WorldWideScience

Sample records for revolutionizing plant biology

  1. Computational chemistry, systems biology and toxicology. Harnessing the chemistry of life: revolutionizing toxicology. a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Humphris, Colin; Westmoreland, Carl; Alepee, Nathalie; Negro, Gianni Dal; Manou, Irene

    2011-04-01

    There is a continuing interest in, and increasing imperatives for, the development of alternative methods for toxicological evaluations that do not require the use of animals. Although a significant investment has resulted in some achievements, progress has been patchy and there remain many challenges. Among the most significant hurdles is developing non-animal methods that would permit assessment of the potential for a chemical or drug to cause adverse health effects following repeated systemic exposure. Developing approaches to address this challenge has been one of the objectives of the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA). The EPAA is a unique partnership between the European Commission and industry that has interests in all aspects of reducing, refining and replacing the use of animals (the '3Rs'). One possible strategy that emerged from a broad scientific debate sponsored by the EPAA was the opportunity for developing entirely new paradigms for toxicity testing based upon harnessing the increasing power of computational chemistry in combination with advanced systems biology. This brief commentary summarizes a workshop organized by the EPAA in 2010, that had the ambitious title of 'Harnessing the Chemistry of Life: Revolutionizing Toxicology'. At that workshop international experts in chemistry, systems biology and toxicology sought to map out how best developments in these sciences could be exploited to design new strategies for toxicity testing using adverse effects in the liver as an initial focus of attention. Here we describe the workshop design and outputs, the primary purpose being to stimulate debate about the need to align different areas of science with toxicology if new and truly innovative approaches to toxicity testing are to be developed.

  2. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  3. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  4. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    Providing a detailed account of the biology and ecology of wetland plants as well as applications of wetland plant science, this book presents a synthesis of studies and reviews from biology, plant...

  5. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  6. Bioinspired materials: Boosting plant biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Gregory D.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-04-01

    Chloroplasts with extended photosynthetic activity beyond the visible absorption spectrum, and living leaves that perform non-biological functions, are made possible by localizing nanoparticles within plant organelles.

  7. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  8. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  9. The biology of plant metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following a general introduction, this book includes details of metabolomics of model species including Arabidopsis and tomato. Further chapters provide in-depth coverage of abiotic stress, data integration, systems biology, genetics, genomics, chemometrics and biostatisitcs. Applications of plant m

  10. Researchers Discover Plants Biological Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全良

    1996-01-01

    Scientists who created glow-in-the-dark plants by shooting up seedlingswith firefly DNA have identified the first biological clock gene in plants. Discovery of the timepiece gene, which controls such biological rhythmsas daily leaf movements and proe openings, flower-blooming schedules andphotosynthesis cycles, could lead to a host of applications in ornamental horti-culture, agriculture and even human health. Many researchers believe that

  11. Shima Seiki Revolutionizes Intarsia Knitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ SHIMA SEIKI has introduced its new MACH2SIG computerized intarsia shaped knitting machine which,together with improved design system software,revolutionizes multi-color intarsia knitting by increasing productivity in ways never before possible.

  12. Revolutionizing tire life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ednie, H.

    2006-09-15

    Many oil sands operations are optimizing processes to prevent the current tire shortage from affecting profits. Typically, there are 3 options available to operators when dealing with a tire shortage: (1) increase the life of tires; (2) buy more tires from unconventional sources; and (3) park trucks. However, operators in the Elk Valley have seen a 28 per cent increase in the lifespan of their tires through using a variety of different options. Lifespan increases have been attributed to greater awareness of the tire shortage, and improved maintenance practices. Suncor's plant in Fort McMurray has made tires a focus of their operational excellence program. Over the last year a cross-functional task team of operations, maintenance, internal supply and technical personnel has met once a week to review tire strategies. Through a combination of supplier technology improvements and onsite initiatives, tire life has increased from the usual 2000 to 3000 hours to over 10,000 hours. Syncrude Canada has seen a 25 per cent increase in tire life through focusing on payloads, improvements in repair technologies and avoiding spillage from trucks to keep roads clean. Developed to aid operators in prolonging the lives of their tires, the Rimex Tyresense System is currently being tested on the tires of six 930E trucks. The system offers wireless reporting on 6 wheel positions in real time, and monitors heat and pressure on the front and rear axle tires. Operators in the Elk Valley are also optimizing forecasting methods to predict lifetimes of tires in order to adjust tire rotation strategies. Suncor and Syncrude are also working with tire suppliers to develop a tire design for oil sands operations, and are currently testing tires from a variety of international suppliers. Tire-swapping between operations that have varying impacts on tires has also been considered. It was concluded that increasing tire life requires a variety of approaches and solutions. 2 figs.

  13. Thermodynamical journey in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin eBarbacci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonequilibrium irreversible thermodynamics constitute a meaningful point of view suitable to explore life with a rich paradigm. This analytical framework can be used to span the gap from molecular processes to plant function and shows great promise to create a holistic description of life. Since living organisms dissipate energy, exchange entropy and matter with their environment, they can be assimilated to dissipative structures. This concept inherited from nonequilibrium thermodynamics has four properties which defines a scale independent framework suitable to provide a simpler and more comprehensive view of the highly complex plant biology. According to this approach, a biological process is modeled as an avalanche of dissipative structures. Each dissipative structure, corresponds to an unitary biological process, which is initiated by the amplification of a fluctuation. Evolution of the process leads to the breakage of the system symmetry and to the export of entropy. Exporting entropy to the surrounding environment corresponds to collecting information about it. Biological actors which break the symmetry of the system and which store information are by consequence, key actors on which experiments and data analysis focus most. This paper aims at illustrating properties of dissipative structure through familiar examples and thus initiating the dialogue between nonequilibrium thermodynamics and plant biology.

  14. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  15. Enabling plant synthetic biology through genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology seeks to create new biological systems, including user-designed plants and plant cells. These systems can be employed for a variety of purposes, ranging from producing compounds of industrial or therapeutic value, to reducing crop losses by altering cellular responses to pathogens or climate change. To realize the full potential of plant synthetic biology, techniques are required that provide control over the genetic code - enabling targeted modifications to DNA sequences within living plant cells. Such control is now within reach owing to recent advances in the use of sequence-specific nucleases to precisely engineer genomes. We discuss here the enormous potential provided by genome engineering for plant synthetic biology.

  16. Promoting Interest in Plant Biology with Biographies of Plant Hunters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisey, Peggy

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of biographical stories to promote student interest in plant biology. Discusses plant hunters of various time periods, including ancient, middle ages, renaissance, colonial Americas, and 18th and 19th centuries; women plant hunters of the 1800s and early 1900s; and modern plant hunters. Discusses classroom strategies for the…

  17. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  18. Celebrating Plant Cells: A Special Issue on Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A special issue on plant cell biology is long overdue for JIPB! In the last two decades or so, the plant biology community has been thrilled by explosive discoveries regarding the molecular and genetic basis of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment, largely owing to recent maturation of model systems like Arabidopsis thaliana and the rice Oryza sativa, as well as the rapid development of high throughput technologies associated with genomics and proteomics.

  19. Wetland plants: biology and ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronk, Julie K; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2001-01-01

    .... You get a thorough discussion of the range of wetland plant adaptations to life in water or saturated soils, high salt or high sulfur, low light and low carbon dioxide levels, as well as a detailed...

  20. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Stephen A.; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E.; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew; Kubach, Adam; Narro, Martha; Hopkins, Nicole; Micklos, David; Hilgert, Uwe; Gonzales, Michael; Jordan, Chris; Skidmore, Edwin; Dooley, Rion; Cazes, John; McLay, Robert; Lu, Zhenyuan; Pasternak, Shiran; Koesterke, Lars; Piel, William H.; Grene, Ruth; Noutsos, Christos; Gendler, Karla; Feng, Xin; Tang, Chunlao; Lent, Monica; Kim, Seung-Jin; Kvilekval, Kristian; Manjunath, B. S.; Tannen, Val; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Sanderson, Michael; Welch, Stephen M.; Cranston, Karen A.; Soltis, Pamela; Soltis, Doug; O'Meara, Brian; Ane, Cecile; Brutnell, Tom; Kleibenstein, Daniel J.; White, Jeffery W.; Leebens-Mack, James; Donoghue, Michael J.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Vision, Todd J.; Myers, Christopher R.; Lowenthal, David; Enquist, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Akoglu, Ali; Andrews, Greg; Ram, Sudha; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; Stanzione, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services. PMID:22645531

  1. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Goff

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006. iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services.

  2. Electron Tomography in Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on the contribution of electron tomography-based techniques to our understanding of cellular processes in plant cells. Electron microscopy techniques have evolved to provide better three-dimensional resolution and improved preservation of the subcellular components. In particular, the combination of cryofixation/freeze substitution and electron tomography have allowed plant cell biologists to image organelles and macromolecular complexes in their native cellular context with unprecedented three-dimensional resolution (4-7 nm). Until now, electron tomography has been applied in plant cell biology for the study of cytokinesis, Golgi structure and trafficking, formation of plant endosome/prevacuolar compartments, and organization of photosynthetic membranes. We discuss in this review the new insights that these tomographic studies have brought to the plant biology field.

  3. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  4. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality.

  5. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality.

  6. Modification-specific proteomics in plant biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Jensen, Ole N

    2010-01-01

    and proteomics. In general, methods for PTM characterization are developed to study yeast and mammalian biology and later adopted to investigate plants. Our point of view is that it is advantageous to enrich for PTMs on the peptide level as part of a quantitative proteomics strategy to not only identify the PTM...

  7. Hybrid Photocatalytic-Biological Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M. I.; Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Oller, I.; Gernjak, W.; Perez-Estrada, L.

    2006-07-01

    This contribution is presenting the tests and operational results performed for designing a new hybrid solar photocatalytic-biological demonstration plant built in a chemical industry located near Almeria (Spain). It will treat saline wastewater (sea water) containing a nonbiodegradable compound up to 550 mg/L and a Total Organic Carbon up to 600 mg/L. Initially, the wastewater (WW) is partly oxidized by solar photo-Fenton process to render the wastewater biodegradable. At pilot-plant scale the wastewater was successfully treated and the conditions for coupling with a biological treatment using Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) as pre-treatment were determined. Samples were collected along the AOP process and their biodegradability was evaluated with the Zahn-Wellens (ZW) test. Enhancement of WW biodegradability was confirmed (>70% biodegradable). Hydrogen peroxide management for reduced consumption is also discussed in detail and the principal parameters for designing the demonstration plant have been obtained. (Author)

  8. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  9. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  10. PLANT ISOFLAVONES: BIOSYNHTESIS, DETECTION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Naumenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological properties, chemical structures and biosynthesis pathways of plant isoflavones, especially soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein are reviewed. The structures of isoflavones, and their aglicone and glucosides (glycosides forms as well as isoflavone biosynthesis pathways are described. General information about the advanced methods for the detection of isoflavones and their conjugates are considered. The importance of the profiling of isoflavones, flavonoids and their conjugates by means of analytical tools and methods to dissolve some questions in biology and medicine is discussed. The review provides data on the major isoflavone content in some vegetable crops and in the tissues of different soybean varieties. Health benefits and treatment or preventive properties of isoflavones for cancer, cardiovascular, endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders are highlighted. The mechanisms that may explain their positive biological effects are considered. The information on the application of advanced technologies to create new plant forms producing isoflavonoids with a predicted level of isoflavones, which is the most favorable for the treatment is given. The possibilities to use the metabolic engineering for the increasing of accumulation and synthesis of isoflavones at the non-legume crops such as tobacco, Arabidopsis and maize are considered. The examples how the plant tissues, which are not naturally produced of the isoflavones, can obtain potential for the synthesis of biologically active compounds via inducing of the activity of the introduced enzyme isoflavon synthase, are given. Specific biochemical pathways for increasing the synthesis of isoflavone genistein in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues are discussed. It is concluded that plant genetic engineering which is focused on modification of the secondary metabolites contain in plant tissues, enables to create the new crop varieties with improved agronomic properties and

  11. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  12. Reshaping Plant Biology: Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptors for Plant Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduzzi, Mathilde; Binder, Brad M.; Bucksch, Alexander; Chang, Cynthia; Hong, Lilan; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Pradal, Christophe; Sparks, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    An emerging challenge in plant biology is to develop qualitative and quantitative measures to describe the appearance of plants through the integration of mathematics and biology. A major hurdle in developing these metrics is finding common terminology across fields. In this review, we define approaches for analyzing plant geometry, topology, and shape, and provide examples for how these terms have been and can be applied to plants. In leaf morphological quantifications both geometry and shape have been used to gain insight into leaf function and evolution. For the analysis of cell growth and expansion, we highlight the utility of geometric descriptors for understanding sepal and hypocotyl development. For branched structures, we describe how topology has been applied to quantify root system architecture to lend insight into root function. Lastly, we discuss the importance of using morphological descriptors in ecology to assess how communities interact, function, and respond within different environments. This review aims to provide a basic description of the mathematical principles underlying morphological quantifications. PMID:28217137

  13. Space plant biology research in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2012-09-01

    In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic.

  14. My journey from horticulture to plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevaart, Jan A D

    2009-01-01

    The author describes the circumstances and opportunities that led him to higher education and to pursue a research career in plant biology. He acknowledges the important roles a few individuals played in guiding him in his career. His early work on flowering was followed by studies on the physiological roles and the metabolism of gibberellins and abscisic acid. He describes how collaborations and technical developments advanced his research from measuring hormones by bioassay to their identification and quantification by mass spectrometry and cloning of hormone biosynthetic genes.

  15. Plant ecdysteroids: plant sterols with intriguing distributions, biological effects and relations to plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    The present review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones. Plant ecdysteroids (phytoecdysteroids) are natural polyhydroxylated compounds that have a four-ringed skeleton, usually composed of either 27 carbon atoms or 28-29 carbon atoms (biosynthetically derived from cholesterol or other plant sterols, respectively). Their physiological roles in plants have not yet been confirmed and their occurrence is not universal. Nevertheless, they are present at high concentrations in various plant species, including commonly consumed vegetables, and have a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties in mammals, including hepatoprotective and hypoglycaemic effects, and anabolic effects on skeletal muscle, without androgenic side-effects. Furthermore, phytoecdysteroids can enhance stress resistance by promoting vitality and enhancing physical performance; thus, they are considered adaptogens. This review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones.

  16. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  17. Biological Function of REE in Plants & Microbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) and their compounds are widely applied in agronomic and medical fields for many years. The bioinorganic chemical research of REE during the past few years indicates that REE play important roles in the promotion of photosynthetic rate as well as root absorption, regulation of hormone and nitrogen metabolism, and suppression of microbes, etc. The metallic or non-metallic targets of key biomolecule in various physiological processes can be chosen by REE for the chelation or replacement, which enables REE to regulate the biological functions or behaviors of those biomolecule and consequently leads to significant embodiment of biological function of REE in plants and microbes.Overdose of REE, however, shows an inhibitory effect on living organisms. Therefore, this paper proposes two suggestions that will be available in the extension of full use of REE's biological function. One is to obey the dose law of REE and control REE concentrations within a safe range. The other is to further test the bioaccumulation and long-period influence of REE on organisms.

  18. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  19. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  20. Results of activated sludge plants applying enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.; Pinto, M.; Neder, K.; Hoffmann, H.

    1989-02-01

    To stop the eutrophication in lakes and rivers, the input of nutrient and phosphorus compounds must be limited. The biological elimination of phosphorus describes a possibility, to reduce phosphorus in the biological stage of a treatment plant to a considerable extent. In this paper the process-system and the operation-results of a pilot plant and two municipal treatment plants are presented, where biological phosphorus reduction about 80% takes place without any constructional modifications.

  1. Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic compounds in rhizosphere of the symbiotic legumes. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... compounds in the rhizosphere of a few studied symbiotic legumes and other plants.

  2. The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

  3. Federico Delpino and the foundation of plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    In 1867, Federico Delpino, with his seminal work "Pensieri sulla biologia vegetale" (Thoughts on plant biology) established plant biology by defining it not in the broad general sense, namely as the science of living beings, but as a branch of natural science dedicated to the study of plant life in relation to the environment. Today, the figure and achievements of this outstanding plant scientist it is almost unknown. In the following pages, I will concisely describe the main realizations of Federico Delpino and outline the significance of his work for modern plant science.

  4. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07493662X

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  5. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  6. Revolutionizing Climate Science: Using Teachers as Communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Crowley, S.; Wood, J.

    2012-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded program in which K-12 teachers participate in hands-on field research experiences in the Polar Regions. Teachers are the dynamic conduits for communicating climate science. In the PolarTREC final report, researchers found that teachers were vital in refining the language of their science and have shaped the goals of the scientific project. Program data demonstrates that science in classrooms is better understood when teachers have a full-spectrum grasp of project intricacies from defining the project, to field data collection, encountering situations for creativity and critical thinking, as well as participating in data and project analysis. Teachers' translating the authentic scientific process is integral in communicating climate science to the broader public. Teachers playing a major role in polar science revolutionize the old paradigm of "in-school learning". Through daily online journaling and forums, social media communication, live webinars with public, and professional development events, these teachers are moving beyond classrooms to communicate with society. Through teachers, climate policy can be shaped for the future by having scientifically literate students as well as assessable science. New paradigms come as teachers attain proficient levels of scientific understanding paired with the expert abilities for communication with years of experience. PolarTREC teachers are a model for new interactions peer-to-peer learning and mentorship for young scientists. Our programmatic goal is to expand the opportunities for PolarTREC teachers to share their involvement in science with additional formal and informal educators. 'Teaching the teachers' will reach exponential audiences in media, policy, and classrooms. Modeling this program, we designed and conducted a teacher training on climate science in Denali National Park. Utilizing expert university

  7. Application of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Medicinal Plant Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG You-ping; AI Jun-mei; XIAO Pei-gen

    2010-01-01

    One important purpose to investigate medicinal plants is to understand genes and enzymes that govern the biological metabolic process to produce bioactive compounds.Genome wide high throughput technologies such as genomics,transcriptomics,proteomics and metabolomics can help reach that goal.Such technologies can produce a vast amount of data which desperately need bioinformatics and systems biology to process,manage,distribute and understand these data.By dealing with the"omics"data,bioinformatics and systems biology can also help improve the quality of traditional medicinal materials,develop new approaches for the classification and authentication of medicinal plants,identify new active compounds,and cultivate medicinal plant species that tolerate harsh environmental conditions.In this review,the application of bioinformatics and systems biology in medicinal plants is briefly introduced.

  8. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders.

  9. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Wu, Chin-Sheng; Wu, Po-Yuan; Wen, Kuo-Ching

    2015-09-01

    Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated.

  11. "Florigen ": an intriguing concept of plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    "Florigen" is the name that Mikhail Chailakhyan coined in 1937 for the putative hormone regulating flowering. At this concept, plant physiologists arrived following early research concerning the effects of temperature and day length on the transition from vegetative to reproductive stages of plants. The existence of florigen was postulated on the experimental backgrounds involving i) the response of plants to inductive conditions; ii) transmission of a flowering stimulus by grafting; iii) extraction of this stimulus from induced plants. This experimental results showed the existence of florigen at least as concept because they always failed to offer the experimental evidence of its chemical existence. The myth of florigen persisted as long as the end of the Seventies, when physiologists began to consider flowering as a complex process in which various classes of hormones might variously interplay.

  12. The molecular biology of meiosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Raphaël; Mézard, Christine; Jenczewski, Eric; Macaisne, Nicolas; Grelon, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis is the cell division that reshuffles genetic information between generations. Recently, much progress has been made in understanding this process; in particular, the identification and functional analysis of more than 80 plant genes involved in meiosis have dramatically deepened our knowledge of this peculiar cell division. In this review, we provide an overview of advancements in the understanding of all aspects of plant meiosis, including recombination, chromosome synapsis, cell cycle control, chromosome distribution, and the challenge of polyploidy.

  13. Positron Emission Tomography Detector Development for Plant Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisenberger, A G; McKisson, J; Stolin, A; Zorn, C; Howell, C R; Crowell, A S; Reid, C D; Majewski, S

    2010-01-01

    There are opportunities for the development of new tools to advance plant biology research through the use of radionuclides. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Duke University, West Virginia University and the University of Maryland are collaborating on the development of radionuclide imaging technologies to facilitate plant biology research. Biological research into optimizing plant productivity under various environmental constraints, biofuel and carbon sequestration research are areas that could potentially benefit from new imaging technologies. Using 11CO2 tracers, the investigators at Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory / Duke University Phytotron are currently researching the dynamical responses of plants to environmental changes forecasted from increasing greenhouse trace gases involved in global change. The biological research primary focus is to investigate the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nutrients limitation on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in plants. We report here on preliminary results of 11CO2 plant imaging experiments involving barley plants using Jefferson Lab dual planar positron emission tomography detectors to image 11CO2 in live barley plants. New detector designs will be developed based on the preliminary studies reported here and further planned.

  14. Plant Leachate Nutrient Recovery with Biological, Thermal, and Photocatalytic Pretreatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Les

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for long term space travel: provide essential resources - oxygen, water, food; Water-soaked plants expel soluble nutrients in a leachate solution - toxins and wastes are also expelled and inhibit growth; biological, thermal, photocatalytic coupled with an acid digestion treatment will hopefully maximize recovery and remove wastes

  15. Methods in molecular biology: plant cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytogenetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of genetics, biology, reproduction, and evolution. From early studies in basic chromosome behavior the field has expanded enabling whole genome analysis to the manipulation of chromosomes and their organization. This book covers a ran...

  16. [Biological evaluation of Cuban plants VI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Misas, C A; Rojas Hernández, N M; López Abraham, A M

    1979-01-01

    The study of the antibacterial activity of plants growing in Cuba is pursued. Aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts were prepared from five species, and it was found that the best inhibitions corresponded to the species Hamelia patens, Nephrolepis acuminata, Calocarpum sapota and Colocasia antiquorum.

  17. Circadian rhythms in biologically closed electrical circuits of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander; Waite, Astian J; Wooten, Joseph D; Markin, Vladislav S

    2012-02-01

    The circadian clock regulates a wide range of electrophysiological and developmental processes in plants. Here, we discuss the direct influence of a circadian clock on biologically closed electrochemical circuits in vivo. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of C. miniata (Kaffir lily), Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica, which regulate their physiology, were analyzed using the charge stimulation method. Plants are able to memorize daytime and nighttime. Even at continuous light or darkness, plants recognize nighttime or daytime and change the input resistance. The circadian clock can be maintained endogenously and has electrochemical oscillators, which can activate ion channels in biologically closed electrochemical circuits. The activation of voltage gated channels depends on the applied voltage, electrical charge, and the speed of transmission of electrical energy from the electrostimulator to plants.

  18. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BY MEANS OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is the use of live beneficial organisms and products of their metabolism in the pests control. Plant pathogens can be used for weed control in three different ways: as classical, conservation and augmentative (inoculative and inundated biological control. Inundated biological control involves the use of bioherbicides (mycoherbicides or artificial breeding of pathogens and application in specific stages of crops and weeds. Biological control of weeds can be used where chemical herbicides are not allowed, if resistant weed species are present or in the integrated pest management against weeds with reduced herbicides doses and other non-chemical measures, but it has certain limitations and disadvantages.

  19. Recent achievements and trends in experimental plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2010-04-01

    Between 21 and 25 September 2009, Krakow hosted the 4th Conference of the Polish Society of Experimental Plant Biology, co-organized with the Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, and supported by the Biochemical Society. The aim of the conference was to present and discuss the most important topics in different disciplines of plant experimental science as well as to facilitate the interaction and co-operation between scientists. To achieve this goal, about 30 top specialists in various areas of plant biology were invited to give plenary lectures in the following sessions: Plant structure and development; Plant-microbial interactions; Mitochondria and chloroplasts in cell metabolism; Stress tolerance in plants; Structural and functional organization of plant genomes; Mutants in developmental and metabolic studies; Secondary metabolites as pharmaceutics and nutraceutics; Plant membranes; and Integrating plant functions via signalling molecules: molecular mechanisms. Some of the main problems highlighted in the plenary lectures are briefly summarized in the present paper. Two poster sessions enabled a discussion of over 200 posters presented. The conference had an international character, its official language was English, and among the more than 350 participants, about 60 were from abroad. Several plenary lectures were prepared as short review papers and they are published in this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions.

  20. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  1. Recombinant biologic products versus nutraceuticals from plants - a regulatory choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Pascal M W; Szeto, Tim H; Paul, Mathew J; Teh, Audrey Y-H; Ma, Julian K-C

    2017-01-01

    Biotechnology has transformed the potential for plants to be a manufacturing source of pharmaceutical compounds. Now, with transgenic and transient expression techniques, virtually any biologic, including vaccines and therapeutics, could be manufactured in plants. However, uncertainty over the regulatory path for such new pharmaceuticals has been a deterrent. Consideration has been given to using alternative regulatory paths, including those for nutraceuticals or cosmetic agents. This review will consider these possibilities, and discuss the difficulties in establishing regulatory guidelines for new pharmaceutical manufacturing technologies.

  2. Method and apparatus to image biological interactions in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Bonito, Gregory M.; Reid, Chantal D.; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2015-12-22

    A method to dynamically image the actual translocation of molecular compounds of interest in a plant root, root system, and rhizosphere without disturbing the root or the soil. The technique makes use of radioactive isotopes as tracers to label molecules of interest and to image their distribution in the plant and/or soil. The method allows for the study and imaging of various biological and biochemical interactions in the rhizosphere of a plant, including, but not limited to, mycorrhizal associations in such regions.

  3. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  4. DNA assembly for plant biology: techniques and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J

    2014-06-01

    As the speed and accuracy of genome sequencing improves, there are ever-increasing resources available for the design and construction of synthetic DNA parts. These can be used to engineer plant genomes to produce new functions or to elucidate the function of endogenous sequences. Until recently the assembly of amplified or cloned sequences into large and complex designs was a limiting step in plant synthetic biology and biotechnology. A number of new methods for assembling DNA molecules have been developed in the last few years, several of which have been applied to the production of molecules used to modify plant genomes.

  5. Plant glyco-biotechnology on the way to synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eLoos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are increasingly being used for the production of recombinant proteins. One reason is that plants are highly amenable for glycan engineering processes and allow the production of therapeutic proteins with increased efficacies due to optimized glycosylation profiles. Removal and insertion of glycosylation reactions by knock-out/knock-down approaches and introduction of glycosylation enzymes have paved the way for the humanization of the plant glycosylation pathway. The insertion of heterologous enzymes at exactly the right stage of the existing glycosylation pathway has turned out to be of utmost importance for optimal results. To enable such precise targeting chimeric enzymes have been constructed. In this short review we will exemplify the importance of correct targeting of glycosyltransferases, we will give an overview of the targeting mechanism of glycosyltransferases, describe chimeric enzymes used in plant N-glycosylation engineering and illustrate how plant glycoengineering builds on the tools offered by synthetic biology to construct such chimeric enzymes.

  6. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  7. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossmann, J.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Nielsen, K.K.;

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific basis for developing new methods and technology for an environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production in the future. TheDepartment's expertise covers a wide range...

  8. NASA Space Biology Plant Research for 2010-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Tomko, D. L.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) recently published "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era" (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=13048), and NASA completed a Space Biology Science Plan to develop a strategy for implementing its recommendations ( http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/library/esmd documents.html). The most important recommendations of the NRC report on plant biology in space were that NASA should: (1) investigate the roles of microbial-plant systems in long-term bioregenerative life support systems, and (2) establish a robust spaceflight program of research analyzing plant growth and physiological responses to the multiple stimuli encountered in spaceflight environments. These efforts should take advantage of recently emerged analytical technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and apply modern cellular and molecular approaches in the development of a vigorous flight-based and ground-based research program. This talk will describe NASA's strategy and plans for implementing these NRC Plant Space Biology recommendations. New research capabilities for Plant Biology, optimized by providing state-of-the-art automated technology and analytical techniques to maximize scientific return, will be described. Flight experiments will use the most appropriate platform to achieve science results (e.g., ISS, free flyers, sub-orbital flights) and NASA will work closely with its international partners and other U.S. agencies to achieve its objectives. One of NASA's highest priorities in Space Biology is the development research capabilities for use on the International Space Station and other flight platforms for studying multiple generations of large plants. NASA will issue recurring NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) that include a rapid turn-around model to more fully engage the biology community in designing experiments to respond to the NRC recommendations. In doing so, NASA

  9. Biological Fenton's oxidation of pentachlorophenol by aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Andre Rodrigues dos; Kyuma, Yukako; Sakakibara, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    This study proposes a new treatment method to decompose persistent chemicals such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) in water, utilizing hydrogen peroxide present in aquatic plants to proceed the biological Fenton reaction. PCP was not effectively removed by aquatic plants. However, by adding 2.8 mM of Fe(2+), there was a rapid removal of PCP while at the same time consumption of endogenous hydrogen peroxide occurred. It was observed the increase of chloride ions formation in water-confirming the complete degradation of PCP. These results demonstrated that PCP was oxidized through a biological Fenton reaction, and hydrogen peroxide in aquatic plants was a key endogenous substance in treatment of refractory toxic pollutants.

  10. Integrating cell biology and proteomic approaches in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Šamaj, Jozef

    2017-04-22

    Significant improvements of protein extraction, separation, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics nurtured advancements of proteomics during the past years. The usefulness of proteomics in the investigation of biological problems can be enhanced by integration with other experimental methods from cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and other omics approaches including transcriptomics and metabolomics. This review aims to summarize current trends integrating cell biology and proteomics in plant science. Cell biology approaches are most frequently used in proteomic studies investigating subcellular and developmental proteomes, however, they were also employed in proteomic studies exploring abiotic and biotic stress responses, vesicular transport, cytoskeleton and protein posttranslational modifications. They are used either for detailed cellular or ultrastructural characterization of the object subjected to proteomic study, validation of proteomic results or to expand proteomic data. In this respect, a broad spectrum of methods is employed to support proteomic studies including ultrastructural electron microscopy studies, histochemical staining, immunochemical localization, in vivo imaging of fluorescently tagged proteins and visualization of protein-protein interactions. Thus, cell biological observations on fixed or living cell compartments, cells, tissues and organs are feasible, and in some cases fundamental for the validation and complementation of proteomic data. Validation of proteomic data by independent experimental methods requires development of new complementary approaches. Benefits of cell biology methods and techniques are not sufficiently highlighted in current proteomic studies. This encouraged us to review most popular cell biology methods used in proteomic studies and to evaluate their relevance and potential for proteomic data validation and enrichment of purely proteomic analyses. We also provide examples of

  11. Revolutionizing Arts Education in K-12 Classrooms through Technological Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Narelle, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Educational technologies are becoming more commonplace across the K-12 curriculum. In particular, the use of innovative digital technology is expanding the potential of arts education, presenting new opportunities--and challenges--to both curricular design and pedagogical practice. "Revolutionizing Arts Education in K-12 Classrooms through…

  12. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  13. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…

  14. Augmenting Plant Immune Responses and Biological Control by Microbial Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant have developed sophisticated defence mechanisms against microbial pathogens. The recent accumulated information allow us to understand the nature of plant immune responses followed by recognition of microbial factors/determinants through cutting-edge genomics and multi-omics techniques. However, the practical approaches to sustain plant health using enhancement of plant immunity is yet to be fully appreciated. Here, we overviewed the general concept and representative examples on the plant immunity. The fungal, bacterial, and viral determinants that was previously reported as the triggers of plant immune responses are introduced and described as the potential protocol of biological control. Specifically, the role of chitin, glucan, lipopolysaccharides/extracellular polysaccharides, microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antibiotics, mimic-phytohormones, N-acyl homoserine lactone, harpin, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds are considered. We hope that this review stimulates scientific community and farmers to broaden their knowledge on the microbial determinant-based biological control and to apply the technology on the integrated pest management program.

  15. Plant biology in reduced gravity on the Moon and Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J Z

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies on the effects of microgravity on plant biology since the beginning of the Space Age, our knowledge of the effects of reduced gravity (less than the Earth nominal 1 g) on plant physiology and development is very limited. Since international space agencies have cited manned exploration of Moon/Mars as long-term goals, it is important to understand plant biology at the lunar (0.17 g) and Martian levels of gravity (0.38 g), as plants are likely to be part of bioregenerative life-support systems on these missions. First, the methods to obtain microgravity and reduced gravity such as drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets and orbiting spacecraft are reviewed. Studies on gravitaxis and gravitropism in algae have suggested that the threshold level of gravity sensing is around 0.3 g or less. Recent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) showed attenuation of phototropism in higher plants occurs at levels ranging from 0.l g to 0.3 g. Taken together, these studies suggest that the reduced gravity level on Mars of 0.38 g may be enough so that the gravity level per se would not be a major problem for plant development. Studies that have directly considered the impact of reduced gravity and microgravity on bioregenerative life-support systems have identified important biophysical changes in the reduced gravity environments that impact the design of these systems. The author suggests that the current ISS laboratory facilities with on-board centrifuges should be used as a test bed in which to explore the effects of reduced gravity on plant biology, including those factors that are directly related to developing life-support systems necessary for Moon and Mars exploration.

  16. Plant metabolic clusters – from genetics to genomics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nützmann, Hans‐Wilhelm; Huang, Ancheng; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    ..., and for evolutionary biology more widely, lies in understanding how and why different plants make different kinds of chemicals, and how new natural product pathways are formed. The discovery of new plant natural product pathways and chemistries is now being revolutionized by two key developments. First, breakthroughs in sequencing techn...

  17. Plant synthetic biology: a new platform for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, Elena; Edwards, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Thirty years after the production of the first generation of genetically modified plants we are now set to move into a new era of recombinant crop technology through the application of synthetic biology to engineer new and complex input and output traits. The use of synthetic biology technologies will represent more than incremental additions of transgenes, but rather the directed design of completely new metabolic pathways, physiological traits, and developmental control strategies. The need to enhance our ability to improve crops through new engineering capability is now increasingly pressing as we turn to plants not just for food, but as a source of renewable feedstocks for industry. These accelerating and diversifying demands for new output traits coincide with a need to reduce inputs and improve agricultural sustainability. Faced with such challenges, existing technologies will need to be supplemented with new and far-more-directed approaches to turn valuable resources more efficiently into usable agricultural products. While these objectives are challenging enough, the use of synthetic biology in crop improvement will face public acceptance issues as a legacy of genetically modified technologies in many countries. Here we review some of the potential benefits of adopting synthetic biology approaches in improving plant input and output traits for their use as industrial chemical feedstocks, as linked to the rapidly developing biorefining industry. Several promising technologies and biotechnological targets are identified along with some of the key regulatory and societal challenges in the safe and acceptable introduction of such technology.

  18. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Kross, Brian J. [JLAB; Lee, Seung Joo [JLAB; McKisson, John E. [JLAB; Xi, Wenze [JLAB; Zorn, Carl J. [JLAB; Howell, Calvin [DUKE; Crowell, A.S. [DUKE; Reid, C.D. [DUKE; Smith, Mark [MARYLAND U.

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  19. Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the evolution process, Earth's magnetic field (MF, about 50 μT) was a natural component of the environment for living organisms. Biological objects, flying on planned long-term interplanetary missions, would experience much weaker magnetic fields, since galactic MF is known to be 0.1-1 nT. However, the role of weak magnetic fields and their influence on functioning of biological organisms are still insufficiently understood, and is actively studied. Numerous experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in weak magnetic field have shown that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during early germination stages in comparison with control. The proliferative activity and cell reproduction in meristem of plant roots are reduced in weak magnetic field. Cell reproductive cycle slows down due to the expansion of G 1 phase in many plant species (and of G 2 phase in flax and lentil roots), while other phases of cell cycle remain relatively stabile. In plant cells exposed to weak magnetic field, the functional activity of genome at early pre-replicate period is shown to decrease. Weak magnetic field causes intensification of protein synthesis and disintegration in plant roots. At ultrastructural level, changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells were observed in pea roots exposed to weak magnetic field. Mitochondria were found to be very sensitive to weak magnetic field: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix becomes electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to weak magnetic field show Ca 2+ over-saturation in all organelles and in cytoplasm unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to weak

  20. Plant Cell and Signaling Biology Blooms in the Wuyi Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The Eighth International Conference on Plant Biology Fron-tiers, organized by Zhenbiao Yang, Chentao Lin, and Xing-wang Deng, was convened in the Wuyi Mountain Yeohwa Resort in Fujian, China, 23-27 September 2010.The meeting's main theme was Cells and Signals, featuring four keynote speeches, 45 plenary talks, and over 40 poster presentations that covered a wide range of topics, from dynamic cellular structures to how developmental and environmental signals control various plant processes at the juncture of cells.

  1. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron

  2. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Giese, H.;

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific knowledge of developing new methods and technology for the future environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production, thusexerting less stress and strain on the enviro......The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific knowledge of developing new methods and technology for the future environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production, thusexerting less stress and strain...... summarizes and highlights our results and achievements to give an idea of the research directions in theDepartment. Some 160 persons, including staff, undergraduate students, post-graduate scientists and visiting scientists from all over the world, address our research goals....

  3. Sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikoilidou, E.; Samiotis, G.; Bellos, D.; Amanatidou, E.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant is significantly linked to its removal efficiency, cost of sludge management, energy consumption and monitoring cost. The biological treatment offers high organic removal efficiency, it also entails significant sludge production, which contains active (live) and inactive (dead) microorganisms and must be treated prior to final disposal, in order to prevent adverse impact on public health and environment. The efficiency of the activated sludge treatment process is correlated to an efficient solid-liquid separation, which is strongly depended on the biomass settling properties. The most commonly encountered settling problems in a wastewater treatment plant, which are usually associated with operating conditions and specific microorganisms growth, are sludge bulking, floating sludge, pin point flocs and straggler flocs. Sustainable management of sludge and less energy consumption are the two principal aspects that determine the operational cost of wastewater treatment plants. Sludge treatment and management accumulate more than 50% of the operating cost. Aerobic wastewater treatment plants have high energy requirements for covering the needs of aeration and recirculations. In order to ensure wastewater treatment plants’ effective operation, a large number of physicochemical parameters have to be monitored, thus further increasing the operational cost. As the operational parameters are linked to microbial population, a practical way of wastewater treatment plants’ controlling is the microscopic examination of sludge, which is proved to be an important tool for evaluating plants’ performance and assessing possible problems and symptoms. This study presents a biological wastewater treatment plant with almost zero biomass production, less energy consumption and a practical way for operation control through microbial manipulation and microscopic examination.

  4. New Eye-Tracking Techniques May Revolutionize Mental Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    persons or animals in the scene. Repeating the analysis for individual saccades as they developed over the time spent scanning an image revealed, for both...Neuron PreviewsNew Eye-Tracking Techniques May Revolutionize Mental Health ScreeningLaurent Itti1,* 1Computer Science Department, Psychology...phar- macy. Today, many pharmacies in the United States of America provide free blood pressure monitors that you can use as a rapid health indicator

  5. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume-rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops.

  6. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Background Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Scope Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Conclusions Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume–rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops. PMID:23478942

  7. Biosynthesis and biological functions of terpenoids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholl, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids (isoprenoids) represent the largest and most diverse class of chemicals among the myriad compounds produced by plants. Plants employ terpenoid metabolites for a variety of basic functions in growth and development but use the majority of terpenoids for more specialized chemical interactions and protection in the abiotic and biotic environment. Traditionally, plant-based terpenoids have been used by humans in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries, and more recently have been exploited in the development of biofuel products. Genomic resources and emerging tools in synthetic biology facilitate the metabolic engineering of high-value terpenoid products in plants and microbes. Moreover, the ecological importance of terpenoids has gained increased attention to develop strategies for sustainable pest control and abiotic stress protection. Together, these efforts require a continuous growth in knowledge of the complex metabolic and molecular regulatory networks in terpenoid biosynthesis. This chapter gives an overview and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the organization, regulation, and diversification of core and specialized terpenoid metabolic pathways, and addresses the most important functions of volatile and nonvolatile terpenoid specialized metabolites in plants.

  8. Micrasterias as a Model System in Plant Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its complex star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 μm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells. PMID:27462330

  9. Micrasterias as a model system in plant cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Luetz-Meindl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its extraordinary star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 µm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

  10. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Biological Synthesis of Nanoparticles from Plants and Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yu-Jin; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology has become one of the most promising technologies applied in all areas of science. Metal nanoparticles produced by nanotechnology have received global attention due to their extensive applications in the biomedical and physiochemical fields. Recently, synthesizing metal nanoparticles using microorganisms and plants has been extensively studied and has been recognized as a green and efficient way for further exploiting microorganisms as convenient nanofactories. Here, we explore and detail the potential uses of various biological sources for nanoparticle synthesis and the application of those nanoparticles. Furthermore, we highlight recent milestones achieved for the biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles by controlling critical parameters, including the choice of biological source, incubation period, pH, and temperature.

  12. The Plant Polyester Cutin: Biosynthesis, Structure, and Biological Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fich, Eric A; Segerson, Nicholas A; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2016-04-29

    Cutin, a polyester composed mostly of oxygenated fatty acids, serves as the framework of the plant cuticle. The same types of cutin monomers occur across most plant lineages, although some evolutionary trends are evident. Additionally, cutins from some species have monomer profiles that are characteristic of the related polymer suberin. Compositional differences likely have profound structural consequences, but little is known about cutin's molecular organization and architectural heterogeneity. Its biological importance is suggested by the wide variety of associated mutants and gene-silencing lines that show a disruption of cuticular integrity, giving rise to numerous physiological and developmental abnormalities. Mapping and characterization of these mutants, along with suppression of gene paralogs through RNA interference, have revealed much of the biosynthetic pathway and several regulatory factors; however, the mechanisms of cutin polymerization and its interactions with other cuticle and cell wall components are only now beginning to be resolved.

  13. Molecular biology of gibberellins signaling in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs), a large family of tetracyclic, diterpenoid plant hormones, play an important role in regulating diverse processes throughout plant development. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the isolation of GA signaling components and GA-responsive genes. All available data have indicated that DELLA proteins are an essential negative regulator in the GA signaling pathway and GA derepresses DELLA-mediated growth suppression by inducing degradation of DELLA proteins through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome proteolytic pathway. Identification of GID1, a gene encoding an unknown protein with similarity to hormone-sensitive lipases, has revealed that GID1 acts as a functional GA receptor with a reasonable binding affinity to biologically active GAs. Furthermore, the GID1 receptor interacts with DELLA proteins in a GA-dependent manner. These results suggest that formation of a GID1-GA-DELLA protein complex targets DELLA protein into the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway for degradation.

  14. Biological activity of diterpenoids isolated from Anatolian Lamiaceae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülaçtı Topçu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44 isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.

  15. Biological Action of Plant Extracts on a Fungal Plant Biostimulant Strain of Trichoderma Viride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şesan Tatiana Eugenia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of nine plant extracts manufactured by Hofigal Import Export S.A. Romania against the biocontrol fungal agent Trichoderma viride Pers. (isolate Tv 82 was assessed in vitro for the first time in Romania. In general, the development (mycelial growth and sporulation was not inhibited by the six plant extracts (Satureja hortensis, Achillea millefolium, Allium sativum, Mentha sp., Hyssopus officinalis, Artemisia dracunculus 'Sativa', with three exceptions (Rosmarinus officinalis, Valeriana officinalis, Tagetes patula, applied in a concentration of 20%. Among these, the extract of Tagetes patula has inhibited the Tv 82 development, applied as lower concentrations (10% and 5%, efficacy being 54.3% and 50%, respectively. In addition, the tested plant extracts of Satureja hortensis, Achillea millefolium, Mentha sp. proved stimulative effect on Tv 82 development. This approach add to the early studies on the selectivity of Trichoderma spp. to chemicals used in plant protection, new data referring to the use of antagonistic fungi, like Trichoderma spp., as a protective mean against phytopathogens. Also, these data sustain the possibility of applying plant extracts as an alternative in plant protection or to apply together chemical (pesticides and biological means (plant extracts especially to protect ecological crops, as vegetables, medicinal plants a.o.

  16. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Plant molecular biology, July 15-20 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, Michael R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Plant Molecular Biology will present cutting-edge research on molecular aspects of plant growth and development, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries in molecular mechanisms involved with plant signaling systems. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics in plant molecular biology including hormone receptors and early events in hormone signaling, plant perception of and response to plant pathogen and symbionts, as well as technological and biological aspects of epigenomics particularly as it relates to signaling systems that regulate plant growth and development. Genomic approaches to plant signaling will be emphasized, including genomic profiling technologies for quantifying various biological subsystems, such as the epigenome, transcriptome, phosphorylome, and metabolome. The meeting will include an important session devoted to answering the question, "What are the biological and technological limits of plant breeding/genetics, and how can they be solved"?

  17. Biological significance of complex N-glycans in plants and their impact on plant physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStrasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asparagine (N-linked protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification which can alter the biological function of proteins and consequently affects the development, growth and physiology of organisms. Despite an increasing knowledge of N-glycan biosynthesis and processing, we still understand very little about the biological function of individual N-glycan structures in plants. In particular, the N-glycan processing steps mediated by Golgi-resident enzymes create a structurally diverse set of protein-linked carbohydrate structures. Some of these complex N-glycan modifications like the presence of beta1,2-xylose, core alpha1,3-fucose or the Lewis a-epitope are characteristic for plants and are evolutionary highly conserved. In mammals, complex N-glycans are involved in different cellular processes including molecular recognition and signalling events. By contrast, the complex N-glycan function is still largely unknown in plants. Here, in this short review I focus on important recent developments and discuss their implications for future research in plant glycobiology and plant biotechnology.

  18. Studying Plant-Rhizobium Mutualism in the Biology Classroom: Connecting the Big Ideas in Biology through Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Tomomi; Williamson, Brad

    2014-01-01

    We present a guided-inquiry biology lesson, using the plant-rhizobium symbiosis as a model system. This system provides a rich environment for developing connections between the big ideas in biology as outlined in the College Board's new AP Biology Curriculum. Students gain experience with the practice of scientific investigation, from…

  19. Studying Plant-Rhizobium Mutualism in the Biology Classroom: Connecting the Big Ideas in Biology through Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Tomomi; Williamson, Brad

    2014-01-01

    We present a guided-inquiry biology lesson, using the plant-rhizobium symbiosis as a model system. This system provides a rich environment for developing connections between the big ideas in biology as outlined in the College Board's new AP Biology Curriculum. Students gain experience with the practice of scientific investigation, from…

  20. Biology of Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on four host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, J H; Liu, Y H

    2000-12-01

    The biology of the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees C on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri Lush; sour orange, C aurantium L.; grapefruit, C. paradisi Macfadyen; and orange jessamine, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack] in the laboratory. The biological characteristics of each life stage are described. The average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d). The average nymphal developmental periods on these four host plants were essentially the same except the fifth stadium. Survival of immatures on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange was 75.4, 84.6, 78.3, and 68.6%, respectively. Female adults lived an average of 39.7, 39.7, 47.6, and 43.7 d on these respective host plants. The average number of eggs laid per female on grapefruit (858 eggs) was significantly more than those on other hosts (P < 0.05). The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) for D. citri on grapefruit was highest. Jackknife estimates of r(m) varied from 0.188 on grapefruit to 0.162 on orange jessamine and rough lemon. The mean population generation time on these hosts ranged from 31.6 to 34.1 d. The continuous flushes produced by orange jessamine could play an important role in maintaining high populations of this vector when the new flushes are not available in the commercial citrus groves.

  1. A biological market analysis of the plant-mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gregory A K; Kiers, E Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A

    2014-09-01

    It has been argued that cooperative behavior in the plant-mycorrhizal mutualism resembles trade in a market economy and can be understood using economic tools. Here, we assess the validity of this "biological market" analogy by investigating whether a market mechanism--that is, competition between partners over the price at which they provide goods--could be the outcome of natural selection. Then, we consider the conditions under which this market mechanism is sufficient to maintain mutualistic trade. We find that: (i) as in a market, individuals are favored to divide resources among trading partners in direct relation to the relative amount of resources received, termed linear proportional discrimination; (ii) mutualistic trade is more likely to be favored when individuals are able to interact with more partners of both species, and when there is a greater relative difference between the species in their ability to directly acquire different resources; (iii) if trade is favored, then either one or both species is favored to give up acquiring one resource directly, and vice versa. We then formulate testable predictions as to how environmental changes and coevolved responses of plants and mycorrhizal fungi will influence plant fitness (crop yields) in agricultural ecosystems.

  2. Using Student-Produced Time-Lapse Plant Movies to Communicate Concepts in Plant Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Harrison-Pitaniello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Why do students think plants are “boring”?  One factor may be that they do not see plant movement in real (i.e., their time.  This attitude may negatively impact their understanding of plant biology.  Time-lapse movies of plants allow students to see the sophistication of movements involved in both organ development and orientation.  The objective of this project was to develop simple methods to capture image sequences for lab analysis and for converting into movies.  The technology for making time-lapse movies is now easily attainable and fairly inexpensive, allowing its use for skill levels from grade school through college undergraduates.  Presented are example time-lapse movie exercises from both an undergraduate plant physiology course and outreach activities.  The time-lapse plant exercises are adaptable to explore numerous topics that incorporate science standards core concepts, competencies, and disciplinary practices as well as to integrate higher order thinking skills and build skills in hypothesis development and communicating results to various audiences.

  3. Selection and Assessment of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria for Biological Control of Multiple Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Newman, Molli; McInroy, John A; Hu, Chia-Hui; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2017-08-01

    A study was designed to screen individual strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for broad-spectrum disease suppression in vitro and in planta. In a preliminary screen, 28 of 196 strains inhibited eight different tested pathogens in vitro. In a secondary screen, these 28 strains showed broad spectrum antagonistic activity to six different genera of pathogens, and 24 of the 28 strains produced five traits reported to be related to plant growth promotion, including nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production, and biofilm formation. In advanced screens, the 28 PGPR strains selected in vitro were tested in planta for biological control of multiple plant diseases including bacterial spot of tomato caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, bacterial speck of tomato caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, damping-off of pepper caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. In all, 5 of the 28 tested strains significantly reduced three of the four tested diseases, and another 19 strains showed biological control to two tested diseases. To understand the observed broad-spectrum biocontrol capacity, antiSMASH was used to predict secondary metabolite clusters of selected strains. Multiple gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites, e.g., bacillibactin, bacilysin, and microcin, were detected in each strain. In conclusion, selected individual PGPR strains showed broad-spectrum biocontrol activity to multiple plant diseases.

  4. Cod Fractions In Mechanical-Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płuciennik-Koropczuk Ewelina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of studies concerning the designation of COD fraction in the raw, mechanically treated and biologically treated wastewater. The test object was a wastewater treatment plant with the output of over 20,000 PE. The results were compared with data received in the ASM models. During investigation following fractions of COD were determined: dissolved non-biodegradable SI, dissolved easily biodegradable SS, in organic suspension slowly degradable XS and in organic suspension non-biodegradable XI. Methodology for determining the COD fraction was based on the guidelines ATV-A 131. The real percentage of each fraction in total COD in raw wastewater are different from data received in ASM models.

  5. Engineered plant biomass particles coated with biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2014-06-24

    Plant biomass particles coated with a biological agent such as a bacterium or seed, characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to a grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces.

  6. Phytochrome from Green Plants: Properties and biological Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quail, Peter H.

    2014-07-25

    Plants constantly monitor the light environment for informational light signals used to direct adaptational responses to the prevailing conditions. One major such response, the Shade-Avaoidance Response (SAR), triggered when plants sense the presence of competing neighbors, results in enhanced channeling of photosynthetically-fixed carbon into stem elongation at the expense of deposition in reproductive tissues. This response has been selected against in many modern food crops to ensure maximum edible yield (e.g. seeds). Converse enhancement of the SAR, with consequent increased carbon channeling into vegetative cellulose, could contribute to the generation of crops with improved yield of tissues suitable for cellulosic biofuel production. The signal for this response is light enriched in far-red wavelengths. This signal is produced by sunlight filtered through, or reflected from, neighboring vegetation, as a result of preferential depletion of red photons through chlorophyll absorption. The plant phytochrome (phy) photoreceptor system (predominantly phyB) senses this signal through its capacity to switch reversibly, in milliseconds, between two molecular states: the biologically inactive Pr (red-light-absorbing) and biologically active Pfr (far-red-light-absorbing) conformers. The photoequilibrium established between these two conformers in light-grown plants is determined by the ratio of red-to-far-red wavelengths in the incoming signal. The levels of Pfr then dictate the recipient plant’s growth response: high levels suppress elongation growth; low levels promote elongation growth. Studies on seedling deetiolation have advanced our understanding considerably in recent years, of the mechanism by which the photoactivated phy molecule transduces its signal into cellular growth responses. The data show that a subfamily of phy-interacting bHLH transcription factors (PIFs) promote skotomorphogenic seedling development in post-germinative darkness, but that the phy

  7. RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE BIOLOGICAL STAGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C MOGA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a model for the oxygen concentration profiles in a mobile bed biofilm reactor (MBBR is proposed. By using a material with a large specific surface area (m2/m3 high biological activity can be maintained using a relatively small reactor volume. Small parts made of special materials with density close to the water density, are immersed in the bioreactors. The biofilm carriers are kept in suspension and even mixed with the help of air bubbles generated by the aeration system. Water oxygenation is a mass transfer process of oxygen from gas/air to the liquid mass. It can be used in wastewater treatment in order to remove the organic matter, in the biological stage. The functioning of aerobic processes depends on the availability of sufficient quantities of oxygen. In wastewater treatment plants, submerged bubbles aeration is most frequently accomplished by dispersing air bubbles in the liquid. The main purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of dissolved oxygen using mathematical modeling and numerical simulations. The aim of the study is to find the optimum dimension and position of the aeration pipes for maintaining the oxygen concentration in the limits indicated in the literature. Experimental determinations (measurements of the DO concentration have also been realized. The oxygen profile concentration, in a MBBR reactor, was determined.

  8. The cell biology of lignification in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Jaime; Serk, Henrik; Granlund, Irene; Pesquet, Edouard

    2015-06-01

    Lignin is a polyphenolic polymer that strengthens and waterproofs the cell wall of specialized plant cell types. Lignification is part of the normal differentiation programme and functioning of specific cell types, but can also be triggered as a response to various biotic and abiotic stresses in cells that would not otherwise be lignifying. Cell wall lignification exhibits specific characteristics depending on the cell type being considered. These characteristics include the timing of lignification during cell differentiation, the palette of associated enzymes and substrates, the sub-cellular deposition sites, the monomeric composition and the cellular autonomy for lignin monomer production. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of lignin biosynthesis and polymerization at the cell biology level. The lignification process ranges from full autonomy to complete co-operation depending on the cell type. The different roles of lignin for the function of each specific plant cell type are clearly illustrated by the multiple phenotypic defects exhibited by knock-out mutants in lignin synthesis, which may explain why no general mechanism for lignification has yet been defined. The range of phenotypic effects observed include altered xylem sap transport, loss of mechanical support, reduced seed protection and dispersion, and/or increased pest and disease susceptibility. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Fronza, M; Goettert, M; Geller, F; Luik, S; Flores, E M M; Bittencourt, C F; Zanetti, G D; Heinzmann, B M; Laufer, S; Merfort, I

    2009-04-21

    n-Hexanic and ethanolic extracts from twelve plants (Brugmansia suaveolens Brecht. et Presl., Eupatorium laevigatum Lam., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Iresine herbstii Hook., Kalanchöe tubiflora Hamet-Ahti, Petiveria alliacea L., Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, Piper regnellii DC., Schinus molle L., Sedum dendroideum Moç et Sessé ex DC., Waltheria douradinha St. Hill., Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw.) used in traditional South Brazilian medicine as wound healing agents were investigated in various biological assays, targeting different aspects in this complex process. The extracts were investigated on NF-kappaB DNA binding, p38alpha MAPK, TNF-alpha release, direct elastase inhibition and its release as well as on caspase-3. Fibroblasts migration to and proliferation into the wounded monolayers were evaluated in the scratch assay, the agar diffusion test for antibacterial and the MTT assay for cytotoxic effects. The hydrophilic extracts from Galinsoga parviflora, Petiveria alliacea, Schinus molle, Waltheria douradinha and Xanthium cavanillesii as well as the lipophilic extract of Waltheria douradinha turned out to be the most active ones. These results increase our knowledge on the wound healing effects of the investigated medicinal plants. Further studies are necessary to find out the effective secondary metabolites responsible for the observed effects.

  10. Laboratory techniques in plant molecular biology taught with UniformMu insertion alleles of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    An undergraduate course - Laboratory Techniques in Plant Molecular Biology - was organized around our research application of UniformMu insertion alleles to investigate mitochondrial functions in plant reproduction. The course objectives were to develop students’ laboratory, record keeping, bioinfor...

  11. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Network news: prime time for systems biology of the plant circadian clock truncated form of the title: Plant circadian clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, C. Robertson; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whole-transcriptome analyses have established that the plant circadian clock regulates virtually every plant biological process and most prominently hormonal and stress response pathways. Systems biology efforts have successfully modeled the plant central clock machinery and an iterative process of model refinement and experimental validation has contributed significantly to the current view of the central clock machinery. The challenge now is to connect this central clock to the output pathways for understanding how the plant circadian clock contributes to plant growth and fitness in a changing environment. Undoubtedly, systems approaches will be needed to integrate and model the vastly increased volume of experimental data in order to extract meaningful biological information. Thus, we have entered an era of systems modeling, experimental testing, and refinement. This approach, coupled with advances from the genetic and biochemical analyses of clock function, is accelerating our progress towards a comprehensive understanding of the plant circadian clock network. PMID:20889330

  13. Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Kross, B.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Bonito, G.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Crowell, A.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Topp, C.; Smith, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in corn plants is presented. {sup 11}CO{sub 2} is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling cuvette and translocation of {sup 11}C-sugars is imaged by a flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The PhytoPET system successfully images {sup 11}C within corn plants and allows for the dynamic measurement of {sup 11}C-sugar translocation from the leaf to the roots.

  14. Biology and biotechnological advances in Jatropha curcas - A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Reddy, Muppala P.

    2009-10-31

    Increasing global demand for energy, the impending depletion of fossil fuels, and concern over global climate change have lead to a resurgence in the development of alternative energy sources. Bio-fuels and bio-energy encompass a wide range of alternative sources of energy of biological origin, and offer excellent, environmentally friendly opportunities to address these issues. The recognition that Jatropha oil can yield high quality biodiesel has led to a surge of interest in Jatropha across the globe, more so in view of the potential for avoiding the dilemma of food vs fuel. Hardiness, rapid growth, easy propagation, short gestation period, wide adaptation, and optimum plant size combine to make this species suitable for sustainable cultivation on wastelands. Besides biodiesel from the seed, the plant produces several useful products that also have commercial value. Large scale cultivation remains the single most important factor that will ultimately determine the success of Jatropha as a source of bio-fuel. The limited knowledge of the genetics of this species, low and inconsistent yields, the narrow genetic variability, and vulnerability to insects and diseases are major constraints in successful cultivation of Jatropha as a bio-fuel crop. Despite the optimal protein content and composition of the pressed cake, the presence of phorbol esters makes it unsuitable for consumption by livestock. A non-toxic variety with low or no phorbol ester content has been identified from Mexico, and the utility of pressed cake from this variety as livestock feed has been demonstrated successfully. In the absence of any morphological differences, identification of linked markers for toxic/non-toxic varieties will add value to the crop and facilitate further improvement. This chapter discusses current efforts towards assessing the diversity and phylogeny of Jatropha, identification of specific markers for toxic and non-toxic varieties, and aspects of micropropagation and genetic

  15. Proton beam therapy how protons are revolutionizing cancer treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Yajnik, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Proton beam therapy is an emerging technology with promise of revolutionizing the treatment of cancer. While nearly half of all patients diagnosed with cancer in the US receive radiation therapy, the majority is delivered via electron accelerators, where photons are used to irradiate cancerous tissue. Because of the physical properties of photon beams, photons may deposit energy along their entire path length through the body. On the other hand, a proton beam directed at a tumor travels in a straight trajectory towards its target, gives off most of its energy at a defined depth called the Bragg peak, and then stops. While photons often deposit more energy within the healthy tissues of the body than within the cancer itself, protons can deposit most of their cancer-killing energy within the area of the tumor. As a result, in the properly selected patients, proton beam therapy has the ability to improve cure rates by increasing the dose delivered to the tumor and simultaneously reduce side-effects by decreasing...

  16. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quideau, Stéphane; Deffieux, Denis; Douat-Casassus, Céline; Pouységu, Laurent

    2011-01-17

    Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day! This is what is highly recommended and heavily advertised nowadays to the general public to stay fit and healthy! Drinking green tea on a regular basis, eating chocolate from time to time, as well as savoring a couple of glasses of red wine per day have been claimed to increase life expectancy even further! Why? The answer is in fact still under scientific scrutiny, but a particular class of compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables is considered to be crucial for the expression of such human health benefits: the polyphenols! What are these plant products really? What are their physicochemical properties? How do they express their biological activity? Are they really valuable for disease prevention? Can they be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs? What recent progress has been made toward their preparation by organic synthesis? This Review gives answers from a chemical perspective, summarizes the state of the art, and highlights the most significant advances in the field of polyphenol research. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Bioengineering of plant (tri)terpenoids: from metabolic engineering of plants to synthetic biology in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Thevelein, Johan M; Goossens, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Terpenoids constitute a large and diverse class of natural products that serve many functions in nature. Most of the tens of thousands of the discovered terpenoids are synthesized by plants, where they function as primary metabolites involved in growth and development, or as secondary metabolites that optimize the interaction between the plant and its environment. Several plant terpenoids are economically important molecules that serve many applications as pharmaceuticals, pesticides, etc. Major challenges for the commercialization of plant-derived terpenoids include their low production levels in planta and the continuous demand of industry for novel molecules with new or superior biological activities. Here, we highlight several synthetic biology methods to enhance and diversify the production of plant terpenoids, with a foresight towards triterpenoid engineering, the least engineered class of bioactive terpenoids. Increased or cheaper production of valuable triterpenoids may be obtained by 'classic' metabolic engineering of plants or by heterologous production of the compounds in other plants or microbes. Novel triterpenoid structures can be generated through combinatorial biosynthesis or directed enzyme evolution approaches. In its ultimate form, synthetic biology may lead to the production of large amounts of plant triterpenoids in in vitro systems or custom-designed artificial biological systems.

  18. Reproductive biology in the medicinal plant, Plumbago zeylanica L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... Plumbago zeylanica L. is an important medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. ... Key words: Growth regulators, medicinal plant, seasonal climate, plant size, growth environment. .... artificial observation. ..... and far-red light or indoleacetic acid in the flowering of pharbitis.

  19. Eduard Strasburger (1844-1912): founder of modern plant cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Dieter; Baluška, František; Menzel, Diedrik

    2012-10-01

    Eduard Strasburger, director of the Botany Institute and the Botanical Garden at the University of Bonn from 1881 to 1912, was one of the most admirable scientists in the field of plant biology, not just as the founder of modern plant cell biology but in addition as an excellent teacher who strongly believed in "education through science." He contributed to plant cell biology by discovering the discrete stages of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in algae and higher plants, describing cytoplasmic streaming in different systems, and reporting on the growth of the pollen tube into the embryo sac and guidance of the tube by synergides. Strasburger raised many problems which are hot spots in recent plant cell biology, e.g., structure and function of the plasmodesmata in relation to phloem loading (Strasburger cells) and signaling, mechanisms of cell plate formation, vesicle trafficking as a basis for most important developmental processes, and signaling related to fertilization.

  20. Blueprints for green biotech: development and application of standards for plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to the design and modification of biological systems and to the construction of biological parts and devices. The ability to programme cells by providing new instructions written in DNA is a foundational technology of the field. Large-scale de novo DNA synthesis has accelerated synthetic biology by offering custom-made molecules at ever decreasing costs. However, for large fragments and for experiments in which libraries of DNA sequences are assembled in different combinations, assembly in the laboratory is still desirable. Biological assembly standards allow DNA parts, even those from multiple laboratories and experiments, to be assembled together using the same reagents and protocols. The adoption of such standards for plant synthetic biology has been cohesive for the plant science community, facilitating the application of genome editing technologies to plant systems and streamlining progress in large-scale, multi-laboratory bioengineering projects.

  1. Network news: prime time for systems biology of the plant circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, C Robertson; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2010-12-01

    Whole-transcriptome analyses have established that the plant circadian clock regulates virtually every plant biological process and most prominently hormonal and stress response pathways. Systems biology efforts have successfully modeled the plant central clock machinery and an iterative process of model refinement and experimental validation has contributed significantly to the current view of the central clock machinery. The challenge now is to connect this central clock to the output pathways for understanding how the plant circadian clock contributes to plant growth and fitness in a changing environment. Undoubtedly, systems approaches will be needed to integrate and model the vastly increased volume of experimental data in order to extract meaningful biological information. Thus, we have entered an era of systems modeling, experimental testing, and refinement. This approach, coupled with advances from the genetic and biochemical analyses of clock function, is accelerating our progress towards a comprehensive understanding of the plant circadian clock network. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure and it is involved in regulating a number of physiological features of plants such as physical strength, growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense responses. Pectins constitute a major class of plant cell wall...... aspects remain elusive. Studies described in this thesis aimed at gaining new insights into the biological roles of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The thesis consists of four chapters: physiological characterization of cell wall mutants affected in cell...... polysaccharides and consist of backbones rich in galacturonic acids, which are decorated with a range of functional groups including acetyl esters and arabinan sidechains. Although much effort has been made to uncover biological functions of pectins in plants and remarkable progresses have taken place, many...

  3. Molecular Approach to the Nyctinastic Movement of the Plant Controlled by a Biological Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosuke Yamamura

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Most leguminous plants close their leaves in the evening, as if to sleep, and open them early in the morning. This circadian rhythm is known to be controlled by the biological clock of such plants. Extensive studies on other nyctinastic plants led to the isolation of a variety of leaf-closing and leaf-opening substances. And, we found that the circadian rhythmic leaf-movement of these plants is controlled by a biological clock that regulates the balance of concentration between leaf-opening and -closing substances.

  4. Molecular Approach to the Nyctinastic Movement of the Plant Controlled by a Biological Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Shosuke Yamamura; Noboru Takada; Minoru Ueda

    2001-01-01

    Most leguminous plants close their leaves in the evening, as if to sleep, and open them early in the morning. This circadian rhythm is known to be controlled by the biological clock of such plants. Extensive studies on other nyctinastic plants led to the isolation of a variety of leaf-closing and leaf-opening substances. And, we found that the circadian rhythmic leaf-movement of these plants is controlled by a biological clock that regulates the balance of concentration between leaf-opening a...

  5. Nanobiotechnology meets plant cell biology: Carbon nanotubes as organelle targeting nanocarriers

    KAUST Repository

    Bayoumi, Maged Fouad

    2013-01-01

    For years, nanotechnology has shown great promise in the fields of biomedical and biotechnological sciences and medical research. In this review, we demonstrate its versatility and applicability in plant cell biology studies. Specifically, we discuss the ability of functionalized carbon nanotubes to penetrate the plant cell wall, target specific organelles, probe protein-carrier activity and induce organelle recycling in plant cells. We also, shed light on prospective applications of carbon nanomaterials in cell biology and plant cell transformation. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Plant biology: gatekeepers of the road to protein perdition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-06

    Targeting membrane proteins for degradation requires the sequential action of ESCRT sub-complexes ESCRT-0 to ESCRT-III. Although this machinery is generally conserved among kingdoms, plants lack the essential ESCRT-0 components. A new report closes this gap by identifying a novel protein family that substitutes for ESCRT-0 function in plants.

  7. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain: from the origins to our days and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, José-Pío

    2009-01-01

    The origins of modern Plant Developmental Biology in Spain can be traced back to a handful of scientists settled in Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Sevilla, who devoted themselves to plant biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, and also to Drosophila developmental biology, which influenced, often unintentionally, the pioneers of this field. To reach the present day situation, the experience acquired in centres abroad has also been important, especially in plant research institutes in the USA, Germany (Max-Planck Institute für Züchtungsforschung) and United Kingdom (John Innes Centre). The contributions of Spanish scientists to the advancement of Plant Developmental Biology appears to be imbalanced towards reproductive biology, although relevant publications have also been reported on embryogenesis and seed development, shoot branching, tuberization, vascular morphogenesis, leaf development, regulation of development by light, signal transduction and hormone action and the connection between growth and development. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain is going through a flourishing time, with its future being highly dependent on i) appropriate funding conditions to its young scientists, ii) the opening of new areas of research, iii) the incorporation of technological breakthroughs into laboratories and iv) the carrying out of cooperative research by means of networking. Currently, besides many Departments of the Spanish universities, several centres in which competitive research in plant Developmental Biology can be accomplished, exist: the CNB and CBGP in Madrid, the LGMV CSIC-IRTA in Barcelona, the IBMCP CSIC-UPV, in Valencia and the IBVF CSIC-USE in Sevilla. Let's go for more!

  8. VirtualPlant: A Software Platform to Support Systems Biology Research1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katari, Manpreet S.; Nowicki, Steve D.; Aceituno, Felipe F.; Nero, Damion; Kelfer, Jonathan; Thompson, Lee Parnell; Cabello, Juan M.; Davidson, Rebecca S.; Goldberg, Arthur P.; Shasha, Dennis E.; Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.

    2010-01-01

    Data generation is no longer the limiting factor in advancing biological research. In addition, data integration, analysis, and interpretation have become key bottlenecks and challenges that biologists conducting genomic research face daily. To enable biologists to derive testable hypotheses from the increasing amount of genomic data, we have developed the VirtualPlant software platform. VirtualPlant enables scientists to visualize, integrate, and analyze genomic data from a systems biology perspective. VirtualPlant integrates genome-wide data concerning the known and predicted relationships among genes, proteins, and molecules, as well as genome-scale experimental measurements. VirtualPlant also provides visualization techniques that render multivariate information in visual formats that facilitate the extraction of biological concepts. Importantly, VirtualPlant helps biologists who are not trained in computer science to mine lists of genes, microarray experiments, and gene networks to address questions in plant biology, such as: What are the molecular mechanisms by which internal or external perturbations affect processes controlling growth and development? We illustrate the use of VirtualPlant with three case studies, ranging from querying a gene of interest to the identification of gene networks and regulatory hubs that control seed development. Whereas the VirtualPlant software was developed to mine Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genomic data, its data structures, algorithms, and visualization tools are designed in a species-independent way. VirtualPlant is freely available at www.virtualplant.org. PMID:20007449

  9. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  10. Charles Darwin and the origins of plant evolutionary developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, William E; Diggle, Pamela K

    2011-04-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form.

  11. Level of Awareness of Biology and Geography Students Related to Recognizing Some Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Caner; Kaya, Bastürk; Dinç, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness of the geography and biology students about recognizing some plants which they see frequently around them in accordance with the information they gained during their education process. The sample of the study consists of 37 biology and 40 geography students studying at the Ahmet Kelesoglu…

  12. Rising CO2, climate change, and public health: Exploring the links to plant biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the issue of anthropogenic climate forcing and public health is widely recognized, one fundamental aspect has remained underappreciated; the impact of climatic change on plant biology and the well-being of human systems. To critically evaluate the extant and probable links between plant fun...

  13. Advances on plant-pathogen interactions from molecular toward systems biology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraud, Rémi; Dubiella, Ullrich; Barbacci, Adelin; Genin, Stéphane; Raffaele, Sylvain; Roby, Dominique

    2016-11-21

    In the past 2 decades, progress in molecular analyses of the plant immune system has revealed key elements of a complex response network. Current paradigms depict the interaction of pathogen-secreted molecules with host target molecules leading to the activation of multiple plant response pathways. Further research will be required to fully understand how these responses are integrated in space and time, and exploit this knowledge in agriculture. In this review, we highlight systems biology as a promising approach to reveal properties of molecular plant-pathogen interactions and predict the outcome of such interactions. We first illustrate a few key concepts in plant immunity with a network and systems biology perspective. Next, we present some basic principles of systems biology and show how they allow integrating multiomics data and predict cell phenotypes. We identify challenges for systems biology of plant-pathogen interactions, including the reconstruction of multiscale mechanistic models and the connection of host and pathogen models. Finally, we outline studies on resistance durability through the robustness of immune system networks, the identification of trade-offs between immunity and growth and in silico plant-pathogen co-evolution as exciting perspectives in the field. We conclude that the development of sophisticated models of plant diseases incorporating plant, pathogen and climate properties represent a major challenge for agriculture in the future.

  14. The next green movement: Plant biology for the environment and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Joseph M; Lee, Soon Goo; Sherp, Ashley M

    2016-09-16

    From domestication and breeding to the genetic engineering of crops, plants provide food, fuel, fibers, and feedstocks for our civilization. New research and discoveries aim to reduce the inputs needed to grow crops and to develop plants for environmental and sustainability applications. Faced with population growth and changing climate, the next wave of innovation in plant biology integrates technologies and approaches that span from molecular to ecosystem scales. Recent efforts to engineer plants for better nitrogen and phosphorus use, enhanced carbon fixation, and environmental remediation and to understand plant-microbiome interactions showcase exciting future directions for translational plant biology. These advances promise new strategies for the reduction of inputs to limit environmental impacts and improve agricultural sustainability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants in genus Hedysarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In China, several species (Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., Hedysarum limprichtii Hlbr., Hedysarum vicioider Turcz. var. Taipeicum Hand.-Mazz. Liu, Hedysarum smithianum, et al.) of genus Hedysarum have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, these plants are used to increase the energy of the body. To date, 155 compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, lignanoids, nitrogen compounds, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty compounds, and benzofuran, have been isolated from plants of the genus Hedysarum. Various chemical constituents contribute to the antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive properties of these plants. Hedysarum species are used to treat infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes and may support the immune system and peripheral nervous system. In the present review, we summarize the research on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Hedysarum species, which will be useful for better utilization of these important species in TCM. PMID:23866043

  16. Physics and the molecular revolution in plant biology: union needed for managing the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lüttge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The question was asked if there is still a prominent role of biophysics in plant biology in an age when molecular biology appears to be dominating. Mathematical formation of theory is essential in systems biology, and mathematics is more inherent in biophysics than in molecular biology. A survey is made identifying and briefly characterizing fields of plant biology where approaches of biophysics remain essential. In transport at membranes electrophysiology and thermodynamics are biophysical topics. Water is a special molecule. Its transport follows the physical laws of osmosis and gradients of water potential on the background of physics of hydraulic architecture. Photobiology needs understanding of the physics of electro-magnetic radiation of quantitative nature in photosynthesis and of qualitative nature in perception by the photo-sensors cryptochromes, phototropins and phytochrome in environmental responses and development. Biophysical oscillators can play a role in biological timing by the circadian clock. Integration in the self-organization of modules, such as roots, stems and leaves, for the emergence of whole plants as unitary organisms needs storage and transport of information where physical modes of signaling are essential with cross talks between electrical and hydraulic signals and with chemical signals. Examples are gravitropism and root-shoot interactions in water relations. All of these facets of plant biophysics overlie plant molecular biology and exchange with it. It is advocated that a union of approaches of plant molecular biology and biophysics needs to be cultivated. In many cases it is already operative. In bionics biophysics is producing output for practical applications linking biology with technology. Biomimetic engineering intrinsically uses physical approaches. An extreme biophysical perspective is looking out for life in space. Sustained and increased practice of biophysics with teaching and research deserves strong

  17. EAACI IG Biologicals task force paper on the use of biologic agents in allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyman, O.; Kaegi, C.; Akdis, M.; Bavbek, S.; Bossios, A.; Chatzipetrou, A.; Eiwegger, T.; Firinu, D.; Harr, T.; Knol, E.; Matucci, A.; Palomares, O.; Schmidt-Weber, C.; Simon, H. U.; Steiner, U. C.; Vultaggio, A.; Akdis, C. A.; Spertini, F.

    2015-01-01

    Biologic agents (also termed biologicals or biologics) are therapeutics that are synthesized by living organisms and directed against a specific determinant, for example, a cytokine or receptor. In inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, biologicals have revolutionized the treatment of several

  18. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high......-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  19. Biological reduction of graphene oxide using plant leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geummi; Kim, Beom Soo

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphene has attracted significant attention due to its unique mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical properties. Most commonly employed methods to chemically reduce graphene oxide to graphene use hydrazine or its derivatives as the reducing agent. However, they are highly hazardous and explosive. Various phytochemicals obtained from different natural sources such as leaves and peels of a plant are used as reducing agents in the preparation of different gold, silver, copper, and platinum nanoparticles. In this study, seven plant leaf extracts (Cherry, Magnolia, Platanus, Persimmon, Pine, Maple, and Ginkgo) were compared for their abilities to reduce graphene oxide. The optimized reaction conditions for the reduction of graphene oxide were determined as follows. Type of plant: Cherry (Prunus serrulata), reaction time: 12 h, composition of the reaction mixture: 16.7% v/v of plant leaf extract in total suspension, and temperature: 95°C. The degree of reduction caused by Cherry leaf extract was analyzed by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reduction of graphene oxide was also confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis.

  20. Plant Collections Online: Using Digital Herbaria in Biology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2013-01-01

    Herbaria are collections of preserved plants specimens, some of which date back to the 16th century. They are essential to botanical research, especially in systematics. They can also be important historical documents. The collections of Lewis and Clark, Carolus Linnaeus, and Charles Darwin, to name a few, are primary sources for the study of…

  1. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Sabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  3. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    OpenAIRE

    O. O. Frolova; E. V. Kompantseva; T. M. Dementieva

    2016-01-01

    The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  4. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Frolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  5. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual project report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Giese, H.

    2000-01-01

    project summarizes and highlights our results and achievements to give an idea of the researchdirections in the Department. Some 160 persons, including staff, undergraduate students, postgraduate scientists and visiting scientists from all over the world, address our research goals. The Department...... on the environment. This knowledge will lead to a greater prosperity and welfare for agriculture, industry and consumers in Denmark. The research approach in the Department is mainly experimental and the projects areorganized in six research programmes: 1. Plant-Microbe Symbioses, 2. Plant Products and Recycling......’s contribution to education and training ispresented. Lists of publications, papers accepted for publications, guest lecturers, exchange of scientists and lectures and poster presentations at meetings are included in the report. Names of the scientific, technical and administrative staff members...

  6. Mapping Transcriptional Networks in Plants: Data-Driven Discovery of Novel Biological Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudinier, Allison; Brady, Siobhan M

    2016-04-29

    In plants, systems biology approaches have led to the generation of a variety of large data sets. Many of these data are created to elucidate gene expression profiles and their corresponding transcriptional regulatory mechanisms across a range of tissue types, organs, and environmental conditions. In an effort to map the complexity of this transcriptional regulatory control, several types of experimental assays have been used to map transcriptional regulatory networks. In this review, we discuss how these methods can be best used to identify novel biological mechanisms by focusing on the appropriate biological context. Translating network biology back to gene function in the plant, however, remains a challenge. We emphasize the need for validation and insight into the underlying biological processes to successfully exploit systems approaches in an effort to determine the emergent properties revealed by network analyses.

  7. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants in genus Hedysarum

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yinmao; Tang, Dongyan; Zhang, Na; Li, Yue; Zhang, Chunhong; Li, Li; Li, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    In China, several species (Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., Hedysarum limprichtii Hlbr., Hedysarum vicioider Turcz. var. Taipeicum Hand.-Mazz. Liu, Hedysarum smithianum, et al.) of genus Hedysarum have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, these plants are used to increase the energy of the body. To date, 155 compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, lignanoids, nitrogen compounds, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty compounds, and benzofuran, have bee...

  8. An Overview of the Biology of the Desiccation-tolerant Resurrection Plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John P.; Lindsey, George G.; Farrant, Jill M.; Brandt, Wolf F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Myrothamnus flabellifolia is unique as the only woody resurrection plant. It is an important plant in southern Africa because of its widespread occurrence and usage in African medicine and traditional culture. Many reports have investigated facets of its biology and the mechanisms associated with its desiccation tolerance. Scope The general biology of the woody resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia is reviewed. The review focuses on the geography and ecology, systematic placement, evolution, morphology and reproductive ecology of M. flabellifolia as well as the wood anatomy and re-filling mechanism. In addition, the desiccation tolerance, ethnobotanical importance and medicinal properties of the plant are reviewed. Also, future research avenues are suggested, in particular the necessity to research the biogeography and systematics of the species and the role of the polyphenols present, as well as the molecular basis of the plant's desiccation tolerance. PMID:17218343

  9. Multifarious roles of intrinsic disorder in proteins illustrate its broad impact on plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolin; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Jones, William T; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in eukaryotic proteomes. Plant IDPs play critical roles in plant biology and often act as integrators of signals from multiple plant regulatory and environmental inputs. Binding promiscuity and plasticity allow IDPs to interact with multiple partners in protein interaction networks and provide important functional advantages in molecular recognition through transient protein-protein interactions. Short interaction-prone segments within IDPs, termed molecular recognition features, represent potential binding sites that can undergo disorder-to-order transition upon binding to their partners. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the importance of IDPs in plant biology and evaluate the functions associated with intrinsic disorder in five different types of plant protein families experimentally confirmed as IDPs. Functional studies of these proteins illustrate the broad impact of disorder on many areas of plant biology, including abiotic stress, transcriptional regulation, light perception, and development. Based on the roles of disorder in the protein-protein interactions, we propose various modes of action for plant IDPs that may provide insight for future experimental approaches aimed at understanding the molecular basis of protein function within important plant pathways.

  10. A robust family of Golden Gate Agrobacterium vectors for plant synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram eEmami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tools that allow for rapid, accurate and inexpensive assembly of multi-component combinatorial libraries of DNA for transformation into plants will accelerate the progress of synthetic biology research. Recent progress in molecular cloning methods has vastly expanded the repertoire with which plant biologists can engineer a transgene. Here we describe a new set of binary vectors for use in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation that utilizes the Golden-Gate cloning approach. Our optimized protocol facilitates the rapid and inexpensive generation of multi-component transgenes for later introduction into plants.

  11. Plants in silico: why, why now and what?--an integrative platform for plant systems biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin-Guang; Lynch, Jonathan P; LeBauer, David S; Millar, Andrew J; Stitt, Mark; Long, Stephen P

    2016-05-01

    A paradigm shift is needed and timely in moving plant modelling from largely isolated efforts to a connected community endeavour that can take full advantage of advances in computer science and in mechanistic understanding of plant processes. Plants in silico (Psi) envisions a digital representation of layered dynamic modules, linking from gene networks and metabolic pathways through to cellular organization, tissue, organ and whole plant development, together with resource capture and use efficiency in dynamic competitive environments, ultimately allowing a mechanistically rich simulation of the plant or of a community of plants in silico. The concept is to integrate models or modules from different layers of organization spanning from genome to phenome to ecosystem in a modular framework allowing the use of modules of varying mechanistic detail representing the same biological process. Developments in high-performance computing, functional knowledge of plants, the internet and open-source version controlled software make achieving the concept realistic. Open source will enhance collaboration and move towards testing and consensus on quantitative theoretical frameworks. Importantly, Psi provides a quantitative knowledge framework where the implications of a discovery at one level, for example, single gene function or developmental response, can be examined at the whole plant or even crop and natural ecosystem levels.

  12. Reproductive biology in an invasive plant Solidago canadensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hua; GUO Shuiliang; CHEN Guoqi

    2007-01-01

    Solidago canadensis,a perennial Compositae plant originating from North America,was introduced into China as a horticultural plant in 1935.Under natural conditions,S.canadensis allocates large amounts of energy to sexual reproduction and produces many seeds,which reflects an r-strategy with high seed number and small seed size.In addition,naturalized populations have a great capacity to grow clonally with underground stems.S.canadensis has become an invasive weed in eastern China,and has caused serious damages to agricultural production and ecosystems in several provinces in China.In order to understand the reproductive characteristics of S.canadensis and effectively control its spread,we examined soil conditions,seed characteristics,seed germination and the capacity for asexual reproduction in different plant parts.We investigated the population dispersion of S.canadensis in fixed sites for three years,and analyzed the seasonal dynamics of the morphological parameters of the underground parts and the caloric values of different organs of S.canadensis.We also compared differences in the root systems of S.canadensis and composite exotic weeds.The following results were obtained:1)Under natural conditions,the germination season of S.canadensis lasts from March to October,with a peak from April to May.Vegetative growth and asexual reproduction are especially vigorous during summer due to high temperatures and soil drought stress.On the other hand,the rainy season proves suitable for seed germination.Most S.canadensis flower between September and January,and fruit in late October.A mature plant can produce about 20000 seeds.The mean weight of 1000 seeds ranges from 0.045 g to 0.050 g,and the mean seed moisture content ranges from 60% to 80%.The light-winged seeds disperse readily by air,water,vehicles,human activity or through livestock.2)S.canadensis seeds have a wide tolerance for different values of pH,salinity and soil moisture.The mean percent germination of seeds

  13. Carbohydrate microarrays in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangel, Jonatan U; Pedersen, Henriette L; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Ahl, Louise I; Salmean, Armando Asuncion; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, Mads H; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities.

  14. Integration of plant defense traits with biological control of arthropod pests: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Peterson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control. Plant defense traits can influence both the numerical and functional responses of natural enemies; these interactions can be semiochemically-, plant toxin-, plant nutrient-, and/or physically-mediated. Case studies involving predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of crop pests will be presented and discussed. These diverse groups of natural enemies may respond differently to crop plant traits based on their own unique biology and the ecological niches they fill. Genetically modified crop plants that have been engineered to express transgenic products affecting herbivorous pests are an additional consideration. For the most part, transgenic plant incorporated protectant (PIP traits are compatible with biological control due to their selective toxicity to targeted pests and relatively low non-target impacts, although transgenic crops may have indirect effects on higher trophic levels and arthropod communities mediated by lower host or prey number and/or quality. Host plant resistance and biological control are two of the key pillars of integrated pest management; their potential interactions, whether they are synergistic, complementary, or disruptive, are key in understanding and achieving sustainable and effective pest management.

  15. Integration of Plant Defense Traits with Biological Control of Arthropod Pests: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Julie A; Ode, Paul J; Oliveira-Hofman, Camila; Harwood, James D

    2016-01-01

    Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control. Plant defense traits can influence both the numerical and functional responses of natural enemies; these interactions can be semiochemically, plant toxin-, plant nutrient-, and/or physically mediated. Case studies involving predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of crop pests will be presented and discussed. These diverse groups of natural enemies may respond differently to crop plant traits based on their own unique biology and the ecological niches they fill. Genetically modified crop plants that have been engineered to express transgenic products affecting herbivorous pests are an additional consideration. For the most part, transgenic plant incorporated protectant (PIP) traits are compatible with biological control due to their selective toxicity to targeted pests and relatively low non-target impacts, although transgenic crops may have indirect effects on higher trophic levels and arthropod communities mediated by lower host or prey number and/or quality. Host plant resistance and biological control are two of the key pillars of integrated pest management; their potential interactions, whether they are synergistic, complementary, or disruptive, are key in understanding and achieving sustainable and effective pest management.

  16. Advances and Developing Tendency of Water Use Efficiency in Plant Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhao-bo; TANG Jiao-wen; ZHANG Fu

    2009-01-01

    Biological water saving is one of the major fields of water saving agriculture in the future and has an enormous potential in agricultural production. In this paper, the necessity and urgency of developing high water use efficiency in plant biology were dissertated firstly, and the research progresses at home and abroad were reviewed as following aspects: mechanisms of drought resistance and high water use efficiency, criterions for identifying and evaluating drought resistance and water use efficiency, genetic improvement for drought resistance and water use efficiency, water saving irrigation technology based on the physiological regulation and control in crop plants. Major problems in the research field at present were put forward, and development tendency of water use efficiency in plant biology in the future were also discussed.

  17. Population dynamics of bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in Danish wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-03-15

    The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is increasingly popular as a sustainable method for removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater. This study consisted of a comprehensive three-year investigation of the identity and population dynamics of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in 28 Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify ten probe-defined populations of PAO and GAO that in total constituted a large fraction (30% on average) of the entire microbial community targeted by the EUBmix probes. Two PAO genera, Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera, were very abundant in all EBPR plants (average of 3.7% and 27% of all bacteria, respectively), and their abundance was relatively stable in the Danish full-scale plants without clear temporal variations. GAOs were occasionally present in some plants (Competibacter in 11 plants, Defluviicoccus in 6 plants) and were consistent in only a few plants. This shows that these were not core species in the EBPR communities. The total GAO abundance was always lower than that of Accumulibacter. In plants without EBPR design, the abundance of PAO and GAO was significantly lower. Competibacter correlated in general with high fraction of industrial wastewater. In specific plants Accumulibacter correlated with high C/P ratio of the wastewater and Tetrasphaera with high organic loading. Interestingly, the relative microbial composition of the PAO/GAO species was unique to each plant over time, which gives a characteristic plant-specific "fingerprint".

  18. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  19. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization.

  20. Plant Molecular Biology 2008 Gordon Research Conference - July 13-18, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard M. Amasino

    2009-08-28

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2008 conference will continue in that tradition. There will be sessions on metabolism; new methods to study genomes, proteomes and metabolomes; plant-microbe interactions; plant hormones; epigenetics. A new topic for the conference this year will be bioenergy. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines to foster the exchange ideas and to permit the participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner.

  1. Impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfaunal community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen are supplied by a variety of sources in the desert food web; both vascular and non-vascular plants and cyanobacteria supply carbon, and cyanobacteria and plant-associated rhizosphere bacteria are sources of biological nitrogen fixation. The objective of this study was to compare the relative influence of vascular plants and biological soil crusts on desert soil nematode and protozoan abundance and community composition. In the first experiment, biological soil crusts were removed by physical trampling. Treatments with crust removed had fewer nematodes and a greater relative ratio of bacterivores to microphytophages than treatments with intact crust. However, protozoa composition was similar with or without the presence of crusts. In a second experiment, nematode community composition was characterized along a spatial gradient away from stems of grasses or shrubs. Although nematodes generally occurred in increasing abundance nearer to plant stems, some genera (such as the enrichment-type Panagrolaimus) increased disproportionately more than others (such as the stress-tolerant Acromoldavicus). We propose that the impact of biological soil crusts and desert plants on soil microfauna, as reflected in the community composition of microbivorous nematodes, is a combination of carbon input, microclimate amelioration, and altered soil hydrology. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.

  2. From Charles Darwin's botanical country-house studies to modern plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U; Briggs, W R

    2009-11-01

    As a student of theology at Cambridge University, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) attended the lectures of the botanist John S. Henslow (1796-1861). This instruction provided the basis for his life-long interest in plants as well as the species question. This was a major reason why in his book On the Origin of Species, which was published 150 years ago, Darwin explained his metaphorical phrase 'struggle for life' with respect to animals and plants. In this article, we review Darwin's botanical work with reference to the following topics: the struggle for existence in the vegetable kingdom with respect to the phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance response; the biology of flowers and Darwin's plant-insect co-evolution hypothesis; climbing plants and the discovery of action potentials; the power of movement in plants and Darwin's conflict with the German plant physiologist Julius Sachs; and light perception by growing grass coleoptiles with reference to the phototropins. Finally, we describe the establishment of the scientific discipline of Plant Biology that took place in the USA 80 years ago, and define this area of research with respect to Darwin's work on botany and the physiology of higher plants.

  3. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available , including Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae), Eichhornia crassipes (C.Mart.) Solms (Pontederiaceae) and Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitch. (Salviniaceae), invade dams, reservoirs and freshwater ecosystems, where they impact nega- tively on water quality...- cessful biological control of Azolla filiculoides in South Africa. Biological Control 28: 25?32. MGOBOZI, M.P., SOMERS, M.J. & DIPPENAAR- SCHOEMAN, A.S. 2008. Spider responses to alien plant invasion: the effect of short- and long-term Chromolaena...

  4. Multimodal Molecular Mass Spectrometry Imaging : Development and Applications in Plant Biology and Forensic Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of new analytical platforms for molecular mass spectrometry imaging and their applications in plant biology and forensic toxicology. So far, in drug metabolism or forensic toxicology, liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection is the technique of choice for analyzing drugs and metabolites in complex biological samples. LC-MS remains however challenging, because the development of appropriate sample preparation requires complex and time-consu...

  5. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Ščančar, Janez; Jaćimović, Radojko; Simčič, Jurij; Pelicon, Primož; Budnar, Miloš; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina

    2008-11-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry—TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission—micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast

  6. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Lind

    Full Text Available LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  7. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kara R; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  8. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles to enhance biological control in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaflor, M F G V; Bento, J M S

    2013-08-01

    Plants under herbivore attack synthetize defensive organic compounds that directly or indirectly affect herbivore performance and mediate other interactions with the community. The so-called herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) consist of odors released by attacked plants that serve as important cues for parasitoids and predators to locate their host/prey. The understanding that has been gained on the ecological role and mechanisms of HIPV emission opens up paths for developing novel strategies integrated with biological control programs with the aim of enhancing the efficacy of natural enemies in suppressing pest populations in crops. Tactics using synthetic HIPVs or chemically/genetically manipulating plant defenses have been suggested in order to recruit natural enemies to plantations or help guiding them to their host more quickly, working as a "synergistic" agent of biological control. This review discusses strategies using HIPVs to enhance biological control that have been proposed in the literature and were categorized here as: (a) exogenous application of elicitors on plants, (b) use of plant varieties that emit attractive HIPVs to natural enemies, (c) release of synthetic HIPVs, and (d) genetic manipulation targeting genes that optimize HIPV emission. We discuss the feasibility, benefits, and downsides of each strategy by considering not only field studies but also comprehensive laboratory assays that present an applied approach for HIPVs or show the potential of employing them in the field.

  9. Fungal life-styles and ecosystem dynamics: biological aspects of plant pathogens, plant endophytes and saprophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; Redman, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses various biochemical, genetic, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of fungi that express either symbiotic or saprophytic life-styles. An enormous pool of potential pathogens exists in both agricultural and natural ecosystems, and virtually all plant species are susceptible to one or more fungal pathogens. Fungal pathogens have the potential to impact on the genetic structure of populations of individual plant species, the composition of plant communities and the process of plant succession. Endophytic fungi exist for at least part of their life cycles within the tissues of a plant host. This group of fungi is distinguished from plant pathogens because they do not elicit significant disease symptoms. However, endophytes do maintain the genetic and biochemical mechanisms required for infection and colonization of plant hosts. Fungi that obtain chemical nutrients from dead organic matter are known as saprophytes and are critical to the dynamics and resilience of ecosystems. There are two modes of saprophytic growth: one in which biomolecules that are amenable to transport across cell walls and membranes are directly absorbed, and another in which fungi must actively convert complex biopolymers into subunit forms amenable to transportation into cells. Regardless of life-style, fungi employ similar biochemical mechanisms for the acquisition and conversion of nutrients into complex biomolecules that are necessary for vegetative growth, production and dissemination of progeny, organismal competition, and survival during periods of nutrient deprivation or environmental inclemency.

  10. Biological Effects of Potato Plants Transformation with Glucose Oxidase Gene and their Resistance to Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Grabelnych

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is known that regulation of plant tolerance to adverse environmental factors is connected with short term increase of the concentration of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are signalling molecules for the induction of protective mechanisms. Introduction and expression of heterologous gox gene, which encodes glucose oxidase enzyme in plant genome, induce constantly higher content of hydrogen peroxide in plant tissues. It is not known how the introduction of native or modified gox gene affects the plant resistance to high-temperature stress, one of the most commonly used model for the study of stress response and thermal tolerance. In this study, we investigated biological effects of transformation and evaluated the resistance to temperature stress of potato plants with altered levels of glucose oxidase expression. Transformation of potato plants by gox gene led to the more early coming out from tuber dormancy of transformed plants and slower growth rate. Transformants containing the glucose oxidase gene were more sensitive to lethal thermal shock (50 °C, 90 min than the transformant with the empty vector (pBI or untransformed plants (CK. Pre-heating of plants at 37 °C significantly weakened the damaging effect of lethal thermal shock. This attenuation was more significant in the non-transformed plants.

  11. Molecular biology of Lea genes of higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains our progress to date in determining the function of the D-7 Lea proteins in cotton embryos. We have completely sequenced the D-7 gene and established {ital E. coli} transformants which synthesize reasonable amounts of the D-7 protein. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was required to assay fractions for D-7 protein during purification to homogeneity, since D-7 has no known enzymatic activity, contains no Trp, and little Phe or Tyr, and {ital E. coli} has several proteins of similar molecular weight to D-7. Purified D-7 was used to generate monospecific antibodies which are being used for determination of the cellular distribution of D-7, and also for exact quantitation of D-7 in late-stage cotton embryos. Computerized modelling of D-7 has shown similarities to proteins with a coiled-coil structure, but fitting D-7 to this structure resulted in a violation of the handedness rule. If the pitch of the helix is changed from 3.6 to 3.667, however, a three dimensional structure (not a coiled coil) is generated which has overall energetics of formation nearly as favorable as the traditional {alpha} helix. The driving force for the change in pitch is proposed to result from favorable energetics of dimerization. Preliminary evidence indicates that D-7 does indeed dimerize in solution. Future experiments will determine the exact 3D structure of D-7 and the related protein D-29, as well as test the hypothesis that D-7 and D-29 are involved in mitigating dehydration of embryos and plants through sequestering phosphate or other ions in sufficient quantity to prevent ion precipitation or crystallization. 13 refs., 3 figs. (MHB)

  12. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND THERMAL TRANSFORMED SEWAGE SLUDGE APPLICATION ON MANGANESE CONTENT IN PLANTS AND SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Koncewicz-Baran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of sewage sludge treatment methods, due to the agent (chemical, biological, thermal leads to the formation of varying ‘products’ properties, including the content of heavy metals forms. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of biologically and thermally transformed sewage sludge on the manganese content in plants and form of this element in the soil. The study was based on a two-year pot experiment. In this study was used stabilized sewage sludge collected from Wastewater Treatment Plant Krakow – ”Płaszów” and its mixtures with wheat straw in the gravimetric ratio 1:1 in conversion to material dry matter, transformed biologically (composting by 117 days in a bioreactor and thermally (in the furnace chamber with no air access by the following procedure exposed to temperatures of 130 °C for 40 min → 200 °C for 30 min. In both years of the study biologically and thermally transformed mixtures of sewage sludge with wheat straw demonstrated similar impact on the amount of biomass plants to the pig manure. Bigger amounts of manganese were assessed in oat biomass than in spring rape biomass. The applied sewage sludge and its biologically and thermally converted mixtures did not significantly affect manganese content in plant biomass in comparison with the farmyard manure. The applied fertilization did not modify the values of translocation and bioaccumulation ratios of manganese in the above-ground parts and roots of spring rape and oat. No increase in the content of the available to plants forms of manganese in the soil after applying biologically and thermally transformed sewage sludge mixtures with straw was detected. In the second year, lower contents of these manganese forms were noted in the soil of all objects compared with the first year of the experiment.

  13. Biological indices for classification of water quality around Mae Moh power plant, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsarun Junshum and Siripen Traichaiyaporn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The algal communities and water quality were monitored at eight sampling sites around Mae Moh power plant during January-December 2003. Three biological indices, viz. algal genus pollution index, saprobic index, and Shannon-Weaver index, were adopted to classify the water quality around the power plant in comparison with the measured physico-chemical water quality. The result shows that the Shannon-Weaver diversity index appears to be much more applicable and interpretable for the classification of water quality around the Mae Moh power plant than the algal genus pollution index and the saprobic index.

  14. Evidence for rapid evolutionary change in an invasive plant in response to biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, M; Sargent, R D

    2017-05-01

    We present evidence that populations of an invasive plant species that have become re-associated with a specialist herbivore in the exotic range through biological control have rapidly evolved increased antiherbivore defences compared to populations not exposed to biocontrol. We grew half-sib families of the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria sourced from 17 populations near Ottawa, Canada, that differed in their history of exposure to a biocontrol agent, the specialist beetle Neogalerucella calmariensis. In a glasshouse experiment, we manipulated larval and adult herbivory to examine whether a population's history of biocontrol influenced plant defence and growth. Plants sourced from populations with a history of biocontrol suffered lower defoliation than naïve, previously unexposed populations, strongly suggesting they had evolved higher resistance. Plants from biocontrol-exposed populations were also larger and produced more branches in response to herbivory, regrew faster even in the absence of herbivory and were better at compensating for the impacts of herbivory on growth (i.e. they exhibited increased tolerance). Furthermore, resistance and tolerance were positively correlated among genotypes with a history of biocontrol but not among naïve genotypes. Our findings suggest that biocontrol can rapidly select for increased defences in an invasive plant and may favour a mixed defence strategy of resistance and tolerance without an obvious cost to plant vigour. Although rarely studied, such evolutionary responses in the target species have important implications for the long-term efficacy of biocontrol programmes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  16. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V.; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  17. Recent developments in systems biology and metabolic engineering of plant microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of the various ecosystems. The characterization of various interactions between microorganisms and other biotic factors is a necessary footstep to understand the association and functions of microbial communities. Among the different microbial interactions in an ecosystem, plant-microbe interaction plays an important role to balance the ecosystem. The present review explores plant microbe interactions using gene editing and system biology tools towards the comprehension in improvement of plant traits. Further, system biology tools like FBA, OptKnock and constrain based modeling helps in understanding such interactions as a whole. In addition, various gene editing tools have been summarized and a strategy has been hypothesized for the development of disease free plants. Furthermore, we have tried to summarize the predictions through data retrieved from various types of sources such as high throughput sequencing data (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP detection, RNA-seq, proteomics and metabolic models have been reconstructed from such sequences for species communities. It is well known fact that systems biology approaches and modeling of biological networks will enable us to learn the insight of such network and will also help further in understanding these interactions.

  18. Recent Developments in Systems Biology and Metabolic Engineering of Plant-Microbe Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishal; Baweja, Mehak; Singh, Puneet K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of the various ecosystems. The characterization of various interactions between microorganisms and other biotic factors is a necessary footstep to understand the association and functions of microbial communities. Among the different microbial interactions in an ecosystem, plant-microbe interaction plays an important role to balance the ecosystem. The present review explores plant-microbe interactions using gene editing and system biology tools toward the comprehension in improvement of plant traits. Further, system biology tools like FBA (flux balance analysis), OptKnock, and constraint-based modeling helps in understanding such interactions as a whole. In addition, various gene editing tools have been summarized and a strategy has been hypothesized for the development of disease free plants. Furthermore, we have tried to summarize the predictions through data retrieved from various types of sources such as high throughput sequencing data (e.g., single nucleotide polymorphism detection, RNA-seq, proteomics) and metabolic models have been reconstructed from such sequences for species communities. It is well known fact that systems biology approaches and modeling of biological networks will enable us to learn the insight of such network and will also help further in understanding these interactions.

  19. An Evaluation of Two Hands-On Lab Styles for Plant Biodiversity in Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basey, John M.; Maines, Anastasia P.; Francis, Clinton D.; Melbourne, Brett

    2014-01-01

    We compared learning cycle and expository formats for teaching about plant biodiversity in an inquiry-oriented university biology lab class (n = 465). Both formats had preparatory lab activities, a hands-on lab, and a postlab with reflection and argumentation. Learning was assessed with a lab report, a practical quiz in lab, and a multiple-choice…

  20. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants: case studies from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available . In many cases, plants are brought under complete control. In this paper, we describe an attempt to estimate the costs and benefits of the biological control of 6 weed species (Opuntia, aurantiaca, Sesbania punicea, Lantana camara, Acacia longifolia, A...

  1. Introduction to the Special Issue: Beyond traits: integrating behaviour into plant ecology and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James F

    2015-10-26

    The way that plants are conceptualized in the context of ecological understanding is changing. In one direction, a reductionist school is pulling plants apart into a list of measured 'traits', from which ecological function and outcomes of species interactions may be inferred. This special issue offers an alternative, and more holistic, view: that the ecological functions performed by a plant will be a consequence not only of their complement of traits but also of the ways in which their component parts are used in response to environmental and social conditions. This is the realm of behavioural ecology, a field that has greatly advanced our understanding of animal biology, ecology and evolution. Included in this special issue are 10 articles focussing not on the tried and true metaphor that plant growth is similar to animal movement, but instead on how application of principles from animal behaviour can improve our ability to understand plant biology and ecology. The goals are not to draw false parallels, nor to anthropomorphize plant biology, but instead to demonstrate how existing and robust theory based on fundamental principles can provide novel understanding for plants. Key to this approach is the recognition that behaviour and intelligence are not the same. Many organisms display complex behaviours despite a lack of cognition (as it is traditionally understood) or any hint of a nervous system. The applicability of behavioural concepts to plants is further enhanced with the realization that all organisms face the same harsh forces of natural selection in the context of finding resources, mates and coping with neighbours. As these ecological realities are often highly variable in space and time, it is not surprising that all organisms-even plants-exhibit complex behaviours to handle this variability. The articles included here address diverse topics in behavioural ecology, as applied to plants: general conceptual understanding, plant nutrient foraging, root

  2. Managing heavy metal toxicity stress in plants: biological and biotechnological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovečka, M; Takáč, T

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of ion homeostasis in plant cells is a fundamental physiological requirement for sustainable plant growth, development and production. Plants exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals must respond in order to avoid the deleterious effects of heavy metal toxicity at the structural, physiological and molecular levels. Plant strategies for coping with heavy metal toxicity are genotype-specific and, at least to some extent, modulated by environmental conditions. There is considerable interest in the mechanisms underpinning plant metal tolerance, a complex process that enables plants to survive metal ion stress and adapt to maintain growth and development without exhibiting symptoms of toxicity. This review briefly summarizes some recent cell biological, molecular and proteomic findings concerning the responses of plant roots to heavy metal ions in the rhizosphere, metal ion-induced reactions at the cell wall-plasma membrane interface, and various aspects of heavy metal ion uptake and transport in plants via membrane transporters. The molecular and genetic approaches that are discussed are analyzed in the context of their potential practical applications in biotechnological approaches for engineering increased heavy metal tolerance in crops and other useful plants.

  3. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology. PMID:27274814

  5. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology.

  6. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal in the wastewater treatment plant of Bunnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, H.P. de; Rensink, J.H.

    1989-02-01

    At several sewage treatment plants in the Netherlands there has been continuously found a remarkable high phosphorus removal rate, without using chemical additions. In Bunnik this is up to 90%. In the effluent we will mostly find less than 1 mg P/l. At the Bunnik plant we deal with biological excess phosphorus removal. Biological phosphorus removal is based on the luxury uptake of phosphorus by some bacteria. On certain circumstances micro-organisms of the genius Acinetobacter stored excess amounts of phosphates in their cells. In 1984 a project started, financed by the institute for inland waters and wastewater treatment (DBW/RIZA). The purpose of this research project was to find factors which were, responsible for the remarkable enhanced phosphorus removal in the Bunnik plant.

  7. Microgravity research in plant biological systems: Realizing the potential of molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1993-01-01

    The sole all-pervasive feature of the environment that has helped shape, through evolution, all life on Earth is gravity. The near weightlessness of the Space Station Freedom space environment allows gravitational effects to be essentially uncoupled, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity to manipulate, systematically dissect, study, and exploit the role of gravity in the growth and development of all life forms. New and exciting opportunities are now available to utilize molecular biological and biochemical approaches to study the effects of microgravity on living organisms. By careful experimentation, we can determine how gravity perception occurs, how the resulting signals are produced and transduced, and how or if tissue-specific differences in gene expression occur. Microgravity research can provide unique new approaches to further our basic understanding of development and metabolic processes of cells and organisms, and to further the application of this new knowledge for the betterment of humankind.

  8. EU-OPENSCREEN-chemical tools for the study of plant biology and resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Torsten; Stechmann, Bahne; Frank, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    EU-OPENSCREEN is an academic research infrastructure initiative in Europe for enabling researchers in all life sciences to take advantage of chemical biology approaches to their projects. In a collaborative effort of national networks in 16 European countries, EU-OPENSCREEN will develop novel chemical compounds with external users to address questions in, among other fields, systems and network biology (directed and selective perturbation of signalling pathways), structural biology (compound-target interactions at atomic resolution), pharmacology (early drug discovery and toxicology) and plant biology (response of wild or crop plants to environmental and agricultural substances). EU-OPENSCREEN supports all stages of a tool development project, including assay adaptation, high-throughput screening and chemical optimisation of the 'hit' compounds. All tool compounds and data will be made available to the scientific community. EU-OPENSCREEN integrates high-capacity screening platforms throughout Europe, which share a rationally selected compound collection comprising up to 300,000 (commercial and proprietary compounds collected from European chemists). By testing systematically this chemical collection in hundreds of assays originating from very different biological themes, the screening process generates enormous amounts of information about the biological activities of the substances and thereby steadily enriches our understanding of how and where they act.

  9. Epigenetics and its Implications for Plant Biology. 1. The Epigenetic Network in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    GRANT-DOWNTON, R. T.; Dickinson, H. G.

    2005-01-01

    • Background Epigenetics has rapidly evolved in the past decade to form an exciting new branch of biology. In modern terms, ‘epigenetics’ studies molecular pathways regulating how the genes are packaged in the chromosome and expressed, with effects that are heritable between cell divisions and even across generations.

  10. Plant biology in space: recent accomplishments and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyters, G; Braun, M

    2014-01-01

    Gravity has shaped the evolution of life since its origin. However, experiments in the absence of this overriding force, necessary to precisely analyse its role, e.g. for growth, development, and orientation of plants and single cells, only became possible with the advent of spaceflight. Consequently, this research has been supported especially by space agencies around the world for decades, mainly for two reasons: first, to enable fundamental research on gravity perception and transduction during growth and development of plants; and second, to successfully grow plants under microgravity conditions with the goal of establishing a bioregenerative life support system providing oxygen and food for astronauts in long-term exploratory missions. For the second time, the International Space Life Sciences Working Group (ISLSWG), comprised of space agencies with substantial life sciences programmes in the world, organised a workshop on plant biology research in space. The present contribution summarises the outcome of this workshop. In the first part, an analysis is undertaken, if and how the recommendations of the first workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in 1996 have been implemented. A chapter summarising major scientific breakthroughs obtained in the last 15 years from plant research in space concludes this first part. In the second part, recommendations for future research in plant biology in space are put together that have been elaborated in the various discussion sessions during the workshop, as well as provided in written statements from the session chairs. The present paper clearly shows that plant biology in space has contributed significantly to progress in plant gravity perception, transduction and responses - processes also relevant for general plant biology, including agricultural aspects. In addition, the interplay between light and gravity effects has increasingly received attention. It also became evident that plants will play a major role as

  11. A conceptual ecosystem model of microbial communities in enhanced biological phosphorus removal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Per Halkjaer; Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Kragelund, Caroline; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Kong, Yunhong; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Vollertsen, Jes

    2010-09-01

    The microbial populations in 25 full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR plants) have been intensively studied over several years. Most of the important bacterial groups involved in nitrification, denitrification, biological P removal, fermentation, and hydrolysis have been identified and quantified using quantitative culture-independent molecular methods. Surprisingly, a limited number of core species was present in all plants, constituting on average approx. 80% of the entire communities in the plants, showing that the microbial populations in EBPR plants are rather similar and not very diverse, as sometimes suggested. By focusing on these organisms it is possible to make a comprehensive ecosystem model, where many important aspects in relation to microbial ecosystems and wastewater treatment can be investigated. We have reviewed the current knowledge about these microorganisms with focus on key ecophysiological factors and combined this into a conceptual ecosystem model for EBPR plants. It includes the major pathways of carbon flow with specific organic substances, the dominant populations involved in the transformations, interspecies interactions, and the key factors controlling their presence and activity. We believe that the EBPR process is a perfect model system for studies of microbial ecology in water engineering systems and that this conceptual model can be used for proposing and testing theories based on microbial ecosystem theories, for the development of new and improved quantitative ecosystem models and is beneficial for future design and management of wastewater treatment systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in biological activity research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić, A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants consists of more than 300.000 species around the world, out of which a small percentage has been sufficiently investigated from phytochemical and biological activity aspects. Plant diversity of the Balkans is very rich, but still poorly investigated. The aim of this paper is survey of current status and trends in research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans. Many aromatic plants are investigated from morphological, physiological, ecological, systematic and phytochemical aspects. However, traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants can also be considered from applicative aspects, concerning their health effects, and from wide range of usage in cosmetics, and as food, agrochemical and pharmaceutical products. In order to achieve all planned objectives, following methodology has been applied: field research, taxonomic authentication and, comparative biologically assayed phytochemical investigations. The total herbal extracts, postdistillation waste (deodorized extracts, essential oils and individual compounds of some autochthonous plants have been considered as potential source of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-biofilm, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. In this manuscript, composition of essential oils and extracts were evaluated in a number of species, from the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae families. Extracts which were rich in phenols mostly of flavonoids, often showed high antioxidant potential. Also, phenolic compounds identified in essential oils and extracts were mostly responsible for expected antimicrobial activity. Current worldwide demand is to reduce or, if possible, eliminate chemically synthesized food additives. Plant-produced compounds are becoming of interest as a source of more effective and safe substances than synthetically produced antimicrobial agents (as inhibitors, growth reducers or even inactivators that control growth of microorganisms. Many different pathogens have

  13. Mapping the Metal Uptake in Plants from Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve - Oral Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Allison [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Serpentine soil originates in the Earth’s mantle and contains high concentrations of potentially toxic transition metals. Although serpentine soil limits plant growth, endemic and adapted plants at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, located behind SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, can tolerate these conditions. Serpentine soil and seeds belonging to native California and invasive plants were collected at Jasper Ridge. The seeds were grown hydroponically and on serpentine and potting soil to examine the uptake and distribution of ions in the roots and shoots using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results were used to determine differences between serpentinetolerant plants. Rye grown on potting soil was enriched in Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr compared to purple needlegrass grown on serpentine soil. Serpentine vegetation equally suppressed the uptake of Mn, Ni, and Fe in the roots and shoots. The uptake of Ca and Mg affected the uptake of other elements such as K, S, and P.

  14. A new tool for plant cell biology: in vivo antibody uptake in plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brière, C; Barthou, H; Petitprez, M

    2004-07-01

    We report on the in vivo uptake of antibodies into plant protoplasts. When protoplasts of sunflower, Arabidopsis or tobacco were incubated in vivo with an antibody, this antibody was detected by immunofluorescence in the cytoplasm and/or the nucleus, depending on the location of the target protein. Furthermore, when protoplasts were cultured in the presence of antibodies, specific effects were observed. Incubation with antibodies raised against p34cdc2 led to a strong inhibition of the division rate, and a decrease in the average DNA content of protoplasts. With antibodies against HaWLIM1, a LIM domain protein of the CRP type, a negative effect on actin organisation was observed. We conclude that antibodies can penetrate plant protoplasts in vivo, and thus may be used as powerful tools for the study of protein function.

  15. Biological control of invasive plant species: a reassessment for the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seastedt, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    The science of finding, testing and releasing herbivores and pathogens to control invasive plant species has achieved a level of maturity and success that argues for continued and expanded use of this program. The practice, however, remains unpopular with some conservationists, invasion biologists, and stakeholders. The ecological and economic benefits of controlling densities of problematic plant species using biological control agents can be quantified, but the risks and net benefits of biological control programs are often derived from social or cultural rather than scientific criteria. Management of invasive plants is a 'wicked problem', and local outcomes to wicked problems have both positive and negative consequences differentially affecting various groups of stakeholders. The program has inherent uncertainties; inserting species into communities that are experiencing directional or even transformational changes can produce multiple outcomes due to context-specific factors that are further confounded by environmental change drivers. Despite these uncertainties, biological control could play a larger role in mitigation and adaptation strategies used to maintain biological diversity as well as contribute to human well-being by protecting food and fiber resources.

  16. Plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP in China: A seed and spore biology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellie Merrett Wade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one fifth of the world's plants are at risk of extinction. Of these, a significant number exist as populations of few individuals, with limited distribution ranges and under enormous pressure due to habitat destruction. In China, these most-at-risk species are described as ‘plant species with extremely small populations’ (PSESP. Implementing conservation action for such listed species is urgent. Storing seeds is one of the main means of ex situ conservation for flowering plants. Spore storage could provide a simple and economical method for fern ex situ conservation. Seed and spore germination in nature is a critical step in species regeneration and thus in situ conservation. But what is known about the seed and spore biology (storage and germination of at-risk species? We have used China's PSESP (the first group listing as a case study to understand the gaps in knowledge on propagule biology of threatened plant species. We found that whilst germination information is available for 28 species (23% of PSESP, storage characteristics are only known for 8% of PSESP (10 species. Moreover, we estimate that 60% of the listed species may require cryopreservation for long-term storage. We conclude that comparative biology studies are urgently needed on the world's most threatened taxa so that conservation action can progress beyond species listing.

  17. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  18. A theoretical framework for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens: Identifying effective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-06-07

    We develop and analyse a flexible compartmental model of the interaction between a plant host, a soil-borne pathogen and a microbial antagonist, for use in optimising biological control. By extracting invasion and persistence thresholds of host, pathogen and biological control agent, performing an equilibrium analysis, and numerical investigation of sensitivity to parameters and initial conditions, we determine criteria for successful biological control. We identify conditions for biological control (i) to prevent a pathogen entering a system, (ii) to eradicate a pathogen that is already present and, if that is not possible, (iii) to reduce the density of the pathogen. Control depends upon the epidemiology of the pathogen and how efficiently the antagonist can colonise particular habitats (i.e. healthy tissue, infected tissue and/or soil-borne inoculum). A sharp transition between totally effective control (i.e. eradication of the pathogen) and totally ineffective control can follow slight changes in biologically interpretable parameters or to the initial amounts of pathogen and biological control agent present. Effective biological control requires careful matching of antagonists to pathosystems. For preventative/eradicative control, antagonists must colonise susceptible hosts. However, for reduction in disease prevalence, the range of habitat is less important than the antagonist's bulking-up efficiency.

  19. Mechanical-biological treatment: performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-10-15

    In the endeavour of avoiding presence of biodegradable waste in landfills and increasing recycling, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants have seen a significant increase in number and capacity in the last two decades. The aim of these plants is separating and stabilizing the quickly biodegradable fraction of the waste as well as recovering recyclables from mixed waste streams. In this study the environmental performance of eight MBT-based waste management scenarios in Spain was assessed by means of life cycle assessment. The focus was on the technical and environmental performance of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials recovery through increased automation of the selection and to prioritize biogas-electricity production from the organic fraction over direct composting. The optimal strategy for refuse derived fuel (RDF) management depends upon the environmental compartment to be prioritized and the type of marginal electricity source in the system. It was estimated that, overall, up to ca. 180-190 kt CO2-eq. y(-1) may be saved by optimizing the MBT plants under assessment.

  20. Beyond the ecological: biological invasions alter natural selection on a native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer A

    2008-04-01

    Biological invasions can have strong ecological effects on native communities by altering ecosystem functions, species interactions, and community composition. Even though these ecological effects frequently impact the population dynamics and fitness of native species, the evolutionary consequences of biological invasions have received relatively little attention. Here, I show that invasions impose novel selective pressures on a native plant species. By experimentally manipulating community composition, I found that the exotic plant Medicago polymorpha and the exotic herbivore Hypera brunneipennis alter the strength and, in some instances, the direction of natural selection on the competitive ability and anti-herbivore defenses of the native plant Lotus wrangelianus. Furthermore, the community composition of exotics influenced which traits were favored. For example, high densities of the exotic herbivore Hypera selected for increased resistance to herbivores in the native Lotus; however, when Medicago also was present, selection on this defense was eliminated. In contrast, selection on tolerance, another plant defense trait, was highest when both Hypera and Medicago were present at high densities. Thus, multiple exotic species may interact to influence the evolutionary trajectories of native plant populations, and patterns of selection may change as additional exotic species invade the community.

  1. C4 and CAM Plant Biology Symposium 2013 Website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leakey, Andrew D. B. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-08-09

    This project funded the C4 and CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) Plant Biology 2013 symposium, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, on August 6-9, 2013. The symposium brought together a diverse group of scientists to discuss the evolution, ecology, functional biology, genomics and biotechnological engineering of C4 and CAM plants. These two groups of plants possess evolutionary modifications to their photosynthetic machinery that improve their performance in hot and dry conditions. Maize and pineapple are classic examples of C4 and CAM plants, respectively. The meeting discussed how lessons learned from these groups of plants can be harnessed to improve crop production of biofuel feedstocks in an era of global climate change. The interdisciplinary nature of the meeting meant that the delegation members typically do not collectively attend any one scientific society meeting. As a result, the symposium was a unique opportunity for knowledge transfer, initiation of new collaborations, and recruitment and exposure of early career scientists.

  2. Anthropogenic climate change and allergen exposure: The role of plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H; Beggs, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of anthropogenic gases, particularly CO(2), is likely to have 2 fundamental effects on plant biology. The first is an indirect effect through Earth's increasing average surface temperatures, with subsequent effects on other aspects of climate, such as rainfall and extreme weather events. The second is a direct effect caused by CO(2)-induced stimulation of photosynthesis and plant growth. Both effects are likely to alter a number of fundamental aspects of plant biology and human health, including aerobiology and allergic diseases, respectively. This review highlights the current and projected effect of increasing CO(2) and climate change in the context of plants and allergen exposure, emphasizing direct effects on plant physiologic parameters (eg, pollen production) and indirect effects (eg, fungal sporulation) related to diverse biotic and abiotic interactions. Overall, the review assumes that future global mitigation efforts will be limited and suggests a number of key research areas that will assist in adapting to the ongoing challenges to public health associated with increased allergen exposure.

  3. History on the biological nitrogen fixation research in graminaceous plants: special emphasis on the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, José I; Baldani, Vera L D

    2005-09-01

    This review covers the history on Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in Graminaceous plants grown in Brazil, and describes research progress made over the last 40 years, most of which was coordinated by Johanna Döbereiner. One notable accomplishment during this period was the discovery of several nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as the rhizospheric (Beijerinckia fluminensis and Azotobacter paspali), associative (Azospirillum lipoferum, A. brasilense, A. amazonense) and the endophytic (Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Burkholderia brasilensis and B. tropica). The role of these diazotrophs in association with grasses, mainly with cereal plants, has been studied and a lot of progress has been achieved in the ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. The mechanisms of colonization and infection of the plant tissues are better understood, and the BNF contribution to the soil/plant system has been determined. Inoculation studies with diazotrophs showed that endophytic bacteria have a much higher BNF contribution potential than associative diazotrophs. In addition, it was found that the plant genotype influences the plant/bacteria association. Recent data suggest that more studies should be conducted on the endophytic association to strengthen the BNF potential. The ongoing genome sequencing programs: RIOGENE (Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus) and GENOPAR (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) reflect the commitment to the BNF study in Brazil and should allow the country to continue in the forefront of research related to the BNF process in Graminaceous plants.

  4. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  5. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  6. Polyacetylenes from terrestrial plants and fungi: Recent phytochemical and biological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Polyacetylenes are a class of polyketides related to fatty acids that occur in plants, fungi, marine organisms and animals. These compounds show a pleiotropic profile of bioactivity, that includes antitumor, antibacterial, antimicrobial or antifungal properties. Because of this, the literature on these compounds has grown exponentially, and this review aims at summarizing the inventory of polyacetylenes occurring in terrestrial eukaryotic organisms (plants and fungi) during the last 15 years, and at discussing progress in their bioactivities and in the identification of their biological targets.

  7. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Chemical and biological aspects of water and sludge from treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaviani, M.; Bonadonna, L.; Mancini, L.; Veschetti, E.; Gasbarro, M.; Lulli, G.; Zanobini, A.; Gabrieli, R.; Donia, D.; Divizia, M. (Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale Azienda Comunale Elettricita' ed Acque, Rome (Italy) Rome Univ. ' Tor Vergata' (Italy). Dip. di Sanita' Pubblica e Biologia Cellulare)

    Waste water and sewage sludge samples were collected from an urban waste water treatment plant in Rome (Italy). Chemical and biological (microbiological, virological and parassitological) analyses were performed for verifying the hygienic quality of the samples. On the basis of the results obtained, the possibility of utilizing the waste water and the sludge analyzed in view of a correct agricultural re-use can be taken into consideration.

  9. A simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of advanced control techniques in biological wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor O.A.Z.; Park S.W.; Garcia C

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are complex systems that incorporate a large number of biological, physicochemical and biochemical processes. They are large and nonlinear systems subject to great disturbances in incoming loads. The primary goal of a WWTP is to reduce pollutants and the second goal is disturbance rejection, in order to obtain good effluent quality. Modeling and computer simulations are key tools in the achievement of these two goals. They are essential to describe, predict ...

  10. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc William Schmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods (omics now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis. Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes.

  11. Stable heterologous expression of biologically active terpenoids in green plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul eIkram; Xin eZhan; Xiwu ePan; Brian Christropher eKing; Henrik Toft Simonsen

    2015-01-01

    Plants biosynthesize a great diversity of biologically active small molecules of interest for fragrances, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. Among specialized metabolites, terpenoids represent the greatest molecular diversity. Many terpenoids are very complex, and total chemical synthesis often requires many steps and difficult chemical reactions, resulting in a low final yield or incorrect stereochemistry. Several drug candidates with terpene skeletons are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesi...

  12. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1 DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2 Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 μl water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 μg/μl for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3 Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4 High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  13. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Li, Li; Sheen, Jen

    2010-01-14

    Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1) DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2) Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 mul water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 mug/mul) for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3) Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4) High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  14. Field biology of the beetle Aegopsis bolboceridus in Brazil, with a list of host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Charles M; Frizzas, Marina R

    2013-01-01

    The white grub, Aegopsis bolboceridus (Thomson) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae), is an important vegetable and corn pest in central Brazil. The objective of this study was to examine the biology of A. bolboceridus in the field and to update the list of its host plants. The study was conducted in an area with vegetable crops and corn located in the Federal District of Brazil. Samplings were taken to observe the biological stages of A. bolboceridus, preferred oviposition sites, and the adult swarming period. A. bolboceridus exhibited a univoltine cycle that lasted approximately 12 months from egg to active adults. Its eggs were found from October to November. The larval stage lasted approximately eight months, occurring between October and May. Pre-pupae were observed between April and June, and pupae were found between May and July. Inactive adults were observed in July and August, and the swarming period was between September and October. The females preferred to oviposit in sites with taller plants. Four new plant species were identified as hosts for this pest, and two new locations were recorded for its occurrence. This study is the first to describe the biology of a representative of the tribe Agaocephalini in Brazil.

  15. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  16. Biological Effects of Medicinal Plants on Induced Periodontitis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moara e Silva Conceição; di Lenardo, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the advances in the study of medicinal plants and their biologic effects on periodontitis in animal models. Study Design. A systematic search was conducted by three independent researchers, who screened articles published up to March/2016, to identify the studies that contained sufficient and clear information on the association of the medicinal plants and periodontitis in murine models. The searches were performed using PubMed, Cochrane, and Science Direct databases. Results. After a critical analysis of titles and abstracts, 30 studies were finally eligible for analysis. The studies presented a great diversity of the experiment designed regarding the methods of induced periodontitis and the evaluation of the medicinal plants efficacy. None of the studies described the possible toxic effects associated with the administration of the plant material to animals and whether they could prevent damage to organs caused by systemic effect of induced periodontitis. Gel-based formulations containing plant substances are seen as an interesting strategy to treat periodontitis. Conclusions. In this systematic review, the state-of-the-art knowledge on the medicinal plants and the induced periodontitis was critically evaluated and discussed from the experiment designed to the possible clinical application. PMID:27738432

  17. Convergence beyond flower morphology? Reproductive biology of hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Maruyama, P K; Oliveira, P E

    2016-03-01

    Convergent reproductive traits in non-related plants may be the result of similar environmental conditions and/or specialised interactions with pollinators. Here, we documented the pollination and reproductive biology of Bionia coriacea (Fabaceae), Esterhazya splendida (Orobanchaceae) and Ananas ananassoides (Bromeliaceae) as case studies in the context of hummingbird pollination in Cerrado, the Neotropical savanna of Central South America. We combined our results with a survey of hummingbird pollination studies in the region to investigate the recently suggested association of hummingbird pollination and self-compatibility. Plant species studied here differed in their specialisation for ornithophily, from more generalist A. ananassoides to somewhat specialist B. coriacea and E. splendida. This continuum of specialisation in floral traits also translated into floral visitor composition. Amazilia fimbriata was the most frequent pollinator for all species, and the differences in floral display and nectar energy availability among plant species affect hummingbirds' behaviour. Most of the hummingbird-pollinated Cerrado plants (60.0%, n = 20), including those studied here, were self-incompatible, in contrast to other biomes in the Neotropics. Association to more generalist, often territorial, hummingbirds, and resulting reduced pollen flow in open savanna areas may explain predominance of self-incompatibility. But it is possible that mating system is more associated with the predominance of woody hummingbird plants in the Cerrado plant assemblage than to the pollination system itself.

  18. Nutrient Recovery of Plant Leachates Under Thermal, Biological, and Photocatalytic Pretreatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Les

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient recovery has always been a problem for long distance and long-term space missions. To allow humans to man these missions, a steady source of oxygen, water, and food are necessary for survival beyond Earth's atmosphere. Plants are currently an area of interest since they are capable of providing all three resources for life sustainability. We are currently interested in nutrient recovery for future plant growth and simple aqueous leachate extractions can recover some of the nutrients. However, leaching plants also removes water-soluble organic plant wastes, which inhibits plant growth if not separated properly. To combat the issues with waste and maximize nutrient recovery, we are attempting to pre-treat the plant matter using biological, thermal, and photocatalytic methods before subjecting the solution with variable-strength acid digestion. For the biological method, the inoculums: mixed heterotrophic/nitrifying bioreactor effluent and Trichoderma vessei are used in an attempt to liberate more nutrients from the plant matter. For the thermal method, plants are subjected to varying temperatures at different retention times to determine nutrient recovery. Lastly, the photocatalytic method utilizes TiO (sub 2)'s oxidizing abilities under specific pHs and retention times to reduce organic wastes and improve nutrient gains. A final acid digestion serves to liberate nutrients even further in order to maximize recovery. So far, we have tested ideal acid digestion variables for practicality and performance in our experiments. We found that a low retention time of 10 minutes and a high acid concentration of 0.1 and 1 mole HCl were the most effective at nutrient recovery. For space travel purposes, 0.1 mole currently looks like a viable acid digestion to use since it is relatively effective and sustainable from a mass and energy balance if acid recovery can be performed on waste brines. Biological pretreatments do not look to be too effective and the thermal and

  19. Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Ryder, Lauren S; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus.

  20. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sharifi-Rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  1. The Potential of Systems Biology to Discover Antibacterial Mechanisms of Plant Phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Caroline S.; Burris, Kellie P.; Lenaghan, Scott C.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance of bacterial pathogens is a growing problem that can be addressed through the discovery of compounds with novel mechanisms of antibacterial activity. Natural products, including plant phenolic compounds, are one source of diverse chemical structures that could inhibit bacteria through novel mechanisms. However, evaluating novel antibacterial mechanisms of action can be difficult and is uncommon in assessments of plant phenolic compounds. With systems biology approaches, though, antibacterial mechanisms can be assessed without the bias of target-directed bioassays to enable the discovery of novel mechanism(s) of action against drug resistant microorganisms. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of antibacterial mechanisms of action of plant phenolic compounds and discusses relevant methodology. PMID:28360902

  2. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Sureda, Antoni; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Valussi, Marco; Tundis, Rosa; Sharifi-Rad, Marzieh; Loizzo, Monica R; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Sharifi-Rad, Razieh; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdulmajid; Iriti, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  3. Data Mining Methods for Omics and Knowledge of Crude Medicinal Plants toward Big Data Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farit M. Afendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in metabolomics and related area, discusses several statistical methods for handling multivariate data and shows their application on Indonesian blended herbal medicines (Jamu as a case study. Exploration using Biplot reveals many plants are rarely utilized while some plants are highly utilized toward specific efficacy. Furthermore, the ingredients of Jamu formulas are modeled using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. This model produces 71.6% correct classification in predicting efficacy. Permutation test then is used to determine plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu formula by evaluating the significance of the PLS-DA coefficients. Next, in order to explain the role of plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu medicines, information of pharmacological activity of the plants is added to the predictor block. Then N-PLS-DA model, multiway version of PLS-DA, is utilized to handle the three-dimensional array of the predictor block. The resulting N-PLS-DA model reveals that the effects of some pharmacological activities are specific for certain efficacy and the other activities are diverse toward many efficacies. Mathematical modeling introduced in the present study can be utilized in global analysis of big data targeting to reveal the underlying biology.

  4. DATA MINING METHODS FOR OMICS AND KNOWLEDGE OF CRUDE MEDICINAL PLANTS TOWARD BIG DATA BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farit M. Afendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in metabolomics and related area, discusses several statistical methods for handling multivariate data and shows their application on Indonesian blended herbal medicines (Jamu as a case study. Exploration using Biplot reveals many plants are rarely utilized while some plants are highly utilized toward specific efficacy. Furthermore, the ingredients of Jamu formulas are modeled using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. This model produces 71.6% correct classification in predicting efficacy. Permutation test then is used to determine plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu formula by evaluating the significance of the PLS-DA coefficients. Next, in order to explain the role of plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu medicines, information of pharmacological activity of the plants is added to the predictor block. Then N-PLS-DA model, multiway version of PLS-DA, is utilized to handle the three-dimensional array of the predictor block. The resulting N-PLS-DA model reveals that the effects of some pharmacological activities are specific for certain efficacy and the other activities are diverse toward many efficacies. Mathematical modeling introduced in the present study can be utilized in global analysis of big data targeting to reveal the underlying biology.

  5. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants. Biologische Phosphatelimination - Betriebserfahrungen an drei Grossanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, P. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)); Telgmann, U. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)); Memmen, K. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

  6. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  7. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  8. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  9. Construction of biological control strain of Trichoderma viride and study of their ability to induce plant disease resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-wang; GUO Ze-jian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Plant diseases heavily affct plant growth and crop yield even in modern agriculture. Control its difficult because pathogens mutate frequently, and this leads in frequent breaking of disease resistance in commercial cultivars. The excessive application of chemical pesticides is not only producing pesticideresistant pathogens, but it is harming the environment threatening the health of human beings.Therefore, the use of biological control agents (BCA) may provide an environmental friendly alternative to chemicals for plant disease control. Hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are the typical expressions of plant defense reactions. Once SAR is established,, the plants exhibits a broad-spectrum of disease resistance against pathogen attack. Researchers have identified elicitor proteins, such as elicitins and harpins, which activate plant defense reactions. It would be useful to explore the possibility of using biological control agents to induce a status of SAR in crop plants.

  10. A simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of advanced control techniques in biological wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor O.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP are complex systems that incorporate a large number of biological, physicochemical and biochemical processes. They are large and nonlinear systems subject to great disturbances in incoming loads. The primary goal of a WWTP is to reduce pollutants and the second goal is disturbance rejection, in order to obtain good effluent quality. Modeling and computer simulations are key tools in the achievement of these two goals. They are essential to describe, predict and control the complicated interactions of the processes. Numerous control techniques (algorithms and control strategies (structures have been suggested to regulate WWTP; however, it is difficult to make a discerning performance evaluation due to the nonuniformity of the simulated plants used. The main objective of this paper is to present a benchmark of an entire biological wastewater treatment plant in order to evaluate, through simulations, different control techniques. This benchmark plays the role of an activated sludge process used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen from domestic effluents. The development of this simulator is based on models widely accepted by the international community and is implemented in Matlab/Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc. platform. The benchmark considers plant layout and the effects of influent characteristics. It also includes a test protocol for analyzing the open and closed-loop responses of the plant. Examples of control applications in the benchmark are implemented employing conventional PI controllers. The following common control strategies are tested: dissolved oxygen (DO concentration-based control, respirometry-based control and nitrate concentration-based control.

  11. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes and N Uptake by Coffee Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Sá Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manures are an alternative for substituting or supplementing mineral nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this study was to quantify biological N fixation (BNF and the N contribution derived from BNF (N-BNF to N levels in leaves of coffee intercropped with legumes grown on four family farms located in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following green manures were evaluated: pinto peanuts (Arachis pintoi, calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides, crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis, Brazilian stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lablab beans (Dolichos lablab, and velvet beans (Stizolobium deeringianum, and spontaneous plants. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a 4 × 8 factorial arrangement (four agricultural properties and eight green manures, and four replications. One hundred grams of fresh matter of each green manure plant were dried in an oven to obtain the dry matter. We then performed chemical and biochemical characterizations and determined the levels of 15N and 14N, which were used to quantify BNF through the 15N (δ15N natural abundance technique. The legumes C. mucunoides, S. guianensis, C. cajan, and D. lablab had the highest rates of BNF, at 46.1, 45.9, 44.4, and 42.9 %, respectively. C. cajan was the legume that contributed the largest amount of N (44.42 kg ha-1 via BNF.C. cajan, C. spectabilis, and C. mucunoides transferred 55.8, 48.8, and 48.1 %, respectively, of the N from biological fixation to the coffee plants. The use of legumes intercropped with coffee plants is important in supplying N, as well as in transferring N derived from BNF to nutrition of the coffee plants.

  12. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2017-09-27

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (effects of static EF on other biological functions in invertebrates and plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to

  13. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  14. Making the right connections: Network biology and plant immune system dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie E. McCormack

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis has been a recent focus in biological sciences due to its ability to synthesize global visualizations of cellular processes and predict functions based on inferences from network properties. A protein–protein interaction network, or interactome, captures the emergent cellular states from gene regulation and environmental conditions. Given that proteins are involved in extensive local and systemic molecular interactions such as signaling and metabolism, understanding protein functions and interactions are essential for a systems view of biology. However, in plant sciences these network-based approaches to data integration have been few and far between due to limited data, especially protein–protein interaction data. In this review, we cover network construction from experimental data, network analysis based on topological properties, and finally we discuss advances in networks in plants and other organisms in a comparative approach. We focus on applications of network biology to discover the dynamics of host–pathogen interactions as these have potential agricultural uses in improving disease resistance in commercial crops.

  15. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80% and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton’s reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and β-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals.

  16. Chemical constituents and biological research on plants in the genus Curcuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Chuanhong; Guo, Shuhui; Gao, Hongwei; Tao, Hongxun; Lu, Jinjian; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-05-03

    Curcuma, a valuable genus in the family Zingiberaceae, includes approximately 110 species. These plants are native to Southeast Asia and are extensively cultivated in India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Peru, Australia, and the West Indies. The plants have long been used in folk medicine to treat stomach ailments, stimulate digestion, and protect the digestive organs, including the intestines, stomach, and liver. In recent years, substantial progress has been achieved in investigations regarding the chemical and pharmacological properties, as well as in clinical trials of certain Curcuma species. This review comprehensively summarizes the current knowledge on the chemistry and briefly discusses the biological activities of Curcuma species. A total of 720 compounds, including 102 diphenylalkanoids, 19 phenylpropene derivatives, 529 terpenoids, 15 flavonoids, 7 steroids, 3 alkaloids, and 44 compounds of other types isolated or identified from 32 species, have been phytochemically investigated. The biological activities of plant extracts and pure compounds are classified into 15 groups in detail, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities.

  17. Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)

  18. Plant and microorganisms support media for electricity generation in biological fuel cells with living hydrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Juárez, María Guadalupe; Roquero, Pedro; Durán-Domínguez-de-Bazúa, María Del Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Plant support media may impact power output in a biological fuel cell with living plants, due to the physical and biochemical processes that take place in it. A material for support medium should provide the suitable conditions for the robust microbial growth and its metabolic activity, degrading organic matter and other substances; and, transferring electrons to the anode. To consider the implementation of this type of bio-electrochemical systems in constructed wetlands, this study analyzes the electrochemical behavior of biological fuel cells with the vegetal species Phragmites australis, by using two different support media: graphite granules and a volcanic slag, commonly known as tezontle (stone as light as hair, from the Aztec or Nahuatl language). Derived from the results, both, graphite and tezontle have the potential to be used as support medium for plants and microorganisms supporting a maximum power of 26.78mW/m(2) in graphite reactors. These reactors worked under mixed control: with ohmic and kinetic resistances of the same order of magnitude. Tezontle reactors operated under kinetic control with a high activation resistance supplying 9.73mW/m(2). These performances could be improved with stronger bacterial populations in the reactor, to ensure the rapid depletion of substrate.

  19. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Discharge of pharmaceutical products (PPs) through a conventional biological sewage treatment plant: MECs vs PECs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetsier, C M; Spinelli, S; Lin, L; Roig, B; Touraud, E

    2009-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals for human use are consumed in significant quantities and their occurrence in aquatic systems has been reported by a number of authors. In the context of environmental risk assessment, there is an increasing interest in evaluating the discharge of pharmaceutical products to surface waters through sewage treatment plants (STP). This case study was carried out on a conventional biological treatment plant (Alès, France) and focused on a set of eleven drugs representing the main therapeutic classes. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) range from the low ng L(-1) to 1.5 microg L(-1) in effluent and up to few hundred ng L(-1) in receiving surface waters. There is a good agreement between MEC and predicted environmental concentration (PEC) values for seven of the eleven investigated drugs in STP effluent. There is not such a good match between PEC and MEC values in surface waters, and this highlights the limits of this approach, at the local scale.

  1. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, John M.; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human...... that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying...... use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform...

  2. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradationa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Rosseel, Thomas M [ORNL; Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Le Pape, Yann [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.

  3. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne

    2017-08-30

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying approach to deliver innovative 'step changes' in the rate of genetic gain at scale.

  4. Endophytic colonization of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anna Kaja; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt

    -style. Clonostachys rosea occurs naturally world-wide and is capable of colonizing many different habitats. The fungus is primarily known as a versatile biological control agent. However, it has also been reported as a plant endophyte in, e.g., soybean, red clover and cacao. The C. rosea isolate IK726 efficiently...... in vermiculite or soil and grown at 24°C in a growth chamber. After two weeks, conidial suspensions of IK726 were applied to the roots either by root dipping or soil drenching around the stem and plants were subsequently incubated for at least two weeks before sampling for re-isolation of C. rosea. Stems were...... all culturable fungi. Therefore, root parts were washed only in water before incubation on the isolation medium and this revealed >50% colonization of the roots sections with C. rosea, irrespective of the inoculation method. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that C. rosea can live...

  5. Troubleshooting a Full-scale Wastewater Treatment Plant for Biological Nutrient Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleyiblo Oloche James

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Water Quality (IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No.2 (ASM2 was applied to troubleshoot an existing underperforming full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP built for biological nutrient removal. The WWTP is operated in a 3-stage pho-redox process configuration (A2O. This study was undertaken with the aim of finding optimal operating conditions that will meet TP and TN concentration requirements in the effluent of the WWTP under study without the use of either chemical or external carbon sources and also to verify the applicability, capability and predictability of ASM2 as implemented in STOAT software. ASM2 was successfully used to troubleshoot bottle neck areas and to define the operational schedule for optimal performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Consequently, the costs of chemical and external carbon sources were eliminated and the effect of residual chemicals on the environment reduced.

  6. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  7. Stable heterologous expression of biologically active terpenoids in green plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira; Zhan, Xin; Pan, Xiwu;

    2015-01-01

    many steps and difficult chemical reactions, resulting in a low final yield or incorrect stereochemistry. Several drug candidates with terpene skeletons are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesis due to their large number of chiral centers. Thus, biological production remains the preferred method...... in heterologous hosts. Although there are many examples of successful engineering of microbes such as yeast or bacteria to produce these compounds, this often requires extensive changes to the host organism's metabolism. Optimization of plant gene expression, post-translational protein modifications, subcellular...

  8. Generation of biologically active multi-sialylated recombinant human EPOFc in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Castilho

    Full Text Available Hyperglycosylated proteins are more stable, show increased serum half-life and less sensitivity to proteolysis compared to non-sialylated forms. This applies particularly to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO. Recent progress in N-glycoengineering of non-mammalian expression hosts resulted in in vivo protein sialylation at great homogeneity. However the synthesis of multi-sialylated N-glycans is so far restricted to mammalian cells. Here we used a plant based expression system to accomplish multi-antennary protein sialylation. A human erythropoietin fusion protein (EPOFc was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana ΔXTFT, a glycosylation mutant that lacks plant specific N-glycan residues. cDNA of the hormone was co-delivered into plants with the necessary genes for (i branching (ii β1,4-galactosylation as well as for the (iii synthesis, transport and transfer of sialic acid. This resulted in the production of recombinant EPOFc carrying bi- tri- and tetra-sialylated complex N-glycans. The formation of this highly complex oligosaccharide structure required the coordinated expression of 11 human proteins acting in different subcellular compartments at different stages of the glycosylation pathway. In vitro receptor binding assays demonstrate the generation of biologically active molecules. We demonstrate the in planta synthesis of one of the most complex mammalian glycoforms pointing to an outstanding high degree of tolerance to changes in the glycosylation pathway in plants.

  9. Enzymatic degradation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic plants and relations to biological Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A R; Sakakibara, Y

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the removal performance of trace phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by aquatic plants, batch and continuous experiments were conducted using floating and submerged plants. The EDCs used in this study were bisphenol A, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and nonylphenol. The feed concentration of each EDC was set at 100 μg/L. Continuous experiments showed that every EDC except pentachlorophenol was efficiently removed by different aquatic plants through the following reaction, catalyzed by peroxidases: EDCs+H(2)O(2)→Products+H(2)O(2). Peroxidases were able to remove phenolic EDCs in the presence of H(2)O(2) over a wide pH range (from 3 to 9). Histochemical localization of peroxidases showed that they were located in every part of the root cells, while highly concentrated zones were observed in the epidermis and in the vascular tissues. Although pentachlorophenol was not removed in the continuous treatment, it was rapidly removed by different aquatic plants when Fe(2+) was added, and this removal occurred simultaneously with the consumption of endogenous H(2)O(2). These results demonstrated the occurrence of a biological Fenton reaction and the importance of H(2)O(2) as a key endogenous substance in the treatment of EDCs and refractory toxic pollutants.

  10. MetNet Online: a novel integrated resource for plant systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucaet Yves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants are important as foods, pharmaceuticals, biorenewable chemicals, fuel resources, bioremediation tools and general tools for recombinant technology. The study of plant biological pathways is advanced by easy access to integrated data sources. Today, various plant data sources are scattered throughout the web, making it increasingly complicated to build comprehensive datasets. Results MetNet Online is a web-based portal that provides access to a regulatory and metabolic plant pathway database. The database and portal integrate Arabidopsis, soybean (Glycine max and grapevine (Vitis vinifera data. Pathways are enriched with known or predicted information on sub cellular location. MetNet Online enables pathways, interactions and entities to be browsed or searched by multiple categories such as sub cellular compartment, pathway ontology, and GO term. In addition to this, the “My MetNet” feature allows registered users to bookmark content and track, import and export customized lists of entities. Users can also construct custom networks using existing pathways and/or interactions as building blocks. Conclusion The site can be reached at http://www.metnetonline.org. Extensive video tutorials on how to use the site are available through http://www.metnetonline.org/tutorial/.

  11. Review: Biological fertilization and its effect on medicinal and aromatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID ALI KHALID

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Khalid KA. 2012. Review: Biological fertilization and its effect on medicinal and aromatic plants. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 124-133. The need of increase food production in the most of developing countries becomes an ultimate goal to meet the dramatic expansion of their population. However, this is also associated many cases with a reduction of the areas of arable land which leaves no opinion for farmers but to increase the yield per unit area through the use of improved the crop varieties, irrigation and fertilization. The major problem facing the farmer is that he cannot afford the cost of these goods, particularly that of chemical fertilizers. Moreover, in countries where fertilizer production relies on imported raw materials, the costs are even higher for farmer and for the country. Besides this, chemical fertilizers production and utilization are considered as air, soil and water polluting operations. The utilization of bio-fertilizers is considered today by many scientists as a promising alternative, particularly for developing countries. Bio-fertilization is generally based on altering the rhizosphere flora, by seed or soil inoculation with certain organisms, capable of inducing beneficial effects on a compatible host. Bio-fertilizers mainly comprise nitrogen fixes (Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirellum, Azolla or blue green algae, phosphate dissolvers or vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas and silicate bacteria. These organisms may affect their host plant by one or more mechanisms such as nitrogen fixation, production of growth promoting substances or organic acids, enhancing nutrient uptake or protection against plant pathogens. Growth characters, yield, essential oil and its constituents, fixed oil, carbohydrates, soluble sugars and nutrients contents of medicinal and aromatic plants were significantly affected by adding the biological fertilizers compared with recommended chemical fertilizers.

  12. The important of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dosmann; Andrew Groover

    2012-01-01

    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking towards the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support...

  13. MaRIE: an experimental facility concept revolutionizing materials in extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Cris W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-07

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) project intends to create an experimental facility that will revolutionize the control of materials in extremes. That control extends to extreme regimes where solid material has failed and begins to flow - the regimes of fluid dynamics and turbulent mixing. This presentation introduces the MaRIE facility concept, demonstrates examples of the science case that determine its functional requirements, and kicks-off the discussion of the decadal scientific challenges of mixing in extremes, including those MaRIE might address.

  14. Biological Invasion Influences the Outcome of Plant-Soil Feedback in the Invasive Plant Species from the Brazilian Semi-arid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena; da Silva Sandim, Aline

    2017-05-30

    Plant-soil feedback is recognized as the mutual interaction between plants and soil microorganisms, but its role on the biological invasion of the Brazilian tropical seasonal dry forest by invasive plants still remains unclear. Here, we analyzed and compared the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities and soil characteristics from the root zone of invasive and native plants, and tested how these AMF communities affect the development of four invasive plant species (Cryptostegia madagascariensis, Parkinsonia aculeata, Prosopis juliflora, and Sesbania virgata). Our field sampling revealed that AMF diversity and frequency of the Order Diversisporales were positively correlated with the root zone of the native plants, whereas AMF dominance and frequency of the Order Glomerales were positively correlated with the root zone of invasive plants. We grew the invasive plants in soil inoculated with AMF species from the root zone of invasive (I changed) and native (I unaltered) plant species. We also performed a third treatment with sterilized soil inoculum (control). We examined the effects of these three AMF inoculums on plant dry biomass, root colonization, plant phosphorous concentration, and plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas. We found that I unaltered and I changed promoted the growth of all invasive plants and led to a higher plant dry biomass, mycorrhizal colonization, and P uptake than control, but I changed showed better results on these variables than I unaltered. For plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas and fungal inoculum effect on plant P concentration, we found positive feedback between changed-AMF community (I changed) and three of the studied invasive plants: C. madagascariensis, P. aculeata, and S. virgata.

  15. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  16. Plant biology: From on-campus to on-line development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Lucy K.

    The lecture content of the Plant Biology class for non-majors was transformed from a traditional on-campus lecture to an asynchronous website that could be used both as a stand-alone course and as an adjunct to the on campus course sections. In addition, an interactive, on-line website with home laboratory experiments was developed and implemented by the Plant Biology Department in collaboration with design specialists from the Information Technology and Instructional Support Department of the Arizona State University. The 259-page lecture website included 134 interactive animations, as well as 11 videos. The lab website included 176 pages, with 187 graphics and 36 separate animations. Convenience was identified by most students as the key benefit of taking the course on-line. Website construction was rated highly by all of the students; however, website audio was problematic for 50% of them; video, for 71%. Students, staff, and faculty all agreed that to benefit fully from the website, adequate hardware, software, and internet connection speed were vital. Challenges with the web-based lab were either technological (inadequate equipment or skills), logistical (dissatisfaction with having to pick up home lab kits from campus), or motivational (student survey responses added to the growing literature that suggests that mature, focused, self-motivated students benefit more from distance learning).

  17. Optimal Plant Carbon Allocation Implies a Biological Control on Nitrogen Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, I. C.; Stocker, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    The degree to which nitrogen availability limits the terrestrial C sink under rising CO2 is a key uncertainty in carbon cycle and climate change projections. Results from ecosystem manipulation studies and meta-analyses suggest that plant C allocation to roots adjusts dynamically under varying degrees of nitrogen availability and other soil fertility parameters. In addition, the ratio of biomass production to GPP appears to decline under nutrient scarcity. This reflects increasing plant C exudation into the soil (Cex) with decreasing nutrient availability. Cex is consumed by an array of soil organisms and may imply an improvement of nutrient availability to the plant. Thus, N availability is under biological control, but incurs a C cost. In spite of clear observational support, this concept is left unaccounted for in Earth system models. We develop a model for the coupled cycles of C and N in terrestrial ecosystems to explore optimal plant C allocation under rising CO2 and its implications for the ecosystem C balance. The model follows a balanced growth approach, accounting for the trade-offs between leaf versus root growth and Cex in balancing C fixation and N uptake. We assume that Cex is proportional to root mass, and that the ratio of N uptake (Nup) to Cex is proportional to inorganic N concentration in the soil solution. We further assume that Cex is consumed by N2-fixing processes if the ratio of Nup:Cex falls below the inverse of the C cost of N2-fixation. Our analysis thereby accounts for the feedbacks between ecosystem C and N cycling and stoichiometry. We address the question of how the plant C economy will adjust under rising atmospheric CO2 and what this implies for the ecosystem C balance and the degree of N limitation.

  18. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  19. Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Wastewater Organic Matter from a Biological Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hye Park

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic and chromatographic changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM characteristics of influent and treated sewage were investigated for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP with a biological advanced process. Refractory DOM (R-DOM was defined as the dissolved organic carbon concentrations of the samples after 28-day incubation for this study. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA, hydrophobicity, synchronous fluorescence spectra and molecular weight (MW distributions were selected as DOM characteristics. The percent distribution of R-DOM for the effluent was much higher than that of the influent, indicating that biodegradable DOM was selectively removed during the process. Comparison of the influent versus the effluent sewage revealed that SUVA, fulvic-like fluorescence (FLF, humic-like fluorescence (HLF, the apparent MW values were enhanced during the treatment. This suggests that more aromatic and humic-like compounds were enriched during the biological process. No significant difference in the DOM characteristics was observed between the original effluent (i.e., prior to the incubation and the influent sewage after the incubation. This result suggests that the major changes in wastewater DOM characteristics occurring during the biological advanced process were similar to those for simple microbial incubation.

  20. An evaluation of two hands-on lab styles for plant biodiversity in undergraduate biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basey, John M; Maines, Anastasia P; Francis, Clinton D; Melbourne, Brett

    2014-01-01

    We compared learning cycle and expository formats for teaching about plant biodiversity in an inquiry-oriented university biology lab class (n = 465). Both formats had preparatory lab activities, a hands-on lab, and a postlab with reflection and argumentation. Learning was assessed with a lab report, a practical quiz in lab, and a multiple-choice exam in the concurrent lecture. Attitudes toward biology and treatments were also assessed. We used linear mixed-effect models to determine impacts of lab style on lower-order cognition (LO) and higher-order cognition (HO) based on Bloom's taxonomy. Relative to the expository treatment, the learning cycle treatment had a positive effect on HO and a negative effect on LO included in lab reports; a positive effect on transfer of LO from the lab report to the quiz; negative impacts on LO quiz performance and on attitudes toward the lab; and a higher degree of perceived difficulty. The learning cycle treatment had no influence on transfer of HO from lab report to quiz or exam; quiz performance on HO questions; exam performance on LO and HO questions; and attitudes toward biology as a science. The importance of LO as a foundation for HO relative to these lab styles is addressed.

  1. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of /sup 26/Al, /sup 49/V, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 93/Nb, and /sup 94/Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs.

  2. MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana Database (MAtDB): an integrated biological knowledge resource for plant genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Heiko; Ernst, Rebecca; Nazarov, Vladimir; Pfeifer, Lukas; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely studied model plant. Functional genomics is intensively underway in many laboratories worldwide. Beyond the basic annotation of the primary sequence data, the annotated genetic elements of Arabidopsis must be linked to diverse biological data and higher order information such as metabolic or regulatory pathways. The MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana database MAtDB aims to provide a comprehensive resource for Arabidopsis as a genome model that serves as a primary reference for research in plants and is suitable for transfer of knowledge to other plants, especially crops. The genome sequence as a common backbone serves as a scaffold for the integration of data, while, in a complementary effort, these data are enhanced through the application of state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools. This information is visualized on a genome-wide and a gene-by-gene basis with access both for web users and applications. This report updates the information given in a previous report and provides an outlook on further developments. The MAtDB web interface can be accessed at http://mips.gsf.de/proj/thal/db.

  3. Metabolic versatility in full-scale wastewater treatment plants performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Ana B; Oehmen, Adrian; Saunders, Aaron M; Carvalho, Gilda; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2013-12-01

    This study analysed the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) microbial community and metabolic performance of five full-scale EBPR systems by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation combined with off-line batch tests fed with acetate under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) in all systems were stable and showed little variability between each plant, while glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were present in two of the plants. The metabolic activity of each sludge showed the frequent involvement of the anaerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) in PAO metabolism for the anaerobic generation of reducing equivalents, in addition to the more frequently reported glycolysis pathway. Metabolic variability in the use of the two pathways was also observed, between different systems and in the same system over time. The metabolic dynamics was linked to the availability of glycogen, where a higher utilisation of the glycolysis pathway was observed in the two systems employing side-stream hydrolysis, and the TCA cycle was more active in the A(2)O systems. Full-scale plants that showed higher glycolysis activity also exhibited superior P removal performance, suggesting that promotion of the glycolysis pathway over the TCA cycle could be beneficial towards the optimisation of EBPR systems.

  4. G Quadruplex in Plants: A Ubiquitous Regulatory Element and Its Biological Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Yadav

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available G quadruplexes (G4 are higher-order DNA and RNA secondary structures formed by G-rich sequences that are built around tetrads of hydrogen-bonded guanine bases. Potential G4 quadruplex sequences have been identified in G-rich eukaryotic non-telomeric and telomeric genomic regions. Upon function, G4 formation is known to involve in chromatin remodeling, gene regulation and has been associated with genomic instability, genetic diseases and cancer progression. The natural role and biological validation of G4 structures is starting to be explored, and is of particular interest for the therapeutic interventions for human diseases. However, the existence and physiological role of G4 DNA and G4 RNA in plants species have not been much investigated yet and therefore, is of great interest for the development of improved crop varieties for sustainable agriculture. In this context, several recent studies suggests that these highly diverse G4 structures in plants can be employed to regulate expression of genes involved in several pathophysiological conditions including stress response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as DNA damage. In the current review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the emerging functional significance of G4 structures in plants and discuss their potential value in the development of improved crop varieties.

  5. Considering scientific application of RHS biological scale for plant varieties identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms in nature harmonize through the medium of light spectrum and sound vibration. Therefore the issue of applying the scientific customization of color scale to identification of vegetative and generative parts of plans remain up to date, namely: identification if states of expression for hues of green color of stem and foliage, variability of color range for petals of follower corolla, coloration of pericarp and seed etc. A scientific rationale is provided to the application of RHS during the qualifying examination of plant varieties by way of identification – morphological description. This also disclosed the application of RHS to visualize various qualitative and pseudo-qualitative morphological characteristics of vegetative and generative parts of plants. The performed chronological monitoring of stag-by-stage introduction of standardization of living biological items enabled to establish a customized gradation of colors and their hues expression. Ensuring completeness of the morphological code formula for plant varieties requires compulsory identification of their colors and hues, as the Guidelines for the conduct of test on distinctness, uniformity and stability so provide for relevant botanical taxon.

  6. Biological concentration of radionuclides in plants and animals after Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Ryo, Haruko; Nomura, Taisei [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Tadashi; Yeliseeva, K.G.; Piskunov, V.S.; Krupnova, E.V.; Voitovich, A.M.

    2000-07-01

    The {sup 137}Cs radioactivity and its distribution in plants (trees, mushrooms, berries, duckweed, and etc.) and animals (insects, mice, fish, and etc.) were measured in contaminated areas of southern Belarus, which was highly polluted by radionuclides as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Ukraine in 1986. Gamma spectrometry of {sup 137}Cs was carried out, and a computer graphic imaging analysis was performed to visualize the distribution of radioactive nuclides in the organisms. The specimen was placed on the imaging plate, the plate was exposed for 20 h. High {sup 137}Cs radioactivity was detected in both the animals (mice, moles, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and fish) and the plants (pine trees, oak leaves, mushrooms, berries, duckweed). The {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the organisms was proportional to the radioactivity in the soil. Assessment of its distribution showed that {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated in muscle, but there were no substantial differences in {sup 137}Cs radioactivity according to organ or species. Computer graphic imaging analysis clearly revealed non-uniform distribution of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the animals and plants. In pine trees, the highest level of radioactivity was found in the bark, and it decreased toward the center of the tree. In conclusion, the authors suggest that self-cleaning of the soil will require a very long time and that the biological concentrations will persist and increase in higher animals for a long time, resulting in accumulation of both external and internal radiation exposure in animals. (K.H.)

  7. Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures

  8. Advancements in mass spectrometry for biological samples: Protein chemical cross-linking and metabolite analysis of plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Adam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work on advancements and applications of methodology for the analysis of biological samples using mass spectrometry. Included in this work are improvements to chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) for the study of protein structures and mass spectrometry imaging and quantitative analysis to study plant metabolites. Applications include using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to further explore metabolic heterogeneity in plant tissues and chemical interactions at the interface between plants and pests. Additional work was focused on developing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods to investigate metabolites associated with plant-pest interactions.

  9. Biological Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis : Progress to Date

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malviya, Gaurav; Salemi, Simonetta; Lagana, Bruno; Diamanti, Andrea Picchianti; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Signore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Biologic drugs for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have revolutionized the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies, which include murine, chimeric, humanized, fully human antibodies and fusion proteins. These biologics bind to their targets w

  10. Biological conversion assay using Clostridium phytofermentans to estimate plant feedstock quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Scott J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently considerable interest in developing renewable sources of energy. One strategy is the biological conversion of plant biomass to liquid transportation fuel. Several technical hurdles impinge upon the economic feasibility of this strategy, including the development of energy crops amenable to facile deconstruction. Reliable assays to characterize feedstock quality are needed to measure the effects of pre-treatment and processing and of the plant and microbial genetic diversity that influence bioconversion efficiency. Results We used the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans to develop a robust assay for biomass digestibility and conversion to biofuels. The assay utilizes the ability of the microbe to convert biomass directly into ethanol with little or no pre-treatment. Plant samples were added to an anaerobic minimal medium and inoculated with C. phytofermentans, incubated for 3 days, after which the culture supernatant was analyzed for ethanol concentration. The assay detected significant differences in the supernatant ethanol from wild-type sorghum compared with brown midrib sorghum mutants previously shown to be highly digestible. Compositional analysis of the biomass before and after inoculation suggested that differences in xylan metabolism were partly responsible for the differences in ethanol yields. Additionally, we characterized the natural genetic variation for conversion efficiency in Brachypodium distachyon and shrub willow (Salix spp.. Conclusion Our results agree with those from previous studies of lignin mutants using enzymatic saccharification-based approaches. However, the use of C. phytofermentans takes into consideration specific organismal interactions, which will be crucial for simultaneous saccharification fermentation or consolidated bioprocessing. The ability to detect such phenotypic variation facilitates the genetic analysis of mechanisms underlying plant feedstock quality.

  11. Vascular plant removal effects on biological N fixation vary across a boreal forest island gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundale, Michael J; Wardle, David A; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2010-06-01

    There is currently much interest in understanding how biodiversity loss affects the functioning of ecosystems, but few studies have evaluated how ecosystem processes change in response to one another following biodiversity loss. We focused on a well-described gradient of 30 forested lake islands in northern Sweden, where island size determines the occurrence of lightning-ignited wildfire, which in turn determines successional stage, plant species composition, and productivity. We investigated the effect of biodiversity loss on biological nitrogen fixation by feathermosses through an experiment consisting of factorial removals of three understory shrub species (Vaccinium myrtillis, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, and Empetrum hermaphroditum) and two plant functional groups (shrubs and tree roots). We tested the hypothesis that, following vascular plant species loss, N fixation rates would be impaired by changes in pools or processes that increase extractable soil N, because changes in the supply rate of N to feathermosses should influence their demand for newly fixed N. Further, we hypothesized that the effects of removals on N fixation would depend on environmental context (i.e., island size), because it has been previously demonstrated that the effect of vascular plant species removal on N recycling pools and processes was strongest on productive islands. The data demonstrated that removal of two shrub species (V. vitis-idaea and E. hermaphroditum) negatively aflected the N fixation of Hylocomium splendens, but positively affected Pleurozium schreberi, resulting in unchanged areal N fixation rates. In the functional removal experiment, tree root removal resulted in a significant negative effect on N fixation. The effects of shrub and root removals on N fixation occurred only on small islands and thus were context dependent. This pattern did not correspond to the effect of shrub and root removal treatments on N-recycling pools or processes, which only occurred in response

  12. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  13. Reproductive Biology of Mangrove Plants Clerodendrum inerme, Derris trifoliata, Suaeda maritima, Suaeda monoica, Suaeda nudiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluri Jacob Solomon Raju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Floral biology, sexual system, breeding system, pollinators, fruiting and seed dispersal aspects of five mangrove associate species, namely, Clerodendrum inerme, Derris trifoliata, Suaeda maritima, S. monoica, and S. nudiflora were studied. All these species are hermaphroditic, self-compatible, and exhibit mixed breeding systems adapted for pollination by external agents. C. inerme and D. trifoliata are principally entomophilous, while Suaeda species are ambophilous. The study suggests that these plant species are important constituents of mangrove forests. C. inerme and D. trifoliata are useful in stabilizing the banks of back water creeks, while Suaeda species are useful to carpet the saline areas and desalinate the soils which are subsequently useful for agricultural activities.

  14. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  15. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Rosseel, Thomas M [ORNL; Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Pape, Yann Le [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2016-01-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) values in the concrete biological shields of the US PWR fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to assure reliable risk assessment for NPPs extended operation.

  16. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  17. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  18. Revolutionizing collaboration through e-work, e-business, and e-service

    CERN Document Server

    Nof, Shimon Y; Jeong, Wootae; Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration in highly distributed organizations of people, robots, and autonomous systems is and must be revolutionized by engineering augmentation. The aim is to augment humans’ abilities at work and, through this augmentation, improve organizations’ abilities to accomplish their missions. This book establishes the theoretical foundations and design principles of collaborative e-Work, e-Business and e-Service, their models and applications, design and implementation techniques. The fundamental premise is that without effective e-Work and e-Services, the potential of emerging activities, such as e-Commerce, virtual manufacturing, tele-robotic medicine, automated construction, smart energy grid, cyber-supported agriculture, and intelligent transportation cannot be fully materialized. Typically, workers and managers of such value networks are frustrated with complex information systems, originally designed and built to simplify and improve performance. Even if the human-computer interface for such systems...

  19. Removal of micropollutants through a biological wastewater treatment plant in a subtropical climate, Queensland-Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Miguel Antonio Reyes; Ali, Imtiaj; Lai, Foon Yin; Dawes, Les; Thier, Ricarda; Rajapakse, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Municipal wastewaters contain a multitude of organic compounds derived from domestic and industrial sources including active components of pharmaceutical and personal care products and compounds used in agriculture, such as pesticides, or food processing such as artificial sweeteners often referred to as micropollutants. Some of these compounds or their degradation products may have detrimental effects on the environment, wildlife and humans. Acesuflame is one of the most popular artificial sweeteners to date used in foodstuffs. The main objectives of this descriptive study were to evaluate the presence of micropollutants in both the influent and effluent of a large-scale conventional biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in South-East Queensland receiving wastewater from households, hospitals and various industries. Based on USEPA Method 1694: Filtered samples were spiked with mass-labelled chemical standards and then analysed for the micropollutants using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The presence of thirty-eight compounds were detected in the wastewater influent to the treatment plant while nine of the compounds in the categories of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, alkaloid and lipid/cholesterol lowering drugs were undetectable (100 % removed) in the effluent. They were: Analgesic: Paracetamol, Salicylic acid, Oxycodone; Anti-inflammatory: Naproxen + ve, Atorvastatin, Indomethacin, Naproxen; Alkaloid: Caffeine; Lipid/cholesterol lowering: Gemfibrozol. The study results revealed that the micropollutants removal through this biological treatment process was similar to previous research reported from other countries including Europe the Americas and Asia, except for acesulfame, a highly persistent artificial sweetener. Surprisingly, acesulfame was diminished to a much greater extent (>90 %) than previously reported research for this type of WWTPs (45-65 %) that only include physical removal of objects and solids and a

  20. Plant molecular biology and biotechnology research in the post-recombinant DNA era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Khurana, Jitendra P

    2003-01-01

    After the beginning of the recombinant DNA era in the mid-1970s, researchers in India started to make use of the new technology to understand the structure of plant genes and regulation of their expression. The outcome started to appear in print in early the 1980s and genes for histones, tubulin, photosynthetic membrane proteins, phototransduction components, organelles and those regulated differentially by developmental and extrinsic signals were sequenced and characterized. Some genes of biotechnological importance like those encoding an interesting seed protein and the enzyme glyoxalase were also isolated. While work on the characterization of genome structure and organization was started quite early, it remained largely focused on the identification of DNA markers and genetic variability. In this context, the work on mustard, rice and wheat is worth mentioning. In the year 2000, India became a member of the international consortium to sequence entire rice genome. Several laboratories have also given attention to regulated expression of plastid and nuclear genes as well as to isolate target-specific promoters or design promoters with improved potential. Simultaneously, transgenic systems for crops like mustard, rice, wheat, cotton, legumes and several vegetables have been established. More recently, genes of agronomic importance like those for insect resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, nutritional improvement and male sterility, isolated in India or abroad, have been utilized for raising transgenics for crop improvement. Some of these transgenics have already shown their potential in containment facility or limited field trials conducted under the stipulated guidelines. Plant molecular biology and biotechnology are thus clearly poised to make an impact on research in basic biology and agriculture in the near future.

  1. Synthesis of Biomass and Utilization of Plant Wastes in a Physical Model of a Biological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Kudenko, Yu A.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gribovksaya, I. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Zolotukkhin, I. G.; Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    Biological life support systems (LSS) with highly closed intrasystem mass ex change mass ex change hold much promise for long-term human life support at planetary stations (Moon, Mars, etc.). The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotroph block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas ex change in such a system consists of respiratory gas ex change of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas ex change dynamics of high plants -SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas ex change and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and age of plants has been established. SLS fertility has been shown to depend on its thickness and phase of maturity. The biogenic elements (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen) in Liebig minimum have been found to include nitrogen which is the first to impair plants' growth in disruption of the process conditions. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances -products of ex change of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover. In multiple recycle of the mat ter (more than 5 cycles) under the irradiance intensity of 150 W/m2 PAR and the SLS mass (dry weight) of 17.7 -19.9 kg/m2 average total harvest of

  2. Thermochemical pretreatments of organic fraction of municipal solid waste from a mechanical-biological treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; de los Ángeles Romero Aguilar, María; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-02-09

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160-180-200 °C, 3.5-5.0-6.5 bar and 2-3-4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process.

  3. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  4. Current good manufacturing practice in plant automation of biological production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorresteijn, R C; Wieten, G; van Santen, P T; Philippi, M C; de Gooijer, C D; Tramper, J; Beuvery, E C

    1997-01-01

    The production of biologicals is subject to strict governmental regulations. These are drawn up in current good manufacturing practices (cGMP), a.o. by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. To implement cGMP in a production facility, plant automation becomes an essential tool. For this purpose Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) have been developed that control all operations inside a production facility. The introduction of these recipe-driven control systems that follow ISA S88 standards for batch processes has made it possible to implement cGMP regulations in the control strategy of biological production processes. Next to this, an MES offers additional features such as stock management, planning and routing tools, process-dependent control, implementation of software sensors and predictive models, application of historical data and on-line statistical techniques for trend analysis and detection of instrumentation failures. This paper focuses on the development of new production strategies in which cGMP guidelines are an essential part.

  5. Thermochemical Pretreatments of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste from a Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Alvarez-Gallego

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC. The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160–180–200 °C, 3.5–5.0–6.5 bar and 2–3–4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process.

  6. TERPENOIDS FROM THE STEM BARK OF JATROPHA PLANTS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manggau Marianti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Three terpenoids, including two diterpenes (curcusone B and jatrophone and a triterpene (stigmasterol have beenisolated from the stem bark of Jatropha plants. Curcusone B and stigmasterol were isolated from J. curcas, meanwhilejatrophone and stigmasterol were from J. gossypifolia. The biological activities of these compounds have beenevaluated toward bacteria, fungi and tumour cells. Isolation was carried out in vacuum liqiud cromatography (VLCtechnique with silica gel as an adsorben and some solvents as eluents. The compound structures were determined byspectroscopic methodes i.e. UV-vis, FTIR, NMR (1-D, 2-D and were then compared based on their spectroscopic datawith similiar data from literatures. The biological properties of these compounds were evaluated against four strains ofbacteria (Acetobacter sp., Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus sp., 4 strains of fungi (Aspergilusniger, Penicillium sp. (grey, Penicillium sp. (white and Rhizopus sp. and murine leukemia P-388 cells. The resultsshowed that cytotoxic property of curcusone B towards murine leukemia P-388 cells is better than jatrophone andstigmasterol which are IC50 = 0.57 μg/mL (1.93 μM for curcusone B and IC50 > 100 μg/mL for jatrophone andstigmasterol. Meanwhile, activities against bacteria, jatrophone is better than curcusone B and stigmasterol. Jatrophoneis the most active against S. aureus (bacteria with growth inhibition zone 36 mm and A.niger (fungi is 44 mm. Furtherstudy indicated that jatrophone was bacteriostatic against S. aureus.

  7. Stepwise screening of microorganisms for commercial use in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Biological Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Postma, J.; Nicot, P.; Ruocco, M.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new biocontrol products against plant diseases requires screening of high numbers of candidate antagonists. Antagonists for commercial use have to fulfill many different requirements. Besides being active against the specific targeted plant pathogens they must be safe and cost-eff

  8. Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galberto M da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods : Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Cearα state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor compounds. The larvicidal activity, based on the percentage of larval mortality, was evaluated after 24 h exposure to the treatments. Results: All species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compound and literature data. The extract from Vanillosmopsis arborea was the most active with an LC 50 of 3.9 μg/ml. Best results were shown by Lantana montevidensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 8μg/ml] and Escherichia coli (MIC 32 μg/ml, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium against E. coli (MIC, 256 μg/ml and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml and Croton zenhtneri against S. aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml. Conclusion: Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes was present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays.

  9. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M.; Field, Kevin G.; Le Pape, Yann

    2016-02-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC0500OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  10. High Throughput Extraction of Plant, Marine and Fungal Specimens for Preservation of Biologically Active Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. McCloud

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI, at its NCI-Frederick facility, has built perhaps the largest and most diverse natural products screening library in the world for drug discovery. Composed of plant, marine organism and microbial extracts, it currently contains in excess of 230,000 unique materials. From the inception of this program to identify new anticancer chemotherapeutics from natural products sources in 1987, two extracts have been sequentially prepared from each specimen: one produced by organic solvent extraction, which yields a complex material that contains non- to moderately polar small molecules, and a water-soluble extract, a milieu largely unexplored for useful drugs in earlier years, which contains polar small to medium-sized molecules. Plant specimens and microbial ferments are extracted by modified traditional methods, while the method developed to produce extracts from marine organisms is unique and very different from that used by marine natural products chemists previously, but again yields both an organic solvent soluble and a water soluble material for inclusion into the screening library. Details of high throughput extract production for preservation of biologically active molecules are presented.

  11. History on the biological nitrogen fixation research in graminaceous plants: special emphasis on the Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Baldani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the history on Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF in Graminaceous plants grown in Brazil, and describes research progress made over the last 40 years, most of whichwas coordinated by Johanna Döbereiner. One notable accomplishment during this period was the discovery of several nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as the rhizospheric (Beijerinckia fluminensis and Azotobacter paspali, associative (Azospirillum lipoferum, A. brasilense, A. amazonense and the endophytic (Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Burkholderia brasilensis and B. tropica. The role of these diazotrophs in association with grasses, mainly with cereal plants, has been studied and a lot of progress has been achieved in the ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. The mechanisms of colonization and infection of the plant tissues are better understood, and the BNF contribution to the soil/plant system has been determined. Inoculation studies with diazotrophs showed that endophytic bacteria have a much higher BNF contribution potential than associative diazotrophs. In addition, it was found that the plant genotype influences the plant/bacteria association. Recent data suggest that more studies should be conducted on the endophytic association to strengthen the BNF potential. The ongoing genome sequencing programs: RIOGENE (Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and GENOPAR (Herbaspirillum seropedicae reflect the commitment to the BNF study in Brazil and should allow the country to continue in the forefront of research related to the BNF process in Graminaceous plants.A presente revisão aborda a história da Fixação Biológica de Nitrogênio (FBN em Gramíneas no Brasil, procurando mostrar a evolução da pesquisa na área iniciada a mais de 40 anos sob a liderança da pesquisadora Johanna Döbereiner. Um aspecto marcante deste período foi a descoberta de diversas bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosf

  12. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  13. Floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of Mussambê (Cleome spinosa Jacq aiming at the plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Some plants from Cleome genus in Capparaceae family are used as medicinal and ornamental plants. The aim of this work was to study the fl oral biology and the reproductive mechanisms of C. spinosa to the plant breeding. Anthesis occurred between 17:30 to 18:30. The anthesis process is intimately related to climatic conditions. The main flower visitors were bees (Apis, Bombus, butterflies and bats (Glossophaga. Cleome spinosa presents mating system with predominance of outcrossing over the self-crossing, what it can evidences the wide reproductive flexibility of this species and emphasize the genetic variability, which is essential for evolution.

  14. [Effects of biological organic fertilizer on microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Gu, Jie; Hu, Ting; Gao, Hua; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Qin, Qing-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Zhashui County of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China in 2011 to study the effects of biological organic fertilizer on the microbial community's metabolic activity in a soil planted with chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Three treatments were installed, i. e., control, compound fertilizer, and biological organic fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at harvest, and the metabolic activity was tested by Biolog method. In the treatment of biological organic fertilizer, the average well color development, Shannon evenness, richness, and McIntosh indices of microbial community were all significantly higher than the other two treatments. As compared with the control, applying biological organic fertilizer improved the ability of soil microbes in utilizing the carbon sources of carbohydrates and polymers, while applying compound fertilizer was in opposite. The principal component analysis demonstrated that there was an obvious difference in the soil microbial community among different treatments, mainly depending on the species of carbohydrates and amino acids.

  15. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhy, Islam S; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Turlings, Ted C J

    2014-04-05

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of compounds that can be applied to cultivated plants in order to 'boost their vigour, resilience and performance'. Studies into the consequences of boosting plant resistance against pests and diseases on plant volatiles have found a surprising and dramatic increase in the plants' attractiveness to parasitic wasps. Here, we summarize the results from these studies and present new results from assays that illustrate the great potential of two commercially available resistance elicitors. We argue that plant strengtheners may currently be the best option to enhance the attractiveness of cultivated plants to biological control agents. Other options, such as the genetic manipulation of the release of specific volatiles may offer future solutions, but in most systems, we still miss fundamental knowledge on which key attractants should be targeted for this approach.

  16. Evaluation of an ethnopharmacologically selected Bhutanese medicinal plants for their major classes of phytochemicals and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Keller, Paul A; Pyne, Stephen G; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Tonsomboon, Aunchalee; Rattanajak, Roonglawan; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee

    2011-09-01

    As many as 229 medicinal plants have been currently used in the Bhutanese Traditional Medicine (BTM) as a chief ingredient of polyherbal formulations and these plants have been individually indicated for treating various types of infections including malaria, tumor, and microbial. We have focused our study only on seven species of these plants. We aim to evaluate the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities of the seven medicinal plants of Bhutan selected using an ethno-directed bio-rational approach. This study creates a scientific basis for their use in the BTM and gives foundation for further phytochemical and biological evaluations which can result in the discovery of new drug lead compounds. A three stage process was conducted which consisted of: (1) an assessment of a pharmacopoeia and a formulary book of the BTM for their mode of plant uses; (2) selecting 25 anti-infective medicinal plants based on the five established criteria, collecting them, and screening for their major classes of phytochemicals using appropriate test protocols; and (3) finally analyzing the crude extracts of the seven medicinal plants, using the standard test protocols, for their antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities as directed by the ethnopharmacological uses of each plant. Out of 25 medicinal plants screened for their major classes of phytochemicals, the majority contained tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Out of the seven plant species investigated for their biological activities, all seven of them exhibited mild antimicrobial properties, five plants gave significant in vitro antiplasmodial activities, two plants gave moderate anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense activity, and one plant showed mild cytotoxicity. Meconopsis simplicifolia showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 0.40 μg/ml against TM4/8.2 strain (a wild type chloroquine and

  17. Natural flightless morphs of the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata improve biological control of aphids on single plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.; Middendorp, C.W.; Luijten, C.A.; Schelt, van J.; Brakefield, P.M.; Jong, de P.W.

    2008-01-01

    The challenge of using ladybird beetles for biological control of insect pests such as aphids is that the adult beetles tend to fly away from the host plants. Therefore, flightless ladybirds might improve biocontrol. There are several artificial ways to obtain flightless beetles, but it may be prefe

  18. Population dynamics in wastewater treatment plants with enhanced biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, N.; Jansen, J.l.C.; Aspegren, H.

    2002-01-01

    The population dynamics of activated sludge in a pilot plant with two activated sludge systems, both designed for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), but one of them with (BNP) and the other without (BP) nitrogen removal, was monitored during a period of 2.5 years. The influent water...

  19. An improved method to quantitate mature plant microRNA in biological matrices using periodate treatment and internal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) ubiquitously exist in microorganisms, plants and animals, and appear to modulate a wide range of critical biological processes. However, no definitive conclusion has been reached regarding the uptake of exogenous dietary small RNAs into mammalian circulation and organs and cross-k...

  20. Non-Western Students' Causal Reasoning about Biologically Adaptive Changes in Humans, Other Animals and Plants: Instructional and Curricular Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbajiorgu, Ngozika; Anidu, Innocent

    2017-01-01

    Senior secondary school students (N = 360), 14- to 18-year-olds, from the Igbo culture of eastern Nigeria responded to a questionnaire requiring them to give causal explanations of biologically adaptive changes in humans, other animals and plants. A student subsample (n = 36) was, subsequently, selected for in-depth interviews. Significant…

  1. ARADISH - Development of a Standardized Plant Growth Chamber for Experiments in Gravitational Biology Using Ground Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Oliver; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Hauslage, Jens; Kesseler, Leona; Böhmer, Maik; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Plant development strongly relies on environmental conditions. Growth of plants in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS), which are a necessity to allow human survival during long-term space exploration missions, poses a particular problem for plant growth, as in addition to the traditional environmental factors, microgravity (or reduced gravity such as on Moon or Mars) and limited gas exchange hamper plant growth. Studying the effects of reduced gravity on plants requires real or simulated microgravity experiments under highly standardized conditions, in order to avoid the influence of other environmental factors. Analysis of a large number of biological replicates, which is necessary for the detection of subtle phenotypical differences, can so far only be achieved in Ground Based Facilities (GBF). Besides different experimental conditions, the usage of a variety of different plant growth chambers was a major factor that led to a lack of reproducibility and comparability in previous studies. We have developed a flexible and customizable plant growth chamber, called ARAbidopsis DISH (ARADISH), which allows plant growth from seed to seedling, being realized in a hydroponic system or on Agar. By developing a special holder, the ARADISH can be used for experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana or a plant with a similar habitus on common GBF hardware, including 2D clinostats and Random Positioning Machines (RPM). The ARADISH growth chamber has a controlled illumination system of red and blue light emitting diodes (LED), which allows the user to apply defined light conditions. As a proof of concept we tested a prototype in a proteomic experiment in which plants were exposed to simulated microgravity or a 90° stimulus. We optimized the design and performed viability tests after several days of growth in the hardware that underline the utility of ARADISH in microgravity research.

  2. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology.

  3. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant was compared for a series of model assumptions. Three different model approaches describing BNR are considered. In the reference case, the original model implementations are used to simulate WWTP1 (ASM1 & 3) and WWTP2 (ASM2d). The second set of models includes a reactive settler, which extends the description of the non-reactive TSS sedimentation and transport in the reference case with the full set of ASM processes. Finally, the third set of models is based on including electron acceptor dependency of biomass decay rates for ASM1 (WWTP1) and ASM2d (WWTP2). The results show that incorporation of a reactive settler: (1) increases the hydrolysis of particulates; (2) increases the overall plant's denitrification efficiency by reducing the S(NOx) concentration at the bottom of the clarifier; (3) increases the oxidation of COD compounds; (4) increases X(OHO) and X(ANO) decay; and, finally, (5) increases the growth of X(PAO) and formation of X(PHA,Stor) for ASM2d, which has a major impact on the whole P removal system. Introduction of electron acceptor dependent decay leads to a substantial increase of the concentration of X(ANO), X(OHO) and X(PAO) in the bottom of the clarifier. The paper ends with a critical discussion of the influence of the different model assumptions, and emphasizes the need for a model user to understand the significant differences in simulation results that are obtained when applying different combinations of 'standard' models.

  4. Floral biology of Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. (Asteraceae, a rare Central European steppe plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the flowering phase and plant pollination ecology is very important for understanding the life history of long-lived perennials. In the case of rare species, the information may have implications for conservation practices. Our studies on flower morphology and blooming biology of the vulnerable plant Senecio macrophyllus M. BIEB. were conducted in situ (flowering, activity of insect visitors in the largest population in SE Poland and in laboratory (light and scanning electron microscopy. The disc florets open diurnally with most intensive anthesis in the early afternoon and attract insect visitors with nectar and pollen. In highly protandrous disc florets, pollen viability decreases in time, whereas stigma receptivity increases. The upper part of the pistil forms a brush-like pollen presenter, covered with unicellular trichomes with chromoplasts. Pollen presentation lasts 4–11 hours per floret, and 8 days in a single head, the main function of which is to extend the availability of male gamets for reproduction. The number of florets per head, the head size, and the number of pollen grains produced per anther, and the pollen grain viability differed significantly between microsites. The finding indicates that, apart from the biotic factors, abiotic conditions may considerably influence generative reproduction of the species. In the study area, the principal visitors of S. macrophyllus flowers were Hymenoptera, with predominance of Apis mellifera (53.4% of visits. The remarkable share of butterflies (13.9% recognized as the long-distance moving insects may improve the genetic variability of individuals within a fragmented population. A more detailed study is necessary to explain the role of insect visitors in effective pollination and in gene transfer between patches. The assessment of optimal conditions for the generative reproduction is fundamental for the in situ conservation of this rare species.

  5. Ex vitro composite plants: an inexpensive, rapid method for root biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collier, Ray; Fuchs, Beth; Walter, Nathalie; Kevin Lutke, William; Taylor, Christopher G

    2005-01-01

    .... The novel, rapid and inexpensive ex vitro method for producing composite plants described in this report represents a significant advance over existing composite plant induction protocols, which rely...

  6. From systems biology to photosynthesis and whole-plant modeling: a conceptual model for integrating multi-scale networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, David [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Network analysis is now a common statistical tool for molecular biologists. Network algorithms are readily used to model gene, protein and metabolic correlations providing insight into pathways driving biological phenomenon. One output from such an analysis is a candidate gene list that can be responsible, in part, for the biological process of interest. The question remains, however, as to whether molecular network analysis can be used to inform process models at higher levels of biological organization. In our previous work, transcriptional networks derived from three plant species were constructed, interrogated for orthology and then correlated to photosynthetic inhibition at elevated temperature. One unique aspect of that study was the link from co-expression networks to net photosynthesis. In this addendum, we propose a conceptual model where traditional network analysis can be linked to whole-plant models thereby informing predictions on key processes such as photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and assimilation, and C partitioning.

  7. Bacteria used in the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: populations, mechanisms of action, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoyu; Yang, Jinkui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2007-08-01

    As a group of important natural enemies of nematode pests, nematophagous bacteria exhibit diverse modes of action: these include parasitizing; producing toxins, antibiotics, or enzymes; competing for nutrients; inducing systemic resistance of plants; and promoting plant health. They act synergistically on nematodes through the direct suppression of nematodes, promoting plant growth, and facilitating the rhizosphere colonization and activity of microbial antagonists. This review details the nematophagous bacteria known to date, including parasitic bacteria, opportunistic parasitic bacteria, rhizobacteria, Cry protein-forming bacteria, endophytic bacteria and symbiotic bacteria. We focus on recent research developments concerning their pathogenic mechanisms at the biochemical and molecular levels. Increased understanding of the molecular basis of the various pathogenic mechanisms of the nematophagous bacteria could potentially enhance their value as effective biological control agents. We also review a number of molecular biological approaches currently used in the study of bacterial pathogenesis in nematodes. We discuss their merits, limitations and potential uses.

  8. Biological effects of plant residues with contrasting chemical compositions on plant and soil under humid tropical conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, G.

    1992-01-01

    A study on plant residues with contrasting chemical compositions was conducted under laboratory, growth chamber and humid tropical field conditions to understand the function of the soil fauna in the breakdown of plant residues, the cycling of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, and the performance o

  9. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  10. Looking Down on the Earth: How Satellites Have Revolutionized Our Understanding of Our Home Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Earth is a complex, dynamic system we do not yet fully understand. The Earth system, like the human body, comprises diverse components that interact in complex ways. We need to understand the Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere as a single connected system. Our planet is changing on all spatial and temporal scales. This presentation will highlight how satellite observations are revolutionizing our understanding of and its response to natural or human-induced changes, and to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards. Bio: MICHAEL H. FREILICH, Director of the Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. Prior to NASA, he was a Professor and Associate Dean in the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. He received Ph.D. in Oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Univ. of CA., San Diego) in 1982. Dr. Freilich's research focuses on the determination, validation, and geophysical analysis of ocean surface wind velocity measured by satellite-borne microwave radar and radiometer instruments. He has developed scatterometer and altimeter wind model functions, as well as innovative validation techniques for accurately quantifying the accuracy of spaceborne environmental measurements. Dr. Freilich has served on many NASA, National Research Council (NRC), and research community advisory and steering groups, including the WOCE Science Steering Committee, the NASA EOS Science Executive Committee, the NRC Ocean Studies Board, and several NASA data system review committees. Freilich's non-scientific passions include nature photography and soccer refereeing at the youth, high school, and adult levels.

  11. Genome editing revolutionize the creation of genetically modified pigs for modeling human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jing; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    Pigs have anatomical, physiological and genomic characteristics that make them highly suitable for modeling human diseases. Genetically modified (GM) pig models of human diseases are critical for studying pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. The emergence of nuclease-mediated genome editing technology has been successfully employed for engineering of the pig genome, which has revolutionize the creation of GM pig models with highly complex pathophysiologies and comorbidities. In this review, we summarize the progress of recently developed genome editing technologies, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), which enable highly efficient and precise introduction of genome modifications into pigs, and tailored disease models that have been generated in various disciplines via genome editing technology. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated by conventional transgenic strategies. Additionally, perspectives regarding the application of GM pigs in biomedical research are discussed.

  12. Salt balance: From space experiments to revolutionizing new clinical concepts on earth - A historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzer, Rupert

    2014-11-01

    For a long time, sodium balance appeared to be a “done deal” and was thought to be well understood. However, experiments in preparation of space missions showed that the concept of osmotic sodium storage and close correlations of sodium with water balance are only part of the regulatory mechanisms of body salt. By now it has turned out that the human skin is an important storage place and regulator for sodium, that sodium storage involves macrophages which in turn salt-dependently co-regulate blood pressure, that body sodium also strongly influences bone and protein metabolism, and that immune functions are also strongly influenced by sodium. In addition, the aging process appears to lead to increased body sodium storage, which in turn might influence the aging process of the human body. The current review article summarizes the developments that have led to these revolutionizing new findings and concepts as well as consequences deriving from these findings. Therefore, it is not intended in this article to give a complete literature overview over the whole field but to focus on such key literature and considerations that led to the respective developments.

  13. High Temperature Superconducting Magnets: Revolutionizing Next Generation Accelerators and Other Applications (466th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ramesh (BNL Superconducting Magnet Division)

    2011-02-16

    BNL has always been a leader in the world of superconducting magnets, which are essential to the great modern ccelerators such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, or the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Switzerland. These magnets are made of material that, cooled to 4 Kelvins (K) (-452° Farenheit) become superconducting, that is, lose essentially all resistance to electricity. For the past decade, however, Lab researchers have been exploring the use of new materials that become superconducting at higher temperatures. These materials can operate at the relatively high temperature of 77 K (-351°F), allowing them to be cooled by cheap, plentiful liquid nitrogen, rather than helium, and can create very high magnetic fields. Now far in the lead of this area of research, BNL scientists are exploring avenues for high temperature superconducting magnets that are energy efficient and have magnetic fields that are a million times stronger than the Earth’s. If successful, these new magnets could potentially revolutionize usage in future accelerators, play a key role in energy efficiency and storage, and make possible new applications such as muon colliders and MRI screening in remote areas.

  14. Looking Down on the Earth: How Satellites Have Revolutionized Our Understanding of Our Home Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Earth is a complex, dynamic system we do not yet fully understand. The Earth system, like the human body, comprises diverse components that interact in complex ways. We need to understand the Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere as a single connected system. Our planet is changing on all spatial and temporal scales. This presentation will highlight how satellite observations are revolutionizing our understanding of and its response to natural or human-induced changes, and to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards. Bio: MICHAEL H. FREILICH, Director of the Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. Prior to NASA, he was a Professor and Associate Dean in the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. He received Ph.D. in Oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Univ. of CA., San Diego) in 1982. Dr. Freilich's research focuses on the determination, validation, and geophysical analysis of ocean surface wind velocity measured by satellite-borne microwave radar and radiometer instruments. He has developed scatterometer and altimeter wind model functions, as well as innovative validation techniques for accurately quantifying the accuracy of spaceborne environmental measurements. Dr. Freilich has served on many NASA, National Research Council (NRC), and research community advisory and steering groups, including the WOCE Science Steering Committee, the NASA EOS Science Executive Committee, the NRC Ocean Studies Board, and several NASA data system review committees. Freilich's non-scientific passions include nature photography and soccer refereeing at the youth, high school, and adult levels.

  15. In vivo biochemistry: applications for small molecule biosensors in plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander M; Grossmann, Guido; Danielson, Jonas Åh; Sosso, Davide; Chen, Li-Qing; Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Frommer, Wolf B

    2013-06-01

    Revolutionary new technologies, namely in the areas of DNA sequencing and molecular imaging, continue to impact new discoveries in plant science and beyond. For decades we have been able to determine properties of enzymes, receptors and transporters in vitro or in heterologous systems, and more recently been able to analyze their regulation at the transcriptional level, to use GFP reporters for obtaining insights into cellular and subcellular localization, and tp measure ion and metabolite levels with unprecedented precision using mass spectrometry. However, we lack key information on the location and dynamics of the substrates of enzymes, receptors and transporters, and on the regulation of these proteins in their cellular environment. Such information can now be obtained by transitioning from in vitro to in vivo biochemistry using biosensors. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein-based sensors for ion and metabolite dynamics provide highly resolved spatial and temporal information, and are complemented by sensors for pH, redox, voltage, and tension. They serve as powerful tools for identifying missing processes (e.g., glucose transport across ER membranes), components (e.g., SWEET sugar transporters for cellular sugar efflux), and signaling networks (e.g., from systematic screening of mutants that affect sugar transport or cytosolic and vacuolar pH). Combined with the knowledge of properties of enzymes and transporters and their interactions with the regulatory machinery, biosensors promise to be key diagnostic tools for systems and synthetic biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2012-01-01

    There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species.

  17. High and stable substrate specificities of microorganisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindaichi, Tomonori; Nierychlo, Marta; Kragelund, Caroline; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

    2013-06-01

    Microbial communities are typically characterized by conditions of nutrient limitation so the availability of the resources is likely a key factor in the niche differentiation across all species and in the regulation of the community structure. In this study we have investigated whether four species exhibit any in situ short-term changes in substrate uptake pattern when exposed to variations in substrate and growth conditions. Microautoradiography was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to investigate in situ cell-specific substrate uptake profiles of four probe-defined coexisting species in a wastewater treatment plant with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. These were the filamentous 'Candidatus Microthrix' and Caldilinea (type 0803), the polyphosphate-accumulating organism 'Candidatus Accumulibacter', and the denitrifying Azoarcus. The experimental conditions mimicked the conditions potentially encountered in the respective environment (starvation, high/low substrate concentration, induction with specific substrates, and single/multiple substrates). The results showed that each probe-defined species exhibited very distinct and constant substrate uptake profile in time and space, which hardly changed under any of the conditions tested. Such niche partitioning implies that a significant change in substrate composition will be reflected in a changed community structure rather than the substrate uptake response from the different species. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Optimization of a full-scale Unitank wastewater treatment plant for biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Xing, Can; Wu, Zhichao; Tong, Fei; Wang, Junru

    2014-01-01

    The Unitank process combines the advantages of traditional continuous-flow activated sludge processes and sequencing batch reactors, and has been extensively employed in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Biological phosphorus removal (BPR) of a full-scale Unitank WWTP was optimized by increasing anaerobic time from 80 to 120 min in an operation cycle of 360 min and reducing solid retention time (SRT) from 21.3 to 13.1 d. The BPR efficiency of the full-scale Unitank system increased from 63.8% (SRT of 21.3 d) to 83.2% for a SRT of 13.1 d. When the anaerobic time increased from 80 to 120 min, the net anaerobic phosphorus release amount increased from 0.25 to 1.06 mg L(-1), and sludge phosphorus content rose from 13.8 to 15.0 mgP x (gSS)(-1). During half an operation cycle, the average specific phosphorus release rate increased from 0.097mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 0-40 min to 0.825 mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 40-60 min. Reducing SRT and increasing anaerobic time account for 84.6% and 15.4% in the total increment of phosphorus removal of 1.15 mgL(-1).

  19. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  1. Pilot plant study on ozonation and biological activated carbon process for drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A study on advanced drinking water treatment was conducted in a pilot scale plant taking water from conventional treatment process. Ozonation-biological activated carbon process (O3-BAC) and granular activated carbon process (GAC) were evaluated based on the following parameters: CODMn, UV254, total organic carbon (TOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). In this test, the average removal rates of CODMn , UV254 and TOC in O3-BAC were18.2%, 9.0% and 10.2% higher on (AOC) than in GAC, respectively. Ozonation increased 19.3-57.6 μg Acetate-C/L in AOC-P17,45.6-130.6 μg Acetate-C/L in AOC-NOX and 0.1-0.5 mg/L in BDOC with ozone doses of 2-8 mg/L. The optimum ozone dose for maximum AOC formation was 3 mgO3/L. BAC filtration was effective process to improve biostability.

  2. Biological Denitrification of High Nitrate Processing Wastewaters from Explosives Production Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyplik, Paweł; Marecik, Roman; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Olejnik, Anna; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2012-05-01

    Wastewater samples originating from an explosives production plant (3,000 mg N l(-1) nitrate, 4.8 mg l(-1) nitroglycerin, 1.9 mg l(-1) nitroglycol and 1,200 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand) were subjected to biological purification. An attempt to completely remove nitrate and to decrease the chemical oxygen demand was carried out under anaerobic conditions. A soil isolated microbial consortium capable of biodegrading various organic compounds and reduce nitrate to atmospheric nitrogen under anaerobic conditions was used. Complete removal of nitrates with simultaneous elimination of nitroglycerin and ethylene glycol dinitrate (nitroglycol) was achieved as a result of the conducted research. Specific nitrate reduction rate was estimated at 12.3 mg N g(-1) VSS h(-1). Toxicity of wastewater samples during the denitrification process was studied by measuring the activity of dehydrogenases in the activated sludge. Mutagenicity was determined by employing the Ames test. The maximum mutagenic activity did not exceed 0.5. The obtained results suggest that the studied wastewater samples did not exhibit mutagenic properties.

  3. The impact of environmental stress on male reproductive development in plants: biological processes and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In plants, male reproductive development is extremely sensitive to adverse climatic environments and (a)biotic stress. Upon exposure to stress, male gametophytic organs often show morphological, structural and metabolic alterations that typically lead to meiotic defects or premature spore abortion and male reproductive sterility. Depending on the type of stress involved (e.g. heat, cold, drought) and the duration of stress exposure, the underlying cellular defect is highly variable and either involves cytoskeletal alterations, tapetal irregularities, altered sugar utilization, aberrations in auxin metabolism, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidative stress) or the ectopic induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In this review, we present the critically stress-sensitive stages of male sporogenesis (meiosis) and male gametogenesis (microspore development), and discuss the corresponding biological processes involved and the resulting alterations in male reproduction. In addition, this review also provides insights into the molecular and/or hormonal regulation of the environmental stress sensitivity of male reproduction and outlines putative interaction(s) between the different processes involved.

  4. Integration into plant biology and soil science has provided insights into the total environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongbo; Lu, Haiying; Xu, Gang; Marian, Brestic

    2017-02-01

    The total environment includes 5 closely-linking circles, in which biosphere and lithosphere are the active core. As global population increases and urbanization process accelerates, arable land is gradually decreasing under global climate change and the pressure of various types of environmental pollution. This case is especially for China. Land is the most important resources for human beings' survival. How to increase and manage arable land is the key for sustainable agriculture development. China has extensive marshy land that can be reclamated for the better potential land resources under the pre- condition of protecting the environment, which will be a good way for enlarging globally and managing arable land. Related studies have been conducted in China for the past 30years and now many results with obvious practical efficiency have been obtained. For summarizing these results, salt-soil will be the main target and related contents such as nutrient transport, use types, biodiversity and interactions with plants from molecular biology to ecology will be covered, in which the interactions among biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and anthroposphere will be focused on. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a strategy for biological monitoring in a chemical plant producing 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoell, Kristian F; Will, Norbert; Leng, Gabriele; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-01-01

    In a chemical plant in Germany producing 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride for the manufacture of colorants, blood and urine samples were taken for biological monitoring. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (DBZ) was analyzed in urine by thin-layer chromatography and subsequently further combined with analysis of adducts of 3,3'-DBZ in hemoglobin. Data highlight current ranges of industrial exposure to 3,3'-DBZ in Germany and demonstrate the applicability of biological monitoring to minimize this exposure. Effective biological monitoring was achieved by a combination of monitoring hemoglobin adducts with spot samplings of urinary 3,3'-DBZ excretion in cases of reported exposure periods. Data presented might help to identify biological guidance values (BGV/BAR) for 3,3'-DBZ-exposed individuals.

  6. Biological effects of native and exotic plant residues on plant growth, microbial biomass and N availability under controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Mariama-Dalanda; Duponnois, Robin; Guisse, A.; Sall, Saïdou; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Thioulouse, J.

    2006-01-01

    The leaf litter of six tropical tree species (Acacia holosericea, Acacia tortilis, Azadirachta indica, Casuarina equisetifolia, Cordyla pinnata and Faidherbia albida) frequently used in agroforestry plantations in Sahelian and Soudano-Sahelian areas were tested for their influence on soil nitrogen content, microbial biomass and plant growth under controlled greenhouse conditions. Half of the soil was planted with onion (Allium cepa L.) seedlings and the other half was not. Two herbaceous spec...

  7. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  8. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fucile

    Full Text Available Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org.

  9. The potential of text mining in data integration and network biology for plant research: a case study on Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landeghem, Sofie; De Bodt, Stefanie; Drebert, Zuzanna J; Inzé, Dirk; Van de Peer, Yves

    2013-03-01

    Despite the availability of various data repositories for plant research, a wealth of information currently remains hidden within the biomolecular literature. Text mining provides the necessary means to retrieve these data through automated processing of texts. However, only recently has advanced text mining methodology been implemented with sufficient computational power to process texts at a large scale. In this study, we assess the potential of large-scale text mining for plant biology research in general and for network biology in particular using a state-of-the-art text mining system applied to all PubMed abstracts and PubMed Central full texts. We present extensive evaluation of the textual data for Arabidopsis thaliana, assessing the overall accuracy of this new resource for usage in plant network analyses. Furthermore, we combine text mining information with both protein-protein and regulatory interactions from experimental databases. Clusters of tightly connected genes are delineated from the resulting network, illustrating how such an integrative approach is essential to grasp the current knowledge available for Arabidopsis and to uncover gene information through guilt by association. All large-scale data sets, as well as the manually curated textual data, are made publicly available, hereby stimulating the application of text mining data in future plant biology studies.

  10. Pollination of a native plant changes with distance and density of invasive plants in a simulated biological invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Daniela; Campbell, Diane R

    2016-08-01

    Effects of an exotic plant on pollination may change as the invasive increases in density. Quantity of pollinator visits to a native may increase, decrease, or change nonlinearly, while visit quality is likely to decrease with greater interspecific pollen movement. How visit quantity and quality contribute to the effect on reproductive success at each invasion stage has not been measured. We simulated four stages of invasion by Brassica nigra by manipulating the neighborhood of potted plants of the native Phacelia parryi in a field experiment. Stages were far from the invasion, near the invasion, intermixed with the invasive at low density, and intermixed at high density. We measured pollinator visitation, conspecific and invasive pollen deposition, and seed set for P. parryi at each stage. Native individuals near invasive plants and within areas of low invasive density showed greatest seed production, as expected from concurrent changes in conspecific and invasive pollen deposition. Those plants experienced facilitation of visits and received more conspecific pollen relative to plants farther from invasives. Native individuals within high invasive density also received frequent visits by many pollinators (although not honeybees), but the larger receipt of invasive pollen predicted interference with pollen tubes that matched patterns in seed set. Pollinator visitation was highest when exotic plants were nearby. Detrimental effects of heterospecific pollen deposition were highest at high exotic density. Our study quantified how reproduction benefits from near proximity to a showy invasive, but is still vulnerable when the invasive reaches high density. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Biological management of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in pea using plant growth promoting microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial plant-microbe interactions play crucial roles in protection against large number of plant pathogens causing disease. The present study aims to investigate the growth promoting traits induced by beneficial microbes namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27, and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 treated singly and in combinations under greenhouse and field conditions to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plants treated with three microbe consortium enhanced plant growth maximally both in the presence and absence of the pathogen. Increase in plant length, total biomass, number of leaves, nodules and secondary roots, total chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and yield were recorded in plants treated with microbial consortia. Also, a decrease in plant mortality was observed in plants treated with microbial consortia in comparison to untreated control plants challenged with S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the decrease in disease of all the treatments can be associated with differential improvement of growth induced in pea.

  12. Assessing Soil Biological Properties of Natural and Planted Forests in the Malaysian Tropical Lowland Dipterocarp Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daljit S. Karam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the soil biological properties of a natural forest and an 18-year-old stand of Shorea leprosula in Chikus Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Approach: Soils were sampled at depths of 0-15 cm (topsoil and 15-30 cm (subsoil in six subplots (20×20 m of natural forest (C1 and of a planted S. leprosula (C2 plot. Fresh composite soil samples were kept in UV-sterilized polyethylene bags prior to analysis in the laboratory. The microbial population count was determined using a spread-plate count technique. The microbial enzymatic activity was elucidated using a Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA hydrolysis assay; microbial biomass was extracted using a rapid chloroform fumigation extraction method. The Microbial Biomass C (MBC was determined by wet dichromate oxidation; Kjeldahl digestion and a distillation method were used for evaluation of Microbial Biomass N (MBN. Results: Results indicate that only the microbial biomass N and the population count in the soil at the 0-15 cm depth were found to be higher in C1 compared to C2. The higher microbial population count in the soil at the 0-15 cm depth of C1 compared to C2 was enhanced by the large amount of organic matter that serves as a suitable medium for soil microbial growth. The higher MBN in the C1 soil was also influenced by the high content of organic material available that encourages activities of decomposing bacteria to take place. Similarities in the soil biological properties of the plots with regard to enzymatic activity and microbial biomass Care believed to be influenced by the same topographic gradient. The higher MBC/MBN ratios found in soils of C2 compared to C1 were due to the low availability of N compared to C, might result from N utilization by soil microbes for organic material decomposition. Conclusion: There are similarities in microbial enzymatic activity and biomass C, but not in microbial population counts and biomass N

  13. Molecular phenology in plants: in natura systems biology for the comprehensive understanding of seasonal responses under natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Phenology refers to the study of seasonal schedules of organisms. Molecular phenology is defined here as the study of the seasonal patterns of organisms captured by molecular biology techniques. The history of molecular phenology is reviewed briefly in relation to advances in the quantification technology of gene expression. High-resolution molecular phenology (HMP) data have enabled us to study phenology with an approach of in natura systems biology. I review recent analyses of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a temperature-responsive repressor of flowering, along the six steps in the typical flow of in natura systems biology. The extensive studies of the regulation of FLC have made this example a successful case in which a comprehensive understanding of gene functions has been progressing. The FLC-mediated long-term memory of past temperatures creates time lags with other seasonal signals, such as photoperiod and short-term temperature. Major signals that control flowering time have a phase lag between them under natural conditions, and hypothetical phase lag calendars are proposed as mechanisms of season detection in plants. Transcriptomic HMP brings a novel strategy to the study of molecular phenology, because it provides a comprehensive representation of plant functions. I discuss future perspectives of molecular phenology from the standpoints of molecular biology, evolutionary biology and ecology.

  14. Decommissioning samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA, solvent refined coal pilot plant: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, W.C.; Wright, C.W.

    1985-10-01

    This report presents the results from chemical analyses and limited biological assays of three sets of samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant. The samples were collected during the process of decommissioning this facility. Chemical composition was determined for chemical class fractions of the samples by using high-resolution gas chromatography (GC), high-resolution GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and high-resolution MS. Biological activity was measuring using both the histidine reversion microbial mutagenicity assay with Salmonella typhimurium, TA98 and an initiation/promotion mouse-skin tumorigenicity assay. 19 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed.

  16. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds......, is being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists...... and researchers interested in diet and health relationships, and product developers within the food industry....

  17. Biology of the Huanglongbing vector Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, G R; Diniz, A J F; Parra, J R P

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. This study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (Citrus spp. L.)--Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, Ponkan, and Valencia-and orange jasmine [Murraya exotica (L.) Jack] on the development of D. citri. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on orange jasmine (85.7%) and on Valencia (83.3%). The lowest viability of the nymphal stage was also observed on Hamlin, averaging 57.4%. Values for total viability ranged from 65.9 to 32.6%, and were highest on Valencia. The longest egg-adult development time was on Natal, with a mean of 18.4 d; the shortest total development time was on orange jasmine, with a mean of 17.3 d. Based on the fertility life table, the net reproductive rate (Ro) of D. citri was 2.5 times higher when reared on Valencia than on Hamlin. The other parameters (duration of each generation [T], finite rate of increase [lambda], and innate capacity to increase in number [r(m)]) also demonstrated that Valencia is best suited to this insect. The results obtained for the biological parameters and the fertility life table indicate that Valencia and orange jasmine were the most suitable hosts, whereas Hamlin was least suitable for the development of D. citri. These results provide information for the installation of new citrus groves, especially in the choice of varieties to be planted and the location of different varieties within the groves, with a view toward the management of Huanglongbing or HLB.

  18. ePlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, J; Lyons, J; Nørby, K; Thomas, M; Nørby, E; Poms, R; Bucchini, L; Restani, P; Kiely, M; Finglas, P

    2016-02-15

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the only web-based database available compiling peer reviewed publications and case studies on PFS. A user-friendly, efficient and flexible interface has been developed for searching, extracting, and exporting the data, including links to the original references. Data from over 570 publications have been quality evaluated and entered covering 70 PFS or their botanical ingredients.

  19. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    wall acetylation (Chapter 2), identification of a candidate gene required for acetylation of pectin (Chapter 3), screening of pectin mutants for susceptibility to the nectrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea (Chapter 4), and identification and functional characterization of an arabinan......-degrading enzyme secreted by B. cinerea during infection of plants (Chapter 5). The results described resulted in valuable new knowledge regarding the role of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana documented in three published research papers, one manuscript and one...

  20. Illuminating plant biology: using fluorescent proteins for high-throughput analysis of protein localization and function in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Sylvester, Anne W; Jackson, David

    2010-03-01

    First discovered in jellyfish, fluorescent proteins (FPs) have been successfully optimized for use as effective biomarkers within living plant cells. When exposed to light, FPs fused to a protein or regulatory element will fluoresce, and non-invasively mark expression and protein localization, which allows for the in vivo monitoring of diverse cellular processes. In this review, we discuss how FP technology has evolved from small-scale analysis of individual genes to more high-throughput techniques for global expression and functional profiling in plants.

  1. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-07

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  2. ePlant and the 3D Data Display Initiative: Integrative Systems Biology on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey Fucile; David Di Biase; Hardeep Nahal; Garon La; Shokoufeh Khodabandeh; Yani Chen; Kante Easley; Dinesh Christendat; Lawrence Kelley; Provart, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide we...

  3. National Biological Monitoring Inventory. [Data base for information on biological monitoring of power plant impacts on environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The National Biological Monitoring Inventory, initiated in 1975, currently consists of four computerized data bases and voluminous manual files. MAIN BIOMON contains detailed information on 1,021 projects, while MINI BIOMON provides skeletal data for over 3,000 projects in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, plus a few in Canada and Mexico. BIBLIO BIOMON and DIRECTORY BIOMON complete the computerized data bases. The structure of the system provides for on-line search capabilities to generate details of agency sponsorship, indications of funding levels, taxonomic and geographic coverage, length of program life, managerial focus or emphasis, and condition of the data. Examples of each of these are discussed and illustrated, and potential use of the Inventory in a variety of situations is emphasized.

  4. Genomics-Based Discovery of Plant Genes for Synthetic Biology of Terpenoid Fragrances: A Case Study in Sandalwood oil Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, J M; Bohlmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoid fragrances are powerful mediators of ecological interactions in nature and have a long history of traditional and modern industrial applications. Plants produce a great diversity of fragrant terpenoid metabolites, which make them a superb source of biosynthetic genes and enzymes. Advances in fragrance gene discovery have enabled new approaches in synthetic biology of high-value speciality molecules toward applications in the fragrance and flavor, food and beverage, cosmetics, and other industries. Rapid developments in transcriptome and genome sequencing of nonmodel plant species have accelerated the discovery of fragrance biosynthetic pathways. In parallel, advances in metabolic engineering of microbial and plant systems have established platforms for synthetic biology applications of some of the thousands of plant genes that underlie fragrance diversity. While many fragrance molecules (eg, simple monoterpenes) are abundant in readily renewable plant materials, some highly valuable fragrant terpenoids (eg, santalols, ambroxides) are rare in nature and interesting targets for synthetic biology. As a representative example for genomics/transcriptomics enabled gene and enzyme discovery, we describe a strategy used successfully for elucidation of a complete fragrance biosynthetic pathway in sandalwood (Santalum album) and its reconstruction in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We address questions related to the discovery of specific genes within large gene families and recovery of rare gene transcripts that are selectively expressed in recalcitrant tissues. To substantiate the validity of the approaches, we describe the combination of methods used in the gene and enzyme discovery of a cytochrome P450 in the fragrant heartwood of tropical sandalwood, responsible for the fragrance defining, final step in the biosynthesis of (Z)-santalols. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Germination, survival and growth of three vascular plants on biological soil crusts from a Mexican tropical desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godínez-Alvarez, H; Morín, C; Rivera-Aguilar, V

    2012-01-01

    Information about the effects of biological soil crusts (BSC) on germination, seedling survival and growth of vascular plants is controversial because they can have positive, neutral or negative effects. This controversy may be because most studies conducted until now have just analysed one or two recruitment stages independently. To understand the BSC effects on vascular plants, it is necessary to consider each stage of the recruitment process and synthesise all this information. The goal of this study was twofold. First, we analyse germination, seedling survival and growth of three vascular plants (Agave marmorata, Prosopis laevigata and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo) on BSC (cyanobacteria and mixed crust) from a tropical desert region of south-central México. Second, we synthesise the information to determine the total effect of BSC on plant species performance. We conducted experiments under controlled conditions to evaluate the proportion of germinated seeds, proportion of surviving seedlings and seedling dry weight in BSC and bare soil. Results showed that BSC have different effects on germination, seedling survival and growth of plant species. Plant species performance was qualitatively higher on BSC than bare soil. The highest performance of A. marmorata and P. laevigata was observed on cyanobacteria and mixed crusts, respectively. The highest performance of N. tetetzo was on both crust types.

  6. Changes in operational procedures to improve spaceflight experiments in plant biology in the European Modular Cultivation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, John Z.; Aanes, Gjert; Schiefloe, Mona; Coelho, Liz H. F.; Millar, Katherine D. L.; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2014-03-01

    The microgravity environment aboard orbiting spacecraft has provided a unique laboratory to explore topics in basic plant biology as well as applied research on the use of plants in bioregenerative life support systems. Our group has utilized the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to study plant growth, development, tropisms, and gene expression in a series of spaceflight experiments. The most current project performed on the ISS was termed Seedling Growth-1 (SG-1) which builds on the previous TROPI (for tropisms) experiments performed in 2006 and 2010. Major technical and operational changes in SG-1 (launched in March 2013) compared to the TROPI experiments include: (1) improvements in lighting conditions within the EMCS to optimize the environment for phototropism studies, (2) the use of infrared illumination to provide high-quality images of the seedlings, (3) modifications in procedures used in flight to improve the focus and overall quality of the images, and (4) changes in the atmospheric conditions in the EMCS incubator. In SG-1, a novel red-light-based phototropism in roots and hypocotyls of seedlings that was noted in TROPI was confirmed and now can be more precisely characterized based on the improvements in procedures. The lessons learned from sequential experiments in the TROPI hardware provide insights to other researchers developing space experiments in plant biology.

  7. Biological control of broad-leaved dock infestation in wheat using plant antagonistic bacteria under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Tasawar; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair

    2017-06-01

    Conventional weed management systems have produced many harmful effects on weed ecology, human health and environment. Biological control of invasive weeds may be helpful to minimize these harmful effects and economic losses incurred to crops by weeds. In our earlier studies, plant antagonistic bacteria were obtained after screening a large number of rhizobacteria for production of phytotoxic substances and effects on wheat and its associated weeds under laboratory conditions. In this study, five efficient strains inhibitory to broad-leaved dock and non-inhibitory to wheat were selected and applied to broad-leaved dock co-seeded with wheat both in pot trial and chronically infested field trial. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria on the weed and infested wheat were studied at tillering, booting and harvesting stage of wheat. The applied strains significantly inhibited the germination and growth of the weed to variable extent. Similarly, variable recovery in losses of grain and straw yield of infested wheat from 11.6 to 68 and 13 to 72.6% was obtained in pot trial while from 17.3 to 62.9 and 22.4 to 71.3% was obtained in field trial, respectively. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria were also evident from the improvement in physiology and nutrient contents of infested wheat. This study suggests the use of these plant antagonistic bacteria to biologically control infestation of broad-leaved dock in wheat under field conditions.

  8. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the numb...

  9. The Microphenotron: a robotic miniaturized plant phenotyping platform with diverse applications in chemical biology

    KAUST Repository

    Burrell, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Background Chemical genetics provides a powerful alternative to conventional genetics for understanding gene function. However, its application to plants has been limited by the lack of a technology that allows detailed phenotyping of whole-seedling development in the context of a high-throughput chemical screen. We have therefore sought to develop an automated micro-phenotyping platform that would allow both root and shoot development to be monitored under conditions where the phenotypic effects of large numbers of small molecules can be assessed. Results The ‘Microphenotron’ platform uses 96-well microtitre plates to deliver chemical treatments to seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana L. and is based around four components: (a) the ‘Phytostrip’, a novel seedling growth device that enables chemical treatments to be combined with the automated capture of images of developing roots and shoots; (b) an illuminated robotic platform that uses a commercially available robotic manipulator to capture images of developing shoots and roots; (c) software to control the sequence of robotic movements and integrate these with the image capture process; (d) purpose-made image analysis software for automated extraction of quantitative phenotypic data. Imaging of each plate (representing 80 separate assays) takes 4 min and can easily be performed daily for time-course studies. As currently configured, the Microphenotron has a capacity of 54 microtitre plates in a growth room footprint of 2.1 m2, giving a potential throughput of up to 4320 chemical treatments in a typical 10 days experiment. The Microphenotron has been validated by using it to screen a collection of 800 natural compounds for qualitative effects on root development and to perform a quantitative analysis of the effects of a range of concentrations of nitrate and ammonium on seedling development. Conclusions The Microphenotron is an automated screening platform that for the first time is able to combine large

  10. The Microphenotron: a robotic miniaturized plant phenotyping platform with diverse applications in chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Thomas; Fozard, Susan; Holroyd, Geoff H; French, Andrew P; Pound, Michael P; Bigley, Christopher J; James Taylor, C; Forde, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Chemical genetics provides a powerful alternative to conventional genetics for understanding gene function. However, its application to plants has been limited by the lack of a technology that allows detailed phenotyping of whole-seedling development in the context of a high-throughput chemical screen. We have therefore sought to develop an automated micro-phenotyping platform that would allow both root and shoot development to be monitored under conditions where the phenotypic effects of large numbers of small molecules can be assessed. The 'Microphenotron' platform uses 96-well microtitre plates to deliver chemical treatments to seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana L. and is based around four components: (a) the 'Phytostrip', a novel seedling growth device that enables chemical treatments to be combined with the automated capture of images of developing roots and shoots; (b) an illuminated robotic platform that uses a commercially available robotic manipulator to capture images of developing shoots and roots; (c) software to control the sequence of robotic movements and integrate these with the image capture process; (d) purpose-made image analysis software for automated extraction of quantitative phenotypic data. Imaging of each plate (representing 80 separate assays) takes 4 min and can easily be performed daily for time-course studies. As currently configured, the Microphenotron has a capacity of 54 microtitre plates in a growth room footprint of 2.1 m(2), giving a potential throughput of up to 4320 chemical treatments in a typical 10 days experiment. The Microphenotron has been validated by using it to screen a collection of 800 natural compounds for qualitative effects on root development and to perform a quantitative analysis of the effects of a range of concentrations of nitrate and ammonium on seedling development. The Microphenotron is an automated screening platform that for the first time is able to combine large numbers of individual chemical

  11. Advanced Applications of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies to Orchid Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Ming; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Tsai, Wen-Chieh

    2017-09-08

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are revolutionizing biology by permitting, transcriptome sequencing, whole-genome sequencing and resequencing, and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism profiling. Orchid research has benefited from this breakthrough, and a few orchid genomes are now available; new biological questions can be approached and new breeding strategies can be designed. The first part of this review describes the unique features of orchid biology. The second part provides an overview of the current next-generation sequencing platforms, many of which are already used in plant laboratories. The third part summarizes the state of orchid transcriptome and genome sequencing and illustrates current achievements. The genetic sequences currently obtained will not only provide a broad scope for the study of orchid biology, but also serves as a starting point for uncovering the mystery of orchid evolution.

  12. EPlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, J.; Lyons, J.; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the......The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues...

  13. The gravitational plant physiology facility-Description of equipment developed for biological research in spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Lewis, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    In January 1992, the NASA Suttle mission STS 42 carried a facility designed to perform experiments on plant gravi- and photo-tropic responses. This equipment, the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) was made up of a number of interconnected units mounted within a Spacelab double rack. The details of these units and the plant growth containers designed for use in GPPF are described. The equipment functioned well during the mission and returned a substantial body of time-lapse video data on plant responses to tropistic stimuli under conditions of orbital microgravity. GPPF is maintained by NASA Ames Research Center, and is flight qualifiable for future spacelab missions.

  14. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  15. Stable heterologous expression of biologically active terpenoids in green plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Khairul Ikram, Nur Kusaira; Zhan, Xin; Pan, Xiwu

    2015-01-01

    for industrial production for many of these compounds. However, because these chemicals are often found in low abundance in the native plant, or are produced in plants which are difficult to cultivate, there is great interest in engineering increased production or expression of the biosynthetic pathways...

  16. Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, A U; Usta, C

    2008-01-20

    Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was radish seed bioassay, two different determinations (root length and seed germination) were performed with a comparison between two concentrations (50,000 mg L(-1) and 10,000 mg L(-1)). At low concentration (10,000 mg L(-1)), S. dulcamara aerial parts and Primula vulgaris leaf extracts were observed to inhibit the root length more than the other plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts.

  17. TRICHODERMA VIRIDE PERS. – EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF MYCROMYCETA WITH IMPORTANCE IN OBTAINING PLANT PROTECTION BIOPRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SESAN TATIANA EUGENIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The technological process for obtaining plant protection bioproducts contains 2 main phases: (i biomass biosynthesis of microorganisms in a culture medium, available for industrialization and (ii biomass conditioning of microorganism, the antagonistic micromycetes, respectively. For this type of activities it is essential to establish biological development parameters: (i the optimum composition of the liquid culture medium for development of the fungus under aerobiotic conditions and (ii the optimal parameters of biosynthesis in the studied medium. The biomass biosynthesis technology is discontinuous, of cascade type, and develops several phases: (1 preparing of the laboratory inoculum, (2 preparing of the fungal pure culture in Erlenmeyer bottles, (3 industrial (simulated multiplication in the aired and agitated liquid medium.This paper presents some experimental aspects referring to: 1 – Characterization of the biologically active T. viride isolates, establishing and verifying of their biological thresholds; 2 – Evaluation and experimental verifying of the mass multiplication ability of antagonistic T. viride fungi on the culture media in order to select the optimum industrial culture substrate (medium; 3 – Biochimical characterization of T. viride isolates by electrophoretic analysis of their protein profile; 4 – Evaluation of the T. viride biological activity of T. viride isolates against phytopathogenic fungi with high practical importance: Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (T. Gibberella zeae (Schwein. Petch, F. culmorum (W. G. Sm. Sacc., Pythium ultimum Trow, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Alternaria spp. [A. alternata (Fr. Keissl., Alternaria radicina Meier, Drechsler and E. D. Eddy (Stemphylium radicinum (Meier, Drechsler and E. D. Eddy Neerg.] etc.; 5 – Processing of technological scheme for obtaining plant protection preparates based on biologically active isolates of T. viride.

  18. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Langsdorffia hypogaea-Rhizosphere-Host Biological Interface: A Neglected Model of Bacterial Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felestrino, Érica B.; Santiago, Iara F.; Freitas, Luana da Silva; Rosa, Luiz H.; Ribeiro, Sérvio P.; Moreira, Leandro M.

    2017-01-01

    Soil is a habitat where plant roots and microorganisms interact. In the region of the Brazilian Iron Quadrangle (IQ), studies involving the interaction between microbiota and plants have been neglected. Even more neglected are the studies involving the holoparasite plant Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart. (Balanophoraceae). The geomorphological peculiarities of IQ soil, rich in iron ore, as well as the model of interaction between L. hypogaea, its hosts and the soil provide a unique niche that acts as selective pressure to the evolution of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). The aim of this study was to prospect the bacterial microbiota of holoparasitic plant L. hypogaea, its plant host and corresponding rhizosphere of IQ soil, and to analyze the potential of these isolates as PGPB. We obtained samples of 11 individuals of L. hypogaea containing fragments of host and rhizosphere remnants, resulting in 81 isolates associated with Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. The ability to produce siderophores, hydrocyanic acid (HCN), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), nitrogen (N2) fixation, hydrolytic enzymes secretion and inhibition of enteropathogens, and phytopathogens were evaluated. Of the total isolates, 62, 86, and 93% produced, respectively, siderophores, IAA, and were able to fix N2. In addition, 27 and 20% of isolates inhibited the growth of enteropathogens and phytopathogens, respectively, and 58% were able to produce at least one hydrolytic activity investigated. The high number of isolates that produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid suggests that this microbiota may be important for adaptation of plants to IQ. The results demonstrate for the first time the biological importance of Brazilian IQ species as reservoirs of specific microbiotas that might be used as PGPB on agricultural land or antropized soils that needs to be reforested. PMID:28239369

  19. Silicon as versatile player in plant and human biology: Overlooked and poorly understood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ansar Farooq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si serves as bioactive beneficial element. Si is highly abundant in soil, and occurs ubiquitously in all organisms including plants and humans. During the last three decades, nutritional significance of Si for plant and human health has received increasing attention. Plant Si plays a pivotal role in growth and development, and this beneficial effect depends usually on accumulation in plant tissues, which are then protected from various forms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Likewise, human exposure to Si imparts health benefits and essentially occurs through plant-derived food products. Si bioavailability in human diet e.g. strengthens bones and improves immune response, as well as neuronal and connective tissue health. Despite this empiric knowledge, the essentiality of Si still remains enigmatic. Thus the link between Si availability for plant development and its profound implication for human welfare should receive attention. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on Si as important element for plant and human nutrition and to define research fields for interdisciplinary research.

  20. Uric acid in plants and microorganisms: Biological applications and genetics - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Rehab M; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; Naguib, Rasha M

    2017-09-01

    Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism. However, microorganisms produce group of degrading enzymes uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and urease, which catalyze the degradation of uric acid to the ammonia. In humans, researchers found that several mutations caused a pseudogenization (silencing) of the uricase gene in ancestral apes which exist as an insoluble crystalloid in peroxisomes. This is in contrast to microorganisms in which uricases are soluble and exist either in cytoplasm or peroxisomes. Moreover, many recombinant uricases with higher activity than the wild type uricases could be induced successfully in many microorganisms. The present review deals with the occurrence of uric acid in plants and other organisms specially microorganisms in addition to the mechanisms by which plant extracts, metabolites and enzymes could reduce uric acid in blood. The genetic and genes encoding for uric acid in plants and microorganisms are also presented.

  1. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  2. Do biotic interactions modulate ecosystem functioning along stress gradients? Insights from semi-arid plant and biological soil crust communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Escolar, Cristina; Puche, María D.; Soliveres, Santiago; Maltez-Mouro, Sara; García-Palacios, Pablo; Castillo-Monroy, Andrea P.; Martínez, Isabel; Escudero, Adrián

    2010-01-01

    Climate change will exacerbate the degree of abiotic stress experienced by semi-arid ecosystems. While abiotic stress profoundly affects biotic interactions, their potential role as modulators of ecosystem responses to climate change is largely unknown. Using plants and biological soil crusts, we tested the relative importance of facilitative–competitive interactions and other community attributes (cover, species richness and species evenness) as drivers of ecosystem functioning along stress gradients in semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems. Biotic interactions shifted from facilitation to competition along stress gradients driven by water availability and temperature. These changes were, however, dependent on the spatial scale and the community considered. We found little evidence to suggest that biotic interactions are a major direct influence upon indicators of ecosystem functioning (soil respiration, organic carbon, water-holding capacity, compaction and the activity of enzymes related to the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles) along stress gradients. However, attributes such as cover and species richness showed a direct effect on ecosystem functioning. Our results do not agree with predictions emphasizing that the importance of plant–plant interactions will be increased under climate change in dry environments, and indicate that reductions in the cover of plant and biological soil crust communities will negatively impact ecosystems under future climatic conditions. PMID:20513714

  3. Biological surveys on the Savannah River in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (1951-1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    In 1951, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was contracted by the Savannah River Plant to initiate a long-term monitoring program in the Savannah River. The purpose of this program was to determine the effect of the Savannah River Plant on the Savannah River aquatic ecosystem. The data from this monitoring program have been computerized by the Savannah River Laboratory, and are summarized in this report. During the period from 1951-1976, 16 major surveys were conducted by the Academy in the Savannah River. Water chemistry analyses were made, and all major biological communities were sampled qualitatively during the spring and fall of each survey year. In addition, quantitative diatom data have been collected quarterly since 1953. Major changes in the Savannah River basin, in the Savannah River Plant's activities, and in the Academy sampling patterns are discussed to provide a historical overview of the biomonitoring program. Appendices include a complete taxonomic listing of species collected from the Savannah River, and summaries of the entire biological and physicochemical data base.

  4. Overview of the biological activity of Plant Polysaccharides%植物多糖生物活性概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正君

    2014-01-01

    植物多糖是一类广泛存在于植物细胞壁及细胞中的一种具有多种生物学活性的天然大分子物质,是许多中草药的主要活性物质。植物多糖具有广泛的生物活性,如抗肿瘤〔1〕、抗病毒、抗炎、抗氧化、抗辐射、降血糖、降血脂﹑抗凝血等。%Plant Polysaccharides is a kind of nature macromolecule that widely distributed in the plant cells wall and cells which has a variety of biology activities ,and is main activity material in many herbs′.Plant Polysaccharides has a wide range of biological activity ,such as anti-tumor,anti-virus,anti-inflammatory,anti-oxidation,anti-radiation, lowering blood sugar and blood fat ,anti-coagulation〔2〕.

  5. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  6. The use of mathematical modeling and pilot plant testing to develop a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolasco, D.A.; Daigger, G.T.; Stafford, D.R.; Kaupp, D.M.; Stephenson, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for carbon oxidation, nitrogen removal, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal was used to develop the Step Bio-P process, a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process with a step-feed configuration. A 9,000-L pilot plant with diurnally varying influent process loading rates was operated to verify the model results and to optimize the Step Bio-P process for application at the lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, wastewater treatment plant. The pilot plant was operated for 10 months. An automatic on-line data acquisition system with multiple sampling and metering points for dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, ortho-phosphate, and flow rates was used. A sampling program to obtain off-line data was carried out to verify the information from the on-line system and monitor additional parameters. The on-line and off-line data were used to recalibrate the model, which was used as an experimental design and process optimization tool.

  7. Endophytic colonization of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anna Kaja; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt

    to five weeks after IK726 inoculation, from plants grown in both soil and vermiculite and from both root dip and drench inoculated plants. Verticillium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Trichoderma were furthermore isolated from stems of soil grown plants. Surface disinfection of roots eradicated...... all culturable fungi. Therefore, root parts were washed only in water before incubation on the isolation medium and this revealed >50% colonization of the roots sections with C. rosea, irrespective of the inoculation method. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that C. rosea can live...

  8. Screening of some marine plants from the Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Solimabi; Kamat, S.Y.; DeSouza, L.; Reddy, C.V.G.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Dhawan, B.N.

    Extracts of twenty five seaweeds from Indian coast have been put through a broad biological screen which includes tests for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antifertility activities and a wide range of pharmacological activities...

  9. Commercial biological control agents targeted against plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Stéphane Tranier; Johan Pognant-Gros; Reynaldo De la Cruz Quiroz; Cristóbal Noé Aguilar González; Thierry Mateille; Sevastianos Roussos

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Root-knot nematodes are microscopic round worms, which cause severe agricultural losses. Their attacks affect the productivity by reducing the amount and the caliber of the fruits. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using microorganisms to reduce the quantity of pests infecting crops. Biological control is developing gradually, and with time, more products are being marketed worldwide. They can be formulated ...

  10. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 µg/ml...

  11. Plant gene expression in the age of systems biology: integrating transcriptional and post-transcriptional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotsky, Dmitry A; Rose, Alan B

    2005-07-01

    The extensive mechanistic and regulatory interconnections between the various events of mRNA biogenesis are now recognized as a fundamental principle of eukaryotic gene expression, yet the specific details of the coupling between the various steps of mRNA biogenesis do differ, and sometimes dramatically, between the different kingdoms. In this review, we emphasize examples where plants must differ in this respect from other eukaryotes, and highlight a recurring trend of recruiting the conserved, versatile functional modules, which have evolved to support the general mRNA biogenesis reactions, for plant-specific functions. We also argue that elucidating the inner workings of the plant 'mRNA factory' is essential for accomplishing the ambitious goal of building the 'virtual plant'.

  12. Field test of biological control methods to curtail exotic plants on National Wildlife Refuges in Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Eight species of insects adapted to exploit six host species of exotic plants were released on Service lands (Figure 1) managed by the NBR in 1991, 1992, and 1993...

  13. A wandering pathway in plant biology: from wildflowers to phototropins to bacterial virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Winslow R

    2010-01-01

    The author describes the somewhat convoluted pathway he followed from amateur taxonomy of Minnesota wildflowers to identification of the phototropin family of blue-light receptors. He also mentions individuals who were important in moving his career first into plant taxonomy, then plant development, and finally plant photobiology (and out of music). He emphasizes the many twists and turns a research career can take, including a few that lead to blind ends. He also emphasizes the oscillatory nature of his career-back and forth between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans (with occasional forays to Freiburg, Germany) and back and forth between red-light receptors and blue-light receptors. There is a short intermission in which he describes his longtime relationship with California's Henry W. Coe State Park. Finally, he relates how he followed the unlikely pathway from plant blue-light receptors to a blue-light receptor required to maximize virulence of a bacterial animal pathogen.

  14. An overview of plant volatile metabolomics, sample treatment and reporting considerations with emphasis on mechanical damage and biological control of weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Smith, Lincoln; Baig, Nausheena

    2014-01-01

    The technology for the collection and analysis of plant-emitted volatiles for understanding chemical cues of plant-plant, plant-insect or plant-microbe interactions has increased over the years. Consequently, the in situ collection, analysis and identification of volatiles are considered integral to elucidation of complex plant communications. Due to the complexity and range of emissions the conditions for consistent emission of volatiles are difficult to standardise. To discuss: evaluation of emitted volatile metabolites as a means of screening potential target- and non-target weeds/plants for insect biological control agents; plant volatile metabolomics to analyse resultant data; importance of considering volatiles from damaged plants; and use of a database for reporting experimental conditions and results. Recent literature relating to plant volatiles and plant volatile metabolomics are summarised to provide a basic understanding of how metabolomics can be applied to the study of plant volatiles. An overview of plant secondary metabolites, plant volatile metabolomics, analysis of plant volatile metabolomics data and the subsequent input into a database, the roles of plant volatiles, volatile emission as a function of treatment, and the application of plant volatile metabolomics to biological control of invasive weeds. It is recommended that in addition to a non-damaged treatment, plants be damaged prior to collecting volatiles to provide the greatest diversity of odours. For the model system provided, optimal volatile emission occurred when the leaf was punctured with a needle. Results stored in a database should include basic environmental conditions or treatments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Yeast and Plants for the Production of the Biologically Active Hydroxystilbene, Resveratrol

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Jeandet; Bertrand Delaunois; Aziz Aziz; David Donnez; Yann Vasserot; Sylvain Cordelier; Eric Courot

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol, a stilbenic compound deriving from the phenyalanine/polymalonate route, being stilbene synthase the last and key enzyme of this pathway, recently has become the focus of a number of studies in medicine and plant physiology. Increased demand for this molecule for nutraceutical, cosmetic and possibly pharmaceutic uses, makes its production a necessity. In this context, the use of biotechnology through recombinant microorganisms and plants is particularly promising. Interesting resu...

  16. Structural, biological, and evolutionary relationships of plant food allergens sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, E N Clare; Jenkins, John A; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Shewry, Peter R

    2004-01-01

    The recently completed genome sequence of the model plant species Arabidopsis has been estimated to encode over 25,000 proteins, which, on the basis of their function, can be classified into structural and metabolic (the vast majority of plant proteins), protective proteins, which defend a plant against invasion by pathogens or feeding by pests, and storage proteins, which proved a nutrient store to support germination in seeds. It is now clear that almost all plant food allergens are either protective or storage proteins. It is also becoming evident that those proteins that trigger the development of an allergic response through the gastrointestinal tract belong primarily to two large protein superfamilies: (1) The cereal prolamin superfamily, comprising three major groups of plant food allergens, the 2S albumins, lipid transfer proteins, and cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, which have related structures, and are stable to thermal processing and proteolysis. They include major allergens from Brazil nut, peanuts, fruits, such as peaches, and cereals, such as rice and wheat; (2) The cupin superfamily, comprising the major globulin storage proteins from a number of plant species. The globulins have been found to be allergens in plant foods, such as peanuts, soya bean, and walnut; (3) The cyteine protease C1 family, comprising the papain-like proteases from microbes, plants, and animals. This family contains two notable allergens that sensitize via the GI tract, namely actinidin from kiwi fruit and the soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 30k/P34. This study describes the properties, structures, and evolutionary relationships of these protein families, the allergens that belong to them, and discusses them in relation to the role protein structure may play in determining protein allergenicity.

  17. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  18. Predictive Analyses of Biological Effects of Natural Products: From Plant Extracts to Biomolecular Laboratory and Computer Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gambari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Year by year, the characterization of the biological activity of natural products is becoming more competitive and complex, with the involvement in this research area of experts belonging to different scientific fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology and bioinformatics. These fields are becoming of great interest for several high-impact scientific journals, including eCAM. The available literature in general, and a survey of reviews and original articles recently published, establishes that natural products, including extracts from medicinal plants and essential oils, retain interesting therapeutic activities, including antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic and differentiating properties. In this commentary, we focus attention on interest in networks based on complementary activation and comparative evaluation of different experimental strategies applied to the discovery and characterization of bioactive natural products. A representative flow chart is shown in the paper.

  19. The use of biological tests for establishing the influence of flue dust from lead and zinc works on plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activity of water extracts of flue dust from lead and zinc works was assayed by means of biological tests. As test species served: Pinui silvestris, P. nigra, Trifalium pratense, Cucurnis sativus variety Delikates, Raphanus sativus, Pisum arvense and Allium cepa. The extracts tested with a containing as low as 26.0 mg/ml Zn and 1.02 mg/ml Pb, caused a shortening of the roots of the tested plants. Most sensitive proved to be Cucumis sativus, Trifolium pratense and Pinus silvestris. Cytoloigical analysis of the growth apex of Allium cepa roots demonstrated that the Solutions used caused disturbances in cell division in the form of c-mitosis and lowered the value of the mitotic index.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.

  1. Influence of Nano-Crystal Metals on Texture and Biological Properties of Water Soluble Polysaccharides of Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilov, G.; Ivanycheva, J.; Kiryshin, V.

    2015-11-01

    When treating the plants seeds with nano-materials there are some quality and quantity changes of polysaccharides, the molecular mass increase and monosaccharides change that leads to the increase of physiological and pharmacological activity of carbohydrates got from medicinal plants. We have got water soluble polysaccharides and nano-metals combinations containing 0.000165-0.000017 mg/dm3 of the metal. In a case of induced anemia the blood composition has practically restored on the 10th day of the treatment with nanocomposites. The use of pectin polysaccharides (that are attributed to modifiers of biological respond) to get nano-structured materials seems to be actual relative to their physiological activity (radio nuclides persorption, heavy metals ions, bacteria cells and their toxins; lipids metabolism normalization; bowels secreting and motor functions activation and modulation of the endocrine system.

  2. Influences of NOM composition and bacteriological characteristics on biological stability in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Won; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Meyer, Anne S; Kim, Sungpyo; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The influences of natural organic matter (NOM) and bacteriological characteristics on the biological stability of water were investigated in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. We found that prechlorination decreased the hydrophobicity of the organic matter and significantly increased the high-molecular-weight (MW) dissolved organic matter, such as biopolymers and humic substances. High-MW organic matter and structurally complex compounds are known to be relatively slowly biodegradable; however, because of the prechlorination step, the indigenous bacteria could readily utilise these fractions as assimilable organic carbon. Sequential coagulation and sedimentation resulted in the substantial removal of biopolymer (74%), humic substance (33%), bacterial cells (79%), and assimilable organic carbon (67%). Rapid sand and granular activated carbon filtration induced an increase in the low-nucleic-acid content bacteria; however, these bacteria were biologically less active in relation to enzymatic activity and ATP. The granular activated carbon step was essential to securing biological stability (the ability to prevent bacterial growth) by removing the residual assimilable organic carbon that had formed during the ozone treatment. The growth potential of Escherichia coli and indigenous bacteria were found to differ in respect to NOM characteristics. In comparison with E. coli, the indigenous bacteria utilised a broader range of NOM as a carbon source. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the measured biological stability of water could differ, depending on the NOM characteristics, as well as on the bacterial inoculum selected for the analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 'Candidatus Halomonas phosphatis', a novel polyphosphate-accumulating organism in full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

    2012-10-01

    Microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) was used to screen for potential polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) plants. Clone library analyses and application of MAR-FISH using newly designed probes revealed that small rods related to uncultured Halomonas within the gammaproteobacterial family Halomonadaceae were actively involved in uptake of orthophosphate. Although deeply branched in the Gammaproteobacteria, they were not targeted by the gammaproteobacterial probe (GAM42a). A part of them were also not targeted with the general bacterial probes (EUBmix). They could take up short-chain fatty acids (e.g. acetate and propionate) and ethanol under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Polyhydroxyalkanoate storage was observed under anaerobic conditions. There was no indication of a denitrifying capability. A survey of the occurrence of these Halomonas-PAOs in 23 full-scale EBPR plants revealed that they made up 0.5-5.7% of all bacteria in the plants, and were often in higher abundance than the well-described PAOs 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis'. This indicates a potentially important role for these uncultured Halomonas bacteria in the EBPR process in full-scale plants and we propose to name them 'Candidatus Halomonas phosphatis'. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Biological effects of weightlessness and clinostatic conditions registered in cells of root meristem and cap of higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnik, K. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Belyavskaya, N. A.; Nedukha, E. M.; Tarasenko, V. A.

    Research in cellular reproduction, differentiation and vital activity, i.e. processes underlying the development and functioning of organisms, plants included, is essential for solving fundamental and applied problems of space biology. Detailed anatomical analysis of roots of higher plants grown on board the Salyut 6 orbital research station show that under conditions of weightlessness for defined duration mitosis, cytokinesis and tissue differentiation in plant vegetative organs occur essentially normally. At the same time, certain rearrangements in the structural organization of cellular organelles - mainly the plastid apparatus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and nucleus - are established in the root meristem and cap of the experimental plants. This is evidence for considerable changes in cellular metabolism. The structural changes in the subcellular level arising under spaceflight conditions are partially absent in clinostat experiments designed to simulate weightlessness. Various clinostatic conditions have different influences on the cell structural and functional organization than does space flight. It is suggested that alterations of cellular metabolism under weightlessness and clinostatic conditions occur within existing genetic programs.

  5. The Chemistry and Biological Activities of Natural Products from Northern African Plant Families: From Taccaceae to Zygophyllaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Njume, Leonel E; Malange, Yvette I; Günther, Stefan; Sippl, Wolfgang; Yong, Joseph N

    2016-04-01

    Traditional medicinal practices have a profound influence on the daily lives of people living in developing countries, particularly in Africa, since the populations cannot generally afford the cost of Western medicines. We have undertaken to investigate the correlation between the uses of plants in Traditional African medicine and the biological activities of the derived natural products, with the aim to validate the use of traditional medicine in Northern African communities. The literature is covered for the period 1959-2015 and part III of this review series focuses on plant families with names beginning with letters T to Z. The authors have focused on curating data from journals in natural products and phytomedicine. Within each journal home page, a query search based on country name was conducted. All articles "hits" were then verified, one at a time, that the species was harvested within the Northern African geographical regions. The current data partly constitutes the bases for the development of the Northern African natural compounds database. The review discusses 284 plant-based natural compounds from 34 species and 11 families. It was observed that the ethnobotanical uses of less than 40 % of the plant species surveyed correlated with the bioactivities of compounds identified.

  6. The Structure and Function of Biological Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daniel Duanqing

    2010-01-01

    Biology has been revolutionized in recent years by an explosion in the availability of data. Transforming this new wealth of data into meaningful biological insights and clinical breakthroughs requires a complete overhaul both in the questions being asked and the methodologies used to answer them. A major challenge in organizing and understanding…

  7. A case of fatal poisoning with the aconite plant: quantitative analysis in biological fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S P

    2002-01-01

    In recent years recorded cases of plant poisoning have become rare, this may in part be due to the possibility of plant ingestion not being indicated at the beginning of an investigation. Aconitum napellus (aconite, Wolfsbane, Monkshood) is one of the most poisonous plants in the UK. It contains various potent alkaloids such as aconitine, isoaconitine, lycaconitine and napelline. Ingestion of Aconitum plant extracts can result in severe, potentially fatal toxic effects. This paper describes the analytical findings in a recent death in the UK. resulting from deliberate ingestion of Aconitum napellus extract. The concentrations of aconitine measured by HPLC-DAD in the post mortem femoral blood and urine were 10.8 micrograms/L and 264 micrograms/L, respectively. The aconitine concentration in the ante mortem urine was 334 micrograms/L and was estimated to be 6 micrograms/L in the ante mortem serum. Hence, accidental, suicidal or homicidal poisoning due to the ingestion of plant material remains a possibility and should be borne in mind when investigating sudden or unexplained death.

  8. Biological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to the herbicide simetryne in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Yang, Yi; Jia, Lin Xian; Lin, Jing Ling; Liu, Ying; Pan, Bo; Lin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The rotation of rice and wheat is widely used and highly endorsed, and simetryne (s-triazine herbicide) is one of the principal herbicides widely used in this rotation for weed and grass control. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of the ecological and physiological effects of simetryne on wheat crops. In this study, we performed a comprehensive investigation of crop response to simetryne to elucidate the accumulation and phytotoxicity of the herbicide in wheat crops. Wheat plants exposed to 0.8 to 8.0mgkg(-1) simetryne for 7 d exhibited suppressed growth and decreased chlorophyll content. With simetryne concentration in the soil varied from 0.8mgkg(-1) to 8.0mgkg(-1), simetryne was progressively accumulated by the wheat plants. The accumulation of simetryne in the wheat plants not only induced the over production of ROS and injured the membrane lipids but also stimulated the production of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A test of enzymatic activity and gene expression illustrated that the wheat plants were wise enough to motivate the antioxidant enzymes through both molecular and physiological mechanisms to alleviate the simetryne-induced stress. This study offers an illuminating insight into the effective adaptive response of the wheat plants to the simetryne stress.

  9. Pollination biology of the urban populations of an ancient forest, spring ephemeral plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej A. Ziemiański

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation, caused by, among all, agriculture and urbanization, is one of the most important drivers of plant biodiversity decline worldwide. One of the signs of deteriorating zoogamous plant reproduction is pollen limitation, often associated with a decline in pollinator diversity and abundance. Various authors predict that the most vulnerable taxa are outbreeding plant species characterized by specialist pollination systems. We have, therefore, focused on self-incompatible Corydalis solida, an ancient forest, spring ephemeral plant, growing in three remnant urban populations in the city of Warsaw (Poland. Over two years, we checked for pollen limitation and recorded insect diversity and abundance for C. solida flowers. Our study populations composed of self-incompatible individuals were mainly visited by generalist pollinators, and produced more seeds when supplementally pollinated. Pollen limitation, however, was greater during 1 year with an early spring onset, when we observed a decline in floral visitors diversity and activity. This was probably an effect of phenological mismatch between plants and their pollinators, in this case, mostly social bees, i.e., over-wintered bumblebee queens and Apis mellifera. We conclude that for outbreeding zoogamous spring ephemerals, such as C. solida serviced by generalist pollinators, changing climatic conditions may override the effects of habitat fragmentation and influence their reproductive success.

  10. A systems biology perspective on plant-microbe interactions: biochemical and structural targets of pathogen effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Leighton; Birch, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Plants have biochemical defences against stresses from predators, parasites and pathogens. In this review we discuss the interaction of plant defences with microbial pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, and viruses. We examine principles of complex dynamic networks that allow identification of network components that are differentially and predictably sensitive to perturbation, thus making them likely effector targets. We relate these principles to recent developments in our understanding of known effector targets in plant-pathogen systems, and propose a systems-level framework for the interpretation and modelling of host-microbe interactions mediated by effectors. We describe this framework briefly, and conclude by discussing useful experimental approaches for populating this framework.

  11. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ovando-Medina, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062-5016 pollen grains (266-647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world.

  12. Biological analysis of endocrine disrupting compounds in Tunisian sewage treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minif, W.; Dagnino, S.; Pillon, A.; Escande, A.; Fenet, E.; Gomez, E.; Casellas, C.; Duchesne, M. J.; Cavailles, V.

    2009-07-01

    The endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are frequently found in sewage treatment plant (STPs) works. Natural and synthetic hormones have been identified as the major contributors to the estrogenic activity in sewage. Dosing and identification of EDCs are certainly of great interest and can lead to the improvement of chemicals treatments. With reporter cell lines developed in the laboratory and allowing the detection of nuclear receptor activities, we characterized the endocrine disrupting profile of water, particulate matter and sludge from three Tunisian sewage, treatment plants (STPs). (Author)

  13. Impact of rice-straw biochars amended soil on the biological Si cycle in soil-plant ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zimin; Delvaux, Bruno; Struyf, Eric; Unzué-Belmonte, Dácil; Ronsse, Frederik; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2017-04-01

    uptake by wheat , Si-/biochar does not increase the Si content of plants in either soil type. As expected, Si+/biochar and wollastonite significantly increase the Si content of wheat plants grown on both soils. The increase caused by Si+/biochar is, larger in NI (10 mg Si pot-1) than that in CA (5 mg Si pot-1). This result is in line with the release of CaCl2 extractable Si in both soils amended by Si+/biochar, confirming the validity of CaCl2-extraction to estimate the pool of bioavailable Si. Our data highlight that phytolith-rich biochar readily contributes to the pool of bioavailable Si, further taken up by plant roots, and increases Si mineralomass in plants as well as plant growth. Thus it provides an alternative to wollastonite application. The effect is particularly large in the highly weathered Nitisol. Under such conditions, the impact of phytolith rich biochar is not limited to the enhancement of Si biological cycle, but is extended to the increase of soil pH, CEC and organic matter content.

  14. Physical interactions among plant MADS-box transcription factors and their biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nougalli Tonaco, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The biological interpretation of the genome starts from transcription, and many different signaling pathways are integrated at this level. Transcription factors play a central role in the transcription process, because they select the down-stream genes and determine their spatial and temporal

  15. MADIBA: A web server toolkit for biological interpretation of Plasmodium and plant gene clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Abraham I

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology makes it possible to identify changes in gene expression of an organism, under various conditions. Data mining is thus essential for deducing significant biological information such as the identification of new biological mechanisms or putative drug targets. While many algorithms and software have been developed for analysing gene expression, the extraction of relevant information from experimental data is still a substantial challenge, requiring significant time and skill. Description MADIBA (MicroArray Data Interface for Biological Annotation facilitates the assignment of biological meaning to gene expression clusters by automating the post-processing stage. A relational database has been designed to store the data from gene to pathway for Plasmodium, rice and Arabidopsis. Tools within the web interface allow rapid analyses for the identification of the Gene Ontology terms relevant to each cluster; visualising the metabolic pathways where the genes are implicated, their genomic localisations, putative common transcriptional regulatory elements in the upstream sequences, and an analysis specific to the organism being studied. Conclusion MADIBA is an integrated, online tool that will assist researchers in interpreting their results and understand the meaning of the co-expression of a cluster of genes. Functionality of MADIBA was validated by analysing a number of gene clusters from several published experiments – expression profiling of the Plasmodium life cycle, and salt stress treatments of Arabidopsis and rice. In most of the cases, the same conclusions found by the authors were quickly and easily obtained after analysing the gene clusters with MADIBA.

  16. Physical interactions among plant MADS-box transcription factors and their biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nougalli Tonaco, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The biological interpretation of the genome starts from transcription, and many different signaling pathways are integrated at this level. Transcription factors play a central role in the transcription process, because they select the down-stream genes and determine their spatial and temporal expres

  17. Metabolic Engineering of Yeast and Plants for the Production of the Biologically Active Hydroxystilbene, Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jeandet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a stilbenic compound deriving from the phenyalanine/polymalonate route, being stilbene synthase the last and key enzyme of this pathway, recently has become the focus of a number of studies in medicine and plant physiology. Increased demand for this molecule for nutraceutical, cosmetic and possibly pharmaceutic uses, makes its production a necessity. In this context, the use of biotechnology through recombinant microorganisms and plants is particularly promising. Interesting results can indeed arise from the potential of genetically modified microorganisms as an alternative mechanism for producing resveratrol. Strategies used to tailoring yeast as they do not possess the genes that encode for the resveratrol pathway, will be described. On the other hand, most interest has centered in recent years, on STS gene transfer experiments from various origins to the genome of numerous plants. This work also presents a comprehensive review on plant molecular engineering with the STS gene, resulting in disease resistance against microorganisms and the enhancement of the antioxidant activities of several fruits in transgenic lines.

  18. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50  1000 µg/ml). Our subsequent studies of conifer heartwoods with strong activity confirm the assay's value for identifying new investigational leads for materials with insecticidal and fungicidal activity.

  19. First flowering hybrid between autotrophic and mycoheterotrophic plant species: breakthrough in molecular biology of mycoheterotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Miyoshi, Kazumitsu; Tsutsumi, Chie; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2014-03-01

    Among land plants, which generally exhibit autotrophy through photosynthesis, about 880 species are mycoheterotrophs, dependent on mycorrhizal fungi for their carbon supply. Shifts in nutritional mode from autotrophy to mycoheterotrophy are usually accompanied by evolution of various combinations of characters related to structure and physiology, e.g., loss of foliage leaves and roots, reduction in seed size, degradation of plastid genome, and changes in mycorrhizal association and pollination strategy. However, the patterns and processes involved in such alterations are generally unknown. Hybrids between autotrophic and mycoheterotrophic plants may provide a breakthrough in molecular studies on the evolution of mycoheterotrophy. We have produced the first hybrid between autotrophic and mycoheterotrophic plant species using the orchid group Cymbidium. The autotrophic Cymbidium ensifolium subsp. haematodes and mycoheterotrophic C. macrorhizon were artificially pollinated, and aseptic germination of the hybrid seeds obtained was promoted by sonication. In vitro flowering was observed five years after seed sowing. Development of foliage leaves, an important character for photosynthesis, segregated in the first generation; that is, some individuals only developed scale leaves on the rhizome and flowering stems. However, all of the flowering plants formed roots, which is identical to the maternal parent.

  20. The status of biological control of plant diseases in soilless cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.

    2009-01-01

    Avoidance of plant diseases has been a major driver for the development of soilless cultivation systems. Nevertheless, diseases still occur in these systems and the need for additional control measures exist. Traditionally, control has relied on the use of chemical fungicides but environmental press

  1. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

  2. Metabolic Engineering of Yeast and Plants for the Production of the Biologically Active Hydroxystilbene, Resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandet, Philippe; Delaunois, Bertrand; Aziz, Aziz; Donnez, David; Vasserot, Yann; Cordelier, Sylvain; Courot, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol, a stilbenic compound deriving from the phenyalanine/polymalonate route, being stilbene synthase the last and key enzyme of this pathway, recently has become the focus of a number of studies in medicine and plant physiology. Increased demand for this molecule for nutraceutical, cosmetic and possibly pharmaceutic uses, makes its production a necessity. In this context, the use of biotechnology through recombinant microorganisms and plants is particularly promising. Interesting results can indeed arise from the potential of genetically modified microorganisms as an alternative mechanism for producing resveratrol. Strategies used to tailoring yeast as they do not possess the genes that encode for the resveratrol pathway, will be described. On the other hand, most interest has centered in recent years, on STS gene transfer experiments from various origins to the genome of numerous plants. This work also presents a comprehensive review on plant molecular engineering with the STS gene, resulting in disease resistance against microorganisms and the enhancement of the antioxidant activities of several fruits in transgenic lines. PMID:22654481

  3. Biological and molecular events associated with simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by invertebrate and fungal vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syller, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Viruses are likely to be the most dangerous parasites of living organisms because of their widespread occurrence, possible deleterious effects on their hosts and high rates of evolution. Virus host-to-host transmission is a critical step in the virus life cycle, because it enables survival in a given environment and efficient dissemination. As hosts of plant viruses are not mobile, these pathogens have adopted diverse transmission strategies involving various vector organisms, mainly arthropods, nematodes, fungi and protists. In nature, plants are often infected with more than one virus at a time, thereby creating potential sources for vectors to acquire and transmit simultaneously two or more viruses. Simultaneous transmission can result in multiple infections of new host plants, which become subsequent potential sources of the viruses, thus enhancing the spread of the diseases caused by these pathogens. Moreover, it can contribute to the maintenance of viral genetic diversity in the host communities. However, despite its possible significance, the problem of the simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by vectors has not been investigated in detail. In this review, the current knowledge on multiple viral transmissions by aphids, whiteflies, leafhoppers, planthoppers, nematodes and fungi is outlined. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. The status of biological control of plant diseases in soilless cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.

    2009-01-01

    Avoidance of plant diseases has been a major driver for the development of soilless cultivation systems. Nevertheless, diseases still occur in these systems and the need for additional control measures exist. Traditionally, control has relied on the use of chemical fungicides but environmental

  5. Plant Metabolomics and Its Potential for Systems Biology Research: Background Concepts, Technology, and Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allwood, J.W.; Vos, de C.H.; Moing, A.; Deborde, C.; Erban, A.; Kopka, J.; Goodacre, R.; Hall, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    The "metabolome" comprises the entire complement of small molecules in a plant or any other organism. It represents the ultimate phenotype of cells, deduced from the perturbation of gene expression and the modulation of protein function, as well as environmental cues. Extensive advances over the

  6. Control of Directional Macromolecular Trafficking Across Specific Cellular Boundaries: A Key to Integrative Plant Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There is now solid evidence that cell-to-cell trafficking of certain proteins and RNAs plays a critical role in trans-cellular regulation of gene expression to coordinate cellular differentiation and development. Such trafficking also is critical for viral infection and plant defense. The mechanisms of trafficking remain poorly understood. Although some proteins may move between cells by diffusion, many proteins and RNAs move in a highly regulated fashion. Regulation is likely achieved through interactions between distinct protein or RNA motifs and cellular factors. Some motifs and factors have been identified. One of the major focuses for future studies is to identify all motifs and their cognate factors and further elucidate their roles in trafficking between specific cells. With increasing information from such studies, we should be able to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that regulate trafficking of various proteins and RNAs across all and specific cellular boundaries. On the basis of such mechanistic knowledge, we can further investigate how the trafficking machinery has evolved to regulate developmental and physiological processes in a plant, how pathogens have co-evolved to use this machinery for systemic spread in a plant, and how plants use this machinery for counterdefense.

  7. Endophytic Streptomyces in the traditional medicinal plant Arnica montana L.: secondary metabolites and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardecki, Tina; Brötz, Elke; De Ford, Christian; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Arnica montana L. is a medical plant of the Asteraceae family and grows preferably on nutrient poor soils in mountainous environments. Such surroundings are known to make plants dependent on symbiosis with other organisms. Up to now only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to act as endophytic symbiosis partners for A. montana. Here we identified five Streptomyces strains, microorganisms also known to occur as endophytes in plants and to produce a huge variety of active secondary metabolites, as inhabitants of A. montana. The secondary metabolite spectrum of these strains does not contain sesquiterpene lactones, but consists of the glutarimide antibiotics cycloheximide and actiphenol as well as the diketopiperazines cyclo-prolyl-valyl, cyclo-prolyl-isoleucyl, cyclo-prolyl-leucyl and cyclo-prolyl-phenylalanyl. Notably, genome analysis of one strain was performed and indicated a huge genome size with a high number of natural products gene clusters among which genes for cycloheximide production were detected. Only weak activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was revealed, but the extracts showed a marked cytotoxic activity as well as an antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Fusarium verticillioides. Altogether, our results provide evidence that A. montana and its endophytic Streptomyces benefit from each other by completing their protection against competitors and pathogens and by exchanging plant growth promoting signals with nutrients.

  8. Biological removal of organic constituents in quench waters from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

    1980-02-01

    Studies were initiated to assess the efficiency of bench-scale, activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from coal-gasification process effluents. Samples of pilot-plant, raw-gas quench waters were obtained from the HYGAS process of the Institute of Gas Technology and from the slagging, fixed-bed (SFB) process of the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. The types of coal employed were Bituminous Illinois No. 6 for the HYGAS and Indian Head lignite for the SFB process. These pilot-plant quench waters, while not strictly representative of commercial condensates, were considered useful to evaluate the efficiency of biological oxidation for the removal of organics. Biological-reactor influent and effluent samples were extracted using a methylene chloride pH-fractionation method into acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Influent acid fractions of both HYGAS and SFB condensates showed that nearly 99% of extractable and chromatographable organic material comprised phenol and alkylated phenols. Activated-sludge treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Removal efficiency of base-fraction organics was generally good, except for certain alkylated pyridines. Removal of neutral-fraction organics was also good, except for certain alkylated benzenes, certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and certain cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes, especially at low influent concentrations.

  9. Artificial intelligence models for predicting the performance of biological wastewater treatment plant in the removal of Kjeldahl Nitrogen from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, D. S.; Thalla, Arun Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The current work demonstrates the support vector machine (SVM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modeling to assess the removal efficiency of Kjeldahl Nitrogen of a full-scale aerobic biological wastewater treatment plant. The influent variables such as pH, chemical oxygen demand, total solids (TS), free ammonia, ammonia nitrogen and Kjeldahl Nitrogen are used as input variables during modeling. Model development focused on postulating an adaptive, functional, real-time and alternative approach for modeling the removal efficiency of Kjeldahl Nitrogen. The input variables used for modeling were daily time series data recorded at wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Mangalore during the period June 2014-September 2014. The performance of ANFIS model developed using Gbell and trapezoidal membership functions (MFs) and SVM are assessed using different statistical indices like root mean square error, correlation coefficients (CC) and Nash Sutcliff error (NSE). The errors related to the prediction of effluent Kjeldahl Nitrogen concentration by the SVM modeling appeared to be reasonable when compared to that of ANFIS models with Gbell and trapezoidal MF. From the performance evaluation of the developed SVM model, it is observed that the approach is capable to define the inter-relationship between various wastewater quality variables and thus SVM can be potentially applied for evaluating the efficiency of aerobic biological processes in WWTP.

  10. Molecular characterization of denitrifying bacteria isolated from the anoxic reactor of a modified DEPHANOX plant performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiriadis, Ilias; Ntougias, Spyridon; Mirelis, Paraskevi; Kapagiannidis, Anastasios G; Aivasidis, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) under anoxic conditions was achieved using a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system based on a modification of the DEPHANOX configuration. Double-probe Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) revealed that Polyphosphate Accumulating Organisms (PAOs) comprised 12.3 +/- 3.2% of the total bacterial population in the modified DEPHANOX plant. The growing bacterial population on blood agar and Casitone Glycerol Yeast Autolysate agar (CGYA) medium was 16.7 +/- 0.9 x 10(5) and 3.0 +/- 0.6 x 10(5) colony forming units (cfu) mL(-1) activated sludge, respectively. A total of 121 bacterial isolates were characterized according to their denitrification ability, with 26 bacterial strains being capable of reducing nitrate to gas. All denitrifying isolates were placed within the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subdivisions of Proteobacteria and the family Flavobacteriaceae. Furthermore, a novel denitrifying bacterium within the genus Pseudomonas was identified. This is the first report on the isolation and molecular characterization of denitrifying bacteria from EBPR sludge using a DEPHANOX-type plant.

  11. Biological removal of organic constituents in quench water from a slagging, fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

    1980-02-01

    This study is part of an effort to assess the efficiency of activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot-plant quench waters. A sample of raw-gas quench water was obtained from the Grand Forks Energy and Technology Center's pilot plant, which employs the slagging, fixed-bed gasification process. The quench water generated in the processing of Indian Head lignite was pretreated to reduce ammonia and alkalinity, and then diluted and subjected to long-term biological treatment, followed by detailed characterization and analysis of organic constituents. The pretreated (influent) and treated (effluent) samples were extracted using a methylene chloride, pH-fractionation method to obtain acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Over 99% of the total extractable and chromatographable organic material in the influent acid fraction was composed of phenol and alkylated phenols. Biological treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Major components of the influent base fraction were alkylated pyridines, anilines, aminopyrroles, imidazoles and/or pyrazoles, diazines, and quinolines. Removal efficiency of these compounds ranged between 90 and 100%. The influent neutral fraction was composed mainly of cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, naphthalene, indole, acetophenone, and benzonitrile. Alkylated benzenes were generally absent. Removal efficiencies of these compounds were generally very good, except for certain alkylated cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes. Results are compared with those of a similar study on HYGAS coal-gasification quench water.

  12. Biological protection of plants in agricultular landscape--state of the art,problems and ways of their decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sokolov M S; Kolombet L V

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1. Biological protection of plants: definition and objectives. Technologically, biological protection of plants (hereinafter bioprotection) is a high agricultural technology involving agricultural landscape approach and basee on an ecological imperative, namely "use living beings against living beings". In a wide sense, present-day bioprotection is a fundamental and applied field of knowledge providing harmless suppression of harmful agents during cultivation and storage of agricultural crops by use natural and (or) artificially constructed organisms (including genetically modified ones having pesticidal properties ) and products of their live cycle. The overall objective of bioprotection consists in producing harmless, profitable and high-quality vegetative raw material, food, fodder. At the same time, bioprotection agrotechnologies are important environment forming and environment maintaining factors, steady and positively influencing the health of both rural ethnos, and agrosphere as a whole. Realization of integrated bioprotection approaches should provide minimum destruction of beneficial and non-target organisms, excluding the succession of harmful species and appearance of species resistant to biocontrol agents.

  13. Metabolic scaling theory in plant biology and the three oxygen paradoxa of aerobic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russell Wallace was a field naturalist with a strong interest in general physiology. In this vein, he wrote that oxygen (O2), produced by green plants, is "the food of protoplasm, without which it cannot continue to live". Here we summarize current models relating body size to respiration rates (in the context of the metabolic scaling theory) and show that oxygen-uptake activities, measured at 21 vol.% O2, correlate closely with growth patterns at the level of specific organs within the same plant. Thus, whole plant respiration can change ontogenetically, corresponding to alterations in the volume fractions of different tissues. Then, we describe the evolution of cyanobacterial photosynthesis during the Paleoarchean, which changed the world forever. By slowly converting what was once a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing one, microbes capable of O2-producing photosynthesis modified the chemical nature and distribution of the element iron (Fe), slowly drove some of the most ancient prokaryotes to extinction, created the ozone (O3) layer that subsequently shielded the first terrestrial plants and animals from harmful UV radiation, but also made it possible for Earth's forest to burn, sometimes with catastrophic consequences. Yet another paradox is that the most abundant protein (i.e., the enzyme Rubisco, Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) has a greater affinity for oxygen than for carbon dioxide (CO2), even though its function is to bind with the latter rather than the former. We evaluate this second "oxygen paradox" within the context of photorespiratory carbon loss and crop yield reduction in C3 vs. C4 plants (rye vs. maize). Finally, we analyze the occurrence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as destructive by-products of cellular metabolism, and discuss the three "O2-paradoxa" with reference to A. R. Wallace's speculations on "design in nature".

  14. Guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control (plants). Pt. 1. Methodological guidance for the drawing-up of biomonitoring guidelines (plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D. [Buero fuer Konzeptionelle Bioindikation, Jockgrim (Germany); Wagner, G. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Inst. fuer Biogeographie; Finck, M.

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to encourage and promote further development of the methodological basis for a broader and more effective use of biological methods for monitoring the effects of air pollution on plants. It is not intended here to explain or discuss general criteria for the design of environmental monitoring studies and principal statistical methods for dealing with heterogeneously distributed spatial phenomena in detail. A further objective of this study is to give general guidance on how to - select suitable bioindicators, - develop, optimise and validate specific guidelines for the use of these bioindicators, - plan, design and employ biomonitoring studies for different purposes, - develop case-specific study plans determining how to apply an appropriate bioindicator (method-specific guideline) to a given task, case and area, - adapt principles of quality assurance and quality control to biomonitoring studies, - increase the importance and reliability of results obtained by bioindicators with respect to administrative measures. (orig.)

  15. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  16. Commercial Biological Control Agents Targeted Against Plant-Parasitic Root-knot Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Stéphane Tranier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes are microscopic round worms, which cause severe agricultural losses. Their attacks affect the productivity by reducing the amount and the caliber of the fruits. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using microorganisms to reduce the quantity of pests infecting crops. Biological control is developing gradually, and with time, more products are being marketed worldwide. They can be formulated with bacteria, viruses or with filamentous fungi, which can destroy and feed on phytoparasitic nematodes. To be used by the farmers, biopesticides must be legalized by the states, which has led to the establishment of a legal framework for their use, devised by various governmental organizations.

  17. Protoplasts: a useful research system for plant cell biology, especially dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangwei; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Hai-Liang

    2013-12-01

    As protoplasts have the characteristics of no cell walls, rapid population growth, and synchronicity, they are useful tools for research in many fields, especially cellular biology (Table 1). This article is an overview that focuses on the application of protoplasts to investigate the mechanisms of dedifferentiation, including changes in hormone signals, epigenetic changes, and organelle distribution during the dedifferentiation process. The article also emphasizes the wide range of uses for protoplasts in studying protein positions and signaling during different stresses. The examples provided help to show that protoplast systems, for example the mesophyll protoplast system of Arabidopsis, represent promising tools for studying developmental biology. Meanwhile, specific analysis of protoplast, which comes from different tissue, has specific advantages and limitations (Table 2), and it can provide recommendations to use this system.

  18. Bioactive cotton fabrics containing chitosan and biologically active substances extracted from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, G; Nichifor, M; Mihai, D; Oproiu, L C

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the obtaining of bioactive textiles using chitosan-coated fabrics, in which biologically active substances contained by Viola Tricolor (VT) - an extract of three Viola species (Violaceae) - were immobilized. Chitosan was applied on cotton fabric or on chemically modified cotton (having reactive -CHO or carboxymethyl groups), as tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinked fine particles, or by use of glutaraldehyde crosslinking agent. The amount of VT retained on the fabrics was found to depend on the procedure of chitosan application on the cotton. The obtained bioactive textiles are expected to have antioxidant activity due to the biologically active substances from VT; they can be used for obtaining clothes for people with allergies or other skin problems, assuring a controlled release of biomolecules. The study focuses on the in vitro release of VT retained on the fabrics, as well as on its antioxidant activity.

  19. Gene Selection Integrated with Biological Knowledge for Plant Stress Response Using Neighborhood System and Rough Set Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Luan, Yushi

    2015-01-01

    Mining knowledge from gene expression data is a hot research topic and direction of bioinformatics. Gene selection and sample classification are significant research trends, due to the large amount of genes and small size of samples in gene expression data. Rough set theory has been successfully applied to gene selection, as it can select attributes without redundancy. To improve the interpretability of the selected genes, some researchers introduced biological knowledge. In this paper, we first employ neighborhood system to deal directly with the new information table formed by integrating gene expression data with biological knowledge, which can simultaneously present the information in multiple perspectives and do not weaken the information of individual gene for selection and classification. Then, we give a novel framework for gene selection and propose a significant gene selection method based on this framework by employing reduction algorithm in rough set theory. The proposed method is applied to the analysis of plant stress response. Experimental results on three data sets show that the proposed method is effective, as it can select significant gene subsets without redundancy and achieve high classification accuracy. Biological analysis for the results shows that the interpretability is well.

  20. Understanding the biology and ecology of vulnerable plant species: case study with tetratheca juncea occurring over coal leases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Mulligan; Sean Bellairs; F.V. Bartier; C.L. Gross; D. Bowen

    2001-06-01

    Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae) is a vulnerable species listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act (Schedule 2, TSC Act 1995), and in the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.Researchers at the Universities of Queensland, New England and Newcastle established A collaborative research program investigated the reproductive and establishment biology of T juncea. Breeding systems, seed biology and mycorrhizal associations were investigated to determine factors limiting the reproductive output of the species. Native bees necessary for pollination were not detected in 100 hours of observation. The three key ramifications from this study of T. juncea's ecology is that: a pollinator is required for high seed yields; fire is required for germination; and a mycorrhizal partner is required for plant longevity. These findings indicate that translocations of the species cannot be recommended as there is a lack of knowledge about many factors that are critical for the persistence of the species. A fire management plan will need to cater for all obligate ecological requirements. The results of this study have been used to develop a flowchart on the biological procedures that need to be considered when a threatened flora species is found on a site. The results from this study are also considered to be a relevant guide for managing populations of other species of Tetratheca, many of which are also rare or threatened.

  1. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

  2. Crossover fungal pathogens: the biology and pathogenesis of fungi capable of crossing kingdoms to infect plants and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Gregory M; Keller, Nancy P

    2013-12-01

    The outbreak of fungal meningitis associated with contaminated methylprednisolone acetate has thrust the importance of fungal infections into the public consciousness. The predominant pathogen isolated from clinical specimens, Exserohilum rostratum (teleomorph: Setosphaeria rostrata), is a dematiaceous fungus that infects grasses and rarely humans. This outbreak highlights the potential for fungal pathogens to infect both plants and humans. Most crossover or trans-kingdom pathogens are soil saprophytes and include fungi in Ascomycota and Mucormycotina phyla. To establish infection, crossover fungi must overcome disparate, host-specific barriers, including protective surfaces (e.g. cuticle, skin), elevated temperature, and immune defenses. This review illuminates the underlying mechanisms used by crossover fungi to cause infection in plants and mammals, and highlights critical events that lead to human infection by these pathogens. Several genes including veA, laeA, and hapX are important in regulating biological processes in fungi important for both invasive plant and animal infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi.

  4. A review of chemistry and biological activities of the genus Aerva--a desert plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Payal; Chawla, Amit; Vasudeva, Neeru; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    There are approximately 28 species of Aerva genus, but only a few species are medicinal of which A. persica, A. lanata and A. javanica are of great value. A number of flavonol glycosides (e.g., aervanone, kaempferol-3-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside) have been reported from Aerva persica as major phytoconstituents and the minor constituents are β-cyanins (glycine betaine and trigonelline), sterols and carbohydrates. This plant is used as medicinal herb in several traditional systems of medicine all over the world, like diuretic, demulcent, purgative, emetic and tinder. Aerva plants are used to cure ulcer, lithiasis, dropsical affections, eye affection, toothache, headache, in disorders of abdomen and inflammation of internal organs. Roots and flowers are reported to possess hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anthelmintic, analgesic, antimalarial, antivenin activities and medicinal properties against rheumatism and kidney troubles.

  5. Reminiscences of research on the chemistry and biology of natural sterols in insects, plants and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikekawa, Nobuo; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    Natural sterols often occur as a heterogeneous mixture of homologs, which had disturbed the progress of steroid research. Development and application of GC methodology overcame this difficulty and enabled us to obtain detailed sterol profiles. Together, fine synthesis of stereo-defined isomers and homologs of steroids having oxygenated side chains allowed us to compare them with natural samples as well as to investigate structure-activity relationship. Advance of HPLC technology also facilitated the determination of the stereochemical structure of naturally occurring steroidal compounds, which were obtained only in minute amounts. This review highlights three topics out of our steroid research that have been performed mainly at Tokyo Institute of Technology around 1970-1990. These are sterol metabolism in insects focusing on the mechanism of the conversion of plant sterols to cholesterol and ecdysone biosynthesis, the synthesis and biochemical research of active forms of vitamin D3 derivatives, and the synthesis and microanalysis of plant hormone brassinosteroids.

  6. Biological monitoring to determine worker dose in a butadiene processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Butadiene (BD) is a reactive gas used extensively in the rubber industry and is also found in combustion products. Although BD is genotoxic and acts as an animal carcinogen, the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is limited. Extrapolation from animal studies on BD carcinogenicity to risk in humans has been controversial because of uncertainties regarding relative biologic exposure and related effects in humans vs. experimental animals. To reduce this uncertainty, a study was designed to characterize exposure to BD at a polymer production facility and to relate this exposure to mutational and cytogenetic effects. Biological monitoring was used to better assess the internal dose of BD received by the workers. Measurement of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl) butane (M1) in urine served as the biomarker in this study. M1 has been shown to correlate with area monitoring in previous studies. Most studies that relate exposure to a toxic chemical with its biological effects rely on exposure concentration as the dose metric; however, exposure concentration may or may not reflect the actual internal dose of the chemical.

  7. Combining partially ranked data in plant breeding and biology: II. Analysis with Rasch model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Simko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of breeding experiments, germplasm screening, and molecular biologic experimentation have generated volumes of sequence, genotype, and phenotype information that have been stored in public data repositories. These resources afford genetic and genomic researchers the opportunity to handle and analyze raw data from multiple laboratories and study groups whose research interests revolve around a common or closely related trait. However, although such data sets are widely available for secondary analysis, their heterogeneous nature often precludes their direct combination and joint exploration. Integration of phenotype information across multiple studies and databases is challenging due to variations in the measurement instruments, endpoint classifications, and biological material employed by each investigator. In the present work, we demonstrate how Rasch measurement model can surmount these problems. The model allows incorporating data sets with partially overlapping variables, large numbers of missing data points and dissimilar ratings of phenotypic endpoints. The model also enables quantifying the extent of heterogeneity between data sets. Biologists can use the model in a data-mining process to obtain combined ratings from various databases and other sources. Subsequently, these ratings can be used for selecting desirable material or (in combination with genotypic information for mapping genes involved in the particular trait. The model is not limited to genetics and breeding and can be applied in many other areas of biology and agriculture.

  8. Glowing Plants and Living Machines. Towards a Critique of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Müller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article criticly engages with 1 synthetic biologys’ technoscientific specifica, 2 the role of biotechnical and biopolitical promises of perfectibility of‚ life itself’, and 3 the problematic notion of ‘digital biology’. Synthetic biology dismisses the idea of an already given nature: ‘life itself’ is conceptualized as a field of potentialities, with adaptable materials and flexible structures that can be used for re-engineering to ‘perfect’ nature. Bioengineers claim to create new living organisms from scratch, using genetically standardized parts and computer-based design: ‘Living machines’ which do not exist in nature are supposed to serve human purposes. Beyond its actual (and limited state of research, some voices of synthetic biology offer bold claims of socio-technical scenarios, imagined objects, and future biotechnical experiments, which take place in society rather than behind laboratory doors. With their visions, synthetic biologists are becoming engineers of future societies. Synthetic biology develops a ‘biotechnologization of collective futures’ and it is part of a technoscientific ‘promise- economy’ that aims on colonizing the future - which demands to rethink Foucaults the question of biopolitics. Crucial for synthetic biologys’ promise of ‘digital biology’ are script-centered, bio-cybernetic, and even transhumanist figures of thought that fuel new visions of ‘life and nature’ as a field of potentials and even limitless treasures that can be programmed and produced by computational procedures: ‘writing’ the code of life.

  9. A Review on biological and phytochemical investigation of plant genus Callistimon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Praveen Kumar Goyal; Renuka Jain; Shweta Jain; Archana Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The large flowering plant genus Callistemon is belongs to family Myrtaceae and reported for its medical importance. Various parts of different species exhibit different medicinal importance and yet to be phytochemically investigated. In the different time various scientist have investigated the genus and reported the chemical constituents. A survey of literature on genus Callistemon reported the isolation of triterpenoids and steroids from leaves, seeds and stem bark of different species.

  10. Numerical investigation of the dynamics of nanoparticle systems in biological processes of plant nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrouchev, Alexandre V.; Golubchikov, Valery B.

    2007-03-01

    A complex mathematical model of processes of plant nutrition from a special regulated gas medium containing nanoparticles of basic macro- and microelements is formulated. The variation of the number of nanoparticles and the variation of the total nanoparticle volume with time, which form during the cooling process of the initial gas mixture, were investigated. The calculations of the structures, compositions and shapes of nanoparticles and the movement of nanoparticles were carried out.

  11. [Biological activity of fungi from the phyllosphere of weeds and wild herbaceous plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestitskiĭ, A O; Gasich, E L; Poluéktova, E V; Nikolaeva, E V; Sokornova, S V; Khlopunova, L B

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial, phytotoxic, and insecticidal activity of 30 fungal isolates obtained from leaves of weeds and wild herbaceous plants was assessed. Antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, and insecticidal activity was found in over 50, 40, 47, and 40% of the isolates, respectively. These findings may be important for toxicological assessment of potential mycoherbicides, as well as provide a basis for investigation of the patterns of development of phyllosphere communities affected by fungal metabolites.

  12. A Unique Model Platform for C4 Plant Systems and Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    were obtained suggesting successful agrobacterium mediated transformation. Introduction: C4 plants such as sugarcane, maize and sorghum are more...developing flower meristem on day 18. The inoculated shoot was tagged because new shoots emerge over time and it can be difficult to identify the...original inoculated shoot. An agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol was developed for Setaria viridis. Onset of floral embryogenesis was

  13. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Volatile Profiling of Aromatic Traditional Medicinal Plant, Polygonum minus in Different Tissues and Its Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafidah Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus.

  15. Volatile profiling of aromatic traditional medicinal plant, Polygonum minus in different tissues and its biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rafidah; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Bunawan, Hamidun; Lee, Minki; Mohd Noor, Normah; Rohani, Emelda Roseleena; Ilias, Norashikin; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2014-11-20

    The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots) of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol) extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane) showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus.

  16. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rincón-Rabanales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L. in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther. The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville and Trigona (Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world.

  17. Combined biological and chemical assessment of estrogenic activities in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerni, Hans-Rudolf; Kobler, Bernd; Rutishauser, Barbara V; Wettstein, Felix E; Fischer, René; Giger, Walter; Hungerbühler, Andreas; Marazuela, M Dolores; Peter, Armin; Schönenberger, René; Vögeli, A Christiane; Suter, Marc J-F; Eggen, Rik I L

    2004-02-01

    Five wastewater treatment plant effluents were analyzed for known endocrine disrupters and estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was determined by using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) and by measuring the blood plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in exposed male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). While all wastewater treatment plant effluents contained measurable concentrations of estrogens and gave a positive response with the YES, only at two sites did the male fish have significantly increased VTG blood plasma concentrations after the exposure, compared to pre-exposure concentrations. Estrone (E1) concentrations ranged up to 51 ng L(-1), estradiol (E2) up to 6 ng L(-1), and ethinylestradiol (EE2) up to 2 ng L(-1) in the 90 samples analyzed. Alkylphenols, alkylphenolmonoethoxylates and alkylphenoldiethoxylates, even though found at microg L(-1) concentrations in effluents from wastewater treatment plants with a significant industrial content, did not contribute much to the overall estrogenicity of the samples taken due to their low relative potency. Expected estrogenicities were calculated from the chemical data for each sample by using the principle of concentration additivity and relative potencies of the various chemicals as determined with the yeast estrogen screen. Measured and calculated estradiol equivalents gave the same order of magnitude and correlated rather well (R(2)=0.6).

  18. Pollination biology of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants and the role of flower-visiting insects in fruit-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jennifer H; Clark, Suzanne J; Denholm, Ian; Goulson, Dave; Stoate, Chris; Osborne, Juliet L

    2009-12-01

    In the UK, the flowers of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants provide a succession of pollen and nectar for flower-visiting insects for much of the year. The fruits of hedgerow plants are a source of winter food for frugivorous birds on farmland. It is unclear whether recent declines in pollinator populations are likely to threaten fruit-set and hence food supply for birds. The present study investigates the pollination biology of five common hedgerow plants: blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), dog rose (Rosa canina), bramble (Rubus fruticosus) and ivy (Hedera helix). The requirement for insect pollination was investigated initially by excluding insects from flowers by using mesh bags and comparing immature and mature fruit-set with those of open-pollinated flowers. Those plants that showed a requirement for insect pollination were then tested to compare fruit-set under two additional pollination service scenarios: (1) reduced pollination, with insects excluded from flowers bagged for part of the flowering period, and (2) supplemental pollination, with flowers hand cross-pollinated to test for pollen limitation. The proportions of flowers setting fruit in blackthorn, hawthorn and ivy were significantly reduced when insects were excluded from flowers by using mesh bags, whereas fruit-set in bramble and dog rose were unaffected. Restricting the exposure of flowers to pollinators had no significant effect on fruit-set. However, blackthorn and hawthorn were found to be pollen-limited, suggesting that the pollination service was inadequate in the study area. Ensuring strong populations of insect pollinators may be essential to guarantee a winter fruit supply for birds in UK hedgerows.

  19. Identity and Ecophysiology of Uncultured Actinobacterial Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yunhong; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2005-01-01

    Microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) was used to screen for potential polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in a full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) plant. The results showed that, in addition to uncultured Rhodocyclus-related PAO, two morphotypes hybridizing with gene probes for the gram-positive Actinobacteria were also actively involved in uptake of orthophosphate (Pi). Clone library analysis and further investigations by MAR-FISH using two new oligonucleotide probes revealed that both morphotypes, cocci in clusters of tetrads and short rods in clumps, were relatively closely related to the genus Tetrasphaera within the family Intrasporangiaceae of the Actinobacteria (93 to 98% similarity in their 16S rRNA genes). FISH analysis of the community biomass in the treatment plant investigated showed that the short rods (targeted by probe Actino-658) were the most abundant (12% of all Bacteria hybridizing with general bacterial probes), while the cocci in tetrads (targeted by probe Actino-221) made up 7%. Both morphotypes took up Pi aerobically only if, in a previous anaerobic phase, they had taken up organic matter from wastewater or a mixture of amino acids. They could not take up short-chain fatty acids (e.g., acetate), glucose, or ethanol under anaerobic or aerobic conditions. The storage compound produced during the anaerobic period was not polyhydroxyalkanoates, as for Rhodocyclus-related PAO, and its identity is still unknown. Growth and uptake of Pi took place in the presence of oxygen and nitrate but not nitrite, indicating a lack of denitrifying ability. A survey of the occurrence of these actinobacterial PAO in 10 full-scale EBPR plants revealed that both morphotypes were widely present, and in several plants more abundant than the Rhodocyclus-related PAO, thus playing a very important role in the EBPR process. PMID:16000823

  20. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  1. Fundamentals of space biology research on cells, animals, and plants in space

    CERN Document Server

    DeLorenzo, Michael L; Slenzka, K

    2006-01-01

    This book is intended as an overview at an undergraduate or early university level and describes the effects of spaceflight at cellular and organism levels. Past, current, and future research on the effects of gravity - or its absence - and ionizing radiation on the evolution, development, and function of living organisms is presented in layman's terms by researchers who have been active in this field. The purpose is to enlighten science and non-science readers to the benefits of space biology research for conducting basic and applied research to support human exploration of space and to take

  2. Elastic cavitation, tube hollowing, and differential growth in plants and biological tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.

    2010-07-01

    Elastic cavitation is a well-known physical process by which elastic materials under stress can open cavities. Usually, cavitation is induced by applied loads on the elastic body. However, growing materials may generate stresses in the absence of applied loads and could induce cavity opening. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of spontaneous growth-induced cavitation in elastic materials and consider the implications of this phenomenon to biological tissues and in particular to the problem of schizogenous aerenchyma formation. Copyright © EPLA, 2010.

  3. Meganucleases Revolutionize the Production of Genetically Engineered Pigs for the Study of Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Bethany K; Prather, Randall S

    2016-04-01

    Animal models of human diseases are critically necessary for developing an in-depth knowledge of disease development and progression. In addition, animal models are vital to the development of potential treatments or even cures for human diseases. Pigs are exceptional models as their size, physiology, and genetics are closer to that of humans than rodents. In this review, we discuss the use of pigs in human translational research and the evolving technology that has increased the efficiency of genetically engineering pigs. With the emergence of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system technology, the cost and time it takes to genetically engineer pigs has markedly decreased. We will also discuss the use of another meganuclease, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases , to produce pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency by developing targeted modifications of the recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2).RAG2mutant pigs may become excellent animals to facilitate the development of xenotransplantation, regenerative medicine, and tumor biology. The use of pig biomedical models is vital for furthering the knowledge of, and for treating human, diseases.

  4. Chip Technologies for Screening Chemical and Biological Agents Against Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Augustine Q; Njus, Zach L; Pandey, Santosh; Tylka, Gregory L

    2016-12-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause substantial damage to agricultural crops worldwide. Long-term management of these pests requires novel strategies to reduce infection of host plants. Disruption of nematode chemotaxis to root systems has been proposed as a potential management approach, and novel assays are needed to test the chemotactic behavior of nematodes against a wide range of synthetic chemicals and root exudates. Two microfluidic chips were developed that measure the attraction or repulsion of nematodes to chemicals ("chemical chip") and young plant roots ("root chip"). The chip designs allowed for chemical concentration gradients to be maintained up to 24 h, the nematodes to remain physically separate from the chemical reservoirs, and for images of nematode populations to be captured using either a microscope or a flatbed scanner. In the experiments using the chemical chips, seven ionic solutions were tested on second-stage juveniles (J2s) of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines. Results were consistent with previous reports of repellency of M. incognita to a majority of the ionic solutions, including NH4NO3, KNO3, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2. H. glycines was found to be attracted to both NH4NO3 and KNO3, which has not been reported previously. A software program was written to aid in monitoring the location of nematodes at regular time intervals using the root chip. In experiments with the root chip, H. glycines J2s were attracted to roots of 3-day-old, susceptible (cultivar Williams 82) soybean seedlings, and attraction of H. glycines to susceptible soybean was similar across the length of the root. Attraction to resistant (cultivar Jack) soybean seedlings relative to the water only control was inconsistent across runs, and H. glycines J2s were not preferentially attracted to the roots of resistant or susceptible cultivars when both were placed on opposite sides of the same root chip. The chips developed allow for direct tests of plant

  5. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants; Kartlaeggning av vittrings- och korrosionsskador paa biologiska behandlingsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios; Aakesson, Urban (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Hanna; Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Problems regarding that leachate from food waste have been corroding vehicles and concrete slabs has been reported by Biogas- and composting plants. This is an issue that has been reported to Swedish Waste Management more often within the same pace as the volume of food waste gathering is increasing all around Sweden. The problem has also been addressed at inspections according to SPCR 120 Biogoedsel and SPCR 152 Kompost, where several plants have requested guidance/support/investigation to help solve their specific issue. Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., has earlier completed some investigations which have been ordered by private plant owners/municipalities and the result from these investigations have often proved that the exposure classification has not been adjusted for its purpose. There is no clear definition regarding construction of concrete that is meant for usage in a receiving hall for food waste. It is likely that concrete for Biogas- and Composting plants are built to meet the demands of agricultural environments. The project will examine the magnitude of the problem regarding corrosion- and weathering damage on concrete slabs and cisterns at biological treatment plants. The project will also culminate to actual solutions for plants that are hit and to give advice to those in the danger zone and those who plan for new constructions. Through a survey handed to Biogas- and composting plants around the country, the width of the problem has been examined and what solutions plants have found and executed to solve this issue. A literature review has been implemented to find specific demands regarding concrete that is meant for a certain environment. Another four treatment plants have been examined. The studies that have been made are chemical analysis of leachate from food waste, analysis of drill cores and analysis of reinforcement corrosion. The results from this project show that concrete doesn't have enough resistance in these

  6. Synthetic strategies for plant signalling studies: molecular toolbox and orthogonal platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Braguy, Justine

    2016-05-26

    Plants deploy a wide array of signalling networks integrating environmental cues with growth, defence and developmental responses. The high level of complexity, redundancy and connection between several pathways hampers a comprehensive understanding of involved functional and regulatory mechanisms. The implementation of synthetic biology approaches is revolutionizing experimental biology in prokaryotes, yeasts and animal systems and can likewise contribute to a new era in plant biology. This review gives an overview on synthetic biology approaches for the development and implementation of synthetic molecular tools and techniques to interrogate, understand and control signalling events in plants, ranging from strategies for the targeted manipulation of plant genomes up to the spatiotemporally resolved control of gene expression using optogenetic approaches. We also describe strategies based on the partial reconstruction of signalling pathways in orthogonal platforms, like yeast, animal and in vitro systems. This allows a targeted analysis of individual signalling hubs devoid of inter-connectivity with endogenous interacting components. Implementation of the interdisciplinary synthetic biology tools and strategies is not exempt of challenges and hardships but simultaneously most rewarding in terms of the advances in basic and applied research. As witnessed in other areas, these original theoretical-experimental avenues will lead to a breakthrough in the ability to study and comprehend plant signalling networks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological evaluation of devices used for reducing entrainment and impingement losses at thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.; Szluha, A.T.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary survey of fish protection devices either in use or proposed for water intake structures was conducted for the purpose of assessing their potential for reducing impingement and entrainment. All the designs examined can be divided into two basic categories: behavioral screening systems and physical screening systems. The behavioral screening devices rely upon the ability of fish to sense artificial stimuli and respond by swimming away from hazardous areas. These systems are of little or no value in protecting planktonic fish eggs, larvae, and disoriented, heat-shocked, or lethargic adult fishes. Many of the physical screening devices, on the other hand, require the impingement of organisms against a screen before they can be removed from the intake system, thus subjecting survival. Some of the designs incorporate both behavioral and physical sceening concepts. Six devices were selected for further consideration based on their potential or demonstrated effectiveness in reducing impingement and entrainment losses at a variety of intake situations. The structures evaluated were modified vertical traveling screens, louvers, angled vertical traveling screens, horizontal traveling screens, center-flow screens, and wedge-wire screens. Since some of these intake structures represent new concepts, few laboratory or in situ biological studies have been carried out. For others, actual reductions in fish losses have been demonstrated. The design features and status of biological testing is discussed for each device, and an evaluation of their fish protection potential is presented.

  8. The role of bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, B J; Zidack, N K; Larson, B J

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus-based biological control agents (BCAs) have great potential in integrated pest management (IPM) systems; however, relatively little work has been published on integration with other IPM management tools. Unfortunately, most research has focused on BCAs as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides or bactericides and not as part of an integrated management system. IPM has had many definitions and this review will use the national coalition for IPM definition: "A sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks." This review will examine the integrated use of Bacillus-based BCAs with disease management tools, including resistant cultivars, fungicides or bactericides, or other BCAs. This integration is important because the consistency and degree of disease control by Bacillus-based BCAs is rarely equal to the control afforded by the best fungicides or bactericides. In theory, integration of several tools brings stability to disease management programs. Integration of BCAs with other disease management tools often provides broader crop adaptation and both more efficacious and consistent levels of disease control. This review will also discuss the use of Bacillus-based BCAs in fungicide resistance management. Work with Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pest management is the exception to the relative paucity of reports but will not be the focus of this review.

  9. Entropy and biological systems: Experimentally-investigated entropy-driven stacking of plant photosynthetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Husen; Liggins, John R.; Chow, Wah Soon

    2014-01-01

    According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, an overall increase of entropy contributes to the driving force for any physicochemical process, but entropy has seldom been investigated in biological systems. Here, for the first time, we apply Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) to investigate the Mg2+-induced spontaneous stacking of photosynthetic membranes isolated from spinach leaves. After subtracting a large endothermic interaction of MgCl2 with membranes, unrelated to stacking, we demonstrate that the enthalpy change (heat change at constant pressure) is zero or marginally positive or negative. This first direct experimental evidence strongly suggests that an entropy increase significantly drives membrane stacking in this ordered biological structure. Possible mechanisms for the entropy increase include: (i) the attraction between discrete oppositely-charged areas, releasing counterions; (ii) the release of loosely-bound water molecules from the inter-membrane gap; (iii) the increased orientational freedom of previously-aligned water dipoles; and (iv) the lateral rearrangement of membrane components. PMID:24561561

  10. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L.

  11. Recent advances in plant-mediated engineered gold nanoparticles and their application in biological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2017-03-01

    For biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles different parts of a plant are used as they contain metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, alcohols, sugars and proteins which act as reducing agents to produce nanoparticles. They also act as capping agent and stabilizer for them. They are used in medicine, agriculture and many other technologies. The attention is therefore focussed on all plant species which have either aroma or colour in their leaves, flowers or roots for the synthesis of nanoparticles because they all contain such chemicals which reduce the metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The size and morphology of gold nanoparticles is dependent on the biogenic-synthetic route, incubation time, temperature, concentration and pH of the solution. In this review, we have discussed the latest developments for the fabrication of gold nanoparticles from herbal extract, their characterization by UV-vis., Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and Zeta Potential techniques. Their application in drug delivery, cancer treatment, catalysis and as antimicrobial agent has also been discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Insect Gallers and Their Plant Hosts: From Omics Data to Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryn N. Oates

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects are capable of exerting a high level of control over their hosts’ cellular machinery to the extent that the plant’s development, metabolism, chemistry, and physiology are all altered in favour of the insect. Many gallers are devastating pests in global agriculture and the limited understanding of their relationship with their hosts prevents the development of robust management strategies. Omics technologies are proving to be important tools in elucidating the mechanisms involved in the interaction as they facilitate analysis of plant hosts and insect effectors for which little or no prior knowledge exists. In this review, we examine the mechanisms behind insect gall development using evidence from omics-level approaches. The secretion of effector proteins and induced phytohormonal imbalances are highlighted as likely mechanisms involved in gall development. However, understanding how these components function within the system is far from complete and a number of questions need to be answered before this information can be used in the development of strategies to engineer or breed plants with enhanced resistance.

  13. Biological and genetic factors regulating natural competence in a bacterial plant pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Stephanie H; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2014-01-01

    For naturally competent bacteria, spatially structured growth can provide an environment for enhanced horizontal gene transfer through transformation and recombination. DNA is often present in the extracellular environment, such as in the extracellular matrix of biofilms, and the lysis of a single cell can result in high local DNA concentrations. Xylella fastidiosa is a naturally competent plant pathogen that typically lives in a surface-attached state, yet previous work characterizing the competence of this organism was conducted with planktonic cells in liquid environments. Here, we show that transformation and recombination efficiencies are two to three orders of magnitude higher for cells grown on solid compared with liquid media, with maximum recombination efficiencies of about 10(-3). Cells were highly competent throughout their exponential growth phase, with no significant change in recombination efficiencies until population growth rates began to slow. Mutations in type IV pili, competency-related, and cell-cell signalling genes significantly impacted the ability of X. fastidiosa to acquire and incorporate DNA. Because X. fastidiosa is highly competent when growing in a surface-attached state, as it does within its insect vectors and host plants, recombination of naturally transformed DNA could be a significant route by which horizontal gene transfer occurs in natural environments.

  14. Patient-tailored modulation of the immune system may revolutionize future lung cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuvers Marlies E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer research has devoted most of its energy over the past decades on unraveling the control mechanisms within tumor cells that govern its behavior. From this we know that the onset of cancer is the result of cumulative genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells leading to an unregulated cell cycle, unlimited replicative potential and the possibility for tissue invasion and metastasis. Until recently it was often thought that tumors are more or less undetected or tolerated by the patient’s immune system causing the neoplastic cells to divide and spread without resistance. However, it is without any doubt that the tumor environment contains a wide variety of recruited host immune cells. These tumor infiltrating immune cells influence anti-tumor responses in opposing ways and emerges as a critical regulator of tumor growth. Here we provide a summary of the relevant immunological cell types and their complex and dynamic roles within an established tumor microenvironment. For this, we focus on both the systemic compartment as well as the local presence within the tumor microenvironment of late-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, admitting that this multifaceted cellular composition will be different from earlier stages of the disease, between NSCLC patients. Understanding the paradoxical role that the immune system plays in cancer and increasing options for their modulation may alter the odds in favor of a more effective anti-tumor immune response. We predict that the future standard of care of lung cancer will involve patient-tailor-made combination therapies that associate (traditional chemotherapeutic drugs and biologicals with immune modulating agents and in this way complement the therapeutic armamentarium for this disease.

  15. Insights from the docking analysis of biologically active compounds from plant Litsea Genus as potential COX-2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Bezbaruah, Rajib Lochan; Bordoloi, Manabjyoti; Sarmah, Rajeev; Bora, Tarun Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Litsea spp of Laural family are traditionally used as herbal medicine for treating inflammation including gastroenterologia, oedema and rheumatic arthritis. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate and understand the molecular principles for such actions. Here, we have illustrated the binding of thirteen Litsea derived biologically active compounds against the inflammation associated target COX (cyclo-oxygenase) -2 enzymes. We compared the binding information of these compounds with a selected number of already known COX-2 inhibitors. The comparison reflected that some of these compounds such as linderol, catechin, 6'-hydroxy-2',3',4' - trimethoxy-chalcone and litseaone have better or equivalent binding features compared to already known inhibitory compounds namely celecoxib, acetylsalicylic acid, rofecoxib. Therefore, all these small compounds reported from plant Litsea spp were found to possess potential medicinal values with anti-inflammatory properties.

  16. Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance.

  17. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Liyana Yahya, Muhammad Nazry Chik, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir Pang,

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive - observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights - in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O2, 200.21 mg/m3 SO2, 212.29 mg/m3 NOx, 4.73 % CO2 and 50.72 mg/m3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  18. Insights from the docking analysis of biologically active compounds from plant Litsea Genus as potential COX-2 inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Bezbaruah, Rajib Lochan; Bordoloi, Manabjyoti; Sarmah, Rajeev; Bora, Tarun Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Litsea spp of Laural family are traditionally used as herbal medicine for treating inflammation including gastroenterologia, oedema and rheumatic arthritis. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate and understand the molecular principles for such actions. Here, we have illustrated the binding of thirteen Litsea derived biologically active compounds against the inflammation associated target COX (cyclo-oxygenase) -2 enzymes. We compared the binding information of these compounds with a selected number of already known COX-2 inhibitors. The comparison reflected that some of these compounds such as linderol, catechin, 6'-hydroxy-2',3',4' - trimethoxy-chalcone and litseaone have better or equivalent binding features compared to already known inhibitory compounds namely celecoxib, acetylsalicylic acid, rofecoxib. Therefore, all these small compounds reported from plant Litsea spp were found to possess potential medicinal values with anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:23139590

  19. Biological activities of the sulfated polysaccharide from the vascular plant Halodule wrightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. C. Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A sulfated polysaccharide (SPSG was successfully isolated from seagrass Halodule wrightii Asch., Cymodoceaceae, and its antioxidant and anticoagulant activities were investigated. The data presented here showed that the SPSG is a 11 kDa sulfated heterogalactan with a sulfatation degree of 20.63% and it also contains glucose and xylose. SPSG antioxidant activities were evaluated using several in vitro assays and the anticoagulant activity was evaluated by aPTT and PT tests. These assays suggested that the SPSG possessed remarkable antioxidant properties in different in vitro assays and an outstanding anticoagulant activity 2.5-fold higher than that of heparin Clexane® in the aPTT test. This data represents the first reported on the sulfated polysaccharide biological activities from seagrass. These results indicate that SPSG can be considered in the future as a drug utilized in treating diseases from these systems.

  20. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  1. Floral biology of Commiphora wightii – a data deficient medicinal plant distributed in the arid zones of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Harshadbhai Kawane

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Commiphora wightii commonly known as Guggul is an important medicinal plant that contains oleo gum resin which is used as antiarthritic, hypocholesterolaemic and hypolipidaemic agents. It is an apomictic species native to India (Gujarat, Rajasthan and Pakistan. Due to over exploitation, it is enlisted under the ‘data deficient’ category in the IUCN Red Data Book. However, very little information is available about its reproductive biology. Knowledge of reproductive biology of any plant species is crucial for its genetic improvement and planning for effective conservation and management of genetic resources. The present paper reports our findings on the flower opening pattern, pollen grain viability, stigma receptivity, flowering behaviour and fruit set in C. wightii. The study showed that flowers do not open in the night hours and maximum flower opening occurs in the morning hours up to 8.00 am. Maximum stigma receptivity was observed on the first day of flower opening. Polymorphism in pollen grain size was observed and a significant difference in pollen grain size was observed between hermaphrodite and male accessions. Maximum number of pollen grains is produced by hermaphrodite accessions. Pollen viability ranged from 35.07 to 60.85 % among the accessions. Flowering studied in 37 accessions showed wide variability among the accessions. Peak flowering was observed from November to April. Based on data on peak flowering time, the accessions were grouped into profusely, medium and shy flowering types. The fruit set percentage was very low among the accessions; it remained between zero and 5%.

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Plant Manilkara subsericea against Biological Activities of Lachesis muta Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coriolano De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom is composed of a mixture of substances that caused in victims a variety of pathophysiological effects. Besides antivenom, literature has described plants able to inhibit injuries and lethal activities induced by snake venoms. This work describes the inhibitory potential of ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, or dichloromethane extracts and fractions from stem and leaves of Manilkara subsericea against in vivo (hemorrhagic and edema and in vitro (clotting, hemolysis, and proteolysis activities caused by Lachesis muta venom. All the tested activities were totally or at least partially reduced by M. subsericea. However, when L. muta venom was injected into mice 15 min first or after the materials, hemorrhage and edema were not inhibited. Thus, M. subsericea could be used as antivenom in snakebites of L. muta. And, this work also highlights Brazilian flora as a rich source of molecules with antivenom properties.

  3. Livestock as a potential biological control agent for an invasive wetland plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Silliman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species threaten biodiversity and incur costs exceeding billions of US$. Eradication efforts, however, are nearly always unsuccessful. Throughout much of North America, land managers have used expensive, and ultimately ineffective, techniques to combat invasive Phragmites australis in marshes. Here, we reveal that Phragmites may potentially be controlled by employing an affordable measure from its native European range: livestock grazing. Experimental field tests demonstrate that rotational goat grazing (where goats have no choice but to graze Phragmites can reduce Phragmites cover from 100 to 20% and that cows and horses also readily consume this plant. These results, combined with the fact that Europeans have suppressed Phragmites through seasonal livestock grazing for 6,000 years, suggest Phragmites management can shift to include more economical and effective top-down control strategies. More generally, these findings support an emerging paradigm shift in conservation from high-cost eradication to economically sustainable control of dominant invasive species.

  4. Inhibitory effect of plant Manilkara subsericea against biological activities of Lachesis muta snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Eduardo Coriolano; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Sanchez, Eladio Flores; Rocha, Leandro; Fuly, André Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Snake venom is composed of a mixture of substances that caused in victims a variety of pathophysiological effects. Besides antivenom, literature has described plants able to inhibit injuries and lethal activities induced by snake venoms. This work describes the inhibitory potential of ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, or dichloromethane extracts and fractions from stem and leaves of Manilkara subsericea against in vivo (hemorrhagic and edema) and in vitro (clotting, hemolysis, and proteolysis) activities caused by Lachesis muta venom. All the tested activities were totally or at least partially reduced by M. subsericea. However, when L. muta venom was injected into mice 15 min first or after the materials, hemorrhage and edema were not inhibited. Thus, M. subsericea could be used as antivenom in snakebites of L. muta. And, this work also highlights Brazilian flora as a rich source of molecules with antivenom properties.

  5. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL(-1)d(-1)), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mosquito development and biological control in a macrophyte-based wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne Noumsi, I M; Akoa, A; Atangana Eteme, R; Nya, J; Ngniado, P; Fonkou, T; Brissaud, F

    2005-01-01

    A one-year study of the proliferation of mosquito in a Pistia stratiotes-based waste stabilization ponds in Cameroon revealed that Mansonia and Culex were the main breeding genera with about 55% and 42% of the total imagoes respectively. Though the ponds represent a favorable breeding ground for mosquitoes, only 0.02% of captured imagoes was Anopheles gambiae, suggesting that this wastewater treatment plant does not significantly contribute to the development of the malaria vector in the area. Gambusia sp. introduced to control mosquito population in the ponds acclimatized relatively well in most of the ponds (B3-B7) and their feeding rate without any diet ranged from 15.0 to 50.2 larvae/day for a single fish.

  7. Next Generation Protein Interactomes for Plant Systems Biology and Biomass Feedstock Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Joseph Robert [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Trigg, Shelly [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Biological Sciences Dept.; Garza, Renee [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Song, Haili [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; MacWilliams, Andrew [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Nery, Joseph [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Reina, Joaquin [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Bartlett, Anna [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Castanon, Rosa [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Goubil, Adeline [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Feeney, Joseph [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; O' Malley, Ronan [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Huang, Shao-shan Carol [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Zhang, Zhuzhu [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.; Galli, Mary [The Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA (United States). Genome Analysis and Plant Biology Lab.

    2016-11-30

    Biofuel crop cultivation is a necessary step in heading towards a sustainable future, making their genomic studies a priority. While technology platforms that currently exist for studying non-model crop species, like switch-grass or sorghum, have yielded large quantities of genomic and expression data, still a large gap exists between molecular mechanism and phenotype. The aspect of molecular activity at the level of protein-protein interactions has recently begun to bridge this gap, providing a more global perspective. Interactome analysis has defined more specific functional roles of proteins based on their interaction partners, neighborhoods, and other network features, making it possible to distinguish unique modules of immune response to different plant pathogens(Jiang, Dong, and Zhang 2016). As we work towards cultivating heartier biofuel crops, interactome data will lead to uncovering crop-specific defense and development networks. However, the collection of protein interaction data has been limited to expensive, time-consuming, hard-to-scale assays that mostly require cloned ORF collections. For these reasons, we have successfully developed a highly scalable, economical, and sensitive yeast two-hybrid assay, ProCREate, that can be universally applied to generate proteome-wide primary interactome data. ProCREate enables en masse pooling and massively paralleled sequencing for the identification of interacting proteins by exploiting Cre-lox recombination. ProCREate can be used to screen ORF/cDNA libraries from feedstock plant tissues. The interactome data generated will yield deeper insight into many molecular processes and pathways that can be used to guide improvement of feedstock productivity and sustainability.

  8. Impact of changes in sugar exudate created by biological damage to tomato plants on the persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruscavage, Daniel; Phelan, P Larry; Lee, Ken; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2010-05-01

    The survival of enteric pathogens on vegetable leaves improves due to presence of phytopathogens. Phytopathogen damage alters the microenvironment on the leaf surface. The objective of this study was to identify differences in sugar concentrations in tomato leaves damaged by biotropic plant pathogens and determine if these differences affect Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival. E. coli O157:H7 survived better on tomato plants damaged by Xanthomonas campestris than on healthy plants (P = 0.012). The most common sugars and sugar alcohols in the damaged leaf exudate were glucose, fructose, inositol, and sucrose. The abundance of sucrose and inositol differed between the healthy and infected plants (P E. coli O157:H7 to proliferate. Keeping plants free from biological damage can limit the amount of leaching of sugars that could allow human pathogens to proliferate. There is the possibility of increasing food safety of vegetable products by limiting phytopathogenic damage to plants.

  9. Small RNAs: a new frontier in mosquito biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Keira J; Myles, Kevin M; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of small non-coding RNAs has revolutionized our understanding of regulatory networks governing multiple functions in animals and plants. However, our knowledge of mosquito small RNAs is limited. We discuss here the state of current knowledge regarding the roles of small RNAs and their targets in mosquitoes, and describe the ongoing efforts to understand the role of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in mosquito antiviral immunity and transposon silencing. Providing a clear picture into the role of small RNAs in mosquito vectors will pave the way to the utilization of these small molecules in developing novel control approaches that target mosquito immunity and/or reproductive events. Elucidation of the functions of small RNAs represents a new frontier in mosquito biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi, E-mail: shilpi@dbeb.iitd.ac.in

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  11. Conservation biology of Chionodoxa lochiae and Scilla morrisii (Asparagaceae: Two priority bulbous plant species of the European Union in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Andreou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data regarding conservation biology of Chionodoxa lochiae and Scilla morrisii; two threatened endemic plants of Cyprus, which are included as priority species in Annex II of the Habitats Directive. The population size and geographical distribution of the species were monitored for three years. C. lochiae was recorded in ten locations and S. morrisii was recorded in five locations. C. lochiae occurs in Pinus forests with/without Quercus alnifolia understory or in forest margins and riparian vegetation with Platanus orientalis. Favorable habitat of S. morrisii is the understory of Quercus infectoria stands and the Pistacia terebinthus-Quercus coccifera-Styrax officinalis shrubs. The distribution pattern of the species seems to follow habitat availability. Fecundity and Relative Reproductive Success of C. lochiae were stable and low, while in S. morrisii were constantly high. The lack of pollinators seems to be the main cause of the low sexual reproduction of C. lochiae. The germination strategy for both species is dependent on temperature. Some of the seeds are dormant and dormancy is broken by nitrates. The investigation of certain aspects of the biology of the two species yielded the information needed to identify the critical aspects affecting their survival and to propose sound conservation measures.

  12. Research on plant-parasitic nematode biology conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, David J

    2003-01-01

    The recent de-registration of several chemical nematicides and the impending loss of methyl bromide from the pest-control market necessitate the development of new methods for controlling nematode-induced crop damage. One approach for developing novel target-specific controls is by exploiting fundamental differences between the biological processes of nematodes and their host plants. Researchers of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the US Department of Agriculture are actively exploring these differences. Research accomplishments include the discovery of heat shock protein genes possibly involved in developmental arrest of the soybean cyst nematode, the identification of neuropeptides and female-specific proteins in the soybean cyst nematode, the disruption of nematode reproduction with inhibitors of nematode sterol metabolism, the development of novel morphological and molecular (heat shock protein genes and the D3 segment of large subunit ribosomal DNA) features useful for nematode identification and classification, and the elucidation of the population genetics of potato cyst nematode pathotypes. In addition, several ARS researchers are investigating biological determinants of nematode response to management strategies utilized in agricultural fields. These collective efforts should lead to new chemical and non-chemical alternatives to conventional nematode control strategies.

  13. Biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles from three diverse family of plant extracts and their anticancer activity against epidermoid A431 carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Debasis; Pradhan, Sonali; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-11-01

    Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is a cost effective natural process where the phytochemicals specifically phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids present in the plant extracts act as capping and reducing agent. Due to their nano size regime the silver nanoparticles may directly bind to the DNA of the pathogenic bacterial strains leading to higher antimicrobial activity. In the current study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using plant extracts from different origin Cucurbita maxima (petals), Moringa oleifera (leaves) and Acorus calamus (rhizome). The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Highly crystalline, roughly spherical and cuboidal silver nanoparticles of 30-70 nm in size were synthesised. The nanoparticles provided strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains. The effect of the synthesised nanoparticles against A431 skin cancer cell line was tested for their toxicity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. The IC50 values of 82.39±3.1, 83.57±3.9 and 78.58±2.7 μg/ml were calculated for silver nanoparticles synthesised by C. maxima, M. oleifera and A. calamus respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants.

  15. Biological effects of carbon nanotubes generated in forest wildfire ecosystems rich in resinous trees on native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lara-Romero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have a broad range of applications and are generally considered human-engineered nanomaterials. However, carbon nanostructures have been found in ice cores and oil wells, suggesting that nature may provide appropriate conditions for CNT synthesis. During forest wildfires, materials such as turpentine and conifer tissues containing iron under high temperatures may create chemical conditions favorable for CNT generation, similar to those in synthetic methods. Here, we show evidence of naturally occurring multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs produced from Pinus oocarpa and Pinus pseudostrobus, following a forest wildfire. The MWCNTs showed an average of 10 walls, with internal diameters of ∼2.5 nm and outer diameters of ∼14.5 nm. To verify whether MWCNT generation during forest wildfires has a biological effect on some characteristic plant species of these ecosystems, germination and development of seedlings were conducted. Results show that the utilization of comparable synthetic MWCNTs increased seed germination rates and the development of Lupinus elegans and Eysenhardtia polystachya, two plants species found in the burned forest ecosystem. The finding provides evidence that supports the generation and possible ecological functions of MWCNTs in nature.

  16. Herbal Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Chemistry, Biology, and Potential Application of Selected Plants and Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero L. T. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, β-cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (reabsorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s. Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed.

  17. [Effects of alcohol extracts from three kinds of biomass energy plant tissues on biological activity of Bemisia tabaci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-cai; Zhou, Gui-sheng; Li, Chuan-ming; Yang, Yi-zhong; Qin, Pei

    2009-03-01

    To test the feasibility of using raw extracts from the tissues of biomass energy plants Ricinus communi and Kosteletzkya virginica as plant protection agents, the alcohol extracts from R. communi seed and leaf and from K. virginica leaf were used to treat adult Bemisia tabaci by spraying. The glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities in B. tabaci body were measured after treated for 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h, and the olfaction responses of B. tabaci to the alcohol extracts were detected with a Y-tube olfactomet. All the three alcohol extracts obviously inhibited the glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of the 250-times diluted alcohol extracts on the two enzyme activities was equivalent to that of 3000 times-diluted 1.8% avermectins. In addition, the 250-times diluted alcohol extracts had obvious repellent effect on B. tabaci, with the repellent coefficient of the alcohol extracts from R. communi seed and leaf and from K, virginica leaf being 100.0%, 96.7%, and 79.4%, respectively. All of these suggested that the test three alcohol extracts had repellent and other biological effects on B. tabaci.

  18. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of a full scale pilot plant; Erhoehte biologische Phosphatelimination - Betriebsergebnisse einer grosstechnischen Versuchsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, P. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 14 - Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Bendzuck, C. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachbereich 14 - Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    1996-01-01

    Within a research project one line of Kassel`s wastewater treatment plant has been rebuilt to a large scale pilot plant run with the MUCT process configuration. Different investigations with variation of inflow size, trend of inflow over time and wastewater temperature have been done. The relation between the efficiency of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and the hydraulic loading is shown in some examples. Over all, the EBPR increases with the wastewater temperature, with the available organic carbon in the inflow and with decreasing fluctuation in the trend of inflow over time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Forschungsvorhabens wurde ein Teil der biologischen Stufe der Kasseler Klaeranlage zur erhoehten biologischen Phosphatelimination nach dem MUCT-Verfahren umgebaut. Es wurden Versuche bei konstanter und periodisch schwankender hydraulischer Belastung sowie bei unterschiedlichen Abwassertemperaturen durchgefuehrt. Untersucht wurde die Abhaengigkeit der biologischen Phosphatelimination von verschiedenen Belastungssituationen und die Phosphorumsaetze innerhalb der Belebung sowohl in zeitlicher als auch in oertlicher Abhaengigkeit. Die Wiederholung bestimmter Versuchsphasen bei verschiedenen Abwassertemperaturen liess Rueckschluesse auf die Temperaturabhaengigkeit der biologischen Phosphatelimination zu. Der Wirkungsgrad der biologischen Phosphatelimination steigt mit der Temperatur, dem Angebot an organischem Kohlenstoff in der anaeroben Zone und mit zunehmender Vergleichmaessigung der hydraulischen Belastung. (orig.)

  19. Subterranean, herbivore-induced plant volatile increases biological control activity of multiple beneficial nematode species in distinct habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared G Ali

    Full Text Available While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs. However, due to methodological limitations, no study has previously detected belowground herbivore-induced volatiles in the field or quantified their impact on attraction of diverse EPN species. Here we show how a belowground herbivore-induced volatile can enhance mortality of agriculturally significant root pests. First, in real time, we identified pregeijerene (1,5-dimethylcyclodeca-1,5,7-triene from citrus roots 9-12 hours after initiation of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus feeding. This compound was also detected in the root zone of mature citrus trees in the field. Application of collected volatiles from weevil-damaged citrus roots attracted native EPNs and increased mortality of beetle larvae (D. abbreviatus compared to controls in a citrus orchard. In addition, field applications of isolated pregeijerene caused similar results. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that pregeijerene increased pest mortality by attracting four species of naturally occurring EPNs in the field. Finally, we tested the generality of this root-zone signal by application of pregeijerene in blueberry fields; mortality of larvae (Galleria mellonella and Anomala orientalis again increased by attracting naturally occurring populations of an EPN. Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests.

  20. Biology of Bemisia tuberculata Bondar (Aleyrodidae) and parasitism by Encarsia porteri (Mercet, 1928) (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) on cassava plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Filho, N N; Roel, A R; Penteado-Dias, A M; Costa, R B

    2012-11-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tuberculata has caused serious damage to cassava producing areas in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, little is known about the biological characteristics of this species. The objective of this study was therefore, to monitor the development of this species bred on cassava plants under controlled greenhouse conditions, and to determine its most vulnerable stages and its reproductive capacity, as well as measuring the length and width each stage of development. To obtain these data, adult individuals were kept in voile traps on cassava leaves of five different plants, totalling ten leaves. After 24 hours the leaves were removed from the traps thus making each egg-laden leaf an experimental unit. The lowest mortality rate was record in the last nymphal stage ('pupae) compared with the other development stages. The highest mortality occurred in the nymphs at the 2nd and 3rd instars. Each female laid an average of 6.3 eggs in 24 hours. Thirteen days after egg laying, every one of the nymphs was fixed on the leaves of cassava plants. From the egg laying stage up until the adult stage, the process took 26 days. The proportion of females was 73.5%. The average size of the B. tuberculata egg was 163.22 µm in length and 72.39 µm in width and the "pupae" is 915.82 µm in length and 628.71 µm in width. The measurements of males were 797.16 µm in length and 200.81 µm in width and the length females 916.12 µm in length and 338.99 µm in width. The parasitoid Encarsia porteri (Mercet, 1928) (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) was found in the insect stock culture.

  1. Microautoradiographic Study of Rhodocyclus-Related Polyphosphate-Accumulating Bacteria in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yunhong; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2004-01-01

    The ecophysiology of uncultured Rhodocyclus-related polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) present in three full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activated sludge plants was studied by using microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization. The investigations showed that these organisms were present in all plants examined and constituted 5 to 10, 10 to 15, and 17 to 22% of the community biomass. The behavior of these bacteria generally was consistent with the biochemical models proposed for PAO, based on studies of lab-scale investigations of enriched and often unknown PAO cultures. Rhodocyclus-related PAO were able to accumulate short-chain substrates, including acetate, propionate, and pyruvate, under anaerobic conditions, but they could not assimilate many other low-molecular-weight compounds, such as ethanol and butyrate. They were able to assimilate two substrates (e.g., acetate and propionate) simultaneously. Leucine and thymidine could not be assimilated as sole substrates and could only be assimilated as cosubstrates with acetate, perhaps serving as N sources. Glucose could not be assimilated by the Rhodocyclus-related PAO, but it was easily fermented in the sludge to products that were subsequently consumed. Glycolysis, and not the tricarboxylic acid cycle, was the source that provided the reducing power needed by the Rhodocyclus-related PAO to form the intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate storage compounds during anaerobic substrate assimilation. The Rhodocyclus-related PAO were able to take up orthophosphate and accumulate polyphosphate when oxygen, nitrate, or nitrite was present as an electron acceptor. Furthermore, in the presence of acetate growth was sustained by using oxygen, as well as nitrate or nitrite, as an electron acceptor. This strongly indicates that Rhodocyclus-related PAO were able to denitrify and thus played a role in the denitrification occurring in full-scale EBPR plants. PMID:15345424

  2. Identification of glucose-fermenting bacteria in a full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal plant by stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nguyen, Hien; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2012-07-01

    Microbiology in wastewater treatment has mainly been focused on problem-causing filamentous bacteria or bacteria directly involved in nitrogen and phosphorus removal, and to a lesser degree on flanking groups, such as hydrolysing and fermenting bacteria. However, these groups constitute important suppliers of readily degradable substrates for the overall processes in the plant. This study aimed to identify glucose-fermenting bacteria in a full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and to determine their abundance in similar WWTPs. Glucose-fermenting micro-organisms were identified by an in situ approach using RNA-based stable isotope probing. Activated sludge was incubated anaerobically with (13)C(6)-labelled glucose, and (13)C-enriched rRNA was subsequently reverse-transcribed and used to construct a 16S rRNA gene clone library. Phylogenetic analysis of the library revealed the presence of two major phylogenetic groups of gram-positive bacteria affiliating with the genera Tetrasphaera, Propionicimonas (Actinobacteria), and Lactococcus and Streptococcus (Firmicutes). Specific oligonucleotide probes were designed for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to specifically target the glucose-fermenting bacteria identified in this study. The combination of FISH with microautoradiography confirmed that Tetrasphaera, Propionicimonas and Streptococcus were the dominant glucose fermenters. The probe-defined fermenters were quantified in 10 full-scale EBPR plants and averaged 39 % of the total biovolume. Tetrasphaera and Propionicimonas were the most abundant glucose fermenters (average 33 and 4 %, respectively), while Streptococcus and Lactococcus were present only in some WWTPs (average 1 and 0.4 %, respectively). Thus the population of actively metabolizing glucose fermenters seems to occupy a relatively large component of the total biovolume.

  3. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  4. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  5. Integrated physicochemical and biological treatment process for fluoride and phosphorus removal from fertilizer plant wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouider, Mbarka; Mlaik, Najwa; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-08-01

    The phosphate fertilizer industry produces highly hazardous and acidic wastewaters. This study was undertaken to develop an integrated approach for the treatment of wastewaters from the phosphate industry. Effluent samples were collected from a local phosphate fertilizer producer and were characterized by their high fluoride and phosphate content. First, the samples were pretreated by precipitation of phosphate and fluoride ions using hydrated lime. The resulting low- fluoride and phosphorus effluent was then treated with the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process to monitor the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Phosphorus removal included a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic system operating under continuous flow. Pretreated wastewater was added to the activated sludge and operated for 160 days in the reactor. The operating strategy included increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) from 0.3 to 1.2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L.d. The stable and high removal rates of COD, NH4(+)-N, and PO4(3-)-P were then recorded. The mean concentrations of the influent were approximately 3600 mg COD/L, 60 mg N/L, and 14 mg P/L, which corresponded to removal efficiencies of approximately 98%, 86%, and 92%, respectively.

  6. Combining mechanical-biological residual waste treatment plants with grate firing; Kombination MBA mit Rostfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, E. [ABB Umwelttechnik GmbH, Butzbach (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The promulgation of the Technical Code on Household Waste obliges the local authorities responsible for waste disposal to review existing and prepare new waste management plans. Given the present state of the art the Code`s limit value for loss due to burning of 5% makes thermal treatment of the residual waste practically compulsory. In preparation of these developments and in order to lower costs in general and be able respond flexibly to customer demands ABB is currently undertaking great efforts to provide thermal residual waste treatment plants with a modular design. [Deutsch] Mit Veroeffentlichung der TASi wurden die entsorgungspflichtigen Gebietskoerperschaften gezwungen, bereits vorhandene Abfall-Wirtschaftsplaene zu ueberarbeiten bzw. neue zu erstellen. Technisch laeuft nach derzeitigem Wissensstand der in der TASi vorgegebene maximale Gluehverlust von 5% darauf hinaus, dass eine thermische Behandlung des Restabfalls zwingend vorgegeben ist. Um hierfuer geruestet zu sein, aber auch um generell Kosten zu senken unf flexibel auf Kundenwuensche eingehen zu koennen, unternimmt ABB grosse Abstrengungen, den Aufbau von Anlagen zur thermischen Restabfallbehandlung modular zu gestalten. (orig./SR)

  7. Chemical and biological investigations of a toxic plant from Central Africa, Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karangwa, C; Esters, V; Frédérich, M; Tits, M; Kadima, J N; Damas, J; Noirfalise, A; Angenot, L

    2006-02-20

    Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana (Chrysobalanaceae) is known, in the Great Lakes Region, to possess toxicological properties. In this paper, we investigated the acute toxicity (dose levels 50-1600 mg/kg) of its aqueous extract, administered orally to adult Wistar rats. This study demonstrated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract (5%, w/w) possesses high toxicity. The extract caused hypothermia, neurological disorders, including extensor reflex of maximal convulsive induced-seizures at about 2 h after the administered dose, and death occurred (LD50=370 mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner. Blood parameter evaluation revealed slight variations, but these might not have clinical relevance. Histological examination of internal organs (lungs, liver, heart and kidneys) did not reveal any abnormality in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it can be concluded that Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana aqueous extract, given orally, is toxic and that its target is the central nervous system. General phytochemical screening revealed that the plant did not contain significant amounts of products known to be toxic, such as alkaloids or cardioactive glycosides, but only catechic tannins, amino acids, saponins and other aphrogen principles in the three parts of the species (fruit, leave and bark).

  8. Phytochemical screening and biological activity of extracts of plant species Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašković Pavle Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at examining total polyphenol, flavonoid, gallotannin and condensed tannins content in acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl., their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, as well as identifying and quantifying the phenolic components. The antioxidant activity is consistent with the results of total quantity of phenolic compound. The results showed that the acetone extract of plant species Halascya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl. possessed the highest antioxidant activity. IC50 values were determined: 9.45��1.55 μg/mL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity, 13.46±1.68 μg/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 59.11±0.83 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 27.91±0.88 μg/mL for ferrous ion chelating ability. The antimicrobial activity was tested using broth dilution procedure for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The MICs were determined for 8 selected indicator strains. All of the extracts showed strong to moderate strong antimicrobial activity. The phenolic composition of Halacsya sendtneri extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The dominant phenolic compound in acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract is rosmarinic acid. Ethyl acetate extract was also abundant in p-hydroxybenzoic acid and ferulic acid. The main compounds in petrol ether extract were chlorogenic acid and quercetin.

  9. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry.

  10. Sinapate esters in brassicaceous plants: biochemistry, molecular biology, evolution and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkowski, Carsten; Strack, Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Brassicaceous plants are characterized by a pronounced metabolic flux toward sinapate, produced by the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, which is converted into a broad spectrum of O-ester conjugates. The abundant sinapate esters in Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana reflect a well-known metabolic network, including UDP-glucose:sinapate glucosyltransferase (SGT), sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT), sinapoylglucose:L-malate sinapoyltransferase (SMT) and sinapoylcholine (sinapine) esterase (SCE). 1-O-Sinapoylglucose, produced by SGT during seed development, is converted to sinapine by SCT and hydrolyzed by SCE in germinating seeds. The released sinapate feeds via sinapoylglucose into the biosynthesis of sinapoylmalate in the seedlings catalyzed by SMT. Sinapoylmalate is involved in protecting the leaves against the deleterious effects of UV-B radiation. Sinapine might function as storage vehicle for ready supply of choline for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in young seedlings. The antinutritive character of sinapine and related sinapate esters hamper the use of the valuable seed protein of the oilseed crop B. napus for animal feed and human nutrition. Due to limited variation in seed sinapine content within the assortment of B. napus cultivars, low sinapine lines cannot be generated by conventional breeding giving rise to genetic engineering of sinapate ester metabolism as a promising means. In this article we review the progress made throughout the last decade in identification of genes involved in sinapate ester metabolism and characterization of the encoded enzymes. Based on gene structures and enzyme recruitment, evolution of sinapate ester metabolism is discussed. Strategies of targeted metabolic engineering, designed to generate low-sinapate ester lines of B. napus, are evaluated.

  11. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formagio, A S N; Vieira, M C; Volobuff, C R F; Silva, M S; Matos, A I; Cardoso, C A L; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  12. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.N. Formagio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50 values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%. Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  13. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formagio, A.S.N.; Vieira, M.C. [Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Volobuff, C.R.F.; Silva, M.S. [Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Matos, A.I. [Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Cardoso, C.A.L. [Curso de Química, Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Foglio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E. [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  14. Dimensioning of a plant for enhanced biological phosphorous removal by estimation of partial steps. Berechnungsansatz fuer die biologische Phosphorelimination durch Bewertung prozessbestimmender Teilschritte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeske, I.; Schoenborn, C. (Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany))

    1992-05-01

    For the design of wastewater treatment plants with enhanced biological phosphorus removal and simultaneous removal of nitrogen a calculation model is proposed. The model derived from long-term investigations on bench scale plants. The key variables of the P-elimination process can be described by statistically confident equations. The calculation model can be well handled by engineers and designers. The model includes only a small number of variables, which can be measured in routine analysis. Two versions of the model are described in detail. The calculation model has been verified with independent data from five full-scale wastewater treatment plants in Germany. (orig.).

  15. Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Momtaz

    2010-01-01

    concentrations that were used. F.E showed significant anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity effects, therefore it can be considered as an effective inhibitor alone or in combination with other plant extracts.

  16. Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    concentrations that were used. F.E showed significant anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity effects, therefore it can be considered as an effective inhibitor alone or in combination with other plant extracts. PMID:20548934

  17. A CRISPR/Cas9 Toolbox for Multiplexed Plant Genome Editing and Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Levi G; Zhang, Dengwei; Baltes, Nicholas J; Paul, Joseph W; Tang, Xu; Zheng, Xuelian; Voytas, Daniel F; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Zhang, Yong; Qi, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    The relative ease, speed, and biological scope of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated Protein9 (Cas9)-based reagents for genomic manipulations are revolutionizing virtually all areas of molecular biosciences, including functional genomics, genetics, applied biomedical research, and agricultural biotechnology. In plant systems, however, a number of hurdles currently exist that limit this technology from reaching its full potential. For example, significant plant molecular biology expertise and effort is still required to generate functional expression constructs that allow simultaneous editing, and especially transcriptional regulation, of multiple different genomic loci or multiplexing, which is a significant advantage of CRISPR/Cas9 versus other genome-editing systems. To streamline and facilitate rapid and wide-scale use of CRISPR/Cas9-based technologies for plant research, we developed and implemented a comprehensive molecular toolbox for multifaceted CRISPR/Cas9 applications in plants. This toolbox provides researchers with a protocol and reagents to quickly and efficiently assemble functional CRISPR/Cas9 transfer DNA constructs for monocots and dicots using Golden Gate and Gateway cloning methods. It comes with a full suite of capabilities, including multiplexed gene editing and transcriptional activation or repression of plant endogenous genes. We report the functionality and effectiveness of this toolbox in model plants such as tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice (Oryza sativa), demonstrating its utility for basic and applied plant research. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. [The effect of biologically active substances from coniferous plants on the L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase activities in wheat leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtushenko, E V; Saprykin, V A; Galitsyn, M Iu; Chekurov, V M

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the preparations produced from needles and wood of various coniferous species on the activities of L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) and peroxidase (PO; EC 1.11.1.7), the enzymes involved in the development of plant defense response, was studied. It was demonstrated that treatment of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) primary leaves with biological preparations produced from coniferous plants caused a transient increase in PAL and PO activities. The induction of these enzyme activities depends on the concentration of preparations and plant immune status. The results obtained suggest that coniferous metabolites are of interest as a source of plant extracts with the elicitor effect, increasing the resistance of plants to phytopathogens and adverse environmental factors.

  19. Killing two birds with one stone: Model plant systems as a tool to teach the fundamental concepts of gene expression while analyzing biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarevitch, Irina; Martinez-Vaz, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    Plants are ideal systems to teach core biology concepts due to their unique physiological and developmental features. Advances in DNA sequencing technology and genomics have allowed scientists to generate genome sequences and transcriptomics data for numerous model plant species. This information is publicly available and presents a valuable tool to introduce undergraduate students to the fundamental concepts of gene expression in the context of modern quantitative biology and bioinformatics. Modern biology classrooms must provide authentic research experiences to allow developing core competencies such as scientific inquiry, critical interpretation of experimental results, and quantitative analyses of large dataset using computational approaches. Recent educational research has shown that undergraduate students struggle when connecting gene expression concepts to classic genetics, phenotypic analyses, and overall flow of biological information in living organisms, suggesting that novel approaches are necessary to enhance learning of gene expression and regulation. This review describes different strategies and resources available to instructors willing to incorporate authentic research experiences, genomic tools, and bioinformatics analyses when teaching transcriptional regulation and gene expression in undergraduate courses. A variety of laboratory exercises and pedagogy materials developed to teach gene expression using plants are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Gene Regulatory Mechanisms and Networks, edited by Dr. Erich Grotewold and Dr. Nathan Springer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…