and compared with the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability increment. For illustration, the case of START-like device (Sykes 2000) is treated. Thus, (i) the exact D-shape cross-section is considered; (ii) additional kinetic (including Landau damping) and particle trapping effects are added to the resistive two-fluid dielectric tensor operator; (iii) a finite extension antenna located on the low-field-side of the plasma is considered; (iv) a rigorous 2.5 finite elements numerical code (Sewell 1993) is used; and (v) the turbulence and transport barrier generated as a result of wave-plasma interaction is evaluated

  16. A High-Intensity, RF Plasma-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Lohwasser, R.; Reed, C.A.; Zhang, T.

    1999-01-01

    A high-intensity, plasma-sputter negative-ion source based on the use of RF power for plasma generation has been developed that can be operated in either pulsed or dc modes. The source utilizes a high-Q, self-igniting, inductively coupled antenna system, operating at 80 MHz that has been optimized to generate Cs-seeded plasmas at low pressures (typically, - (610 microA); F - (100 microA); Si - (500 microA); S - (500 microA); P - (125 microA); Cl - (200 microA); Ni - (150 microA); Cu - (230 microA); Ge - (125 microA); As - (100 microA); Se - (200 microA); Ag - (70 microA); Pt - (125 microA); Au - (250 microA). The normalized emittance var e psilon n of the source at the 80% contour is: var e psilon n = 7.5 mm.mrad.(MeV) 1/2 . The design principles of the source, operational parameters, ion optics, emittance and intensities for a number of negative-ion species will be presented in this report

  17. A versatile ray-tracing code for studying rf wave propagation in toroidal magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Y; Decker, J; Morini, L

    2012-01-01

    A new ray-tracing code named C3PO has been developed to study the propagation of arbitrary electromagnetic radio-frequency (rf) waves in magnetized toroidal plasmas. Its structure is designed for maximum flexibility regarding the choice of coordinate system and dielectric model. The versatility of this code makes it particularly suitable for integrated modeling systems. Using a coordinate system that reflects the nested structure of magnetic flux surfaces in tokamaks, fast and accurate calculations inside the plasma separatrix can be performed using analytical derivatives of a spline-Fourier interpolation of the axisymmetric toroidal MHD equilibrium. Applications to reverse field pinch magnetic configuration are also included. The effects of 3D perturbations of the axisymmetric toroidal MHD equilibrium, due to the discreteness of the magnetic coil system or plasma fluctuations in an original quasi-optical approach, are also studied. Using a Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method for solving the set of ordinary differential equations, the ray-tracing code is extensively benchmarked against analytical models and other codes for lower hybrid and electron cyclotron waves. (paper)

  18. Design of an RF Antenna for a Large-Bore, High Power, Steady State Plasma Processing Chamber for Material Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Freeman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC, (Contractor), and Archimedes Technology Group, (Participant) is to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure. The project objectives are to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure

  19. Coating of Titanium Nitride on Stainless Steel Targets by a 4 kJ Plasma Focus Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, M.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.

    2012-08-01

    Titanium nitride thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS316L) targets by using a 4 kJ plasma focus device. The corresponding energy flux delivered to SS316L surface is estimated to be 2.69 × 1013 kev cm-3 ns-1. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the formation of a nanocrystalline titanium nitride coating on the surface of targets. Thickness of the elements found on the surface of treated samples which are obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis (RBS) were (×1015 at/cm2) .45% Ti, 50% N and 5% Fe. Scanning electron microscopy was used to indicate changes in surface morphology. Existence of grains in different size confirms the formation of TiN crystals on the surface of targets.

  20. Plasma enhanced RF power deposition on ICRF antennas in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, R.H.; Harris, J.H.; Carter, M.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Hogan, J.T.; Ryan, P.M.; Beaumont, B.; Bremond, S.; Hutter, T.

    1997-01-01

    The dual-strap Tore Supra ICRF antennas have been very successful in coupling high power fluxes > 16 MW/m2 to the plasma. In many cases it has been found that the power is limited not by the voltages and currents that can be sustained on antenna components, but rather by localized increases in antenna surface temperatures which are correlated with increased impurity levels. Hot spots have been observed using an IR imaging system with peak temperatures as high as 1,100 C after 2 s, and as little as 1.5 MW power coupled from a single launcher. The maximum temperature observed is highly dependent on antenna phasing, and is lowest with dipole (π) phasing of the relative antenna currents. Both toroidal and poloidal asymmetries in hot spot distribution have been observed, and interestingly, the toroidal asymmetry has been found to vary when the phase is changed from +π/2 to -π/2. Significant differences in the temperature profiles have been seen on the two types of Faraday shield in use, which appears to be related to the fact that one type has a recessed center septum between straps while the other does not. In some cases, the peak temperature has been observed to increase as the antenna/plasma gap is increased, while the peak remains in the same location. This behavior suggests that voltages generated by currents flowing in the Faraday shield structure itself may play a role in generating potentials responsible for the hot spots, in addition to rf fields in the plasma. In this paper data on antenna surface heating and loading data as a function of plasma density, antenna/plasma gap, and phasing will be presented. Calculations from the RANT3D electromagnetic code together with bench measurements of electric fields near the antenna surface will also be shown

  1. How to increase the hydrophobicity of PTFE surfaces using an r.f. atmospheric-pressure plasma torch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, E.A.D.; Boucher, N.; Sferrazza, M.; Reniers, F.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) by an Ar and Ar/O2 plasma created with an atmospheric-pressure radio frequency (r.f.) torch is presented here. The surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), XPS and water contact angle (WCA) to

  2. Progress towards RF heated steady-state plasma operations on LHD by employing ICRF heating methods and improved divertor plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Saito, K.

    2008-10-01

    A long pulse plasma discharge experiment was carried out using RF heating power in the Large Helical Device (LHD), a currentless magnetic confining system. Progress in long pulse operation is summarized since the 10th experimental campaign (2006). A scaling relation of the plasma duration time to the applied RF power has been derived from the experimental data so far collected. It indicates that there exists a critical divertor temperature and consequently a critical RF heating power P RFcrit =0.65 MW. The area on the graph of the duration time versus the RF heating power was extended over the scaling relation by replacing divertor plates with new ones with better heat conductivity. The cause of the plasma collapse at the end of the long pulse operation was found to be the penetration of metal impurities. Many thin flakes consisting of heavy metals and graphite in stratified layers were found on the divertor plates and it was thought that they were the cause of impurity metals penetrating into the plasma. In a simulation involving injecting a graphite-coated Fe pellet to the plasma it was found that 230 Eμm in the diameter of the Fe pellet sphere was the critical size which led the plasma to collapse. A mode-conversion heating method was examined in place of the minority ICRF heating which has been employed in almost all the long-pulse plasma discharges. It was found that this method was much better from the viewpoint of achieving uniformity of the plasma heat load to the divertors. It is expected that P RFcrit will be increased by using the mode-conversion heating method. (author)

  3. RF power absorption by plasma of low pressure low power inductive discharge located in the external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralkina, E. A.; Rukhadze, A. A.; Nekliudova, P. A.; Pavlov, V. B.; Petrov, A. K.; Vavilin, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    Present paper is aimed to reveal experimentally and theoretically the influence of magnetic field strength, antenna shape, pressure, operating frequency and geometrical size of plasma sources on the ability of plasma to absorb the RF power characterized by the equivalent plasma resistance for the case of low pressure RF inductive discharge located in the external magnetic field. The distinguishing feature of the present paper is the consideration of the antennas that generate not only current but charge on the external surface of plasma sources. It is shown that in the limited plasma source two linked waves can be excited. In case of antennas generating only azimuthal current the waves can be attributed as helicon and TG waves. In the case of an antenna with the longitudinal current there is a surface charge on the side surface of the plasma source, which gives rise to a significant increase of the longitudinal and radial components of the RF electric field as compared with the case of the azimuthal antenna current.

  4. RF Sheath-Enhanced Plasma Surface Interaction Studies using Beryllium Optical Emission Spectroscopy in JET ITER-Like Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarici, G. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Krivska, Alena [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels Belgium; Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Jacquet, P. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Abingdon, UK; Delabie, Ephrem G. [ORNL; Giroud, C. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Kirov, K K. [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Lasa Esquisabel, Ane [ORNL; Lerche, E. [ERM-KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Brussels, Belgium; Dumortier, P. [ERM-KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Brussels, Belgium; Durodie, Frederic [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels Belgium

    2017-10-01

    A dedicated study on JET-ILW, deploying two types of ICRH antennas and spectroscopic observation spots at two outboard, beryllium limiters, has provided insight on long-range (up to 6m) RFenhanced plasma-surface interactions (RF-PSI) due to near-antenna electric fields. To aid in the interpretation of optical emission measurements of these effects, the antenna near-fields are computed using the TOPICA code, specifically run for the ITER-like antenna (ILA); similar modelling already existed for the standard JET antennas (A2). In the experiment, both antennas were operated in current drive mode, as RF-PSI tends to be higher in this phasing and at similar power (∼0.5 MW). When sweeping the edge magnetic field pitch angle, peaked RF-PSI effects, in the form of 2-4 fold increase in the local Be source,are consistently measured with the observation spots magnetically connect to regions of TOPICAL-calculated high near-fields, particularly at the near-antenna limiters. It is also found that similar RF-PSI effects are produced by the two types of antenna on similarly distant limiters. Although this mapping of calculated near-fields to enhanced RF-PSI gives only qualitative interpretion of the data, the present dataset is expected to provide a sound experimental basis for emerging RF sheath simulation model validation.

  5. Etching of UO2 in NF3 RF Plasma Glow Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John M. Veilleux

    1999-01-01

    A series of room temperature, low pressure (10.8 to 40 Pa), low power (25 to 210 W) RF plasma glow discharge experiments with UO 2 were conducted to demonstrate that plasma treatment is a viable method for decontaminating UO 2 from stainless steel substrates. Experiments were conducted using NF 3 gas to decontaminate depleted uranium dioxide from stainless-steel substrates. Depleted UO 2 samples each containing 129.4 Bq were prepared from 100 microliter solutions of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solution. The amorphous UO 2 in the samples had a relatively low density of 4.8 gm/cm 3 . Counting of the depleted UO 2 on the substrate following plasma immersion was performed using liquid scintillation counting with alpha/beta discrimination due to the presence of confounding beta emitting daughter products, 234 Th and 234 Pa. The alpha emission peak from each sample was integrated using a gaussian and first order polynomial fit to improve quantification. The uncertainties in the experimental measurement of the etched material were estimated at about ± 2%. Results demonstrated that UO 2 can be completely removed from stainless-steel substrates after several minutes processing at under 200 W. At 180 W and 32.7 Pa gas pressure, over 99% of all UO 2 in the samples was removed in just 17 minutes. The initial etch rate in the experiments ranged from 0.2 to 7.4 microm/min. Etching increased with the plasma absorbed power and feed gas pressure in the range of 10.8 to 40 Pa. A different pressure effect on UO 2 etching was also noted below 50 W in which etching increased up to a maximum pressure, approximately23 Pa, then decreased with further increases in pressure

  6. The study of tribological and corrosion behavior of plasma nitrided 34CrNiMo6 steel under hot and cold wall conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniee, A.; Mahboubi, F.; Soleimani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 34CrNiMo6 steel was plasma nitrided under hot and cold wall conditions. • The amount of ε phase in hot wall condition was more than that of cold wall condition. • Wear resistance of hot wall nitrided samples was more than cold wall treated ones. • Hot wall nitriding provides better corrosion behavior than cold wall nitriding. - Abstract: This paper reports on a comparative study of tribological and corrosion behavior of plasma nitrided 34CrNiMo6 low alloy steel under modern hot wall condition and conventional cold wall condition. Plasma nitriding was carried out at 500 °C and 550 °C with a 25% N 2 + 75% H 2 gas mixture for 8 h. The wall temperature of the chamber in hot wall condition was set to 400 °C. The treated specimens were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness and surface roughness techniques. The wear test was performed by pin-on-disc method. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests were also used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the samples. The results demonstrated that in both nitriding conditions, wear and corrosion resistance of the treated samples decrease with increasing temperature from 500 °C to 550 °C. Moreover, nitriding under hot wall condition at the same temperature provided slightly better tribological and corrosion behavior in comparison with cold wall condition. In consequence, the lowest friction coefficient, and highest wear and corrosion resistance were found on the sample treated under hot wall condition at 500 °C, which had the maximum surface hardness and ε-Fe 2–3 N phase

  7. Spatio-temporal evolution of the dust particle size distribution in dusty argon rf plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killer, Carsten; Mulsow, Matthias; Melzer, André

    2015-01-01

    An imaging Mie scattering technique has been developed to measure the spatially resolved size distribution of dust particles in extended dust clouds. For large dust clouds of micrometre-sized plastic particles confined in an radio frequency (rf) discharge, a segmentation of the dust cloud into populations of different sizes is observed, even though the size differences are very small. The dust size dispersion inside a population is much smaller than the difference between the populations. Furthermore, the dust size is found to be constantly decreasing over time while the particles are confined in an inert argon plasma. The processes responsible for the shrinking of the dust in the plasma have been addressed by mass spectrometry, ex situ microscopy of the dust size, dust resonance measurements, in situ determination of the dust surface temperature and Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR). It is concluded that both a reduction of dust size and its mass density due to outgassing of water and other volatile constituents as well as chemical etching by oxygen impurities are responsible for the observations. (paper)

  8. Thin TiO2 films deposited by implantation and sputtering in RF inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The achievement of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films in the rutile crystalline phase is reported. The samples result from the implantation of oxygen ions of Ti in argon/oxygen plasma generated by inductively coupled RF at a commercial 13.56 MHz frequency. Simultaneously, a sputtering process is conducted on the titanium target in order to produce TiO 2 thin films in the anatase phase over silicon and glass substrates. Both implantation and sputtering processes shared the same 500 W plasma with the target, polarized between 0 and -3 kV. The substrates were placed between 2 and 3 cm from the target, this distance being found to be determinant of the TiO 2 deposition rate. The rutile phase in the target was obtained at temperatures in the order of 680 degrees C and the anatase (unbiased) one at about 300 degrees C without any auxiliary heating. The crystalline phases were characterized by x ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology and average roughness were established by means of scanning electronic and atomic force microscopy, whereas the reaction products generated during the oxidation process were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Finally, the stoichiometric composition was measured by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  9. Influence of substrate pre-treatments by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on the behavior of TiN coatings deposited by plasma reactive sputtering on 100Cr6 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, S., E-mail: sandra.vales@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Brito, P., E-mail: ppbrito@gmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Av. Dom José Gaspar 500, 30535-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pineda, F.A.G., E-mail: pipe8219@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Ochoa, E.A., E-mail: abigail_ochoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Droppa, R., E-mail: roosevelt.droppa@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Garcia, J., E-mail: jose.garcia@sandvik.com [Sandvik Coromant R& D, Lerkrogsvägen 19, SE-12680, Stockholm (Sweden); Morales, M., E-mail: monieriz@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Alvarez, F., E-mail: alvarez@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the influence of pre-treating a 100Cr6 steel surface by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding at low temperature (380 °C) on the roughness, wear resistance and residual stresses of thin TiN coatings deposited by reactive IBAD was investigated. The Xe{sup +} ion bombardment was carried out using a 1.0 keV kinetic energy by a broad ion beam assistance deposition (IBAD, Kaufman cell). The results showed that in the studied experimental conditions the ion bombardment intensifies nitrogen diffusion by creating lattice imperfections, stress, and increasing roughness. In case of the combined pre-treatment with Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and subsequent plasma nitriding, the samples evolved relatively high average roughness and the wear volume increased in comparison to the substrates exposed to only nitriding or ion bombardment. - Highlights: • Effect of Xe ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on TiN coatings was investigated. • Xe ion bombardment with 1.0 KeV increases nitrogen retention in plasma nitriding. • 1.0 KeV ion impact energy causes sputtering, thus increasing surface roughness. • TiN coating wear is minimum after plasma nitriding due to lowest roughness.

  10. Modification of the surface properties of glass-ceramic materials at low-pressure RF plasma stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovstopyat, Alexander; Gafarov, Ildar; Galeev, Vadim; Azarova, Valentina; Golyaeva, Anastasia

    2018-05-01

    The surface roughness has a huge effect on the mechanical, optical, and electronic properties of materials. In modern optical systems, the specifications for the surface accuracy and smoothness of substrates are becoming even more stringent. Commercially available pre-polished glass-ceramic substrates were treated with the radio frequency (RF) inductively coupled (13.56 MHz) low-pressure plasma to clean the surface of the samples and decrease the roughness. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to investigate the plasma stream parameters and phase-shifted interferometry to investigate the surface of the specimen. In this work, the dependence of RF inductively coupled plasma on macroscopic parameters was investigated with the focus on improving the surfaces. The ion energy, sputtering rate, and homogeneity were investigated. The improvements of the glass-ceramic surfaces from 2.6 to 2.2 Å root mean square by removing the "waste" after the previous operations had been achieved.

  11. Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Helen C; Richardson, Patricia R; Campbell, Gaynor A; Jones, Anita C; Baxter, Robert L [School of Chemistry, Joseph Black Chemistry Building, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom); Kovalev, Valeri I; Maier, Robert; Barton, James S [School of Engineering and Physical Science, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); DeLarge, Greg [Plasma Etch Inc, 3522 Arrowhead Drive, Carson City, NV 89706 (United States); Casey, Mark [Sterile Services Department, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4AS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: r.baxter@ed.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    The development of methods for measuring the efficiency of gas-plasma decontamination has lagged far behind application. An approach to measuring the efficiency of protein removal from solid surfaces using fluorescein-labelled bovine serum albumin and epifluorescence scanning (EFSCAN) is described. A method for fluorescently labelling proteins, which are adsorbed and denatured on metal surfaces, has been developed. Both approaches have been used to evaluate the efficiency of radio frequency (RF) gas-plasma decontamination protocols. Examples with 'real' surgical instruments demonstrate that an argon-oxygen RF gas-plasma treatment can routinely reduce the protein load by about three orders of magnitude beyond that achieved by current decontamination methods.

  12. Effect of pulsed duty cycle control on tribological and corrosion properties of AISI-316 in cathodic cage plasma nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, M.; Raza, H. A.; Shafiq, M.; Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Iqbal, Javed; Díaz-Guillén, J. C.; Zakaullah, M.

    2017-11-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are of prime importance in many industrial sectors because of their excellent corrosion resistance; however, their poor mechanical and tribological features lead to their reduced applicability. In this regard, low-temperature cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN) can be used to improve surface properties of steels without scarifying the inherent corrosion resistance. In this study, AISI-316 samples are processed in CCPN reactor at a temperature of 400 °C, for the treatment time of 4 h, at a pressure of 150 Pa and variable pulsed duty cycle (15-75%). The microstructure and mechanical features are analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness tester and ball-on-disc wear tester. The anodic polarization test in 3.5% NaCl is conducted to examine the corrosion properties. The results show that hardness is enhanced up to 1327 HV at low duty cycle, which is considerably higher than base material (278 HV). The wear rate is found to be reduced up to 90% over base material by processing at low duty cycle. The base material exhibits severe abrasive wear, and the nitrided sample has dominant adhesive wear. The corrosion rate is found to be reduced up to 95% over base material for the sample nitrided at low duty cycle. This study shows that wear and corrosion resistance in CCPN can be significantly boosted by reducing the pulsed duty cycle.

  13. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, P; Knoll, A J; Wang, H; Oehrlein, G S; Kondeti, V S S K; Bruggeman, P J

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O 2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H 2 O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O 2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10 −4 to 10 −3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O 2 and H 2 O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O 2 /H 2 O plasma. (letter)

  14. Model polymer etching and surface modification by a time modulated RF plasma jet: role of atomic oxygen and water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, P.; Knoll, A. J.; Wang, H.; Kondeti, V. S. S. K.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    The surface interaction of a well-characterized time modulated radio frequency (RF) plasma jet with polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl alcohol) as model polymers is investigated. The RF plasma jet shows fast polymer etching but mild chemical modification with a characteristic carbonate ester and NO formation on the etched surface. By varying the plasma treatment conditions including feed gas composition, environment gaseous composition, and treatment distance, we find that short lived species, especially atomic O for Ar/1% O2 and 1% air plasma and OH for Ar/1% H2O plasma, play an essential role for polymer etching. For O2 containing plasma, we find that atomic O initiates polymer etching and the etching depth mirrors the measured decay of O atoms in the gas phase as the nozzle-surface distance increases. The etching reaction probability of an O atom ranging from 10-4 to 10-3 is consistent with low pressure plasma research. We also find that adding O2 and H2O simultaneously into Ar feed gas quenches polymer etching compared to adding them separately which suggests the reduction of O and OH density in Ar/O2/H2O plasma.

  15. Gas and plasma dynamics of RF discharge jet of low pressure in a vacuum chamber with flat electrodes and inside tube, influence of RF discharge on the steel surface parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristoliubova, V. I.; Kashapov, N. F.; Shaekhov, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    Researches results of the characteristics of the RF discharge jet of low pressure and the discharge influence on the surface modification of high speed and structural steels are introduced in the article. Gas dynamics, power and energy parameters of the RF low pressure discharge flow in the discharge chamber and the electrode gap are studied in the presence of the materials. Plasma flow rate, discharge power, the concentration of electrons, the density of RF power, the ion current density, and the energy of the ions bombarding the surface materials are considered for the definition of basic properties crucial for the process of surface modification of materials as they were put in the plasma jet. The influence of the workpiece and effect of products complex configuration on the RF discharge jet of low pressure is defined. The correlation of the input parameters of the plasma unit on the characteristics of the discharge is established.

  16. Filtering peripheral high temperature electrons in a cylindrical rf-driven plasmas by an axisymmetric radial magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Akahoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature electrons generated near a radial wall of a cylindrical source tube in a radiofrequency (rf inductively-coupled plasma is filtered by an axisymmetric radial magnetic field formed near the source exit by locating annular permanent magnets, where the axial magnetic field strength in the radially central region is fairly uniform inside the source tube and is close to zero near the source exit. The source is operated at 3 mTorr in argon and the rf antenna is powered by a 13.56 MHz and 400 W rf generator. Measurement of electron energy probability functions shows the presence of the peripheral high temperature electrons inside the source, while the temperature of the peripheral electrons downstream of the source is observed to be reduced.

  17. Filtering peripheral high temperature electrons in a cylindrical rf-driven plasmas by an axisymmetric radial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Hikaru; Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira

    2018-03-01

    High temperature electrons generated near a radial wall of a cylindrical source tube in a radiofrequency (rf) inductively-coupled plasma is filtered by an axisymmetric radial magnetic field formed near the source exit by locating annular permanent magnets, where the axial magnetic field strength in the radially central region is fairly uniform inside the source tube and is close to zero near the source exit. The source is operated at 3 mTorr in argon and the rf antenna is powered by a 13.56 MHz and 400 W rf generator. Measurement of electron energy probability functions shows the presence of the peripheral high temperature electrons inside the source, while the temperature of the peripheral electrons downstream of the source is observed to be reduced.

  18. Development of localized arc filament RF plasma actuators for high-speed and high Reynolds number flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Nishihara, M.; Adamovich, I.V.; Samimy, M.; Gorbatov, S.V.; Pliavaka, F.V.

    2010-01-01

    Recently developed localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) have shown tremendous control authority in high-speed and high Reynolds number flow for mixing enhancement and noise mitigation. Previously, these actuators were powered by a high-voltage pulsed DC plasma generator with low energy coupling efficiency of 5-10%. In the present work, a new custom-designed 8-channel pulsed radio frequency (RF) plasma generator has been developed to power up to 8 plasma actuators operated over a wide range of forcing frequencies (up to 50 kHz) and duty cycles (1-50%), and at high energy coupling efficiency (up to 80-85%). This reduces input electrical power requirements by approximately an order of magnitude, down to 12 W per actuator operating at 10% duty cycle. The new pulsed RF plasma generator is scalable to a system with a large number of channels. Performance of pulsed RF plasma actuators used for flow control was studied in a Mach 0.9 circular jet with a Reynolds number of about 623,000 and compared with that of pulsed DC actuators. Eight actuators were distributed uniformly on the perimeter of a 2.54-cm diameter circular nozzle extension. Both types of actuators coupled approximately the same amount of power to the flow, but with drastically different electrical inputs to the power supplies. Particle image velocimetry measurements showed that jet centerline Mach number decay produced by DC and RF actuators operating at the same forcing frequencies and duty cycles is very similar. At a forcing Strouhal number near 0.3, close to the jet column instability frequency, well-organized periodic structures, with similar patterns and dimensions, were generated in the jets forced by both DC and RF actuators. Far-field acoustic measurements demonstrated similar trends in the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) change produced by both types of actuators, resulting in OASPL reduction up to 1.2-1.5 dB in both cases. We conclude that pulsed RF actuators demonstrate flow

  19. Fast, kinetically self-consistent simulation of RF modulated plasma boundary sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihab, Mohammed; Ziegler, Dennis; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2012-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented which enables the efficient, kinetically self-consistent simulation of RF modulated plasma boundary sheaths in all technically relevant discharge regimes. It is defined on a one-dimensional geometry where a Cartesian x-axis points from the electrode or wall at x E ≡ 0 towards the plasma bulk. An arbitrary endpoint x B is chosen ‘deep in the bulk’. The model consists of a set of kinetic equations for the ions, Boltzmann's relation for the electrons and Poisson's equation for the electrical field. Boundary conditions specify the ion flux at x B and a periodically—not necessarily harmonically—modulated sheath voltage V(t) or sheath charge Q(t). The equations are solved in a statistical sense. However, it is not the well-known particle-in-cell (PIC) scheme that is employed, but an alternative iterative algorithm termed ensemble-in-spacetime (EST). The basis of the scheme is a discretization of the spacetime, the product of the domain [x E , x B ] and the RF period [0, T]. Three modules are called in a sequence. A Monte Carlo module calculates the trajectories of a large set of ions from their start at x B until they reach the electrode at x E , utilizing the potential values on the nodes of the spatio-temporal grid. A harmonic analysis module reconstructs the Fourier modes n im (x) of the ion density n i (x, t) from the calculated trajectories. A field module finally solves the Boltzmann-Poisson equation with the calculated ion densities to generate an updated set of potential values for the spatio-temporal grid. The iteration is started with the potential values of a self-consistent fluid model and terminates when the updates become sufficiently small, i.e. when self-consistency is achieved. A subsequent post-processing determines important quantities, in particular the phase-resolved and phase-averaged values of the ion energy and angular distributions and the total energy flux at the electrode. A drastic reduction of the

  20. Optical characteristics of a RF DBD plasma jet in various {Ar}/ {O}_{2}Ar/O2 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahat, A.; Ganjovi, A.; Taraz, M.; Ravari, M. N. Rostami; Shahedi, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, using the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique, the optical characteristics of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma jet are examined. The Ar/O2 mixture is taken as the operational gas and, the Ar percentage in the Ar/O2 mixture is varied from 70% to 95%. Using the optical emission spectrum analysis of the RF plasma jet, the excitation temperature is determined based on the Boltzmann plot method. The electron density in the plasma medium of the RF plasma jet is obtained by the Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer H_{β }. It is mostly seen that, the radiation intensity of Ar 4p→ 4s transitions at higher argon contributions in Ar/O2 mixture is higher. It is found that, at higher Ar percentages, the emission intensities from atomic oxygen (O) are higher and, the line intensities from the argon atoms and ions including O atoms linearly increase. It is observed that the quenching of Ar^{*} with O2 results in higher O species with respect to O2 molecules. In addition, at higher percentages of Ar in the Ar/O2 mixture, while the excitation temperature is decreased, the electron density is increased.

  1. Temporally resolved ozone distribution of a time modulated RF atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet: flow, chemical reaction, and transient vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S; Sobota, A; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Bruggeman, P J

    2015-01-01

    The ozone density distribution in the effluent of a time modulated RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated by time and spatially resolved by UV absorption spectroscopy. The plasma jet is operated with an averaged dissipated power of 6.5 W and gas flow rate 2 slm argon  +2% O 2 . The modulation frequency of the RF power is 50 Hz with a duty cycle of 50%. To investigate the production and destruction mechanism of ozone in the plasma effluent, the atomic oxygen and gas temperature is also obtained by TALIF and Rayleigh scattering, respectively. A temporal increase in ozone density is observed close to the quartz tube exit when the plasma is switched off due to the decrease in O density and gas temperature. Ozone absorption at different axial positions indicates that the ozone distribution is dominated by the convection induced by the gas flow and allows estimating the on-axis local gas velocity in the jet effluent. Transient vortex structures occurring during the switch on and off of the RF power also significantly affect the ozone density in the far effluent. (paper)

  2. MESSENGER Spacecraft Phase Scintillation due to Plasma ductting effect on RF beam propagation at Superior Solar Conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, N.; Sequeira, H.; Copeland, D.; Menyuk, C.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of a radio frequency (RF) X-band signal as it propagates through the solar corona turbulence in superior solar conjunction at low Sun-Earth-Probe (SEP) angles.Data that was obtained during several MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENivornment, GEochmeisty, and Ranging) conjunctions reveal a short-term and long-term effect. Amplitude scintillation is evident on a short time scale. Phase scintillations are stronger, but occur over a longer time scale. We examine different possible phenomena in the solar plasma that could be the source of the different time scales of the amplitude and phase scintillations. We propose a theoretical model in which the amplitude scintillations are due to local fluctuations of the index of refraction that scatter the RF signal. These rapidly varying fluctuations randomly attenuate the signal without affecting its phase. By contrast, we propose a model in which phase fluctuations are due to long ducts in the solar plasma, streaming from the sun, that trap some parts of the RF signal. These ducts act as waveguides, changing the phase velocity of the RF beam as it travels a zigzag path inside a duct. When the radiated wave exits from a duct, its phase is changed with respect to the signal that did not pass through the duct, which can lead to destructive interference and carrier suppression. The trapping of the wave is random in nature and can be either a fast or slow process. The predictions of this model are consistent with observations.

  3. Microstructure and local texture evolution by plasma nitriding in a 316L austenitic stainless steel and consequences on its fatigue durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinville, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    The present study concerns the surface and mechanical properties induced by specific low temperature (∼400 C) plasma nitriding of an AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel largely used for structural component in nuclear and chemical industries. It focuses especially on its influence on the fatigue durability. The great advantages of this plasma nitriding process are to produce thick nitrided layers with a high concentration of nitrogen atoms in solid solution into the material and to preserve the stainless character of the substrate. As a consequence a new phase named expanded austenite or γ N phase is formed and the lattice expansion associated with the high supersaturation of interstitial nitrogen atoms results in residual compressive stresses at the surface that exceed 2 GPa. The surface is then strongly modified as a result of complex effects including some crystallographic plane rotation, plasticity and damage in some grains depending on their orientation. The considerable increase of hardness and wear resistance produced by plasma nitriding of austenitic stainless steels is now well documented but there are practically no data on the influence on fatigue properties. Series of fatigue tests in air at room temperature carried out in the low cycle fatigue range show a significant improvement of the fatigue life. The results are discussed especially taking into account the compressive residual stresses induced by the nitrided layer. (authors)

  4. Etching of uranium dioxide in nitrogen trifluoride RF plasma glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, John Mark

    1999-10-01

    A series of room temperature, low pressure (10.8 to 40 Pa), low power (25 to 210 W) RF plasma glow discharge experiments with UO2 were conducted to demonstrate that plasma treatment is a viable method for decontaminating UO2 from stainless steel substrates. Experiments were conducted using NF3 gas to decontaminate depleted uranium dioxide from stainless-steel substrates. Results demonstrated that UO2 can be completely removed from stainless-steel substrates after several minutes processing at under 200 W. At 180 W and 32.7 Pa gas pressure, over 99% of all UO2 in the samples was removed in just 17 minutes. The initial etch rate in the experiments ranged from 0.2 to 7.4 mum/min. Etching increased with the plasma absorbed power and feed gas pressure in the range of 10.8 to 40 Pa. A different pressure effect on UO2 etching was also noted below 50 W in which etching increased up to a maximum pressure, ˜23 Pa, then decreased with further increases in pressure. A computer simulation, CHEMKIN, was applied to predict the NF3 plasma species in the experiments. The code was validated first by comparing its predictions of the NF3 plasma species with mass spectroscopy etching experiments of silicon. The code predictions were within +/-5% of the measured species concentrations. The F atom radicals were identified as the primary etchant species, diffusing from the bulk plasma to the UO2 surface and reacting to form a volatile UF6, which desorbed into the gas phase to be pumped away. Ions created in the plasma were too low in concentration to have a major effect on etching, but can enhance the etch rate by removing non-volatile reaction products blocking the reaction of F with UO2. The composition of these non-volatile products were determined based on thermodynamic analysis and the electronic structure of uranium. Analysis identified possible non-volatile products as the uranium fluorides, UF2-5, and certain uranium oxyfluorides UO2F, UO2F2, UOF3, and UOF 4 which form over the

  5. Deposition of nanostructured fluorocarbon plasma polymer films by RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylian, Ondrej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Drabik, Martin; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Cechvala, Juraj; Artemenko, Anna; Gordeev, Ivan; Choukourov, Andrei; Matolinova, Iva; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek, E-mail: bieder@kmf.troja.mff.cuni.cz

    2011-07-29

    The RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene target is studied with the aim to find out conditions leading to the deposition of super-hydrophobic thin films. It is shown that such coatings can be prepared at elevated pressures and a longer distance between the sputtered target and the substrate. This is explained by an increase in the density of longer C{sub x}F{sub y} molecules that reach the substrate and a lower flux of ions and CF{sub 2} radicals on the surface of growing film under such deposition conditions, as observed by optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Such changes in plasma composition result in a deposition of rough films having F/C ratio close to 2 as observed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. These findings clearly distinguish our results from the previous investigations of polytetrafluoroethylene sputtering performed at shorter distances from the target, where either low F/C ratio or low roughness of the deposited films did not allow reaching super-hydrophobic character of the coatings.

  6. A new hybrid scheme for simulations of highly collisional RF-driven plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremin, Denis; Hemke, Torben; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a new 1D hybrid approach for modeling atmospheric pressure discharges featuring complex chemistry. In this approach electrons are described fully kinetically using particle-in-cell/Monte-Carlo (PIC/MCC) scheme, whereas the heavy species are modeled within a fluid description. Validity of the popular drift-diffusion approximation is verified against a ‘full’ fluid model accounting for the ion inertia and a fully kinetic PIC/MCC code for ions as well as electrons. The fluid models require knowledge of the momentum exchange frequency and dependence of the ion mobilities on the electric field when the ions are in equilibrium with the latter. To this end an auxiliary Monte-Carlo scheme is constructed. It is demonstrated that the drift-diffusion approximation can overestimate ion transport in simulations of RF-driven discharges with heavy ion species operated in the γ mode at the atmospheric pressure or in all discharge simulations for lower pressures. This can lead to exaggerated plasma densities and incorrect profiles provided by the drift-diffusion models. Therefore, the hybrid code version featuring the full ion fluid model should be favored against the more popular drift-diffusion model, noting that the suggested numerical scheme for the former model implies only a small additional computational cost. (paper)

  7. Decomposition of SF6-R134a effluents by RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Avinash V.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of recovery achieved by open or closed loop extraction of RPC exhaust gases is in the range of 90-95% under optimum conditions. For a large detector setup operating on one volume change per day basis, a 5% loss amounts to discharging 50 kg of R134a and 0.5 kg of SF 6 into atmosphere every day. The emissions are equivalent to create nearly 50 000 m 3 of carbon dioxide daily. The gas emissions need to be completely converted to safer compounds. The gases such as R134a and SF 6 are stable compounds. In order to decompose these, the mixture is first activated by adding of 50% oxygen and 2% argon and under typical RF plasma conditions of 13.56 MHz, 1 Torr pressure and 0.2 W/cm 2 power density. The chemical reaction takes place on the surface of a silicon electrode. The product of the reaction is mainly SiF 4 (gas), which is further hydrolyzed to form HF solution and silicon hydroxide sludge. More than 90% of the effluent gas mixture can be effectively removed by this method.

  8. Titanium dioxide (TIO2) thin film and plasma properties in RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2013-01-01

    Lately, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films with anatase crystalline property received numerous attentions as unique material properties. There are wide applications of TiO 2 thin film such as for photocatalytic application in solar cell. In the present study, radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique has been used to produce high dense, homogeneously controllable film layer at low deposition temperature using titanium (Ti) target. The diameter of the Ti target is 3 inch with fixed discharge power of 400W. Magnetron sputtering plasma has been produced in high purity 99.99% Argon (Ar) and 99.99% Oxygen (O 2 ) environment pressure ranging from 5 to 20 mTorr. The TiO2 were growth on silicon and glass substrates. Substrate temperature during deposition was kept constant at 400°C. The distance between target and substrate holder was maintain at 14 cm with rotation of 10 rotation-per-minutes. Our X-ray diffraction result, shows anatase crystalline successfully formed with characterization peaks of plane (101) at 2θ = 25.28°, plane (202) at 2θ = 48.05° and plane (211) at 2θ = 55.06°. In addition, it is our interest to study the plasma properties and optical spectrum of Ti, Ti+ , O- , ArM and Ar+ in the chamber during the deposition process. Result of emission line intensities, electron density and temperature from optical spectroscope and Langmuir probe will be discuss further during the workshop. This works were supported by Graduate Incentive Scheme of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme of Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. (author)

  9. Nonlinear electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in an rf-plugged inhomogeneous plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemura, Tsutomu.

    1977-01-01

    A theory based on the fluid and perturbation theories is developed to analytically study a nonlinear electrostatic ion cyclotron wave excited in an rf-plugged inhomogeneous plasma slab by applying a pair of external potentials phi sub(ext)(x,z) = +-PHI 0 cos ω 0 t.exp(-z 2 /2h 2 ) at its boundaries x = +-L. Here, B 0 is applied along the z-axis. The potential forms of the fundamental and the nonlinear second harmonic are found as functions of x, z and t provided the field-free densities vary as exp(-x 2 /2d 2 )(d 2 /h 2 0 ) created by the fundamental potential can approximately be regarded as a dipole field, provided that /1-μ/ 0 2 -ω sub(cl)sup(2))m sub(i)d 2 /(γ sub(i)T sub(i)+Z γ sub(e)T sub(e)). Under the stricter condition μ asymptotically equals 1, a dipole-like electric field can also be excited in the entire region for the case of high density and weak nonlinearity. It is shown that the assumption ω 0 -1 √ γ sub(e)T sub(e)/m sub(e) can lead to the Boltzmann relation for the electron fluid even in inhomogeneous plasmas. Moreover, the density depletion delta N sub(i) obtained here contains a new considerable term proportional to /phi/ 2 , in addition to the usual term proportional to -/delta phi/delta x/ 2 which originates from the ponderomotive force. (auth.)

  10. Design and construction the identification of nitriding plasma process parameters using personal computer based on serial communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frida Iswinning Diah; Slamet Santosa

    2012-01-01

    Design and construction the identification of process parameters using personal computer based on serial communication PLC M-series has been done. The function of this device is to identify the process parameters of a system (plan), to which then be analyzed and conducted a follow-up given to the plan by the user. The main component of this device is the M-Series T100MD1616 PLC and personal computer (PC). In this device the data plan parameters obtained from the corresponding sensor outputs in the form of voltage or current. While the analog parameter data is adjusted to the ADC analog input of the PLC using a signal conditioning system. Then, as the parameter is processed by the PLC then sent to a PC via RS232 to be displayed in the form of graphs or tables and stored in the database. Software to program the database is created using Visual Basic Programming V-6. The device operation test is performed for the measurement of temperature parameter and vacuum level on the plasma nitriding machine. The results indicate that the device has functioning as an identification device parameters process of plasma nitriding machine. (author)

  11. Direct synthesis of nano-sized glass powders with spherical shape by RF (radio frequency) thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Ju, W.T.; Nam, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new route for obtaining very small, spheroid glass powders is demonstrated using an RF (radio frequency) thermal plasma system. During the process, four kinds of chemicals, here SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , BaCO 3 , and K 2 CO 3 , were mixed at pre-set weight ratios, spray-dried, calcined at 250 deg. C for 3 h, and crushed into fragments. Then, they were successfully reformed into nano-sized amorphous powders (< 200 nm) with spherical shape by injecting them along the centerline of an RF thermal plasma reactor at ∼ 24 kW. The as-synthesized powders show negligible (< 1%) composition changes when compared with the injected precursors of raw material compounds.

  12. Spatio-temporal powder formation and trapping in RF silane plasmas using 2-D polarization-sensitive laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.; Howling, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    Powder formation studies in deposition plasmas are motivated by the need to reduce contamination in the plasma and films. Models for the force acting upon particles in rf discharges suffer from a lack of quantitative experimental data for comparison in the case of silane-containing plasmas. In this work, a cross-section of the parallel-plate capacitor discharge is illuminated with a polarized beam-expanded laser and global spatio-temporal scattered light and extinction are recorded by CCD cameras. Spatially-regular periodic bright/dark zones due to constructive/destructive Mie interference are visible over large regions of the powder layers, which shows the uniform nature of particle growth in silane plasmas. For particles trapped in an argon plasma, as for steady-state conditions in silane, spatial size segregation is demonstrated by fringes which reverse according to the polarisation of scattered light. The method allow a self-consistent estimation of particle size and number density throughout the discharge volume from which strong particle Coulomb coupling (Γ>40) is suggested to influence powder dynamics. Correction must be made to the plasma emission profile for the extinction by powder. In conclusion, this global diagnostics improves understanding of particle growth and dynamics in silane rf discharges and provides experimental input for testing the validity of models. (author) 6 figs., 43 refs

  13. Synthesis of aluminum nitride films by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition using hybrid gas-metal cathodic arc gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Liru; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is of interest in the industry because of its excellent electronic, optical, acoustic, thermal, and mechanical properties. In this work, aluminum nitride films are deposited on silicon wafers (100) by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) using a modified hybrid gas-metal cathodic arc plasma source and with no intentional heating to the substrate. The mixed metal and gaseous plasma is generated by feeding the gas into the arc discharge region. The deposition rate is found to mainly depend on the Al ion flux from the cathodic arc source and is only slightly affected by the N 2 flow rate. The AlN films fabricated by this method exhibit a cubic crystalline microstructure with stable and low internal stress. The surface of the AlN films is quite smooth with the surface roughness on the order of 1/2 nm as determined by atomic force microscopy, homogeneous, and continuous, and the dense granular microstructures give rise to good adhesion with the substrate. The N to Al ratio increases with the bias voltage applied to the substrates. A fairly large amount of O originating from the residual vacuum is found in the samples with low N:Al ratios, but a high bias reduces the oxygen concentration. The compositions, microstructures and crystal states of the deposited films are quite stable and remain unchanged after annealing at 800 deg. C for 1 h. Our hybrid gas-metal source cathodic arc source delivers better AlN thin films than conventional PIIID employing dual plasmas

  14. The Influence of Plasma-Based Nitriding and Oxidizing Treatments on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of CoCrMo Biomedical Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Fotini; Pichon, Luc; Öztürk, Orhan

    2018-04-01

    Plasma-based nitriding and/or oxidizing treatments were applied to CoCrMo alloy to improve its surface mechanical properties and corrosion resistance for biomedical applications. Three treatments were performed. A set of CoCrMo samples has been subjected to nitriding at moderate temperatures ( 400 °C). A second set of CoCrMo samples was oxidized at 395 °C in pure O2. The last set of CoCrMo samples was nitrided and subsequently oxidized under the experimental conditions of previous sets (double treatment). The microstructure and morphology of the layers formed on the CoCrMo alloy were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. In addition, nitrogen and oxygen profiles were determined by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray, and Nuclear Reaction Analysis. Significant improvement of the Vickers hardness of the CoCrMo samples after plasma nitriding was observed due to the supersaturated nitrogen solution and the formation of an expanded FCC γ N phase and CrN precipitates. In the case of the oxidized samples, Vickers hardness improvement was minimal. The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated in simulated body fluid (0.9 pct NaCl solution at 37 °C) using electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic voltammetry). The concentration of metal ions released from the CoCrMo surfaces was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The experimental results clearly indicate that the CoCrMo surface subjected to the double surface treatment consisting in plasma nitriding and plasma oxidizing exhibited lower deterioration and better resistance to corrosion compared to the nitrided, oxidized, and untreated samples. This enhancement is believed to be due to the formation of a thicker and more stable layer.

  15. Excitation of surface waves and electrostatic fields by a RF (radiofrequency systems) wave in a plasma sheath with current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Tapia, C.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown in a one-dimensional model that when a current in a plasma sheath is present, the excitation of surface waves and electrostatic fields by a RF wave is possible in the sheath. This phenomena depends strongly on the joint action of Miller's and driven forces. It is also shown that the action of these forces are carried out at different characteristic times when the wave front travels through the plasma sheath. The influence of the current, in the steady limit, is taken into account by a small functional variation of the density perturbations and generated electrostatic field. (Author)

  16. Characteristics of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Source for the Production of Active Nitrogen Species in III-V Nitride Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A simple analysis is provided to determine the characteristics of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for the generation of active nitrogen species in the molecular beam epitaxy of III-V nitrides. The effects of reactor geometry, pressure, power, and flow rate on the dissociation efficiency and ion flux are presented. Pulsing the input power is proposed to reduce the ion flux.

  17. About of the Electrostatic fields excitation theory by a RF wave in a plasma; Acerca de la teoria de excitacion de campos electrostaticos por una onda de rf en un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.R

    1991-01-15

    In an unidimensional model is shown in the cases of a semi limited plasma and a layer of plasma the excitement mechanism of electrostatic fields for a radiofrequency wave (RF) polarized lineally. This phenomenon depends strongly on the combined action of the Miller force and that of impulsion. It is shown that the action of these forces is carried out in different characteristic times when the front of wave crosses through the plasma. The cases of a semi limited plasma and of a layer of plasma without and with current are analyzed. It is shown that near the frontiers of the plasma where the field is sufficiently big arise oscillations of the width of the field that are slowly muffled in the space in an exponential way. In the cases of a plasma layer its are shown that the processes that arise near the frontier x = L are similar to the processes that arise near the frontier x = 0. The existence of current in the plasma layer leads to the blockade of the excited perturbations in the frontier x = L. (Author)

  18. On the S-phase formation and the balanced plasma nitriding of austenitic-ferritic super duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Willian R.; Kurelo, Bruna C. E. S.; Ditzel, Dair G.; Serbena, Francisco C.; Foerster, Carlos E.; de Souza, Gelson B.

    2018-03-01

    The different physical responses of austenite (γ) and ferrite (α) iron structures upon nitriding result in technical challenges to the uniform modification of α-γ materials, as the super duplex stainless steel (SDSS). The effects of voltage (7-10 kV), frequency and pulse width on the nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation of SDSS (α ∼ 56%, γ ∼ 44%) were investigated, correlated with structural, morphological and mechanical analyses. By controlling the treatment power, temperatures ranged from 292 °C to 401 °C. Despite the overall increase in hardness for any of the employed parameters (from ∼6 GPa to ∼15 GPa), the structure of individual grains was strikingly dissimilar at the same temperatures, depending on the energetic conditions of implantation. Modified-α grains containing iron nitrides (ε-Fe2-3N, γ‧ -Fe4N) presented intense brittleness, whereas the expanded phase γN (S-phase) laid principally in modified-γ grains, exhibiting ductile-like deformation features and thicker layers. The γN was the dominant phase in both α-γ grains at ∼401 °C, providing them with balanced structure and mechanical behavior. These phenomena corroborate with γN as mediator of the process, through a mechanism involving the nitrogen-promoted ferrite to austenite conversion and nitrides dissolution at high temperatures. An approximately linear correlation of the γN content with respect to the ion energy per pulse was demonstrated, which properly embodies limiting effects to the treatment. This can be a parameter for the α-γ steel surface modification, consisting in a better adjustment to obtain more precise control along with temperature.

  19. Measurement of ion temperature and flow in RF start-up plasmas in TST-2 and LATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Shintaro; Ejiri, Akira; Takase, Yuichi; Tsujii, Naoto; Takeuchi, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Uchida, Masaki; Maekawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ion temperature and flow of RF start-up plasmas in TST-2 and LATE were measured using a visible spectrometer. The plasma currents were 9 kA and 8 kA, respectively. The typical ion temperatures T i and toroidal flow V ϕ were 4 eV and 1 km/s, respectively, in the TST-2 plasma sustained by the lower hybrid wave (20 kW) and T i ∼ 10 eV and V ϕ ∼ 5 km/s in the LATE plasma sustained by the electron cyclotron wave (50 kW). The poloidal flow velocities were comparable to the toroidal velocities. The ion temperatures were relatively high and the ion orbit loss can be significant. (author)

  20. Profiles of plasma parameters and density of negative hydrogen ions by laser detachment measurements in RF-driven ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ-Koch, Sina

    2007-01-01

    This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields (∝ 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H - )=1.10 17 1/m 3 , which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)

  1. Design and RF test result of High Power Hybrid Combiner for Helicon Wave Current Drive in KSTAR Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Wi, H. H.; Wang, S. J.; Kwak, J. G. [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    200 kW RF power will be injected to plasmas through the traveling wave antenna after combining four klystrons output powers using three hybrid combiners. Each klystron produces 60 kW output at the frequency of 500 MHz. RF power combiners commonly used to divide or combine output powers for various rf and microwave applications. It is divided into several types according to the design type such as Wilkinson combiner, radial and quadrature hybrid combiner. We designed high power hybrid combiners using 6-1/8 inch coaxial line. The power combiner has many advantages such as high isolation, low insertion loss and high power handling capability. In this paper design and rf test results of high power combiners will be described. High power combiners using three coaxial hybrid couplers will be utilized for effectively combining of 500 MHz, 200 kW output powers generated by four klystrons. We have designed, fabricated, and tested a 6-1/8 inch coaxial hybrid combiners at 500 MHz for efficiently off-axis Helicon wave current drive in KSTAR. Simulation and test results of high power coaxial hybrid combiners are good agreement.

  2. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jungwoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H., E-mail: j_shin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Doyoung, E-mail: dybyun@skku.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  3. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Jungwoo; Shin, Jennifer H.; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  4. A study of plasma parameters in hollow cathode plasma jet in pulse regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrna, P.; Klusoň, J.; Leshkov, S.; Chichina, M.; Picková, I.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Tichý, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2010), s. 886-891 ISSN 0863-1042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : thin-films * system * deposition * RF * nitride Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010

  5. Plasma synthesis of titanium nitride, carbide and carbonitride nanoparticles by means of reactive anodic arc evaporation from solid titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesler, D.; Bastuck, T.; Theissmann, R.; Kruis, F. E.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma methods using the direct evaporation of a transition metal are well suited for the cost-efficient production of ceramic nanoparticles. In this paper, we report on the development of a simple setup for the production of titanium-ceramics by reactive anodic arc evaporation and the characterization of the aerosol as well as the nanopowder. It is the first report on TiC X N 1 − X synthesis in a simple anodic arc plasma. By means of extensive variations of the gas composition, it is shown that the composition of the particles can be tuned from titanium nitride over a titanium carbonitride phase (TiC X N 1 − X ) to titanium carbide as proven by XRD data. The composition of the plasma gas especially a very low concentration of hydrocarbons around 0.2 % of the total plasma gas is crucial to tune the composition and to avoid the formation of free carbon. Examination of the particles by HR-TEM shows that the material consists mostly of cubic single crystalline particles with mean sizes between 8 and 27 nm

  6. Study on the RF inductively coupled plasma spheroidization of refractory W and W-Ta alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenfan, YU; Xin, ZHOU; Dianzheng, WANG; Neuyen VAN, LINH; Wei, LIU

    2018-01-01

    Spherical powders with good flowability and high stacking density are mandatory for powder bed additive manufacturing. Nevertheless, the preparation of spherical refractory tungsten and tungsten alloy powders is a formidable task. In this paper, spherical refractory metal powders processed by high-energy stir ball milling and RF inductively coupled plasma were investigated. By utilizing the technical route, pure spherical tungsten powders were prepared successfully, the flowability increased from 10.7 s/50 g to 5.5 s/50 g and apparent density increased from 6.916 g cm-3 to 11.041 g cm-3. Alloying element tantalum can reduce the tendency to micro-crack during tungsten laser melting and rapid solidification process. Spherical W-6Ta (%wt) powders were prepared in this way, homogeneous dispersion of tantalum in a tungsten matrix occurred but a small amount of flake-like shape particles appeared after high-energy stir ball milling. The flake-like shape particles can hardly be spheroidized in subsequent RF inductively coupled plasma process, might result from the unique suspended state of flaky particles under complex electric and magnetic fields as well as plasma-particle heat exchange was different under various turbulence models. As a result, the flake-like shape particles cannot pass through the high-temperature area of thermal plasma torch and cannot be spheroidized properly.

  7. Hydrogen permeation modification of 4140 steel by ion nitriding with pulsed plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzoni, P.; Ortiz, M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bruehl, S.P.; Gomez, B.J.A.; Feugeas, J.N. [Inst. de Fisica Rosario (UNR-CONICET), Rosario (Argentina); Nosei, L. [Inst. de Mecanica Aplicada y Estructuras (UNR), Rosario (Argentina)

    1998-11-10

    It is widely known that the hydrogen in steel produces embrittlement. This effect may cause the failure of the elements (confining walls, mechanical parts, etc.) whose surfaces are in contact with this gas or with processes in which hydrogen is continuously generated. In this work it is shown that the ion nitriding of the surface of AISI 4140 is a good mechanism to act as a barrier against hydrogen permeation in its bulk. The ion nitriding was performed using a square wave DC glow discharge. The development of a compound layer of iron nitrides was observed as the cause of the hydrogen permeation reduction. For equal duration of treatment, thicker compound layers were developed in higher discharge/post-discharge ratios in the square wave of the applied voltage onto the sample (cathode), with a greater reduction of hydrogen permeation coefficient as a consequence. Nevertheless, the permeation was not reduced to zero in any of the treatment conditions used. The results of the analysis of the permeation tests and the image of the photomicrographs showed that the existence of cracks, fractures, failures, etc. in the compound layer (pre-existing in the AISI 4140 steel) could be the cause of the residual hydrogen permeation. This can be attributed to the movement of the hydrogen through these defects diffusing through the original {alpha}-Fe phase of the non-treated steel. (orig.) 11 refs.

  8. Multilayered metal oxide thin film gas sensors obtained by conventional and RF plasma-assisted laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitu, B.; Marotta, V.; Orlando, S.

    2006-01-01

    Multilayered thin films of In 2 O 3 and SnO 2 have been deposited by conventional and RF plasma-assisted reactive pulsed laser ablation, with the aim to evaluate their behaviour as toxic gas sensors. The depositions have been carried out by a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ = 532 nm, τ = 7 ns) on Si(1 0 0) substrates, in O 2 atmosphere. The thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical resistance measurements. A comparison of the electrical response of the simple (indium oxide, tin oxide) and multilayered oxides to toxic gas (nitric oxide, NO) has been performed. The influence on the structural and electrical properties of the deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature and RF power is reported

  9. Low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of thin vanadium nitride layers for copper diffusion barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampelberg, Geert; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schaekers, Marc [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Blasco, Nicolas [Air Liquide Electronics US, L.P., 46401 Landing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Thin vanadium nitride (VN) layers were grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)vanadium and NH{sub 3} plasma at deposition temperatures between 70 Degree-Sign C and 150 Degree-Sign C on silicon substrates and polymer foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a composition close to stoichiometric VN, while x-ray diffraction showed the {delta}-VN crystal structure. The resistivity was as low as 200 {mu}{Omega} cm for the as deposited films and further reduced to 143 {mu}{Omega} cm and 93 {mu}{Omega} cm by annealing in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/He/N{sub 2}, respectively. A 5 nm VN layer proved to be effective as a diffusion barrier for copper up to a temperature of 720 Degree-Sign C.

  10. Studies of the process of an unsteady formation of hard nitride coatings in an arc plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zake, M.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetic studies of an unsteady formation of hard ZrN and TiN coatings on the surface of metallic (Zr, Ti) samples in an Ar-N plasma flow are carried out. The obtained result is that at the initial stage of an unsteady heating of titanium samples nitrogen atoms penetrate into metal lattice and form interstitial compounds of hard nitrogen solutions in α-phase of Ti. This process is followed by a growth of thin surface layers of titanium nitrides with subsequent changes of surface radiance of exposed samples. Unsteady formation of ZrN is a similar two-stage process which includes the ZrN film growth and formation of a α-hard solution with subsequent changes of total normal emissivity of the surface. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig

  11. First plasma experiments in Tore Supra with a new generation of high heat flux limiters for RF antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarici, G.; Beaumont, B.; Bibet, Ph.; Bremond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Colas, L.; Durocher, A.; Gargiulo, L.; Ladurelle, L.; Lombard, G.; Martin, G.; Mollard, P.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1997 and 1998 Tore Supra shutdown, a first set of new antenna guard limiters was installed on one of the three ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas of Tore Supra. This limiter, which was one of the main technological studies of the 1998 campaign, was widely experimented in real plasma conditions, thus allowing the validation in situ, for the first time, of the technology of active metal casting (AMC) for plasma facing components. The huge improvement in the thermal response of the new limiter generation, compared to the old one, is shown on plasma pulses made identical in terms of antenna position and injected RF power profile. By using the infrared cameras installed inside Tore Supra and viewing the antennas front, the power density fluxes received by the carbon fibre composite (CFC) surface of the limiter were evaluated by correlation with the heat load tests made on the electrons beam facility of CEA/Framatome

  12. Langmuir probe study of a magnetically enhanced RF plasma source at pressures below 0.1 Pa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousal, Jaroslav; Tichý, Milan; Šebek, Ondřej; Čechvala, Juraj; Biederman, Hynek

    2011-08-01

    The majority of plasma polymerization sources operate at pressures higher than 1 Pa. At these pressures most common deposition methods do not show significant directionality. One way of enhancing the directional effects is to decrease the working pressure to increase the mean free path of the reactive molecules. The plasma source used in this work was designed to study the plasma polymerization process at pressures below 0.1 Pa. The source consists of the classical radio frequency (RF) (13.56 MHz, capacitive coupled) tubular reactor enhanced by an external magnetic circuit. The working gas is introduced into the discharge by a capillary. This forms a relatively localized zone of higher pressure where the monomer is activated. Due to the magnetic field, the plasma is constricted near the axis of the reactor with nearly collisionless gas flow. The plasma parameters were obtained using a double Langmuir probe. Plasma density in the range ni = 1013-1016 m-3 was obtained in various parts of the discharge under typical conditions. The presence of the magnetic field led to the presence of relatively strong electric fields (103 V m-1) and relatively high electron energies up to several tens of eV in the plasma.

  13. Langmuir probe study of a magnetically enhanced RF plasma source at pressures below 0.1 Pa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousal, Jaroslav; Tichy, Milan; Sebek, Ondrej; Cechvala, Juraj; Biederman, Hynek, E-mail: jaroslav.kousal@mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    The majority of plasma polymerization sources operate at pressures higher than 1 Pa. At these pressures most common deposition methods do not show significant directionality. One way of enhancing the directional effects is to decrease the working pressure to increase the mean free path of the reactive molecules. The plasma source used in this work was designed to study the plasma polymerization process at pressures below 0.1 Pa. The source consists of the classical radio frequency (RF) (13.56 MHz, capacitive coupled) tubular reactor enhanced by an external magnetic circuit. The working gas is introduced into the discharge by a capillary. This forms a relatively localized zone of higher pressure where the monomer is activated. Due to the magnetic field, the plasma is constricted near the axis of the reactor with nearly collisionless gas flow. The plasma parameters were obtained using a double Langmuir probe. Plasma density in the range n{sub i} = 10{sup 13}-10{sup 16} m{sup -3} was obtained in various parts of the discharge under typical conditions. The presence of the magnetic field led to the presence of relatively strong electric fields (10{sup 3} V m{sup -1}) and relatively high electron energies up to several tens of eV in the plasma.

  14. Modeling of polarization phenomena due to RF sheaths and electron beams in magnetized plasma; Modelisation de phenomenes de polarisation par des gaines rf et des faisceaux electroniques dans un plasma magnetise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faudot, E

    2005-07-01

    This work investigates the problematic of hot spots induced by accelerated particle fluxes in tokamaks. It is shown that the polarization due to sheaths in the edge plasma in which an electron beam at a high level of energy is injected, can reach several hundreds volts and thus extend the deposition area. The notion of obstructed sheath is introduced and explains the acceleration of energy deposition by the decreasing of the sheath potential. Then, a 2-dimensional fluid modeling of flux tubes in front of ICRF antennae allows us to calculate the rectified potentials taking into account RF polarization currents transverse to magnetic field lines. The 2-dimensional fluid code designed validates the analytical results which show that the DC rectified potential is 50% greater with polarization currents than without. Finally, the simultaneous application of an electron beam and a RF potential reveals that the potentials due to each phenomenon are additives when RF potential is much greater than beam polarization. The density depletion of polarized flux tubes in 2-dimensional PIC (particles in cells) simulations is characterized but not yet explained. (author)

  15. Correlation of film density and wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provine, J., E-mail: jprovine@stanford.edu; Schindler, Peter; Kim, Yongmin; Walch, Steve P.; Kim, Hyo Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kim, Ki-Hyun [Manufacturing Technology Center, Samsung Electronics, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}), particularly for use a low k dielectric spacer. One of the key material properties needed for SiN{sub x} films is a low wet etch rate (WER) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In this work, we report on the evaluation of multiple precursors for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of SiN{sub x} and evaluate the film’s WER in 100:1 dilutions of HF in H{sub 2}O. The remote plasma capability available in PEALD, enabled controlling the density of the SiN{sub x} film. Namely, prolonged plasma exposure made films denser which corresponded to lower WER in a systematic fashion. We determined that there is a strong correlation between WER and the density of the film that extends across multiple precursors, PEALD reactors, and a variety of process conditions. Limiting all steps in the deposition to a maximum temperature of 350 °C, it was shown to be possible to achieve a WER in PEALD SiN{sub x} of 6.1 Å/min, which is similar to WER of SiN{sub x} from LPCVD reactions at 850 °C.

  16. Structural, morphological and mechanical properties of niobium nitride thin films grown by ion and electron beams emanated from plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jamil; Hussain, Tousif; Ahmad, Riaz; Umar, Zeeshan A.; Abdus Samad, Ubair

    2016-05-01

    The influence of variation in plasma deposition parameters on the structural, morphological and mechanical characteristics of the niobium nitride films grown by plasma-emanated ion and electron beams are investigated. Crystallographic investigation made by X-ray diffractometer shows that the film synthesized at 10 cm axial distance with 15 plasma focus shots (PFS) exhibits better crystallinity when compared to the other deposition conditions. Morphological analysis made by scanning electron microscope reveals a definite granular pattern composed of homogeneously distributed nano-spheroids grown as clustered particles for the film synthesized at 10 cm axial distance for 15 PFS. Roughness analysis demonstrates higher rms roughness for the films synthesized at shorter axial distance and by greater number of PFS. Maximum niobium atomic percentage (35.8) and maximum average hardness (19.4 ± 0.4 GPa) characterized by energy-dispersive spectroscopy and nano-hardness analyzer respectively are observed for film synthesized at 10 cm axial distance with 15 PFS.

  17. The structural and electronic properties of amine-functionalized boron nitride nanotubes via ammonia plasmas: a density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fenglei; Ji Yuemeng; Zhao Cunyuan; Ren Wei

    2009-01-01

    The reaction behavior of the chemical modification of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with ammonia plasmas has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Unlike previously studied functionalization with NH 3 and amino functional groups, we found that NH 2 * radicals involved in the ammonia plasmas can be covalently incorporated to BNNTs through a strong single B-N bond. Subsequently, the H * radicals also involved in the ammonia plasmas would prefer to combine with the N atoms neighboring the NH 2 -functionalized B atoms. Our study revealed that this reaction behavior can be elucidated using the frontier orbital theory. The calculated band structures and density of states (DOS) indicate that this modification is an effective method to modulate the electronic properties of BNNTs. We have discussed various defects on the surface of BNNTs generated by collisions of N 2 + ions. For most defects considered, the reactivity of the functionalization of BNNTs with NH 2 * are enhanced. Our conclusions are independent of the chirality, and the diameter dependence of the reaction energies is presented.

  18. Characterization of diamond-like carbon thin film synthesized by RF atmospheric pressure plasma Ar/CH4 jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Safari, Reza; Etaati, G. Reza; Asadi, Eskandar; Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Hosseinnejad, Mohammad Taghi; Samadi, Omid; Bagheri, Hanieh

    2016-01-01

    The growth of diamond like carbon (DLC) on a Pyrex glass was investigated by a radio frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The plasma jet with capacitive configuration ran by a radio frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz. Alumina ceramic was used as dielectric barrier. Ar and CH4 were used in atmospheric pressure as carrier and precursor gases, respectively. Diamond like carbon thin films were deposited on Pyrex glass at substrate temperature and applied power of 130 °C and 250 Watts, respectively. Performing field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and laser Raman spectroscopy analysis resulted in deposition rate and the ID/IG ratio of 21.31 nm/min and 0.47, respectively. The ID/IG ratio indicated that the coating possesses relative high sp3 content The optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostic was applied to diagnose plasma jet species. Estimating electron temperature and density of the RF-APPJ resulted in 1.36 eV and 2.75 × 1014 cm-3 at the jet exit, respectively.

  19. Charge plasma based source/drain engineered Schottky Barrier MOSFET: Ambipolar suppression and improvement of the RF performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sumit; Kondekar, Pravin N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a novel device structure for charge plasma based Schottky Barrier (SB) MOSFET on ultrathin SOI to suppress the ambipolar leakage current and improvement of the radio frequency (RF) performance. In the proposed device, we employ dual material for the source and drain formation. Therefore, source/drain is divided into two parts as main source/drain and source/drain extension. Erbium silicide (ErSi1.7) is used as main source/drain material and Hafnium metal is used as source/drain extension material. The source extension induces the electron plasma in the ultrathin SOI body resulting reduction of SB width at the source side. Similarly, drain extension also induces the electron plasma at the drain side. This significantly increases the SB width due to increased depletion at the drain end. As a result, the ambipolar leakage current can be suppressed. In addition, drain extension also reduces the parasitic capacitances of the proposed device to improve the RF performance. The optimization of length and work function of metal used in the drain extension is performed to achieve improvement in device performance. Moreover, the proposed device makes fabrication simpler, requires low thermal budget and free from random dopant fluctuations.

  20. Optical and passivating properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for application on silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, Daniel Nilsen

    2008-07-01

    Within this thesis, several important subjects related to the use of amorphous silicon nitride made by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition as an anti-reflective coating on silicon solar cells are presented. The first part of the thesis covers optical simulations to optimise single and double layer anti-reflective coatings with respect to optical performance when situated on a silicon solar cell. The second part investigates the relationship between important physical properties of silicon nitride films when deposited under different conditions. The optical simulations were either based on minimising the reflectance off a silicon nitride/silicon wafer stack or maximising the transmittance through the silicon nitride into the silicon wafer. The former method allowed consideration of the reflectance off the back surface of the wafer, which occurs typically at wavelengths above 1000 nm due to the transparency of silicon at these wavelengths. However, this method does not take into consideration the absorption occurring in the silicon nitride, which is negligible at low refractive indexes but quite significant when the refractive index increases above 2.1. For high-index silicon nitride films, the latter method is more accurate as it considers both reflectance and absorbance in the film to calculate the transmittance into the Si wafer. Both methods reach similar values for film thickness and refractive index for optimised single layer anti-reflective coatings, due to the negligible absorption occurring in these films. For double layer coatings, though, the reflectance based simulations overestimated the optimum refractive index for the bottom layer, which would have lead to excessive absorption if applied to real anti-reflective coatings. The experimental study on physical properties for silicon nitride films deposited under varying conditions concentrated on the estimation of properties important for its applications, such as optical properties, passivation

  1. Observation of enhanced electric field in an RF-plugged sheet plasma in the RFC-XX-M open-ended machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, T.; Takiyama, K.; Kadota, K.

    1987-12-01

    We report nonperturbing observation of the electric field in the sheet plasma for RF end-plugging on the RFC XX-M open-ended machine by using the Stark effect with a combined technique of beam-probe and laser-induced fluorescence. Under the optimum condition for the RF plugging, enhanced electric field is found in the sheet plasma by about 2.5 times with respect to the electric field when no plasma is produced. The field spatial profile is also measured, which is discussed in connection with the electrostatic eigenmode. (author)

  2. Assessment of quasi-linear effect of RF power spectrum for enabling lower hybrid current drive in reactor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Roberto; Cardinali, Alessandro; Castaldo, Carmine; Amicucci, Luca; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Galli, Alessandro; Napoli, Francesco; Panaccione, Luigi; Santini, Franco; Schettini, Giuseppe; Tuccillo, Angelo Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The main research on the energy from thermonuclear fusion uses deuterium plasmas magnetically trapped in toroidal devices. To suppress the turbulent eddies that impair thermal insulation and pressure tight of the plasma, current drive (CD) is necessary, but tools envisaged so far are unable accomplishing this task while efficiently and flexibly matching the natural current profiles self-generated at large radii of the plasma column [1-5]. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) [6] can satisfy this important need of a reactor [1], but the LHCD system has been unexpectedly mothballed on JET. The problematic extrapolation of the LHCD tool at reactor graded high values of, respectively, density and temperatures of plasma has been now solved. The high density problem is solved by the FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) method [7], and solution of the high temperature one is presented here. Model results based on quasi-linear (QL) theory evidence the capability, w.r.t linear theory, of suitable operating parameters of reducing the wave damping in hot reactor plasmas. Namely, using higher RF power densities [8], or a narrower antenna power spectrum in refractive index [9,10], the obstacle for LHCD represented by too high temperature of reactor plasmas should be overcome. The former method cannot be used for routinely, safe antenna operations, Thus, only the latter key is really exploitable in a reactor. The proposed solutions are ultimately necessary for viability of an economic reactor.

  3. Novel Cyclosilazane-Type Silicon Precursor and Two-Step Plasma for Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Min; Jang, Se Jin; Lee, Sang-Ick; Lee, Won-Jun

    2018-03-14

    We designed cyclosilazane-type silicon precursors and proposed a three-step plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process to prepare silicon nitride films with high quality and excellent step coverage. The cyclosilazane-type precursor, 1,3-di-isopropylamino-2,4-dimethylcyclosilazane (CSN-2), has a closed ring structure for good thermal stability and high reactivity. CSN-2 showed thermal stability up to 450 °C and a sufficient vapor pressure of 4 Torr at 60 °C. The energy for the chemisorption of CSN-2 on the undercoordinated silicon nitride surface as calculated by density functional theory method was -7.38 eV. The PEALD process window was between 200 and 500 °C, with a growth rate of 0.43 Å/cycle. The best film quality was obtained at 500 °C, with hydrogen impurity of ∼7 atom %, oxygen impurity less than 2 atom %, low wet etching rate, and excellent step coverage of ∼95%. At 300 °C and lower temperatures, the wet etching rate was high especially at the lower sidewall of the trench pattern. We introduced the three-step PEALD process to improve the film quality and the step coverage on the lower sidewall. The sequence of the three-step PEALD process consists of the CSN-2 feeding step, the NH 3 /N 2 plasma step, and the N 2 plasma step. The H radicals in NH 3 /N 2 plasma efficiently remove the ligands from the precursor, and the N 2 plasma after the NH 3 plasma removes the surface hydrogen atoms to activate the adsorption of the precursor. The films deposited at 300 °C using the novel precursor and the three-step PEALD process showed a significantly improved step coverage of ∼95% and an excellent wet etching resistance at the lower sidewall, which is only twice as high as that of the blanket film prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  4. The origin of traps and the effect of nitrogen plasma in oxide-nitride-oxide structures for non-volatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. S.; Kwak, D. W.; Oh, J. S.; Lee, D. W.; Cho, H. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrathin oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) dielectric stacked layers are fundamental structures of silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) non-volatile memory devices in which information is known to be stored as charges trapped in silicon nitride. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and a capacitance-voltage (CV) analysis were introduced to observe the trap behavior related to the memory effect in memory devices. The DLTS results verified that the nitride-related traps were a dominant factor in the memory effect. The energy of hole traps was 0.307 eV above the balance band. To improve the memory effects of the non-volatile memory devices with ONO structures, we introduced a nitrogen plasma treatment. After the N-plasma treatment, the flat-band voltage shift (ΔV FB ) was increased by about 1.5 times. The program and the erase (P-E) characteristics were also shown to be better than those for the as-ONO structure. In addition, the retention characteristics were improved by over 2.4 times.

  5. Ion nitriding of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, T.

    2002-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism of aluminium nitriding by a technique that employs implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions and diffusional transport of atoms. The nitriding of aluminium is investigated, because this is a method for surface modification of aluminium and has a potential for application in a broad spectrum of fields such as automobile, marine, aviation, space technologies, etc. However, at present nitriding of aluminium does not find any large scale industrial application, due to problems in the formation of stoichiometric aluminium nitride layers with a sufficient thickness and good quality. For the purposes of this study, ion nitriding is chosen, as an ion beam method with the advantage of good and independent control over the process parameters, which thus can be related uniquely to the physical properties of the resulting layers. Moreover, ion nitriding has a close similarity to plasma nitriding and plasma immersion ion implantation, which are methods with a potential for industrial application. (orig.)

  6. Surface wettability and energy effects on the biological performance of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate films treated with RF plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syromotina, D.S. [Department of Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Surmenev, R.A., E-mail: rsurmenev@gmail.com [Department of Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Surmeneva, M.A. [Department of Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Boyandin, A.N.; Nikolaeva, E.D. [Institute of Biophysics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); School of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny pr., 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Prymak, O.; Epple, M. [Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Ulbricht, M. [Technical Chemistry II and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 45141 Essen (Germany); Oehr, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Volova, T.G. [Institute of Biophysics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); School of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny pr., 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-01

    The surface properties of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) membranes were modified using oxygen and an ammonia radio-frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) plasma. The plasma treatment procedures used in the study only affected the surface properties, including surface topography, without inducing any significant changes in the crystalline structure of the polymer, with the exception being a power level of 250 W. The wettability of the modified P3HB surfaces was significantly increased after the plasma treatment, irrespective of the treatment procedure used. It was revealed that both surface chemistry and surface roughness changes caused by the plasma treatment affected surface wettability. A treatment-induced surface aging effect was observed and resulted in an increase in the water contact angle and a decrease in the surface free energy. However, the difference in the water contact angle between the polymers that had been treated for 4 weeks and the untreated polymer surfaces was still significant. A dependence between cell adhesion and proliferation and the polar component of the surface energy was revealed. The increase in the polar component after the ammonia plasma modification significantly increased cell adhesion and proliferation on biodegradable polymer surfaces compared to the untreated P3HB and the P3HB modified using an oxygen plasma. - Highlights: • Plasma treatment affected the topography of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB). • Plasma treatment resulted in improvement of the surface wettability. • No alteration of the bulk properties of the polymers was observed. • The ammonia plasma treatment at 150 W improved the cell adhesion and proliferation.

  7. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    . Moreover, under certain conditions, the plasma becomes unstable due to spontaneous transitions between low-density (electrostatic, E) and high-density (electromagnetic, H) operating modes. Excellent uniformity of high-density plasmas makes the plasma reactor promising for various plasma processing...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Numerical modelisation of RF waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequency for Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edery, D.; Picq, H.; Samain, A.; Gambier, D.J.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the numerical code ALCYON developed to compute the RF field structure in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code handles fundamental and second harmonic heating while the mode conversion onto modes of decreasing wavelength is simulated by a selective power absorption on slow waves when their wavelength reaches the mesh size

  9. Atomic force microscopy of surface topography of nitrogen plasma treated steel

    CERN Document Server

    Mahboubi, F

    2002-01-01

    Nitriding of steels, using plasma environments has been practiced for many years. A lot of efforts have been put on developing new methods, such as plasma immersion ion implantation (Pl sup 3) and radio frequency (RF) plasma nitriding, for mass transfer of nitrogen into the surface of the work piece. This article presents the results obtained from an in depth investigation of the surface morphology of the treated samples, carried out using an atomic force microscope. Samples from a microalloyed steel, were treated by both methods for 5 hours at different temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 sup d eg sup C in 75% N sub 2 -25% H sub 2 atmosphere. It has been found that the surface of the samples treated by PI sup 3 technique, although having more favorable properties, were rougher than the surfaces treated by RF plasma nitriding.

  10. Plasma synthesis and HPHT consolidation of BN nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nanotubes to produce nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Christopher

    Plasma methods offer a variety of advantages to nanomaterials synthesis. The process is robust, allowing varying particle sizes and phases to be generated simply by modifying key parameters. The work here demonstrates a novel approach to nanopowder synthesis using inductively-coupled plasma to decompose precursor, which are then quenched to produce a variety of boron nitride (BN)-phase nanoparticles, including cubic phase, along with short-range-order nanospheres (e.g., nano-onions) and BN nanotubes. Cubic BN (c-BN) powders can be generated through direct deposition onto a chilled substrate. The extremely-high pyrolysis temperatures afforded by the equilibrium plasma offer a unique particle growth environment, accommodating long deposition times while exposing resulting powders to temperatures in excess of 5000K without any additional particle nucleation and growth. Such conditions can yield short-range ordered amorphous BN structures in the form of 20nm diameter nanospheres. Finally, when introducing a rapid-quenching counter-flow gas against the plasma jet, high aspect ratio nanotubes are synthesized, which are collected on substrate situated radially. The benefits of these morphologies are also evident in high-pressure/high-temperature consolidation experiments, where nanoparticle phases can offer a favorable conversion route to super-hard c-BN while maintaining nanocrystallinity. Experiments using these morphologies are shown to begin to yield c-BN conversion at conditions as low as 2.0 GPa and 1500°C when using micron sized c-BN seeding to create localized regions of high pressures due to Hertzian forces acting on the nanoparticles.

  11. RF plasma deposition of thin SixGeyCz:H films using a combination of organometallic source materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapiejko, C.; Gazicki-Lipman, M.; Klimek, L.; Szymanowski, H.; Strojek, M.

    2004-01-01

    Elements of the IV group of periodic table have been strongly present in the fast development of PECVD techniques for the last two decades at least. As a result, deposition technologies of such materials as a-Si:H, a-C:H, mμ-C:H or DLC have been successfully established. What has followed is an ever growing interest in binary systems of the A x (IV)B y (IV):H kind. One possible way to deposit such systems is to use organosilicon compounds (to deposit Si x C y :H films) or organogermanium compounds (to deposit Ge x C y :H films), as source substances. The present paper reports on a RF plasma deposition of a Si x Ge y C z :H ternary system, using a combination of organosilicon and organogermanium compounds. Thin Si/Ge/C films have been fabricated in a small volume (ca. 2 dm 3 ) parallel plate RF plasma reactor using, as a source material, a combination of tetramethylsilane (TMS) and tetramethylgermanium (TMG) vapours carried by argon. SEM investigations reveal a continuous compact character of the coatings and their uniform thickness. The elemental composition of the films has been studied using EDX analysis. The results of the analysis show that the elemental composition of the films can be controlled by both the TMG/TMS ratio of the initial mixture and the RF power input. Ellipsometric measurements show good homogeneity of these materials. Chemical bonding in the films has been studied using the FTIR technique. Bandgap calculations have been carried out using ellipsometric data and by applying both the Tauc law and the Moss approach

  12. Characterization of stainless steel through Scanning Electron Microscopy, nitrided in the process of implantation of immersed ions in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno S, H.

    2003-01-01

    The present project carries out the investigation of the nitridation of the austenitic stainless steel schedule 304, applying the novel technology of installation of nitrogen ions in immersed materials in plasma (Plll), by means of which they modify those properties of the surface of the steel. The obtained results by means of tests of Vickers microhardness, shows that the hardness was increment from 266 to 740 HV (microhardness units). It was determined by means of scanning electron microscopy, the one semiquantitative chemical analysis of the elements that constitute the austenitic stainless steel schedule 304; the obtained results, show to the nitrogen like an element of their composition in the pieces where carried out to end the PIII technology. The parameters of the plasma with which carried out the technology Plll, were monitored and determined by means of electric probes, and with which it was determined that the density of particles is stable in the interval of 1x10 -1 at 3x10 -1 Torr, and it is where better results of hardness were obtained. That reported in this work, they are the first results obtained when applying the technology Plll in Mexico, and with base in these, it is even necessary to investigate and to deepen until to dominate the process and to be in possibilities of proposing it to be carried out and exploited in an industrial way. (Author)

  13. Influence of DC arc jets on flow fields analyzed by an integrated numerical model for a DC-RF hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jun Ho; Park, Jin Myung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2008-01-01

    The influence of DC arc jets on the flow fields in a hybrid plasma torch is numerically analyzed by an integrated direct current-radio frequency (DC-RF) plasma model based on magneto-hydrodynamic formulations. The calculated results reveal that the increase in DC arc gas flow rate raises the axial flow velocity along the central column of the DC-RF hybrid plasma together with the enhanced backflow streams in the peripheral wall region. The temperature profiles on the torch exit plane are little affected due to the reheating process of the central column by the combined RF plasma. Accordingly, the exit enthalpy emitted from the DC-RF hybrid torch can be concentrated to the central column of the plasma and controlled by adjusting the DC arc gas flow rate. The swirl in the sheath gas flow turns out to have the opposite effect on the DC arc gas flow rate. The swirling motion of the sheath gas can reduce the back flows near the induction tube wall as well as the axial velocities in the central column of the plasma. Accordingly, the swirl in the sheath gas flow can be used for the functional operation of the DC-RF hybrid plasma along with the DC arc gas flow rate to suppress the back flows at the wall region and to reduce the excessive interactions between the DC arc jet and the ambient RF plasmas. The effects of DC input current on the flow fields of hybrid plasma are similar to those of the DC arc gas flow rate, but the axial velocities for the higher current relatively quickly decay along the centerline. This is in contrast to the increase in the axial velocity remaining in proportion to the increase in the DC arc gas flow rate all the way up to the exit of the DC-RF hybrid plasma. Accordingly, the present integrated numerical analysis suggests that the hybrid plasma field profiles and the entrainment of ambient air from the torch exit are controllable by adjusting the DC arc gas flow rate, the DC input current and swirl in the sheath gas flow taking advantage of

  14. CoPt/TiN films nanopatterned by RF plasma etching towards dot-patterned magnetic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szívós, János; Pothorszky, Szilárd; Soltys, Jan; Serényi, Miklós; An, Hongyu; Gao, Tenghua; Deák, András; Shi, Ji; Sáfrán, György

    2018-03-01

    CoPt thin films as possible candidates for Bit Patterned magnetic Media (BPM) were prepared and investigated by electron microscopy techniques and magnetic measurements. The structure and morphology of the Direct Current (DC) sputtered films with N incorporation were revealed in both as-prepared and annealed state. Nanopatterning of the samples was carried out by means of Radio Frequency (RF) plasma etching through a Langmuir-Blodgett film of silica nanospheres that is a fast and high throughput technique. As a result, the samples with hexagonally arranged 100 nm size separated dots of fct-phase CoPt were obtained. The influence of the order of nanopatterning and anneling on the nanostructure formation was revealed. The magnetic properties of the nanopatterned fct CoPt films were investigated by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM). The results show that CoPt thin film nanopatterned by means of the RF plasma etching technique is promising candidate to a possible realization of BPM. Furthermore, this technique is versatile and suitable for scaling up to technological and industrial applications.

  15. Dust particle charge and screening in the collisional RF plasma sheath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Trienekens, D.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Sprouse, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    Once immersed in plasma, a dust particle gathers a highly negative charge due to the net collection of free electrons. In most plasma's on earth and with particle sizes is in the micrometer range, the gravitational force is dominant and consequently the particle ends up within the plasma sheath

  16. Basic study on the generation of RF plasmas in premixed oxy-combustion with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Yugo; Razzak, M.A.; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi; Uesugi, Yoshihiko

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-combustion generates a high temperature field (above 3000 K), which is applied to next generation power plants and high temperature industrial technologies because of N 2 free processes. However, the combustion temperature is so high that the furnace wall may be fatally damaged. In addition, it is very difficult to control the heat flux and chemical species' concentrations because of rapid chemical reactions. We have developed a new method for controlling the flame by electromagnetic force on this field. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the power coupling between the premixed oxy-combustion with methane and radio frequency (RF) power through the induction coil. By optimizing the power coupling, we observed that the flame can absorb RF power up to 1.5 kW. Spectroscopic measurements also showed an increase in the emission intensity from OH radicals in the flame, indicating improved combustibility. (author)

  17. Theory and experiments on RF plasma heating, current drive and profile control in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the main experimental and theoretical achievements related to the study of RF heating and non-inductive current drive and particularly phenomena related to the current density profile control and the potentiality of producing stationary enhanced performance regimes: description of the Lower Hybrid (LH) and Ion Cyclotron Resonant Frequency (ICRF) systems; long pulse coupling performance of the RF systems; observation of the transition to the so-called ''stationary LHEP regime'' in which the (flat) central current density and (peaked) electron temperature profiles are fully decoupled; experiments on ICRF sawtooth stabilization with the combined effect of LHCD modifying the current density profile; diffusion of fast electrons generated by LH waves; ramp-up experiments in which the LH power provided a significant part of the resistive poloidal flux and flux consumption scaling; theory of spectral wave diffusion and multipass absorption; fast wave current drive modelling with the Alcyon full wave code; a reflector LH antenna concept. 18 figs., 48 refs

  18. Density measurements in the boundary layer of the ASDEX RF heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shaer, M.

    1986-11-01

    The boundary layer in the main chamber of ASDEX is diagnosed using a movable 2.2 mm microwave interferometer. The measured radial density profile decreases exponentially outside of the separatrix with three different e-folding lengths, the middle part of the profile is flatter with a larger e-folding length. The boundary density increases proportionally to the increase of the main plasmy density near the separatrix, far from the separatrix this increase is weaker. The boundary density increases with the increase of the main magnetic field in the discharge. With the application of the RF heating at the lower hybrid frequency the boundary density is submitted to a large modification. The behavior of this modification in the density profile depends on the rate of injection of the cold feeding gas. In the discharge with a constant or decreasing gas feeding rate the density profile flattens, and with an increasing rate it steepens when the RF pulse is applied. (orig.)

  19. Surface nanocrystallization by surface mechanical attrition treatment and its effect on structure and properties of plasma nitrided AISI 321 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Yimin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China) and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)]. E-mail: linyimin_2001@yahoo.com.cn; Lu Jian [LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France); Wang Liping [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Xu Tao [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xue Qunji [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Middle Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China)]. E-mail: qjxue@ns.lzb.ac.cn

    2006-12-15

    A plastic deformation surface layer with nanocrystalline grains was produced on AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel by means of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Low-temperature nitriding of SMAT and un-SMAT AISI 321 stainless steel was carried out in pulsed-DC glow discharge. The effect of SMAT pretreatment on the microstructure and properties of the stainless steel were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Vickers hardness tester and UMT-2MT tribometer. The results show that the plasma nitriding of AISI 321 steel can be enhanced considerably by means of SMAT process before nitriding, and a much thicker nitrogen diffusion layer with higher hardness was obtained for the SMAT samples when compared with un-SMAT samples. In addition, the wear resistance and load capacity of the nitrided layers on the SMAT samples was much higher than that of the un-SMAT samples due to the thicker S phase case and the gradient nitrogen diffusion layer.

  20. Comparative study on nitridation and oxidation plasma interface treatment for AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs with AlN gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hou, Bin; Chen, Li-Xiang; Zhu, Qing; Hao, Yue

    2017-02-01

    This paper demonstrated the comparative study on interface engineering of AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) by using plasma interface pre-treatment in various ambient gases. The 15 nm AlN gate dielectric grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition significantly suppressed the gate leakage current by about two orders of magnitude and increased the peak field-effect mobility by more than 50%. NH3/N2 nitridation plasma treatment (NPT) was used to remove the 3 nm poor-quality interfacial oxide layer and N2O/N2 oxidation plasma treatment (OPT) to improve the quality of interfacial layer, both resulting in improved dielectric/barrier interface quality, positive threshold voltage (V th) shift larger than 0.9 V, and negligible dispersion. In comparison, however, NPT led to further decrease in interface charges by 3.38 × 1012 cm-2 and an extra positive V th shift of 1.3 V. Analysis with fat field-effect transistors showed that NPT resulted in better sub-threshold characteristics and transconductance linearity for MIS-HEMTs compared with OPT. The comparative study suggested that direct removing the poor interfacial oxide layer by nitridation plasma was superior to improving the quality of interfacial layer by oxidation plasma for the interface engineering of GaN-based MIS-HEMTs.

  1. theoretical and experimental study of plasma acceleration by means of R.F. and static magnetic field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardet, Rene; Consoli, Terenzio; Geller, Richard

    1964-09-01

    In the first part of the paper, the theory of the physical mechanism of ion dragging by accelerated electrons due to the superimposition of the gradient of a electromagnetic field and the gradient of a static magnetic field, is described. The resulting trajectory of the electrons is a helicoid and one shows the variations of the diameter and the path of the spirals along the axis as a function of the difference between the gyrofrequency and the applied R.F. frequency. The ion acceleration is due to an electron space charge effect. The grouping of the equations of the electronic and ionic fluid motions leads to the introduction of a tensor mass: along the x and y direction the transverse motion of the fluid is controlled by the relativistic mass of electrons whereas along the z direction the axial motion is determined by the ionic mass. Then we deduce physical consequences of the theoretical study and give three experimental evidences. The second part of the paper is devoted to the experimental device called Pleiade which allowed us to verify some of the theoretical predictions. Pleiade produces a D.C. operating plasma beam in which the electrons exhibit radially oriented energies whereas the ionic energy is mainly axial. The experimental results indicate that the energy of the particles is in the keV range. In the third part we deal with the reflecting properties of the device. We show that the R.F. static magnetic field gradients are not only capable of accelerating a Plasma beam along the axially decreasing magnetic field, but are also capable of stopping and reflecting such a beam when the latter is moving along an axially increasing magnetic field. We describe finally a plasma accumulation experiment in which two symmetric structures form simultaneously an accelerator and a 'dynamic mirror' for the particles. Evidence of accumulation is given. (authors) [fr

  2. Remote PECVD silicon nitride films with improved electrical properties for GaAs P-HEMT passivation

    CERN Document Server

    Sohn, M K; Kim, K H; Yang, S G; Seo, K S

    1998-01-01

    In order to obtain thin silicon nitride films with excellent electrical and mechanical properties, we employed RPECVD (Remote Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition) process which produces less plasma-induced damage than the conventional PECVD. Through the optical and electrical measurements of the deposited films, we optimized the various RPECVD process parameters. The optimized silicon nitride films showed excellent characteristics such as small etch rate (approx 33 A/min by 7:1 BHF), high breakdown field (>9 MV/cm), and low compressive stress (approx 3.3x10 sup 9 dyne/cm sup 2). We successfully applied thin RPECVD silicon nitride films to the surface passivation of GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (P-HEMTs) with negligible degradations in DC and RF characteristics.

  3. Self-consistent calculation of the effects of RF injection in the HHFW heating regimes on the evolution of fast ions in toroidal plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelli Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical question for the use of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF heating in the ITER device and beyond is interaction of fast waves with energetic ion populations from neutral beam injection (NBI, fusion reactions, and minority ions accelerated by the RF waves themselves. Several experiments have demonstrated that the interaction between fast waves and fast ions can indeed be strong enough to significantly modify the NB ion population. To model the RF/fast ion interaction and the resulting fast ion distribution, a recent extension of the full wave solver TORIC v.5 that includes non-Maxwellian effects has been combined with the Monte Carlo NUBEAM code through an RF “kick” operator. In this work, we present an initial verification of the NUBEAM RF “kick” operator for high harmonic fast wave (HHFW heating regime in NSTX plasma.

  4. Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of (11-22)-oriented 3-nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahourcade, L.

    2009-10-01

    This work reports on the molecular-beam epitaxial growth of (1122)-oriented semi-polar nitride semiconductors using m-sapphire substrates. The (1122) crystallographic orientation is predefined by AlN deposition on m-sapphire under N excess. On top of this AlN buffer layer, undoped or Si-doped two-dimensional GaN(1122) films are formed under Ga-rich conditions, with a stabilized Ga-excess ad-layer of about 1.05±0.10 ML. In contrast, Mg tends to segregate on the GaN surface, inhibiting the self-regulated Ga excess film. Nevertheless, uniform Mg incorporation can be obtained, and p-type conductivity was achieved. GaN/AlN quantum wells are synthesized by deposition of the binary compounds under the above-described conditions. In the case of GaN/AlN quantum dots, the three-dimensional transition is induced by a growth interruption under vacuum. The reduction of the internal electric field in GaN/AlN nano-structures is confirmed by the blue shift of the photoluminescence spectrum and by the short photoluminescence decay times measured at low temperature. These results are consistent with theoretical calculations of the electronic structure. (author)

  5. Nitriding of high speed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.D.; Pagon, A.M.; Hubbard, P.; Dowey, S.J.; Pilkington, A.; McCulloch, D.G.; Latham, K.; DuPlessis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Current practice when nitriding HSS cutting tools is to avoid embrittlement of the cutting edge by limiting the depth of the diffusion zone. This is accomplished by reducing the nitriding time and temperature and eliminating any compound layer formation. However, in many applications there is an argument for generating a compound layer with beneficial tribological properties. In this investigation results are presented of a metallographic, XRD and XPS analysis of nitrided surface layers generated using active screen plasma nitriding and reactive vapour deposition using cathodic arc. These results are discussed in the context of built up edge formation observed while machining inside a scanning electron microscope. (author)

  6. Nanoparticle formation in a low pressure argon/aniline RF plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, C.; Kovacevic, E.; Hussain, S.; Dias, A.; Lecas, T.; Berndt, J.

    2018-01-01

    The formation of nanoparticles in low temperature plasmas is of high importance for different fields: from astrophysics to microelectronics. The plasma based synthesis of nanoparticles is a complex multi-scale process that involves a great variety of different species and comprises timescales ranging from milliseconds to several minutes. This contribution focuses on the synthesis of nanoparticles in a low temperature, low pressure capacitively coupled plasma containing mixtures of argon and aniline. Aniline is commonly used for the production of polyaniline, a material that belongs to the family of conductive polymers, which has attracted increasing interest in the last few years due to the large number of potential applications. The nanoparticles which are formed in the plasma volume and levitate there due to the collection of negative charges are investigated in this contribution by means of in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. In addition, the plasma is analyzed by means of plasma (ion) mass spectroscopy. The experiments reveal the possibility to synthesize nanoparticles both in continuous wave and in pulsed discharges. The formation of particles in the plasma volume can be suppressed by pulsing the plasma in a specific frequency range. The in-situ FTIR analysis also reveals the influence of the argon plasma on the characteristics of the nanoparticles.

  7. Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhongguang; Khanaki, Alireza; Tian, Hao; Zheng, Renjing; Suja, Mohammad; Liu, Jianlin, E-mail: jianlin@ece.ucr.edu [Quantum Structures Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Zheng, Jian-Guo [Irvine Materials Research Institute, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2800 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (G/h-BN) heterostructures have attracted a great deal of attention because of their exceptional properties and wide variety of potential applications in nanoelectronics. However, direct growth of large-area, high-quality, and stacked structures in a controllable and scalable way remains challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of h-BN/graphene (h-BN/G) heterostructures on cobalt (Co) foil by sequential deposition of graphene and h-BN layers using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that the coverage of h-BN layers can be readily controlled on the epitaxial graphene by growth time. Large-area, uniform-quality, and multi-layer h-BN films on thin graphite layers were achieved. Based on an h-BN (5–6 nm)/G (26–27 nm) heterostructure, capacitor devices with Co(foil)/G/h-BN/Co(contact) configuration were fabricated to evaluate the dielectric properties of h-BN. The measured breakdown electric field showed a high value of ∼2.5–3.2 MV/cm. Both I-V and C-V characteristics indicate that the epitaxial h-BN film has good insulating characteristics.

  8. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalskyi, D; Aanesland, A

    2014-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N 2 . The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam. (paper)

  9. Influence of the density of the microwave plasma in the nitridation of the AISI 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirino O, S.; Camps C, E.; Escobar A, L.; Mejia H, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    A source of microwaves plasma type ECR was used to modify those mechanical properties of the surface of steel pieces AISI 4140. The experiments were carried out in a range of pressure among 4 X 10 -4 and 7 X 10 -4 Torr using one mixture of gases 60/40 hydrogen / nitrogen and an incident power of the microwaves of 400 W. Previous to the treatment of the samples, the plasma was studied using one Langmuir probe to determine the temperature of the electrons and the density of the plasma, the species excited in the plasma were determined by means of Optical emission spectroscopy. All the samples were treated during 50 min in a regime of low temperature (- 250 C), and the surface hardness it was increased up of 100% of their initial value, with a depth of penetration of the nitrogen of 4.5 μ m. The biggest hardness and depth of penetration of the nitrogen were obtained when the biggest density in the plasma was used to carry out the experiments. (Author)

  10. Role of chlorine in the nanocrystalline silicon film formation by rf plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of chlorinated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the disorder-induced low-temperature crystallization in the nanocrystalline silicon film growth by rf plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of H 2 -diluted SiH 2 Cl 2 and SiCl 4 . The combination of the chemical reactivity of SiCld (d: dangling bond) and SiHCl complexes and the release of the disorder-induced stress near the growing surface tightly correlate with the phase transitionity of SiCld and SiHCl complexes near the growing surface with the aid of atomic hydrogen, which induce higher degree of disorder in the a-Si network. These features are most prominent in the SiCl 4 compared with those of SiH 2 Cl 2 and SiH 4 , which preferentially enhance the nanocrystalline Si formation

  11. VO2 Thermochromic Films on Quartz Glass Substrate Grown by RF-Plasma-Assisted Oxide Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide (VO2 thermochromic thin films with various thicknesses were grown on quartz glass substrates by radio frequency (RF-plasma assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE. The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. An excellent reversible metal-to-insulator transition (MIT characteristics accompanied by an abrupt change in both electrical resistivity and optical infrared (IR transmittance was observed from the optimized sample. Remarkably, the transition temperature (TMIT deduced from the resistivity-temperature curve was reasonably consistent with that obtained from the temperature-dependent IR transmittance. Based on Raman measurement and XPS analyses, the observations were interpreted in terms of residual stresses and chemical stoichiometry. This achievement will be of great benefit for practical application of VO2-based smart windows.

  12. Formation Of Carbon Oxides In CH4/O2 Plasmas Produced By Inductively Coupled RF Discharges At Low Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Ivonne; Soltwisch, Henning

    2003-01-01

    The formation of CO and CO2 has been studied in inductively coupled rf (13.56 MHz) discharges with varied mixtures of CH4 and O2 as feed gases at a total pressure of 10 Pa, flow rates of <10 sccm, and input powers of <500 W. The primary diagnostic tool has been TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) to measure absolute concentrations of molecular species as well as their kinetic and rovibrational temperatures. Of particular interest is the sudden transition between different modes of power coupling (capacitive and inductive mode, resp.) and the related changes of the plasma composition. We have found that the power threshold for this transition exhibits a clear hysteresis and depends on the oxygen content. Comparing the ratio of the CO- and CO2-concentrations in capacitive mode with corresponding data from a parallel-plate discharge, clear differences have been observed. The findings can partly be explained on the basis of plasma-chemical reaction chains using tabulated cross-sections in combination with estimations of the electron energy distribution function. Some observations (as, e.g. the presence of CO in inductively coupled plasmas that are fed by pure oxygen) cannot be understood from volume reactions only but point to an important role of surface processes, which depend on the materials of the discharge chamber and on its history and cleaning method

  13. Improvement of In-Flight Alumina Spheroidization Process Using a Small Power Argon DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System by Helium Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takana, Hidemasa; Jang, Juyong; Igawa, Junji; Nakajima, Tomoki; Solonenko, Oleg P.; Nishiyama, Hideya

    2011-03-01

    For the further improvement of in-flight alumina spheroidization process with a low-power direct-current radiofrequency (DC-RF) hybrid plasma flow system, the effect of a small amount of helium gas mixture in argon main gas and also the effect of increasing DC nozzle diameter on powder spheroidization ratio have been experimentally clarified with correlating helium gas mixture percentage, plasma enthalpy, powder in-flight velocity, and temperature. The alumina spheroidization ratio increases by helium gas mixture as a result of enhancement of plasma enthalpy. The highest spheroidization ratio is obtained by 4% mixture of helium in central gas with enlarging nozzle diameter from 3 to 4 mm, even under the constant low input electric power given to a DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system.

  14. Spectroscopic investigations of plasma nitriding processes: A comparative study using steel and carbon as active screen materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Biermann, H.; Röpcke, J.

    2017-04-01

    Low-pressure pulsed DC H2-N2 plasmas were investigated in the laboratory active screen plasma nitriding monitoring reactor, PLANIMOR, to compare the usage of two different active screen electrodes: (i) a steel screen with the additional usage of CH4 as carbon containing precursor in the feeding gas and (ii) a carbon screen without the usage of any additional gaseous carbon precursor. Applying the quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy, the evolution of the concentration of four stable molecular species, NH3, HCN, CH4, and C2H2, has been monitored. The concentrations were found to be in a range of 1012-1016 molecules cm-3. By analyzing the development of the molecular concentrations at variations of the screen plasma power, a similar behavior of the monitored reaction products has been found for both screen materials, with NH3 and HCN as the main reaction products. When using the carbon screen, the concentration of HCN and C2H2 was 30 and 70 times higher, respectively, compared to the usage of the steel screen with an admixture of 1% CH4. Considering the concentration of the three detected hydrocarbon reaction products, a combustion rate of the carbon screen of up to 69 mg h-1 has been found. The applied optical emission spectroscopy enabled the determination of the rotational temperature of the N2+ ion which has been in a range of 650-900 K increasing with the power in a similar way in the plasma of both screens. Also with power the ionic component of nitrogen molecules, represented by the N2+ (0-0) band of the first negative system, as well as the CN (0-0) band of the violet system increase strongly in relation to the intensity of the neutral nitrogen component, i.e., the N2 (0-0) band of the second positive system. In addition, steel samples have been treated with both the steel and the carbon screen resulting in a formation of a compound layer of up to 10 wt. % nitrogen and 10 wt. % carbon, respectively, depending on the screen material.

  15. Measurement of plasma-surface energy fluxes in an argon rf-discharge by means of calorimetric probes and fluorescent microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, H. R.; Kersten, H.; Hannemann, M.; Basner, R.

    2010-01-01

    Measured energy influx densities toward a tungsten dummy substrate in an argon rf-plasma are presented and a model for the description of the energy influx density based on plasma parameters, which have been obtained by Langmuir probe measurements, is applied. Furthermore, temperature measurements of microparticles are presented, which are confined in the plasma sheath. An extension of the model is developed for the description of the energy influx density to the particles. The comparison of model and experimental results offer the possibility to obtain an improved understanding of plasma-surface interactions.

  16. The investigation of Al0.29Ga0.71N/GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN/AlN thin films grown on Si (111) by RF plasma-assisted MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Mahyuddin, Azzafeerah; Hassan, Zainuriah; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Abdullah, Mat Johar

    2012-06-01

    Recently, gallium nitride (GaN) and its related compounds involving Al and In have attracted much attention because of their potential to be used as high-efficiency UV light emitting devices, and as high frequency and high power electronic devices. Consequently, the growth and physics of GaN-based materials have attracted remarkable scientific attention. In this work, the growth and characterization of epitaxial Al0.29Ga0.71N and AlN layers grown on Si (111) by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are described. The Al mole fraction was derived from the HR-XRD symmetric rocking curve (RC) ω/2θ scans of (0002) plane as x = 0.29. For AlN/GaN/AlN sample, the maximum Raman intensity at 521.53 cm-1 is attributed to crystalline silicon. It was found that the allowed Raman optical phonon mode of GaN, the E1 (high) is clearly visible, which is located at 570.74 cm-1. Photoluminscence (PL) spectrums of both samples have shown sharp and intense band edge emission of GaN without the existence of yellow emission band, showing good crystal quality of the samples have been successfully grown on Si substrate.

  17. Hollow-anode plasma source for molecular beam epitaxy of gallium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Newman, N.; Rubin, M.; Dickinson, M.; Jones, E.; Phatak, P.; Gassmann, A.

    1996-01-01

    GaN films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using a hollow-anode nitrogen plasma source. The source was developed to minimize defect formation as a result of contamination and ion damage. The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge with very small anode area. A positive anode voltage drop of 30 endash 40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness leads to ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Driven by the pressure gradient, the open-quote open-quote anode close-quote close-quote plasma forms a bright plasma jet streaming with supersonic velocity towards the substrate. Films of GaN have been grown on (0001) SiC and (0001) Al 2 O 3 at 600 endash 800 degree C. The films were investigated by photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, and particle-induced x-ray emission. The film with the highest structural quality had a rocking curve width of 5 arcmin, the lowest reported value for MBE growth to date. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, S.; Lin, K.; Malladi, S.R.K.; Lu, Y.; Sun, S.; Xu, Q.; Steinberger-Wilckens, R.; Dong, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support

  19. Confinement of Stellarator plasmas with neutral beam and RF heating in W VII-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, G.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.

    1986-01-01

    WENDELSTEIN VII-A has been operated for ten years. It is a low-shear, high-aspect-ratio device. The confinement properties have been thoroughly studied for both ohmically heated and net-current free plasmas. For the latter case, NBI- and ECF-maintained plasmas were of particular importance. It was found that under optimized conditions the core of high-pressure, net-current free plasmas is mainly governed by collisional effects. The experiment will now be shut down for upgrading it into the Advanced Stellarator WEDNDELSTEIN VII-AS. (author)

  20. Etching Enhancement Followed by Nitridation on Low-k SiOCH Film in Ar/C5F10O Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Yudai; Shibata, Emi; Kondo, Yusuke; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Okamoto, Hidekazu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2013-02-01

    The etching rates of low-dielectric-constant (low-k), porous SiOCH (p-SiOCH) films were increased by nitrogen-added Ar/C5F10O plasma etching in dual-frequency (60 MHz/2 MHz)-excited parallel plate capacitively coupled plasma. Previously, perfluoropropyl vinyl ether [C5F10O] provided a very high density of CF3+ ions [Nagai et al.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45 (2006) 7100]. Surface nitridation on the p-SiOCH surface exposed to Ar/N2 plasma led to the etching of larger amounts of p-SiOCH in Ar/C5F10O plasma, which depended on the formation of bonds such as =C(sp2)=N(sp2)- and -C(sp)≡N(sp).

  1. Investigation of Plasma Etching for Superconducting RF Cavities Surface Preparation. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuskovic, Leposava

    2009-01-01

    Our results show that plasma-treated samples are comparable or superior to a BCP sample, both in the size of features and sharpness of the boundaries between individual features at the surface. Plasma treatment of bulk Nb cavities is a promising technique for microwave cavities preparation used in particle acceleration application. Etching rates are sufficiently high to enable efficient removal of mechanically damaged surface layer with high reproducibility. No impurities are deposited on the bulk Nb surface during plasma treatment. Surface topology characteristic are promising for complex cavity geometry, since discharge conforms the profile of the reaction chamber. In view of these experimental results, we propose plasma treatment for producing microwave cavities with high Q factor instead of using bulk Nb treated with wet etching process.

  2. Sources plasma RF magnétisées : applications à la propulsion spatiale

    OpenAIRE

    Gerst , Jan Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The PEGASES thruster (Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative Gases) is a novel type of electric thruster for space propulsion. It uses negative and positive ions produced by an inductively coupled radio frequency discharge to create the thrust by electrostatically accelerating the ions through a set of grids. A magnetic filter is used to increase the amount of negative ions in the cavity of the thruster. The PEGASES thruster is not only a source to create a strongly negative ion plasma or eve...

  3. Role of metastable atoms in argon-diluted silane Rf plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansonnens, L.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Kroll, U.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the argon metastable density has been studied by absorption spectroscopy in power-modulated plasmas of argon and a mixture of 4% silane in argon. A small concentration of silane suppresses the argon metastable density by molecular quenching. This molecular quenching adds to the electronic collisional dissociation to increase the silane dissociation rate as compared with pure silane plasmas. Using time-resolved emission spectroscopy, the role of metastables in excitation to the argon 2P 2 state has been determined in comparison with production from the ground state. In silane plasmas, emission from SiH* is due essentially to electron impact dissociation of silane, whereas in 4% silane-in-argon plasmas, emission from SiH* seems to be due to electron impact excitation of the SiH ground state. These studies demonstrate that argon is not simply a buffer gas but has an influence on the dissociation rate in the plasma-assisted deposition of amorphous silicon using argon-diluted silane plasmas. (author) 7 figs., 30 refs

  4. Optogalvanic monitoring of collisional transfer of laser excitation energy in a neon RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The optogalvanic signals produced by pulsed laser excitation of 1s5--2p8 and 1s5-2p9 (Paschen notation) transition by a ∼29 MHz radiofrequency (rf) discharge at ∼5 torr have been investigated. The optogalvanic signal produced by 1s5-2p9 excitations indicates that there is transfer of energy from the 2p9 state to some other state. The state to which this energy is transferred is believed to be mainly the 2p8 state because of the very small energy gap between the 2p9 and 2p8 states. To verify this transfer, the 1s5-2p8 transition was investigated. The similarity of the temporal profiles of the optogalvanic signals in both excitations confirms the collisional transfer of laser excitation energy from 2p9 to 2p8

  5. Study creep in 4340 steels with different microstructure and plasma carbon nitridation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.J.; Carrer, I.R.; Barboza, M.J.R.; Baggio-Scheid, V.H.; Moura Neto, C.; Reis, D.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    From the AISI 4340 bars specimens were made-for-test of creep, they were subjected to different heat treatments for the formation of multiphase microstructures. After this initial treatment, a lot of the specimens were tested in creep. One second batch of specimens was treated with a plasma carbonitriding, and later, were also tested. The carbonitriding layer and microstructure were characterized with X-ray analysis, laser confocal microscopy and hardness testing. Tests showed that the hardness in the steel was reduced due to thermochemical treatment at 500 deg C. We observed variation in creep behavior due to different microstructures formed. After the plasma treatment, there was a considerable reduction in the rate of creep and an increase in the time required for fracture. (author)

  6. Etching of UO2 in NF3 RF Plasma Glow Discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veilleux, John M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-08-01

    A series of room temperature, low pressure (10.8 to 40 Pa), low power (25 to 210 W) RF plasma glow discharge experiments with UO2 were conducted to demonstrate that plasma treatment is a viable method for decontaminating UO2 from stainless steel substrates. Experiments were conducted using NF3 gas to decontaminate depleted uranium dioxide from stainless-steel substrates. Depleted UO2 samples each containing 129.4 Bq were prepared from 100 microliter solutions of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solution. The amorphous UO2 in the samples had a relatively low density of 4.8 gm/cm3. Counting of the depleted UO2 on the substrate following plasma immersion was performed using liquid scintillation counting with alpha/beta discrimination due to the presence of confounding beta emitting daughter products, 234Th and 234Pa. The alpha emission peak from each sample was integrated using a gaussian and first order polynomial fit to improve quantification. The uncertainties in the experimental measurement of the etched material were estimated at about ± 2%. Results demonstrated that UO2 can be completely removed from stainless-steel substrates after several minutes processing at under 200 W. At 180 W and 32.7 Pa gas pressure, over 99% of all UO2 in the samples was removed in just 17 minutes. The initial etch rate in the experiments ranged from 0.2 to 7.4 μm/min. Etching increased with the plasma absorbed power and feed gas pressure in the range of 10.8 to 40 Pa. A different pressure effect on UO2 etching was also noted below 50 W in which etching increased up to a maximum pressure, ~23 Pa, then decreased with further increases in pressure.

  7. Surface modification of SU-8 for metal/SU-8 adhesion using RF plasma treatment for application in thermopile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, Shakeel; Mattsson, Claes G; Thungström, Göran; Fondell, Mattis; Lindblad, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on plasma treatment of SU-8 epoxy in order to enhance adhesive strength for metals. Its samples were fabricated on standard silicon wafers and treated with (O 2 and Ar) RF plasma at a power of 25 W at a low pressure of (3 × 10 −3 Torr) for different time spans (10–70 s). The sample surfaces were characterized in terms of contact angle, surface (roughness and chemistry) and using a tape test. During the contact angle measurement, it was observed that the contact angle was reduced from 73° to 5° (almost wet) and 23° for (O 2 and Ar) treated samples, respectively. The root mean square surface roughness was significantly increased by 21.5% and 37.2% for (O 2 and Ar) treatment, respectively. A pattern of metal squares was formed on the samples using photolithography for a tape test. An adhesive tape was applied to the samples and peeled off at 180°. The maximum adhesion results, more than 90%, were achieved for the O 2 -treated samples, whereas the Ar-treated samples showed no change. The XPS study shows the formation of new species in the O 2 -treated sample compared to the Ar-treated samples. The high adhesive results were due to the formation of hydrophilic groups and new O 2 species in the O 2 -treated samples, which were absent in Ar-treated samples. (paper)

  8. Plasma treatment of bulk niobium surface for superconducting rf cavities: Optimization of the experimental conditions on flat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rašković

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator performance, in particular the average accelerating field and the cavity quality factor, depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF cavity surface. Plasma based surface modification provides an excellent opportunity to eliminate nonsuperconductive pollutants in the penetration depth region and to remove the mechanically damaged surface layer, which improves the surface roughness. Here we show that the plasma treatment of bulk niobium (Nb presents an alternative surface preparation method to the commonly used buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing methods. We have optimized the experimental conditions in the microwave glow discharge system and their influence on the Nb removal rate on flat samples. We have achieved an etching rate of 1.7  μm/min⁡ using only 3% chlorine in the reactive mixture. Combining a fast etching step with a moderate one, we have improved the surface roughness without exposing the sample surface to the environment. We intend to apply the optimized experimental conditions to the preparation of single cell cavities, pursuing the improvement of their rf performance.

  9. Copper deposition on fabrics by rf plasma sputtering for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, G; Guzmán, P; Barrantes, Y; Navarro, G; Asenjo, J; Guadamuz, S; Vargas, VI; Zuñiga, P; Chaves, S; Chaves, J

    2015-01-01

    The present work is about preparation and characterization of RF sputtered Cu films on cotton by the usage of a Magnetron Sputter Source and 99.995% purity Cu target at room temperature. Cotton fabric samples of 1, 2 and 4 min of sputtering time at discharge pressure of 1×10 −2 Torr and distance between target and sample of 8 cm were used. The main goal was to qualitatively test the antimicrobial action of copper on fabrics. For that purpose, a reference strain of Escherichia Coli ATCC 35218 that were grown in TSA plates was implemented. Results indicated a decrease in the growth of bacteria by contact with Cu; for fabric samples with longer sputtering presented lower development of E. coli colonies. The scope of this research focused on using these new textiles in health field, for example socks can be made with this textile for the treatment of athlete's foot and the use in pajamas, sheets, pillow covers and robes in hospital setting for reducing the spread of microorganisms. (paper)

  10. Dependence of beam emittance on plasma electrode temperature and rf-power, and filter-field tuning with center-gapped rod-filter magnets in J-PARC rf-driven H− ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, A.; Koizumi, I.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Yamazaki, S.; Oguri, H.

    2014-01-01

    The prototype rf-driven H − ion-source with a nickel plated oxygen-free-copper (OFC) plasma chamber, which satisfies the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) 2nd stage requirements of a H − ion beam current of 60 mA within normalized emittances of 1.5 π mm mrad both horizontally and vertically, a flat top beam duty factor of 1.25% (500 μs × 25 Hz) and a life-time of more than 50 days, was reported at the 3rd international symposium on negative ions, beams, and sources (NIBS2012). The experimental results of the J-PARC ion source with a plasma chamber made of stainless-steel, instead of nickel plated OFC used in the prototype source, are presented in this paper. By comparing these two sources, the following two important results were acquired. One was that the about 20% lower emittance was produced by the rather low plasma electrode (PE) temperature (T PE ) of about 120 °C compared with the typically used T PE of about 200 °C to maximize the beam current for the plasma with the abundant cesium (Cs). The other was that by using the rod-filter magnets with a gap at each center and tuning the gap-lengths, the filter-field was optimized and the rf-power necessary to produce the J-PARC required H − ion beam current was reduced typically 18%. The lower rf-power also decreases the emittances

  11. [Experimental study on the corrosion behavior of a type of oral near β-type titanium alloys modified with double glow plasma nitriding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ke; Li, Fenglan

    2015-12-01

    To study the electrochemical corrosion performance of a type of biomedical materials near beta titanium alloy(Ti-3Zr-2Sn-3Mo-25Nb, TLM) in artificial saliva before and after nitride changing, and to provide clinical basis for clinical application of titanium alloy TLM. The double glow plasma alloying technology was used to nitride the surface of titanium alloy TLM. The surface properties of the modified layer were observed and tested by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, glow discharge spectrum analyzer, X-ray diffraction and micro hardness tester. Then, electrochemical measurement system was used to test and compare titanium alloy TLM's electrochemical corrosion in artificial saliva before and after its surface change. Finally, the surface morphology of the original titanium alloy and the modified layer was compared by scanning electron microscope. By the technology of double glow plasma nitriding, the surface of the titanium alloy TLM had been successfully nitrided with a modified layer of 4-5 µm in thickness, uniform and compact. Its main compositions were Ti and Ti(2)N. The Microhardness of modified layer also had been improved from (236.8 ± 5.4) to (871.8 ± 5.2) HV. The self-corrosion potential in electrochemical corrosion tests had been increased from -0.559 V to -0.540 V, while the self- corrosion current density had been reduced from 2.091 × 10(-7) A/cm(2) to 7.188 × 10(-8) A/cm(2). Besides, alternating-current impedance(AC Impedance) had also been increased. With the scanning electron microscope, it's obvious that the diameter of corrosion holes on modified layer were approximately 10 µm. As to the diameter and number of corrosion holes on modified layer, they had been decreased comparing with the original titanium alloy. The type of near beta titanium alloy TLM can construct a nitriding modified layer on its surface. Meanwhile, the performance of its anti- corrosion in artificial saliva has been improved, comparing to the original

  12. Study of High Quality Indium Nitride Films Grown on Si(100 Substrate by RF-MOMBE with GZO and AlN Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wurtzite structure InN films were prepared on Si(100 substrates using radio-frequency metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MOMBE system. Ga-doped ZnO (GZO and Amorphous AlN (a-AlN film were used as buffer layers for InN films growth. Structural, surface morphology and optical properties of InN films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL. XRD results indicated that all InN films exhibited preferred growth orientation along the c-axis with different intermediate buffers. TEM images exhibit the InN/GZO growth by two-dimensional mode and thickness about 900 nm. Also, the InN films can be obtained by growth rate about ~1.8 μm/h. Optical properties indicated that the band gap of InN/GZO is about 0.79 eV. These results indicate that the control of buffer layer is essential for engineering the growth of InN on silicon wafer.

  13. Silicon nitride films fabricated by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for coatings of the laser interferometer gravitational wave detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huang-Wei; Kuo, Ling-Chi; Huang, Shu-Yu; Wu, Meng-Yun; Juang, Yu-Hang; Lee, Chia-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Chieh; Wen, Ting Ting; Chao, Shiuh

    2018-01-01

    Silicon is a potential substrate material for the large-areal-size mirrors of the next-generation laser interferometer gravitational wave detector operated in cryogenics. Silicon nitride thin films uniformly deposited by a chemical vapor deposition method on large-size silicon wafers is a common practice in the silicon integrated circuit industry. We used plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to deposit silicon nitride films on silicon and studied the physical properties of the films that are pertinent to application of mirror coatings for laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors. We measured and analyzed the structure, optical properties, stress, Young's modulus, and mechanical loss of the films, at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Optical extinction coefficients of the films were in the 10-5 range at 1550-nm wavelength. Room-temperature mechanical loss of the films varied in the range from low 10-4 to low 10-5 within the frequency range of interest. The existence of a cryogenic mechanical loss peak depended on the composition of the films. We measured the bond concentrations of N - H , Si - H , Si - N , and Si - Si bonds in the films and analyzed the correlations between bond concentrations and cryogenic mechanical losses. We proposed three possible two-level systems associated with the N - H , Si - H , and Si - N bonds in the film. We inferred that the dominant source of the cryogenic mechanical loss for the silicon nitride films is the two-level system of exchanging position between a H+ and electron lone pair associated with the N - H bond. Under our deposition conditions, superior properties in terms of high refractive index with a large adjustable range, low optical absorption, and low mechanical loss were achieved for films with lower nitrogen content and lower N - H bond concentration. Possible pairing of the silicon nitride films with other materials in the quarter-wave stack is discussed.

  14. Laser diagnostics of atomic hydrogen and oxygen production in rf and microwave plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preppernau, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis involved the application of two-photon allowed laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) to the study of atomic hydrogen and oxygen production in industrial scale radio-frequency and microwave plasma discharge apparatus. Absolute atomic hydrogen concentration profiles were measured in a Gaseous Electronics Conference Reference Cell installed at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio operating with a simple H 2 discharge. Two-dimensional atomic hydrogen concentration profiles were also measured in an ASTEX HPMM microwave plasma diamond deposition reactor during actual diamond growth. In addition absolute atomic oxygen concentrations were measured in the ASTEX system. Particular attention as paid to refining the concentration calibration technique and in determining a correction to account for the collisional quenching of excited state fluorescence in high pressure gases

  15. Preparation of boron-rich aluminum boride nanoparticles by RF thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sooseok [Inha University, Department of Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma (Korea, Republic of); Matsuo, Jiro; Cheng, Yingying [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering (Japan); Watanabe, Takayuki, E-mail: watanabe@chemenv.titech.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Boron-rich compounds of AlB{sub 12} and AlB{sub 10} nanoparticles were synthesized by a radiofrequency thermal plasma. Aluminum and boron raw powders were evaporated in virtue of high enthalpy of the thermal plasma in upstream region, followed by the formation of aluminum boride nanoparticles in the tail region of plasma flame with rapid quenching. A high production rate of aluminum boride was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction measurement in the case of high input power, high boron content in raw material and helium inner gas. Polyhedral nanoparticles of 20.8 nm in mean size were observed by a transmission electron microscope. In the raw powder mixture of aluminum, titanium, and boron, titanium-boride nanoparticles were synthesized preferentially, because the Gibbs free energy for the boridation of titanium is lower than that of aluminum. Since the nucleation temperature of boron is higher than that of aluminum, the condensation of metal monomers onto boron nuclei results in the formation of boron-rich aluminum boride nanoparticles.

  16. Effects of N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} remote plasma nitridation on the structural and electrical characteristics of the HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.-S., E-mail: kunsik@etri.re.kr [RFID/USN Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, K.-H.; Kim, D.P.; Woo, J.-C.; Do, L.-M. [RFID/USN Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); No, K.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-01

    The remote plasma nitridation (RPN) of an HfO{sub 2} film using N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} has been investigated comparatively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy analyses after post-deposition annealing (PDA) at 700 deg. C show that a large amount of nitrogen is present in the bulk film as well as in the interfacial layer for the HfO{sub 2} film nitrided with NH{sub 3}-RPN. It is also shown that the interfacial layer formed during RPN and PDA is a nitrogen-rich Hf-silicate. The C-V characteristics of an HfO{sub x}N{sub y} gate dielectric nitrided with NH{sub 3}-RPN have a smaller equivalent oxide thickness than that nitrided with N{sub 2}-RPN in spite of its thicker interfacial layer.

  17. Optical constants of silicon-like (Si:Ox:Cy:Hz) thin films deposited on quartz using hexamethyldisiloxane in a remote RF hollow cathode discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Naddaf, M.

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of amorphous silicon-like (Si:O x :C y :H z ) thin films in a remote RF hollow cathode discharge plasma using Hexamethyldisoloxane as monomer and Ar as feed gas; has been investigated for films optical constants and plasma diagnostic as a function of RF power (100-300 W) and precursor flow rate (1-10 sccm). Plasma diagnostic has been performed using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant) have been obtained by reflection/transmission measurements in the range 300-700 nm. It is found that the refractive index increases from 1.92 to 1.97 with increasing power from 100 to 300 W, and from 1.70 to 1.92 with increasing precursor flow rate from 1 to 10 sccm. The optical energy-band gap E g and the optical-absorption tail ΔE have been estimated from optical absorption spectra, it is found that E g decreases from 3.28 eV to 3.14 eV with power increase from 100 to 300 W, and from 3.54 eV to 3.28 eV with precursor flow rate increase from 1 to 10 sccm. ΔE is found to increase with applied RF power and precursor flow rate increase. The dependence of optical constants on deposition parameters has been correlated to plasma OES. (author)

  18. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shangfeng; Lin, Kaijie; Malladi, Sairam K.; Lu, Yaxiang; Sun, Shuhui; Xu, Qiang; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert; Dong, Hanshan

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support surface, significantly promoting the uniform growth of tiny Pt nuclei which directs the growth of ultrathin single-crystal Pt nanowire (2.5-3 nm in diameter) arrays, forming a three-dimensional (3D) nano-architecture. Pt nanowire arrays in-situ grown on the large-area gas diffusion layer (GDL) (5 cm2) can be directly used as the catalyst electrode in fuel cells. The unique design brings in an extremely thin electrocatalyst layer, facilitating the charge transfer and mass transfer properties, leading to over two times higher power density than the conventional Pt nanoparticle catalyst electrode in real fuel cell environment. Due to the similar challenges faced with other nanostructures and the high availability of ASP for other material surfaces, this work will provide valuable insights and guidance towards the development of other new nano-architectures for various practical applications.

  19. On the generation of steady currents in a plasma cylinder using RF waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugrass, W.N.

    1980-10-01

    The generation of a steady current in a resistive plasma cylinder by means of a travelling wave magnetic field has been studied using the resistive MHD equations. The nonlinear initial-boundary value problem has been solved using a semi-Lagrangian two dimensional algorithm. The numerical code has been used to simulate the Synchromak experiment of Nagoya University. Hollow d.c. current profiles, similar to the experimental data, have been obtained. A simple analytical argument, of a more general nature, shows that classical resistive diffusion cannot lead to a more uniform current distribution

  20. Edge density X-mode reflectometry of RF-heated plasmas on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, R.

    1991-09-01

    In the present work microwave reflectometry is extended to the outermost part of tokamak plasmas (n e ≅ 10 11 to 1.5x10 13 cm -3 ), which is subject to strong electron density fluctuations. The perturbations of electron density profile measurements by these fluctuations, which lead to strong modulations in intensity and phase of the reflected signal is analysed in detail. By increasing the frequency of the interference fringes to values between 800 kHz and 2.4 MHz it is possible to make reliable profile measurements even in the region of very strong fluctuations. Measurements in the low density region are only possible with reasonable errors in the X-mode (Eperpendicular toB), as only the cut-off frequency of this mode, in contrast to that of the O-mode (EparallelB), takes a finite value (f ce ) for n e ->O. Taking advantage of this property, a method is presented to calibrate the measurements on the first reflection, which occurs directly in front of the microwave antennas (1-4 mm from the opening) thus giving a high precision even in the outermost part of the plasma close to the microwave antennas. For the calculation of the electron density profile a new and numerically stable algorithm has been developed. Measurements in connection with Lower Hybrid have been made with a set of 2 reflectometer antennas installed in ASDEX. (orig./AH)

  1. Nanoscratch characterization of indium nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Derming [Chin-Yi Univ. of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2014-01-15

    In this study we used RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy for the epitaxial growth of single-crystalline indium nitride (InN) thin films on aluminum nitride buffer layers/Si (111) substrates. We then used scratch techniques to study the influence of the c-axis orientation of the InN films and the beam interactions on the tribological performance of these samples. When grown at 440, 470, and 500 C, the coefficients of friction were 0.18, 0.22, and 0.26, respectively, under a normal force (F{sub n}) of 2000 {mu}N; 0.19, 0.23, and 0.27, respectively, under a value of Fn of 4000 {mu}N; and 0.21, 0.24, and 0.28, respectively, under a value of F{sub n} of 6000 {mu}N. These measured values increased slightly upon increasing the growth temperature because of the resulting smaller sizes of the apertures and/or pores in the inner films. The sliding resistance of the ploughed area was observed. The contact sliding line became increasingly noticeable upon increasing the value of F{sub n}; the plot of the friction with respect to the penetration depth revealed a significant relation in its adhesion properties presentation. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical and experimental studies of a planar inductive coupled rf plasma source as the driver in simulator facility (ISTAPHM) of interactions of waves with the edge plasma on tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanei, V.; Nasrabadi, M. N.; Chin, O.-H.; Jayapalan, K. K.

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to design and build a planar inductive coupled RF plasma source device which is the driver of the simulator project (ISTAPHM) of the interactions between ICRF Antenna and Plasma on tokamak by using the AMPICP model. For this purpose, a theoretical derivation of the distribution of the RF magnetic field in the plasma-filled reactor chamber is presented. An experimental investigation of the field distributions is described and Langmuir measurements are developed numerically. A comparison of theory and experiment provides an evaluation of plasma parameters in the planar ICP reactor. The objective of this study is to characterize the plasma produced by the source alone. We present the results of the first analysis of the plasma characteristics (plasma density, electron temperature, electron-ion collision frequency, particle fluxes and their velocities, stochastic frequency, skin depth and electron energy distribution functions) as function of the operating parameters (injected power, neutral pressure and magnetic field) as measured with fixed and movable Langmuir probes. The plasma is currently produced only by the planar ICP. The exact goal of these experiments is that the produced plasma by external source can exist as a plasma representative of the edge of tokamaks.

  3. Design of a UHV-compatible rf plasma source and its application to self-assembled layers of CoPt3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehl, B.; Leist, U.; Aleksandrovic, V.; Nickut, P.; Zielasek, V.; Weller, H.; Al-Shamery, K.; Baeumer, M.

    2006-01-01

    A compact, versatile, and simple rf plasma source with capacitive coupling compatible to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) requirements was designed and built to allow sequences of sample surface modification in plasma and surface preparation and analysis in vacuum without breaking the vacuum. The plasma source was operated at working pressures of less than 1 to a few millibars. Sample transfer to UHV was performed at pressures around 10 -9 mbar. For easy integration into an existing UHV setup, the sample recipient and transfer system were made to accept standard commercial sample holders. Preliminary experiments were performed by exposing monolayers of colloidal CoPt 3 nanoparticles to oxygen and hydrogen plasmas. The structural and chemical effects of the plasma treatments were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  4. CIGS thin films, solar cells, and submodules fabricated using a rf-plasma cracked Se-radical beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Yamada, Akimasa; Shibata, Hajime; Fons, Paul; Niki, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Coevaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) film growth using a rf-plasma cracked Se-radical beam (R-Se) source leads to a significant reduction in the amount of raw Se source material wasted during growth and exhibits unique film properties such as highly dense, smooth surfaces and large grain size. R-Se grown CIGS solar cells also show concomitant unique properties different from conventional evaporative Se (E-Se) source grown CIGS cells. In the present work, the impact of modified surfaces, interfaces, and bulk crystal properties of R-Se grown CIGS films on the solar cell performance was studied. When a R-Se source was used, Na diffusion into CIGS layers was enhanced while a remarkable diffusion of elemental Ga and Se into Mo back contact layers was observed. Improvements in the bulk crystal quality as manifested by large grain size and increased Na concentration with the use of a R-Se source is expected to be effective to improve photovoltaic performance. Using a R-Se source for the growth of CIGS absorber layers at a relatively low growth temperature, we have successfully demonstrated a monolithically integrated submodule efficiency of 15.0% (17 cells, aperture area of 76.5 cm 2 ) on 0.25-mm thick soda-lime glass substrates.

  5. Comparative investigation of novel hetero gate dielectric and drain engineered charge plasma TFET for improved DC and RF performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Verma, Abhishek; Sharma, Dheeraj; Tirkey, Sukeshni; Raad, Bhagwan Ram

    2017-11-01

    Tunnel-field-effect-transistor (TFET) has emerged as one of the most prominent devices to replace conventional MOSFET due to its ability to provide sub-threshold slope below 60 mV/decade (SS ≤ 60 mV/decade) and low leakage current. Despite this, TFETs suffer from ambipolar behavior, lower ON-state current, and poor RF performance. To address these issues, we have introduced drain and gate work function engineering with hetero gate dielectric for the first time in charge plasma based doping-less TFET (DL TFET). In this, the usage of dual work functionality over the drain region significantly reduces the ambipolar behavior of the device by varying the energy barrier at drain/channel interface. Whereas, the presence of dual work function at the gate terminal increases the ON-state current (ION). The combined effect of dual work function at the gate and drain electrode results in the increment of ON-state current (ION) and decrement of ambipolar conduction (Iambi) respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of hetero gate dielectric along with dual work functionality at the drain and gate electrode provides an overall improvement in the performance of the device in terms of reduction in ambipolarity, threshold voltage and sub-threshold slope along with improved ON-state current and high frequency figures of merit.

  6. Study of effect of grain size on dust charging in an RF plasma using three-dimensional PIC-MCC simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikkurthi, V. R.; Melzer, A.; Matyash, K.; Schneider, R.

    2008-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Particle-Particle Particle-Mesh (P 3 M) code is applied to study the charging process of micrometer size dust grains confined in a capacitive RF discharge. In our model, particles (electrons and ions) are treated kinetically (Particle-in-Cell with Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC)). In order to accurately resolve the plasma particles' motion close to the dust grain, the PIC technique is supplemented with Molecular Dynamics (MD), employing an an analytic electrostatic potential for the interaction with the dust grain. This allows to self-consistently resolve the dust grain charging due to absorption of plasma electrons and ions. The charging of dust grains confined above lower electrode in a capacitive RF discharge and its dependence on the size and position of the dust is investigated. The results have been compared with laboratory measurements

  7. Characterization of Carbon-Contaminated B4C-Coated Optics after Chemically Selective Cleaning with Low-Pressure RF Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Fernández, H; Rogler, D; Sauthier, G; Thomasset, M; Dietsch, R; Carlino, V; Pellegrin, E

    2018-01-22

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) is one of the few materials that is expected to be most resilient with respect to the extremely high brilliance of the photon beam generated by free electron lasers (FELs) and is thus of considerable interest for optical applications in this field. However, as in the case of many other optics operated at light source facilities, B 4 C-coated optics are subject to ubiquitous carbon contaminations. Carbon contaminations represent a serious issue for the operation of FEL beamlines due to severe reduction of photon flux, beam coherence, creation of destructive interference, and scattering losses. A variety of B 4 C cleaning technologies were developed at different laboratories with varying success. We present a study regarding the low-pressure RF plasma cleaning of carbon contaminated B 4 C test samples via inductively coupled O 2 /Ar, H 2 /Ar, and pure O 2 RF plasma produced following previous studies using the same ibss GV10x downstream plasma source. Results regarding the chemistry, morphology as well as other aspects of the B 4 C optical coating before and after the plasma cleaning are reported. We conclude that among the above plasma processes only plasma based on pure O 2 feedstock gas exhibits the required chemical selectivity for maintaining the integrity of the B 4 C optical coatings.

  8. Mass synthesis of yttrium oxide nano-powders using radio frequency (RF) plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S.; Sahasrabudhe, S.N.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Nagaraj, A.; Das, A.K.; Dhamale, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mass synthesis of nano-phase Yttrium Oxide (Y 2 O 3 ) from commercially available coarse grain powder is reported. Nano-sized high purity Y 2 O 3 is an important and critical constituent of ceramics like YAG (Yttrium aluminum garnet: Y 3 Al 5 O 12 ) for laser applications. The system is characterized in terms of its thermal and electrical behavior. Boltzmann plot technique is used to measure axial variation of temperature of the generated plasma. The synthesized particles are characterized in terms of XRD, SEM, TEM and BET analyses for qualification of the developed system. Major features observed are efficient conversion into nanometer-sized highly spherical particles, narrow size distribution, highly crystallite nature and highly pure phases. The particle distribution (from TEM) peaks within 20-30 nm. Average particle sizes determined from different methods like XRD, TEM and BET are very close to each other and point toward particle sizes within 20 to 30 nm

  9. Effect of additive gases and injection methods on chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F2 remote plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y. B.; Park, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, K. S.; Bae, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of various additive gases and different injection methods on the chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F 2 remote plasmas. N 2 and N 2 +O 2 gases in the F 2 /Ar/N 2 and F 2 /Ar/N 2 /O 2 remote plasmas effectively increased the etch rate of the layers. The addition of direct-injected NO gas increased the etch rates most significantly. NO radicals generated by the addition of N 2 and N 2 +O 2 or direct-injected NO molecules contributed to the effective removal of nitrogen and oxygen in the silicon nitride and oxide layers, by forming N 2 O and NO 2 by-products, respectively, and thereby enhancing SiF 4 formation. As a result of the effective removal of the oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon atoms in the layers, the chemical dry etch rates were enhanced significantly. The process regime for the etch rate enhancement of the layers was extended at elevated temperature

  10. TiO2 thin and thick films grown on Si/glass by sputtering of titanium targets in an RF inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 thin and thick films were deposited on silicon/glass substrates using RF inductive plasma in continuous wave. The films thickness, as well as phases control, is achieved with a gradual increase in temperature substrates varying supplied RF power or working gas pressure besides deposition time as well. The deposition conditions were: argon 80%/oxygen 20% carefully calibrated mixture of 2 to 7×10 −2 mbar as working gas pressure range. Deposition time 0.5 to 5 hours, 500 or 600 W RF power at 13.56 MHz frequency and 242-345 °C substrates temperature range. The titanium dioxide deposited on the substrates is grown by sputtering of a titanium target negatively polarized at 3-5 kV DC situated 14 mm in front of such substrates. The plasma reactor is a simple Pyrex-like glass cylindrical vessel of 50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. Using the before describe plasma parameters we obtained films only anatase and both anatase/rutile phases with stoichiometric different. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), stylus profilometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  11. Monitoring of PVD, PECVD and etching plasmas using Fourier components of RF voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P; Vasina, P; Bursikova, V; Zemlicka, R

    2010-01-01

    Fourier components of discharge voltages were measured in two different reactive plasmas and their response to the creation or destruction of a thin film was studied. In reactive magnetron sputtering the effect of transition from the metallic to the compound mode accompanied by the creation of a compound film on the sputtered target was observed. Further, deposition and etching of a diamond-like carbon film and their effects on amplitudes of Fourier components of the discharge voltage were studied. It was shown that the Fourier components, including higher harmonic frequencies, sensitively react to the presence of a film. Therefore, they can be used as a powerful tool for the monitoring of deposition and etching processes. It was demonstrated that the behaviour of the Fourier components was caused in both experiments by the presence of the film. It was not caused by changes in the chemical composition of the gas phase induced by material etched from the film or decrease in gettering rate. Further, the observed behaviour was not affected by the film conductivity. The behaviour of the Fourier components can be explained by the difference between the coefficients of secondary electron emission of the film and its underlying material.

  12. High temperature electrons exhausted from rf plasma sources along a magnetic nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Akahoshi, Hikaru; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.; Ando, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Two dimensional profiles of electron temperature are measured inside and downstream of a radiofrequency plasma thruster source having a magnetic nozzle and being immersed in vacuum. The temperature is estimated from the slope of the fully swept I-V characteristics of a Langmuir probe acquired at each spatial position and with the assumption of a Maxwellian distribution. The results show that the peripheral high temperature electrons in the magnetic nozzle originate from the upstream antenna location and are transported along the "connecting" magnetic field lines. Two-dimensional measurements of electron energy probability functions are also carried out in a second simplified laboratory device consisting of the source contiguously connected to the diffusion chamber: again the high temperature electrons are detected along the magnetic field lines intersecting the wall at the antenna location, even when the antenna location is shifted along the main axis. These results demonstrate that the peripheral energetic electrons in the magnetic nozzle mirror those created in the source tube.

  13. Characterization of In-Flight Processing of Alumina Powder Using a DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System at Constant Low Operating Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, H.; Onodera, M.; Igawa, J.; Nakajima, T.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide the optimum operating conditions for enhancing in-flight alumina particle heating as much as possible for particle spheroidization and aggregation of melted particles using a DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system even at constant low operating power based on the thermofluid considerations. It is clarified that the swirl flow and higher operating pressure enhance the particle melting and aggregation of melted particles coupled with increasing gas temperature downstream of a plasma uniformly in the radial direction at constant electrical discharge conditions.

  14. Iron nitride films formed in a r. f. glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.L.; O' Keefe, T.J.; James, W.J. (Depts. of Chemistry and Metallurgical Engineering and Graduate Center for Materials Research, Univ. of Missouri-Rolla (United States))

    1992-12-30

    Fe[sub 2]N and Fe[sub 3]N films were deposited on an r.f. glow discharge by introducing Fe(CO)[sub 5] and NH[sub 3] into the reactor. The iron nitride films thus formed exhibited sheet conductivities in the range of 10[sup 2]-10[sup 3] ohm[sup -1] cm[sup -1]. They exhibited microhardness ranging from 578 to 659 kg mm[sup -2] on glass slides. The effects of the deposition temperature and the nature of the substrate material on the structure and composition of the films were investigated. An Fe[sub 4]N layer was formed on iron substrates at 400degC in the plasma nitriding process using NH[sub 3] as the gas source. The Fe[sub 4]N layer exhibited a microhardness of 230 kg mm[sup -2]. The effect of the temperature on the formation of the nitrided layer is discussed. (orig.).

  15. Effects of bias voltage on the corrosion resistance of titanium nitride thin films fabricated by dynamic plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic plasma-based thin-film deposition incorporating ion mixing and plasma immersion is an effective technique to synthesize nitride-based hard films. We have fabricated TiN films using a filtered titanium vacuum arc in a nitrogen plasma environment. A pulsed high voltage is applied to the target for a short time when the metallic arc is fired to attain simultaneous plasma deposition and ion mixing. We investigate the dependence of the corrosion resistance and interfacial structure of the treated samples on the applied voltage. Our Auger results reveal an oxygen-rich surface film due to the non-ultra-high-vacuum conditions and high affinity of oxygen to titanium. The corrosion current is reduced by two orders of magnitude comparing the sample processed at 8 kV to the untreated sample, but the 23 kV sample unexpectedly shows worse results. The pitting potential diminishes substantially although the corrosion current is similar to that observed in the 8 kV sample. The polarization test data are consistent with our scanning electron microscopy observation, corroborating the difference in the pitting distribution and appearance. This anomalous behavior is believed to be due to the change in the chemical composition as a result of high-energy ion bombardment

  16. Plasma nitriding process by direct current glow discharge at low temperature increasing the thermal diffusivity of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prandel, L. V.; Somer, A.; Assmann, A.; Camelotti, F.; Costa, G.; Bonardi, C.; Jurelo, A. R.; Rodrigues, J. B.; Cruz, G. K. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Grupo de Espectroscopia Optica e Fotoacustica de Materiais, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, CEP 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2013-02-14

    This work reports for the first time on the use of the open photoacoustic cell technique operating at very low frequencies and at room temperature to experimentally determine the thermal diffusivity parameter of commercial AISI304 stainless steel and AISI304 stainless steel nitrided samples. Complementary measurements of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The results show that in standard AISI 304 stainless steel samples the thermal diffusivity is (4.0 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. After the nitriding process, the thermal diffusivity increases to the value (7.1 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. The results are being associated to the diffusion process of nitrogen into the surface of the sample. Carrying out subsequent thermal treatment at 500 Degree-Sign C, the thermal diffusivity increases up to (12.0 {+-} 2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. Now the observed growing in the thermal diffusivity must be related to the change in the phases contained in the nitrided layer.

  17. Study of the electron energy distribution function in plasma produced by a rf discharge in a mixture of inert gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, S.D.; Ignat'ev, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    Electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) are recorded in an rf discharge in a mixture of neon and argon. The rates of different ionization processes and the energy losses of the electrons in the bulk of the discharge are calculated. The experimentally recorded electron energy distribution functions are compared with distributions calculated using a nonlocal theory. The effect of an rf voltage in the probe circuit on the recorded electron energy distribution functions is investigated experimentally

  18. Plasmas for the low-temperature growth of high-quality GaN films by molecular beam epitaxy and remote plasma MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G. [Plasmachemistry Research Center, CNR, Bari (Italy); Namkoong, G.; Doolittle, W.A.; Brown, A.S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronic Research Center

    2002-03-16

    GaN heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire (0001) substrates was carried out by both radio-frequency (rf) remote plasma metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (RP-MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A multistep growth process including substrate plasma cleaning and nitridation, buffer growth, its subsequent annealing and epilayer growth was used. In order to achieve a better understanding of the GaN growth, in-situ real time investigation of the surface chemistry is performed for all the steps using the conventional reflection high-energy electron spectroscopy (RHEED) during the MBE process, while laser reflectance interferometry (LRI) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), which do not require UHV conditions, are used for the monitoring of the RP-MOCVD process. The chemistry of the rf N{sub 2} plasma sapphire nitridation and its effect on the epilayer growth and quality are discussed in both MBE and RP-MOCVD. (orig.)

  19. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bu...

  20. Inactivation of Gram-Negative Bacteria by Low-Pressure RF Remote Plasma Excited in N2-O2 Mixture and SF6 Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of low-pressure RF plasma in the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterobacter sakazakii using N2-O2 and SF6 gases was assessed. 1×109 colony-forming units (CFUs of each bacterial isolate were placed on three polymer foils. The effects of pressure, power, distance from the source, and exposure time to plasma gases were optimized. The best conditions to inactivate the four bacteria were a 91%N2-9%O2 mixture and a 30-minute exposure time. SF6 gas was more efficient for all the tested isolates in as much as the treatment time was reduced to only three minutes. Therefore, low-pressure plasma could be used to sterilize heat and/or moisture-sensitive medical instruments.

  1. Annealing of hydrogen-induced defects in RF-plasma-treated Si wafers: ex situ and in situ transmission electron microscopy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghica, C; Nistor, L C; Vizireanu, S; Dinescu, G

    2011-01-01

    The smart-cut(TM) process is based on inducing and processing structural defects below the free surface of semiconductor wafers. The necessary defects are currently induced by implantation of light elements such as hydrogen or helium. An alternative softer way to induce shallow subsurface defects is by RF-plasma hydrogenation. To facilitate the smart-cut process, the wafers containing the induced defects need to be subjected to an appropriate thermal treatment. In our experiments, (0 0 1) Si wafers are submitted to 200 and 50 W hydrogen RF-plasma and are subsequently annealed. The samples are studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), before and after annealing. The plasma-introduced defects are {1 1 1} and {1 0 0} planar-like defects and nanocavities, all of them involving hydrogen. Many nanocavities are aligned into strings almost parallel to the wafer surface. The annealing is performed either by furnace thermal treatment at 550 deg. C, or by in situ heating in the electron microscope at 450, 650 and 800 deg. C during the TEM observations. The TEM microstructural studies indicate a partial healing of the planar defects and a size increase of the nanometric cavities by a coalescence process of the small neighbouring nanocavities. By annealing, the lined up nanometric voids forming chains in the as-hydrogenated sample coalesced into well-defined cracks, mostly parallel to the wafer surface.

  2. A study on etching of UO2, Co, and Mo surface with R.F. plasma using CF4 and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Seo, Yong Dae

    2003-01-01

    Recently dry decontamination/surface-cleaning technology using plasma etching has been focused in the nuclear industry. In this study, the applicability of this new dry processing technique are experimentally investigated by examining the etching reaction of UO 2 , Co, and Mo in r.f. plasma with the etchant gas of CF 4 /O 2 mixture. UO 2 is chosen as a representing material for uranium and TRU (TRans-Uranic) compounds while metallic Co and Mo are selected because they are the principal contaminants in the used metallic nuclear components such as valves and pipes made of stainless steel or Inconel. Results show that in all cases maximum etching rate is achieved when the mole fraction of O 2 in CF 4 /O 2 mixture gas is 20%, regardless of temperature and r.f. power. In case of UO 2 , the highest etching reaction rate is greater than 1000 monolayers/min. at 370 .deg. C under 150 W r.f. power which is equivalent to 0.4 μm/min. As for Co, etching reaction begins to take place significantly when the temperature exceeds 350 .deg. C. Maximum etching rate achieved at 380 .deg. C is 0.06 μm/min. Mo etching reaction takes place vigorously even at relatively low temperature and the reaction rate increases drastically with increasing temperature. Highest etching rate at 380 .deg. C is 1.9 μm /min. According to OES (Optical Emission Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) analysis, primary reaction seems to be a fluorination reaction, but carbonyl compound formation reaction may assist the dominant reaction, especially in case of Co and Mo. Through this basic study, the feasibility and the applicability of plasma decontamination technique are demonstrated

  3. Improvement in the Sensitivity of PbO Doped Tin Oxide Thick Film Gas Sensor by RF and Microwave Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. SRIVASTAVA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work efforts have been made to analyze the effect of oxygen plasma and PbO doping on the sensitivity of SnO2-based thick film gas sensor for methanol, propanol and acetone. The effect of substrate temperature on the response of dual frequency (RF and microwave plasma treated thick film sensor array has also been studied. To achieve this, three sensor arrays (each with four tin oxide sensors doped with different (1 %, 2 %, 3 % and 4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for various durations (5 min, 10 min. and 15 min.. The plasma treated sensors were found to possess appreciably high sensitivity at room temperature in comparison to untreated sensor. The sensitivity showed the increasing trend with plasma exposure time and 15 minutes exposure time was found to be most suitable as the sensitivity of the plasma treated sensors for this duration were high towards all the chosen vapors with maximum (97 % value for propanol. The sensitivity of the sensors were found to be increasing gradually as PbO concentration was varied from 1- 4%.

  4. Development of the DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Source and the Application to the Etching and Texturing of the Silicon Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hun

    2011-02-01

    the vacuum chamber for vacuum processing. The experiment was provided on the mono-crystalline silicon wafer. The etching was carried out with plasma consisting of SF 6 (50 sccm) as a reactive etching gas with O 2 (300 sccm) as a supporting gas and Argon (2000 ∼ 3000 sccm) as a cathode protecting gas. Etching rates were 60 μm/min at low pressure (3-5 torr) and 300 μm/min at a atmospheric pressure. The sample was positioned in such as way that the plasma flow axis would coincide with the side facet of the silicon crystal. A texturing process was performed on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer to increase the efficiency of a solar cell by using a high durability DC arc plasma source at atmospheric pressure and low pressure. CF 4 and SF 6 were used as the reactive etching gases at flow rates 2 as the supporting gas in the range of the 5 - 15 %. To survey the characteristics of the pyramid formation process, plasma texturing experiments were performed by varying the working time. The optimal operating conditions of the gas flow (Ar, O 2 , CF 4 , SF 6 ), plasmatron current and processing time were determined. The pyramid angle was approximately 50 .deg. to 60 .deg. when a single-crystalline silicon surface was textured in a vacuum whereas it was approximately 75 .deg. to 90 .deg. when textured at atmospheric pressure. The reflectance decreases with decreasing pyramid angle. The reflectance of the bare silicon ranged from 40 % to the 60 % but that of the textured silicon was approximately 5 % to 20 %. This reflectance is quite low, approximately half that reported by other studies using wet and reactive ion etching (RIE) texturing. Even though DC arc plasmatron has many advantages, it is difficult to apply an industry due to the small applied area. To increase an effective processing area, we suggest a DC-RF hybrid plasma system. The DC-RF hybrid plasma system was designed and made. This system consists of a DC arc plasmatron, RF parts, reaction chamber, power feeder

  5. Experimental study of a RF plasma source with helicon configuration in the mix Ar/H_2. Application to the chemical etching of carbon materials surfaces in the framework of the plasma-wall interactions studies of ITER's divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, T.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of the interaction wall-plasma is important in thermonuclear devices. The purpose of this work is to design a very low pressure atomic plasma source in order to study chemical etching of carbon surfaces in the same conditions as edge plasma in tokamaks. The experimental work has consisted in 2 stages: first, the characterisation of the new helicon configuration reactor developed for this research and secondly the atomic hydrogen source used for the chemical etching. The first chapter recalls what thermonuclear fusion is. The helicon configuration reactor as well as its diagnostics (optical emission spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence - LIF, and Langmuir probe) are described in the second chapter. The third chapter deals with the different coupling modes (RF power and plasma) identified in pure argon plasmas and how they are obtained by setting experimental parameters such as injected RF power, magnetic fields or pressure. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the study of the difference in behavior between the electronic density and the relative density of metastable Ar"+ ions. The last chapter presents the results in terms of mass losses of the carbon material surfaces obtained with the atomic hydrogen source. (A.C.)

  6. Scratch-resistant transparent boron nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekempeneer, E.H.A.; Kuypers, S.; Vercammen, K.; Meneve, J.; Smeets, J. [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO), Mol (Belgium); Gibson, P.N.; Gissler, W. [Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities, Institute for Advanced Materials, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    Transparent boron nitride (BN) coatings were deposited on glass and Si substrates in a conventional capacitively coupled RF PACVD system starting from diborane (diluted in helium) and nitrogen. By varying the plasma conditions (bias voltage, ion current density), coatings were prepared with hardness values ranging from 2 to 12 GPa (measured with a nano-indenter). Infrared absorption measurements indicated that the BN was of the hexagonal type. A combination of glancing-angle X-ray diffraction measurements and simulations shows that the coatings consist of hexagonal-type BN crystallites with different degrees of disorder (nanocrystalline or turbostratic material). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the presence of an amorphous interface layer and on top of this interface layer a well-developed fringe pattern characteristic for the basal planes in h-BN. Depending on the plasma process conditions, these fringe patterns showed different degrees of disorder as well as different orientational relationships with respect to the substrate surface. These observations were correlated with the mechanical properties of the films. (orig.) 14 refs.

  7. A novel anti-frictional multiphase layer produced by plasma nitriding of PVD titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Yao, J. W.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhu, Y. D.; Guo, J. H.; Wang, Y.; Fu, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Yan, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    The heat treatment (consisting of solid solution and aging), is integrated with the nitriding process of titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy to improve the surface and matrix mechanical properties simultaneously. Two-step duplex treatment is adopted to prepare the gradient multiphase layer on a magnesium-free ZL205A aluminum-copper based alloy. Firstly, pure titanium film is deposited on the aluminum alloy substrate using magnetron sputtering. Secondly, the Ti-coated specimen is nitrided at the solid solution temperature of the substrate alloying elements in a gas mixture of N2 and H2 and aged at 175 °C. The microstructure evolution, microhardness as well as the wear resistance of obtained multiphase layers are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer. The multiphase layer, dominated by TiN0.3 or Al3Ti, is prepared with significantly increased layer depth after duplex treatment. The surface hardness of multiphase layer is remarkably improved from 23.7HV to 457HV. The core matrix hardness is also increased to 65HV after aging. The wear rate of the multiphase layer decreases about 55.22% and 49.28% in comparison with the aged and Ti coated specimens, respectively. The predominant wear mechanism for the multiphase layer is abrasive and oxidation, but severe adhesive wear for the aged and Ti coated specimens.

  8. Production of low-density plasma by coaxially segmented rf discharge for void-free dusty cloud in microgravity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzukawa, Wataru; Ikada, Reijiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Iizuka, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    A technique is presented for producing a low density plasma by introducing a coaxially segmented parallel-plate radio-frequency discharge for void-free dusty-cloud formation. Main plasma for the dusty plasma experiment is produced in a central core part of the parallel-plate discharge, while a plasma for igniting the core plasma discharge is produced in the periphery region surrounding the core plasma. The core plasma density can be markedly decreased to reduce the ion drag force, which is important for a formation of void-free dusty cloud under microgravity

  9. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  10. RF plasma deposition of thin Si{sub x}Ge{sub y}C{sub z}:H films using a combination of organometallic source materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapiejko, C. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University of LodzLz Stefanowskiego 1, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Gazicki-Lipman, M. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University of LodzLz Stefanowskiego 1, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: gazickim@p.lodz.pl; Klimek, L. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University of LodzLz Stefanowskiego 1, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Szymanowski, H. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University of LodzLz Stefanowskiego 1, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Strojek, M. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University of LodzLz Stefanowskiego 1, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2004-12-22

    Elements of the IV group of periodic table have been strongly present in the fast development of PECVD techniques for the last two decades at least. As a result, deposition technologies of such materials as a-Si:H, a-C:H, m{mu}-C:H or DLC have been successfully established. What has followed is an ever growing interest in binary systems of the A{sub x}(IV)B{sub y}(IV):H kind. One possible way to deposit such systems is to use organosilicon compounds (to deposit Si{sub x}C{sub y}:H films) or organogermanium compounds (to deposit Ge{sub x}C{sub y}:H films), as source substances. The present paper reports on a RF plasma deposition of a Si{sub x}Ge{sub y}C{sub z}:H ternary system, using a combination of organosilicon and organogermanium compounds. Thin Si/Ge/C films have been fabricated in a small volume (ca. 2 dm{sup 3}) parallel plate RF plasma reactor using, as a source material, a combination of tetramethylsilane (TMS) and tetramethylgermanium (TMG) vapours carried by argon. SEM investigations reveal a continuous compact character of the coatings and their uniform thickness. The elemental composition of the films has been studied using EDX analysis. The results of the analysis show that the elemental composition of the films can be controlled by both the TMG/TMS ratio of the initial mixture and the RF power input. Ellipsometric measurements show good homogeneity of these materials. Chemical bonding in the films has been studied using the FTIR technique. Bandgap calculations have been carried out using ellipsometric data and by applying both the Tauc law and the Moss approach.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 and SiO2 films with fluoropolymer content using rf-plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.

    2008-01-01

    Pure and molecularly mixed inorganic films for protection against atomic oxygen in lower earth orbit were prepared using radio-frequency (rf) plasma magnetron sputtering technique. Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and silica (SiO 2 ) films with average grain size in the range of 30-80 nm and fully dense or dense columnar structure were synthesized under different conditions of pressure and power. Simultaneous oxide sputtering and plasma polymerization (PP) of hexafluoropropylene (HFP) led to the formation of molecularly mixed films with fluoropolymer content. The degree of plasma polymerization was strongly influenced by total chamber pressure and the argon to HFP molar ratio (n Ar /n M ). An order of magnitude increase in pressure due to argon during codeposition changed the plasma-polymerization mechanism from radical-chain- to radical-radical-type processes. Subsequently, a shift from linear CH 2 group based chain polymerization to highly disordered fluoropolymer content with branching and cross-linking was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed chemical interaction between depositing SiO 2 and PP-HFP through appearance of absorption bands characteristic of Si-F stretching and expansion of SiO 2 network. The relative amount and composition of plasma-polymerized fluoropolymer in such films can be controlled by changing argon to HFP flow ratio, total chamber pressure, and applied power. These films offer great potential for use as protective coatings in aerospace applications

  12. Effect of surface microstructure and wettability on plasma protein adsorption to ZnO thin films prepared at different RF powers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhanyun; Chen Min; Chen Dihu [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Pan Shirong, E-mail: stscdh@mail.sysu.edu.c [Artificial Heart Lab, the 1st Affiliate Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the adsorption behavior of plasma proteins on the surface of ZnO thin films prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering under different sputtering powers was studied. The microstructures and surface properties of the ZnO thin films were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy and contact angle techniques. The results show that the ZnO thin films have better orientation of the (0 0 2) peak with increasing RF power, especially at around 160 W, and the optical band gap of the ZnO films varies from 3.2 to 3.4 eV. The contact angle test carried out by the sessile drop technique denoted a hydrophobic surface of the ZnO films, and the surface energy and adhesive work of the ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sputtering power. The amounts of human fibrinogen (HFG) and human serum albumin (HSA) adsorbing on the ZnO films and reference samples were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that fewer plasma proteins and a smaller HFG/HSA ratio adsorb on the ZnO thin films' surface.

  13. Investigation of deposition characteristics and properties of high-rate deposited silicon nitride films prepared by atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, H.; Nakahama, Y.; Ohmi, H.; Yasutake, K.; Yoshii, K.; Mori, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) films have been prepared at extremely high deposition rates by the atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition (AP-PCVD) technique on Si(001) wafers from gas mixtures containing He, H 2 , SiH 4 and N 2 or NH 3 . A 150 MHz very high frequency (VHF) power supply was used to generate high-density radicals in the atmospheric pressure plasma. Deposition rate, composition and morphology of the SiN x films prepared with various deposition parameters were studied by scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy was also used to characterize the structure and the chemical bonding configurations of the films. Furthermore, etching rate with buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) solution, refractive index and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured to evaluate the dielectric properties of the films. It was found that effective passivation of dangling bonds and elimination of excessive hydrogen atoms at the film-growing surface seemed to be the most important factor to form SiN x film with a dense Si-N network. The C-V curve of the optimized film showed good interface properties, although further improvement was necessary for use in the industrial metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) applications

  14. Silicon nitride and silicon etching by CH{sub 3}F/O{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}F/CO{sub 2} plasma beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaler, Sanbir S.; Lou, Qiaowei; Donnelly, Vincent M., E-mail: vmdonnelly@uh.edu; Economou, Demetre J., E-mail: economou@uh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Plasma Processing Laboratory, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Silicon nitride (SiN, where Si:N ≠ 1:1) films low pressure-chemical vapor deposited on Si substrates, Si films on Ge on Si substrates, and p-Si samples were exposed to plasma beams emanating from CH{sub 3}F/O{sub 2} or CH{sub 3}F/CO{sub 2} inductively coupled plasmas. Conditions within the plasma beam source were maintained at power of 300 W (1.9 W/cm{sup 3}), pressure of 10 mTorr, and total gas flow rate of 10 sccm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the thicknesses of Si/Ge in addition to hydrofluorocarbon polymer films formed at low %O{sub 2} or %CO{sub 2} addition on p-Si and SiN. Polymer film thickness decreased sharply as a function of increasing %O{sub 2} or %CO{sub 2} addition and dropped to monolayer thickness above the transition point (∼48% O{sub 2} or ∼75% CO{sub 2}) at which the polymer etchants (O and F) number densities in the plasma increased abruptly. The C(1s) spectra for the polymer films deposited on p-Si substrates appeared similar to those on SiN. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to measure the thickness of SiN films etched using the CH{sub 3}F/O{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}F/CO{sub 2} plasma beams. SiN etching rates peaked near 50% O{sub 2} addition and 73% CO{sub 2} addition. Faster etching rates were measured in CH{sub 3}F/CO{sub 2} than CH{sub 3}F/O{sub 2} plasmas above 70% O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} addition. The etching of Si stopped after a loss of ∼3 nm, regardless of beam exposure time and %O{sub 2} or %CO{sub 2} addition, apparently due to plasma assisted oxidation of Si. An additional GeO{sub x}F{sub y} peak was observed at 32.5 eV in the Ge(3d) region, suggesting deep penetration of F into Si, under the conditions investigated.

  15. Microstructural characterization of an AISI-SAE 4140 steel without nitridation and nitrided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina F, A.; Naquid G, C.

    2000-01-01

    It was micro structurally characterized an AISI-SAE 4140 steel before and after of nitridation through the nitridation process by plasma post-unloading microwaves through Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by means of secondary electrons and retrodispersed, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersion spectra (EDS) and mapping of elements. (Author)

  16. RF MEMS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At the bare die level the insertion loss, return loss and the isolation ... ing and packaging of a silicon on glass based RF MEMS switch fabricated using DRIE. ..... follows the power law based on the asperity deformation model given by Pattona & ... Surface mount style RF packages (SMX series 580465) from Startedge Corp.

  17. rf coupler technology for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Radio frequency (rf) oscillations at critical frequencies have successfully provided a means to convey power to fusion plasmas due to the electrical-magnetic properties of the plasma. While large rf systems to couple power to the plasma have been designed, built, and tested, the main link to the plasma, the coupler, is still in an evolutionary stage of development. Design and fabrication of optimal antennas for fusion applications are complicated by incomplete characterizations of the harsh plasma environment and of coupling mechanisms. A brief description of rf coupler technology required for plasma conditions is presented along with an assessment of the status and goals of coupler development

  18. Tuning Material Properties of Oxides and Nitrides by Substrate Biasing during Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition on Planar and 3D Substrate Topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraz, Tahsin; Knoops, Harm C M; Verheijen, Marcel A; van Helvoirt, Cristian A A; Karwal, Saurabh; Sharma, Akhil; Beladiya, Vivek; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Hausmann, Dennis M; Henri, Jon; Creatore, Mariadriana; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2018-04-18

    Oxide and nitride thin-films of Ti, Hf, and Si serve numerous applications owing to the diverse range of their material properties. It is therefore imperative to have proper control over these properties during materials processing. Ion-surface interactions during plasma processing techniques can influence the properties of a growing film. In this work, we investigated the effects of controlling ion characteristics (energy, dose) on the properties of the aforementioned materials during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) on planar and 3D substrate topographies. We used a 200 mm remote PEALD system equipped with substrate biasing to control the energy and dose of ions by varying the magnitude and duration of the applied bias, respectively, during plasma exposure. Implementing substrate biasing in these forms enhanced PEALD process capability by providing two additional parameters for tuning a wide range of material properties. Below the regimes of ion-induced degradation, enhancing ion energies with substrate biasing during PEALD increased the refractive index and mass density of TiO x and HfO x and enabled control over their crystalline properties. PEALD of these oxides with substrate biasing at 150 °C led to the formation of crystalline material at the low temperature, which would otherwise yield amorphous films for deposition without biasing. Enhanced ion energies drastically reduced the resistivity of conductive TiN x and HfN x films. Furthermore, biasing during PEALD enabled the residual stress of these materials to be altered from tensile to compressive. The properties of SiO x were slightly improved whereas those of SiN x were degraded as a function of substrate biasing. PEALD on 3D trench nanostructures with biasing induced differing film properties at different regions of the 3D substrate. On the basis of the results presented herein, prospects afforded by the implementation of this technique during PEALD, such as enabling new routes for

  19. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, T., E-mail: shibat@post.j-parc.jp; Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Naito, F. [J-PARC Center, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Hatayama, A. [Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30–120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  20. A new design approach for enhancement of DC/RF characteristics with improved ambipolar conduction of charge plasma TFET: proposal, and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Mohd.; Sharma, Dheeraj; Yadav, Shivendra; Soni, Deepak; Bajaj, Varun

    2018-04-01

    This article presents a new device structure to suppress ambipolarity with enhanced electrostatic characteristics of charge plasma TFET (CP-TFET). Here, implantation of a metal angle (MA) of low workfunction inside the high-k dielectric (HfO2) layer near source/channel interface gives excellent improvement in DC and RF characteristics of the proposed device. Deposition of MA is advantageous to increase abruptness of source/channel junction for reducing the tunneling barrier. Along with MA placement, the metal electrode, which is placed over the silicon wafer for inducing N+ drain region, is divided into the two parts of low and high workfunctions. The workfunction of the part of metal electrode near the channel region is taken comparatively higher than the other part to restrict the tunneling of holes at drain/channel junction under negative bias (-V_gs) condition. Such concept induces asymmetrical concentration of charge carriers in the drain region, which widens the tunneling barrier at the drain/channel interface. Consequently, the proposed device shows better RF performance along with suppressed ambipolar conduction. Furthermore, reliability of conventional and proposed structures has been tested in terms of linearity. Simultaneously, the effect of workfunction and length variation of MA on the device characteristics is analyzed in optimization section of the article.

  1. Influence of operating parameters on surface properties of RF glow discharge oxygen plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha, E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Mahendiran, R. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Su, Pi-G [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Yassitepe, Emre; Shah, Ismat [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Perni, Stefano [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prokopovich, Polina [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.Mallikarjuna@epamail.epa.gov [The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, 26W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a thin transparent titania (TiO{sub 2}) film was coated on the surface of flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using the sol–gel method. The surface properties of the obtained TiO{sub 2}/PET film were further improved by RF glow discharge oxygen plasma as a function of exposure time and discharge power. The changes in hydrophilicity of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were analyzed by contact angle measurements and surface energy. The influence of plasma on the surface of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as the change in chemical state and composition that were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytotoxicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed using human osteoblast cells and the bacterial eradication behaviors of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were also evaluated against Staphylococcus bacteria. It was found that the surface roughness and incorporation of oxygen containing polar functional groups of the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films increased substantially as compared to the untreated one. Moreover the increased concentration of Ti{sup 3+} on the surface of plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films was due to the transformation of chemical states (Ti{sup 4+} → Ti{sup 3+}). These morphological and chemical changes are responsible for enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films. Furthermore, the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film exhibited no citotoxicity against osteoblast cells and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria which can find application in manufacturing of biomedical devices. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of plasma treatment on the surface of TiO{sub 2}/PET films. - Highlights: • Investigated the surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films modified by O{sub 2} plasma • Studied the effect of operating parameters on surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films • Mechanism of the plasma treatment on TiO{sub 2}/PET was clearly investigated.

  2. Multiplying probe for accurate power measurements on an RF driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet applied to the COST reference microplasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijer, P A C; Sobota, A; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Kroesen, G M W

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a new multiplying probe for measuring the power dissipated in a miniature capacitively coupled, RF driven, atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μAPPJ—COST Reference Microplasma Jet—COST RMJ) is presented. The approach aims for substantially higher accuracy than provided by traditionally applied methods using bi-directional power meters or commercially available voltage and current probes in conjunction with digitizing oscilloscopes. The probe is placed on a miniature PCB and designed to minimize losses, influence of unknown elements, crosstalk and variations in temperature. The probe is designed to measure powers of the order of magnitude of 0.1–10 W. It is estimated that it measures power with less than 2% deviation from the real value in the tested power range. The design was applied to measure power dissipated in COST-RMJ running in helium with a small addition of oxygen. (paper)

  3. Simultaneous in situ measurements of properties of particulates in rf silane plasmas using a polarization-sensitive laser-light-scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratani, Masaharu; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Fukuzawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshioka, Takashi; Ueda, Yoshio; Singh, Sanjay; Watanabe, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    A polarization-sensitive laser-light-scattering method is developed for simultaneous in situ measurements of properties (size, size dispersion, density, and refractive index) of particulates formed in processing plasmas. The developed system is applied to observe the growth processes of particulates in a range of their size larger than about 10 nm in rf silane plasmas. A size, a size dispersion (logarithm of a standard deviation of size), a density, and a refractive index of particulates in the plasmas are found to be 10-200 nm, about 0.1, 107-109 cm-3 and about 3-5i, respectively. The former three of such values agree fairly well with ones deduced from scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation. These particulates grow through three phases of nucleation and initial growth, rapid growth, and growth saturation. Coexistence of two size groups of particulates with narrow size dispersions during and after the rapid growth phase verified by the SEM observation may be explained by a model taking into account coagulation between oppositely charged particulates.

  4. Spatially resolved ozone densities and gas temperatures in a time modulated RF driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet: an analysis of the production and destruction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiqiang; Van Gessel, Bram; Hofmann, Sven; Van Veldhuizen, Eddie; Bruggeman, Peter; Van Gaens, Wouter; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a time modulated RF driven DBD-like atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar + 2%O 2 , operating at a time averaged power of 6.5 W is investigated. Spatially resolved ozone densities and gas temperatures are obtained by UV absorption and Rayleigh scattering, respectively. Significant gas heating in the core of the plasma up to 700 K is found and at the position of this increased gas temperature a depletion of the ozone density is found. The production and destruction reactions of O 3 in the jet effluent as a function of the distance from the nozzle are obtained from a zero-dimensional chemical kinetics model in plug flow mode which considers relevant air chemistry due to air entrainment in the jet fluent. A comparison of the measurements and the models show that the depletion of O 3 in the core of the plasma is mainly caused by an enhanced destruction of O 3 due to a large atomic oxygen density. (paper)

  5. Surface enrichment with chrome and nitriding of IF steel under an abnormal glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meira, S.R.; Borges, P.C.; Bernardelli, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the influence of surface enrichment of IF steel with chrome, and nitriding, the formation of the nitrided layer. Thus, IF steel samples were subjected to surface enrichment process, using 409 stainless steel as a target for sputtering, followed by plasma nitriding, both under a dc abnormal glow discharge. The enrichment treatment was operated at 1200 ° C for 3h. The nitriding treatment was operated at 510 ° C for 2 h. The influence of the treatments on the layers formed was studied through optical microscopy (OM), scan electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vickers microindentation. The results show that the enrichment is effective to enrich the IF surface, furthermore, improves the characteristics of nitriding, comparing nitriding samples to nitriding and enriched, was observed needles of nitrides, as well as a higher hardness, which is associated with the nitrides of chrome, on the nitriding and enriched samples. (author)

  6. Hybrid simulation of electron energy distributions and plasma characteristics in pulsed RF CCP sustained in Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Feng; Jia, Wen-Zhu; Song, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Dai, Zhong-Ling; Wang, You-Nian

    2017-11-01

    Pulsed-discharge plasmas offer great advantages in deposition of silicon-based films due to the fact that they can suppress cluster agglomeration, moderate the energy of bombarding ions, and prolong the species' diffusion time on the substrate. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo hybrid model is applied to study pulse modulated radio-frequency (RF) plasmas sustained in capacitively coupled Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges. First, the electron energy distributions in pulsed Ar and SiH4/Ar plasmas have been investigated and compared under identical discharge-circuit conditions. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in Ar discharge exhibits a familiar bi-Maxwellian shape during the power-on phase of the pulse, while a more complex (resembling a multi-Maxwellian) distribution with extra inflection points at lower energies is observed in the case of the SiH4/Ar mixture. These features become more prominent with the increasing fraction of SiH4 in the gas mixture. The difference in the shape of the EEDF (which is pronounced inside the plasma but not in the RF sheath where electron heating occurs) is mainly attributed to the electron-impact excitations of SiH4. During the power-off phase of the pulse, the EEDFs in both Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges evolve into bi-Maxwellian shapes, with shrinking high energy tails. Furthermore, the parameter of ion species in the case of SiH4/Ar discharge is strongly modulated by pulsing. For positive ions, such as SiH3+ and Si2H4+ , the particle fluxes overshoot at the beginning of the power-on interval. Meanwhile, for negative ions such as SiH2- and SiH3- , density profiles observed between the electrodes are saddle-shaped due to the repulsion by the self-bias electric field as it builds up. During the power-off phase, the wall fluxes of SiH2- and SiH3- gradually increase, leading to a significant decrease in the net surface charge density on the driven electrode. Compared with ions, the density of SiH3 is poorly modulated

  7. Investigations on the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the inductive coupled RF-plasma and the deposited pyrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, H.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Nickel, H.

    1979-08-01

    The pyrocarbon coatings of the nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Reactor (HTR) are produced by pyrolysis of hydrocarbons under high temperatures. The investigations of the inductive coupled argon or argon/hydrocarbon-plasma performed in the frame of this work deliver a contribution for the clarification of pyrolysis processes and the production of pyrolytic carbons in the plasma of an electric discharge. The argon-plasma, as high-temperature source, is diagnosed theoretically and emission-spectroscopically. To the pure argon-plasma the various hydrocarbons are added. Due to the thermal decomposition the carbon is separated in solid form. The structure of the deposited pyrocarbon is composed of different components. The depositions are characterised with the principles in use at the IRW and are assigned to the fluidized bed pyrocarbons as fas as possible. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of oxygen species during E-H transition in inductively coupled RF plasmas: combination of experimental results with global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichsner, Jürgen; Wegner, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Inductively coupled RF plasmas (ICP) in oxygen at low pressure have been intensively studied as a molecular and electronegative model system in the last funding period of the Collaborative Research Centre 24 "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas". The ICP configuration consists of a planar coil inside a quartz cylinder as dielectric barrier which is immersed in a large stainless steel vacuum chamber. In particular, the E-H mode transition has been investigated, combining experimental results from comprehensive plasma diagnostics as input for analytical rate equation calculation of a volume averaged global model. The averaged density was determined for electrons, negative ions O-, molecular oxygen ground state O2(X3 Σg-) and singlet metastable state O2(a1 Δg) from line-integrated measurements using 160 GHz Gaussian beam microwave interferometry coupled with laser photodetachment experiment and VUV absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Taking into account the relevant elementary processes and rate coefficients from literature together with the measured temperatures and averaged density of electrons, O2(X3 Σg-) and O2(a1 Δg) the steady state density was calculated for O(3P), O2(b1 Σg+), O(1D), O(1S), O3, O-, O2-, and O3-, respectively. The averaged density of negative ions O- from the rate equation calculation is compared with the measured one. The normalized source and loss rates are discussed for O(3P), O2(b1 Σg+) and O-. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas", edited by Jürgen Meichsner, Michael Bonitz, Holger Fehske, Alexander Piel.

  9. Characterization of stainless steel through Scanning Electron Microscopy, nitrided in the process of implantation of immersed ions in plasma; Caracterizacion de acero inoxidable mediante Microscopia Electronica de Barrido nitrurado en el proceso de implantacion de iones inmersos en plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno S, H

    2003-07-01

    The present project carries out the investigation of the nitridation of the austenitic stainless steel schedule 304, applying the novel technology of installation of nitrogen ions in immersed materials in plasma (Plll), by means of which they modify those properties of the surface of the steel. The obtained results by means of tests of Vickers microhardness, shows that the hardness was increment from 266 to 740 HV (microhardness units). It was determined by means of scanning electron microscopy, the one semiquantitative chemical analysis of the elements that constitute the austenitic stainless steel schedule 304; the obtained results, show to the nitrogen like an element of their composition in the pieces where carried out to end the PIII technology. The parameters of the plasma with which carried out the technology Plll, were monitored and determined by means of electric probes, and with which it was determined that the density of particles is stable in the interval of 1x10{sup -1} at 3x10{sup -1}Torr, and it is where better results of hardness were obtained. That reported in this work, they are the first results obtained when applying the technology Plll in Mexico, and with base in these, it is even necessary to investigate and to deepen until to dominate the process and to be in possibilities of proposing it to be carried out and exploited in an industrial way. (Author)

  10. Single-Chip Multiple-Frequency RF MEMS Resonant Platform for Wireless Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel, single-chip, multiple-frequency platform for RF/IF filtering and clock reference based on contour-mode aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS piezoelectric resonators...

  11. Effect of the ponderomotive force in interaction of an amplitude modulated rf-field with a nonuniform plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegger, B A; Schneider, H; Vaucher, B G [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1982-06-30

    Magnetoacoustic oscillations are excited in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma cylinder by amplitude modulation of a high frequency field (2.45 GHz, 3 kW PEP). The antenna is a long helical slow-wave structure. The axial field-oscillating with the modulation frequency (2/15 MHz) is monitored by means of electrostatically shielded magnetic probes. Resonance behaviour is observed around the eigenfrequency of the plasma cylinder. Power absorption is measured with diamagnetic loop technique. The plasma parameters are: mean electron density 3x10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/, electron temperature 3.5 eV, magnetic field 1.6 kG, filling gas 7x10/sup -4/ Torr argon.

  12. SiOx Ink-Repellent Layer Deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) Plasmas in Continuous Wave and Pulse Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Fu Yabo; Pang Hua; Zhang Yuefei; Zhang Guangqiu

    2007-01-01

    Low surface energy layers, proposed application for non-water printing in computer to plate (CTP) technology, are deposited in both continuous wave and pulse radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. It is found that the plasma mode dominates the polymer growth rate and the surface composition. Derived from the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and combined with printable test it is concluded that concentration of Si in coatings plays an important role for the ink printability and the ink does not adhere on the surface with high silicon concentration

  13. Reconstruction of the time-averaged sheath potential profile in an argon RF plasma using the ion energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C.

    1994-10-01

    Charge-exchange collisions and radio-frequency excitation combine to give peaks in the ion energy distribution measured at the ground electrode of an argon plasma in a capacitive reactor. These peaks are used as a diagnostic to reconstruct the profile of the time-averaged potential in the sheath. Particle-In-Cell simulations show that the method is accurate. The method is applied to investigate the sheath thickness as a function of excitation frequency at constant plasma power. The time-averaged potential is found to be parabolic in both experimental measurements and numerical simulation. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy studies on the passivation behavior of plasma-nitrided low alloy steel in nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyou, S.D.; Shih, H.C. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan))

    1991-12-14

    Nitrided SAE 4140 steel has been passivated by concentrated nitric acid. The resulting film was characterized using a combination of surface-analytical techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to evaluate the chemical composition of the passive film. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with ion etching was used to determine the composition depth profiles of nitrided surface. It was found that preferential dissolution of iron leads to enhanced nitrogen and chromium concentrations within the oxynitrided layer. A dense protective oxynitrided layer was found to be formed on the nitrided surface when the concentration of nitric acid was as high as 8 M. The results of X-ray diffraction, XPS and AES analyses conclude that the protective nitride layer is composed of (Fe,Cr){sub 4}N, (Fe,Cr){sub 2-3}N and CrN in the inner layer, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and remnant nitrides in the middle layer and nitrides accompanying Cr(OH){sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and {gamma}'-FeOOH in the outermost layer. (orig.).

  15. Composite SiOx/hydrocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of SiO2 and polyimide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabik, M.; Kousal, J.; Pinosh, Y.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Macková, Anna; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Pešička, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 7 (2007), s. 920-927 ISSN 0042-207X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite films * magnetron * sputtering * polyimide * SiO2 Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2007

  16. Nanoparticle manipulation in the near-substrate areas of low-temperature, high-density rf plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkevych, P.P.; Ostrikov, K.; Xu, S.

    2005-01-01

    Manipulation of a single nanoparticle in the near-substrate areas of high-density plasmas of low-temperature glow discharges is studied. It is shown that the nanoparticles can be efficiently manipulated by the thermophoretic force controlled by external heating of the substrate stage. Particle deposition onto or repulsion from nanostructured carbon surfaces critically depends on the values of the neutral gas temperature gradient in the near-substrate areas, which is directly measured in situ in different heating regimes by originally developed temperature gradient probe. The measured values of the near-surface temperature gradient are used in the numerical model of nanoparticle dynamics in a variable-length presheath. Specific conditions enabling the nanoparticle to overcome the repulsive potential and deposit on the substrate during the discharge operation are investigated. The results are relevant to fabrication of various nanostructured films employing structural incorporation of the plasma-grown nanoparticles, in particular, to nanoparticle deposition in the plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition of carbon nanostructures in hydrocarbon-based plasmas

  17. Plasma diagnostics and device properties of AlGaN/GaN HEMT passivated with SiN deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M F; Sanz, M M; Munoz, E [ISOM-Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM). ETSIT, Madrid (Spain); Tanarro, I [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A, E-mail: itanarro@iem.cfmac.csic.e [Departamento Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In this work, silicon nitride thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on both silicon samples and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) grown on sapphire substrates. Commercial parallel-plate RF plasma equipment has been used. During depositions, the dissociation rates of SiH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} precursors and the formation of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} have been analysed by mass spectrometry as a function of the NH{sub 3}/SiH{sub 4} flow ratio and the RF power applied to the plasma reactor. Afterwards, the properties of the films and the HEMT electrical characteristics have been studied. Plasma composition has been correlated with the SiN deposition rate, refractive index, H content and the final electric characteristics of the passivated transistors.

  18. Prediction of plasma-induced damage distribution during silicon nitride etching using advanced three-dimensional voxel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: Nobuyuki.Kuboi@jp.sony.com; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Takashi; Shigetoshi, Takushi; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Komachi, Jun; Ansai, Hisahiro [Device and Material Research Group, RDS Platform, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The authors modeled SiN film etching with hydrofluorocarbon (CH{sub x}F{sub y}/Ar/O{sub 2}) plasma considering physical (ion bombardment) and chemical reactions in detail, including the reactivity of radicals (C, F, O, N, and H), the area ratio of Si dangling bonds, the outflux of N and H, the dependence of the H/N ratio on the polymer layer, and generation of by-products (HCN, C{sub 2}N{sub 2}, NH, HF, OH, and CH, in addition to CO, CF{sub 2}, SiF{sub 2}, and SiF{sub 4}) as ion assistance process parameters for the first time. The model was consistent with the measured C-F polymer layer thickness, etch rate, and selectivity dependence on process variation for SiN, SiO{sub 2}, and Si film etching. To analyze the three-dimensional (3D) damage distribution affected by the etched profile, the authors developed an advanced 3D voxel model that can predict the time-evolution of the etched profile and damage distribution. The model includes some new concepts for gas transportation in the pattern using a fluid model and the property of voxels called “smart voxels,” which contain details of the history of the etching situation. Using this 3D model, the authors demonstrated metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor SiN side-wall etching that consisted of the main-etch step with CF{sub 4}/Ar/O{sub 2} plasma and an over-etch step with CH{sub 3}F/Ar/O{sub 2} plasma under the assumption of a realistic process and pattern size. A large amount of Si damage induced by irradiated hydrogen occurred in the source/drain region, a Si recess depth of 5 nm was generated, and the dislocated Si was distributed in a 10 nm deeper region than the Si recess, which was consistent with experimental data for a capacitively coupled plasma. An especially large amount of Si damage was also found at the bottom edge region of the metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors. Furthermore, our simulation results for bulk fin-type field-effect transistor side-wall etching

  19. characterization and weldability of plasma nitrided P/M martensitic stainless steel X 20 Cr Ni 172

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Karim, R.A.; El-demellawy, M.A; Waheed, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    stainless steels are widely used in nuclear applications, as a construction material. in these applications stainless steels suffer from corrosion degradation due severe environment and operating conditions. improving the engineering properties of such material prolong the service life time.in the present study, powder metallurgy technique namely plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) was used to produce martensitic steel DIN X 20 Cr Ni 172 with 0.5 % N. this step was followed by hot isostatic pressing process (HIP) . the effect of N on the weldability of this steel has been investigated . this included microstructure characterization, hardness evaluation and ferrite content measurements. the results showed that the presence of high nitrogen content in this steel resulted in a pore free structure with improved the hardness across the welding area. A single phase with few precipitates was detected on the grain boundaries in the heat affected zone. the results were supplemented by x-ray diffraction patterns and EDAX analysis

  20. The growth of III-V nitrides heterostructure on Si substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beh, K.P.; Yam, F.K.; Chin, C.W.; Tneh, S.S.; Hassan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the growth of InGaN/GaN/AlN epitaxial layer on Si(1 1 1) substrate by utilizing plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) system. The as-grown film was characterized using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). High work function metals, iridium and gold were deposited on the film as metal contacts and their electrical characteristics at pre- and post-annealing were studied. The structural quality of this film is comparative to the values reported in the literature, and the indium molar fraction is 0.57 by employing Vegard's law. The relatively low yellow band emission signifies the grown film is of high quality. For metal contact studies it was found that the post-annealed sample for 5 min shows good conductivity as compared to the other samples.

  1. Modernization of serial facility 'BULAT-6' for synthesis of vacuum-arc coatings by the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition as well as ion hydrogen-free nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulaev, V.M.; Andreev, A.A.; Rudenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The model of laboratory vacuum-arc facility for realization of the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition is worked out by means modernization of serial industrial facility 'BULAT-6'. The facility is suitable for surface modification of instrumental steel items, including the low-alloyed steels with low temperatures of tempering. The low-temperature deposition of coatings on the preliminary nitrided surface of instrument permits obtaining dense coating with minimum maintenance of macroparticles, as well as with coatings superhigh adhesion to the substrate and with superhardness. The coatings possess high property stableness in time.

  2. Development of Localized Arc Filament RF Plasma Actuators for High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    high-speed flows is problematic due to their low forcing frequency (for mechanical actuators) and low forcing amplitude (for piezo actuators...very low fraction of DC power is coupled to the actuators (5-10%), with the rest of the power dissipated in massive ballast resistors acting as heat... resistors . The use of high-power resistors also significantly increases the weight and size of the plasma generator and makes scaling to a large number of

  3. Heteroepitaxial Growth of Germanium-on-Silicon Using Ultrahigh-Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition with RF Plasma Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, Bader; Grant, Joshua M.; Dou, Wei; Grant, Perry C.; Mosleh, Aboozar; Du, Wei; Mortazavi, Mansour; Li, Baohua; Naseem, Hameed; Yu, Shui-Qing

    2018-05-01

    Germanium (Ge) films have been grown on silicon (Si) substrate by ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition with plasma enhancement (PE). Argon plasma was generated using high-power radiofrequency (50 W) to assist in germane decomposition at low temperature. The growth temperature was varied in the low range of 250°C to 450°C to make this growth process compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The material and optical properties of the grown Ge films were investigated. The material quality was determined by Raman and x-ray diffraction techniques, revealing growth of crystalline films in the temperature range of 350°C to 450°C. Photoluminescence spectra revealed improved optical quality at growth temperatures of 400°C and 450°C. Furthermore, material quality study using transmission electron microscopy revealed existence of defects in the Ge layer grown at 400°C. Based on the etch pit density, the average threading dislocation density in the Ge layer obtained at this growth temperature was measured to be 4.5 × 108 cm-2. This result was achieved without any material improvement steps such as use of graded buffer or thermal annealing. Comparison between PE and non-plasma-enhanced growth, in the same machine at otherwise the same growth conditions, indicated increased growth rate and improved material and optical qualities for PE growth.

  4. Surface functionalisation of polypropylene hernia-repair meshes by RF-activated plasma polymerisation of acrylic acid and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisticò, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.nistico@unito.it [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Research Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Rosellini, Andrea [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Research Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Rivolo, Paola [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Faga, Maria Giulia [CNR-IMAMOTER, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino (Italy); Lamberti, Roberta; Martorana, Selanna [Herniamesh S.r.l., Via F.lli Meliga 1/C, 10034 Chivasso (Italy); Castellino, Micaela [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Virga, Alessandro; Mandracci, Pietro [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Malandrino, Mery; Magnacca, Giuliana [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Research Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polypropylene meshes for hernioplasty were surface functionalised via plasma-polymerisation to confer adhesive properties. • Subsequently, silver nanoparticles were loaded to add antibacterial activity. • Materials were physico-chemical characterised and adhesive properties evaluated. - Abstract: Hernia diseases are among the most common and diffuse causes of surgical interventions. Unfortunately, still nowadays there are different phenomena which can cause the hernioplasty failure, for instance post-operative prostheses displacements and proliferation of bacteria in the surgical site. In order to limit these problems, commercial polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene/Teflon (PP/PTFE) bi-material meshes were surface functionalised to confer adhesive properties (and therefore reduce undesired displacements) using polyacrylic acid synthesized by plasma polymerisation (PPAA). A broad physico-chemical and morphological characterisation was carried out and adhesion properties were investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) used in force/distance (F/D) mode. Once biomedical devices surface was functionalised by PPAA coating, metallic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with antimicrobial properties were synthesised and loaded onto the polymeric prostheses. The effect of the PPAA, containing carboxylic functionalities, adhesive coating towards AgNPs loading capacity was verified by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Preliminary measurement of the Ag loaded amount and release in water were also investigated via inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Promising results were obtained for the functionalised biomaterials, encouraging future in vitro and in vivo tests.

  5. RF plasma probe diagnostics: a method for eliminating measurement errors for Langmuir probes with bare protective shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaby, V. A.; Masherov, P. E.; Savinov, V. P.; Yakunin, V. G.

    2018-02-01

    The new DC arc T-plasmatron of long service life [1] is studied. The well known method of the electric field strength measurements in a stabilized arc channel [2] was applied in a modified form as a consequence of the specific form of the presumably diffuse anode spot attached to a gas vortex on the external surface of the anode unit. The electrical field strength was determined assuming that the potential drop across the diffuse anode spot in the new plasmatron was small. This gave the mean argon plasma conductivity: σ≤118 Ohm-1cm-1 for arc currents I ≤ 180 A which agreed with the independent experiment [2] affirming the correctness of the above assumption. Analysis of the known experimental and theoretic data on atmospheric argon plasma conductivity resulted in the selection of R.S.Devoto’s theoretic dependence σ(T) [3] as the most reliable one for T=8000…20000 K at P = 1 atm that allowed the evaluation of the mean argon plasma temperature at the exit of the plasmatron: T ≤ 19500 K.

  6. Optical and electrical characterization of n-GaAs surfaces passivated by N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augelli, V.; Ligonzo, T.; Minafra, A.; Schiavulli, L.; Capozzi, V. E-mail: capozzi@ba.infn.it; Perna, G.; Ambrico, M.; Losurdo, M

    2003-05-01

    The passivation of GaAs (1 0 0) surface has been performed by using remote N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} (3% in H{sub 2}) RF plasma nitridation. The samples, consisting of n-doped GaAs wafers, show photoluminescence enhancement when the nitridation time and exposure to the plasma are in a narrow temporal window, so that a very thin (about 10 A) GaN layer is deposited on the GaAs surface. Pure N{sub 2} nitridation does not provide an efficient passivation, because it results in GaN layers with As and AsN{sub x} segregation at the GaN/GaAs interface. Increase of Au-GaAs Schottky barrier with the insertion of GaN interlayer and improvement of current-voltage characteristic have been observed.

  7. Treatment of nitridation by microwave post discharge plasma in an AISI 4140 steel; Tratamiento de nitruracion por plasma post-descarga micro-ondas en un acero AISI 4140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina F, A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Morelia e Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodriguez L, V.; Zamora R, L. [ININ, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Oseguera P, J

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this work is to determine through X-ray diffraction, microhardness measurement and scanning electron microscopy those main operation parameters of the microwave post discharge treatment (temperature of treatment, gas mixture and permanence time) nitriding an AISI 4140 steel and to characterize the compact layer of nitrides formed during the treatment. (Author)

  8. Study creep in 4340 steels with different microstructure and plasma carbon nitridation processing; Estudo de fluencia em acos 4340 com diferentes microestruturas e tratamento de carbonitretacao a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, A.J., E-mail: abdalla@ieav.cta.b [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Carrer, I.R.; Barboza, M.J.R.; Baggio-Scheid, V.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Moura Neto, C.; Reis, D.A.P. [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial (ITA/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica

    2010-07-01

    From the AISI 4340 bars specimens were made-for-test of creep, they were subjected to different heat treatments for the formation of multiphase microstructures. After this initial treatment, a lot of the specimens were tested in creep. One second batch of specimens was treated with a plasma carbonitriding, and later, were also tested. The carbonitriding layer and microstructure were characterized with X-ray analysis, laser confocal microscopy and hardness testing. Tests showed that the hardness in the steel was reduced due to thermochemical treatment at 500 deg C. We observed variation in creep behavior due to different microstructures formed. After the plasma treatment, there was a considerable reduction in the rate of creep and an increase in the time required for fracture. (author)

  9. Plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride studied with real time grazing angle small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Nepal, Neeraj; Johnson, Scooter D.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Nath, Anindya; Kozen, Alexander C.; Qadri, Syed B.; DeMasi, Alexander; Hite, Jennifer K.; Ludwig, Karl F.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2017-05-01

    Wide bandgap semiconducting nitrides have found wide-spread application as light emitting and laser diodes and are under investigation for further application in optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and efficient power switching technologies. Alloys of the binary semiconductors allow adjustments of the band gap, an important semiconductor material characteristic, which is 6.2 eV for aluminum nitride (AlN), 3.4 eV for gallium nitride, and 0.7 eV for (InN). Currently, the highest quality III-nitride films are deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Temperatures of 900 °C and higher are required to deposit high quality AlN. Research into depositing III-nitrides with atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) is ongoing because it is a fabrication friendly technique allowing lower growth temperatures. Because it is a relatively new technique, there is insufficient understanding of the ALEp growth mechanism which will be essential to development of the process. Here, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering is employed to observe the evolving behavior of the surface morphology during growth of AlN by ALEp at temperatures from 360 to 480 °C. Increased temperatures of AlN resulted in lower impurities and relatively fewer features with short range correlations.

  10. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  11. The rf-power dependences of the deposition rate, the hardness and the corrosion-resistance of the chromium nitride film deposited by using a dual ion beam sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jongmin; Lee, Chongmu

    2006-01-01

    The hexavalent chromium used in chromium plating is so toxic that it is very hazardous to human body and possibly causes cancer in humans. Therefore, it is indispensable to develop an alternative deposition technique. Dependences of the deposition rate, the phases, the hardness, the surface roughness and the corrosion-resistance of CrN x deposited on the high speed steel substrate by using a dual ion beam sputtering system on the rf-power were investigated to see the feasibility of sputtering as an alternative technique for chromium plating. The dual ion beam sputtering system used in this study was designed in such a way as the primary argon ion beam and the secondary nitrogen ion beam are injected toward the target and the substrate, respectively so that the chromium atoms at the chromium target surface may not nearly react with nitrogen atoms. The hardness and the surface roughness were measured by a micro-Vicker's hardness tester and an atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. X-ray diffraction analyses were performed to identify phases in the films. The deposition rate of CrN x depends more strongly upon the rf-power for argon ion beam than that for nitrogen ion beam. The hardness of the CrN x film is highest when the volume percent of the Cr 2 N phase in the film is highest. Amorphous films are obtained when the rf-power for nitrogen ion beam is much higher than that for argon ion beam. The CrN x film deposited by using the sputtering technique under the optimal condition provides corrosion-resistance comparable to that of the electroplated chromium

  12. Surface stoichiometry modification and improved DC/RF characteristics by plasma treated and annealed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhanu B.; Takhar, Kuldeep; Jha, Jaya; Ganguly, Swaroop; Saha, Dipankar

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate that N2 and O2 plasma treatment followed by rapid thermal annealing leads to surface stoichiometry modification in a AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor. Both the source/drain access and gate regions respond positively improving the transistor characteristics albeit to different extents. Characterizations indicate that the surface show the characteristics of that of a higher band-gap material like AlxOy and GaxOy along with N-vacancy in the sub-surface region. The N-vacancy leads to an increased two-dimensional electron gas density. The formation of oxides lead to a reduced gate leakage current and surface passivation. The DC characteristics show increased transconductance, saturation drain current, ON/OFF current ratio, sub-threshold swing and lower ON resistance by a factor of 2.9, 2.0, 103.3 , 2.3, and 2.1, respectively. The RF characteristics show an increase in unity current gain frequency by a factor of 1.7 for a 500 nm channel length device.

  13. Fabrication of PDMS through-holes using the MIMIC method and the surface treatment by atmospheric-pressure CH4/He RF plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongchan; Lee, Kyeong-Hwan; Yang, Sung

    2011-09-01

    This note presents a simple fabrication process for patterning micro through-holes in a PDMS layer by a combination of the micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) method and the surface treatment by atmospheric-pressure CH4/He RF plasma. The fabrication process is confirmed by forming micro through-holes with various shapes including circle, C-shape, open microfluidic channel and hemisphere. All micro through-holes of various shapes in a wide range of diameters and heights are well fabricated by the proposed method. Also, a 3D micromixer containing a PDMS micro through-hole layer formed by the proposed method is built and its performance is tested as another practical demonstration of the proposed fabrication method. Therefore, we believe that the proposed fabrication process will build a PDMS micro through-hole layer in a simple and easy way and will contribute to developing highly efficient multi-layered microfluidic systems, which may require PDMS micro through-hole layers.

  14. Structural and optical studies of GaN pn-junction with AlN buffer layer grown on Si (111) by RF plasma enhanced MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Hassan, Zainuriah; Woei, Chin Che; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Abdullah, Mat Johar [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia and Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    GaN pn-junction grown on silicon substrates have been the focus in a number of recent reports and further effort is still necessary to improve its crystalline quality for practical applications. GaN has the high n-type background carrier concentration resulting from native defects commonly thought to be nitrogen vacancies. In this work, we present the growth of pn-junction of GaN on Si (111) substrate using RF plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Both of the layers show uniformity with an average thickness of 0.709 {mu}m and 0.095 {mu}m for GaN and AlN layers, respectively. The XRD spectra indicate that no sign of cubic phase of GaN are found, so it is confirmed that the sample possessed hexagonal structure. It was found that all the allowed Raman optical phonon modes of GaN, i.e. the E2 (low), E1 (high) and A1 (LO) are clearly visible.

  15. Spatio-temporal analysis of the electron power absorption in electropositive capacitive RF plasmas based on moments of the Boltzmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, J.; Donkó, Z.; Lafleur, T.; Wilczek, S.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2018-05-01

    Power absorption by electrons from the space- and time-dependent electric field represents the basic sustaining mechanism of all radio-frequency driven plasmas. This complex phenomenon has attracted significant attention. However, most theories and models are, so far, only able to account for part of the relevant mechanisms. The aim of this work is to present an in-depth analysis of the power absorption by electrons, via the use of a moment analysis of the Boltzmann equation without any ad-hoc assumptions. This analysis, for which the input quantities are taken from kinetic, particle based simulations, allows the identification of all physical mechanisms involved and an accurate quantification of their contributions. The perfect agreement between the sum of these contributions and the simulation results verifies the completeness of the model. We study the relative importance of these mechanisms as a function of pressure, with high spatial and temporal resolution, in an electropositive argon discharge. In contrast to some widely accepted previous models we find that high space- and time-dependent ambipolar electric fields outside the sheaths play a key role for electron power absorption. This ambipolar field is time-dependent within the RF period and temporally asymmetric, i.e., the sheath expansion is not a ‘mirror image’ of the sheath collapse. We demonstrate that this time-dependence is mainly caused by a time modulation of the electron temperature resulting from the